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1

Virtopsy versus digital autopsy: virtual autopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being increasingly implemented in forensic pathology. These methods may serve as an adjuvant to classic forensic autopsies. Imaging of the interior of corpses is performed using MSCT and/or MRI. MRI, in addition, is also well suited to the examination of surviving victims of assault, especially choking, and helps visualise internal injuries sometimes not seen on external examination of the victim. Various postprocessing techniques can provide strong forensic evidence for use in legal proceedings. The documentation and analysis of postmortem findings with MSCT and MRI and postprocessing techniques (virtopsy) is investigator independent, objective and noninvasive and will lead to qualitative improvements in forensic pathologic investigation. Apart from the accuracy and three dimensionality that conventional documentations lack, these techniques allow for the re-examination of the corpse and the crime scene even decades later, after burial of the corpse and liberation of the crime scene. We believe that this virtual, noninvasive or minimally invasive approach will improve forensic medicine in the near future. PMID:19669111

Pomara, C; Fineschi, V; Scalzo, G; Guglielmi, G

2009-12-01

2

Verbal Autopsy for Neurological Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Verbal autopsy is an interview-based technique to determine the cause distribution of death in a population. The use of verbal autopsy for understanding neurological diseases is crucial to burden of disease analyses in many countries, particularly in locations where civil registration systems are non-functioning or absent. We review the purposes, strengths, and weaknesses in the use of verbal autopsy for neurological diseases.

Mateen, Farrah J.; Kalter, Henry D.

2012-01-01

3

Pneumatosis Intestinalis: Autopsy Finding  

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Full Text Available This is a case of a patient with bowel obstruction , imaging studies were suggestive for pneumatosis intestinalis. Clinically diagnosed as adhesion band and pnematosis intestinalis. She underwent laparatomy, enterolysis, obstructionolysis and enterorrhaphy. The patient developed respiratory distress and expired after 2 days. At autopsy we found gray-brown discoloration in the wall of some part of small bowel and flattening of mucus membrane. Grossly multiple gas-filled cysts were seen at the serosal surface. Microscopic evaluation of small intestine wall showed multiple cysts located in submucosal and serosal layers.

Bazmi Shabnam

2009-10-01

4

Splenic nodules at autopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gamna-Gandy bodies (GGBs), also known as hemosiderotic nodules, were first described in 1921 in association with sickle cell disease. Since then, they have been documented to occur in association with other pathological processes such as hemolytic anemia, congestive splenomegaly, hereditary hemochromatosis; and acquired hemosiderosis. Despite a uniquely characteristic microscopic appearance that is easily recognized by routine histopathologic examination, the precise significance of GGBs remains unknown. As such, documentation of GGBs in patients either by pathology or radiology should herald the presence of a systemic disorder such as sickle cell anemia or hemochromatosis wherein portal hypertension and/or congestive splenomegaly are present. In this article, we briefly present two autopsy cases from two patients with distinctly different clinical presentations wherein classic Gamna-Gandy bodies are illustrated on routine histopathologic examination. PMID:24015427

Dennis, Katie A; Cheek, Bradley; Leroy, Mike; McGoey, Robin R

2013-01-01

5

Autopsy Tissue Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed

6

Congenital hyperthyroidism: autopsy report  

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Full Text Available We report the autopsy of a stillborn fetus with congenital hyperthyroidism born to a mother with untreated Graves' disease, whose cause of death was congestive heart failure. The major findings concerned the skull, thyroid, heart, and placenta. The cranial sutures were closed, with overlapping skull bones. The thyroid was increased in volume and had intense blood congestion. Histological examination showed hyperactive follicles. The heart was enlarged and softened, with dilated cavities and hemorrhagic suffusions in the epicardium. The placenta had infarctions that involved at least 20% of its surface, and the vessels of the umbilical cord were fully exposed due to a decrease in Wharton 's jelly. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed by the maternal clinical data, the fetal findings of exophthalmia, craniosynostosis, and goiter with signs of follicular hyperactivity. Craniosynostosis is caused by the anabolic action of thyroid hormones in bone formation during the initial stages of development. The delayed initiation of treatment in the present case contributed to the severity of fetal hyperthyroidism and consequent fetal death.

Lima Marcus Aurelho de

1999-01-01

7

Maternal mortality: An autopsy audit  

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Full Text Available Background: The process of audit standardizes protocols in departments and has long-term benefits. Maternal autopsies though routinely performed, deserve a special attention. Aims: This study was carried out to calculate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR in a tertiary care hospital and to correlate final cause of death with the clinical diagnosis. An audit of maternal autopsies was carried out to evaluate current practices, identify fallacies and suggest corrective measures to rectify them. Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine autopsies of maternal deaths in the period 2003 to 2007 were studied in detail along with the clinical details. Results: There were 158 maternal deaths and 13940 live births in this five-year period. Maternal mortality rate was found to be very high (1133/ 100000 live births in our institution with a high number of complicated referral cases (68/89 cases, 76%. Of the 89 autopsies, acute fulminant viral hepatitis was the commonest cause of indirect maternal deaths (37 cases, 41.5%. This was followed by direct causes like pregnancy-induced hypertension (12 cases, 13.4% and puerperal sepsis (10 cases, 11.2%. Certain fallacies were noted during the audit process. Conclusion: During the audit it was realized that in maternal mortality autopsies, special emphasis should be given to clinicopathologic correlation, microbiological studies, identification of thromboembolic phenomenon and adequate sectioning of relevant organs. We found difficulty in identification of placental bed in the uterus in postpartum autopsies. A systematic approach can help us for better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases occurring in pregnancy.

Jashnani K

2009-01-01

8

20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106 Employees...of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a...

2010-04-01

9

Medicolegal autopsy--what, why and how.  

Science.gov (United States)

By the term autopsy means medicolegal autopsy, though there is another one called clinical autopsy. The term is synonymous with postmortem examination. Autopsy is conducted to ascertain the cause of death, manner of death, time since death, to establish the identity of the deceased and so on. As per Mysore Police Manual Order No 1380, a civil surgeon or medical officer or other qualified registered medical person approved by the State Government is entitled to conduct an autopsy. Generally an autopsy is conducted by medical officer concerned on requisition from concerned authority in any unexpected, unexplained, unnatural, suspicious or sudden death. Autopsy is conducted at the body in its entirety and the mutilated body or skeletal remains. After having complied with the medical and legal obligations, eventually the medical officer has to furnish his opinion based on examination findings and investigation results. PMID:12793634

Yadwad, B S

2002-12-01

10

Psychological Autopsy-A Review  

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Full Text Available The psychological autopsy is thought to be the cornerstone of suicide research, providing more detailed knowledge than other methods. Its prime objective is to retrieve comprehensive information about suicide. Information is collected from key informants, available medical records and personnel and it consists of reconstructing the life style and personality of deceased along with details of circumstances, behaviors and events that led to the death of that individual.

Vasudeva Murthy C R

2010-07-01

11

Death and Teaching Autopsy (review article  

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Full Text Available At the middle of the 20th century, autopsy has a fundamental role in medical education in Iran, guided by the influential Oslerian philosophy “as is your pathology so is your medical practice”. Students not only attended autopsies, but also had learnt to conduct them. In contrast, today the use of autopsy in medical education is falling down to death. Although this falling is worldwide, but the situation in Iran is much worse. Rarely Iranian medical schools deal with educational autopsy and some of them are quite unfamiliar with autopsy. There are several reasons for this declining including sophisticated medical education with autopsy, community attitudes ,clinicians’ and pathologist’ reluctance, hospital concern about legal action, religious attitudes, consent from the family and funding priorities. Even with new diagnostic modalities, autopsy remains an important tool for quality and safety assurance. A systematic review of reports on autopsies from USA, European and Australian hospitals, revealed 9 to 40% (on average 23.5% of clinically missed diagnoses and managements involving the principal or underlying cause of death. The key roles of hospital autopsies are Improving safety and quality in diagnosis and treatment, Providing benefits to families, Advancing understand-ing of disease, Allowing good programming for emerging disease and frequently seen disease, and Educating medical and allied health professionals. We have concluded that, reversing the decline of autopsies will require cooperative action at several levels of the healthcare system, particularly including clinicians and pathologists and also governmental and financial bodies and legal authorities.

M. Bahador

2006-08-01

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Can postmortem fetal MR imaging replace autopsy?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem ftion rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death

13

Can postmortem fetal MR imaging replace autopsy?  

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The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death.

Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-02-01

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The working procedure of human autopsy specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted

15

Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal being the most frequent. The clinical course can be asymptomatic, cause chronic or intermittent abdominal pain, or present with acute abdomen. The clinical entity is a diagnostic challenge, which is illustrated in the present case where there patient died during hospital admission. The case also emphasizes the difficulty in diagnosing the disease by plain abdominal radiography.

Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

2011-01-01

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Perinatal Autopsy Evaluation of 2150 Autopsies in the Çukurova Region of Turkey  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to document the reasons of perinatal deaths in a large autopsy series performed in our institute, which is a reference center in the Çukurova region of Turkey. Material and Method: The study included 2150 autopsies performed between January 2000 and December 2012at our institute. Diagnoses were categorized according to the detected pathologies; congenital malformations were detailed based on systems. Results: A pathology was detected in 1619 of 2150 (73.3% autopsies. Congenital malformations were the most common diagnosis with 68.2%. Neural tube defects and central nervous system malformations were the most frequent system malformation in 28.8% of cases, followed by the urogenital system (11.4% and musculoskeletal system (8.3%, respectively. Malformation syndromes including multisystem anomalies were defined in 109 cases (9.3%. Conclusion: Congenital malformations are the most common reason for perinatal deaths, with autopsy having an additive role to prenatal and genetic evaluations and providing foresight for planning a subsequent pregnancy.

Arbil AÇIKALIN

2014-09-01

17

Potentially lethal complications of tracheostomy: autopsy considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tracheostomy is widely used to facilitate respiration by protecting the airways. It may be performed to relieve upper airway obstruction from congenital stenoses or from acquired conditions such as foreign body impaction, swelling from neck trauma or anaphylaxis, benign or malignant tumors, and infection. Tracheostomy may also be performed in individuals with respiratory impairment who require suctioning for accumulated mucoid secretions and in those with obstructive sleep apnea. Review of autopsy files and the literature was undertaken to demonstrate the range of lethal circumstances that may involve tracheostomy. Unexpected death may result from incorrect positioning of an endotracheal tube with failure of oxygenation, tracheal perforation with pneumothorax, mucus plugging, accidental extubation, and hemorrhage from tracheovascular fistulas. Lethal tracheovascular fistulas usually involve the innominate artery and result from mural perforation by the tip of a tracheostomy tube, mural necrosis from a high-pressure cuff, prolonged intubation, radiotherapy, and low tracheal incisions. Increased movement of tubes in patients with impaired consciousness and excessive head movements may also increase the chances of hemorrhage, as may infiltrating tumors. Given the wide range of potential fatal mechanisms that may be found in such cases, careful autopsy evaluation and dissection will be required to demonstrate the exact nature and site of the lethal lesion in individuals who underwent tracheostomy and die unexpectedly. PMID:21817868

Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D

2011-12-01

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Emergency medicine techniques and the forensic autopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency medicine measures often have to be carried out under suboptimal conditions in emergency situations and require invasive patient treatment. In the case of a fatal outcome these measures have to be evaluated at autopsy, regarding indications, correct implementation and possible complications. As well, alongside the more familiar procedures--such as endotracheal intubation, insertion of chest drains, external cardiac massage and cannulation of central and peripheral veins--there are alternative techniques being increasingly applied, that include new tools for the management of hemorrhagic shock, drug delivery and alternative airway management devices. On the one hand, all of these measures are essential for the survival and appropriate treatment of the injured and/or sick patient, but on the other hand they can damage the patient and thus contain a significant risk of both medical and forensic relevance for the patient and the physician. In the following review we provide an overview of established, new and alternative techniques for emergency airway management, administration of drugs and management of hemorrhagic shock. The aim is to facilitate the understanding and autopsy evaluation of current emergency medicine techniques. PMID:22872361

Buschmann, Claas; Schulz, Thomas; Tsokos, Michael; Kleber, Christian

2013-03-01

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Verbal autopsy: current practices and challenges  

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Full Text Available Cause-of-death data derived from verbal autopsy (VA are increasingly used for health planning, priority setting, monitoring and evaluation in countries with incomplete or no vital registration systems. In some regions of the world it is the only method available to obtain estimates on the distribution of causes of death. Currently, the VA method is routinely used at over 35 sites, mainly in Africa and Asia. In this paper, we present an overview of the VA process and the results of a review of VA tools and operating procedures used at demographic surveillance sites and sample vital registration systems. We asked for information from 36 field sites about field-operating procedures and reviewed 18 verbal autopsy questionnaires and 10 cause-of-death lists used in 13 countries. The format and content of VA questionnaires, field-operating procedures, cause-of-death lists and the procedures to derive causes of death from VA process varied substantially among sites. We discuss the consequences of using varied methods and conclude that the VA tools and procedures must be standardized and reliable in order to make accurate national and international comparisons of VA data. We also highlight further steps needed in the development of a standard VA process.

Soleman Nadia

2006-01-01

20

Value of postmortem computed tomography in comparison to autopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: to assess the diagnostic value of postmortem computed tomography (CT) in comparison to autopsy. Materials and methods: twenty-seven cadavers were examined by sequential cranial CT and helical CT through the neck, thorax and abdomen and subsequently underwent an autopsy with histomorphologic examination of the pathologic specimens. The findings of CT, autopsy and histology were registered and compared by three radiologists and one specialist for forensic medicine, using a data entry form. Results: in 19 of 27 cases, the findings explaining the cause of death were concordant for CT and autopsy. Intracranial, intraspinal and intracardiac gas accumulations (n = 12) were registered by CT alone. The detection of skull fractures was equal for both methods (n = 3). CT showed diagnostic problems in the assessment of pneumonic infiltrations (n = 16) and pulmonary edema (n = 21). Conclusion: CT is a useful and complementary method to autopsy. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
21

An autopsy case of thorotrast induced hepatoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 53-year-old male had a thorotrast injection for angiography in 1943. He was admitted to Sanraku Hospital in 1966 with the chief complaint of right hypochondralgia for the past 2 years. A plain x-ray film of the abdomen showed reticulate shadows of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. A liver biopsy revealed fibrosis. Laparoscopically, the liver was dark brownish in colour and covered with a whitish net. About 8 years later, the serum gamma-globulin was elevated, and alpha-fetoprotein turned positive. We suspected hepatoma induced by the thorotrast injection. At autopsy, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatoma were found. The spleen was very small (9.6 g). Thorotrast granules were seen in the connective tissue septa of the liver, and in the reticular tissue of the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. (auth.)

22

Autopsies on two native American Mummies.  

Science.gov (United States)

An interdisciplinary team performed autopsies on an adult male and an infant male mummy from the American Southwest. Cause of death has not been determined for the infant. The presence of an unhealed skull fracture associated with an apparent hematoma in the adult male is suggestive of trauma as the cause of death in the adult. Evidence of disease is minimal. Analysis of powder thought to be dried blood from the thoracic cavity of the adult suggests the presence of human IgG. The instability of this protein may indicate the presence of proteolytic activity by enzymes that degrade immunoglobulins upon rehydration. The possibility of enzymatic degradation of proteins will be an important factor in future studies of such immunoglobulins in mummy remains and also indicates the importance of maintaining the desiccated condition of mummy tissues. PMID:6998302

El-Najjar, M Y; Benitez, J; Fry, G; Lynn, G E; Ortner, D J; Reyman, T A; Small, P A

1980-08-01

23

Diffuse Lewy Body Disease : An Autopsy Case  

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Full Text Available A 67-year-old male patient initially showed memory disturbance followed by tremors a year later. The symptoms rapidly aggravated to dementia and Parkinsonian symptoms, and the patient died 2 years and 6 months after the onset at the age of 69 years and 5 months. Autopsy revealed numerous senile plaques in the cerebral cortex and Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles in the inferior temporal lobe and hippocampus. A number of Lewy bodies were found in the cerebral cortex and brain stem. Lewy bodies were found abundantly in the third layer of the pyramidal cells in the gyrus parahippocamalis. The distribution of Lewy bodies in the cerebral cortex was similar to that of inflated cells in Pick's disease.

Kuroda,Shigetoshi

1987-02-01

24

A study of autopsy procedures in Ghana: implications for the use of autopsy data in epidemiological analyses  

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Full Text Available The study of cause of death certification remains a largely neglected field in many developing countries, including Ghana. Yet, mortality information is crucial for establishing mortality patterns over time and for estimating mortality attributed to specific causes. In Ghana, in deaths occurring in homes and those occurring within 48 hours after admission into health facilities, autopsies remain the appropriate option for determining the cause of death. Although these organ-based autopsies may generate convincing results and are considered the ‘gold standard’ tools for ascertainments of causes of death, procedural and practical constraints could limit the extent to which autopsy results can be accepted and/or trusted. The objective of our study was to identify and characterise the procedural and practical constraints as well as to assess their potential effects on autopsy outcomes in Ghana. We interviewed 10 Ghanaian pathologists and collected and evaluated procedural manuals and operational procedures for the conduct of autopsies. A characterisation of the operational constraints and the Delphi analysis of their potential influence on the quality of mortality data led to a quantification of the validity threats as moderate (average expert panel score = 1 in the generality of the autopsy operations in Ghana. On the basis of the impressions of the expert panel, it was concluded that mortality data generated from autopsies in urban settings in Ghana were of sufficiently high quality to guarantee valid use in health analysis.

Alexander Kraemer

2011-03-01

25

Primary malignant hepatic glucagonoma: an autopsy case.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our department for treatment of diabetes (plasma glucose 289 mg/dl, HbA(1C) 7.1%, and glycated albumin 34.9%). She displayed the signs and symptoms of glucagonoma syndrome, including necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), low aminoacidemia, and a marked increase of the serum glucagon level (4,940 pg/ ml). Thus, we suspected a glucagonoma causing secondary diabetes. However, we could not detect any mass in the pancreas or the gastrointestinal tract, and only found a liver lesion resembling a hemangioma. Her NME improved markedly after intravenous infusion of amino acids, and her plasma glucose was controlled reasonably well by intensive insulin therapy. However, her general condition deteriorated and she died on day 57 after hospitalization. At autopsy, the only tumor detected was the liver mass. This was a large solid tumor (8 x 6 x 5 cm) with a pattern of white and dark brown stripes located in the left lobe, while two white nodules were also found in the right lobe. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, the liver lesion was shown to be a malignant glucagonoma with intrahepatic metastases. Since primary malignant hepatic glucagonoma has not been reported before, we present this extremely rare case of primary malignant glucagonoma of the liver. PMID:19367016

Obi, Naoko; Katabami, Takuyuki; Obi, Ryusei; Odanaka, Mieko; Sasano, Kiminobu; Tanaka, Yasushi

2009-01-01

26

An autopsy study of maternal mortality: A tertiary healthcare perspective  

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Full Text Available Background: An audit of autopsies of maternal deaths is important for the establishment of accurate cause of maternal deaths and to determine the contribution of various etiologies responsible in a given community. Aim: To study the causes of maternal deaths as determined by a pathological autopsy. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of all the cases of maternal deaths that underwent a pathological autopsy in a tertiary healthcare center from January 1998 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: The autopsy records with clinical notes were retrieved; gross and histopathology specimens and slides were studied to establish the accurate cause of maternal deaths. The variables like age (years, stay in the hospital, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy and method of delivery were used to classify and analyze the data from the autopsies. The causes of maternal deaths were divided in to direct and indirect; each being classified into subgroups based on the most evident pathology on autopsy. Results: The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR over a nine-year period (1998-2006 was 827/100000 live births (471 maternal deaths against 56944 live births. An autopsy was performed in 277 cases (58.8%. In the autopsy group, the most common causes of maternal mortality were pre-ecclampsia/ecclampsia (40 of 277, 14.44% and hemorrhage (32 of 277; 11.55%; However, indirect causes like infectious diseases (27 of 277; 9.75% and cardiac (27 of 277; 9.75% disease also contributed to maternal deaths. Conclusion: Indirect causes like rheumatic heart disease and infections like tuberculosis, malaria or leptospirosis and nutritional anemia are still major causes of maternal mortality in developing countries like India. Intensive efforts need to be taken in these areas to reduce the maternal mortality in developing countries like India.

Panchabhai T

2009-01-01

27

Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in polytrauma fatalities  

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Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008) from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%),...

Fakler Johannes K; Ertel Wolfgang; Tsokos Michael; Gahr Patrick; Buschmann Claas T

2010-01-01

28

The molecular autopsy: should the evaluation continue after the funeral?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most common causes of death in developed countries, with most SCDs involving the elderly, and structural heart disease evident at autopsy. Each year, however, thousands of sudden deaths involving individuals younger than 35 years of age remain unexplained after a comprehensive medicolegal investigation that includes an autopsy. In fact, several epidemiologic studies have estimated that at least 3% and up to 53% of sudden deaths involving previously healthy children, adolescents, and young adults show no morphologic abnormalities identifiable at autopsy. Cardiac channelopathies associated with structurally normal hearts such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and Brugada syndrome (BrS) yield no evidence to be found at autopsy, leaving coroners, medical examiners, and forensic pathologists only to speculate that a lethal arrhythmia might lie at the heart of a sudden unexplained death (SUD). In cases of autopsy-negative SUD, continued investigation through either a cardiologic and genetic evaluation of first- or second-degree relatives or a molecular autopsy may elucidate the underlying mechanism contributing to the sudden death and allow for identification of living family members with the pathogenic substrate that renders them vulnerable, with an increased risk for cardiac events including syncope, cardiac arrest, and sudden death. PMID:22307399

Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J

2012-03-01

29

Neuropathologic findings after organ transplantation. An autopsy study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1972 organ transplantations of kidney, bone marrow, liver, heart and lung have been performed at the University Hospital of Essen, Germany. Out of 2535 transplantations until September 1993, autopsies were performed in 157 patients In 25 patients (15.9%) neuropathologic findings (n = 26) were found. In 97 autopsies after bone marrow transplantation, 9 patients (9.3%) exhibited a severe neuropathologic alteration. In six patients (6/9; 66.6%), necrotisizing toxoplasmose encephalitis was found. Other cases showed a septic-metastatic mycotic encephalitis with crypto-coccus neoformans and candida albicans (n = 2) and leucemia infiltrates (n = 1). Massive cerebral hemorrhage was the most frequent neuropathologic finding after liver (4/8) and kidney transplantation (3/6). In addition liver-transplanted patients exhibited septic-metastatic encephalitis (3/8) and embolic brain infarct (1/8) as well as cerebral metastases (2/6) and primary malignant cerebral lymphoma in kidney transplantation (1/6). CNS findings in five autopsies after heart-lung-transplantation were diverse. They comprised intracerebral hemorrhage, intravasal lymphoma and septic-metastatic encephalitis, respectively. In summary, neuropathologic autopsy findings after organ transplantation are diverse and preferentially comprise infections, cerebral hemorrhages, and malignant lymphomas. After bone marrow transplantation, the most frequent neuropathologic autopsy finding was toxoplasmose encephalitis and massive cerebral hemorrhages after liver and kidney transplantations. PMID:8542505

Schwechheimer, K; Hashemian, A

1995-05-01

30

A fetal autopsy case of body stalk anomaly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body stalk anomaly (BSA) is a sporadic polymalformative syndrome incompatible with extrauterine life. In utero detection of BSA by two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging has been well documented. We herein describe a case of body stalk anomaly diagnosed at autopsy. The fetus had a large anterior midline abdominal wall defect with eventration of the visceral organs into the amnio-peritoneal sac and a completely absent umbilical cord. The associated anomalies included club foot, absent diaphragm, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal defects. The observed congenital anomalies supported the theory of embryonic dysgenesis as the etiologic factor. One of the major objectives in the performance of fetal autopsy is to be able to detect abnormalities that can have implications in future pregnancies. Despite the negligible familial recurrence rate of the broad spectrum of anomalies associated with this abdominal wall defect, the present case of fetal autopsy indeed delights to serve the living. PMID:19643652

Mathai, Alka Mary; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, Suneet; Pai, Muktha R; Bhandary, Amritha; Fitzhugh, Valerie A

2009-09-01

31

Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in polytrauma fatalities  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008 from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%, the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16% patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16% cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma. Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool.

Fakler Johannes K

2010-10-01

32

Sudden unexpected death in schizophrenia: autopsy findings in psychiatric inpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is associated with premature mortality and a high rate of sudden, unexpected deaths. Autopsy data are scant, and in studies using death certificates or root cause assessments, a majority of sudden deaths remained unexplained. In the community, post-mortem data indicate that the most common cause of sudden "natural" death is coronary artery disease. In this study, we used autopsy findings to determine the cause of sudden death in a consecutive cohort of 7189 schizophrenia patients admitted to a free-standing, psychiatric teaching hospital from 1989 to 2013. Medical record review identified 57 patients (0.79%) who died suddenly and unexpectedly during hospitalization. Autopsies were performed in 51 (89.5%) patients (55.9±9.4years, male=56.9%). Autopsy-based causes of sudden death were most commonly cardiovascular disorders (62.8%). Specific causes included myocardial infarction (52.9%), pneumonia (11.8%), airway obstruction (7.8%), myocarditis (5.9%), and dilated cardiomyopathy, hemopericardium, pulmonary embolus, hemorrhagic stroke and brain tumor (2.0% each). The sudden death remained unexplained in 6 (11.8%) patients, 3 of whom had evidence of coronary arteriosclerosis on autopsy. Patients with and without myocardial infarction were similar regarding age, gender, smoking, body mass index and psychotropic treatment (p values?0.10). In conclusion, sudden cardiac death occurs at a 0.8% rate in a psychiatric hospital, well above general population rates. Autopsy findings indicate that sudden death in schizophrenia is caused by structural cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological abnormalities, with most cases due to acute myocardial infarction. Early recognition and treatment of coronary artery disease must become a clinical priority for all adults with schizophrenia. PMID:24704220

Ifteni, Petru; Correll, Christoph U; Burtea, Victoria; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter

2014-05-01

33

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thigh: an autopsy case report.  

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We report a case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) and autopsy findings. A 35-year-old man presented with an ossified tumor in the right thigh and lung metastasis. The lung tumors continued to develop despite multiagent chemotherapy and caused death within 8 months. Autopsy revealed many secondary lesions in the lungs, especially in the left lung. Histopathologically, the primary tumor and one of the secondary tumors showed proliferation of spindle-shaped tumor cells focally forming lace-like osteoid material. Therefore, we made a definite diagnosis of ESOS. PMID:19753130

Nagano, Akihito; Ohno, Takatoshi; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Yamada, Kazunari; Shimizu, Katsuji

2009-01-01

34

The autopsy in pediatrics and pediatric oncology: a single-institution experience.  

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Autopsy rates and clinicopathologic correlations for pediatric autopsies and the subgroup of pediatric oncology autopsies in a large teaching hospital were studied to evaluate the utility of autopsy in these populations. Autopsy records of the University of North Carolina hospitals from 1982 to 2001 were reviewed for all patients less than 18 years of age. Autopsies performed during 1982 to 1991 (decade 1) were compared to those from 1992 to 2001 (decade 2) with respect to absolute numbers of autopsy and rates of unexpected postmortem diagnoses. Postmortem diagnostic discrepancies were subclassified into major and minor categories. The mean number of autopsies per year for decade 1 was 110+/-24.5, compared with 77.5+/-40.9 for decade 2 (Pautopsies. Of 533 pediatric autopsies, 43 were in patients with a primary diagnosis of a neoplasia. At least one antemortem misdiagnosis and/or clinically occult process was identified in 20.5% of all pediatric autopsy cases, and in 25.6% of pediatric oncology cases. These rates did not change significantly over time. In 10 of 43 pediatric oncology cases (23.3%), autopsies provided diagnostic information that was previously unknown to the clinicians. Three of these patients died shortly after presentation. Although autopsy rates for fetal/perinatal cases have declined, those for non-perinatal and pediatric oncology patients remain stable. Autopsy continues to provide diagnostic information that is unknown during the antemortem period, and remains a valuable tool for pediatricians and pediatric oncologists. PMID:16953678

Buckner, Tyler; Blatt, Julie; Smith, Scott Victor

2006-01-01

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The Psychological Autopsy as a Tool in Student Affairs.  

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Discusses psychological autopsies as a way of preventing suicide on college campuses. A review team develops a narrative of events leading up to incident, reviews actions taken within the campus emergency process, gathers information about the student, makes recommendations for prevention activities, and provides debriefing for those responsible…

Grieger, Ingrid; Greene, Paul

1998-01-01

36

An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

37

Diprosopus tetraophthalmus: CT as a complement to autopsy.  

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Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twinning. This anomaly is characterised by craniofacial duplication to varying degrees and is associated with anomalies of the central nervous, cardiac, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. We present an infant characterised as diprosopus tetraophthalmus who underwent post-mortem CT, which served as a highly useful complement to autopsy. PMID:22190755

Laor, T; Stanek, J; Leach, J L

2012-01-01

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Diprosopus tetraophthalmus: CT as a complement to autopsy  

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Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twinning. This anomaly is characterised by craniofacial duplication to varying degrees and is associated with anomalies of the central nervous, cardiac, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. We present an infant characterised as diprosopus tetraophthalmus who underwent post-mortem CT, which served as a highly useful complement to autopsy.

Laor, T.; Stanek, J.; Leach, J. L.

2012-01-01

39

Autopsy Pathology: SY01-1 WE STILL HAVE MANY THINGS TO LEARN FROM AUTOPSY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autopsy not only provides a final diagnosis for a) sudden/acute death or rapidly deteriorating illnesses, where a sufficient clinical investigation was not available, or b) difficult cases, where biopsy and/or surgical pathology could not establish the diagnosis, but also: 1) helps us grow new insights/viewpoints for already well-known disorders, making clear of their intrinsic problems; 2) provides a correct understanding of a given pathologic finding, which had once been described in the old archival literature but may since have been neglected/overlooked by modern textbooks; 3) establishes a new disease entity by providing full-blown pathologic descriptions especially regarding its end stage, and taking a whole range of evolution of the disorder into account; 4) provides comprehensive pathologic descriptions of an altered nature, i.e., consequences of newly explored therapeutic modalities; and 5) helps us develop our own hands-on pathology for a sophisticated understanding of the human body as a whole. PMID:25188183

Honma, Koichi

2014-10-01

40

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with malignant lymphoma. An autopsy case.  

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A 60-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed at autopsy as having had hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) associated with systemic hemangiomas. In her reproduction period, premenstrual epistaxis frequently occurred. At the age of 60, the patient died of malignant lymphoma. At autopsy, multiple telangiectatic spots were noted on the face, limbs and trunk. The paraaortic lymph nodes, which were enlarged and irregularly conglomerated, were histologically diagnosed as malignant lymphoma of the diffuse large cell type. Submucosal telangiectatic lesions were found in the gastrointestinal system from the oral cavity to the rectum. Cavernous hemangiomas were present in various visceral organs including the liver, spleen, small and large intestines, rectum, appendix, uterus, and jejunal and colonic mesenteries. There was an arteriovenous fistula in the left lung. Examination of her family pedigree showed that the patient had an autosomal dominant trait of inheritance. The pathogenesis of the systemic visceral hemangiomas observed in this patient was considered to be similar to that of harmartoma. PMID:3394524

Kato, S; Ichihara, K

1988-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

[Malignant choroid plexus papilloma. An autopsy case report (author's transl)].  

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Malignant choroid plexus papilloma is a rare disease. The autopsy case of malignant choroid plexus papilloma being suggestive of the youngest in Japan, was reported. This 8-months-old baby had normal delivery history, and the development and growth were not eventful. The patient admitted to the University hospital because of projecting vomiting and meningeal irritating signs at 7.5 months in age, and septic meningitis was most suspected. He died 2 weeks afte the admission. At autopsy, a large papillary tumor with marked necrosis and hemorrhage was seen in the right lateral ventricle. The right lateral ventricle was almost replaced by the tumor. The metastasis to the brain base and the sheeding to the subarachinoidal space of the cerebellum were noted. PMID:637958

Kida, H; Kojiro, M; Yonekura, A; Yamamoto, M; Sasaguri, Y

1978-01-01

42

Pseudomyxoma peritonei of ovarian origin--an autopsy case.  

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Full Text Available The autopsy case of an 80-year-old female with pseudomyxoma peritonei arising in the left ovary is reported. The patient was admitted with complaints of anorexia, sense of fullness and abdominal distension of two months' duration, and died of intestinal obstruction four months later. The autopsy revealed extensive tumor dissemination over the entire peritoneal cavity without any visceral invasion or distant metastasis. A part of the sigmoid colon showed marked stenosis and perforation with abscess formation. Histologically, the tumor was composed of various sized multiple cysts which were completely or incompletely lined by a layer of mucin-producing columnar epithelial cells with moderate nuclear hyperchromatism, and of a papillary pattern in some parts, indicating low grade malignancy.

Sonobe,Hiroshi

1979-12-01

43

Autopsy-certified maternal mortality at Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

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Aim Maternal mortality is a major health problem, especially in Nigeria, where accurate autopsy-based data on the prevalent causes are not readily available. The aim of this study was therefore to accurately determine the causes of maternal death as seen in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Materials and methods This was a descriptive, retrospective review of the postmortem autopsy findings from cases of maternal death at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Analyses were performed for differences in proportions using PEPI computer programs for epidemiologists (P is significant at <0.05). Results A total of 84 cases of maternal deaths were used for the study. Approximately 71.4% of the maternal deaths were due to direct causes and 28.6% were due to indirect causes. The mean age at the time of death was 27.9±7.5 years. Overall, the three leading causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage (30.9%), complications of abortion (23.8%), and nongenital (nonobstetric) infections (14.2%). Of the direct causes of maternal death, obstetric hemorrhage (43.3%) was the leading cause, with postpartum hemorrhage accounting for most (65.0%) of such deaths; other causes included complications of unsafe induced abortion (33.3%) and of labor (11.7%). Of the indirect causes, nongenital infections (50.0%), anemia (25.0%), and preexisting hypertension (20.8%) accounted for the majority of the maternal deaths. There was disparity between the clinical and autopsy diagnoses in 34 of the 84 cases (38.1%). Conclusion The leading causes of maternal death in this study are similar to those in other developing countries. Autopsy is an invaluable tool in accurately determining the cause of maternal death. PMID:24403844

Dinyain, Amatare; Omoniyi-Esan, G Olutoyin; Olaofe, Olaejirinde O; Sabageh, Donatus; Komolafe, Akinwumi O; Ojo, Olusegun S

2014-01-01

44

Brunner Gland Hamartoma: A Rare Incidental Finding on Autopsy  

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Full Text Available Brunner gland hamartoma (BGH, is a very rare benign tumor of the duodenum. It is usually asymptomatic and detected incidentally by endoscopy or other imaging modality. But, the definitive diagnosis is only by histopathological examination. We report an autopsy case in which a duodenal mass was found incidentally which was then confirmed histologically as Brunner gland hamartoma and the cause of death in this case was cerebral haemorrhage.

Shushan Shweta Jayker

2013-11-01

45

Fatal paradoxical air embolism diagnosed by postmortem imaging and autopsy.  

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The recognition and visualization of an arterial gas embolism are difficult. We report a case of sudden death caused by paradoxical air embolism of coronary and cerebral arteries, diagnosed by the pre autopsy computed tomography (CT) scanning. A 54-year-old woman suddenly died after the self-removal of the jugular vein catheter. Postmortem imaging examination using CT scanning showed multiple gas embolisms in the cerebral arteries, pulmonary artery, right atrium and ventricle, left ventricle, aorta, and coronary arteries. These findings suggested that the occurrence of acute ischemia of the brain and heart caused by massive air inflow to the artery. Conventional autopsy revealed a patent foramen ovale of the heart. These results indicated that the patient died of paradoxical air embolization of the coronary and cerebral arteries through a patent foramen ovale because of right-to-left shunting. The use of postmortem imaging as an aid for conventional autopsy has proved to be of advantage in the case of gas embolism. PMID:22372565

Fujioka, Masaki; Niino, Daisuke; Ito, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Yohjiro

2012-07-01

46

Statistical analysis of Japanese Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of death of 144 Japanese autopsy cases during 1945-1975, who had been intravascularly injected with Thorotrast in life, were compared with those of non-Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases in the same age bracket, recorded in the Annals of Japanese Pathological Autopsy Cases during 1958-1973. This comparison revealed that the incidence of malignant hepatic tumors was more than 10 times higher in the Thorotrast-administered cases. The increase was attributable to an increased incidence of hemangioendothelioma and cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. The only significant increase of liver cirrhosis found to exist in the Thorotrast group occurred in the female cases. Some of the Thorotrast-administered cases were found to have developed myeloid leukemia and erythroleukemia. There was also a significant increase in the number of cases of aplastic anemia in the Thorotrast group, but clinically and pathologically these were atypical. Lymphatic leukemia was not observed. No significant difference was found in the incidence of either malignant lymphomas or osteosarcomas in the Thorotrast group and the controls. Lung cancer, on the other hand, showed a significantly higher incidence among the controls than among the Thorotrast-administered cases

47

Autopsy-certified maternal mortality at Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Amatare Dinyain,1 G Olutoyin Omoniyi-Esan,2 Olaejirinde O Olaofe,3 Donatus Sabageh,3 Akinwumi O Komolafe,2 Olusegun S Ojo21Department of Anatomic Pathology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaAim: Maternal mortality is a major health problem, especially in Nigeria, where accurate autopsy-based data on the prevalent causes are not readily available. The aim of this study was therefore to accurately determine the causes of maternal death as seen in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria.Materials and methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective review of the postmortem autopsy findings from cases of maternal death at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Analyses were performed for differences in proportions using PEPI computer programs for epidemiologists (P is significant at <0.05.Results: A total of 84 cases of maternal deaths were used for the study. Approximately 71.4% of the maternal deaths were due to direct causes and 28.6% were due to indirect causes. The mean age at the time of death was 27.9±7.5 years. Overall, the three leading causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage (30.9%, complications of abortion (23.8%, and nongenital (nonobstetric infections (14.2%. Of the direct causes of maternal death, obstetric hemorrhage (43.3% was the leading cause, with postpartum hemorrhage accounting for most (65.0% of such deaths; other causes included complications of unsafe induced abortion (33.3% and of labor (11.7%. Of the indirect causes, nongenital infections (50.0%, anemia (25.0%, and preexisting hypertension (20.8% accounted for the majority of the maternal deaths. There was disparity between the clinical and autopsy diagnoses in 34 of the 84 cases (38.1%.Conclusion: The leading causes of maternal death in this study are similar to those in other developing countries. Autopsy is an invaluable tool in accurately determining the cause of maternal death.Keywords: autopsy, causes, maternal mortality, Nigeria

Dinyain A

2013-12-01

48

Usefulness of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy data for general verbal autopsy methods  

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BACKGROUND: Verbal Autopsy (VA) is widely viewed as the only immediate strategy for registering cause of death in much of Africa and Asia, where routine physician certification of deaths is not widely practiced. VA involves a lay interview with family or friends after a death, to record essential details of the circumstances. These data can then be processed automatically to arrive at standardized cause of death information. METHODS: The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) u...

Byass, Peter

2014-01-01

49

An exploratory study of the pattern of consent for autopsy in a regional hospital setting.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A prospective study of the pattern of responses to requests for autopsy in a general surgical unit was performed. Information on the characteristics of the deceased, of the requestee and of the requester was documented in the case of 66 patients who died while in hospital. Permission to perform autopsy was not requested in 39 out of 66 cases and this was the most frequent contributory factor to the low rate of autopsy. Once a decision to grant or refuse autopsy is made by relatives of the deceased, the decision is unlikely to be reversed. Permission to perform autopsy was more likely to be sought when the deceased was male than when deceased was female. The relatives of patients who had recently undergone surgery were more likely to refuse permission for autopsy than were those of patients who had not had recent surgery.

Kaar, T K

2012-02-03

50

Closing the Loop: Facilitating the Use of Autopsy Information in Medical Decision Making and Managed Care  

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Full Text Available This paper advances the somewhat paradoxical hypothesis that the emergence of managed care which threatens to accelerate the decline of the autopsy may, in fact, offer an opportunity for its re-emergence as an important tool of quality and cost control. A simplified autopsy-based management information structure is proposed to close the loop where information currently gleaned from the autopsy is frequently unused or underutilized in medical decision making and managed care.

Peter N. Nemetz

2008-01-01

51

Forensic Techniques in Crime Scene Investigation – The Psychological Autopsy  

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Full Text Available Any crime scene investigation is a real challenge for those involved in forensic examination. Especially in those cases where a death ocurred, evidence dynamics and the amount of data colected must lead to an undoubtful conclusion. In some cases investigators have to establish a clear difference between accident, suicide, homicide, and a natural death. It is the case of equivocal death, where is necessary to understand all the psychosocial factors who have contributed to this end in order to clarify the nature of death. The psychological autopsy is the appropriate procedure in these cases. The present article will describe this technique.

Bogdan Tasu

2009-10-01

52

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: An autopsy case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is a rare condition, characterized by infiltration of the meninges by glial cells without evidence of the primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Glioma arising primarily from the leptomeninges is extremely rare and often diagnosed only in post mortem examination and the diagnosis may be missed in meningeal biopsy. We describe a young female who presented with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure with imaging evidence of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement in whom autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PDLG. Our case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in making the pre-mortem diagnosis even with multiple cerebrospinal fluid cytologies and leptomeningeal biopsy. PMID:25024582

Jabeen, Shaik Afshan; Chowdary, Arikapadu Haritha; Kandadai, Rukmini Mridula; Uppin, Megha S.; Meena, Angamattu Kanikannan; Borgohain, Rupam; Sundaram, Challa

2014-01-01

53

Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study.  

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Industrial injuries related to auto-load-carrying vehicles were not frequently reported in the literature. Presented case was, 31-year-old male furniture worker. Deceased was found in awkward position in furniture workshop. Victim was observed on his knees in front of the elevator, head and neck lodged within openings of the elevator, and head and neck structures compressed-guillotined by the lower platform of the elevator were detected. We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy. PMID:23121036

Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Dokgöz, H

2012-10-01

54

Voxel-based morphometry in autopsy proven PSP and CBD  

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The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of grey and white matter atrophy on MRI in autopsy confirmed PSP and CBD, and to determine whether the patterns vary depending on the clinical syndrome. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare patterns of atrophy in 13 PSP and 11 CBD subjects and 24 controls. PSP and CBD subjects were also subdivided into those with a dominant dementia or extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects showed brainstem atrophy with involvement of the cortex and unde...

Josephs, Keith A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Jack, Clifford R.

2008-01-01

55

Rapidly aggravated Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: autopsy-proven case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images

56

Argemone mexicana poisoning: autopsy findings of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemic dropsy, a disease due to Argemone mexicana poisoning, is characterized by pathological accumulation of diluted lymph in body tissues and cavities. Recently, the largest epidemic of the disease in India affected Delhi and its neighboring states during the months of August-September 1998. Over 3000 persons fell ill, and more than 65 died in the state of Delhi alone. Two cases belonging to the same family died, out of the large number of cases admitted in this tertiary care teaching hospital situated in eastern part of Delhi. Autopsy findings of these two cases are presented and discussed here along with the review of toxicity due to this poisoning. PMID:11056284

Verma, S K; Dev, G; Tyagi, A K; Goomber, S; Jain, G V

2001-01-01

57

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome--report of an autopsy case.  

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Authors report the first autopsy case of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Korea. The patient was a 26 years old Korean male who died of respiratory failure due to mixed pulmonary infections. He had history of homosexual contacts with partners of both domestic and foreign nationalities. Initial presentation was unexplained fever for two months. Serological test and western blot test for anti-HIV were positive and T-cell subset analysis revealed T3/T4/T8 to be 73/8/67%. Pulmonary tubercul...

Lee, G. K.; Lee, Y. S.; Park, S. H.; Chi, J. G.; Kim, Y. I.; Choe, K. W.

1989-01-01

58

[Angio-invasive disseminated aspergillosis: autopsy diagnosis in leukemic patients].  

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We report on two patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in induction chemotherapy, who developed a sepsis which led, in both cases, to death following the appearance of neurological symptoms suggesting CNS affectation. Autopsy revealed an angioinvasive disseminated aspergillosis affecting lungs, brain, myocardium, kidneys, thyroid glands in both cases, and endocardium, urinary bladder, lymph nodes, alimentary tract, nasal sinuses in one of the cases. Microbiology study of necropsic tissue showed Aspergillus flavusoryzae and likewise Candida albicans in one case. The latter finding suggest a combined fungal sepsis caused to candida and aspergillus. PMID:8218767

Ramos Fernández, V; Prieto Rodríguez, M; Paradís Alós, A; López Chulía, F; Salom Fúster, J V; Vera-Sempere, F J

1993-07-01

59

The role of perinatal autopsy in the management of pregnancies with major fetal trisomies.  

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We assessed the value of perinatal autopsy following mid-trimester termination of pregnancy due to major fetal trisomies. Singleton fetuses (n=305) that underwent prenatal sonography and karyotyping during the second trimester of pregnancy and that had trisomy 21, trisomy 18, or trisomy 13 constituted the study population. The findings of second trimester sonography and fetal autopsy were compared. Altogether, 611 separate major structural malformations were diagnosed during autopsy. Full agreement was achieved between sonography and autopsy in 35.8% of the malformations. The additional findings at autopsy (64.2%) involved mainly two organ systems: face, including ears and eyes, and extremities, including hands and feet. Some ultrasound findings were not confirmed at autopsy (n=49). Concordance rates between sonography and autopsy findings regarding soft markers were considerably high in cases of increased nuchal fold thickness and short femur/humerus. On the other hand, fetal autopsy was of limited value as far as hyperechoic bowel and echogenic intracardiac foci are concerned. Pathologic examination provides additional information regarding many fetuses with aneuploidy, and may indicate possible directions of sonographic screening for major chromosome aberrations. However, prenatal sonography and perinatal autopsy should be considered as complementary ways of increasing our knowledge about the possible features of fetal aneuploidies. PMID:17574347

Papp, Csaba; Szigeti, Zsanett; Joó, József G; Tóth-Pál, Erno; Hajdú, Júlia; Papp, Zoltán

2007-01-01

60

[Three autopsy cases of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), also called semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, was first described in the early 1980s as a distinct type of pulmonary aspergillosis. CNPA was an indolent, cavitary, infectious process of the lung parenchyma secondary to local invasion by Aspergillus species. Diagnosis is confirmed by pathological evidence of lung tissue invasion by the fungus. Clinical diagnosis by combined clinical, radiological and laboratory findings is needed because histopathological confirmation cannot always be obtained in the clinical setting. CNPA is recognized as a clinical syndrome in Japan, and has been poorly defined histologically. We report three autopsy cases of CNPA evaluated histopathologically. Subjects were middle-aged to older men with a medical history of pulmonary mycobacterial infection who presented with pulmonary or systemic symptoms. Radiologically, progressive upper lobe cavitary infiltrates were seen with mycetomas and infiltration in lower lung fields. Clinically, CNPA was diagnosed based on 2007 Japanese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of deep fungal infection. Subjects died of respiratory failure within one month to three years of diagnosis despite antifungal therapy including micafungin, voriconazole, or itraconazole combined with broad spectrum antibiotics. Autopsy findings showed cavities containing the fungus but no fungal invasion of viable lung tissue. The area of progressive infiltration revealed bacterial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia or organizing diffuse alveolar damage without Aspergillus. In conclusion, CNPA is a chronic progressive clinical form of pulmonary aspergillosis with significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:23198580

Namesaya, Nobuaki; Tomioka, Hiromi; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Kida, Yoko; Kaneko, Masahiro; Fuji, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Eiji

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Noncompaction in the fetus and neonate: an autopsy study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noncompaction refers to an uncommon structural abnormality of the heart's ventricular myocardium characterized by an abnormally thick layer of left ventricular trabeculations, as well as hypoplastic papillary muscles. The condition is associated with a variable clinical phenotype including heart failure, thromboembolism, and sudden death. In this retrospective study of fetal and neonatal autopsy hearts with noncompaction, clinical profiles were correlated with gross and histologic findings and compared with a set of age-matched controls. Pathologic criteria for noncompaction included hypoplastic left ventricular papillary muscles, abnormal trabecular architecture and greater than 50% penetration of the left ventricular wall thickness by intertrabecular recesses. Among eight fetuses and full-term neonates with pathologic features of noncompaction, all had evidence of severe heart failure, including four with complete heart block and two others with bradycardia. None experienced sudden death. Seven of eight hearts had associated heart malformations-four with left atrial isomerism, two with aortic and/or pulmonary valve dysplasia consistent with stenosis and, one with atrial septal defect. One heart with noncompaction had no associated malformations. With characteristic excessive trabeculation in the left ventricle, noncompaction also included biventricular endocardial fibroelastosis that denoted right ventricular involvement in all hearts. Thus, (1) among autopsied fetuses and neonates with noncompaction, heart failure including heart block is a common cause of death, (2) noncompaction is often associated with various cardiovascular malformations, but even in isolation it can be the basis for severe cardiac failure, and (3) biventricular endocardial fibroelastosis in noncompaction suggests a global pathologic process. PMID:23720434

Ursell, Philip C

2013-08-01

62

[An autopsy case of HELLP syndrome with disseminated aspergillosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Disseminated aspergillosis is an uncommon and unpredictable complication in severely immunocompromised patients and poses a challenging problem in the management and care of seriously ill patients receiving intensive care therapy. We report an autopsied case of disseminated aspergillosis occurring ina 31-year-old female patient who was treated for HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. She initially presented with edema and proteinuria at a pregnancy check-up. At gestational age 33 weeks and 2 days, she had right lower abdominal pain, nausea, and jaundice. The next day she delivered a male neonate transvaginally, followed by excessive postpartum uterine bleeding. Although an emergency hysterectomy was performed, her hemorrhagic diathesis could not be controlled even after transcatheter embolization of the internal iliac arteries with subsequent ligation and repeated blood transfusions totalling to 31,070 ml. She eventually died of a cerebral hemorrhage 21 days after the parturition. Autopsy showed generalized jaundice and petechiae, as well as extensive hemorrhage observed in the abdominal wall, peritoneal cavity, and retroperitoneal and pelvic spaces. In addition,there were multifocal hemorrhages found in the left temporal, right frontal and posterior lobes of the cerebrum, and pons. Disseminated aspergillosis was found in the lungs, trachea, brain, esophagus, stomach, heart, and thyroid gland. These findings suggest that systemic postoperative complications, associated with massive blood transfusions and hepatic failure, mutually contribute to the overall deterioration of host defense mechanism, and may underlie the occurrence of devastating systemic fungal infection. PMID:10777821

Kobayashi, M; Ito, M; Hotchi, M

2000-01-01

63

What do parents want to know when considering autopsy for their child with cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has suggested that autopsy in pediatrics is a valued way for parents to better understand and process their child's death, yet physicians often express hesitancy in discussing this topic with parents. To better assist clinicians with initiating discussion about this often sensitive topic, the current study examined bereaved parents' preferences about the timing and content of the autopsy discussion as well as reasons for considering autopsy. This study explored the views of 30 parents who lost a child to a variety of malignancies between 6 months and 6 years ago. Results showed that 36.7% of parents recalled having a discussion about autopsy, and the vast majority of those who did not recall a discussion (89.5%) would have considered an autopsy if it had been discussed. The majority of participants in this study indicated their preference to have the first conversation about autopsy when it becomes clear that cure is no longer possible. Findings suggest that educating parents about the clinical, emotional, and potential research benefits of autopsy and tissue procurement will ultimately help them make informed decisions and understand the importance of autopsy in medical progress. The future research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24309611

Wiener, Lori; Sweeney, Corinne; Baird, Kristin; Merchant, Melinda S; Warren, Katherine E; Corner, Geoffrey W; Roberts, Kailey E; Lichtenthal, Wendy G

2014-08-01

64

SIDS Counselors' Reports of Own and Parents' Reactions to Reviewing the Autopsy Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Project surveyed 47 newly trained local Sudden Infant Death Syndrome counselors to evaluate use of autopsy report as a counseling tool. Counselors reported that sharing the autopsy report with bereaved parents was a valuable part of the counseling process. (Author/NRB)

Kotch, Jonathan B.; Cohen, Susan R.

1986-01-01

65

Correlation between prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and fetal autopsy findings in second-trimester abortions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We evaluated the correlation between prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and autopsy findings, based on 52 second-trimester pregnancies terminated due to fetal malformations or chromosome aberrations diagnosed at a gestational age of 12-25 weeks. In 24 pregnancies, there was full agreement between ultrasound and autopsy. In 23 fetuses, the main diagnosis was confirmed and additional or more specific findings were observed on autopsy. In five fetuses, there were considerable differences. Discrepancies between ultrasound and autopsy findings were mainly anomalies undetectable by ultrasound and thus expected; however, about one-third of the discrepancies were not expected, representing findings that were 'missed' at ultrasound. The main ultrasound diagnoses were confirmed in the majority of the pregnancies, but the additional information obtained at autopsy in more than half of the fetuses clearly shows the value and benefit of postmortem fetal examination following termination of a pregnancy.

Hauerberg, Laura; Skibsted, Lillian

2012-01-01

66

Clinical utility and impact of autopsies on clinical practice among doctors in a large teaching hospital in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

: Strengthening the interaction between doctors and pathologists is essential in improving the autopsy process and utilization in the hospital. KBTH should create opportunities for doctors to attend autopsy demonstrations and for pathologists to attend clinicopathological meetings in the hospital.

Edem Tette

2014-02-01

67

Rapidly aggravated Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: autopsy-proven case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images.

Park, Seung Hyun; Kang, Hyun Koo; Yu, Hyeon; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-11-15

68

Pleural plaques at autopsy, smoking habits, and asbestos exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation was made to correlate post-mortem findings of pleural plaques (PP) with the smoking habits and occupational history of asbestos exposure of 898 adults from the general population. A significant association between PP and smoking was found in middle-aged and elderly men (p less than 0.001). When occupational history was considered, such an association was present in both exposed (p less than 0.01) and non-exposed (p less than 0.05) men aged over 50 years. No association was observed in non-exposed women, while in those exposed, the absolute number of cases was too small to evaluate any relationship. The number of cigarettes smoked did not correlate significantly with the frequency of PP. This autopsy study confirms the association between occurrence of PP and the smoking habits.

Andrion, A.; Pira, E.; Mollo, F.

1984-02-01

69

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's human autopsy tissue analysis study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1959, the Health Division, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has analyzed the tissues from 81 former employees of the Laboratory for plutonium. Additionally, approximately 700 autopsy cases from the general population have also been analyzed for Pu resulting from fallout. The variation in the distribution of Pu in the bodies of the occupationally exposed individuals suggest that each exposure incident is unique and must be evaluated on the basis of the chemical form, solubility, particle size, mode of entry, and duration of exposure. Particle size distribution of Pu in a lymph node of a long-term chronic exposure case was estimated to have a mass median diameter of 0.32 ?m with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5. The baseline concentrations of environmental Pu have been estimated for the general population and the tissue distributions compared with the occupationally exposed cases

70

Sudden cardiac death and acute drunken state: Autopsy study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Sudden natural death occurs unexpectedly in apparently healthy subjects, or in persons during an apparent benign phase in the course of disease. The most common cause is sudden cardiac death, which is sometimes the first and last manifestation of coronary heart disease. Alcohol directly influences excitation of myocytes, and therefore provokes arrhythmias and possibly, sudden cardiac death. Objective. To establish the frequency of sudden cardiac death in cases of acute alcohol intoxication, to determine blood alcohol concentration at the moment of death, and to determine frequency and level of ethanol intoxication in chronic alcohol abusers, as well as causes of sudden death in those cases. Method. Retrospective autopsy study was performed for a three-year-period. We analyzed cases of sudden natural death, in relation to age and gender, cause of death, and blood alcohol concentration (at least 0.5 g/L. We considered the person to be a chronic alcoholic abuser if gross examination of organs during autopsy showed changes typical for excessive and habitual alcohol consumption. Results. Our sample consisted of 997 cases: 720 men and 277 women, average age 62.0±15.2 years (min=11; max=98. Total of 753 of them died of sudden cardiac death: much more men (?2=167.364; p=0.000, significantly younger than women (t=6.203; p=0.000. We determined acute alcohol intoxication in 73 persons - average blood alcohol concentration 1.85±1.01 g/L (min=0.55; max=3.85, and 61 of them died of cardiovascular diseases (?2=236.781; df=5; p=0.000. Conclusion. In our observed sample, not many persons were under acute alcohol intoxication (around 7%. Most commonly, they were chronic alcohol abusers who died due to exacerbation of chronic heart disease, mildly or moderately intoxicated - the younger, the drunker.

Mileti? Borislav

2010-01-01

71

Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnosis and the value of post mortem histology; a meta-analysis and review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The autopsy is in decline, despite the fact that accurate mortality statistics remain essential for public health and health service planning. The falling autopsy rate combined with the Coroners Review and Human Tissue Act have contributed to this decline, and to a falling use of autopsy histology, with potential impact on clinical audit and mortality statistics. At a time when the need for reform and improvement in the death certification process is so prominent, we felt it important to assess the value of the autopsy and autopsy histology. We carried out a meta-analysis of discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses and the contribution of autopsy histology. There has been little improvement in the overall rate of discrepancies between the 1960s and the present. At least a third of death certificates are likely to be incorrect and 50% of autopsies produce findings unsuspected before death. In addition, the cases which give rise to discrepancies cannot be identified prior to autopsy. Over 20% of clinically unexpected autopsy findings, including 5% of major findings, can be correctly diagnosed only by histological examination. Although the autopsy and particularly autopsy histology are being undermined, they are still the most accurate method of determining the cause of death and auditing accuracy of clinical diagnosis, diagnostic tests and death certification. PMID:16324191

Roulson, J; Benbow, E W; Hasleton, P S

2005-12-01

72

Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data.

Lozano Rafael

2011-08-01

73

Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff, which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science.

Murray Christopher JL

2011-08-01

74

Utility of Postmortem Autopsy via Whole-Body Imaging: Initial Observations Comparing MDCT and 3.0T MRI Findings with Autopsy Findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16- channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations

Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Paik, Sang Hyun [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

75

The molecular autopsy: an indispensable step following sudden cardiac death in the young?  

Science.gov (United States)

Annually thousands of sudden deaths involving young individuals (CPVT), and Brugada syndrome (BrS), leave no evidence to be found at autopsy, leaving investigators to only speculate that a lethal arrhythmia might lie at the heart of a sudden unexplained death (SUD). In cases of autopsy-negative SUD, continued investigation, through the use of a cardiological and genetic evaluation of first- or second-degree relatives and/or a molecular autopsy, may pinpoint the underlying mechanism attributing to the sudden death and allow for the identification of living family members with the pathogenic substrate that renders them vulnerable to an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden death. PMID:22993115

Boczek, Nicole J; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J

2012-09-01

76

Autopsy proven pulmonary embolism in hospital patients: are we detecting enough deep vein thrombosis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the present status of pulmonary embolism as a cause of death in a general hospital patient population, a 5-year retrospective study of all autopsy reports and associated hospital records was undertaken. Pulmonary embolism was thought to be the cause of death in 239 of 2388 autopsies performed (10%): 15% of these patients were aged less than 60 years and 68% did not have cancer. Of these patients, 83% had deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in the legs at autopsy, of whom only 19% had sy...

Sandler, D. A.; Martin, J. F.

1989-01-01

77

[An autopsy case of Alzheimer's disease presenting with corticobasal syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

A right-handed Japanese man developed memory loss at 51 years of age. The right side clumsiness developed from 52 years of age and then progressively worsened. Temporal/parietal lobe atrophy was observed predominantly on the left side upon MR imaging. Subsequently, limb-kinetic apraxia and parkinsonism became apparent predominantly on the right side. These symptoms became aggravated along with dementia, ultimately leading to an apallic state. The patient eventually died at the age of 59 due to aspiration pneumonia. An autopsy was carried out and cerebral atrophy was observed predominantly on the left side. Senile plaques were observed on the entire cerebral cortex at a high frequency, along with many cotton wool plaques. Anti-phosphorylated tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles and several neuropil threads were observed upon immunostaining. The tau-positive structures were also positive for both RD3 and RD4 antibodies. The findings of tauopathy of the glia were poor, and the tau lesion of the brainstem was milder than that of the cerebral cortex. These results suggest the possibility that the corticobasal syndrome clinically developed in some type of Alzheimer's disease and a definite diagnosis was made only by pathological examination. PMID:24225565

Fujii, Naoki; Wakamiya, Tomihiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Furuya, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Kensuke; Iwaki, Toru

2013-01-01

78

Risk factors for suicide in Bali: a psychological autopsy study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The suicide rate in Bali has significantly increased in recent years. However, to date, there have been no case-control studies investigating risk factors for suicide. Methods A psychological autopsy study was conducted comparing 60 suicide cases and 120 living controls matched in age, sex, and area of residence. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors for suicide: at least one diagnosis of axis-I mental disorder (OR: 14.84 CI: 6.12 - 35.94; low level of religious involvement (OR: 7.24 CI: 2.28 - 22.95; and severe interpersonal problems (OR: 3.86 CI: 1.36 - 11.01. Forty-eight (80.0% of the suicide cases were diagnosed with mental disorders; however, only 16.7% visited a primary care health professional and none received psychiatric treatment during the 1 month prior to death. Conclusion Clinical, religious, and psychosocial factors were associated with suicide. These results highlight the significance of early recognition and treatment of mental disorders, religious activities, and interpersonal problem-solving strategies for suicide prevention in Bali.

Reverger Robert

2009-09-01

79

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an autopsy analysis of 14 cases.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is one of the less common forms of primary cardiomyopathies. There is little data available on HCM in Indian literature. AIMS: To assess the incidence and analyse the clinicopathological features of HCM. SETTINGS: Analysis of data of 15 years from a tertiary care centre. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The clinical and pathological data in fourteen cases of HCM with respect to their gross and microscopic features and clinical presentation were reviewed. RESULTS: Incidence of HCM amongst the autopsied primary cardiomyopathies (N = 101 was 13.9% (n=14. Males were affected more. Common presenting symptoms were exertional dyspnoea, angina and palpitations. Concentric and asymmetric hypertrophy was equally seen. Obliterative small vessel disease was noted in 50% of the cases. Although significant myofibre disarray (>5% was seen in all fourteen cases, it could be demonstrated in only 40- 50% of an average of twenty sections studied. Type IA myofibre disarray was the commonest. Six of the fourteen patients died suddenly. Cardiac failure was the commonest cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Myofibre disarray is a highly sensitive and specific marker for HCM only when considered in a quantitative rather than a qualitative fashion. In this context, the rationale for performing endomyocardial biopsy is to rule out mimics of HCM.

Phadke R

2001-07-01

80

Voxel-based morphometry in autopsy proven PSP and CBD.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of grey and white matter atrophy on MRI in autopsy confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and to determine whether the patterns vary depending on the clinical syndrome. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare patterns of atrophy in 13 PSP and 11 CBD subjects and 24 controls. PSP and CBD subjects were also subdivided into those with a dominant dementia or extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects showed brainstem atrophy with involvement of the cortex and underlying white matter. Frontoparietal grey and subcortical grey matter atrophy occurred in CBD. When subdivided, PSP subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome had more brainstem atrophy and less cortical atrophy than CBD subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects with a dementia syndrome had more subcortical white matter atrophy than CBD subjects with a dementia syndrome. These results show regional differences between PSP and CBD that are useful in predicting the underlying pathology, and help to shed light on the in vivo distribution of regional atrophy in PSP and CBD. PMID:17097770

Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Dickson, Dennis W; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E; Jack, Clifford R

2008-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Autopsy case of double carcinoma arising from Thorotrast administrated patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the pathologic and radiologic observations at autopsy of an 85-year-old man with Thorotrastosis due to angiography performed at age 37, and with double carcinoma comprising renal pelvic and gastric carcinoma. Thorotrast deposits were found in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrows; the liver showed Thorotrast-induced cirrhosis. Renal pelvic carcinoma and gastric carcinoma were histologically squamous cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma, moderately differentiated, respectively. Renal pelvic carcinoma had metastasized to the lungs and lymph nodes. On the other hand, no metastasis of gastric carcinoma was detected. These neoplasms seemed unlikely to be in direct association with Thorotrast because there was no Thorotrast deposit in the primary sites. However, there seems to be an intense correlation between Thorotrast carcinogenicity and histologic type of the tumor, because squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is more frequent in patients with retrograde pyelography with Thorotrast than without Thorotrast. It should be kept in mind that the incidence of carcinoma due to either direct or indirect influence of Thorotrast is high in these patients. (author)

82

Autopsy findings in conjoined twin with single heart and single liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thoracoomphalopagus is the commonest type of conjoined twin where the bodies are fused from upper chest to lower chest. The autopsy done can help counsil the parents for further pregnancies and determine the prognosis depending upon the type of cardiac anomaly by Seo classification when detected antenatally. We describe the detail pathological autopsy of such a case with single heart and single liver. A detail autopsy was done on the twin fetus. The twins shared a single heart and sometimes the liver and part of digestive system. The combined weight was 4.1?KG. Both were full-term male babies joined from below the nipple till umbilicus. Autopsy in conjoined twins helps in deciding the type of fusion of the body and also of the heart and great vessels. It can help in counseling parents about future pregnancies that there is no chance of recurrence of this abnormality and no need to be scared. PMID:22957286

Asaranti, Kar; Pranati, Mohanty; Tushar, Kar; Jagadish, Behera; Susmita, Behera; Amarendra, Nayak

2012-01-01

83

Failure to perform autopsies means some MDs "walking in a fog of misplaced optimism".  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Once the cornerstone of medical-school training because they taught the fundamentals of anatomy and the ravages of disease, autopsies are now done so infrequently that many of today's doctors graduate from medical school without ever having seen one performed. In 1950, 50% of deaths were followed by autopsy; in 1995, that rate has dropped as low as 7% in some North American hospitals. Critics say the procedure is expensive and that modern diagnostic technologies will reveal all they need to k...

Lowry, F.

1995-01-01

84

Association between male gender and cortical Lewy body pathology in large autopsy series  

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Sex-linked factors may alter risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Definitive diagnoses are not established until autopsy, so neuropathological studies are critical. There have not been reported gender-related differences in neocortical Lewy bodies (LBs) using large multi-center autopsy series. We evaluated the associations between gender and pathologically characterized neurodegenerative diseases. Cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD), neocortical LBs, AD + neocortical LBs, or neither pathology...

Nelson, Peter T.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Abner, Erin L.; Smith, Charles D.; Eldik, Linda J.; Markesbery, William R.

2010-01-01

85

An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy was reported. The patient was a 60-year-old female complaining of chest discomfort from the age of 40. At autopsy, both ventricles were dilated. Microscopically myocardial loss, fibrosis and disarray of hypertrophic myocardial fibers were observed. The areas showing myocardial disarray were distributed close to the scar-like fibrotic areas. Coronary arteries and intramyocardial arterioles showed minimal stenotic changes.

Yamadori,Ichiro

1985-12-01

86

An autopsy of dead planetary systems with COS  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose to use HST/COS to conduct autopsies of dead planetary systems around UV bright hydrogen-white dwarfs (WDs), which have dust disks found via their mid-IR emission in excess of that expected from the photosphere. As part of a WISE survey, and followed up with a combination of NASA Keck HIRES/Magellan MIKE optical spectroscopy, we have identified three new systems that are accreting dust. These WDs are bright in the mid-IR and UV, gold-standard targets for studies with HST/COS and later with JWST. The dusty material is debris resulting from the tidal disruption of exo-asteroids that accrete onto the WD surface. Many atomic elements from the accreted and dissociated dust particles are detectable with COS, enabling abundance determinations of exo-asteroidal material. Moreover, the photospheric abundances of this material can be directly compared with a determination of the dust mineralogy obtained with future JWST mid-IR spectroscopy-our proposed UV observations provide complementary constraints on mineralogical compositions of the accreting dust particles. UV spectroscopy is crucial for cataloging elemental abundances for these exo-asteroids. For the majority of WDs, optical spectroscopy reveals only a couple of lines of Ca or Mg, while UV spectroscopy captures lines from Al, Fe, Si, C, Ni, O, S, Cr, P, and Ti. Obtaining the elemental abundances of exo-asteroids is comparable to the spectroscopic characterization of transiting exoplanets or protoplanetary disks-all of these techniques determine how the chemical diversity of planetary systems translate into planetary architectures and the probability of habitable planets around solar-type stars.

Debes, John

2014-10-01

87

Deaths among women of reproductive age: a forensic autopsy study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age (range 12-49 years) have a serious psychological and social impact on the family and community. Deaths among women of reproductive age reported as medico-legal cases were investigated to see the trend in terms of cause and manner of death. The study group consisted of a series of 328 consecutive forensic autopsies on women in the reproductive age group, performed between 2009 and 2011 at the Government Wenlock District Hospital, Mangalore, India by qualified specialist forensic medicine experts. Unnatural deaths formed 93.6% of the cohort. The top three causes of death included burns, poisoning and hanging forming 69.5% of the cases. The manner of death was suicide in 45.4% cases, accident in 43.6% cases and homicide in 4.6% cases. The circumstances of death were related to alleged medical negligence in 2.4% cases. Death in 4% cases was natural mannered with a disease being the cause of death. Three-fourths of the victims were married. Married women formed 63.1% of the suicidal victims. Homicidal deaths were not reported among unmarried women. The preponderant method of suicide was by poisoning at 42.3% (63 cases), followed by hanging (34.9%), burns (11.4%) and drowning (9.4%). These four methods comprised 98% of the total suicidal deaths in this study cohort. Accidental deaths were predominantly caused by burns (62.2%) and road traffic accident (23.1%). Two-thirds of the homicidal deaths were due to assault caused by blunt-force trauma, ligature strangulation and sharp-force trauma. One-third of the homicidal victims died due to burns. With a clear understanding of the cause and manner of death, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age who form a very important group of society. PMID:23910855

Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Menezes, Ritesh G; Pant, Sadip; Shetty, Soumya B

2013-08-01

88

Aircraft mishap investigation with radiology-assisted autopsy: helicopter crash with control injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiology-assisted autopsy traditionally has been plain film-based, but now is being augmented by computed tomography (CT). The authors present a two-fatality rotary wing crash scenario illustrating application of advanced radiographic techniques that can guide and supplement the forensic pathologist's physical autopsy. The radiographic findings also have the potential for use by the aircraft mishap investigation board. Prior to forensic autopsy, the two crash fatalities were imaged with conventional two-dimensional radiographs (digital technique) and with multidetector CT The CT data were used for multiplanar two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction. The forensic pathologist was provided with information about skeletal fractures, metal fragment location, and other pathologic findings of potential use in the physical autopsy. The radiologic autopsy served as a supplement to the physical autopsy and did not replace the traditional autopsy in these cases. Both individuals sustained severe blunt force trauma with multiple fractures of the skull, face, chest, pelvis, and extremities. Individual fractures differed; however, one individual showed hand and lower extremity injuries similar to those associated with control of the aircraft at the time of impact. The concept of "control injury" has been challenged by Campman et al., who found that control surface injuries have a low sensitivity and specificity for establishing who the pilot was in an accident. The application of new post mortem imaging techniques may help to resolve control injury questions. In addition, the combination of injuries in our cases may contribute to further understanding of control surface injury patterns in helicopter mishaps. PMID:19378913

Folio, R Les; Harcke, H Theodore; Luzi, Scott A

2009-04-01

89

Hypothermia as the cause of death in forensic pathology: Autopsy study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The body cooling process goes through few clinical phases. These are followed by some morphological thanatological changes such as frost erythema and Wischnewsky's spots, which are used in diagnosis of death due to hypothermia. In such cases there is no any specific autopsy finding. Objective. To establish the frequency of hypothermia as the cause of death for a ten-year-period, and to analyze the sample according to gender and age, risk factors and autopsy findings of subjects. Methods. A retrospective autopsy study was performed for a ten-year-period (total of 12,765 forensic autopsies. The relevant data were collected from autopsy records, police reports and heteroanamnestic interviews. The sample was analyzed according to gender, age, scene of death, blood alcohol concentration, risk factors, and autopsy findings of all observed subjects. Results. The sample included 67 subjects, 42 males and 25 females (?2=4.31; p<0.05, of average age 63.9±14.7 years (min=27, max=92; med=65, mod=55. Nineteen of subjects were found at in-door places. In 13 subjects blood alcohol concentration ranged from 0.50 to 3.32 promille (average 1.81±0.93. The younger the observed subject was, the higher the blood alcohol concentration (?=-0.251; p=0.04. One third of the observed subjects were chronic alcohol abusers. Thirteen persons had psychiatric diseases. In 43 observed subjects the concomitant appearance of frost erythema and Wischniewsky's spots were established (?2=49.59; df=3; p<0.001. Conclusion. In the analyzed ten-year period hypothermia was not often the cause of death; it was disclosed only in 0.5% of the total number of the studied autopsies. The most of the deceased were older males with cardiovascular problems found in unprotected open-air places. The most frequent thanatological findings in the analyzed subjects were frost erythema and Wischnewsky's spots.

Nikoli? Slobodan

2010-01-01

90

Verbal autopsy: current practices and challenges / Autopsie verbale: pratiques actuelles et défis à surmonter / Autopsias verbales: práctica y retos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los datos sobre causas de defunción obtenidos a partir de autopsias verbales (AV) son usados con creciente frecuencia con fines de planificación de la salud, establecimiento de prioridades, seguimiento y evaluación en los países con sistemas de registro civil incompletos o inexistentes. En algunas r [...] egiones del mundo es el único método disponible para poder estimar la distribución de las causas de mortalidad. Hoy día el método de las AV se utiliza sistemáticamente en más de 35 lugares, sobre todo en África y Asia. En este artículo presentamos un panorama general del sistema de las AV y los resultados de un análisis de los instrumentos de AV y los procedimientos operativos utilizados en los sitios de vigilancia demográfica y los sistemas de registro de estadísticas vitales por muestreo. Solicitamos información a 36 sitios sobre el terreno acerca de los procedimientos operativos y examinamos 18 cuestionarios de autopsia verbal y 10 listas de causas de defunción usadas en 13 países. El formato y el contenido de los cuestionarios de AV, los procedimientos operativos sobre el terreno, las listas de las causas de defunción y los procedimientos empleados para calcular las causas de mortalidad a partir de las AV diferían sustancialmente de un sitio a otro. Analizamos las consecuencias de utilizar distintos métodos y llegamos a la conclusión de que es necesario normalizar los instrumentos y los procedimientos de AV y hacerlos más fiables si se desea hacer comparaciones más precisas de los datos de AV en los planos nacional e internacional. Ponemos de relieve, además, las medidas adicionales que habría que adoptar para desarrollar un procedimiento de AV normalizado. Abstract in english Cause-of-death data derived from verbal autopsy (VA) are increasingly used for health planning, priority setting, monitoring and evaluation in countries with incomplete or no vital registration systems. In some regions of the world it is the only method available to obtain estimates on the distribut [...] ion of causes of death. Currently, the VA method is routinely used at over 35 sites, mainly in Africa and Asia. In this paper, we present an overview of the VA process and the results of a review of VA tools and operating procedures used at demographic surveillance sites and sample vital registration systems. We asked for information from 36 field sites about field-operating procedures and reviewed 18 verbal autopsy questionnaires and 10 cause-of-death lists used in 13 countries. The format and content of VA questionnaires, field-operating procedures, cause-of-death lists and the procedures to derive causes of death from VA process varied substantially among sites. We discuss the consequences of using varied methods and conclude that the VA tools and procedures must be standardized and reliable in order to make accurate national and international comparisons of VA data. We also highlight further steps needed in the development of a standard VA process.

Nadia, Soleman; Daniel, Chandramohan; Kenji, Shibuya.

2006-03-01

91

The autopsy and the elderly patient in the hospital and the nursing home: Enhancing the quality of life  

Science.gov (United States)

The autopsy is the ultimate “peer review.” Yet the autopsy has nearly disappeared from hospitals in the United States and around the world. It is rarely performed in the nursing home or other long-term care (LTC) setting. As a result, all of society has lost much, in terms of quality of health care, the skills of physicians, and insights gained through autopsy-based research. The elderly have the lowest rate of autopsies of any age group. This is a paradox, since the greatest quality and quantity of knowledge would accrue from the often surprising findings revealed at autopsy that reflect the acknowledged ‘multiple simultaneous illnesses’ occurring in older persons. This review and analysis describe why autopsy rates have fallen in hospitals and offer rationales and solutions for reversing this trend in the nursing home and other LTC settings. PMID:19061275

Libow, Leslie S.; Neufeld, Richard R.

2010-01-01

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Utility of desmin and a Masson's trichrome method to detect early acute myocardial infarction in autopsy tissues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detection of early acute myocardial ischemia/infarction prior to neutrophilic infiltration in autopsy myocardium poses a diagnostic dilemma to the surgical pathologist. Morphological changes can be subtle or not identified at all on the hematoxylin and eosin stain. To evaluate the Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemical stains, desmin and myoglobin, in detecting acute myocardial ischemia/infarction in autopsy myocardium. We reviewed the autopsy files of the New York Harbor Healthcare...

Ouyang, Jie; Guzman, Miguel; Desoto-lapaix, Fidelina; Pincus, Matthew R.; Wieczorek, Rosemary

2009-01-01

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The value of postmortem computed tomography as an alternative for autopsy in trauma victims: a systematic review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess the role of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) as an alternative for autopsy in determining the cause of death and the identification of specific injuries in trauma victims. A systematic review was performed by searching the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. Articles were eligible if they reported both PMCT as well as autopsy findings and included more than one trauma victim. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and quality of the articles. The outcomes were described in terms of the percentage agreement on causes of death and amount of injuries detected. The data extraction and analysis were performed together. Fifteen studies were included describing 244 victims. The median sample size was 13 (range 5-52). The percentage agreement on the cause of death between PMCT and autopsy varied between 46 and 100%. The overall amount of injuries detected on CT ranged from 53 to 100% compared with autopsy. Several studies suggested that PMCT was capable of identifying injuries not detected during normal autopsy. This systematic review provides inconsistent evidence as to whether PMCT is a reliable alternative for autopsy in trauma victims. PMCT has promising features in postmortem examination suggesting PMCT is a good alternative for a refused autopsy or a good adjunct to autopsy because it detects extra injuries overseen during autopsies. To examine the value of PMCT in trauma victims there is a need for well-designed and larger prospective studies. (orig.)

94

The use of CT-scanning at the medicolegal external postmortem examination and at the forensic autopsy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Can CT-scanning of deceased at the medico legal external examination improve the selection of cases to autopsy? Is CT-scanning a substitute or a supplement to the traditional forensic autopsy? Material: In 2006 60 deceased individuals from Southern Denmark (counties of Fyn and Sønderjylland) (15 females and 45 males) were CT-scanned before autopsy. Method: A double-blind prospective investigation of CT-scanning in autopsy cases. A multislice spiral CT-scanner (Siemens Somatom Spirit) was used. Data from the CT-scanning and the autopsy were registered in a computer database and compared. Results: The scanning could be performed in 10 minutes per case. In approximately a third of the cases the cause of death could be established by CT-scanning alone. CT-scanning was found to be most useful in cases of traumatic death, and was superior to autopsy in visualizing fractures. Conclusions: CT-scanning is not a substitute for autopsy, but can be used at the medico legal external examination to evaluate in which cases an autopsy is needed. It can also be used as a supplement to the autopsy in cases of traumatic death, and is especially useful in evaluation of injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents and in gunshot injuries, and for identification purposes.  

Leth, Peter Mygind

2006-01-01

95

Comparison of clinical causes of deth with autopsy diagnosis using discrepancy classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non classifiable. (author)

96

Radiation protection measures applied during the autopsies on the casualties of the Goiania accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most seriously affected casualties of the radiological accident caused by the opening of a 137Cs source capsule in Goiania were treated at the Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (HNMD) in Rio de Janeiro in the period from October to December 1987. Four of the injured died in October. The autopsies were performed at this institution. Due to the external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to enable the medical team to perform their duties. The radiation protection staff, under the co-ordination of technicians of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), were responsible for the preparation of the autopsy room and for advising the professionals on duty during these events. The radiation protection staff took specific measures to prevent the spread of contamination throughout the hospital, the contamination of persons attending the autopsies and to minimize any radiation dose to the medical and professional team. The measures aimed at personal control and the preparation of the autopsy room are described as well as the radiation protection steps applied in connection with the performance of the autopsies, the emplacement of the bodies into the coffins and their transport back to Goiania. (author)

97

Radiography after unexpected death in infants and children compared to autopsy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Postmortem radiography may reveal skeletal and soft-tissue abnormalities of importance for the diagnosis of cause of death. To review the radiographs of children under 3 years of age who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. To compare the radiological and autopsy findings evaluating possible differences in children dying of SIDS and of an explainable cause. A total of 110 consecutive skeletal surveys performed between 1998 and 2002 were reviewed. All but one were performed before autopsy and comprised AP views of the appendicular and axial skeleton and thorax/abdomen, lateral views of the axial skeleton and thorax, and two oblique views of the ribs. Radiography and autopsy findings were compared. Causes of death were classified as SIDS/borderline SIDS (n = 52) and non-SIDS (n = 58), with one case of abuse. In 102 infants there were 150 pathological findings, 88 involving the chest, 24 skeletal, and 38 miscellaneous findings. The radiological-pathological agreement was poor concerning pulmonary findings. Skeletal findings were sometimes important for the final diagnosis. Radiography revealed many skeletal and soft-tissue findings. Pulmonary pathology was most frequently found, but showed poor agreement with autopsy findings. Recognizing skeletal findings related to abuse is important, as these may escape recognition at autopsy. (orig.)

Lange, Charlotte de; Stake, Gunnar [Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Vege, Aashild [Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

2007-02-15

98

Radiography after unexpected death in infants and children compared to autopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Postmortem radiography may reveal skeletal and soft-tissue abnormalities of importance for the diagnosis of cause of death. To review the radiographs of children under 3 years of age who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. To compare the radiological and autopsy findings evaluating possible differences in children dying of SIDS and of an explainable cause. A total of 110 consecutive skeletal surveys performed between 1998 and 2002 were reviewed. All but one were performed before autopsy and comprised AP views of the appendicular and axial skeleton and thorax/abdomen, lateral views of the axial skeleton and thorax, and two oblique views of the ribs. Radiography and autopsy findings were compared. Causes of death were classified as SIDS/borderline SIDS (n = 52) and non-SIDS (n = 58), with one case of abuse. In 102 infants there were 150 pathological findings, 88 involving the chest, 24 skeletal, and 38 miscellaneous findings. The radiological-pathological agreement was poor concerning pulmonary findings. Skeletal findings were sometimes important for the final diagnosis. Radiography revealed many skeletal and soft-tissue findings. Pulmonary pathology was most frequently found, but showed poor agreement with autopsy findings. Recognizing skeletal findings related to abuse is important, as these may escape recognition at autopsy. (orig.)

99

Mind the gap: are NHS trusts falling short of recommended standards for consent to autopsy?  

Science.gov (United States)

The decline of the hospital autopsy is a well-known phenomenon that shows no sign of ending. Debate continues for the reasons behind this, but inadequate consent practices are thought to play a role. The furore resulting from organ retention scandals at Bristol Royal Infirmary and The Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital led to widespread soul searching in the medical profession, and a fundamental change in how we treat the dead body. In response, the 2004 Human Tissue Act was created, and consent is now centrally placed to permit all activities dealing with the cadaver, including autopsy. This article reflects on consent practices for hospital autopsy in England and Wales. Relevant policies from 26 National Health Service trusts were examined against the recommended standards set by the Human Tissue Authority. We found numerous failures of multiple trusts to follow these standards. Several trust policies failed to outline basic information to guide staff in conducting the consent process, such as the training requirements of the consent taker, and the desired approach to take consent. Many trusts failed to outline vital recommendations of the Human tissue Authority, such as the requirement of the consent taker to be experienced, trained in dealing with the bereaved and well informed on autopsy practice, as well as the requirement to have witnessed an autopsy. We recommend trusts reassess their practices in order meet the established standards with an emphasis on educating staff and developing a team-based approach to consent taking. PMID:24062359

Eka, Ime; Rowan, Camilla; Osborn, Michael

2014-01-01

100

Sudden unexplained death in childhood. An audit of the quality of Autopsy reporting  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\

Treacy, A

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1948-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)

102

Medico-legal autopsy in postoperative hemodynamic collapse following coronary artery bypass surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sudden unexpected postoperative hemodynamic collapse with a high mortality develops in 1-3% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The contribution of surgical graft complications to this serious condition is poorly known and their demonstration at autopsy is a challenging task. Isolated CABG was performed in 8,807 patients during 1988-1999. Of the patients, 76 (0.9%) developed sudden postoperative hemodynamic collapse resulting in subsequent emergency reopening of the median sternotomy and open cardiac massage. Further emergency reoperation could be performed in 62 (82%) whereas 14 patients died prior to reoperation and a further 21 did not survive the reoperation or died a few days later. All 35 (46%) patients who did not survive were subjected to medico-legal autopsy combined with postmortem cast angiography. By combining clinical data with autopsy and angiography data, various types of graft complications were observed in 27 (36%, 1.3 per patient) of the 76 patients with hemodynamic collapse. There were no significant differences in the frequency (33 vs. 40%) or number of complicated grafts per patient (1.2 vs. 1.4) between those who survived reoperation and who did not. Autopsy detected 25 major and minor findings not diagnosed clinically. Postmortem cast angiography visualized 2 graft twists not possible to detect by autopsy dissection only. Surgical graft complications were the most frequent single cause for sudden postoperative hemodynamic collapse in CABG patients leading to a fatal outcome in almost half of the cases. Postmortem angiography improved the accuracy of autopsy diagnostics of graft complications. PMID:20820949

Karhunen, Janne P; Karhunen, Pekka J; Raivio, Peter M; Sihvo, Eero I T; Vainikka, Tiina L S; Salminen, Ulla-Stina

2011-03-01

103

Verbal autopsy of 80,000 adult deaths in Tamilnadu, South India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA study of 48 000 adult (aged ? 25 yrs deaths in the city of Chennai (urban during 1995–97 and 32 000 in rural Villupuram during 1997–98 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death to estimate cause specific mortality. Methods A ten day training on writing verbal autopsy (VA report for adult deaths was given to non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education. They interviewed surviving spouse/close associates of the deceased to write a verbal autopsy report in local language (Tamil on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. Random re-interviewing of 5% of the VA reports was done to check the reliability and reproducibility of the VA report. The validity of VA diagnosis was assessed only for cancer deaths. Results Verbal autopsy reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified and unknown causes from 54% to 23% (p Conclusion A ten day training programme to write verbal autopsy report with adequate feed back sessions and random sampling of 5% of the verbal autopsy reports for re-interview worked very well in Tamilnadu, to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death reliably for deaths in early adult life or middle age (25–69 years and less reliably for older ages (70+. Thus VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age.

Peto Richard

2004-10-01

104

Post-Mortem Echocardiography as a Guide to Cardiac Autopsy—A Worthwhile Concept?  

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Full Text Available Sudden and unexpected death in the young is a common and worldwide problem. Sudden, unexpected death in infancy (SUDI, clinically unexpected death in an infant between one week and one year of age, affects around 1 in 1000 infants. Autopsy will reveal a specific cause of death in only one third of cases. This has led to various ancillary examinations in an effort to increase the diagnostic yield of the autopsy. In this case report it is suggested that another diagnostic modality, that of the post-mortem echocardiogram might be a worthwhile concept to explore.

J. Ker

2010-07-01

105

Academic autopsies in Brazil - a national survey / Autópsias acadêmicas no Brasil - um inquérito nacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Investigar o número e a taxa de autópsias acadêmicas, organização geral, ensino e pesquisa em serviços acadêmicos brasileiros. Métodos: Questionários padronizados enviados para escolas médicas brasileiras (n=177) e programas de residência em patologia ativos (n=53) de março a junho d [...] e 2009. Dados coletados referentes ao período de 2003 a 2008. Resultados: Trinta e dois serviços em 11 estados responderam à pesquisa. Vinte e um (65,6%) realizam menos de cem autópsias de causas naturais e menos de cinquenta autópsias fetais ou pediátricas/ano. Vinte e quatro (75%) realizam menos de cem autópsias de adultos/ano. Muitas instituições (46,9%) relataram queda no número de autópsias em seis anos. A contagem total e a taxa de autópsias em 2008 variaram, respectivamente, de 1 a 632 (mediana=80) e de 0 a 66% (média=10,6%). Foi observada uma redução contínua no total de autópsias em um grupo de 19 instituições (p Abstract in english Objective: To investigate the number and rate of academic autopsies, general organization, educational and research in Brazilian academic services. Methods: Standardized questionnaires were sent to Brazilian medical schools (n=177) and active pathology residency programs (n=53) from March to J [...] une 2009. Data were collected for years 2003 to 2008. Results: Thirty-two academic services in 11 Brazilian states answered the survey. Twenty-one (65.6%) perform less than a hundred autopsies for natural causes and less than fifty pediatric or fetal autopsies/year. Twenty-four (75%) perform less than a hundred adult autopsies/year. Many institutions (46.9%) reported a drop in the number of autopsies in a six-year period. The total autopsy count and autopsy rate in 2008 ranged 1-632 (median = 80), and 0-66% (mean = 10.6%), respectively. A steady decrease in the total count of autopsies in a pool of 19 institutions was observed (p

Aloísio, Felipe-Silva; Márcia, Ishigai; Thaís, Mauad.

106

Epidemiology and sites of involvement of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies: a 20-year autopsy study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23551865

Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2013-11-01

107

Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

2009-01-01

108

Marfan syndrome and sudden death within a family - aetiologic, molecular and diagnostic issues at autopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Marfan syndrome has a range of characteristic morphological features involving the ocular, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, the phenotype is variable. In addition, mutations have been identified in the gene encoding for fibrillin-1 and also in the transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2 (TGF-betaR2) gene. Two cases are presented of sudden and unexpected deaths in cousins who manifested morphologic features of Marfan syndrome at autopsy. Case 1: A 36-year-old male who collapsed and was found at autopsy to have arachnodactyly, a high arched palate and lethal aortic dissection with haemopericardium. Case 2: A 34-year-old male who collapsed and was found at autopsy to have arachnodactyly, a high arched palate, pes cavus and a dysplastic mitral valve. Current aetiological theories and molecular findings are discussed. While family follow-up and counselling are advised when cases come to autopsy, given the variability in phenotype and genotype, and the difficulties that exist in attempting to determine clinical prognosis from either of these, such deaths may raise more concerns for surviving family members than providing answers. PMID:18423350

Hirani, Rena; Koszyca, Barbara; Byard, Roger W

2008-05-01

109

Limb-body wall complex: Prenatal sonographic findings versus autopsy findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate prenatal ultrasonographic findings of limb-body wall complex and to correlate them with autopsy findings. From October 1995 to June 2000, a retrospectively review of prenatal ultrasonography (US) of 11 patients with pathologically proven limb-body wall complex was done. US findings were then compared with autopsy findings. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed thoraco-abdominoschists (n=7.64%), kyphoscoliosis (n=7.64%), cranial defect (n=5.45%), limb defect (n=4.36%), facial defect (n=1.10%), amniotic band (n=5.45%), and umbilical cord anomaly (n=3.27%). Meanwhile, autopsy findings showed thoraco-abdominoschisis (n=8.72%), limb defect (n=7.64%), facial defect (n=7.64%), kyphoscoliosis (n=5.45%), cranial defect (n=5.45%), amniotic band (n=5.45%) and umbilical cord anomaly (n=4.36%). The most common ultrasonography features of limb-body wall complex were thoraco-abdominoschisis and kyphoscoliosis while the thoraco-abdominoschisis and limb defects were the most frequent findings at autopsy.

110

Limb-body wall complex: Prenatal sonographic findings versus autopsy findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate prenatal ultrasonographic findings of limb-body wall complex and to correlate them with autopsy findings. From October 1995 to June 2000, a retrospectively review of prenatal ultrasonography (US) of 11 patients with pathologically proven limb-body wall complex was done. US findings were then compared with autopsy findings. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed thoraco-abdominoschists (n=7.64%), kyphoscoliosis (n=7.64%), cranial defect (n=5.45%), limb defect (n=4.36%), facial defect (n=1.10%), amniotic band (n=5.45%), and umbilical cord anomaly (n=3.27%). Meanwhile, autopsy findings showed thoraco-abdominoschisis (n=8.72%), limb defect (n=7.64%), facial defect (n=7.64%), kyphoscoliosis (n=5.45%), cranial defect (n=5.45%), amniotic band (n=5.45%) and umbilical cord anomaly (n=4.36%). The most common ultrasonography features of limb-body wall complex were thoraco-abdominoschisis and kyphoscoliosis while the thoraco-abdominoschisis and limb defects were the most frequent findings at autopsy.

Song, Mi Jin; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-06-15

111

Demonstration of iron and thorium in autopsy tissues by x-ray microanalysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined.

Landas, S.; Turner, J.W.; Moore, K.C.; Mitros, F.A.

1984-03-01

112

Demonstration of iron and thorium in autopsy tissues by x-ray microanalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined

113

Classifying perinatal mortality using verbal autopsy: is there a role for nonphysicians?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of a physician shortage in many low-income countries, the use of nonphysicians to classify perinatal mortality (stillbirth and early neonatal death using verbal autopsy could be useful. Objective To determine the extent to which underlying perinatal causes of deaths assigned by nonphysicians in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo using a verbal autopsy method are concordant with underlying perinatal cause of death assigned by physician panels. Methods Using a train-the-trainer model, 13 physicians and 40 nonphysicians were trained to determine cause of death using a standardized verbal autopsy training program. Subsequently, panels of two physicians and individual nonphysicians from this trained cohort independently reviewed verbal autopsy data from a sample of 118 early neonatal deaths and 134 stillbirths. With the cause of death assigned by the physician panel as the reference standard, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and cause-specific mortality fractions were calculated to assess nonphysicians' coding responses. Robustness criteria to assess how well nonphysicians performed were used. Results Causes of early neonatal death and stillbirth assigned by nonphysicians were concordant with physician-assigned causes 47% and 57% of the time, respectively. Tetanus filled robustness criteria for early neonatal death, and cord prolapse filled robustness criteria for stillbirth. Conclusions There are significant differences in underlying cause of death as determined by physicians and nonphysicians even when they receive similar training in cause of death determination. Currently, it does not appear that nonphysicians can be used reliably to assign underlying cause of perinatal death using verbal autopsy.

Wallace Dennis

2011-08-01

114

Autopsy in undergraduate medical education-what do students really learn?  

Science.gov (United States)

Forensic medicine can provide access to autopsies for students in undergraduate medical education. Previous qualitative studies reported that attending autopsies promotes learning and is helpful in organising information in the context of self-directed learning, covering cognitive, emotional and societal issues. In the present study, learning outcome regarding specific pathophysiological learning objectives of students who attended an autopsy elective (intervention group, n?=?32) was estimated in comparison to peer students who signed up for the course but were not selected (control group A, n?=?47) and students who had not signed up (control group B, n?=?186). Learning outcome (expressed as a percent knowledge gain) was measured by means of comparative self-assessments (CSA). Furthermore, group interviews were conducted to evaluate the attending students' perceptions and experiences of the course. In the intervention group, the percent knowledge gain for learning objectives reflecting pathophysiological mechanisms was about twice as high than that in the control groups, while all three groups showed comparable knowledge gain for learning objectives covered by mandatory courses that were held during the study period. Results of mandatory post-course assessments showed no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups. Therefore, the knowledge gain regarding learning objectives not covered by mandatory courses that was observed in the intervention group reflected the additional benefit of attending the autopsy course. Group interviews with the participants revealed gain of integrated knowledge and understanding of pathophysiological relations as important issues, while negative effects were reported infrequently. Our findings suggest that attendance of a series of autopsies fosters learning and understanding of important issues in medical education and should therefore be part of undergraduate medical curricula wherever possible. PMID:24487723

Anders, Sven; Mueller, Martina; Sperhake, Jan-Peter; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna; Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias

2014-11-01

115

Validation of Verbal Autopsy Tool for Ascertaining the Causes of Stillbirth  

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Objective To assess performance of the WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of still birth in comparison with reference standard cause of death ascertained by standardized clinical and supportive data. Methods All stillbirths at a tertiary hospital in Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recruited into study from August 2006- February 2008. The reference standard cause of death was established by two senior obstetricians within 48 hours using the ICD coding system. Verbal autopsy interviews using modified WHO tool were conducted by trained health workers within 2- 6 weeks of still birth and the cause of death was assigned by second panel of obstetricians. The performance was assessed in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Kappa. Results There were 204 still births. Of these, 80.8% of antepartum and 50.5% of intrapartum deaths were correctly diagnosed by verbal autopsy. Sensitivity of verbal autopsy was highest 68.4%, (95%CI: 46-84.6) for congenital malformation followed by obstetric complication 57.6%, (95%CI: 25-84.2). The specificity for all major causes was greater than 90%. The level of agreement was high (kappa=0.72) for anomalies and moderate (k=0.4) for all major causes of still birth, except asphyxia. Conclusion Our results suggest that verbal autopsy has reasonable validity in identifying and discriminating between causes of stillbirth in Pakistan. On the basis of these findings, we feel it has a place in resource constrained areas to inform strategic planning and mobilization of resources to attain Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24130814

Nausheen, Sidrah; Soofi, Sajid B.; Sadiq, Kamran; Habib, Atif; Turab, Ali; Memon, Zahid; Khan, M. Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Bhatti, Zaid; Ahmed, Imran; Bahl, Rajiv; Bhutta, Shireen; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

2013-01-01

116

Validity of verbal autopsy method to determine causes of death among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of providing reasonable cause specific mortality estimates in Ethiopia. However, the limited generalizability of this study due to the fact that matched verbal autopsy deaths were all in-hospital deaths in an urban center, thus results may not be generalizable to rural home deaths. Such application and refinement of existing verbal autopsy methods holds out the possibility of obtaining replicable, sustainable and internationally comparable mortality statistics of known quality. Similar validation studies need to be undertaken considering the limitation of medical records as “gold standard” since records may not be confirmed using laboratory investigations or medical technologies. The validation studies need to address child and maternal causes of death and possibly all underlying causes of death.

Misganaw Awoke

2012-08-01

117

The value of early autopsy following sudden death occuring at the workstation  

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Full Text Available The authors describe the many medico-legal pitfalls related to sudden death occurring at the workstation. One of these difficulties is the almost constant absence of a precise etiological cause of death, thereby eliminating any possibility, for the insurer or the employer, to irrefutably deny that the cause of death was totally unrelated to conditions of work. The only procedure capable of reducing the incertitude that the event was totally unrelated to work is early autopsy. After describing the different procedures possible, the authors report an experience tested in the region of Lyon, France in which the concerned parties – the courts, the institute of legal medicine and the insurer – rapidly and directly cooperated following each new case. A court-ordered autopsy was instituted every time sudden death occurred at the workplace and a copy of the report was addressed to the insurer at his demand.

Mabriez JC

2000-03-01

118

Photogrammetric documentation of regions of interest at autopsy--a pilot study  

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In this pilot study, the authors tested whether photogrammetry can replace or supplement physical measurements made during autopsies and, based on such measurements, whether virtual computer models may be applicable in forensic reconstructions. Photogrammetric and physical measurements of markers denoting wounds on five volunteers were compared. Virtual models of the volunteers were made, and the precision of the markers' locations on the models was tested. Twelve of 13 mean differences between photogrammetric and physical measurements were below 1 cm, which indicates that the photogrammetric method has a high accuracy. The precision of the markers' location on the models was somewhat less, although the method is still promising and potentially superior to the current procedures used for reconstructions. The possibility to measure any distance on a body, even after the autopsy is concluded and the corpse is no longer available, is one of the biggest benefits of photogrammetry.

Slot, Liselott; Larsen, Peter K

2014-01-01

119

Photogrammetric Documentation of Regions of Interest at Autopsy-A Pilot Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this pilot study, the authors tested whether photogrammetry can replace or supplement physical measurements made during autopsies and, based on such measurements, whether virtual computer models may be applicable in forensic reconstructions. Photogrammetric and physical measurements of markers denoting wounds on five volunteers were compared. Virtual models of the volunteers were made, and the precision of the markers' locations on the models was tested. Twelve of 13 mean differences between photogrammetric and physical measurements were below 1 cm, which indicates that the photogrammetric method has a high accuracy. The precision of the markers' location on the models was somewhat less, although the method is still promising and potentially superior to the current procedures used for reconstructions. The possibility to measure any distance on a body, even after the autopsy is concluded and the corpse is no longer available, is one of the biggest benefits of photogrammetry. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Slot, Liselott Kristina; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

2014-01-01

120

Investigating causes of perinatal mortality by verbal autopsy in Maharashtra, India  

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Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the causes and contributory factors of perinatal mortality by verbal autopsy in Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: Rural and urban areas in six districts in Maharashtra were selected by Probability proportional to size sampling. Verbal autopsies for perinatal deaths were conducted using standard tools and by visiting households; cause of death was assigned according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 using a standard algorithm. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS-11 version software. Results: A total of 83 perinatal deaths (31 stillbirths and 52 early neonatal deaths were investigated out of which cause of death for perinatal deaths could be assigned in 96.4% deaths. The leading causes of perinatal deaths were prematurity (19.3% and complications of placenta, cord and membranes (12.9% among stillbirths, while low birth weight (36% and prematurity (26% accounted for early neonatal deaths

Puri Chander

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Photogrammetric documentation of regions of interest at autopsy--a pilot study.  

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In this pilot study, the authors tested whether photogrammetry can replace or supplement physical measurements made during autopsies and, based on such measurements, whether virtual computer models may be applicable in forensic reconstructions. Photogrammetric and physical measurements of markers denoting wounds on five volunteers were compared. Virtual models of the volunteers were made, and the precision of the markers' locations on the models was tested. Twelve of 13 mean differences between photogrammetric and physical measurements were below 1 cm, which indicates that the photogrammetric method has a high accuracy. The precision of the markers' location on the models was somewhat less, although the method is still promising and potentially superior to the current procedures used for reconstructions. The possibility to measure any distance on a body, even after the autopsy is concluded and the corpse is no longer available, is one of the biggest benefits of photogrammetry. PMID:24117866

Slot, Liselott; Larsen, Peter K; Lynnerup, Niels

2014-01-01

122

Autopsy findings in a long-term survivor with glioblastoma multiforme. Case report  

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Autopsy detected no tumor tissues in a patient who died 6.5 years after the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. A 54-year-old male developed left hemiparesis one month prior to admission. Computed tomography demonstrated a cystic lesion in the right frontal region with irregular ring-like enhancement. The tumor was extensively removed together with the surrounding tissues followed by irradiation (whole brain 32.4 Gy, local 28.8 Gy), and intravenous administration of interferon-{beta}. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiform. He died of accidental head trauma 6.5 years after surgery. Autopsy of the brain detected no evidence of glioblastoma multiform. The only findings were cerebral edema and hematoma caused by head trauma, as well as histological changes due to radiation damage. This case apparently confirms the histological disappearance of tumor tissue in a long-term survivor with glioblastoma multiform. (author)

Yamada, Shozo; Endo, Yuzo; Takada, Koji; Usui, Masaaki; Hara, Mitsuru [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Takanori

1998-02-01

123

Comparisons between in vivo estimates of systemic Pu deposition and autopsy data  

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In the UK the radiochemical analyses of autopsy specimens have been undertaken following the death of 30 employees during the period 1964 - 1980 whose work has at some time brought them into contact with plutonium. These workers were routinely monitored during their lifetime and estimates made of their total body content of plutonium. Past experience has shown that the urinary plutonium content bears a marked relationship to the bone and liver deposition levels of plutonium but not to the quantities found in the lungs (1). In this paper therefore the comparisons are made between in vivo estimates of bone and liver plutonium deposition and estimates derived from both the wet and ash weights of autopsy specimens. (author)

124

Autopsy Proven Peripheral Nervous System Neurolymphomatosis Despite Negative Bilateral Sural Nerve Biopsy  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Neurolymphomatosis (NL refers to a lymphomatous infiltration of peripheral nerves associated with central nervous system (CNS or systemic lymphoma, or alternatively, neurodiagnostic evidence of nerve enhancement and/or enlargement beyond the dural sleeve in the setting of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL or systemic lymphoma. NL is a rare complication of systemic cancer with heterogeneous clinical presentations and an elusive diagnosis. Diagnosis usually requires the demonstration of infiltrating malignant lymphocytes in the peripheral nerve. Infiltration of brain parenchyma, meninges or Virchow-Robin spaces is characteristic of systemic disease at autopsy. We describe a patient presenting with biopsy negative NL affecting exclusively the peripheral nervous system at autopsy.

JoseBiller

2013-12-01

125

CASE REPORT: Papillary Adenoma of Kidney- An Incidental Autopsy Finding: Report of Two Cases  

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Full Text Available Background: Renal papillary adenoma is usually an incidental finding at autopsy with an incidence of 7% to 23%. The frequency of small papillary tumours of kidney increases with age to approximately 40% of the population over the age of 65. These tumours occur morefrequently in scarred kidneys, acquired renal cystic disease and in children with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Case history: In this report we describe renal papillary adenoma incidentally detected during autopsies of two elderly males. Gross examination of kidneyshowed two tiny subcapsular yellowish nodules in one case and single nodule with similar morphology in the other. Microscopic examination in both the cases showed a well circumscribed tumour composed of densely packed tubules and papillae lined by small cuboidal to columnar cells with rounded uniform nuclei. However there was no nuclear atypia, mitosis or necrosis.

Bhakti D. Deshmukh

2012-01-01

126

Detection of borna disease virus antigen and RNA in human autopsy brain samples from neuropsychiatric patients.  

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Borna disease virus (BDV) causes a central nervous system disease in several vertebrate species which is characterized by behavioral disturbances. Seroepidemiological data indicate an association of BDV infection with certain human mental disorders. Sclerosis of the hippocampus and astrocytosis constitute histopathological hallmarks of BDV infection in animals. Therefore, we searched for human brain autopsy cases with such histopathological features. Five of 600 cases examined were identified as having hippocampus sclerosis and astrocytosis. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization, we detected both BDV antigen and RNA in autopsy brain samples from 4 of these 5 patients, who presented with a clinical history of mental disorders involving memory loss and depression. This is the first demonstration that BDV can infect human brain tissue, possibly contributing to the pathophysiology of specific human neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:8806563

De La Torre, J C; Gonzalez-Dunia, D; Cubitt, B; Mallory, M; Mueller-Lantzsch, N; Grässer, F A; Hansen, L A; Masliah, E

1996-09-15

127

Malignant Amelanotic Melanoma of the Pleura without Primary Skin Lesion:An Autopsy Case Report  

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Full Text Available Melanoma metastasizing to the lungs is common, but primary pulmonary or pleural melanoma is extremely rare. We present an autopsy case of malignant melanoma of the pleura without primary skin lesion in a 49-year-old man. A mass found in the right chest was diagnosed as spindle cell sarcoma by antemortem fine-needle aspiration cytology. At autopsy, a yellow-white tumor located primarily in the right visceral pleura (diagnosed as an amelanotic melanoma was found to have invaded into the right lung, right parietal pleura, and right diaphragm, and to have metastasized into the left lung and visceral pleura, thyroid, and left adrenal gland. No primary site was found. The tumor cells were positive for S100 and focally positive for HMB-45, but negative for other markers. Immuno-histochemical examination for S100 and HMB-45 would thus appear to be useful for the diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma.

Nakanishi,Kuniaki

2009-12-01

128

Multifocal kaposiform hemangioendothelioma in multiple visceral organs: an autopsy of 9-day-old female baby.  

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Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a vascular tumor categorized as intermediate malignancy. We experienced an autopsy of a female baby with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. She died of systemic bleeding tendency following disseminated intravascular coagulation at the age of 9 days. At autopsy, a huge main tumor, histologically kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, was discovered in the mediastinum between the right chest cavity and pericardium. Furthermore, kaposiform hemangioendothelioma with the same histology involved the lungs, heart, liver, subserosa of cardial part of the stomach, retroperitoneum around the right adrenal gland, broad ligament of the uterus, and muscular tissue around the thyroid. To date, a few previously reported cases of multifocal kaposiform hemangioendothelioma have demonstrated locally aggressive distributions mainly in bone and soft tissues. The present case with extensive distribution including visceral organs implies that kaposiform hemangioendothelioma may have higher potential to spread than considered before. PMID:24931465

Nakaya, Takeo; Morita, Kiyoko; Kurata, Atsushi; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Igarashi, Takashi; Kuroda, Masahiko; Fukayama, Masashi

2014-08-01

129

Membrane autopsy based bio-fouling investigation of distillery spent wash RO treatment plant.  

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In this paper, a thorough investigation has been done to evaluate the effects of different pollutants on membrane performance by autopsy. Autopsy was performed on fresh and fouled reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements from a distillery spent wash treatment plant by different analyses, such as field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, to identify the cause of poor performance of an RO plant. Results obtained from the analysis of membranes indicate that a mixture of colloids and organic matters (polysaccharides and amines) along with the presence of multivalent ions (Ca, Mg, Fe and SO4) causes membrane fouling, which in turn affects membrane performance. Possible measures to improve treated effluent quality and mitigate fouling have been suggested for this particular case study. PMID:25244132

Sharma, Pinki; Joshi, Himanshu

2014-12-01

130

Perivasculitic panencephalitis with relapsing polychondritis: an autopsy case report and review of previous cases.  

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We herein report an autopsy case of relapsing polychondritis encephalitis coexisting with a Lewy body pathology and also review previous autopsy cases. A 59-year-old man exhibited a tremor of the right hand, small-steppage gait and bradykinesia. Five years later, he presented with relapsing auricular chondritis and scleritis and subsequently showed exacerbation of extrapyramidal symptoms. A histological examination revealed perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and infiltration in the small vessels, as well as loss of nerve cells and gliosis in the basal ganglia, insular gyrus and medial temporal lobe. The present case was characterized by perivasculitic panencephalitis and the coexistence of a Lewy body pathology, which may have augmented the patient's parkinsonism. PMID:24881747

Niwa, Atsushi; Okamoto, Yoko; Kondo, Takayuki; Nabatame, Hidehiko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

2014-01-01

131

Suicide in Hong Kong: A case-control psychological autopsy study  

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Background. The relative contribution of psychosocial and clinical risk factors to suicide among Chinese populations is an important issue. In Hong Kong, this issue requires vigorous examination in light of a 50% increase in suicide rate between 1997 and 2003. Method. Using a case-control psychological autopsy method, 150 suicide deceased were compared with 150 living controls matched by age and gender. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the next-of-kin of the subjects. Data were ...

Chen, Eyh; Wong, Pwc; Chan, Clw; Law, Yw; Beh, Psl; Yip, Psf; Chan, Wsc; Chan, Ssm; Chan, Kk; Cheng, Jwy; Liu, Ky

2006-01-01

132

Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital  

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Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)

133

Preserved human remains from the southern region of the North American continent: report of autopsy findings.  

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Autopsies were performed in six naturally mummified bodies from the southern area of North America. The cause of death was established with reasonable certainty in two (abdominal stab wound and sand pneumoconiosis); was somewhat speculative in one (atelectasis secondary to bronchial obstruction by an aspirated tooth); and was undetermined in three. The value of such studies is discussed, and the synergistic effect of interdisciplinary contributions is emphasized. PMID:3972406

el-Najjar, M; Aufderheide, A C; Ortner, D J

1985-03-01

134

Mesenteric volvulus in children: two autopsy cases and review of the literature  

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Small bowel mesenteric volvulus when compared with mesocolonic volvulus, have not high incidence. Two autopsy cases of small bowel mesenteric volvulus in infants, highlighting the importance of a suspicion in early recognition of this rare but potentially fatal intra-abdominal emergency are reported. We also review the literature on possible aetiologies and mechanism of small bowel mesenteric volvulus, as well as its management. (author)

135

High-speed documented experimental gunshot to a skull-brain model and radiologic virtual autopsy.  

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The authors documented and evaluated experimental gunshots to a skull-brain model with high-speed photography and subsequent radiographic examination for comparison of the morphologic findings in the model. The artificial skull was a polyurethane ball constructed in layers, with a porous diploe sandwiched between a tabula externa and a tabula interna. The brain itself was simulated with gelatin 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at the model from a distance of 10 m and documented with high-speed photography (up to 50 million frames/sec). Subsequently, a complete examination of the artificial skull was performed, including spiral computed tomography (with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructions) and classic skull autopsy. The high-speed photographs clearly showed the dynamic development of the skull fracture system from an external perspective. The subsequent radiographic examination of the entire head volume created two-dimensional reformations in any plane and three-dimensional reconstructions of the gunshot injury of the polyurethane skull-brain model, especially the wound channel and the fracture system. Thanks to the model and high-speed photographs, the dynamic development of the morphology of a gunshot wound could be documented and studied. The data from computed tomography, using two-dimensional and three-dimensional postprocessing with a perspective view, were very similar to those from classic head autopsy, but derived in a hands-off and nondestructive manner. This examination method leads the way to radiographic digital autopsy or virtual autopsy. PMID:12198345

Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Vock, Peter; Allmen, Gabriel v; Dirnhofer, Richard

2002-09-01

136

An analytical method for the determination of plutonium in autopsy samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive method for the determination of plutonium in autopsy samples is described. After a suitable chemical pretreatment of the samples the plutonium is separated by extraction chromatography with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on microporus polyethylene. After electrodeposition of plutonium the activity is counted by alpha spectroscopy. The global yield was 75-80%. The reagent blank activity was such to allow the determination of some femtocuries of plutonium

137

Association of pulmonary histopathological findings with toxicological findings in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug abuse remains a significant social problem in many countries. The aim of the study was to estimate association between pulmonary histopathological changes and results of toxicological analyses in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users. Methods. This investigation was performed in the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Belgrade, and in the Clinical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Kragujevac, from 2000 to 2004, and included 63 medicolegal autopsies of heroin or other drug consumers who suddenly died. Autopsies, postmortem toxicological examination of drugs and serological analyses of anti- HIV/HBV/HCV antibodies were performed. Results. The deceased persons were mostly male, 46/63 (73.01%, ranged in age from 19 to 49 years (mean 31 years and all were whites. Postmortem toxicological examination was performed on all of the deceased persons and drugs in the fatal range were identified in only eight of them (12.7%, in the toxic range in ten (15.87%, and in minimal concentrations in 35 (55.56% of the deceased persons. Drugs identified in the fatal, toxic or minimal range included heroin-morphine (38/53, cocaine (4/53, tramadol (3/53, and lorazepam (1/53. In the 7 remaining subjects, ethanol in combination with heroin was found in 4 cases, and diazepam in combination with heroin in 3 cases. Dominant pathomorphological changes were findings in the lung tissue. Most common histological changes observed in drug users were pulmonary edema - 55/63 (87.3%, acute alveolar hemorrhages - 49/63 (77.78%, hemosiderin-laden macrophages (siderophages - 52/63 (82,54%, and emphysematous changes - 51/63 (80,95%. Conclusion. Pulmonary edema is the frequent non-specific autopsy finding which is associated with virtually all routes of drug administration. The histopatological study is necessary to determinate a cause of death when a deceased person has the history of dependence or abouse of psychoactive drugs with negative toxicological results.

Todorovi? Miloš S.

2011-01-01

138

Genetic analysis of sudden cardiac death victims: a survey of current forensic autopsy practices.  

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Autopsy-negative sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) seen in forensic practice are most often thought to be the result of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome. Postmortem genetic analysis is recommended in such cases, but is currently performed in only a few academic centers. In order to determine actual current practice, an on-line questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of various forensic medical associations. The questions addressed routine procedures employed in cases of sudden cardiac death (autopsy ordering, macroscopic and microscopic cardiac examination, conduction tissue examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, biochemical markers, sampling and storage of material for genetic analyses, toxicological analyses, and molecular autopsy). Some questions concerned the legal and ethical aspects of genetic analyses in postmortem examinations, as well as any existing multidisciplinary collaborations in SCD cases. There were 97 respondents, mostly from European countries. Genetic testing in cases of sudden cardiac death is rarely practiced in routine forensic investigation. Approximately 60% of respondents reported not having the means to perform genetic postmortem testing and 40% do not collect adequate material to perform these investigations at a later date, despite working at university hospitals. The survey demonstrated that many of the problems involved in the adequate investigation of SCD cases are often financial in origin, due to the fact that activities in forensic medicine are often paid by and dependent on the judicial authorities. Problems also exist concerning the contact with family members and/or the family doctor, as well as the often-nonexistent collaboration with others clinicians with special expertise beneficial in the investigation of SCD cases, such as cardiologists and geneticists. This study highlights the importance in establishing guidelines for molecular autopsies in forensic medicine. PMID:20535491

Michaud, Katarzyna; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice S

2011-05-01

139

Determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue: methods and problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current methods used by the tissue analysis program at LASL for the determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue are described. Problems affecting radiochemical yield are discussed, including problems associated with sample preparation, separation of plutonium from large amounts of bone ash, and reagent contamination. The average 242Pu-tracer yield for 1800 Pu determinations is 78 +- 12%. The average 243Am-tracer yield is 85 +- 7% for 40 determinations

140

Transcriptional profiling of degraded RNA in cryopreserved and fixed tissue samples obtained at autopsy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional multiplexed gene expression methods require well preserved, intact RNA. Such specimens are difficult to acquire in clinical practice where formalin fixation is the standard procedure for processing tissue. Even when special handling methods are used to obtain frozen tissue, there may be RNA degradation; for example autopsy samples where degradation occurs both pre-mortem and during the interval between death and cryopreservation. Although specimens with partially degraded RNA can be analyzed by qRT-PCR, these analyses can only be done individually or at low levels of multiplexing and are laborious and expensive to run for large numbers of RNA targets. Methods We evaluated the ability of the cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension, and Ligation (DASL assay to provide highly multiplexed analyses of cryopreserved and formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues obtained at autopsy. Each assay provides data on 1536 targets, and can be performed on specimens with RNA fragments as small as 60 bp. Results The DASL performed accurately and consistently with cryopreserved RNA obtained at autopsy as well as with RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue that had a cryopreserved mirror image specimen with high quality RNA. In FFPE tissue where the cryopreserved mirror image specimen was of low quality the assay performed reproducibly on some but not all specimens. Conclusion The DASL assay provides reproducible results from cryopreserved specimens and many FFPE specimens obtained at autopsy. Gene expression analyses of these specimens may be especially valuable for the study of non-cancer endpoints, where surgical specimens are rarely available.

Alhasan Samir

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Autopsy report of four cases who died from Streptococcus suis infection, with a review of the literature.  

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There was an outbreak of human Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection in southwest China in 2005. The total number of documented patients was 204 and 38 of them died. Four cases were autopsied and are reported in this paper. The autopsies showed that multiple organs were involved, with a prominent injury of the lung, kidney, and intestine. The essential pathologic changes were multiple microthrombi (hyaline thrombi) formation in the capillaries of various organs and tissues, accompanied by congestion and hemorrhage. The pathogen of the disease was S. suis, serotype 2, which was confirmed by means of germ culture of the heart, blood, and tissue samples at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). The autopsy diagnosis of all four cases was septicemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The cause of death was toxic shock with multi-organ dysfunction. Combined with the epidemic features, clinical manifestations, etiological, and autopsy findings, it accorded with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). PMID:18958507

Yang, Q-P; Liu, W-P; Guo, L-X; Jiang, Y; Li, G-D; Bai, Y-Q; Li, S-H; Wu, T; Jing, H-Q

2009-05-01

142

Sepsis and meningoencephalitis due to Rhodotorula glutinis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, diagnosed at autopsy  

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Full Text Available Rhodotorula species have been reported as a causative agent of opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of sepsis and meningoencephalitis caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 20-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which was diagnosed at autopsy. The patient presented with longstanding fever. She was diagnosed with SLE after admission to the hospital and died on day 5 of the hospital stay. Autopsy was performed to confirm the presence of infection. Sepsis and meningoencephalitis due to Rhodotorula glutinis was confirmed by postmortem blood cultures and histopathological examination of biopsies taken from the brain at autopsy. Infection by Rhodotorula spp. is rare but can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts. Infections by such uncommon yeasts may often be difficult to diagnose, especially in the setting of febrile neutropenia. This report also emphasizes the value of autopsy as a powerful educational tool.

Pamidimukkala Umabala

2007-01-01

143

ABSENCE OF MUTAGENICITY IN THE URINE OF AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE: FACTORS INFLUENCING MUTAGENICITY TESTING OF URINE  

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The study examined the effect of exposure to autopsy workers to formaldehyde using urinary mutagenicity testing with Salmonella typhimurium. A matched control group was also studied. Additional studies including the recovery of histidine from urine samples, the determination of h...

144

Absent pulmonary valve syndrome: prenatal cardiac ultrasound diagnosis with autopsy correlation.  

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Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare conotruncal anomaly consisting of a severely hypoplastic pulmonary valve with annular stenosis, aneurysmal dilatation of main pulmonary artery with dilatation of one or both pulmonary artery branches, and a ventricular septal defect. Here, we report a prenatal echo diagnosis of APVS in a 27-year-old primi gravida at 20 weeks of gestation confirmed on fetal autopsy. A 'bow tie'-like hypoechoic shadow in fetal cardiac ultrasound observed by us in a modified four-chamber view was suggestive of aneurysmal dilatation of branch pulmonary arteries. The consequences of continuation of pregnancy including immediate neonatal complications and possible medical and multistaged surgical interventions were well explained. Parents opted for medical termination of pregnancy. Autopsy findings of the fetus were consistent with the prenatal echo diagnosis of APVS. The presence of patent ductus arteriosus seen in the autopsy may be the cause of severe heart failure evidenced by the abnormally large congested liver, dilated right heart chambers, and tricuspid valve annulus. We infer that the prenatal diagnosis of APVS may be possible with a high degree of accuracy with characteristic fetal echocradiographic findings such as 'bow tie'-like or 'ballooning'-like shadows observed in this case. The presence of ductus confirms definite fetal loss and the parents can be counselled accordingly. However, when the ductus is absent, decision-making is difficult as the fetus is going to survive. PMID:21896574

Philip, S; Varghese, M; Manohar, K; Cherian, K M

2011-12-01

145

Pathogenesis of Morquio A syndrome: an autopsied case reveals systemic storage disorder.  

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Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, which results in systemic accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. Accumulation of these GAGs causes characteristic features as disproportionate dwarfism associated with skeletal deformities, genu valgum, pigeon chest, joint laxity, and kyphoscoliosis. However, the pathological mechanism of systemic skeletal dysplasia and involvement of other tissues remain unanswered in the paucity of availability of an autopsied case and successive systemic analyses of multiple tissues. We report here a 20-year-old male autopsied case with MPS IVA, who developed characteristic skeletal features by the age of 1.5 years and died of acute respiratory distress syndrome five days later after occipito-C1-C2 cervical fusion. We pathohistologically analyzed postmortem tissues including trachea, lung, thyroid, humerus, aorta, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testes, bone marrow, and lumbar vertebrae. The postmortem tissues relevant with clinical findings demonstrated 1) systemic storage materials in multiple tissues beyond cartilage, 2) severely vacuolated and ballooned chondrocytes in trachea, humerus, vertebrae, and thyroid cartilage with disorganized extracellular matrix and poor ossification, 3) appearance of foam cells and macrophages in lung, aorta, heart valves, heart muscle, trachea, visceral organs, and bone marrow, and 4) storage of chondrotin-6-sulfate in aorta. This is the first autopsied case with MPS IVA whose multiple tissues have been analyzed pathohistologically and these pathological findings should provide a new insight into pathogenesis of MPS IVA. PMID:23683769

Yasuda, Eriko; Fushimi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Katsuji; Takami, Tsuyoshi; Zustin, Jozef; Patel, Pravin; Ruhnke, Kristen; Shimada, Tsutomu; Boyce, Bobbie; Kokas, Terry; Barone, Carol; Theroux, Mary; Mackenzie, William; Nagel, Barbara; Ryerse, Jan S; Orii, Kenji E; Iida, Hiroki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

2013-07-01

146

Death resulting from a mesenteric hemorrhage due to acute myeloid leukemia: An autopsy case.  

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Acute leukemia causes hemorrhage in various sites throughout the body, such as the brain parenchyma, resulting in serious complications. Here, we present an autopsy case where the patient succumbed to a ruptured mesenteric hematoma caused by acute leukemia. A 58-year-old man, without a significant past medical history, was found dead at his workplace. An external examination showed subcutaneous hemorrhage on the left upper extremity. Macroscopic autopsy findings revealed a massive hemoperitoneum (1000mL) and extensive hematoma in the mesentery. Histopathological findings showed monotonous cell proliferation not only in the mesentery, but in many organs, such as the liver, spleen, and kidney; aggregates of the infiltrating cells were also observed in the microvessels of various organs. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the infiltrating cells showed variable myeloperoxidase positivity, and the cells were strongly positive for CD68 (PG-M1). From the autopsy findings and the immunohistochemical staining, we concluded that the underlying cause of death was acute myeloid leukemia (M5). This case was not only a rare presentation of acute leukemia, but provides a lesson to forensic pathologists regarding noting underlying hematological disease, particularly when a case of massive hemorrhage of unknown etiology is encountered. PMID:25082733

Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2014-11-01

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Feasibility of liver weight estimation by postmortem computed tomography images: an autopsy study.  

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Although organ weight gives pathologists information about the pathogenesis of diseases at autopsy, the knowledge is rarely helpful in postmortem virtual autopsy by computed tomography (CT). To investigate the feasibility of liver weight estimation based on liver volume estimated from three-dimensional CT images and the specific gravity of liver, thirty cadavers who died in the University of Fukui Hospital and whose family members agreed to postmortem CT and autopsy were prospectively enrolled. Mean specific gravity of liver was 1.054 ± 0.009?g/mL (95% confidence interval: 1.0507-1.0573?g/mL). The specific gravity was positively correlated to Hounsfield unit (HU) values of less than 40 (cases with moderate to severe fatty deposition) and remained stable between 1.05 to 1.065?g/mL for HU values greater than 40 (cases with mild or no fatty change). The liver weight estimated by our formula corresponded well to the actual liver weight, and the correlation coefficient was 0.96 (P volume and the specific gravity of 1.055?g/mL was highly accurate, whereas the specific gravity should be reduced by 2%-3% in patients with an HU value less than 40 due to fatty deposition. PMID:25047502

Inai, Kunihiro; Noriki, Sakon; Kinoshita, Kazuyuki; Nishijima, Akihiko; Sakai, Toyohiko; Kimura, Hirohiko; Naiki, Hironobu

2014-07-01

148

Risk factor analysis for bone marrow histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis: an autopsy study.  

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The excessive release of inflammatory cytokines occasionally induces life-threatening hemophagocytosis referred to as hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). A similar condition, histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis (HHH), is often seen in bone marrow collected during autopsy. Unlike HPS, the pathogenesis of HHH remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a clinicopathological analysis of HHH from 70 autopsy cases at the University of Fukui Hospital. HHH was detected in 29 of 70 autopsies (41.4 %) and was significantly complicated with hematological diseases (p nucleated cells was significantly increased in HHH (p cell counts (p counts (p < 0.05) in HHH patients as compared with non-HHH patients. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators including IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly increased in HHH patients. Multivariate risk factor analysis identified hematological diseases (odds ratio (OR), 11.71), ? 15 % BM macrophages (OR, 9.42), sepsis (OR, 7.77), and high serum IL-6 levels (OR, 1.00) as independent risk factors for HHH. HHH with hypocellular BM, the most aggressive form of HHH, was recognized in 8 of 29 HHH patients and was associated with ? 25 % BM macrophages (p < 0.001), leukocytopenia (p < 0.05), and high IL-8 levels (p < 0.05). None of the HHH patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of HPS. These findings suggest that HHH is a different entity from HPS and that it preferentially develops under conditions of excessive inflammation and its associated risks, such as hematological diseases and sepsis. PMID:24852692

Inai, Kunihiro; Noriki, Sakon; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Naiki, Hironobu

2014-07-01

149

Evaluation of epithelial lesions of the bladder in an autopsy series  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the incidence of benign and malignant lesions of the bladder in forensic autopsy cases for the first time in Turkey.Materials and methods: The bladders of 125 (106 men, 19 women forensic cases who died of trauma or gunshot were obtained at autopsy. For each bladder, 3 samples were taken from the anterior wall, trigon, and posterior wall. The tissues were embedded in Paraffin, cut into 5 µm sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically for the existence of benign and malignant epithelial lesions.Results: The mean and median ages were 57 years and 58 years (range 25-86 years, respectively. None of the cases had any malignant changes, either macro- or microscopicaly. None of the bladders had epithelial dysplasia. Benign bladder lesions were detected in 36.8% of the women and 10.3% of the men. These included mucosal metaplastic changes in 6 (5.5% men and 4 (21% women, and cystitis in 5 (4.1% men and 3 (15.7% women. Of the cystitis cases, 4 were chronic, 2 were follicular, 1 was polypoid, and 1 was hemorrhagic cystitis. Conclusion: As reported in other series, no bladder cancers were detected in this study. Moreover, none of the benign epithelial lesions detected in our autopsy series showed premalignant changes.

Kadir Polat

2011-12-01

150

An autopsy case of myelofibrosis seen in a proximally expoed survivor  

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An autopsy case of myelofibrosis is reported and is literarily discussed. The patient was a 30-year-old man and was exposed to sublethal dose of radiation at 1.1 km from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion in Nagasaki Prefecture, when he was 10 months old. Serious bone marrow disturbances were suspected. About 25 years after the exposure, clinical symptoms like aplastic anemia were shown and this disease developed. Hepatosplenomegaly was not clinically found until the late period. The liver weighed 3180 g and the spleen weighed 1540 g at autopsy. Blood examination revealed low value of neutrophilic alkaline phosphatase only at the late period, and no abnormal chromosome was seen in the peripheral blood. Reticulum-like cells were not histologically found at biopsy, but were found at autopsy. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, always accompanied with bleeding, was observed not only in the spleen, the liver and the lymphnodes, but also in the dura mater, the stomach, the renal pelves and so on. It was the direct cause of death. (Kanao, N.)

151

Suicide rates in rural Tamil Nadu, South India: verbal autopsy of 39 000 deaths in 1997-98.  

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BACKGROUND: In India, death registration is not complete, especially in rural areas. Chiefly for other purposes special efforts were made to identify all deaths that occurred during 1997-98 in rural areas of one of the districts in Tamil Nadu, South India, and the verbal autopsy was done. METHODS: Trained non-medical field interviewers interviewed surviving spouses, close associates or neighbours, and wrote the verbal autopsy reports in the local language (Tamil). The reports were reviewed in...

Gajalakshmi, V.; Peto, R.

2007-01-01

152

Performance of physician-certified verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician review of a verbal autopsy (VA and completion of a death certificate remains the most widely used approach for VA analysis. This study provides new evidence about the performance of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs. The study was also designed to analyze issues related to PCVA, such as the impact of a second physician reader on the cause of death assigned, the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE, and the importance of local information for physicians reading VAs. Methods The certification was performed by 24 physicians. The assignment of VA was random and blinded. Each VA was certified by one physician. Half of the VAs were reviewed by a different physician with household recall of health care experience included. The completed death certificate was processed for automated ICD-10 coding of the underlying cause of death. PCVA was compared to gold standard cause of death assignment based on strictly defined clinical diagnostic criteria that are part of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC gold standard verbal autopsy study. Results For individual cause assignment, the overall chance-corrected concordance for PCVA against the gold standard cause of death is less than 50%, with substantial variability by cause and physician. Physicians assign the correct cause around 30% of the time without HCE, and addition of HCE improves performance in adults to 45% and slightly higher in children to 48%. Physicians estimate cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs with considerable error for adults, children, and neonates. Only for neonates for a cause list of six causes with HCE is accuracy above 0.7. In all three age groups, CSMF accuracy improves when household recall of health care experience is available. Conclusions Results show that physician coding for cause of death assignment may not be as robust as previously thought. The time and cost required to initially collect the verbal autopsies must be considered in addition to the analysis, as well as the impact of diverting physicians from servicing immediate health needs in a population to review VAs. All of these considerations highlight the importance and urgency of developing better methods to more reliably analyze past and future verbal autopsies to obtain the highest quality mortality data from populations without reliable death certification.

Flaxman Abraham D

2011-08-01

153

Validating physician-certified verbal autopsy and probabilistic modeling (InterVA approaches to verbal autopsy interpretation using hospital causes of adult deaths  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common method for determining cause of death is certification by physicians based either on available medical records, or where such data are not available, through verbal autopsy (VA. The physician-certification approach is costly and inconvenient; however, recent work shows the potential of a computer-based probabilistic model (InterVA to interpret verbal autopsy data in a more convenient, consistent, and rapid way. In this study we validate separately both physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA and the InterVA probabilistic model against hospital cause of death (HCOD in adults dying in a district hospital on the coast of Kenya. Methods Between March 2007 and June 2010, VA interviews were conducted for 145 adult deaths that occurred at Kilifi District Hospital. The VA data were reviewed by a physician and the cause of death established. A range of indicators (including age, gender, physical signs and symptoms, pregnancy status, medical history, and the circumstances of death from the VA forms were included in the InterVA for interpretation. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF, Cohen's kappa (? statistic, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were applied to compare agreement between PCVA, InterVA, and HCOD. Results HCOD, InterVA, and PCVA yielded the same top five underlying causes of adult deaths. The InterVA overestimated tuberculosis as a cause of death compared to the HCOD. On the other hand, PCVA overestimated diabetes. Overall, CSMF for the five major cause groups by the InterVA, PCVA, and HCOD were 70%, 65%, and 60%, respectively. PCVA versus HCOD yielded a higher kappa value (? = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48, 0.54 than the InterVA versus HCOD which yielded a kappa (? value of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.38. Overall, (? agreement across the three methods was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.48. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.82 for InterVA and 0.88 for PCVA. The observed sensitivities and specificities across the five major causes of death varied from 43% to 100% and 87% to 99%, respectively, for the InterVA/PCVA against the HCOD. Conclusion Both the InterVA and PCVA compared well with the HCOD at a population level and determined the top five underlying causes of death in the rural community of Kilifi. We hope that our study, albeit small, provides new and useful data that will stimulate further definitive work on methods of interpreting VA data.

Tsofa Benjamin

2011-08-01

154

Autopsy findings in 40 cases of esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy  

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We analyzed local control, lymph node metastases and distant metastases for autopsy cases of esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy alone. Thirty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma, one had adenosquamous carcinoma and one had undifferentiated carcinoma. Sixteen patients received a total dose less than 60 Gy and 24 received 60 Gy or more. The 1-year, 3-year, 5-year overall survival rates by Kaplan-Meier method were 45.8%, 16.7%, 8.3%, respectively. Four patients (10%) were free of tumors, and another six (15%) had no primary tumor but metastases. Thirty patients had persistent or recurrent primary tumors. Local tumor control rates were 25% for all patients and 34% for patients who survived more than 3 months and 33% for patients irradiated with 60 Gy or more. Tumor type, tumor length and survival times were significantly related with tumor control rates. Perforations into neighboring organs were observed in eighteen patients (45%); 12 were perforated into respiratory systems, 4 into vascular systems, 1 into the mediastinum and 1 into the pleural cavity. Thirty-two patients (80%) had lymph node metastases. Twenty-seven patients (68%) had distant metastases; 20 in the lung, 19 in the liver, 10 in the stomach, 8 in the pancreas and the adrenal gland, 7 in the pleura, 6 in the bone and the heart and the diaphragm. Concurrent double cancer was observed at autopsy in six patients; 2 early gastric cancers, 2 latent hepatomas, 1 lung cancer, 1 latent thyroid cancer. Three patients had a history of resection of other cancer before radiation therapy to esophageal cancer; 2 had gastric cancer and 1 had submandibular cancer. One patient who had another esophageal cancer apart from the first esophageal cancer received radiation therapy 12 years ago. In conclusion, the local control rate was 33% for autopsy cases of esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy of 60 Gy or more. (J.P.N.).

Yamakawa, Michitaka; Shiojima, Kazumi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

1995-09-01

155

Autopsy findings in 40 cases of esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy  

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We analyzed local control, lymph node metastases and distant metastases for autopsy cases of esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy alone. Thirty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma, one had adenosquamous carcinoma and one had undifferentiated carcinoma. Sixteen patients received a total dose less than 60 Gy and 24 received 60 Gy or more. The 1-year, 3-year, 5-year overall survival rates by Kaplan-Meier method were 45.8%, 16.7%, 8.3%, respectively. Four patients (10%) were free of tumors, and another six (15%) had no primary tumor but metastases. Thirty patients had persistent or recurrent primary tumors. Local tumor control rates were 25% for all patients and 34% for patients who survived more than 3 months and 33% for patients irradiated with 60 Gy or more. Tumor type, tumor length and survival times were significantly related with tumor control rates. Perforations into neighboring organs were observed in eighteen patients (45%); 12 were perforated into respiratory systems, 4 into vascular systems, 1 into the mediastinum and 1 into the pleural cavity. Thirty-two patients (80%) had lymph node metastases. Twenty-seven patients (68%) had distant metastases; 20 in the lung, 19 in the liver, 10 in the stomach, 8 in the pancreas and the adrenal gland, 7 in the pleura, 6 in the bone and the heart and the diaphragm. Concurrent double cancer was observed at autopsy in six patients; 2 early gastric cancers, 2 latent hepatomas, 1 lung cancer, 1 latent thyroid cancer. Three patients had a history of resection of other cancer before radiation therapy to esophageal cancer; 2 had gastric cancer and 1 had submandibular cancer. One patient who had another esophageal cancer apart from the first esophageal cancer received radiation therapy 12 years ago. In conclusion, the local control rate was 33% for autopsy cases of esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy of 60 Gy or more. (J.P.N.)

156

French retrospective multicentric study of neonatal hemochromatosis: importance of autopsy and autoimmune maternal manifestations.  

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Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare disease that causes fetal loss and neonatal death in the 1st weeks of life and is one of the most common causes of liver failure in the neonate. The diagnosis is mostly made retrospectively, based on histopathologic features of severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic and extrahepatic siderosis. Several etiologies may underlie this phenotype, including a recently hypothesized gestational alloimmune disease. Fifty-one cases of liver failure with intrahepatic siderosis in fetuses and neonates were analyzed retrospectively. Maternal and infant data were collected from hospitalization and autopsy reports. All available slides were reviewed independently by 3 pathologists. Immunologic studies were performed on maternal sera collected immediately after delivery. The diagnosis of neonatal haemochromatosis was retained in 33 cases, including 1 case with Down syndrome and 1 case with myofibromas. Liver siderosis was inversely proportional to fibrosis progression. In fetuses, iron storage was more frequent in the thyroid than in the pancreas. Perls staining in labial salivary glands was positive in 1 of 5 cases. Abnormal low signal intensity by magnetic resonance imaging was detected in the pancreas in 2 of 7 cases. Renal tubular dysgenesis was observed in 7 of 23 autopsy cases. Chronic villitis was seen in 7 of 15 placentas. Half of the mothers presented with an autoimmune background and/or autoantibodies in their sera. Our work highlights the importance of autopsy in cases of neonatal hemochromatosis and marshals additional data in support of the hypothesis that neonatal hemochromatosis could reflect maternal immune system dysregulation. PMID:22901025

Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Heissat, Sophie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Fabre, Monique; Baruteau, Julien; Broue, Pierre; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Debray, Dominique; Debiec, Hanna; Ronco, Pierre; Guigonis, Vincent

2012-01-01

157

Frequency of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Coronary Arteries of Autopsy Specimens in Isfahan Forensic Medicine Center  

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Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries and myocardial infarction are the most common fatal cardiac diseases discovered in autopsies. The fact that formation of these lesions are preventable through exact health care programs necessitates collecting baseline information on the prevalence of such lesions as performed in this study. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, from October 2002 to November 2003, during a randomly chosen month of every season, the hearts of autopsy specimens aging 15-50 years referred to Isfahan forensic center (204 specimens were dissected and fixed in formalin 10% and coronary arteries were sectioned. In case of a definite or suspicious lesion, microscopic slides were also prepared. Otherwise, 3 random slides from each branch of coronary arteries were studied by a pathologist. Then the percentage of vessel obstruction was detected and stages of lesions were classified as fibrotic and complicated. Results: Frequency of atherosclerotic lesions in 204 studied specimens (182 male and 22 female was 29.4%. Atheromatous plaques were observed in 31.3% of the male and 13.6% of the female specimens. The most frequent involved branches were left anterior descending, right coronary, left main and left circumflex arteries respectively. Relative frequency of lesion increased with age. Conclusion: The frequency of atherosclerotic lesions in this study is comparable to other studies. The difference in relative frequency of atheromatous plaques in both sexes is expectable, probably due to low number of studied women or the low prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions among young women. Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery, Autopsy

J Golshahi

2005-01-01

158

Cardiovascular involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: An autopsy study of 27 patients in India  

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Full Text Available Background: Although cardiovascular disease (CVD is recognized as a leading cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in western countries, there is hardly any data regarding Indian subjects with SLE. Aims: To determine the incidence of cardiac abnormalities and vascular lesions at autopsy and to assess their contribution to the mortality in patients with SLE Settings and Design: Retrospective retrieval of reports of autopsies performed on 35 patients with SLE over a 11 year period and analysis of 27 cases with cardiac and/or vascular lesions. Materials and Methods: Gross and microscopic features in 27 autopsies were analyzed with special attention to the heart and the vasculature of all organs. Findings were correlated with clinical features and ante-mortem investigations. Their contribution towards mortality was assessed. Results: Valvar lesions were the commonest cardiac lesions noted with non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in nine (33.33%, valvar thickening in two (7.41%, Libman-Sacks endocarditis and infective endocarditis in one (3.70% each. Myocarditis and myocardial scarring were seen in 10 (37.03% and seven (25.92% cases, respectively. Fibrinous pericarditis was noted in seven (25.92%. Thromboses/ embolism, vasculitis and severe coronary atherosclerosis were seen in nine (33.33%, five (18.52% and one (3.70% subjects, respectively. Renal disease [13, 48.14%] and cardiovascular manifestations [8, 29.62%] were the leading causes of death in our patient population. Conclusion: CVD contributes significantly to the mortality in patients with SLE in India. It is second only to renal disease in this regard

Panchal L

2006-01-01

159

Cause of death among Ghanaian adolescents in Accra using autopsy data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on adolescent mortality particularly from developing countries with unreliable death registration systems. This calls for the use of other sources of data to ascertain cause of adolescent mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the causes of death among Ghanaian adolescents 10 to 19 years in Accra, Ghana utilizing data from autopsies conducted in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH. Findings Out of the 14,034 autopsies carried out from 2001 to 2003 in KBTH, 7% were among adolescents. Of the 882 deaths among adolescents analyzed, 402 (45.6% were females. There were 365 (41.4% deaths from communicable disease, pregnancy related conditions and nutritional disorders. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 362 (41% cases and the rest were attributable to injuries and external causes of morbidity and mortality. Intestinal infectious diseases and lower respiratory tract infections were the most common communicable causes of death collectively accounting for 20.5% of total deaths. Death from blood diseases was the largest (8.5% among the non-communicable conditions followed by neoplasms (7%. Males were more susceptible to injuries than females (?2 = 13.45, p = .000. At least five out of ten specific causes of death were as a result of infections with pneumonia and typhoid being the most common. Sickle cell disease was among the top three specific causes of death. Among the females, 27 deaths (6.7% were pregnancy related with most of them being as a result of abortion. Conclusions The autopsy data from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital can serve as a useful source of information on adolescent mortality. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases accounted for most deaths highlighting the need for health care providers to avoid complacency in their management of adolescents presenting with these diseases.

Tettey Yao

2011-09-01

160

Massive CNS monocytic infiltration at autopsy in an alemtuzumab-treated patient with NMO  

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Objectives: To describe the clinical course and neuropathology at autopsy of a patient with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) treated with alemtuzumab. Methods: Case report. Results: A 61-year-old woman with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibody seropositive NMO had 10 clinical relapses in 4 years despite treatment with multiple immunosuppressive therapies. Alemtuzumab was administered and was redosed 15 months later. For the first 19 months after the initial alemtuzumab infusion, the patient did not experience discrete clinical relapses or have evidence of abnormally enhancing lesions on brain or spinal cord MRI. However, she experienced insidiously progressive nausea, vomiting, and vision loss, and her brain MRI revealed marked extension of cortical, subcortical, and brainstem T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities. She died 20 months after the initial alemtuzumab infusion. Acute, subacute, and chronic demyelinating lesions were found at autopsy. Many of the lesions showed marked macrophage infiltration with a paucity of lymphocytes. Conclusions: Following alemtuzumab treatment, there appeared to be ongoing innate immune activation associated with tissue destruction that correlated with nonenhancing T2/FLAIR hyperintensities on MRI. We interpret the cessation of clinical relapses, absence of contrast-enhancing lesions, and scarcity of lymphocytes at autopsy to be indicative of suppression of adaptive immunity by alemtuzumab. This case illustrates that progressive worsening in NMO can occur as a consequence of tissue injury associated with monocytic infiltration. This observation may be relevant to multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as NMO and might explain why in previous studies of secondary progressive MS alemtuzumab did not seem to inhibit disability progression despite a dramatic decline in contrast-enhancing lesions. PMID:25340086

Gelfand, Jeffrey M.; Cotter, Jennifer; Klingman, Jeffrey; Huang, Eric J.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Brain Autopsy  

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... the clinician to do a better job of interpreting the information they gather from these tests-and ... on file and have an additional procedure for telephone authorization at the time of death. Select a ...

162

Estudo sobre a contribuição da autópsia como método diagnóstico / Study on the contribution of the autopsy as a diagnostic tool  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: As taxas hospitalares de autópsias vêm diminuindo mundialmente, atingindo níveis críticos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG) no que concerne a autópsias não-perinatais. OBJETIVO: Verificar se houve diminuição da relevância da autópsia no HC-UFMG. M [...] ETODOLOGIA: Realizou-se estudo comparativo entre diagnósticos clínicos e post mortem, estabelecendo taxas de discordância com impacto terapêutico ou prognóstico em duas amostras aleatórias de 80 autópsias realizadas no HC-UFMG nos anos 1970 e outras 80 nos anos 1990, incluindo procedimentos perinatais e não-perinatais. RESULTADOS: Autópsias não-perinatais (adultos e crianças) predominaram na década de 1970. As perinatais (natimortos e neomortos) predominaram na década de 1990, com discordâncias em 56% dos casos. Discordâncias parciais, com correta classificação de malformações congênitas pela autópsia, foram as mais frequentes. Não houve discordâncias na maioria das autópsias de crianças na década de 1970; entretanto, a maioria destas na amostra da década de 1990 revelou discordâncias. Em relação aos adultos, a frequência de erros diagnósticos não apresentou alterações significativas entre as décadas de 1970 (68%) e 1990 (57%). Infecções bacterianas e tromboembolismo pulmonar constituíram frequentes condições não diagnosticadas clinicamente na década de 1970; nos anos 90, os diagnósticos não formulados em vida formaram grupo heterogêneo de doenças. CONCLUSÃO: A autópsia permanece útil como método diagnóstico, apesar de restritamente utilizada na atualidade. É necessária elevação das taxas de autópsias não-perinatas para evitar os efeitos deletérios de sua ausência no ensino, na pesquisa e no controle de qualidade da assistência médica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Hospital autopsy rates have declined worldwide and non-perinatal autopsies have reached extremely low numbers at the University Hospital of Federal University of Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG). OBJECTIVES: To determine if there has been a decrease in the relevance of autopsy at HC-UFMG. METHODS: [...] A comparative study between clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings was conducted, establishing discrepancy rates with therapeutic or prognostic impact on two random samples from 80 autopsies performed at HC-UFMG in the mid 1970’s and 80 autopsies in the 1990’s, both including perinatal and non-perinatal procedures. RESULTS: Non-perinatal (adult and pediatric) autopsies predominated in the 1970’s. Perinatal autopsies (stillbirth and neonatal mortality) predominated in the 1990’s, with a discrepancy rate of 56%. Partial discrepancies, with correct classification of congenital malformations by autopsy, were the most frequent. There were no discrepancies in most pediatric autopsies from the 1970’s. However, most pediatric autopsies from the 1990’s revealed discrepancies. As to the adults, the frequency of diagnostic errors did not change significantly from 1970’s (68%) to 1990’s (57%). Bacterial infections and pulmonary embolism were common conditions that were not clinically diagnosed in the 1970’s; in the 1990s, the post mortem diagnoses comprised a heterogeneous group of diseases. CONCLUSION: Autopsies remain as a useful diagnostic tool in spite of its restricted use currently. The rates of non-perinatal autopsies need urgent improving in order to avoid deleterious effects on medical education, research and quality control of medical care.

Daniel Ribeiro, Moreira; Ana Maria Arruda, Lana; Pérsio, Godoy.

2009-06-01

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Autopsy findings after treatment of an advanced upper jaw carcinoma with combined radiotherapy and surgical therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Case report of a 44 year old patient with an invasive partially keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma which broke into the middle base of the skull and penetrated into the brain. By combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy a surgical treatment of the originally extensive primary tumor became possible. Histologically no cancer tissue was found in the resected parts. 2 1/2 years later the patient died from pneumonia. The autopsy revealed a 'restitutio ad integrum' of the skull and brain which according to several computertomographies were invaded by the tumor. (Author)

164

Different fractionation schemes tested by histological examination of autopsy specimens from lung cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological effects of different fractionation schemes have been evaluated by the histological examination of bronchial carcinomas removed at operation or autopsy following radiotherapy. Radiation was given in daily, small fractions (200 cGy (rad)), large fractions (600 cGy (rad)) every fifth day, or a single high dose followed by daily low-dose treatment. The highest proportion of tumours free of viable cells was found in patients who had received small daily fractions in both operable and inoperable tumours. A hypothesis is put forward to explain this apparent change in radio-sensitivity with different fractionation schemes. (author)

165

A Moessbauer-effect study of autopsied lung tissue of asbestos workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 57Fe Moessbauer-effect study of autopsied lung tissue from Canadian asbestos mine workers is presented. The spectra typically show large quantities of iron storage protein. This exhibits a quadrupole-split doublet at room temperature and both a doublet and a Zeeman-split sextet at 4.2 K, due to a distribution of particle sizes. A comparison is made with Moessbauer spectra of lung tissue from an individual not occupationally exposed to respirable asbestos, and with spectra of respirable chrysotile asbestos taken from Canadian mines. (author)

166

A Novel Method of Macropathologic and Arteriographic Examination of Carotid Specimens Obtained from Autopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty carotid bifurcations were examined. During autopsy, carotid bifurcations were removed in toto. Unfixed carotids were ligated and cannulated for injection of an angiographic contrast medium followed by injection of a tissue-embedding medium at physiologic pressure and temperature. The carotid bifurcation was frozen and cut manually in 3-mm cross-sections. Photographs were then taken of every slice. Angiography, filling with tissue-embedding material, and sectioning were successful in all cases. In the macropathologic sections, the extent, configuration and location of atherosclerotic lesions could be identified

167

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

1975-01-01

168

Organochlorine residues and autopsy data from bald eagles 1966-68  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-nine bald eagles found moribund or dead in 25 States during 1966-68 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDE were detected in all samples of eagle carcasses; residues of dieldrin were detected in 68 and residues of DDD in 64; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and DCBP were detected less frequently. Eight specimens had levels of dieldrin in the brain within the lethal range, and another probably died of DDT poisoning. Autopsy revealed that illegal shooting was the most frequent cause of mortality of these eagles; electrocution, impact injuries, probable lead poisoning, and infectious avian diseases were other causes of mortality.

Mulhern, B.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Lamont, T.G.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Bagley, G.E.; Prouty, R.M.

1970-01-01

169

Concordancia entre el diagnóstico clínico y el patológico por necropsias / Clinico-pathological concordance at autopsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia entre diagnósticos clínicos y patológicos con base en los resultados de necropsias. Material y métodos. Se revisaron 67 protocolos de necropsia y expedientes clínicos de niños y adultos del servicio de patología del Centro de Especialidades Médicas del Estado de [...] Veracruz Doctor Rafael Lucio, durante 1995 y 1996. Se obtuvieron las frecuencias simples de las variables de estudio, y la concordancia se calculó con el estadístico kappa simple. Resultados. En general la cifra de necropsias fue de 10.5%. Correspondió a la población infantil la mayor frecuencia (17.5%). El 59% de diagnósticos clínicos en niños y el 57% en adultos presentaron algún tipo de error La concordancia del diagnóstico principal ante y postmortem fue de 26% (infantes) y 41% (adultos). Conclusiones. La alta cifra de errores diagnósticos y la consecuente baja concordancia clínicopatológica apoyan el hecho de que, a pesar del avance tecnológico en los procedimientos diagnósticos, es necesario realizar necropsias con el fin de documentar de manera más definitiva el control de calidad del ejercicio de la medicina. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the degree of concordance between clinical and autopsy diagnosis. Material and methods. The records of 67 autopsies and clinical files of children and adults, comprising the years 1995 to 1996, from a third level hospital in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, were revised. The co [...] ncordance score was calculated with the statistical kappa. Results. In general, the rate of autopsy was 10.5%, with higher frequency for children (17.5%). In children, 59% of clinical diagnoses revealed mistakes and in adults, 57%. The degree of agreement in the underlying cause ante and postmortem was 6% in children and 41% in adults. Conclusions The high rate of diagnostic error and low concordance score between clinical and autopsy diagnosis strongly suggests that, in spite of increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques, the necessity of postmortem studies to control the level of medical practice is evident.

EDITH, VALDEZ-MARTÍNEZ; ERNESTO, ARROYO-LUNAGÓMEZ; LUIS, LANDERO-LÓPEZ.

1998-01-01

170

Random forests for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-coded verbal autopsy (CCVA is a promising alternative to the standard approach of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA, because of its high speed, low cost, and reliability. This study introduces a new CCVA technique and validates its performance using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 verbal autopsies (VAs. Methods The Random Forest (RF Method from machine learning (ML was adapted to predict cause of death by training random forests to distinguish between each pair of causes, and then combining the results through a novel ranking technique. We assessed quality of the new method at the individual level using chance-corrected concordance and at the population level using cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression. We also compared the quality of RF to PCVA for all of these metrics. We performed this analysis separately for adult, child, and neonatal VAs. We also assessed the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE. Results For all metrics, for all settings, RF was as good as or better than PCVA, with the exception of a nonsignificantly lower CSMF accuracy for neonates with HCE information. With HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 3.4 percentage points higher for adults, 3.2 percentage points higher for children, and 1.6 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was 0.097 higher for adults, 0.097 higher for children, and 0.007 lower for neonates. Without HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 8.1 percentage points higher than PCVA for adults, 10.2 percentage points higher for children, and 5.9 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was higher for RF by 0.102 for adults, 0.131 for children, and 0.025 for neonates. Conclusions We found that our RF Method outperformed the PCVA method in terms of chance-corrected concordance and CSMF accuracy for adult and child VA with and without HCE and for neonatal VA without HCE. It is also preferable to PCVA in terms of time and cost. Therefore, we recommend it as the technique of choice for analyzing past and current verbal autopsies.

James Spencer L

2011-08-01

171

Memories of an Autopsy: The Effects of Stress Exposure on Suggestibility for a Stressful Event  

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Full Text Available The current study examined the effects of stressful life events on memory for a stressful event. Two groups ofcollege students (N = 61 were formed for analysis based on the presence or absence of particular stressful lifeevents. Participants then viewed a graphic video depicting an autopsy, and received a memory interview fourdays later. Results showed similar group performance on correctly leading questions. However, participants inthe Specific Stressor-Exposed group were less suggestible to misleading questions than their SpecificStressor-Absent counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of stress sensitization theory and cognitiveprocessing models.

Elisa Krackow

2013-02-01

172

Ebstein?s anomaly--an autopsy study of 28 cases.  

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Full Text Available Twenty eight autopsy specimens of Ebstein?s anomaly were studied in order to evaluate the morphologic features of the abnormal tricuspid valve. All cases showed marked dilatation of the original tricuspid annulus, a normally positioned anterior leaflet and variable downward displacement of the posterior and septal leaflets. Sixteen cases showed a very large anterior leaflet. All three leaflets showed dysplastic features and a wide range of anatomic abnormalities in the valve and valve apparatus. A thin walled atrialised right ventricle was present in nine cases. Associated cardiac anomalies were seen in 21 cases, the commonest being an atrial septal defect (17 cases.

Madiwale C

1997-01-01

173

Concordancia entre el diagnóstico clínico y el patológico por necropsias / Clinico-pathological concordance at autopsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia entre diagnósticos clínicos y patológicos con base en los resultados de necropsias. Material y métodos. Se revisaron 67 protocolos de necropsia y expedientes clínicos de niños y adultos del servicio de patología del Centro de Especialidades Médicas del Estado de [...] Veracruz Doctor Rafael Lucio, durante 1995 y 1996. Se obtuvieron las frecuencias simples de las variables de estudio, y la concordancia se calculó con el estadístico kappa simple. Resultados. En general la cifra de necropsias fue de 10.5%. Correspondió a la población infantil la mayor frecuencia (17.5%). El 59% de diagnósticos clínicos en niños y el 57% en adultos presentaron algún tipo de error La concordancia del diagnóstico principal ante y postmortem fue de 26% (infantes) y 41% (adultos). Conclusiones. La alta cifra de errores diagnósticos y la consecuente baja concordancia clínicopatológica apoyan el hecho de que, a pesar del avance tecnológico en los procedimientos diagnósticos, es necesario realizar necropsias con el fin de documentar de manera más definitiva el control de calidad del ejercicio de la medicina. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the degree of concordance between clinical and autopsy diagnosis. Material and methods. The records of 67 autopsies and clinical files of children and adults, comprising the years 1995 to 1996, from a third level hospital in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, were revised. The co [...] ncordance score was calculated with the statistical kappa. Results. In general, the rate of autopsy was 10.5%, with higher frequency for children (17.5%). In children, 59% of clinical diagnoses revealed mistakes and in adults, 57%. The degree of agreement in the underlying cause ante and postmortem was 6% in children and 41% in adults. Conclusions The high rate of diagnostic error and low concordance score between clinical and autopsy diagnosis strongly suggests that, in spite of increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques, the necessity of postmortem studies to control the level of medical practice is evident.

EDITH, VALDEZ-MARTÍNEZ; ERNESTO, ARROYO-LUNAGÓMEZ; LUIS, LANDERO-LÓPEZ.

174

Detection of pathological zinc accumulation in neurons: methods for autopsy, biopsy, and cultured tissue  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It has been repeatedly shown that synaptically released zinc contributes to excitotoxic neuronal injury in ischemia, epilepsy, and mechanical head trauma. Such zinc-induced injury leaves an unmistakable "footprint" in the injured neurons, allowing an easy and unambiguous postmortem diagnosis. This footprint is the presence of weakly bound, histochemically reactive zinc in the cytoplasm of the perikaryon and proximal dendrites. Such staining appears to be a necessary and sufficient marker for zinc-induced neuronal injury. Here we show how to prepare and stain tissue from biopsy, autopsy, or experimental animal sources for maximal contrast and visibility of zinc-injured neurons.

Suh, S W; Listiack, K

1999-01-01

175

Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths. Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of comparative performance, 500 test-train datasets were created from the universe of cases, covering a range of cause-specific compositions. Conclusions This unique, robust validation dataset will allow scholars to evaluate the performance of different verbal autopsy analytic methods as well as instrument design. This dataset can be used to inform the implementation of verbal autopsies to more reliably ascertain cause of death in national health information systems.

Ohno Summer

2011-08-01

176

Histopathological change of the metastatic bone marrow. Response for radio- and combination chemotherapy at autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the histopathologic therapeutic effects in metastatic bone marrow for various therapy in cancer patients. Autopsy cases at Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, mainly cancer of breast, stomach, lung and prostate examined radiotherapy (28-60 Gy) and chemotherapy and/or endocrine chemotherapy (medroxyprogesterone acetate, tamoxifen). Histological evaluation of effects for radio-and chemotherapy have been criteria of UICC and criteria for the evaluation of the clinical and pathological effects by Japan Society for Cancer Therapy. The precise effects for various therapy is difficult to measure objectively in metastatic bone. Histopathologic changes of metastatic bone marrow for radiotherapy revealed decrease and degeneration of tumor cells - swelling, vacuoles of cytoplasm and nuclei, bizarre and giant multinucleated giant cells etc. Stromal reaction was found postnecrotic fresh and/or old granulation-fibrosis and hyalinization, woven bone formation and fatty marrow. Systemic therapy of breast cancer revealed stromal fibrosis and chondroid ossification more than other tumors and therapy. Morphological features of metastatic bone marrow at autopsy cases may be necessary from viewpoint of therapeutic effects. (author)

177

Histopathological change of the metastatic bone marrow. Response for radio- and combination chemotherapy at autopsy cases  

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The purpose of this study was to determine the histopathologic therapeutic effects in metastatic bone marrow for various therapy in cancer patients. Autopsy cases at Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, mainly cancer of breast, stomach, lung and prostate examined radiotherapy (28-60 Gy) and chemotherapy and/or endocrine chemotherapy (medroxyprogesterone acetate, tamoxifen). Histological evaluation of effects for radio-and chemotherapy have been criteria of UICC and criteria for the evaluation of the clinical and pathological effects by Japan Society for Cancer Therapy. The precise effects for various therapy is difficult to measure objectively in metastatic bone. Histopathologic changes of metastatic bone marrow for radiotherapy revealed decrease and degeneration of tumor cells - swelling, vacuoles of cytoplasm and nuclei, bizarre and giant multinucleated giant cells etc. Stromal reaction was found postnecrotic fresh and/or old granulation-fibrosis and hyalinization, woven bone formation and fatty marrow. Systemic therapy of breast cancer revealed stromal fibrosis and chondroid ossification more than other tumors and therapy. Morphological features of metastatic bone marrow at autopsy cases may be necessary from viewpoint of therapeutic effects. (author)

Moriwaki, Shousuke; Mandai, Kouichi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Saeki, Hideyuki; Ohsumi, Syozo [Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan)

2002-07-01

178

Cardiovascular Damage in Alzheimer Disease: Autopsy Findings From the Bryan ADRC  

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Full Text Available Autopsy information on cardiovascular damage was investigated for pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD patients (n = 84 and non-AD control patients (n = 60 . The 51 relevant items were entered into a grade-of-membership model to describe vascular damage in AD. Five latent groups were identified “I: early-onset AD,” “II: controls, cancer,” “III: controls, extensive atherosclerosis,” “IV: late-onset AD, male,” and “V: late-onset AD, female.” Expectedly, Groups IV and V had elevated APOE ϵ 4 frequency. Unexpectedly, there was limited atherosclerosis and frequent myocardial valve and ventricular damage. The findings do not indicate a strong relationship between atherosclerosis and AD, although both are associated with the APOE ϵ 4 . Instead, autopsy findings of extensive atherosclerosis were associated with possible, not probable or definite AD, and premature death. They are consistent with the hypothesis that brain hypoperfusion contributes to dementia, possibly to AD pathogenesis, and raise the possibility that the APOE allele ϵ 4 contributes directly to heart valve and myocardial damage.

Corder Elizabeth H.

2005-01-01

179

Septicemia as a cause of death in burns: an autopsy study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In burn victims, invasion by the bacteria is not unexpected, despite advances in antibiotics, and it has been reported that in the absence of topical therapy, the superficial areas of burn wound contain up to 100 million organisms per gram of tissue within 48h following the injury. We examined the autopsy reports of 334 cases who died because of complicated burns and who underwent medico-legal autopsy during a period of 5 years to study the rate of infection/sepsis. It was observed that in 65% of fatal burn cases, septicemia was the cause of death. Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Klebsiella sp. were the most common organism, isolated either singly or in combination in 29% and 28% cases, respectively. High mortality from burns in young married women has been recognized as an alarming and contentious problem in India, particularly among the low socio-economic groups. We found that the females aged 21-25 were the most common victims accounting for 37% of burn fatalities due to septicemia. It was concluded that to carry out periodic review of patterns of isolation and susceptibility profiles of microorganisms infecting burn wounds should be a routine in all burn units. In view of the limited resources of developing countries, we recommend the use of available scoring systems to estimate burn outcome so that the best care can be directed to those who have a better chance of improvement. PMID:16797127

Sharma, B R; Harish, D; Singh, Virendar Pal; Bangar, Sumedha

2006-08-01

180

“CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE ON AUTOPSY”: A FIVE YEARS CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY (NOVEMBER-2007 TO OCTOBER-2012  

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Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was done to investigate the cause of death due to coronary artery pathology found on autopsies received between November 2007 to October 2012. The study was conducted at the Histopathology laboratory, Pathology Department, P. D. U. Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.MethodsIn the present study, total 350 postmortem cases with coronary artery specimen received from Saurashtra region(formed by seven districts of Gujarat,India from November 2008 to October 2012 were considered. Histopathological sectioning of these specimens was done & slides were prepared & stained by Hematoxylin & Eosin stains, examined microscopically for coronary artery pathology. Each and every autopsy cases received irrespective of natural, unnatural or sudden death were considered for this study. Patients’ relatives were approached and detailed history about the life style, habit & clinical complains of the patient was noted for further evaluation.ResultsA direct relationship was observed between death due to coronary artery disease and personal history including risk factors like sedentary life style, smoking, alcohol, obesity, diabetes & also with particular age groups viz. 45-65 years.ConclusionsOur study confirms that coronary artery diseases are more common among the population with sedentary life style, habit of smoking, alcohol & obesity. Also relationships with diabetes & hypertension were observed. These signify, increasing incidence of coronary artery diseases with modernization & adaptation of western lifestyle in the developing countries as emphasized by this study in our study population. These informations are valuable in policy formation for the control of coronary as artery diseases.

Dr Kalpesh G Rathod

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Inhalant deaths in South Australia: a 20-year retrospective autopsy study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year retrospective study of inhalant deaths in South Australia, autopsied at Forensic Science SA, was undertaken from January 1983 to December 2002. Thirty-nine cases were identified from an autopsy pool of 18,880 cases, with a male to female ratio of 12:1. Sixty-four percent of the victims (N = 25) died during voluntary inhalation of volatile substances and 28% (N = 11) committed suicide utilizing a volatile substance or gas. The remaining 3 cases involved a workplace accident (N = 1) and 2 cases of autoerotic death where inhalants were being used to augment solitary sexual activity. The mean age of the 28 victims of accidental inhalant death of 21 years (range, 13-45 years) was considerably less than that of the 11 suicide victims of 31.5 years (range, 17-48 years). No homicides were found. Approximately one quarter of the victims were Aboriginal (N = 11), 10 of whom had died as a result of gasoline inhalation ("petrol sniffing"). Other common substances of abuse were aliphatic hydrocarbons such as butane. The study has shown that those most at risk for accidental or suicidal inhalant deaths were young males, with 92% of victims overall being male, and with 77% of victims being under 31 years of age. Gasoline inhalation remains a significant problem in Aboriginal communities in South Australia. PMID:18043019

Wick, Regula; Gilbert, John D; Felgate, Peter; Byard, Roger W

2007-12-01

182

A rare case of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma: clinicopathological correlation with autopsy confirmation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare T lymphoproliferative disorder which is etiologically linked with human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 is endemic in Japan, Caribbean and Africa. The highest incidence of ATLL is in Japan although sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere in the world. We describe a case of ATLL with an unusual presentation with clinic-pathological correlation and autopsy confirmation. A 56 year old male was referred to Command Hospital (Southern Command) for an incidental finding of lymphocytosis on a routine Hemogram. Clinical examination did not reveal hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, jaundice or skin lesions. Laboratory investigations showed lymphocytosis with predominance of atypical lymphomonocytoid cells. Immunophenotyping of the bone marrow mononuclear cells showed positivity for CD45, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5 and negative for CD7, CD8, CD13, CD33, CD19, which is characteristic of ATLL phenotype. Clonality was confirmed by PCR for TCR gene rearrangement on post mortem tissue. He succumbed to his illness after 40 days of initial presentation and 16 days of being diagnosed as ATLL. Here, we discuss the pathogenesis and characteristics of ATLL with clinico-pathological correlation and autopsy confirmation. PMID:24839359

Manoj, M G; Kotwal, J; Dutta, V

2014-06-01

183

FISH Analysis of Intrapulmonary Malignant Mesothelioma without a Clinically Detectable Primary Pleural Lesion: An Autopsy Case.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with malignant mesothelioma typically present with a pleural effusion or pleural thickening and masses. A rare autopsy case of mesothelioma presenting with multiple bilateral lung nodules without clinically detectable pleural lesions is presented. A definitive diagnosis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen could not be made, though a pattern of fibrosis mimicking organizing pneumonia was identified. Despite corticosteroid therapy, follow-up chest computed tomography showed enlargement of multiple nodules accompanied by the appearance of pleural thickening and effusions. The patient died of respiratory failure 11 months after initial presentation. Autopsy and retrospective analysis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen using a p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed p16 homozygous deletion. The final diagnosis was sarcomatoid mesothelioma, and the lung nodules were intrapulmonary metastases from a clinically undetectable pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma. It is important both to consider the possibility of mesothelioma with unusual clinical, radiological and pathological presentations and to remember that p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis can play an important role in the diagnosis of mesothelioma. PMID:25425731

Hasegawa, Mizue; Sakai, Fumikazu; Sato, Akitoshi; Tsubomizu, Sayuri; Arimura, Ken; Katsura, Hideki; Koh, Eitetsu; Sekine, Yasuo; Wu, Di; Hiroshima, Kenzo

2014-12-01

184

Autopsy Study of Metopic Suture Incidence in Human Skulls in Western Rajasthan  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Metopic suture which is placed between frontal bone and usually disappear during infancy and childhood, may persist from nasion to anterior angle of bregma, this is called metopism. Objective: To find the incidence of metopism in western Rajasthan and to compare it with other study in other parts of India and Abroad. Methodology: Present study was autopsy done on 200 dead bodies of all age group who were brought to J L N Medical college, Ajmer for autopsy during the period of 6 months. Vault was observed morphological for presence of metopism on both outer and inner side after removal of periosteum. Results: The incidence of metopism was 6.5% in all observed skull in this study. The incidence of metopism was observed more in child age group i.e. 100% in 0-5 years & 80% in 6-10 years as compare to the adults and old age groups i.e. 3.4% in 41-50 years. Conclusion: The presence of metopic suture simulates the fracture of frontal bone, therefore it should be properly ruled out in x-rays by radiologists and neurosurgeons. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 63-65

William F Masih

2013-02-01

185

Causes and Severity of Fatal Injuries in Autopsies of Victims of Fatal Traffic Accidents  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In this retrospective study, we decided to determine the death causes and severity of injuries in traffic accidents according to reports of the forensic medical center of Yazd. Methods: A total of 251 fatalities due to traffic accidents that had undergone autopsy examinations at the Yazd forensic medicine center from2006 till 2008 were included in the study by census method. Data regarding gender, road user type, type of vehicle (car, motorcycle, autobus or minibus, consciousness level, and intensive care unit (ICU admission was gathered. For evaluation of injury severity, we used Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results: The population under study consisted of 202 men (80.5% and 49 women (19.5% with an average age of 34.1 years (range: 1-89 years. Motorcycle-pedestrian accidents were the most common type of injury (100, 39.8%. Head (220, 87.6% and face (169, 67.3% were the two most common sites of injuries. Mean (±SD of ISS was 23.2 (±10.4. According to autopsy records, the main cause of death was head trauma (146, 58.1%. Conclusion: Public awareness in terms of primary prevention of road accidents should be considered important. Also, regarding the high prevalence of brain injuries and complications associated with skull fractures, accessibility to neurosurgeons and availability of imaging devices have an important role in decreasing the mortality rate of traffic accidents.

F Panahi

2010-03-01

186

Trousseau's Syndrome Caused by Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: An Autopsy Case Report and Literature Review.  

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An autopsy case report of Trousseau's syndrome caused by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is presented, and seven previously reported cases are reviewed. A 73-year-old woman experiencing light-headedness and dementia of unknown cause for 6 months developed severe hypotonia. A hypointense lesion compatible with acute cerebral infarction was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an ill-defined large liver mass in the right lobe. The mass was not further investigated because of the patient's poor condition. She died of multiple organ failure, and an autopsy was conducted. Postmortem examination revealed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, fibrous vegetations on the mitral valves and multiple thromboemboli in the cerebrum, spleen and rectum. Trousseau's syndrome is defined as an idiopathic thromboembolism in patients with undiagnosed or concomitantly diagnosed malignancy. This syndrome is encountered frequently in patients with mucin-producing carcinomas, while the incidence in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is uncommon. We found that tissue factor and mucin tumor marker (CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA-125) expression in cancer cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism. A patient with unexplained thromboembolism may have occult visceral malignancy; thus, mucin tumor markers may indicate the origin of a mucin-producing carcinoma, and postmortem examination may play an important role in revealing the hidden malignancy. PMID:24987359

Yuri, Takashi; Kato, Kouta; Hirohara, Y; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo

2014-05-01

187

DNA extraction and quantification from touch and scrape preparations obtained from autopsy liver cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to develop a simplified low cost method for the collection and fixation of pediatric autopsy cells and to determine the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of extracted DNA. Touch and scrape preparations of pediatric liver cells were obtained from 15 cadavers [...] at autopsy and fixed in 95% ethanol or 3:1 methanol:acetic acid. Material prepared by each fixation procedure was submitted to DNA extraction with the Wizard® genomic DNA purification kit for DNA quantification and five of the preparations were amplified by multiplex PCR (azoospermia factor genes). The amount of DNA extracted varied from 20 to 8,640 µg, with significant differences between fixation methods. Scrape preparation fixed in 95% ethanol provided larger amount of extracted DNA. However, the mean for all groups was higher than the quantity needed for PCR (50 ng) or Southern blot (500 ng). There were no qualitative differences among the different material and fixatives. The same results were also obtained for glass slides stored at room temperature for 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. We conclude that touch and scrape preparations fixed in 95% ethanol are a good source of DNA and present fewer limitations than cell culture, tissue paraffin embedding or freezing that require sterile material, culture medium, laboratory equipment and trained technicians. In addition, they are more practical and less labor intensive and can be obtained and stored for a long time at low cost.

C.N.M., Ribeiro; L.C., Peres; J.M., Pina-Neto.

2004-05-01

188

Fatal tolperisone poisoning: autopsy and toxicology findings in three suicide cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tolperisone (Mydocalm) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant with few sedative side effects that is used for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. We describe three cases of suicidal tolperisone poisoning in three healthy young subjects in the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. In all cases, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings did not reveal the cause of death. Systematic toxicological analysis (STA) including immunological tests, screening for volatile substances and blood, urine and gastric content screening by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD demonstrated the presence of tolperisone in all cases. In addition to tolperisone, only the analgesics paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen and naproxen could be detected. The blood ethanol concentrations were all lower than 0.10 g/kg. Tolperisone was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using n-chlorobutane as the extraction solvent. The quantification was performed by GC-NPD analysis of blood, urine and gastric content. Tolperisone concentrations of 7.0 mg/l, 14 mg/l and 19 mg/l were found in the blood of the deceased. In the absence of other autopsy findings, the deaths in these three cases were finally explained as a result of lethal tolperisone ingestion. To the best of our knowledge, these three cases are the first reported cases of suicidal tolperisone poisonings. PMID:21683537

Sporkert, Frank; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc P; Mangin, Patrice

2012-02-10

189

Characterization of bone metastases from rapid autopsies of prostate cancer patients  

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Purpose Bone is the most common metastatic site for prostate cancer, and osseous metastases are the leading cause of morbidity from this disease. Recent autopsy studies prove that 100% of men who die of prostate cancer have bone involvement. Understanding the biology of prostate cancer and its evolution to an incurable androgen independent phenotype requires an understanding of the genetic and cellular alterations that lead to the seeding and proliferation of tumor foci in bone, as well as the microenvironment in which these metastases arise. No intensive studies, however, have been conducted on osseous metastatic tissues from patients with metastatic prostate cancer due to lack of access to such tissues for profiling and other research. Experimental Design We demonstrate, for the first time, a reproducible methodology to obtain high quality clinical tumor tissues metastatic to the bone. This technique allowed the procurement of viable metastatic tumor tissue from involved bones in 13 recent autopsies conducted at the University of Michigan, and analyzed the gene expression of these tissues using real time PCR and microarrays. Results We present here the discovery of non-ossified bone metastases from multiple patients with advanced prostate cancer and their subsequent characterization and comparison to non-osseous metastases from the same patients Conclusion This represents a versatile and practical approach that may be employed to characterize the steps in metastasis and the phenotypic characteristics of osseous metastasis of prostate cancer and to profile RNA, DNA and cDNA from tumor samples metastatic to the bone. PMID:21555375

Mehra, Rohit; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Shankar, Sunita; Lonigro, Robert J.; Jing, Xiaojun; Philips, Neena E; Siddiqui, Javed; Han, Bo; Cao, Xuhong; Smith, David C.; Shah, Rajal B.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

2011-01-01

190

[Isolation of Borna disease virus from the autopsy brain of a schizophrenia patient].  

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Borna disease virus (BDV) causes a central nervous system disease in several vertebrate species which is characterized by behavioral disturbances. Seroepidemiological data suggested an association of BDV infection with certain human mental disorders, especially schizophrenia and depression. Here, BDV infection was examined in autopsy brain samples from 4 schizophrenia patients. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization revealed BDV-RNA only in restricted regions (hippocampus, cerebellum, pons) of the autopsy brain samples from one but not other three patients. Histopathologically mild perivascular cuffing was observed in hippocampus, in which BDV-RNA was detected. Next, BDV isolation from the BDV-positive patient's brain region was carried out by intracranial inoculation of BDV-sensitive Mongolian gerbils with the patient's cerebellum and hippocampus homogenate. BDV-RNA signals were detected in the brain from inoculated gerbils at 20 days post-inoculation by nested RT-PCR. Further, the BDV-RNA positive brain from an inoculated gerbil was used for BDV isolation in cell culture. Serial passages with human oligodendroglioma (OL) cells allowed to establish persistent infection of BDV in the cells. PMID:9719953

Nakamura, Y

1998-05-01

191

Problems in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer as seen in the autopsy findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results obtained from a pathological study of the cancer spread, postoperative recurrence and intraoperative radiotherapy in 68 autopsy cases of pancreatic cancer were as follows: 1) The study of pancreatic cancer was conducted by classifying the cases according to the location of the cancer; uncus, head, body and tail. Difference was seen in the mode of cancer spread and also in the clinical symptoms among the pancreatic cancers in each location. Especially, it was maintained that cancer in the uncus should be treated independently from the cancer in the head. 2) There was no difference in the mode of cancer spread between postoperative recurrence or intraoperative radiotherapy cases and non-operated or non-intraoperative radiotherapy cases. Moreover, it suggested one side of difficulty of the surgical treatment, that is, all cases considered curative operation were performed through histological study of the resected specimen at operation have had retroperitoneal recurrence. 3) By histological study of autopsy cases of intraoperative radiotherapy, it was suggested that cancer cells remained or regrew in the periphery of the radiotherapy field, which is a meaningful finding for evaluating intraoperative radiotherapy in the future. (author)

192

Autopsy case of Dubin-Johnson syndrome with pneumonia and abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile.  

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We report the autopsy of a 79-year-old Japanese woman with Dubin-Johnson syndrome accompanied by pneumonia, an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile and acanthocytosis. On admission, physical examination of the patient revealed malnutrition. Blood tests revealed marked inflammatory changes and mild liver dysfunction. Chest X-ray indicated bilateral pneumonia. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 89 mg/dL, 5 mg/dL and 6 mg/dL, respectively. Peripheral blood smears revealed numerous acanthocytes. Despite the administration of antibiotics and nutritional support, the patient died. Autopsy revealed a black liver, atrophy of fat tissue on the mesentery, and pneumonia with bilateral pleural effusion. We believe that the abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profiles in this case were caused by malnutrition and the inflammatory changes rather than the direct effects of Dubin-Johnson syndrome. We base this conclusion on the following three findings: 1) the patient's lipid profile before hospitalization was in the normal range, 2) her serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels gradually increased after nutritional support began, and 3) blood tests revealed marked inflammatory changes (C-reactive protein 9.0 mg/dL; interleukin-6 16.4 pg/mL). This case provides important information that enhances our understanding of lipid metabolism under conditions of malnutrition and inflammation. PMID:16835471

Kaneko, Mitsunobu; Ohni, Mitsuo; Sugiyama, Youichi; Mizukawa, Shinjirou; Toba, Kenji; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Hata, Yoshiya

2006-06-01

193

Fatal pulmonary embolism in hospitalized patients: a large autopsy-based matched case-control study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism is an underdiagnosed major cause of death for hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to identify the conditions associated with fatal pulmonary embolism in this population. METHODS: A total of 13,074 autopsy records were evaluated in a case-control st [...] udy. Patients were matched by age, sex, and year of death, and factors potentially associated with fatal pulmonary embolism were analyzed using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was considered fatal in 328 (2.5%) patients. In the multivariate analysis, conditions that were more common in patients who died of pulmonary embolism were atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery. Some conditions were negatively associated with fatal pulmonary embolism, including hemorrhagic stroke, aortic aneurism, cirrhosis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and pneumonia. In the control group, patients with hemorrhagic stroke and aortic aneurism had short hospital stays (8.5 and 8.8 days, respectively), and the hemorrhage itself was the main cause of death in most of them (90.6% and 68.4%, respectively), which may have prevented the development of pulmonary embolism. Cirrhotic patients in the control group also had short hospital stays (7 days), and 50% died from bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this large autopsy study, atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery were diagnoses associated with fatal pulmonary embolism.

Solange Aparecida Petilo, Carvalho Bricola; Edison Ferreira, Paiva; Arnaldo, Lichtenstein; Reinaldo José, Gianini; Jurandir Godoy, Duarte; Samuel Katsuyuki, Shinjo; Jose, Eluf-Neto; Milton, Arruda Martins.

194

Fatal pulmonary embolism in hospitalized patients: a large autopsy-based matched case-control study  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism is an underdiagnosed major cause of death for hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to identify the conditions associated with fatal pulmonary embolism in this population. METHODS: A total of 13,074 autopsy records were evaluated in a case-control study. Patients were matched by age, sex, and year of death, and factors potentially associated with fatal pulmonary embolism were analyzed using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was considered fatal in 328 (2.5% patients. In the multivariate analysis, conditions that were more common in patients who died of pulmonary embolism were atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery. Some conditions were negatively associated with fatal pulmonary embolism, including hemorrhagic stroke, aortic aneurism, cirrhosis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and pneumonia. In the control group, patients with hemorrhagic stroke and aortic aneurism had short hospital stays (8.5 and 8.8 days, respectively, and the hemorrhage itself was the main cause of death in most of them (90.6% and 68.4%, respectively, which may have prevented the development of pulmonary embolism. Cirrhotic patients in the control group also had short hospital stays (7 days, and 50% died from bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this large autopsy study, atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery were diagnoses associated with fatal pulmonary embolism.

Solange Aparecida Petilo Carvalho Bricola

2013-05-01

195

In vitro formation of ethanol in autopsy samples containing fluoride ions.  

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We present a case of a death of a diabetic man where the concentration of ethanol in post-mortem blood rose from 0.4 g/l 2 days after autopsy to 3.5 g/l 10 days after autopsy. The presence of fluoride ions in this blood sample was determined with ion chromatography and verified that fluoride ions were added to the vials. The concentrations of free fluoride, corresponding to 0.21 and 0.25% w/v potassium fluoride in blood and urine, respectively, were somewhat lower than the recommended 1% w/v. However, the amount of fluoride ions bound to calcium, proteins and other compounds in the samples is unknown. The blood sample was also subject to microbiological examination, which revealed growth of bacteria. In addition, a very high concentration of glucose was found in vitreous humour from the deceased. To determine whether the ethanol detected at the first analysis was of ante-mortem origin, ethyl glucuronide was analysed. Its absence, in the blood as well as the urine sample, strongly supported the theory that, in this case, all the ethanol detected was formed post-mortem. This case showed that ethanol may be formed in vitro at a very high concentration, despite the verified presence of fluoride ions. Possible reasons for this unusual formation of ethanol were the abundant presence of bacteria, a high level of glucose and, possibly, an insufficient amount of fluoride added to the vials. PMID:17387502

Høiseth, Gudrun; Kristoffersen, Lena; Larssen, Bente; Arnestad, Marianne; Hermansen, Nils Olav; Mørland, Jørg

2008-01-01

196

A fatal wound from an unusual military projectile: potential dangers of live military ordnance to the autopsy pathologist.  

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During ground maintenance on an F-14 aircraft, a worker was removing the Mark 124 cartridge activated devices (CADS) from the aircraft when a second worker entered the cockpit of the aircraft and energized the electrical system, causing the four CADS to detonate. One of the four CADS became an airborne projectile. It struck the first worker in front of the right arm, passed through his chest, and became embedded in his thoracic spine. An immediate concern at autopsy was whether or not the device retained any explosive potential. Recommendations for autopsy procedures in cases involving military ordnance are discussed. PMID:3598526

Clark, M A

1987-05-01

197

Medical Student Attitudes to the Autopsy and Its Utility in Medical Education: A Brief Qualitative Study at One UK Medical School  

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Attending postmortems enables students to learn anatomy and pathology within a clinical context, provides insights into effects of treatment and introduces the reality that patients die. Rates of clinical autopsies have declined and medical schools have cut obligatory autopsy sessions from their curricula making it difficult to assess medical…

Bamber, Andrew R.; Quince, Thelma A.; Barclay, Stephen I. G.; Clark, John D. A.; Siklos, Paul W. L.; Wood, Diana F.

2014-01-01

198

Mortality patterns in Vietnam, 2006: Findings from a national verbal autopsy survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and discusses methodological and logistical challenges associated with the implementation of a nation-wide assessment of mortality based on surveys. Verbal autopsy interviews, using the WHO standard questionnaire, were conducted with close relatives of the 6798 deaths identified in the 2007 population change survey in Vietnam. Data collectors were health staff recruited from the commune health station who undertook 3-day intensive training on VA interview. The Preston-Coale method assessed the level of completeness of mortality reporting from the population change survey. The number of deaths in each age-sex grouping is inflated according to the estimate of completeness to produce an adjusted number of deaths. Underlying causes of death were aggregated to the International Classification of Diseases Mortality Tabulation List 1. Leading causes of death were tabulated by sex for three broad age groups: 0-14 years; 15-59 years; and 60 years and above. Findings Completeness of mortality reporting was 69% for males and 54% for females with substantial regional variation. The use of VA has resulted in 10% of deaths being classified to ill-defined among males, and 15% among females. More ill-defined deaths were reported among the 60 year or above age group. Incomplete death reporting, wide geographical dispersal of deaths, extensive travel between households, and substantial variation in local responses to VA interviews challenged the implementation of a national mortality and cause of death assessment based on surveys. Conclusions Verbal autopsy can be a viable tool to identify cause of death in Vietnam. However logistical challenges limit its use in conjunction with the national sample survey. Sentinel population clusters for mortality surveillance should be tested to develop an effective and sustainable option for routine mortality and cause of death data collection in Vietnam.

Adair Timothy

2010-03-01

199

Post mortem magnetic resonance imaging in the fetus, infant and child: A comparative study with conventional autopsy (MaRIAS Protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally invasive autopsy by post mortem magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been suggested as an alternative for conventional autopsy in view of the declining consented autopsy rates. However, large prospective studies rigorously evaluating the accuracy of such an approach are lacking. We intend to compare the accuracy of a minimally invasive autopsy approach using post mortem MR imaging with that of conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children for detection of the major pathological abnormalities and/or determination of the cause of death. Methods/Design We recruited 400 consecutive fetuses, newborns and children referred for conventional autopsy to one of the two participating hospitals over a three-year period. We acquired whole body post mortem MR imaging using a 1.5 T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Enlargen, Germany prior to autopsy. The total scan time varied between 90 to 120 minutes. Each MR image was reported by a team of four specialist radiologists (paediatric neuroradiology, paediatric cardiology, paediatric chest & abdominal imaging and musculoskeletal imaging, blinded to the autopsy data. Conventional autopsy was performed according to the guidelines set down by the Royal College of Pathologists (UK by experienced paediatric or perinatal pathologists, blinded to the MR data. The MR and autopsy data were recorded using predefined categorical variables by an independent person. Discussion Using conventional post mortem as the gold standard comparator, the MR images will be assessed for accuracy of the anatomical morphology, associated lesions, clinical usefulness of information and determination of the cause of death. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values of post mortem MR alone and MR imaging along with other minimally invasive post mortem investigations will be presented for the final diagnosis, broad diagnostic categories and for specific diagnosis of each system. Clinical Trial Registration NCT01417962 NIHR Portfolio Number: 6794

Thayyil Sudhin

2011-12-01

200

Proton induced X-ray emission analysis of Pima Indian autopsy tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been used to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, and Pb in liver, spleen, aorta, kidney medulla, kidney cortex, abdominal fat, pancreas, and hair taken at autopsy from Southwest Indians, primarily of the Pima tribe. Samples were prepared by a low-temperature ashing procedure which is compared to other preparation methods. Data were analyzed by a computer program, ANALEX. The accuracy is tested with NBS standard reference materials and with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric results. The precision allowed observation of element concentration differences between replicate, half-gram samples of the same tissue. The differences appeared to arise from tissue inhomogeneities. 5 figures, 4 tables

 
 
 
 
201

Suicide and perfectionism: a psychological autopsy study of non-clinical suicides.  

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This study explores suicide in relation to perfectionism among individuals who died by suicide with no history of treatment in mental health care or of suicide attempts. The study is part of an ongoing psychological autopsy study (PA-study). It aimed to produce a phenomenological understanding of the dynamics/processes from perfectionism to suicide among 6 men aged 22 to 58. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the interview data of 41 key informants. Based on the informants' narratives, it seemed that perfectionism left these men less able to cope with their (self-perceived) inability to meet their high expectations. Four themes emerged from analysis: 1) striving for success; 2) fear of failure; 3) keeping up the façade; and 4) rigidity. The results may be important in the prevention of nonclinical suicides, a group that is particularly difficult to identify, especially if the deceased have been regarded as very successful in many areas. PMID:25304870

Kiamanesh, Parvin; Dyregrov, Kari; Haavind, Hanne; Dieserud, Gudrun

2014-01-01

202

Bilateral congenital adrenal agenesis: a rare disease entity and not a result of poor autopsy technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital adrenal agenesis is an extremely rare condition wherein the adrenal glands fail to develop. The absence of adrenal tissue results in the complete absence of hormones produced in the adrenal cortex (cortisol, aldosterone) and medulla (catecholamines), and is not compatible with postnatal life without artificial hormone replacement therapy. To date, 9 cases of adrenal agenesis have been reported, many of which are associated with additional congenital anomalies. Most cases were not detected on antenatal imaging and were detected incidentally at postmortem examination. We present a case of adrenal agenesis, detected incidentally at postmortem examination after termination of pregnancy for suspected fetal hydrops, and review the heterogeneous phenotype of this condition with associated abnormalities and molecular genetics. This case reinforces the role of the perinatal autopsy to investigate cause of perinatal mortality, allowing correlation of pathology with antenatal imaging findings and clinical details. PMID:24875163

D'Arcy, Colleen; Pertile, Mark; Goodwin, Tess; Bittinger, Sophie

2014-01-01

203

The Body in Grief: Death Investigations, Objections to Autopsy, and the Religious and Cultural ‘Other’  

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Full Text Available Sudden, violent and otherwise unexplained deaths are investigated in most western jurisdictions through a Coronial or medico-legal process. A crucial element of such an investigation is the legislative requirement to remove the body for autopsy and other medical interventions, processes which can disrupt traditional religious and cultural grieving practices. While recent legislative changes in an increasing number of jurisdictions allow families to raise objections based on religious and cultural grounds, such concerns can be over-ruled, often exacerbating the trauma and grief of families. Based on funded research which interviews a range of Coronial staff in one Australian jurisdiction, this paper explores the disjuncture between medico-legal discourses, which position the body as corpse, and the rise of more ‘therapeutic discourses which recognise the family’s wishes to reposition the body as beloved and lamented.

Belinda Carpenter

2014-02-01

204

An autopsy case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma in a radiation technologist  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma in a radiation technologist, who had worked in this field for 34 years, is reported. Histopathologically, a biopsy specimen from the retroperitoneal tumor revealed a biphasic type of malignant mesothelioma. Electron microscopy disclosed that the tumor cells contained prominent microvilli, basal laminae adjacent to the stroma, junctional complexes, desmosomes, tonofilaments, clusters of glycogen granules, well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), confronting cisternae showing direct continuity with the RER and membrane-bound granules suggestive of secretory activity. No increased amount of asbestos was detected in autopsied lung material or the peritoneal mesothelioma. The estimated cumulative dose of occupational irradiation was calculated to be about 40 to 50 rad at most. Irradiation was discussed in relation to the etiology of the peritoneal mesothelioma. (author)

205

An autopsy case report of thoracic myelopathy after 60Co irradiation for esophageal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patient, a 61-year-old male, noticed he had dysphagea in October 1975. He visited a radiologist and his illness was diagnosed as an esophageal cancer. Irradiation therapy was given; a dose of 6000 rad to the region of Th3-Th12, another 1000 rad to Th6-Th9. The patient progressed well until he noticed a sensory disturbance on the right toe. He entered our clinic in July 1979. He had Brown-Sequard syndrome at left thoracic level. His condition grew worse and resulted in complete paraplegia. He died in 1980. Autopsy revealed neither reccurrence nor metastasis. Spinal cord was atrophied from Th5 to Th10. (author)

206

Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease and its rare associations: an autopsy report of two unrelated cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Glomerulocystic kidney disease is an uncommon type of cystic renal disease. It is characterized by cortical microsysts, which are represented by cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces. Case presentation We describe a case of glomerulocystic disease in a neonate and another in an abortus associated with tracheo-oesophageal fistula and megacystic-megaureter syndrome. The kidney on autopsy was sponge-like and revealed presence of cysts corresponding to dilatations of Bowman's space microscopically. In these two cases, the Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease in one case corresponded to a sporadic form and, in the other, to a syndromic, non-heritable form of glomerulocystic kidney disease. Conclusion The associated anomalies in Glomerulocystic Kidney disease are well described in the literature. Two more new unrelated associations are described in this article.

Sachdeva Man

2007-04-01

207

Qualitative psychological autopsy interviews on suicide in post-conflict Northern Uganda: the participants' perceptions.  

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Participants' perceptions of psychological autopsy interviews were investigated in post-conflict Northern Uganda. Data were derived out of their responses in the debriefing session after the formal interviews. These responses were subjected to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The majority of the participants were positive about the interview as reflected in the two broad themes: positivation of the situation through the possibility of helping others and opportunity for personal development through sharing. To some few participants the interview aroused guilt, self-reproach, and anger and reactivated painful memories. As regards suicide postvention, the findings implied that not much has been done to help the bereaved by suicide in this region, and few resources for such efforts are currently available. However, the bereaved are ready to contribute toward the fight against suicide in their communities. Hence, it is argued that a community-based mental health and Primary Health Care approaches should be encouraged in this context. PMID:21928598

Kizza, Dorothy; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kinyanda, Eugene; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-01-01

208

Refractory vasospasms of the coronary arteries due to multiple factors: an autopsy case.  

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A 41-year-old man was admitted with decompensated heart failure. Mechanical ventilation was maintained with a large dose of propofol. On day 4, significant ST elevation with complete atrioventricular block was noted, which subsequently induced cardiopulmonary arrest. Treatment with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and therapeutic hypothermia was initiated. Emergent cardiac angiography showed simultaneous multivessel coronary spasms. Although nitroglycerin and nicorandil were ineffective, the intracoronary administration of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, successfully resolved the vasospasms. However, during rewarming, the coronary vasospasms recurred, and the patient died of cardiogenic shock. In addition to hypertrophy, the autopsied heart demonstrated the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the pericardium and adventitia of the coronary arteries. PMID:24785887

Arakawa, Kentaro; Himeno, Hideo; Gondo, Toshikazu; Kirigaya, Jin; Otomo, Fumie; Matsushita, Kensuke; Nakahashi, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Satoru; Nitta, Manabu; Yano, Hideto; Endo, Mitsuaki; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi

2014-01-01

209

A Case of Thyroid Angiosarcoma and Multiple Pleuropulmonary Metastasis Diagnosed at Autopsy  

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Full Text Available A 74 year old male patient with the history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and 50 years of nodular thyroid presented at the emergency unit with shortness of breath, and pleural effusion was detected after physical and laboratory examination. Imaging studies demonstrated bilateral pleural fluid, slightly more in the left and several intrapulmonary nodules. The patient died of cardiac arrest at the 4th day of hospitalization. At autopsy, hemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity and hemorrhagic nodules on the right and left pleural surfaces were detected. On microscopic examination of the hemorrhagic cystic nodules of left thyroid lobe and pulmonary nodules; anastomosing angiomatous structures formed by large fusiform epitheloid cells and large eosinophilic cytoplasm, showing partial papillary or solid islet structures were observed. In the immunohistochemical, examination, staining was negative for cytokeratin and thyroglobulin and positive for CD31 CD34 and F VIII. Based on these findings, the case was diagnosed as “thyroid angiosarcoma and multiple pleuropulmonary metastasis”.

?brahim Meteo?lu

2010-03-01

210

Complications in autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease with special reference to A-bomb exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To clarify a relationship between A-bomb exposure and Hashimoto's disease and that between Hashimoto's disease and carcinoma of the thyroid gland, autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease (112 cases in Hiroshima and 43 cases in Nagasaki) were examined. Incidence of Hashimoto's disease was not related to exposure doses and ages at the time of exposure. Incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland from Hashimoto's disease was 1.3% (2 cases), and there was no relationship between them. Incidence of ovarian cancer as cancer accompanied with Hashimoto's disease was significantly high, but that of stomach cancer was significantly low. Incidence of total cancer from Hashimoto's disease was also significantly low. Incidences of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis which were collagen diseases and diseases similar to them complicated by Hashimoto's disease was significantly high. (Tsunoda, M.)

211

Investigation of the role of computed tomography as an adjunct to autopsy in the evaluation of stillbirth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians’ ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. Study design: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. Results: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. Conclusion: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.

212

Partitioning of 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am in skeleton and liver of United States transuranium registry autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution and concentration of the transuranic elements in humans was studied through analysis of tissues collected from occupationally exposed persons at autopsy. This report describes the results of the evaluation of data from registrants with measurable concentrations of plutonium and americium who had contributed bone and liver specimens to the United States Transuranium Registry

213

Primary extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma ("nasal type") of the endometrium: report of an unusual case diagnosed at autopsy.  

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Primary natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We here report the case of a "nasal type" NK/T cell lymphoma arising in the uterus. The diagnosis was established only at autopsy. PMID:16424671

Briese, Juliane; Noack, Frank; Harland, Albrecht; Horny, Hans-Peter

2006-01-01

214

Investigation of the role of computed tomography as an adjunct to autopsy in the evaluation of stillbirth.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians\\' ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. RESULTS: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.

2012-01-31

215

Autopsy evaluation of coal mining deaths in the city of Zonguldak, Turkey  

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Background In this study, our aim was to evaluate the fatal occupational accidents that occurred in Zonguldak coal mines between the years 2005–2008. Material/Methods We retrospectively evaluated 42 fatal coal mine occupational accidents in Zonguldak (Turkey) between the years 2005–2008. The forensic records of autopsies referred to the chief prosecutors’ office during 2005–2008 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 42 cases. The cases were evaluated with respect to age, mechanism of injury, body region of wound, cause of death, and legality of the mine. Results Ages of the deceased ranged between 17 and 52 (median: 32.9 yrs). Deaths were mostly in the 21–30 (35.8%), and 31–40 (30.9%) age groups. Only 1 case was younger than 18 years of age. Review of occupational fatalities has revealed that fatal accidents occurred mostly (76.2%) in the private, and fewer (23.8%) in the public mining enterprises. Crime scene investigation findings have demonstrated that of all occupational deaths (total n=42), 27 (64.3%) were due to subsidence, followed by methane gas poisoning (n=6, 14.2%), tram crash (n=3, 7.1%), log falls (n=2, 4.8%), electrocution (n=2, 4.8%), and methane explosion (n=2, 4.8%). Conclusions Despite laws and regulations concerning mining and because of problems in their implementation, Turkey leads the world in work-related accidents, occupational injuries, and deaths. Evaluation of autopsy findings of deaths in fatal occupational accidents occurring in coal mines is quite important in planning to decrease rates of occupational fatalities. PMID:24643126

Ozer, Erdal; Yilmaz, Riza; Evcuman, Durmus; Yildirim, Ali; Cetin, Ilhan; Kocak, Ugur; Ergen, Kivanc

2014-01-01

216

Mobile education in autopsy conferences of pathology: presentation of complex cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background MeduMobile was a project to develop and evaluate learning scenarios for medical students and teachers by use of video communication and notebooks. Its core part was assigned to various medical routines, conferences or meetings such as doctor-patient bedside conversation. These were filmed by video teams and broadcasted live via the WLAN of the Charité campus to course participating students. One type of the learning arrangements was the autopsy conference as an on-call scenario. Materials and methods The MeduMobile project consisted of two main compartments: the regular seminar event which took place every week or month, and the on-call event. For an on-call event the students were informed two hours before the lesson's start. A mobile video team organised the video conference via a specific MeduMobile seminar system. This software offered the students to log. The MeduMobile seminar system is based on the Windows operating system and realises an extended video communication via WLAN. Thirteen access points were implemented at the Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum and Campus Mitte. A questionnaire was developed to investigate in the response and learning effect of the mobile seminar system. Results During the MeduMobile project 42 video conferences with (cumulative 145 participating students took place. Four autopsy conferences could be organised as on-call scenarios within this project. A prospective, not randomised follow-up study was included 25 students of the 1st – 6th clinical semester. According to the answers, professional reasoning, professional performance, sustainability, and the complexity were broadly accepted by the students. Discussion In principle, the MeduMobile realised an interdisciplinary case presentation using video conference and web page. The evaluation indicates a high acception of such complex case presentation with multidisciplinary settings. The use of the notebooks in mobile learning enables an interconnective training and promotes a complex learning.

Kayser Klaus

2006-11-01

217

An autopsy case of osteosarcoma of right mandibula developed after irradiation to the right cervical region for treatment of Hodgkin's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An autopsy case of osteosarcoma derived from the right mandible was reported. The case was a 64 year-old-female who received radiotherapy (60Co) for Hodgkin's disease in the right neck 15 years prior to the development of her osteosarcoma. By autopsy findings, large nodular growths in the right facial region and the lung metastases of the osteosarcoma were remarkable. No recurrence of Hodgkin's disease was revealed by autopsy. The authors considered that right mandibular osteosarcoma were suspected to be radiation-induced according to the long latent interval and the development of the sarcoma derived from the same location of the irradiation field. (author)

218

Situación actual y perspectiva de la autopsia en Cuba / Present situation and prospects of autopsy in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se actualiza la situación de la autopsia en Cuba y se contrasta con la de otros países. El propósito de este trabajo es argumentar criterios y propuestas en el intento de lograr que la autopsia sea aprovechada al máximo y brinde todos los beneficios que puede y debe aportar. Se destaca que, a pesar [...] de que el índice de autopsias ha descendido al 53,8 %, en fallecidos hospitalizados es mucho mayor que las de otros países. La aplicación de resultados de la investigación científica y de un Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control en Anatomía Patológica, contribuyeron a mejorar la calidad de la autopsia. Se señala el bajo aprovechamiento de los beneficios que brinda la autopsia. Cuba, puede y debe hacer más para confirmar su supremacía en el trabajo con la autopsia, que es una fortaleza de su Sistema Nacional de Salud. Se exponen las perspectivas que permitiría lograr estos propósitos y el papel fundamental que tienen los patólogos en el intento de alcanzar la máxima eficiencia de la autopsia y su mayor aprovechamiento apoyándose en las reuniones sobre fallecidos y en estrecha relación con el resto de los participantes en el proceso. Conseguir estas metas significa contribuir a alargar y hacer más feliz la vida del hombre. Abstract in english This paper presented an update on the situation of autopsy in Cuba and a comparison with that of other countries. The objective was to substantiate criteria and proposals in an attempt to make a full use of autopsy so that it may provide all the benefits that it can and should contribute to medicine [...] . It was underlined that, despite the decrease in the rate of autopsy to 53.8 %, the rate is much higher than that of other nations as far as hospitalized dead people are concerned. It analyzed the quality of autopsy and how some factors -the implementation of the scientific research results and of an automated system of registration and control in pathological anatomy- supported the rise of quality. There was pointed out the low utilization of the benefits of autopsy in the country. Cuba can and should do a lot more to confirm its supremacy in performing autopsy, which is one of the strengths of the Cuban national health care system. The perspectives that would allow attaining these objectives and the fundamental role of pathologists in achieving the highest efficiency and more utilization, supported on the meetings about the dead persons and in close relation with the rest of the participants in this process, were disclosed. Attainment of these goals means to extend the man's life and to make it happier.

José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Ignacio, Ygualada Correa.

2013-03-01

219

Situación actual y perspectiva de la autopsia en Cuba / Present situation and prospects of autopsy in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se actualiza la situación de la autopsia en Cuba y se contrasta con la de otros países. El propósito de este trabajo es argumentar criterios y propuestas en el intento de lograr que la autopsia sea aprovechada al máximo y brinde todos los beneficios que puede y debe aportar. Se destaca que, a pesar [...] de que el índice de autopsias ha descendido al 53,8 %, en fallecidos hospitalizados es mucho mayor que las de otros países. La aplicación de resultados de la investigación científica y de un Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control en Anatomía Patológica, contribuyeron a mejorar la calidad de la autopsia. Se señala el bajo aprovechamiento de los beneficios que brinda la autopsia. Cuba, puede y debe hacer más para confirmar su supremacía en el trabajo con la autopsia, que es una fortaleza de su Sistema Nacional de Salud. Se exponen las perspectivas que permitiría lograr estos propósitos y el papel fundamental que tienen los patólogos en el intento de alcanzar la máxima eficiencia de la autopsia y su mayor aprovechamiento apoyándose en las reuniones sobre fallecidos y en estrecha relación con el resto de los participantes en el proceso. Conseguir estas metas significa contribuir a alargar y hacer más feliz la vida del hombre. Abstract in english This paper presented an update on the situation of autopsy in Cuba and a comparison with that of other countries. The objective was to substantiate criteria and proposals in an attempt to make a full use of autopsy so that it may provide all the benefits that it can and should contribute to medicine [...] . It was underlined that, despite the decrease in the rate of autopsy to 53.8 %, the rate is much higher than that of other nations as far as hospitalized dead people are concerned. It analyzed the quality of autopsy and how some factors -the implementation of the scientific research results and of an automated system of registration and control in pathological anatomy- supported the rise of quality. There was pointed out the low utilization of the benefits of autopsy in the country. Cuba can and should do a lot more to confirm its supremacy in performing autopsy, which is one of the strengths of the Cuban national health care system. The perspectives that would allow attaining these objectives and the fundamental role of pathologists in achieving the highest efficiency and more utilization, supported on the meetings about the dead persons and in close relation with the rest of the participants in this process, were disclosed. Attainment of these goals means to extend the man's life and to make it happier.

José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Ignacio, Ygualada Correa.

2013-03-01

220

Effects on the estimated cause-specific mortality fraction of providing physician reviewers with different formats of verbal autopsy data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of data collection and the methods used to assign the cause of death vary significantly among different verbal autopsy protocols, but there are few data to describe the consequences of the choices made. The aim of this study was to objectively define the impact of the format of data presented to physician reviewers on the cause-specific mortality fractions defined by a verbal autopsy-based mortality-surveillance system. Methods Verbal autopsies were done by primary health care workers for all deaths between October 2006 and September 2007 in a community in rural Andhra Pradesh, India (total population about 180,162. Each questionnaire had a structured section, composed of a series of check boxes, and a free-text section, in which a narrative description of the events leading to death was recorded. For each death, a physician coder was presented first with one section and then the other in random order with a 20- to 40-day interval between. A cause of death was recorded for each data format at the level of ICD 10 chapter headings or else the death was documented as unclassified. After another 20- to 40-day interval, both the structured and free-text sections of the questionnaire were presented together and an index cause of death was assigned. Results In all, 1,407 verbal autopsies were available for analysis, representing 94% of all deaths recorded in the population that year. An index cause of death was assigned using the combined data for 1,190 with the other 217 remaining unclassified. The observed cause-specific mortality fractions were the same regardless of whether the structured, free-text or combined data sources were used. At the individual level, the assignments made using the structured format matched the index in 1,012 (72% of cases with a kappa statistic of 0.66. For the free-text format, the corresponding figures were 989 (70% and 0.64. Conclusions The format of the verbal autopsy data used to assign a cause of death did not substantively influence the pattern of mortality estimated. Substantially abbreviated and simplified verbal autopsy questionnaires might provide robust information about high-level mortality patterns.

Chow Clara

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

CMV quantitative PCR in the diagnosis of CMV disease in patients with HIV-infection – a retrospective autopsy based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with advanced HIV infection at the time of diagnosis and patients not responding to antiretroviral therapy are at risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV disease. Earlier studies of patients with HIV infection have demonstrated that the diagnosis is often first made post-mortem. In recent years new molecular biological tests have become available for diagnosis of CMV disease. Although clinical evaluation of tests for diagnosis of CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals is suboptimal without autopsy, no results from such studies have been published. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic utility of CMV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR in plasma from HIV and CMV seropositive patients who died during the period 1991–2002 and in whom autopsy was performed. Methods Autopsy was performed in all cases, as part of routine evaluation of HIV-infected cases followed at Ullevaal University Hospital. Of 125 patients included, 53 had CMV disease, 37 of whom were first diagnosed at autopsy. CMV disease was diagnosed either by ophthalmoscopic findings typical of CMV retinitis, biopsy or autopsy. One or two plasma samples taken prior to the first diagnosis of CMV disease (alive or at autopsy or death without CMV disease were analysed by CMV quantitative PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for different CMV viral load cut-offs and according to detection of viraemia in one versus two samples. Results Twenty-seven of 53 patients with CMV disease (51% and 10 of 72 patients without CMV disease (14% had detectable viraemia in at least one sample. Sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV of the test, maximised with a cut-off at the test's limit of detection of CMV viraemia (400 copies/mL, were 47% and 70%, respectively. With cut-off at 10 000 copies/mL, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV were 100%. With a requirement for CMV viraemia in two samples, specificity and PPV were 100% in patients with CMV viraemia above the limit of detection. Conclusion Our results indicate that quantitative CMV PCR is best used to rule in, rather than to rule out CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals at high risk.

Goplen Anne K

2007-11-01

222

Anatomopathological aspects of neurocysticercosis in autopsied patients / Aspectos anatomopatológicos da neurocisticercose em pacientes autopsiados  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever ocorrência e morfologia da neurocisticercose (NCC) autópsias. Revisou-se 2218 autópsias realizadas no Hospital Escola da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), 1970-2003. Registrou-se idade, gênero e cor dos pacientes, analisou-se macroscopia e micr [...] oscopia da NCC. Encontrou-se 53 (2,4%) casos de NCC. A média das idades foi 50 anos, sendo 34 (64,1%) do sexo masculino e 36 (67,9%) brancos, não havendo diferença significante na comparação da idade, gênero e cor dos pacientes. Analisou-se macroscopicamente 17 cisticercos. A localização mais comum foi a meningo-cortical em 12 (70,6%) casos. Microscopicamente, os cisticercos apresentaram forma oval contendo a larva íntegra em 4 (23,5%) casos ou em grau de destruição em 13 (76,5%) casos. Portanto, na NCC foram verificados vários processos patológicos gerais (necrose, depósitos intersticiais, fibrose, gliose, inflamação) destacando-se: beta-fibrilose em 13 (76,5%) casos associada ao processo inflamatório em 16(94,1%) casos causado pelo parasito, ainda não relatada na NCC, e calcificação presente no parasito viável e em destruição. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to describe the occurrence and morphology of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in autopsies. We revised 2218 autopsies performed at the School Hospital from Federal Unversity of Triangulo Mineiro, 1970-2003. Data referring to age, gender and color of patients were reported and NCC w [...] as microscopically and macroscopically analyzed. We found 53 (2.4%) NCC cases. The mean age was 50 years old, 34 (64.1%) individuals were male and 36 (67.9%) white. Macroscopically, 17 cysticerci were analyzed. The most frequent location was meningocortical in 12 (70.6%) cases. Microscopically, the cysticerci presented an ovoid shape, containing the larvae preserved in 4 (23.5%) cases or in destruction degrees in 13 (76.5%) cases. Therefore, in NCC was found several general pathologic processes (necrosis, interstitial deposits, fibrosis, gliosis, inflammation) amongst which are highlighted beta-fibrillose in 13 (76.5%) cases associated to inflammatory process in 16 (94.1%) cases caused by the parasite, not yet related to NCC, and calcification present in viable and destruction parasites.

Ruy de Souza, Lino-Junior; Ana Carolina Guimarães, Faleiros; Marina Clare, Vinaud; Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Janaína Valadares, Guimarães; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis; Vicente de Paula Antunes, Teixeira.

2007-03-01

223

An audit of the toxicology findings in 555 medico-legal autopsies finds manner of death changed in 5 cases.  

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An audit of toxicological analysis in Coronial autopsies performed at Forensic Science South Australia was conducted on the cases of three pathologists. Toxicological analysis had been performed in 555 (68 %) from a total of 815 autopsies. It was found that the proffered manner of death was changed from the provisional report (provided immediately after the post-mortem examination) in five cases (just under 1 %) as a consequence of the toxicological findings. This is a limited study as it is retrospective, not all cases had toxicological analysis and the findings are constrained by the range of the substances that could be detected. Nonetheless, the audit supports the application of toxicological analysis in medico-legal death investigation and suggests that an inclusive policy should be adopted. PMID:23179990

Langlois, Neil E I; Gilbert, John D; Heath, Karen J; Winskog, Calle; Kostakis, Chris

2013-03-01

224

[Relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death based on the forensic autopsy cases in Yamaguchi].  

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We analyzed forensic autopsy cases to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death. We divided 605 autopsy cases which had been performed from 2000 to 2011 at our department into Alcohol group (n = 172, 28.4%) and Non-alcohol group (n = 433, 71.6%) according to whether alcohol could be detected in the deceased's blood. The individuals' sex and age, season when the death occurred, cause of death, type of death and circumstances of death were analyzed. Alcohol group had a significantly higher ratio of males and younger ages (both p drunk-driving-related accidents have shown a downward trend whereas bicycling-related accidents have shown an upward trend, and similar results were obtained in the present study. The low awareness of drinking-induced pitfalls may be responsible for drinking-related bicycle accidents. PMID:25223086

Hakucho, Ayako; Kawamura, Haruka; Liu, Jinyao; Liu, Xu; Takase, Izumi; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

2014-06-01

225

A clinicopathological study on gastric cancer of the atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, by autopsy cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autopsy findings of gastric cancer were examined in 265 patients consisting of those exposed at ? 2,000 m from the hypocenter (group 1), those exposed at > 2,000 m or those entering the city after the bombing (group 2), and non-exposed controls (group 3). The largest number of patients was in their sixties and seventies, irrespective of exposure status. Overall, the ratio of men to women was 1.6 : 1. The incidence of gastric cancer decreased up to 1975 in all groups. Thereafter, it began to increase, especially in group 1. The most common site of cancer was the pyloric antrum in all groups. Histologically, poorly differentiated type was observed most frequently in group 1; however, this was not statistically significant. Multiple primaries, which were unlikely to be related to exposure, were observed in 22 autopsy cases. (Namekawa, K.)

226

Statistical analysis of a LASL study of plutonium in US autopsy tissue  

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The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissues for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fallout from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods minimum detection limits, problems with aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed.

Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.L.; McInroy, J.F.

1979-01-01

227

Autopsy Tissue Program. [Plutonium determination in selected tissues of human cadavers  

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The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed.

Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.

1979-01-01

228

Suicide among adults aged 30–49: A psychological autopsy study in Hong Kong  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A surge in suicide rates in middle age people in Hong Kong and many Asian countries was recently observed. However, there is a paucity of suicide research on this subgroup of people in Asia. Methods The next-of-kin of 85 suicide cases and 85 community subjects aged 30–49 years were interviewed by a psychological autopsy approach. Information was triangulated by interview notes, coroner's court files, and police investigation reports. Results A multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors for suicide among the middle age people in Hong Kong: the presence of at least one psychiatric disorder (OR = 37.5, 95% CI 11.5–121.9, p Conclusion The data show that socio-economical factors had a strong impact on suicide in the target group. Further research is needed to explore any positive qualities that protect the middle-aged from suicide. The prevention of suicide in the middle-aged requires multiple strategies.

Chan Sandra SM

2008-05-01

229

Unemployment as a risk factor for completed suicide: a psychological autopsy study.  

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This study adopts a psychological autopsy method to compare (1) unemployed suicides, (2) other suicides who were either employed or not in the labor force, and (3) psychiatric outpatients without any prior suicidal behavior. A total of 245 consecutive suicides from Province of Parma (Italy) with recorded employment status were included in the analysis. The control group included 41 psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 64 years, who had not engaged in any previous suicidal act, and who were unemployed. The unemployed suicides had a risk 17 times higher to have had financial problems in the last 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0/149.5; p suicides. Unemployed suicides (compared to living unemployed controls) were 10 times more likely to have had poor social support (95% CI: 1.7/56.1; p suicide prevention strategies for those who are facing job loss need to focus on social support and personality disorders, as well as hopelessness and despair. PMID:24689509

Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Baratta, Stefano; Masotti, Vittoria; Badaracco, Annalisa; Wong, Paul; Lester, David; Yip, Paul; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

2014-01-01

230

Relationship between the morphologic alterations of vocal cords from adult autopsies and the cause of death  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the possible alteration in the thickness of the epithelium basal membrane of the vocal cords and correlate it with the cause of death. METHOD: Larynxes collected from adult autopsies during the period of 1993 to 2001 were utilized. We used the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining methods for the morphological and morphometric analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-six vocal cords were analysed; increased thickness was identified in 14 cases (21.2%, with equal proportions between the genders. Increased vocal-cord thickness was more frequent in patients of the white ethnicity (12 cases, 85.7%. Respiratory alterations were found in 10 (71.4% of the cases with increased vocal-cord thickness. Of the patients that were maintained with mechanical ventilation before death, 7 (18.4% had thickening of the basal membrane. Among the smokers, 9 (19.63% had basal membrane thickening. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant differences were found between the cases in which the cause of death was related to respiratory diseases as compared to non-respiratory diseases and the thickening of the basal membrane of the vocal cords. However, new studies are needed in order to verify the etiopathogenesis of this thickening.

Salge Ana Karina Marques

2004-01-01

231

Statistical analysis of a LASL study of plutonium in US autopsy tissue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissues for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fallout from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods minimum detection limits, problems with aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed

232

Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

233

An autopsy case of primary pericardial mesothelioma in arc cutter exposed to asbestos through talc pencils.  

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An autopsy case of a primary pericardial mesothelioma in a 53-year-old arc cutter is reported. He had often had the chance to inhale dust generated by sharpening the slate pencils composed of talc. He was admitted for heart failure due to pericardial tumor, but later died. The tumor was mainly located on the pericardium with a thickness of about 2.5 cm. Small nodular disseminations were observed in the left parietal pleura. Microscopically, tumor cells were epithelial-like and rich in histochemical demonstrable hyaluronic acid. Findings of immunohistochemical markers revealed keratin (+), EMA (+), calretinin (+), and CEA (-), which were characteristics of mesothelioma of epithelial type. The number of asbestos bodies (AB) in the lung parenchyma was increased (2026 AB/gram dry lung tissue). Subsequent transmission electron microscopic examination equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer revealed that the fibers identified in the lungs were fibrous talc and actinolite. These findings suggested that this patient had been occupationally exposed to asbestos contaminated in the talc pencils, which induced the development of primary pericardial mesothelioma. PMID:15895852

Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kamimori, Takao; Morinaga, Kenji; Takeda, Yoshiki; Kohyama, Norihiko; Miki, Yoshihiro; Inai, Kouki; Yamamoto, Satoru

2005-04-01

234

Observations on the synaptic ribbon morphology in retinas of two human subjects at autopsy.  

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Retinal photoreceptor and bipolar cell axon terminals possess synaptic ribbons (SR) that aid in the trafficking of synaptic vesicles at active zones. In rodents, besides SR, a number of other synaptic elements [e.g., synaptic spheres (SS)] are known to appear when exposed to altered ambient illumination. Here, we report changes of ribbon shape in photoreceptor and bipolar cell axon terminals in retinas of two persons at autopsy who suffered from brain hemorrhage. In both subjects, retinal hemorrhage was present in the outer and inner nuclear layers. SR were bent or swollen and transformed into SS. A count revealed that about 54-60% of the photoreceptor axon terminals over the nasal to temporal retina possessed SS. They were associated with synaptic triads or remained floating in cytoplasm. The bipolar cell axon terminals possessed either SR or sphere-like bodies. As these features were not seen in control retinas of donors who died of other causes, we assume that in hemorrhagic subjects, SR underwent transformation into SS, in which perhaps ischemia (caused due to vascular obstructions by hemorrhage) played a leading role. PMID:19766471

Nag, Tapas C; Wadhwa, Shashi

2009-12-01

235

Five years audit for presence of toxic agents/drug of abuse at autopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To know the frequency of fatal poisoning in Peshawar regarding the toxic agents mostly involved and year wise percentage. To know the age group and the gender that is most vulnerable to fatal poisoning. Results: Poisoning was the cause of death in 1.48% of the total autopsies conducted during the five years. Males were more involved than the females, 90.38%. Suicidal poisoning was present in 17.30% of the total cases and accidental poisoning was found in 80.72% cases, while homicidal cases were 1.29% only. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the most commonly involved agent, 65.38%, of the total cases. The incidence of poisoning was more during the third and fourth decades of life. Conclusion: Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the main causative agent involved in young males due to accidental over-dosage. Accidental and suicidal deaths should not be considered as inevitable. More elaborative studies are required in this area of recent research to adopt appropriate and adequate measures to save precious lives.(author)

236

Renal tubular dysgenesis with hypocalvaria and ileocecal valve agenesis: an autopsy report  

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Full Text Available Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by non-differentiation of the renal proximal convoluted tubules, resulting in oligohydramnios. It is usually diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy, following the oligohydramnios sequence, pulmonary hypoplasia and hypocalvaria. The prognosis is poor, and death usually occurs in utero or within the first few days of life. The pathogenesis of RTD is associated with the perinatal use of drugs, such as angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and anti- inflammatory drugs, as well as with fetal transfusion syndrome, genetic mutations in the pathway of the renin-angiotensin system pathway, cocaine snorting, or other pathological mechanisms that reduce renal blood flow. Here, we report the autopsy of a neonate born to consanguineous parents at 38 weeks of gestation, with RTD, decreased amniotic fluid, oligohydramnios sequence, hypocalvaria, pulmonary hypoplasia, and ileocecal valve agenesis. To our knowledge, the latter has never been reported associated with RTD.

Ariel Barreto Nogueira

2012-12-01

237

Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)

238

Relationship of red splenic arteriolar hyaline with rapid death: a clinicopathological study of 82 autopsy cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between splenic arteriolar hyaline and cause of death. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of splenic arteriolar hyaline in autopsy cases and estimate the applicability of hyaline for diagnosing the cause and rapidity of death. Methods Archival data and histological slides from 82 cases were reviewed retrospectively. One section of each spleen was evaluated microscopically. The tinctorial pattern of splenic arteriolar hyaline was examined with Heidenhain’s Azan trichrome stain, and the relationships between this pattern and age, cause of death, and rapidity of death were investigated. Results Fifty-four cases demonstrated hyaline change, with 3 different tinctorial patterns: red, blue, and a combination of red and blue. The 3 patterns coexisted in various proportions in each tissue section. Frequency of the blue pattern increased with age (P?P? Conclusions Estimation of splenic arteriolar hyaline with Heidenhain’s Azan trichrome stain is useful for assessment of the cause and rapidity of death. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1132441651796836

Kotani Hirokazu

2012-12-01

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Fatal disseminated mucormycosis in a patient with mantle cell non-hodgkin's lymphoma: an autopsy case  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A patient with mantle cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented herself with fever, nausea, right upper quadrant pain on the 7th day of R-CHOP chemotherapy. After hospitalization with the suspicion of acute cholecystitis, she received antibiotherapy with G-CSF because of emerging neutropenia at the 10th [...] day of chemotherapy. Abdominal computed tomography revealed small infarcts in the spleen and kidneys. The echymotic lesion which developed on her right lateral malleolus, became bullous in the following days and treated as ecthyma gangrenosum. Altough the patient was afebrile with a normal neutrophil count on the third day of antibiotherapy, she developed acute renal failure and deteriorated rapidly. The patient underwent hemodialysis but expired on the 10th day of hospitalization. Post mortem autopsy findings showed ischemic infarction and necrosis of parenchyma due to mycotic thrombosis of arteries and veins of many organs (heart, lung, diaphgram, kidneys, spleen, gut mucosa) as well as invasion of vessel walls and parenchyma by mucor. We reviewed mucormycosis in the light of this case.

Inci, Alacacioglu; Aydanur, Kargi; Mehmet Ali, Ozcan; Ozden, Piskin; Cilem, Solak; Mustafa, Secil; Mehtat, Unlu; Fatih, Demirkan; Guner Hayri, Ozsan; Bulent, Undar.

2009-06-01

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Misalignment of lung vessels and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a case report with autopsy.  

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Misalignment of lung vessels (MLV) with or without alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD) is a rare cause of idiopathic persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate. This report describes a full-term infant with severe and intractable pulmonary hypertension. The patient's condition progressively deteriorated despite high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, infusion of magnesium sulfate, dopamine, and dobutamine to control blood pressure, and nitric oxide inhalation therapy. The infant died at 5 days of age. The diagnosis of MLV with ACD was established by autopsy. Histopathologic analysis revealed a failure of formation and an ingrowth of alveolar capillaries, thickening of the alveolar walls, poor contact of capillaries with alveolar epithelium, small intra-acinar muscularized arterioles, and anomalous pulmonary veins within bronchovascular bundles. The low rate of diagnosis of MLV with or without ACD may be because of the early high mortality rate or patchy involvement in some cases. Increasing awareness of this clinical entity may prevent the use of costly, invasive, and probably ineffective procedures. Short-term improvement after inhalation of nitric oxide does not lead to long-term survival but merely provides time for potential lung transplantation. PMID:21835371

Hung, Shih-Pin; Huang, Shih-Hung; Wu, Chun-Hung; Chen, Wu-Charng; Kou, Ka-Em; Wang, Nan-Koong; Lin, Lung-Huang

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in autopsy samples 27 years after death.  

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The unique case of a 50-year-old known alcoholic whose corpse was exhumed 27 years after death is reported. The man apparently committed suicide by hanging, but many years later the case was questioned and homicide-linked to a long-lasting serial killer case-was suspected. Thus, the corpse was exhumed, and at the autopsy it was found to be naturally mummified. This fact permitted the analysis of body tissues with the aim to investigate the persistence of ethanol conjugates in the biological material 27 years after death. Fragments of liver and kidney, a blood clot, and a hair strand were collected and submitted to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) were identified and quantified in the liver, the kidney, and the blood clot. Hair analysis was found to be severely affected by ion suppression even after solid phase extraction. Consequently, EtG was identified in all hair segments (0-3 cm, 3-6 cm, and 6-10 cm), but no reliable quantification could be carried out. In summary, our findings demonstrate that, notwithstanding the expected conjugate degradation, EtG and EtS can be indicative of ante-mortem use of alcohol even many years after death. PMID:18661140

Politi, Lucia; Morini, Luca; Mari, Francesco; Groppi, Angelo; Bertol, Elisabetta

2008-11-01

242

Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors  

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Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F1) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F2) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F1 and F2. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F1 and F2. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F1 and F2. (author)

243

Non-atherosclerotic aorto-arterial thrombosis: A study of 30 cases at autopsy.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aorto-arterial thrombosis is very often associated with atherosclerotic and/or aneurysmal changes. Thrombosis, unrelated to these changes is infrequent. AIMS: To evaluate the clinical presentation and aetiopathogenesis of aorto-arterial thrombosis, unrelated to atherosclerosis and aneurysms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 30 autopsied cases of non-atherosclerotic and non-aneurysmal aorto-arterial thrombosis collected over a period of 14 years was carried out. RESULTS: There were 23 males and seven females and majority presented in the third to fourth decades of life with clinical features of acute abdomen or lower limb gangrene. Abdominal aorta as the site of thrombosis was observed in 46.5% cases. The causes were attributed to hypercoagulable states and changes in the aortic wall. No aetiology could be identified in 5 patients (16.6%. Associated tuberculosis was seen in six cases. CONCLUSIONS: Non-atherosclerotic aortic thrombosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Young and even elderly patients with symptoms related to abdominal ischaemia or peripheral vascular disease should be investigated thoroughly for hypercoagulable states and aortic pathology.

Vaideeswar P

2001-01-01

244

Basal epithelial formalin pigment deposition in the kidneys--a useful marker for ketoacidosis at autopsy.  

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Basal vacuolization of renal epithelial cells occurs in diabetic and alcoholic ketoacidosis, hypothermia and starvation. The vacuoles contain triglycerides. Following a case where formalin pigment deposition within these vacuoles led to the identification of ketoacidosis, a retrospective review of a further 31 cases with ketoacidosis, was undertaken. There were 24 diabetics and 7 alcoholics (age range 21-80 yrs; mean 50.9 yrs; M:F ratio = 2:1. The post-mortem interval was 1-12 days (mean - 4.5 days). Characteristic basally-located pigment surrounding vacuoles was found in 16 cases (51.6%) (14 diabetic ketoacidosis; 2 alcoholic ketoacidosis). Fifteen cases had no formalin pigment deposition. No relationship could be found between the intensity of staining and the postmortem interval, degree of putrefaction, or level of vitreous humour ?-hydroxybutyrate. No staining was demonstrated in control cases matched for postmortem interval. Although formalin pigment deposition occurred in only 51.6% of cases with proven ketoacidosis at autopsy, it appeared to be a highly specific phenomenon. As these deposits were identifiable after recognizable cellular morphology had been lost due to autolysis and putrefaction, this artefact of fixation may be of particular use in suggesting the possibility of ketoacidosis in decomposed bodies with compromised histology. PMID:23622479

Zhou, Chong; Gilbert, John D; Yool, Andrea; Byard, Roger W

2013-05-01

245

Post-irradiation pericardial malignant mesothelioma: an autopsy case and review of the literature.  

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We report a case of a malignant pericardial mesothelioma of the epithelioid type in a 39-year-old man. He had a history of nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation of the cervical and mediastinal regions 24 years before, and of infarction of the anterior wall of the left ventricle, after which a percutaneous coronary intervention was carried out 7 years previously. He was admitted to a cardiology unit with progressive dyspnea. On examination, a hemorrhagic pericardial fluid collection of 600 ml was detected which was successfully drained. On the next day, the patient developed an electromechanical dissociation suggesting a pericardial tamponade, which was followed by circulatory arrest. At autopsy, the pericardial sac was found to contain 300 ml of partly clotted blood. The epicardial surface showed a diffuse thickening, suggesting a chronic fibrous pericarditis without a macroscopically evident distinct tumor mass. A rupture measuring 0.4 cm in diameter was detected in the right ventricular free wall, 1 cm below the level of the tricuspid valve. The diagnosis of a diffusely growing, malignant mesothelioma of the epithelioid type was made on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical examination of the thickened pericardium. PMID:19914093

Bendek, Matyas; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Freudenberg, Nikolaus

2010-01-01

246

Molecular autopsy in young sudden cardiac death victims with suspected cardiomyopathy  

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The aim of this investigation was to identify and characterise pathogenic mutations in a sudden cardiac death (SCD) cohort suspected of cardiomyopathy in persons aged 0-40 years. The study material for the genetic screening of cardiomyopathies consisted of 41 cases and was selected from the case database at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. Mutational screening by DNA sequencing was performed to detect mutations in DNA samples from deceased persons suspected of suffering from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricle cardiomyopathy (ARVC). A total of 9 of the examined 41 cases had a rare sequence variant in the MYBPC3, MYH7, LMNA, PKP2 or TMEM43 genes, of which 4 cases (9.8%) were presumed to be pathogenic mutations. The presumed pathogenic mutations were distributed with one case of suspected HCM and DCM (MYH7; p.R442H), one case of suspected DCM (LMNA; p.R471H), and two cases of suspected ARVC (PKP2; p.R79X and LMNA; p.R644C). The presented data adds important information on the genetic elements of SCD in the young, and calls for expert pathological evaluation and molecular autopsy in the post-mortem examination of SCD victims with structural anomalies of the heart.

Larsen, Maiken Kudahl; Nissen, P H

2011-01-01

247

Hiperinfecção por Strongyloides stercoralis: relato de caso autopsiado / Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection: autopsy case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecção assintomática por Strongyloides stercoralis pode resultar em doença potencialmente fatal em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Os autores relatam caso de hiperinfecção por Strongyloides stercoralis descoberto à autópsia, enfatizando aspectos clinicopatológicos, em homem de 55 anos, em tratamento pa [...] ra mieloma múltiplo. Apresentava, havia um dia, cefaléia intensa, dor abdominal e oligúria desenvolvendo insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque séptico. Devido à dificuldade no diagnóstico, o tratamento empírico antes do início da terapia imunossupressora pode ser a melhor estratégia para prevenir a hiperinfecção pelo verme. Abstract in english Asymptomatic infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis may result in potentially fatal disease in immunodepressed patients. A case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection discovered at autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had been undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma is reported, emphasizing t [...] he clinical and pathological findings. One day earlier, he presented severe headache, abdominal pain and oliguria, from which he developed acute respiratory failure and septic shock. Because of difficulty in reaching this diagnosis, empirical treatment before starting immunosuppressive therapy may be the best strategy for preventing hyperinfection by this worm.

Moema Gonçalves Pinheiro, Veloso; Anita Sperandio, Porto; Mário, Moraes.

2008-08-01

248

An autopsy case of suicidal strangulation with four looped rubber bands.  

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A rare case of suicidal strangulation with four looped rubber bands is reported. A 57-year-old female was found dead in the vestibule of her house, with four looped rubber bands wrapped around her neck. Her face was markedly congestive, and lots of petechial hemorrhages were seen on the face and in the palpebral conjunctive. At the medico-legal autopsy, the ligature mark was 1.7 cm in maximum width at the anterior part of the neck and accompanied by such vital reactions as linear hemorrhage, but there were no other injuries to account for her death. Many petechial hemorrhages were also found in the visceral pleurae and epicardium. There was hemocoagulum in the cardiac blood, and the other organs were as well markedly congestive. Gas-chromatographic analysis revealed ethanol; 0.83 mg/ml in the heart blood and 1.37 mg/ml in the urine. No other drugs or poisons were found with Toxi-Lab and REMEDi-HS systems. In addition, police investigation denied the possibility of homicide and disclosed her living will stating that she had suffered from a chronic heart disease. This case was of suicidal strangulation with looped rubber bands. PMID:9301230

Lin, Z; Kondo, T; Sato, Y; Ohtsuji, M; Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T

1997-06-01

249

Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in the life span study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-74  

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A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

250

Trends in the prevalence of invasive fungal infections from an analysis of annual records of autopsy cases of Toho University.  

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Clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is sometimes difficult, and obtaining an accurate assessment of trends concerning the prevalence of IFIs is a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine trends in the prevalence of IFIs from an autopsy survey. The retrospective review of autopsy records stored in Toho University was performed on all documented cases with fungal infection from 1955 to 2006. A total of 411 cases of IFIs were detected among 10 297 autopsies. The prevalence of candidiasis decreased from 3.6% (1981-93) to 2.0% (1994-2006), and that of aspergillosis increased throughout the 52-year period and reached 2.0% (1994-2006). The prevalence of IFIs in the patient group comprising haematological disorders was significantly higher (19.9%) than in other patient groups (2.9%), of which the odds ratio was 18.4 for mucormycosis and 10.0 for aspergillosis. The lung was the most common organ involved irrespective of major fungal species, and most cases with candidiasis showed multiple-organ infection. Results confirmed the increasing prevalence of aspergillosis and high risk of IFIs in the patient group with haematological disorders. IFIs were also detected in an immunocompromised state caused not only by primary disease but also by treatment with anti-tumour drugs and corticosteroids. PMID:22320199

Shimodaira, Kayoko; Okubo, Yoichiro; Nakayama, Haruo; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Ishiwatari, Takao; Sasai, Daisuke; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kei; Ishii, Toshiharu; Saji, Tsutomu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2012-09-01

251

Ostium secundum atrial septal defect-related post-partum death of an adult: An autopsy case  

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Full Text Available Atrial Septal Defect (ASD is the most common type ofcongenital heart disease in adolescents and adults with afrequency of 10-15 %. Ostium secundum type ASD has amultifactorial heredity pattern and is almost always sporadic.Herein, we presented a maternal mortality case of ASDthat died after nine days after delivery. She applied to thehospital three times with non-specific symptoms but diedwithout an accurate diagnosis. At autopsy, there was evidenceof episiotomy in recent delivery in genital region.The weight of the heart was 380 grams, hypertrophy ofpapillary muscles and an ostium secundum type ASDwith 1,6 x 1,1 cm dimensions were detected. Microscopicexamination of heart sections revealed hypertrophy, hyperemia,and focal, minimal colliquative myocytolysis.Electrocardiogram findings and autopsy findings wereevaluated together and in conclusion, our opinion on thecause of death was circulatory disturbance resulting fromchronic heart disease.Because of this, congenital heart disease which is a rarepathology and a cause of death in adult population, wepresented the findings of this case.Key words: Congenital heart disease, atrial septal defect,ostium secundum, maternal mortality, autopsy.

Eyyüp Y?lmaz

2012-09-01

252

Thymus aplasia in distal trisomy 14q syndrome: an autopsy case with a review of the literature.  

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The present authors report an autopsy case of a malformed male newborn with de novo duplication of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 14 (14q24.1 to 14qter) in this paper. The partial trisomy of 14q was due to the unbalanced translocation at the end of the satellite stalk of chromosome 14. This autopsy case also had many kinds of external malformations including odd skull and facies, narrow thorax, and prominent calcaneus as well as retentio testis. The autopsy examination revealed aplasia of the thymus and marked hypoplasia of systemic lymphoid tissues. During an immunohistochemical study of the lymphoid tissues the population of T cells showed only a minority of lymphocytes. While several cases of distal trisomy 14q with cardiac malformations or a developmental abnormality of the thymus and the parathyroids seen in the third and fourth pouch defects have been reported previously, the present case was the first of this syndrome with aplasia of the thymus and systemic lymphoid hypoplasia. PMID:8025654

Ohtake, T; Asano, S; Nozawa, Y; Uziie, Z; Suzuki, H; Wakasa, H

1994-02-01

253

Corroboration of in utero MRI using post-mortem MRI and autopsy in foetuses with CNS abnormalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AIMS: To corroborate the findings of in utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy and post-mortem MRI in cases of known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities on ultrasound and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ante-natal ultrasound and in utero MRI. METHODS: Twelve pregnant women, whose foetuses had suspected central nervous system abnormalities underwent in utero MRI. The foetuses were imaged using MRi before autopsy. The data were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of in utero MRI when compared with a reference standard of autopsy and post-mortem MRI in 10 cases and post-mortem MRI alone in two cases. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of antenatal ultrasound and in utero MRI in correctly characterizing brain and spine abnormalities were 42 and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In utero MRI provides a useful adjuvant to antenatal ultrasound when assessing CNS abnormalities by providing more accurate anatomical information. Post-mortem MRI assists the diagnosis of macroscopic structural abnormalities

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Pathology image of the month: black esophagus detected at autopsy in a patient with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.  

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A 73-year-old African-American male was transported to the emergency department due to what emergency personnel described as "coffee ground emesis." He was pronounced dead shortly after arrival. An unlimited autopsy examination was conducted under authorization of the coroner's office. Medical record review revealed that the decedent had been discharged from the hospital just one day prior to his death following a three-day admission for abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and a 22-lb unintentional weight loss. Medical history documented hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, and a 57-pack-year smoking history. Alcohol abuse was also endorsed, but cessation of use was reported six months prior. During that admit, he was treated for volume-depletion, a urinary tract infection, and suspected infective colitis with antibiotics. Symptoms had resolved on hospital day three, and the patient was discharged home with a two-week course of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole and a follow-up colonoscopy appointment in one month. At the time of autopsy, the decedent was described as cachectic. Figure 1a shows the decedent's esophagus, opened longitudinally. Figure 1b shows the corresponding histology from the esophagus. Other findings documented at autopsy included ischemic bowel disease in the descending colon with patchy superimposed pseudomembranous colitis, emphysematous change, papillary renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney, microscopic prostatic adenocarcinoma, hepatic fibrosis, and intact hepatic hemangiomata. PMID:25311465

Tsao, Christin; Thomas, Louise; McGoey, Robin R

2014-01-01

255

Review of Handbook of Autopsy Practice, Brenda L. Waters (Ed.). 4th edition, Humana Press (2009). ISBN: 978-1-58829-841-6  

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This 4th edition of Handbook of Autopsy Practice is a thoroughly updated version. Autopsy practice has undergone significant changes in recent time due to technological advancements such as molecular diagnostics, immunohistochemisty and the introduction of post-mortem imaging techniques. In the same period the autopsy rate in teaching hospitals has declined. A comprehensive and updated version is therefore most welcome. Part I have six completely new chapters, and contain an assortment of tools of great practical value for the forensic pathologist. There is for example a next-of-kin letter for the family of the deceased and a quality assurance worksheet. The text is written in a well-formulated language, and is not too long. The illustrations and photos are of a high quality. All photos are black-and-white. The book covers a broad area of relevance to autopsy practice, including specialized techniques used for post-mortem investigation of the cardio-vascular system, the nervous system and eye and adnexa. Autopsy microbiology, chemistry and chromosome analysis and autopsies of bodies containing radioactive material are also among the topics that are addressed in this handbook, as well as post-mortem imaging techniques. Part II begins with a list of special histologic stains, but the bulk is devoted to an alphabetic listing of major diseases with possible or expected findings and recommended procedures. This part has also been updated with new diseases and recent references. Part III provides a series of tables providing organ weights and body measurements for foetuses, children and adults. The Handbook of Autopsy Practice fulfils its purpose, and is a very worthwhile purchase for any autopsy facility.

Leth, Peter Mygind

2010-01-01

256

Frequency of congenital abnormalities in mortality of fetuses and newborns autopsied in 1991 and 2001 at the Department of pathology and histology in Novi Sad  

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Introduction Congenital malformations are morphological developmental anomalies visible during clinical examination or autopsy (in case of death, stillborn or abortion). Their incidence in human population is estimated to be between 5-10%, and perinatal mortality rate varies from 20-25%. Material and methods The research was conducted at the Department of Pathology and Histology and at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad. We analyzed autopsy reports of newborns (under 28 d...

Eri? Mirela; Vu?kovi? Nada; Pilija Vladimir I.; Mišoli? Mirjana

2003-01-01

257

Validity of verbal autopsy for ascertaining the causes of stillbirth / Validité de l'autopsie verbale dans la détermination des causes de mortinaissance / Validez de las investigaciones verbales para determinar las causas de la mortinatalidad  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Validar las entrevistas verbales a parientes y allegados para determinar las causas de la mortinatalidad que utiliza la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), empleando el diagnóstico hospitalario de las causas subyacentes a la mortinatalidad («criterio de referencia») y comparar la propo [...] rción de mortinatos atribuidos a determinadas causas específicas, a través de la valoración del hospital, en comparación con los resultados de las investigaciones verbales. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo de todos los mortinatos que nacieron en un hospital de Chandigarh (India) entre el 15 de abril de 2006 y el 31 de marzo de 2008 y cuya causa de defunción se diagnosticó dentro de un plazo de 2 días. Todas las madres debían encontrarse como mínimo en la semana 24 de gestación y vivir dentro de un radio de 100 km del hospital. Para las entrevistas verbales, los trabajadores en el terreno visitaron a las madres entre las 4 y las 6 semanas posteriores a la mortinatalidad. Dos obstetras independientes revisaron los resultados de las autopsias y, en caso de desacuerdo, se solicitó la participación de un tercer experto. Se comparó la frecuencia de las causas de la mortinatalidad, según lo establecido por la valoración hospitalaria y por las investigaciones verbales. RESULTADOS: Tanto la valoración hospitalaria como la entrevista verbal coincidieron en cuáles eran las cinco causas de mortinatalidad más frecuentes: preeclampsia (30%), hemorragia prenatal (16%), enfermedad subyacente de la madre (12%), malformaciones congénitas (12%) y complicaciones obstétricas (10%). La precisión general del diagnóstico mediante investigación verbal, en comparación con el diagnóstico basado en la información hospitalaria para las cinco causas más frecuentes de mortinatalidad, fue del 64%. Las áreas bajo la curva de eficacia diagnóstica (ROC) fueron: para las malformaciones congénitas, 0,91 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC: 0,83-0,97); enfermedad pre-gestacional de la madre, 0,75 (95%, IC: 0,65-0,84); preeclampsia, 0,76 (95%, IC: 0,69-0,81); hemorragia prenatal, 0,76 (95%, IC: 0,67-0,84) y complicaciones obstétricas, 0,82 (95%, CI: 0,71-0,93). CONCLUSION: La herramienta de investigación verbal de la mortinatalidad que emplea la OMS puede ofrecer unas estimaciones razonablemente aceptables de las causas subyacentes más frecuentes a la mortinatalidad en los ámbitos con recursos limitados, en los que la causa de mortinatalidad pueda no estar certificada por un médico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To validate the verbal autopsy tool for stillbirths of the World Health Organization (WHO) by using hospital diagnosis of the underlying cause of stillbirth (the gold standard) and to compare the fraction of stillbirths attributed to various specific causes through hospital assessment ver [...] sus verbal autopsy. METHODS: In a hospital in Chandigarh, we prospectively studied all stillbirths occurring from 15 April 2006 to 31 March 2008 whose cause was diagnosed within 2 days. All mothers had to be at least 24 weeks pregnant and live within 100 km of the hospital. For verbal autopsy, field workers visited mothers 4 to 6 weeks after the stillbirth. Autopsy results were reviewed by two independent obstetricians and disagreements were resolved by engaging a third expert. Causes of stillbirths as determined by hospital assessment and verbal autopsy were compared in frequency. FINDINGS: Hospital assessment and verbal autopsy yielded the same top five underlying causes of stillbirth: pregnancy-induced hypertension (30%), antepartum haemorrhage (16%), underlying maternal illness (12%), congenital malformations (12%) and obstetric complications (10%). Overall diagnostic accuracy of verbal autopsy diagnosis versus hospital-based diagnosis for all five top causes of stillbirth was 64%. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) were, for congenital malformations, 0.91 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83-0.97)

Arun K, Aggarwal; Vanita, Jain; Rajesh, Kumar.

2011-01-01

258

“Even if I were to consent, my family will never agree”: exploring autopsy services for posthumous occupational lung disease compensation among mineworkers in South Africa  

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Full Text Available Context: In the South African mining sector, cardiorespiratory-specific autopsies are conducted under the Occupational Diseases in Mines and Works Act (ODMWA on deceased mineworkers to determine eligibility for compensation. However, low levels of autopsy utilisation undermine the value of the service. Objective: To explore enablers and barriers to consent that impact on ODMWA autopsy utilisation for posthumous monetary compensation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with mineworkers, widows and relatives of deceased mineworkers as well as traditional healers and mine occupational health practitioners. Results: A range of socio-cultural barriers to consent for an autopsy was identified. These barriers were largely related to gendered power relations, traditional and religious beliefs, and communication and trust. Understanding these barriers presents opportunities to intervene so as to increase autopsy utilisation. Conclusions: Effective interventions could include engagement with healthy mine-workers and their families and re-evaluating the permanent removal of organs. The study adds to our understanding of utilisation of the autopsy services.

Audrey V. Banyini

2013-01-01

259

Aortic dissection at the University hospital of the West Indies: A 20-year clinicopathological study of autopsy cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An autopsy study of aortic dissection (AD at our institution was previously reported. In the approximately 20 years since then, however, many aspects of diagnosis and treatment of this disease have changed, with a fall in mortality reported in many centers around the world. An impression amongst our pathologists that, there might be an increase in the prevalence of AD in the autopsy service at our hospital, since that earlier report, led to this repeated study, in an attempt to validate that notion. We also sought to identify any changes in clinicopathological features between the two series or any occurring during this study period itself. Findings All cases of AD identified at autopsy, during the 20-year period since the conclusion of the last study, were collected and pertinent clinical and pathological data were analyzed and compared, both within the two decades of this study period and against the results of the last study. Fifty-six cases comprised this study group including 36 males and 20 females, with a mean age of 63.9 years. There were, more patients in the second decade (n = 33; 59% compared with the first decade (n = 23; 41%. Hypertension as a risk factor was identified in 52 (93% cases and rupture occurred in 49 (88% cases. A clinical diagnosis of AD was considered prior to surgery or autopsy in 25 (45% cases overall, more during the second decade. Surgery was attempted in 25% of all cases with an increase in the second decade compared with the first. Conclusions Compared with the earlier review, a variety of changes in the profile of patients with AD in the autopsy service has been noted, including a reversal in the female predominance seen previously. Other observations include an increase in cases where the correct clinical diagnosis was considered and in which surgical treatment was attempted, changes also evident when the second decade of the present study was compared with the earlier decade. Overall, there were many positive trends. However, areas that could still be improved include an increased index of suspicion for the diagnosis of AD and perhaps in the initiation of treatment, earlier, in those cases where the correct diagnosis was considered.

Coard Kathleen CM

2011-09-01

260

Alcohol and premature death in Estonian men: a study of forensic autopsies using novel biomarkers and proxy informants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol makes an important contribution to premature mortality in many countries in Eastern Europe, including Estonia. However, the full extent of its impact, and the mechanisms underlying it, are challenging issues to research. We describe the design and initial findings of a study aimed at investigating the association of alcohol with mortality in a large series of forensic autopsies of working-age men in Estonia. Methods 1299 male deaths aged 25-54 years were subject to forensic autopsy in 2008-2009. The routine autopsy protocol was augmented by a more systematic inspection of organs, drug testing, assay of liver enzymes and novel biomarkers of alcohol consumption (EtG, EtS and PEth, together with proxy interviews with next of kin for deaths among men who lived in or close to a major town. Results 595 augmented autopsies were performed. Of these, 66% were from external causes (26% suicide, 25% poisoning. 17% were attributed to circulatory system diseases and 7% to alcoholic liver disease. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC of ? 0.2 mg/g were found for 55% of deaths. Interviews were conducted with proxy informants for 61% of the subjects who had resided in towns. Of these, 28% were reported in the previous year to have been daily or almost daily drinkers and 10% had drunk non-beverage alcohols. Blood ethanol and the liver enzyme GGT were only associated with daily drinking. However, the novel biomarkers showed a more graded response with recent consumption. In contrast, the liver enzymes AST and ALT were largely uninformative because of post-mortem changes. The presence of extremely high PEth concentrations in some samples also suggested post-mortem formation. Conclusion We have shown the feasibility of deploying an extended research protocol within the setting of routine forensic autopsies that offer scope to deepen our understanding of the alcohol-related burden of premature mortality. The most unique feature of the study is the information on a wide range of informative alcohol biomarkers, several of which have not been used previously in this sort of post-mortem research study. We have demonstrated, for the first time, the epidemiological value and validity of these novel alcohol biomarkers in post-mortem samples.

Ringmets Inge

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Social autopsy: INDEPTH Network experiences of utility, process, practices, and challenges in investigating causes and contributors to mortality  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Methods Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. Results At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. Conclusion While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and appropriate treatment in Dodowa HDSS, there were severe challenges to prompt and adequate case management in the health system in both study sites in Ghana and Uganda. Meanwhile, caretaker awareness of danger signs needs to improve in both countries to promote early care seeking and to reduce the number of children needing referral. Social autopsy methods can improve this understanding, which can assist health planners to prioritize scarce resources appropriately.

Yevoo Lucy

2011-08-01

262

Aetiology of maternal mortality using verbal autopsy at Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality in developing countries is higher than that in developed countries. There are few published articles on the factors associated with maternal deaths in northern Nigeria.Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the medical causes and factors associated with maternal mortality in Sokoto, northern Nigeria.Method: A verbal autopsy questionnaire was used to interview close relatives of women within the reproductive age group who had died of pregnancy-related complications in the Sokoto metropolis during the preceding two years. A multistage sampling method using simple random sampling at each step was used to select areas of study within the Sokoto metropolis. Data analysis was carried out using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 19, and the Spearman correlation was used to test association. Significance level was set at 0.05.Results: The major causes of death were haemorrhage (48.3%, eclampsia (19% and prolonged labour (13.8%. The association between maternal mortality and the absence of antenatal booking was significant (p < 0.001; the association between maternal mortality and the ‘three delays’ was also significant (p = 0.013. The association between maternal mortality and educational status and occupation was, however, not significant (p = 0.687 and p = 0.427 respectively.Conclusion: The medical causes of maternal mortality identified in this study were similar to those of the hospital-based studies in the area. In addition, an association between maternal deaths and the ‘three delays’ and the absence of antenatal booking was found. There is a need for public education efforts to address these factors in order to reduce maternal mortality in the study area.

Jamila A. Garba

2013-06-01

263

Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring  

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Objective Verbal autopsy (VA) is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD) in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. Methods A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO) then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification. Findings A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach. Conclusions The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians. PMID:24041439

Leitao, Jordana; Chandramohan, Daniel; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Choprapawon, Chanpen; de Savigny, Don; Fottrell, Edward; Franca, Elizabeth; Fr?en, Frederik; Gewaifel, Gihan; Hodgson, Abraham; Hounton, Sennen; Kahn, Kathleen; Krishnan, Anand; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Masanja, Honorati; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Francis; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Sankoh, Osman; Spiegel, Paul; AbouZahr, Carla; Amexo, Marc; Kebede, Derege; Alley, William Soumbey; Marinho, Fatima; Ali, Mohamed; Loyola, Enrique; Chikersal, Jyotsna; Gao, Jun; Annunziata, Giuseppe; Bahl, Rajiv; Bartolomeus, Kidist; Boerma, Ties; Ustun, Bedirhan; Chou, Doris; Muhe, Lulu; Mathai, Matthews

2013-01-01

264

Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring  

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Full Text Available Objective: Verbal autopsy (VA is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS systems. Methods: A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC. In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10 CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification. Findings: A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach. Conclusions: The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians.

Jordana Leitao

2013-09-01

265

Human exposure to metals: levels in autopsy tissues of individuals living near a hazardous waste incinerator.  

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The concentrations of a number of metals were determined in the brain, bone, kidney, liver, and lung of 20 autopsied subjects who had lived, at least 10 years, in the neighborhood of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). Results were compared with those obtained in 1998 (baseline survey) and previous surveys (2003 and 2007). Arsenic, Be, Ni, Tl, and V showed concentrations below the corresponding detection limits in all tissues. Cadmium showed the highest levels in the kidney, with a mean value of 21.15 ?g/g. However, Cd was found below the detection limit in the brain and bone. Chromium showed similar concentrations in the kidney, brain, and lung (range of mean values, 0.57-0.66 ?g/g) and higher in the bone (1.38 ?g/g). In turn, Hg was below the detection limit in all tissues with the exception of the kidney, where the mean concentration was 0.15 ?g/g (range, <0.05-0.58 ?g/g). On the other hand, Mn could be detected in all tissues showing the highest levels in the liver and kidney (1.45 and 1.09 ?g/g, respectively). Moreover, Pb showed the highest concentrations in bone (mean, 1.39 ?g/g; range, <0.025-4.88 ?g/g). Finally, Sn could be detected only in some tissue samples, reaching the highest values in the bone (0.17 ?g/g). The current metal levels in human tissues from individuals living near the HWI of Tarragona are comparable and of a similar magnitude to previously reported results corresponding to general populations, as well as those of our previous surveys. PMID:24728924

Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Barbería, Eneko; García, Francisco; Domingo, José L

2014-06-01

266

An autopsy case of granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-producing extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma  

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Full Text Available A 79-year-old man was referred to this department due to the presence of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma with a tumor at the left chest wall. The lesion was suspected to be a metastasis of bile duct carcinoma to the left wall, however, computed tomography (CT revealed no regional lymph node or liver metastases. In addition, cytological and pathological examinations did not show malignancy. At the time of admission, the white blood cell count was 21 460 cells/?L (neutrophils, 18 240 cells/?L and this elevated to 106 040 before death. In addition, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF was elevated. At 28 d after admission, the patient died. An autopsy showed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with sarcomatous change, which had slightly invaded into the pancreas around the bile duct, and was found in the distal bile duct with multiple metastases to the chest wall, lung, kidney, adrenal body, liver, mesentery, vertebra and mediastinal and para-aortic lymph nodes, without locoregional lymph node and liver metastasis. The cancer cells showed positive immunohistochemical staining for anti-G-CSF antibody. This is believed to be the first report of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma that produces G-CSF. Since G-CSF-producing carcinoma and sarcomatous change of the biliary tract leads to poor prognosis, early diagnosis and treatment are needed. When infection is ruled out, the G-CSF in serum should be examined. In addition, examinations such as bone scintigraphy and chest CT should also be considered for distant metastasis.

Satoru Matsuyama, Tomonori Shimonishi, Hirofumi Yoshimura, Kensaku Higaki, Kenji Nasu, Mariko Toyooka, Shigehisa Aoki, Keiko Watanabe and Hajime Sugihara

2008-05-01

267

Real-time PCR detection of five different "endogenous control gene" transcripts in forensic autopsy material.  

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Relative quantification of mRNA using quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR is a commonly used method for analysis and comparison of gene expression levels. This method requires a normalisation of data against expression levels of a control gene. In the past, several ubiquitously expressed genes were used as such endogenous controls. When working with human tissue samples obtained during autopsy one has to deal with postmortem intervals of usually more than 10 h. The aim of this study was to investigate whether commonly used endogenous control genes show stability over various postmortem intervals. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from three different human tissues of five postmortem intervals ranging from 15 to 118 h. The Ct values from five commonly used endogenous control genes--beta-actin, B2M, CyPA, TBP, and UBC--were obtained by real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed a relatively high stability of Ct values in skeletal muscle tissue regarding different postmortem intervals. In heart and brain tissues, all endogenous controls were found to be highly variable. B2M appeared to be the least unstable control in this set. Nevertheless, all endogenous controls showed variability in their expression levels regarding both the stability among different tissues and different postmortem intervals. Data obtained in the present study show that postmortem mRNA degradation is a complex process, and that the use of one single endogenous control in gene expression studies of postmortem tissue would lead to erroneous data interpretation. Further studies on this topic should be performed in the future including an increased number of well documented samples. PMID:19083749

Heinrich, Marielle; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Matt, Katja; Schmidt, Ulrike

2007-06-01

268

Renal involvement in myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. A study of autopsy cases.  

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A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578

Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

1997-02-01

269

Evaluation of additional head of biceps brachii: a study with autopsy material.  

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Additional head of the biceps brachii (AHBB) has been reported in different population groups with a frequency of 1-25%. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and morphologic expression of the AHBB as determined in a sample of the Colombian population. An exploration was conducted with 106 arms corresponding to unclaimed corpses autopsied at Institute of Legal and Forensic Medicine of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Using medial incision involvingskin, subcutaneous tissue, and brachial fascia, the heads of the biceps and their innervating branches were visualised. One AHBB was observed in 21 (19.8%) of the arms evaluated, with non-significant difference (p = 0.568) per side of presentation: 11 (52.4%) cases on the right side and 10 (47.6%) on the left side. All AHBBs were originated in the infero-medial segment of the humerus, with a mean thickness of 17.8 ± 6.8 mm. In 4 (19%) cases the fascicle was thin, less than 10 mm; in 7 (33.3%) cases it was of medium thickness, between 11 and 20 mm, whereas in 47.6% it was longer than 20 mm. The length of the AHBB was 118.3 ± 26.8 mm; its motor point supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve was located at 101.3 ± 20.9 mm of the bi-epicondylar line. The incidence of AHBB in this study is located at the upper segment of what has been reportedin the literature and could be a morphologic trait of the Colombian population; in agreement with prior studies, the origin was the infero-medial surface of the humerus. PMID:24902098

Ballesteros, L E; Forero, P L; Buitrago, E R

2014-05-01

270

Morphologic evaluation of the renal veins: a study with autopsy material from Colombian subjects.  

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Renal venous drainage presents a large degree of variability. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphological expression of the renal veins. Renal vein formation patterns, their morphometry, and frequency of additional veins were studied in a sample of 156 pairs of kidneys, the vascular beds of which were subjected to an injection-corrosion technique, taken from cadaver specimens autopsied at National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensics Sciences in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A single renal vein (RV) was found bilaterally in 122 (78.2%) samples, whereas 34 (21.8%) kidneys had additional RVs (left side 33 cases, right side one case). Of the specimens with multiple right renal veins (RRV), 28 (17.9%) had two RVs and five (3.2%) had three RVs. Of the left kidneys, 99.4% had one LRV and 0.6% had two LRVs. The lengths of the left and right renal veins were 56.5±12.7 mm and 23.6±8.21 mm, respectively; the caliber of the left renal vein (LRV) was 12.3±1.41 mm, whereas the caliber of the RRV was 10.9±1.56 mm, a statistically non-significant difference (p=0.262). 82.7% of the LRVs and the 73.1% of the RRVs (p=0.768) originated at the extra-hilum level. Renal vein formation pattern characterized by the confluence of upper and lower tributaries was found in 61.6% of the cases, whereas 16.3% of the specimens had upper, medium, and lower tributaries. Variation patterns found in this study point towards a wide morphological expression of these vessels that needs to be taken into account for both imaging and surgical procedures. PMID:24715169

Ballesteros, Luis Ernesto; Saldarriaga, Vladimir; Ramirez, Luis Miguel

2014-01-01

271

H.M.'s contributions to neuroscience: A review and autopsy studies.  

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H.M., Henry Molaison, was one of the world's most famous amnesic patients. His amnesia was caused by an experimental brain operation, bilateral medial temporal lobe resection, carried out in 1953 to relieve intractable epilepsy. He died on December 2, 2008, and that night we conducted a wide variety of in situ MRI scans in a 3 T scanner at the Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General) Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging. For the in situ experiments, we acquired a full set of standard clinical scans, 1 mm isotropic anatomical scans, and multiple averages of 440 ?m isotropic anatomical scans. The next morning, H.M.'s body was transported to the Mass General Morgue for autopsy. The photographs taken at that time provided the first documentation of H.M.'s lesions in his physical brain. After tissue fixation, we obtained ex vivo structural data at ultra-high resolution using 3 T and 7 T magnets. For the ex vivo acquisitions, the highest resolution images were 210 ?m isotropic. Based on the MRI data, the anatomical areas removed during H.M.'s experimental operation were the medial temporopolar cortex, piriform cortex, virtually all of the entorhinal cortex, most of the perirhinal cortex and subiculum, the amygdala (except parts of the dorsal-most nuclei-central and medial), anterior half of the hippocampus, and the dentate gyrus (posterior head and body). The posterior parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal stem were partially damaged. Spared medial temporal lobe tissue included the dorsal-most amygdala, the hippocampal-amygdalo-transition-area, ?2 cm of the tail of the hippocampus, a small part of perirhinal cortex, a small portion of medial hippocampal tissue, and ?2 cm of posterior parahippocampal gyrus. H.M.'s impact on the field of memory has been remarkable, and his contributions to neuroscience continue with a unique dataset that includes in vivo, in situ, and ex vivo high-resolution MRI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25154857

Augustinack, Jean C; van der Kouwe, André J W; Salat, David H; Benner, Thomas; Stevens, Allison A; Annese, Jacopo; Fischl, Bruce; Frosch, Matthew P; Corkin, Suzanne

2014-11-01

272

Cadmium concentrations in autopsy material from differently polluted areas of West Germany (FRG).  

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Analyses of Cadmium (Cd) in human specimens demand special interest since the Federal Environmental Agency of West-Germany (UBA, FRG) has published calculations and high figures of renal disturbances due to Cd. We analyzed autopsy material from the Cd-polluted area of Goslar/Harz Mountains (N = 28) and from the less contaminated region Erlangen/Nürnberg (Franconia) (N = 50). As determinants of Cd-concentration special regard was given to age, smoking habits, residence (urban/rural), and medical findings (nephropathy, hypertension). A balanced distribution of age is found in all subdivisions, the mean age of death is 66 and 68 yrs., respectively, in both regions. Median values of Cd-concentrations in the target organs from Franconia were found to be half the amount of those from Goslar (renal cortex: 12/19, medulla: 8/16, liver: 1/3 micrograms Cd/g wet weight). Significant local differences are found for renal medulla and liver (p less than 0.05). In both regions the Cd-content is independent from sex and residence (urban/rural). The influence of tobacco smoking on the Cd-burden is evident (greater than 50%). Cases of hypertension show maximum values, although this trend can't be confirmed by the median values. Regional Cd-pollution seems to have more effect than pathological findings: normotensive persons from Goslar have higher median renal Cd-concentrations than hypertensive patients from Franconia. Analyses of renal diseases reveal the same result. All Cd-concentrations are far below the critical value (200 micrograms Cd/g renal cortex, w.w.). The evaluation of such limit values and the results of similar studies are briefly discussed. PMID:3096015

Thürauf, J; Schaller, K H; Valentin, H; Weltle, D; Grote, K; Schellmann, B

1986-07-01

273

Osteometric analysis for sexing of modern sternum - An autopsy study from South India.  

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Estimation of sex is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology and requires foremost attention in the analysis of commingled and unidentified remains. In India, there is a paucity of population specific morphometric standards for identifying sex from unknown human remains in different population groups. The present research is an osteometric analysis to study the sexual dimorphism of the sternum of South Indian origin using statistical considerations. The study sample constituted of adult autopsied sternums of known age and sex. Five linear measurements (length of the manubrium, mesosternum, manubrium and mesosternum together, and width at 1st and at 3rd sternebra) were examined during the study. Three indices (manubrio-corpus Index, ratio of the length of the mesosternum and manubrium, and sternubrial-width index) were computed from the length and width measurements of the sternum. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software and Student's t-test was applied to find the sex differences in these variables. While statistically significant sex differences were observed for all the five linear measurements of the sternum, none of the sternal indices showed statistically significant sex differences. Discriminant function and logistic regression analysis were performed to derive the predicting models for estimation of sex from the different variables. The predictability of sternal measurements in sexing using univariate models ranged between 67.5% for the width at 3rd sternebra and 74.4% for the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum. The classification accuracy rates of sternal measurements were observed to be higher when multivariate analysis was performed. Length of manubrium and mesosternum together along with width at 1st sternebra yielded maximum accuracy of 79.5% (discriminant function analysis) and 81.2% (logistic regression analysis) in sexing of male and female sternum. The present research concludes that the application of sternum in sex estimation should be restricted to cases when other more reliable bones for sexing are not available to the investigators. PMID:25127732

Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal

2014-11-01

274

Social autopsy for maternal and child deaths: a comprehensive literature review to examine the concept and the development of the method  

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Full Text Available Abstract "Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the concept and development of social autopsy, focusing on the contributions of the Pathway Analysis format for child deaths and the Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response program in India to social autopsy's success in meeting key objectives. The Pathway Analysis social autopsy format, based on the Pathway to Survival model designed to support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach, was developed from 1995 to 2001 and has been utilized in studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Adoption of the Pathway model has enriched the data gathered on care seeking for child illnesses and supported the development of demand- and supply-side interventions. The instrument has recently been updated to improve the assessment of neonatal deaths and is soon to be utilized in large-scale population-representative verbal/social autopsy studies in several African countries. Maternal death audit, starting with confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in Britain more than 50 years ago, is a long-accepted strategy for reducing maternal mortality. More recently, maternal social autopsy studies that supported health programming have been conducted in several developing countries. From 2005 to 2009, 10 high-mortality states in India conducted community-based maternal verbal/social autopsies with participatory data sharing with communities and health programs that resulted in the implementation of numerous data-driven maternal health interventions. Social autopsy is a powerful tool with the demonstrated ability to raise awareness, provide evidence in the form of actionable data and increase motivation at all levels to take appropriate and effective actions. Further development of the methodology along with standardized instruments and supporting tools are needed to promote its wide-scale adoption and use.

Koffi Alain K

2011-08-01

275

Social autopsy for maternal and child deaths: a comprehensive literature review to examine the concept and the development of the method.  

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"Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability.Through a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the concept and development of social autopsy, focusing on the contributions of the Pathway Analysis format for child deaths and the Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response program in India to social autopsy's success in meeting key objectives. The Pathway Analysis social autopsy format, based on the Pathway to Survival model designed to support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach, was developed from 1995 to 2001 and has been utilized in studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Adoption of the Pathway model has enriched the data gathered on care seeking for child illnesses and supported the development of demand- and supply-side interventions. The instrument has recently been updated to improve the assessment of neonatal deaths and is soon to be utilized in large-scale population-representative verbal/social autopsy studies in several African countries. Maternal death audit, starting with confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in Britain more than 50 years ago, is a long-accepted strategy for reducing maternal mortality. More recently, maternal social autopsy studies that supported health programming have been conducted in several developing countries. From 2005 to 2009, 10 high-mortality states in India conducted community-based maternal verbal/social autopsies with participatory data sharing with communities and health programs that resulted in the implementation of numerous data-driven maternal health interventions.Social autopsy is a powerful tool with the demonstrated ability to raise awareness, provide evidence in the form of actionable data and increase motivation at all levels to take appropriate and effective actions. Further development of the methodology along with standardized instruments and supporting tools are needed to promote its wide-scale adoption and use. PMID:21819605

Kalter, Henry D; Salgado, Rene; Babille, Marzio; Koffi, Alain K; Black, Robert E

2011-01-01

276

Prevalence of prostate cancer across the globe: what can autopsy studies teach us about this peculiar disease?  

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Prostate cancer (PCa) represents a major public health burden in the western world. It is a peculiar disease as more men die with it than from it. Also interestingly, PCa was virtually unknown for centuries until the 20th century. Randomized trials on PCa screening have outlined the risks of over-diagnosis and over-treatment of latent cancers. Significant geographical differences in PCa incidence and mortality exist, being supposedly low among Asian men compared to Caucasians. In some areas like Korea and Japan, changes have been observed that cannot be explained easily by changing diagnostic procedures and increases in mortality may be due to lifestyles and dietary changes. We have recently studied and compared the prevalence of PCa in Caucasian (CAU) from Moscow, Russia and Asian (ASI) men from Tokyo, Japan. We chose a specific Cau population in Russia with little sun exposure and high fat diet but without widespread PSA screening. Autopsy data in western countries (North America and Europe) would have been heavily contaminated due to opportunistic PSA screening. Screening in Asi men in Japan is uncommon. Prostates were removed en-block with the seminal vesicles within 24 hours of death and analyzed in toto (perpendicular sections at 4 mm intervals) by an experienced uro-pathologist in Toronto. PCa was found on autopsy in a similar proportion of Russian Caucasian and Japanese men. Over 50% of cancers are Gleason ?7 in Japanese and nearly 25% in Russian Caucasian men raising questions about 1) previous assumptions related to Asian PCa and 2) the notion of significant vs. insignificant cancers. Autopsy studies are key to improve our understanding of this very curious cancer. PMID:24914839

Zlotta, Alexandre R; Kuk, Cynthia

2014-06-01

277

Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ?1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of thdiseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

278

Demographic, etiological, and histological pulmonary analysis of patients with acute respiratory failure: a study of 19 years of autopsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings [...] of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases. The pulmonary histopathology was categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of the concordance between the major associated diseases and specific autopsy findings was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 33.9% of the cases and cancer in 28.1%. The pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 40.7% (1,917) of the cases. A multivariate analysis showed a significant and powerful association between diffuse alveolar damage and bronchopneumonia, HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and septic shock, between liver cirrhosis and pulmonary embolism, between pulmonary edema and acute myocardial infarction, between dilated cardiomyopathy and cancer, between alveolar hemorrhage and bronchopneumonia and pulmonary embolism, and between lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia and HIV/ AIDS and liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis in these cases. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which was associated with different inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complete pathophysiological mechanisms involved with each disease and the development of acute respiratory failure.

Alexandre de Matos, Soeiro; Aline D., Ruppert; Mauro, Canzian; Edwin R., Parra; Cecília, Farhat; Vera L., Capelozzi.

279

Robust metrics for assessing the performance of different verbal autopsy cause assignment methods in validation studies  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is an important method for obtaining cause of death information in settings without vital registration and medical certification of causes of death. An array of methods, including physician review and computer-automated methods, have been proposed and used. Choosing the best method for VA requires the appropriate metrics for assessing performance. Currently used metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, and cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF errors do not provide a robust basis for comparison. Methods We use simple simulations of populations with three causes of death to demonstrate that most metrics used in VA validation studies are extremely sensitive to the CSMF composition of the test dataset. Simulations also demonstrate that an inferior method can appear to have better performance than an alternative due strictly to the CSMF composition of the test set. Results VA methods need to be evaluated across a set of test datasets with widely varying CSMF compositions. We propose two metrics for assessing the performance of a proposed VA method. For assessing how well a method does at individual cause of death assignment, we recommend the average chance-corrected concordance across causes. This metric is insensitive to the CSMF composition of the test sets and corrects for the degree to which a method will get the cause correct due strictly to chance. For the evaluation of CSMF estimation, we propose CSMF accuracy. CSMF accuracy is defined as one minus the sum of all absolute CSMF errors across causes divided by the maximum total error. It is scaled from zero to one and can generalize a method's CSMF estimation capability regardless of the number of causes. Performance of a VA method for CSMF estimation by cause can be assessed by examining the relationship across test datasets between the estimated CSMF and the true CSMF. Conclusions With an increasing range of VA methods available, it will be critical to objectively assess their performance in assigning cause of death. Chance-corrected concordance and CSMF accuracy assessed across a large number of test datasets with widely varying CSMF composition provide a robust strategy for this assessment.

Vahdatpour Alireza

2011-08-01

280

Cultural imperatives and the ethics of verbal autopsies in rural Ghana  

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Full Text Available Background: Due to a paucity of statistics from vital registration systems in developing countries, the verbal autopsy (VA approach has been used to obtain cause-specific mortality data by interviewing lay respondents on the signs and symptoms experienced by the deceased prior to death. In societies where the culture of mourning is adhered to, the use of VA could clash with traditional norms, thus warranting ethical consideration by researchers. Objective: The study was designed to explore the ethics and cultural context of collecting VA information through a demographic and health surveillance system in the Kassena-Nankana District (KND of Ghana. Study Design: Data were collected through qualitative in-depth interviews (IDIs with four field staff involved in the routine conduct of VAs, four physicians who code VAs, 20 selected respondents to the VA tool, and eight opinion leaders in the KND. The interviews were supplemented with observation by the researchers and with the field notes of field workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, and local language versions transcribed into English. Thematic analysis was performed using QSR NVivo 8 software. Results: The data indicate that cultural sensitivities in VA procedures at both the individual and family levels need greater consideration not only for ethical reasons but also to ensure the quality of the data. Discussions of some deaths are culturally prohibited and therefore lead to refusal of interviews. Families were also concerned about the confidentiality of information because of the potential of blame for the death. VA teams do not necessarily engage in culturally appropriate bereavement practices such as the presentation of tokens. The desire by families for feedback on the cause of death, which is currently not provided by researchers, was frequently expressed. Finally, no standard exists on the culturally acceptable time interval between death and VA interviews. Conclusion: Ethical issues need to be given greater consideration in the collection of cause of death data, and this can be achieved through the establishment of processes that allow active engagement with communities, authorities of civil registrations, and Institutional Review Boards to take greater account of local contexts.

Raymond A. Aborigo

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Mercury in human brain, blood, muscle and toenails in relation to exposure: an autopsy study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The main forms of mercury (Hg exposure in the general population are methylmercury (MeHg from seafood, inorganic mercury (I-Hg from food, and mercury vapor (Hg0 from dental amalgam restorations. While the distribution of MeHg in the body is described by a one compartment model, the distribution of I-Hg after exposure to elemental mercury is more complex, and there is no biomarker for I-Hg in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between on the one hand MeHg and I-Hg in human brain and other tissues, including blood, and on the other Hg exposure via dental amalgam in a fish-eating population. In addition, the use of blood and toenails as biological indicator media for inorganic and organic mercury (MeHg in the tissues was evaluated. Methods Samples of blood, brain (occipital lobe cortex, pituitary, thyroid, abdominal muscle and toenails were collected at autopsy of 30 deceased individuals, age from 47 to 91 years of age. Concentrations of total-Hg and I-Hg in blood and brain cortex were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry and total-Hg in other tissues by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. Results The median concentrations of MeHg (total-Hg minus I-Hg and I-Hg in blood were 2.2 and 1.0 ?g/L, and in occipital lobe cortex 4 and 5 ?g/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between MeHg in blood and occipital cortex. Also, total-Hg in toenails correlated with MeHg in both blood and occipital lobe. I-Hg in both blood and occipital cortex, as well as total-Hg in pituitary and thyroid were strongly associated with the number of dental amalgam surfaces at the time of death. Conclusion In a fish-eating population, intake of MeHg via the diet has a marked impact on the MeHg concentration in the brain, while exposure to dental amalgam restorations increases the I-Hg concentrations in the brain. Discrimination between mercury species is necessary to evaluate the impact on Hg in the brain of various sources of exposure, in particular, dental amalgam exposure.

Morild Inge

2007-10-01

282

The attempt on the life of Reinhard Heydrich, architect of the "final solution": a review of his treatment and autopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reinhard Heydrich, architect of the "Final solution of the Jewish problem," had a meteoric career in the SS. He organized the Wannsee Conference and created the SS killing squads. Under his leadership as Acting Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, the suppression of the Czech community was brutal. An attempt on his life in Prague was unsuccessful but it left him severely injured and he died eight days later. Reviewing the available information on his hospital treatment and the autopsy report, it is suggested that Heydrich received substandard medical treatment, quite likely a result of political interference from rival members of the SS hierarchy. PMID:24834756

Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

2014-04-01

283

An autopsy case of atypical acute myelogenous leukemia with 8 trisomy in an atomic bomb survivor (early entry)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical course and autopsy findings of an 80-year-old male, an atomic bomb survivor, with 8 trisomy were reported. The patient's disease was in the category of atypical acute myelogenous leukemia, smoldering acute leukemia, or hemopoietic dysplasis. An abnormal nucleus type of 47, XY, and +8 was found in all bone marrow cells examined. However, there was no evidence that this patient had exposed to high radioactivity due to a-bomb, no that the disease was induced by radiation exposure. Though the activity of glutathione was not high in this case, the relation between the glutathione activity and 8 trisomy should be further investigated. (Nakanishi, T.)

284

Verbal autopsy-based cause-specific mortality trends in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2000-2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of the HIV pandemic and the more recent prevention and therapeutic interventions have resulted in extensive and rapid changes in cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is demand for timely and accurate cause-specific mortality data to steer public health responses and to evaluate the outcome of interventions. The objective of this study is to describe cause-specific mortality trends based on verbal autopsies conducted on all deaths in a rural population in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, over a 10-year period (2000-2009. Methods The study used population-based mortality data collected by a demographic surveillance system on all resident and nonresident members of 12,000 households. Cause of death was determined by verbal autopsy based on the standard INDEPTH/WHO verbal autopsy questionnaire. Cause of death was assigned by physician review and the Bayesian-based InterVA program. Results There were 11,281 deaths over 784,274 person-years of observation of 125,658 individuals between Jan. 1, 2000 and Dec. 31, 2009. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF for the population as a whole were: HIV-related (including tuberculosis, 50%; other communicable diseases, 6%; noncommunicable lifestyle-related conditions, 15%; other noncommunicable diseases, 2%; maternal, perinatal, nutritional, and congenital causes, 1%; injury, 8%; indeterminate causes, 18%. Over the course of the 10 years of observation, the CSMF of HIV-related causes declined from a high of 56% in 2002 to a low of 39% in 2009 with the largest decline starting in 2004 following the introduction of an antiretroviral treatment program into the population. The all-cause age-standardized mortality rate (SMR declined over the same period from a high of 174 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 165, 183 deaths per 10,000 person-years observed (PYO in 2003 to a low of 116 (95% CI: 109, 123 in 2009. The decline in the SMR is predominantly due to a decline in the HIV-related SMR, which declined in the same period from 96 (95% CI: 89, 102 to 45 (95% CI: 40, 49 deaths per 10,000 PYO. There was substantial agreement (79% kappa = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.69 between physician coding and InterVA coding at the burden of disease group level. Conclusions Verbal autopsy based methods enabled the timely measurement of changing trends in cause-specific mortality to provide policymakers with the much-needed information to allocate resources to appropriate health interventions.

Newell Marie-Louise

2011-08-01

285

The unexpected finding of a benign mature teratoma in a forensic pathology autopsy : a rare cause for sudden, unexpected death  

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Intracranial teratomas are rare tumors that are usually discovered in infancy due to progressive symptoms. We describe a case of a 38-year-old man who was found dead 9 hours after the last sign of life. The deceased's medical history could not explain the sudden, unexpected death. A forensic autopsy revealed an asymptomatic, mature teratoma in the left frontal and temporal lobes. We concluded that the cause of death must have been a generalized epileptiform seizure originating in the tumor site(s) leading to aspiration of the stomach contents and unfavorable positioning, resulting in asphyxia.

HØyer, Christian Bjerre; UlhØi, Benedicte Parm

2013-01-01

286

An autopsy study of histopathological changes in the urinary bladder transitional epithelium of atomic bomb survivors, 1960 - 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study extended sample, there were 4,499 cases in the Pathology Study sample of atomic bomb survivors who had come to autopsy in the period 1960 - 83. Among 370 subjects who were heavily exposed with an estimated dose (T65D) of 100 rad or more, 72 (about 20 %) of them, whose urinary bladder epithelia had been preserved satisfactorily to suit the purpose of this study, were sampled as the index group. An equal number of control subjects were selected from the unexposed group individually, matched with the index cases by city, sex, age at death, and year of death. However, cases with marked epithelial autolysis and those pathologically diagnosed as urinary bladder cancer were previously excluded from both the index group and control subjects. These 72 pairs of autopsy cases were pathologically studied for the presence or absence of epithelial lesions of the urinary bladder, namely, hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ, and the frequencies of appearance of these lesions were compared statistically by ?2 test based on a case-control study design. Carcinoma-in-situ and severe dysplasia were detected in neither the index cases nor the control cases. The risk was relatively higher in the index group than in the control subjects for both hyperplasia and dysplasia (mild and moderate), in particular the relative risk of papillary hyperplasia being about 4.0, but as the total number of cases were small, this was not statistically significant. (author)

287

An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia found in an atomic bomb survivor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia, presumably on a sequela to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is reported. On admission, severe anemia and thrombocytosis were found and the bone marrow aspiration showed myeloid hyperplasia without definite maturation arrest. Mild to moderate eosinophilia and basophilia continued during the course of the disease, accompaning mild monocytosis 2 years later. Furthermore, he had the radical operation for the early gastric cancer in this preleukemic stage. After the administration of methenolone acetate (25 mg/day), severe anemia has dramatically improved, but leukocytosis with profound monocytosis persisted, and subsequently acute myelocytic leukemia developed. He died from an intracerebral bleeding due to an accidental trauma on the head. Autopsy findings disclosed the systemic leukemic infiltration. Repeated chromosome analyses revealed the mosaic karyotype of 46, XY/45, XY, -16 on admission, but it was 46, XY/46, XY, del (8) (p 12) in the overt leukemic phase. The granulopoietic colony forming capacity of bone marrow cells was already low one year before the onset of overt leukemia. This finding suggested that the existence of an abnormal clone could be predictable. In addition, the possible causative effect of the exposure to the atomic bomb in leukemogenesis in this case is discussed. (author)

288

The use of simplified verbal autopsy in identifying causes of adult death in a predominantly rural population in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on adult mortality is essentially non-existent in Ethiopia particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying causes of adult death in a rural population of Ethiopia using a simplified verbal autopsy instrument. Methods All deaths in the age-group 15–49 years during the period of 1995–99 were taken from computerized demographic surveillance database maintained by the Butajira Rural Health Program. Data on the causes of death were collected from close relatives of the deceased persons by lay interviewers. Causes of death were diagnosed using "expert algorithm" programmed onto a computer. Results The major causes of death were acute febrile illnesses (25.2%, liver diseases (11.3%, diarrheal diseases (11.1%, tuberculosis (9.7% and HIV/AIDS (7.4%. Overall communicable diseases accounted for 60.8% of the deaths. The high levels of mortality from communicable diseases reflect the poor socioeconomic development of the country, and the general poor coverage of health and education services in rural Ethiopia. The tools used in this study can easily be added-on to the numerous health surveys conducted in the country. Conclusion The simplified approach to verbal autopsy diagnosis can produce useful data that can effectively guide priority health interventions in rural areas where routine information system is either very weak or non-existent.

Berhane Yemane

2005-06-01

289

Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy  

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To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)

Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Surer, Eddie; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael; Schweitzer, Wolf [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Elliott, Marina [Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

2014-06-15

290

Hemoperitoneo secundario a rotura de carcinoma hepatocelular: Hallazgos de autopsia / Hemoperitoenum due to hepatocellular carcinoma: Autopsy findings  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El hemoperitoneo secundario a la rotura de un carcinoma hepatocelular (CH) es una complicación poco frecuente en nuestro medio, siendo más infrecuente su hallazgo como causa de muerte en individuos no diagnosticados de CH. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 87 años con antecedentes patológicos de h [...] epatitis C crónica e hipertensión arterial y sin constancia de traumatismo abdominal previo, que debutó con un cuadro inespecífico de malestar general, náuseas y vómitos de varias horas de evolución, motivo por el cual se le prescribió y administró domiciliariamente metoclopramida. Falleció a las pocas horas de la atención médica, motivo por el cual se practicó la autopsia judicial. Durante la misma se evidenció un hemoperitoneo de 3.000 cc secundario a una rotura intratumoral sobre un hígado cirrótico. Abstract in english Hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (CH) is a rare complication in our environment. His find, still more, is uncommon cause of death in individuals not diagnosed of CH. We report the case of a woman of 87 years-old with clinical history of chronic hepatitis C, hypertensio [...] n, and abdominal trauma without evidence of prior, which debuted with a nonspecific malaise, nausea and vomiting several hours of evolution, why was prescribed and administered metoclopramide home. She died a few hours after care, which is why judicial autopsy was performed. The autopsy was shown a 3000 cc hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture intratumoral in a cirrhotic liver.

M., Subirana Domènech; M., Ortega Sánchez; G., Font Valsecchi; J.I., Galtés Vicente; J., Castellà García.

2012-03-01

291

Histopatología del daño múltiple de órganos en autopsias pediátricas / Histopathology of multiple organ damage in paediatric autopsies  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el daño múltiple de órganos es el conjunto de alteraciones morfológicas, frecuentes en pacientes críticos, diagnosticadas en las autopsias como respuesta a la inflamación sistémica. En estudios realizados, las personas con edades jóvenes de la vida se han visto particularmente afectada [...] s por esta entidad. Objetivo: analizar el comportamiento del diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos en autopsias pediátricas procedentes de dos unidades de terapia intensiva e identificar las manifestaciones histopatológicas, la edad y el sexo de los niños fallecidos. Métodos: se revisaron 13 autopsias de niños fallecidos en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" en 5 años (2003-2007) y 42 correspondientes al Hospital Pediátrico Docente de San Miguel del Padrón en un periodo de 7 años (2000-2006), y se extrajeron las que cumplieron los criterios diagnósticos del daño múltiple de órganos. Resultados: se destacó la elevada frecuencia del daño múltiple de órganos en las autopsias de la terapia pediátrica en ambos centros estudiados. Los primeros periodos de vida fueron los más afectados, mientras el sexo mostró variaciones entre ambos centros estudiados. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos es expresión de la calidad del trabajo que se realiza con las autopsias y la preparación del personal médico, lo cual se muestra en las elevadas cifras de coincidencias diagnósticas. Modular la respuesta inflamatoria incontrolada, es prevenir que se establezca el referido daño y, por lo tanto, es salvar la vida de un niño. Abstract in english Introduction: multiple organ damage is a group of morphological alterations, frequent in critical patients, which are diagnosed in autopsies as a response to systemic inflammation. Different studies report that the youngest people have been particularly affected by this disease. Objective: to analyz [...] e the behaviour of the diagnosis of multiple organ damage in paediatric autopsies from two Intensive Care Units and identify the histopathological manifestations, the age, and the sex in dead children. Methods: 13 autopsies of dead children were checked in "Dr. Luis Diaz Soto" Central Military Hospital during 5 years (2003-2007). Other 42 corresponding to the Paediatric Teaching Hospital of San Miguel del Padrón were also checked over a period of 7 years (2000-2006). The ones that reported diagnostic criteria of multiple organ damage were selected. Results: a high frequency of multiple organ damage in autopsies of paediatric therapies in both cases under study was emphasized. The first periods of life were the most affected ones and the sex showed some variations in the two centres under study. Conclusions: the diagnosis of multiple organ damage is the reflection of both the quality of work carried out with autopsies and the training of the medical staff. It is shown in the high levels of diagnostic coincidences. To regulate the uncontrolled inflammatory response means preventing the referred damage, thus saving a child's life.

Teresita, Montero González; Yanira Noalis, Díaz Valdés; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Cecilia, Toledo Veja; Arturo, Delgado Delgado; Sonia, Pujol Olivares.

2013-06-01

292

Frequency of congenital abnormalities in mortality of fetuses and newborns autopsied in 1991 and 2001 at the Department of pathology and histology in Novi Sad  

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Full Text Available Introduction Congenital malformations are morphological developmental anomalies visible during clinical examination or autopsy (in case of death, stillborn or abortion. Their incidence in human population is estimated to be between 5-10%, and perinatal mortality rate varies from 20-25%. Material and methods The research was conducted at the Department of Pathology and Histology and at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad. We analyzed autopsy reports of newborns (under 28 days old, stillborns and miscarried fetuses in 1991 and 2001. Data on type and incidence of malformations in 1991 and 2001 were compared in order to determine statistically significant differences. Results Autopsy reports for 1991 revealed malformations in 21 cases, whereas autopsies were performed in 103 fetuses and newborns. The total number of deliveries at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad was 6.160. Autopsy reports for 2001 revealed malformations in 33 cases, and autopsies were performed in 126 fetuses and newborns. The total number of deliveries at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad was 6.101. Comparison regarding incidence of malformations in 1991 and 2001, showed no statistically significant difference. Discussion Congenital malformations are the most important cause of prenatal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. One reason for that is better treatment of other diseases, but on the other side, there are more toxic materials in human environment. Conclusion It is concluded that the incidence of congenital malformations in mortality of fetuses and newborns is high (20.39% in 1991, and 26.19% in 2001. We can also point to increase of central nervous system malformations in comparison with malformations of other organ systems.

Eri? Mirela

2003-01-01

293

Disease-specific mortality burdens in a rural Gambian population using verbal autopsy, 1998–2007  

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Full Text Available Objective: To estimate and evaluate the cause-of-death structure and disease-specific mortality rates in a rural area of The Gambia as determined using the InterVA-4 model. Design: Deaths and person-years of observation were determined by age group for the population of the Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance area from January 1998 to December 2007. Causes of death were determined by verbal autopsy (VA using the InterVA-4 model and ICD-10 disease classification. Assigned causes of death were classified into six broad groups: infectious and parasitic diseases; cancers; other non-communicable diseases; neonatal; maternal; and external causes. Poisson regression was used to estimate age and disease-specific mortality rates, and likelihood ratio tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results: A total of 3,203 deaths were recorded and VA administered for 2,275 (71%. All-age mortality declined from 15 per 1,000 person-years in 1998–2001 to 8 per 1,000 person-years in 2005–2007. Children aged 1–4 years registered the most marked (74% decline from 27 to 7 per 1,000 person-years. Communicable diseases accounted for half (49.9% of the deaths in all age groups, dominated by acute respiratory infections (ARI (13.7%, malaria (12.9% and pulmonary tuberculosis (10.2%. The leading causes of death among infants were ARI (5.59 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI: 4.38–7.15] and malaria (4.11 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI: 3.09–5.47]. Mortality rates in children aged 1–4 years were 3.06 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 2.58–3.63 for malaria, and 1.05 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.79–1.41 for ARI. The HIV-related mortality rate in this age group was 1.17 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.89–1.54. Pulmonary tuberculosis and communicable diseases other than malaria, HIV/AIDS and ARI were the main killers of adults aged 15 years and over. Stroke-related mortality increased to become the leading cause of death among the elderly aged 60 years or more in 2005–2007. Conclusions: Mortality in the Farafenni HDSS area was dominated by communicable diseases. Malaria and ARI were the leading causes of death in the general population. In addition to these, diarrhoeal disease was a particularly important cause of death among children under 5 years of age, as was pulmonary tuberculosis among adults aged 15 years and above.

Momodou Jasseh

2014-10-01

294

Primeira descrição de um caso autopsiado de melioidose no Estado do Ceará First description of an autopsied case of Melioidosis in Ceará State  

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Full Text Available Relata-se um caso autopsiado de paciente acometida por sepse fulminante com lesões predominantemente pulmonares, causada pela Burkholderia pseudomallei, agente etiológico da melioidose, proveniente de município do interior do Ceará, estado do nordeste do Brasil onde ainda não tinham sido descritos casos da doença. São discutidos os achados da autópsia e os diagnósticos diferenciais.An autopsied case is reported concerning fulminant sepsis with predominantly pulmonary lesions, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, etiologic agent of melioidosis, originating from interior of Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil where there had been no previous cases reported. Autopsy findings and differential diagnosis are discussed.

Marcus Davis Machado Braga

2005-02-01

295

Characteristics of prostate cancer among atomic bomb exposure obtained from autopsy specimen at Data and Specimens Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster at Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology of Hiroshima University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty-four cases of prostate cancer received autopsy at hospitals in Hiroshima city between 1954 and 1981 were compared with 34 cases of prostate cancer of non-exposed, received autopsy at Hiroshima University. They are classified by age, histology and distance from the hypocenter. (J.P.N.)

296

Deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia from 2001 to 2005: what can we learn from additional information?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths from childhood injury are a public health problem worldwide. A relatively high proportion of child deaths of undetermined manner in Estonia raises concerns about potential underestimation of intentional deaths, especially in infants. This suggests that more information on the circumstances surrounding death is needed to establish the manner of death correctly and, more importantly, to prevent these deaths. The objective of this study was to detect, describe, and analyze the circumstances around deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia to reveal hidden cases of child abuse and more accurately determine causes of death. Methods Study cases included all infant deaths in Estonia from 2001 to 2005 subject to forensic autopsy at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Additional information was obtained from a series of visits to general practitioners, including characteristics of infant health, family composition, parents' education and employment, living conditions, and circumstances around death as perceived by medical staff in charge of outpatient services for these families. Results The total number of infant deaths in Estonia between 2001 and 2005 subject to forensic autopsy was 98, with 40 (40.8% deaths attributed to a disease and 58 deaths (59.2% resulting from injury. Elements of child abuse were involved in as many as 57.7% (95% CI 46.9-68.1 of the deaths for which medical records were available (n = 90. At death, the majority of these cases were registered as diseases or deaths from unintentional injury. Average annual mortality from external causes in Estonian infants, 2001-2005, previously reported by us as 88.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 68.1-113.6 would decrease to 41.0 (95% CI 26.9-57.8. Many infants in the studied group had faced multiple threats and were living in poor hygienic conditions. In a number of cases, they were left alone or looked after by older siblings. Parents' alcohol abuse played an important role in a considerable number of cases. Conclusions Using additional sources of information revealed new information about child abuse not reflected in the cause of death diagnosis. Effective interventions aimed at parent education and improved follow-up of children by medical staff may reduce mortality from external causes among Estonian infants by more than half.

Grjibovski Andrej M

2010-10-01

297

Direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from VA studies is an analysis technique that estimates CSMFs in a population without predicting individual-level cause of death as an intermediate step. In previous studies, KL has shown promise as an alternative to physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA. However, it has previously been impossible to validate KL with a large dataset of VAs for which the underlying cause of death is known to meet rigorous clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods We applied the KL method to adult, child, and neonatal VA datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study, a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs where gold standard cause of death was established using strict clinical diagnostic criteria. To emulate real-world populations with varying CSMFs, we evaluated the KL estimations for 500 different test datasets of varying cause distribution. We assessed the quality of these estimates in terms of CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression and compared this with the results of PCVA. Results KL performance is similar to PCVA in terms of CSMF accuracy, attaining values of 0.669, 0.698, and 0.795 for adult, child, and neonatal age groups, respectively, when health care experience (HCE items were included. We found that the length of the cause list has a dramatic effect on KL estimation quality, with CSMF accuracy decreasing substantially as the length of the cause list increases. We found that KL is not reliant on HCE the way PCVA is, and without HCE, KL outperforms PCVA for all age groups. Conclusions Like all computer methods for VA analysis, KL is faster and cheaper than PCVA. Since it is a direct estimation technique, though, it does not produce individual-level predictions. KL estimates are of similar quality to PCVA and slightly better in most cases. Compared to other recently developed methods, however, KL would only be the preferred technique when the cause list is short and individual-level predictions are not needed.

Birnbaum Jeanette K

2011-08-01

298

An escape from agony: A qualitative psychological autopsy study of women's suicide in a post-conflict Northern Uganda  

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Full Text Available We set out to investigate suicide among women in a post-conflict context in Northern Uganda using qualitative psychological autopsy interviews. Three to five relatives and friends for each of the three suicides recruited were interviewed (N=11. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA we found that the women all had been through traumatic experiences attributable to the protracted war/conflict between the rebel groups and Ugandan Government armed forces. Nevertheless, the decision of self-inflicted death seemed to have been due to a combination of unpleasant experiences/events that prevailed within the last 3 months prior to the suicide. These experiences are summarized in two broad themes: No control in life and No care. Changes in the traditional gender roles, men's quest for their lost masculinity, and women's attempt to fight for their rights that was perceived as a cultural transgression contributed to the women's suicides.

Dorothy Kizza

2012-09-01

299

Autopsy findings in a case of a small cell lung cancer complicated by radiotherapy induced acute interstitial pneumonia  

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The authors describe the case of a 71-year-old man who had been referred to his hospital because of a dry cough and an associated abnormality that had been detected by x-ray. Based on chest x-ray evaluations and the endoscopic bronchial biopsy findings the diagnosis was a small cell lung cancer. The patient thus received a 2 time regimen of cisplatin chemotherapy and subsequent radiotherapy (40 Gy). Two weeks after this radiotherapy, however the patient complained of an increasing dyspnea. Two days later, he was readmitted to hospital because of pneumonia and severe dyspnea, but died of respiratory failure on the same day. The autopsy findings revealed diffuse organized alveolar duct damage that had been induced by radiotherapy directed toward a relatively large area that included the right lower lung and the mediastinum. (author)

300

An autopsy case of acute multiple sclerosis with multifocal low density areas in the cerebral white matter on CT scans  

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A 34-year-old woman presented with urination difficulty and consciousness disturbance, followed by persistent neurologic findings, such as semicomatose mental status and bilateral optic neuritis, and monophasic clinical course. Cranial CT showed multifocal low density areas in cerebral white matter. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. She died of sepsis four months later. Autopsy revealed multifocal large demyelinating lesions confined to the cerebral white matter, shown as low density areas on CT scans, and demyelinating plaques scattered in the optic nerves and chiasm, and cerebral peduncle. The final diagnosis was acute multiple sclerosis. The CT appearance of multifocal low density areas was most likely due to demyelinating lesions causing edema and tissue necrosis. (Namekawa, K.)

 
 
 
 
301

Autopsy case of acute multiple sclerosis with multifocal low density areas in the cerebral white matter on CT scans  

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A 34-year-old woman presented with urination difficulty and consciousness disturbance, followed by persistent neurologic findings, such as semicomatose mental status and bilateral optic neuritis, and monophasic clinical course. Cranial CT showed multifocal low density areas in cerebral white matter. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. She died of sepsis four months later. Autopsy revealed multifocal large demyelinating lesions confined to the cerebral white matter, shown as low density areas on CT scans, and demyelinating plaques scattered in the optic nerves and chiasm, and cerebral peduncle. The final diagnosis was acute multiple sclerosis. The CT appearance of multifocal low density areas was most likely due to demyelinating lesions causing edema and tissue necrosis. (Namekawa, K.).

Kamikura, Isao; Mizutani, Tomohiko; Sakamaki, Shuji; Takasu, Toshiaki; Kawamura, Toshiaki

1988-01-01

302

An autopsy case of multiple myeloma with veno-occlusive disease of the liver induced by ionizing radiation  

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An autopsy case of multiple myeloma which accompanied radiation-induced veno-occlusion of the liver is presented. A 62-year-old woman with a chief complaint of low back pain was diagnosed as having multiple myeloma. Approximately one year later, the patient was treated with chemotherapy, consisting of VCR, MCNU, ADR, PSL, and CPA, and X-irradiation of 30 Gy to the bilateral trunk for medically intractable rib pain. The irradiation field included the entire liver. Six months later, she was admitted to the hospital due to abdominal distention and massive amounts of ascites. Various examinations failed to make a qualitative diagnosis. Postmortem examination revealed fibrotic occlusion of the central vein which is typical for veno-occlusion disease of the liver. This finding was restricted to the area that was not shielded, irrespective of anatomical structure, strongly suggesting radiation-induced veno-occlusion of the liver. (N.K.).

Ueno, Hironori; Inagaki, Yasutaka; Yonei, Yoshikazu; Ozawa, Yukako; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Tsukada, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Kei; Suzuki, Osamu; Kiryu, Yasuyoshi [Nippon Kokan Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

1995-05-01

303

An autopsy case of multiple myeloma with veno-occlusive disease of the liver induced by ionizing radiation  

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An autopsy case of multiple myeloma which accompanied radiation-induced veno-occlusion of the liver is presented. A 62-year-old woman with a chief complaint of low back pain was diagnosed as having multiple myeloma. Approximately one year later, the patient was treated with chemotherapy, consisting of VCR, MCNU, ADR, PSL, and CPA, and X-irradiation of 30 Gy to the bilateral trunk for medically intractable rib pain. The irradiation field included the entire liver. Six months later, she was admitted to the hospital due to abdominal distention and massive amounts of ascites. Various examinations failed to make a qualitative diagnosis. Postmortem examination revealed fibrotic occlusion of the central vein which is typical for veno-occlusion disease of the liver. This finding was restricted to the area that was not shielded, irrespective of anatomical structure, strongly suggesting radiation-induced veno-occlusion of the liver. (N.K.)

304

An autopsy study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese men who lived in Hiroshima, Japan and Honolulu, Hawaii  

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Evidence of cerebrovascular disease at autopsy was compared in two groups of men, 186 long time residents of Hiroshima, Japan and 253 men of Japanese ancestry long resident in Honolulu, Hawaii. They were from 45 to 71 years of age at death. Atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis and its major branches, sclerosis of the intraparenchymal arteries and the frequency of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarct were compared in the two populations. The Honolulu subjects had significantly more atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis, but less intraparenchymal artery sclerosis and less cerebral infarction. Cerebral hemorrhage was equally frequent in the two cities. It was concluded that cerebral infarction is more frequent in Japanese men in Hiroshima than Honolulu, and that men of Japanese ancestry in Honolulu are spared an appreciable risk of cerebral infarction through decreased frequency of intraparenchymal arterial sclerosis despite higher levels of atherosclerosis of large intracranial arteries. (author)

305

A double-suicide autopsy case of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of potassium aspartate after intake of some psychopharmaceuticals.  

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We report a curious double-suicide autopsy case of both male and female who died of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated potassium aspartate solution. The plasma concentrations of potassium of the male and female subjects were as high as 49.7 and 62.8 mEq/L, respectively. In addition to the high concentrations of potassium, toxic levels of phenobarbital, promethazine and chlorpromazine, and relatively low levels of etizolam and brotizolam were also detected from whole blood and urine specimens of both cadavers. Twenty empty plastic bottles (10-mL capacity) labeled 'ASPARA® Potassium Injection 10 mEq' were found at the suicide spot. To our knowledge, this is the first description for suicidal death by potassium aspartate; in all of the previous literature, they used potassium chloride intravenously or per os. PMID:20670988

Watanabe, K; Hasegawa, K; Suzuki, O

2011-07-01

306

Statistical analysis of a Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory study of plutonium in U.S. autopsy tissue  

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The autopsy Tissue Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory was begun in 1959. To date, tissues from 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions throughout the U.S. have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph node, bone, spleen, thyroid and gonadal tissues for each individual. The present objective of the program is to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established is to be used to evaluate future changes. Geographical comparisons are made, but require adjustment because of outliers, and time and age trends present in the data. (author)

307

Biomechanical and histologic investigation of cemented total hip arthroplasties. A study of autopsy-retrieved femurs after in vivo cycling.  

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Eleven whole anatomic specimens of the femur were retrieved at autopsy from patients who previously had cemented total hip arthroplasty. Implant duration ranged from 0.5 to 210 months. Clinically and roentgenographically the implants were stable. A detailed biomechanical analysis evaluated bone strains and implant stability in both the single-limb stance and stair-climbing positions using a 100-pound spinal load. The stability offered by cement in these well-fixed prostheses was remarkable, with the maximum axial micromotion being 40 mu. This is a reflection of intimate osseointegration at the bone-cement interface with only rare intervening fibrous tissue. The strain gauge and photoelastic strain-coating studies revealed that marked stress shielding in the proximal medial femoral cortex persists long after a cemented femoral component is inserted. Even 17 years after surgery, the strain in the calcar region did not normalize. PMID:2582664

Maloney, W J; Jasty, M; Burke, D W; O'Connor, D O; Zalenski, E B; Bragdon, C; Harris, W H

1989-12-01

308

Determinantes morfológicos de prognóstico em pneumonia nosocomial: um estudo em autópsias Morphological prognostic factors in nosocomial pneumonia: an autopsy study  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial nas autópsias em um hospital público universitário; identificar os fatores de risco relacionados à pneumonia nosocomial e os potenciais fatores prognósticos relacionados à ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial fatal; e correlacionar os achados anatomopatológicos com a ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial e/ou pneumonia aspirativa. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 199 pacientes autopsiados, maiores de 1 ano de idade, internados no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista entre 1999 e 2006, cuja causa de morte (causa básica ou associada foi pneumonia nosocomial. Testou-se a associação dos dados demográficos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos com os desfechos pneumonia nosocomial fatal e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. As variáveis significativas entraram na análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 59 ± 19 anos. A prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial em autópsias foi 29%, e essa foi a causa mortis de 22,6% dos pacientes autopsiados. A pneumonia nosocomial fatal correlacionou-se com os achados anatomopatológicos de alterações estruturais tabágicas (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-2,95; p = 0,02 e acometimento pulmonar bilateral (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-8,30; p = 0,01. Não houve associações significativas entre as variáveis e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. CONCLUSÕES: Em nossa amostra, a pneumonia nosocomial teve prevalência elevada e foi responsável por quase 25% das mortes. A mortalidade é favorecida por alterações estruturais tabágicas e pneumonia bilateral. Esses achados corroboram os resultados de diversos estudos clínicos sobre pneumonia nosocomial.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies at a public university hospital; to identify the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia and the potential prognostic factors associated with fatal nosocomial pneumonia and with fatal aspiration pneumonia; and to determine whether anatomopathological findings correlate with nosocomial pneumonia or aspiration pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 199 autopsied patients, older than 1 year of age, who had been admitted to the São Paulo State University Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas and died of nosocomial pneumonia (underlying or contributing cause, between 1999 and 2006. Demographic, clinical and anatomopathological variables were tested regarding their association with the outcomes (fatal nosocomial pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia. The significant variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 59 ± 19 years. The prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies was 29%, and the disease was the cause of death in 22.6% of the autopsied patients. Fatal nosocomial pneumonia correlated with the following anatomopathological findings: tobacco-associated structural lesions (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-2.95; p = 0.02 and bilateral pneumonia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-8.30; p = 0.01. None of the variables were found to be significantly associated with fatal aspiration pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, there was a high prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia, which was responsible for almost 25% of all of the deaths. Smoking-related structural lesions and bilateral pneumonia all favored mortality. These findings corroborate the results of various clinical studies on nosocomial pneumonia.

Luiz Mário Baptista Martinelli

2010-02-01

309

An autopsy case involving a 12-year history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with CIDP-like polyneuropathy.  

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Demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is quite rare. We herein present the case of a woman patient with a 12-year history of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)-like polyneuropathy who later developed bulbar palsy and respiratory failure. The autopsy findings revealed neuronal loss in the anterior horn and primary motor cortex with degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Diffuse phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa inclusions were observed in the anterior horn and cerebral cortices, including the temporal lobe. The final diagnosis was ALS with CIDP-like polyneuropathy. Compared with other reports of ALS with CIDP-like polyneuropathy, the present patient was younger and followed a relatively long clinical course, with no upper motor neuron signs. PMID:24930660

Akaishi, Tetsuya; Tateyama, Maki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Miura, Emiko; Izumi, Rumiko; Endo, Kaoru; Sugeno, Naoto; Suzuki, Naoki; Baba, Toru; Misu, Tatsuro; Kikuchi, Akio; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Konosu-Fukaya, Sachiko; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Aoki, Masashi

2014-01-01

310

Organ retention and communication of research use following medico-legal autopsy: a pilot survey of university forensic medicine departments in Japan.  

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This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families. PMID:23912741

Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

2014-09-01

311

Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report.  

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A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.

HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov

2012-01-01

312

Interobserver agreement of the injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography of traffic fatality victims and a comparison with autopsy results  

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The present study investigated the interobserver variation between a radiologist and a forensic pathologist in 994 injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography (CT) of 67 traffic fatality victims, and the results were compared with diagnoses obtained by autopsy. The injuries were coded according to the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). We found a low interobserver variability for postmortem CT injury diagnoses, and the variability was the lowest for injuries with a high AIS severity score. The radiologist diagnosed more injuries than the pathologist, especially in the skeletal system, but the pathologist diagnosed more organ injuries. We recommend the use of a radiologist as a consultant for the evaluation of postmortem CT images. Training in radiology should be included in forensic medicine postgraduate training. CT was superior to autopsy in detecting abnormal air accumulations, but autopsy was superior to CT in the detection of organ injuries and aortic ruptures. We recommend a combination of CT and autopsy for the postmortem investigation of traffic fatality victims.

Leth, Peter Mygind; Struckmann, Henrik

2013-01-01

313

A state-of-the-art pipeline for postmortem CT and MRI visualization: from data acquisition to interactive image interpretation at autopsy  

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The importance of autopsy procedures leading to the establishment of the cause of death is well-known. A recent addition to the autopsy work flow is the possibility of conducting postmortem imaging, in its 3D version also called virtual autopsy (VA), using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) or magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) data from scans of cadavers displayed with direct volume rendering (DVR) 3D techniques. The use of the data and their workflow are presented. Data acquisition was performed and high quality data-sets with submillimeter precision were acquired. New data acquisition techniques such as dual-energy CT (DECT) and quantitative MRI, then were implemented and provided additional information. Particular findings hardly visualized in conventional autopsy can rather easy be seen at the full body CT, such as air distribution, e.g. pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, air embolism, and wound channels. MRI shows natural deaths such as myocardial infarctions. Interactive visualization of these 3D data-sets can provide valuable insight into the corpses and enables non-invasive diagnostic procedures. In postmortem CT imaging, not being limited by a patient depending radiation dose limit the data-sets can, however, be generated with such a high resolution that they become difficult to handle in today's archive retrieval and interactive visualization systems, specifically in the case of full body scans. To take full advantage of these new technologies the postmortem workflow needs to be tailored to the demands and opportunities that the new technologies allow

Persson, Anders (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Univ. of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Dept. of Radiology of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Linkoeping Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)), email: anders.persson@cmiv.liu.se; Lindblom, Maria (Dept. of Radiology of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Linkoeping Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jackowski, Christian (Inst. of Legal Medicine, Univ. of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland))

2011-06-15

314

A state-of-the-art pipeline for postmortem CT and MRI visualization: from data acquisition to interactive image interpretation at autopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of autopsy procedures leading to the establishment of the cause of death is well-known. A recent addition to the autopsy work flow is the possibility of conducting postmortem imaging, in its 3D version also called virtual autopsy (VA), using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) or magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) data from scans of cadavers displayed with direct volume rendering (DVR) 3D techniques. The use of the data and their workflow are presented. Data acquisition was performed and high quality data-sets with submillimeter precision were acquired. New data acquisition techniques such as dual-energy CT (DECT) and quantitative MRI, then were implemented and provided additional information. Particular findings hardly visualized in conventional autopsy can rather easy be seen at the full body CT, such as air distribution, e.g. pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, air embolism, and wound channels. MRI shows natural deaths such as myocardial infarctions. Interactive visualization of these 3D data-sets can provide valuable insight into the corpses and enables non-invasive diagnostic procedures. In postmortem CT imaging, not being limited by a patient depending radiation dose limit the data-sets can, however, be generated with such a high resolution that they become difficult to handle in today's archive retrieval and interactive visualization systems, specifically in the case of full body scans. To take full advantage of these new technologies the postmortem workflow needs to be tailored to the demands and opportunities that the new technologies allow

315

Structure of the human tricuspid valve leaflets and its chordae tendineae in unexpected death. A forensic autopsy study of 400 cases.  

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This condition negatively affects the feeding of chordae and leaflets and acts as a culprit of cardiac deaths, since aging starts at an early stage. This situation changes the verdict in legal affairs. For this reason, the valvachordal structure should be carefully examined prospectively in autopsies.

Aytac Kocak

2004-08-01

316

Multiorgan gadolinium (Gd) deposition and fibrosis in a patient with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis--an autopsy-based review  

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BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic disorder of patients with severe renal insufficiency who have received gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance contrast agents (GBCAs). The causative association with Gd exposure was strengthened by the demonstration of Gd in various tissues of NSF patients, predominantly at the bulk chemical level. The distribution of Gd at the histologic level of organs other than skin has not been reported previously. METHODS: We analysed tissues from an autopsy case with verified advanced NSF by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, we reviewed published literature to compare the histological and histochemical findings in NSF patients and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients without NSF. RESULTS: Insoluble Gd-phosphate deposits were detected in the skin, liver, lungs, intestinal wall (ileum), kidney, lymph node, skeletal muscle, dura mater and cerebellum of the NSF autopsy case, primarily in vascular walls. Some, but not all, Gd deposits were seen in fibrotic areas. Literature review highlighted that non-specific tissue fibrosis and calcification are frequent findings in tissues of patients with CRF with and without NSF. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular and extracellular Gd deposits are found in multiple organs of NSF patients, associated with calcification, and often in fibrotic areas. Gd deposits are not seen in patients with CRF unexposed to GBCAs but rarely may be seen in GBCA-exposed patients without clinical signs of NSF. Apart from diagnostic findings in skin, fibrosis of muscle and dura may be more prominent in NSF patients. Our findings should stimulate further investigation of mechanisms of fibrosis and pathologic calcification.

Sanyal, Soma; Marckmann, Peter

2011-01-01

317

Performance of InterVA for assigning causes of death to verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background InterVA is a widely disseminated tool for cause of death attribution using information from verbal autopsies. Several studies have attempted to validate the concordance and accuracy of the tool, but the main limitation of these studies is that they compare cause of death as ascertained through hospital record review or hospital discharge diagnosis with the results of InterVA. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the performance of InterVA compared to physician-certified verbal autopsies (PCVA and alternative automated methods for analysis. Methods Using clinical diagnostic gold standards to select 12,542 verbal autopsy cases, we assessed the performance of InterVA on both an individual and population level and compared the results to PCVA, conducting analyses separately for adults, children, and neonates. Following the recommendation of Murray et al., we randomly varied the cause composition over 500 test datasets to understand the performance of the tool in different settings. We also contrasted InterVA with an alternative Bayesian method, Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP, to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the tool. Results Across all age groups, InterVA performs worse than PCVA, both on an individual and population level. On an individual level, InterVA achieved a chance-corrected concordance of 24.2% for adults, 24.9% for children, and 6.3% for neonates (excluding free text, considering one cause selection. On a population level, InterVA achieved a cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.546 for adults, 0.504 for children, and 0.404 for neonates. The comparison to SSP revealed four specific characteristics that lead to superior performance of SSP. Increases in chance-corrected concordance are attained by developing cause-by-cause models (2%, using all items as opposed to only the ones that mapped to InterVA items (7%, assigning probabilities to clusters of symptoms (6%, and using empirical as opposed to expert probabilities (up to 8%. Conclusions Given the widespread use of verbal autopsy for understanding the burden of disease and for setting health intervention priorities in areas that lack reliable vital registrations systems, accurate analysis of verbal autopsies is essential. While InterVA is an affordable and available mechanism for assigning causes of death using verbal autopsies, users should be aware of its suboptimal performance relative to other methods.

Flaxman Abraham D

2011-08-01

318

Discrepâncias clínico-patológicas e achados cardiovasculares em 409 autópsias consecutivas Clinical and pathological discrepancies and cardiovascular findings in 409 consecutive autopsies  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As discrepâncias entre os diagnósticos clínicos e em autópsia persistem em todo o mundo. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos as autópsias em um hospital-escola para analisar a precisão dos diagnósticos cardiovasculares clínicos em comparação aos achados post-mortem. MÉTODOS: As 409 autópsias consecutivas entre 2003 e 2006 foram analisadas em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP, Brasil. A comparação dos achados cardiovasculares clínicos e patológicos foi realizada por meio da classificação de discrepâncias de Goldman. RESULTADOS: A taxa de autópsia no hospital foi de 8%. As causas cardiovasculares de óbito representavam 42,8% (175 de 409 pacientes dos diagnósticos de autópsia. Em 98 pacientes (56%, houve discrepâncias significativas (classes I e II, o que representa uma grande proporção de diagnósticos equivocados de infarto mesentérico (84,6%, infarto agudo do miocárdio (64,7%, dissecção da aorta (64,2% e embolia pulmonar (62,5%. Foram observadas maiores taxas de concordância para a insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (59% e para o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (58,8%. A idade, o sexo, o tempo de permanência e a última unidade de admissão no hospital não foram associados aos critérios de Goldman. CONCLUSÃO: As discrepâncias dos diagnósticos clínicos e em autópsia relativos à morte cardiovascular permanecem elevados no Brasil, a despeito dos recursos tecnológicos disponíveis. Além disso, nossos achados reforçam a importância do exame post-mortem como uma contribuição para a melhoria da assistência médica.BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses persists worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated autopsies in a university hospital in order to assess the accuracy of clinical cardiovascular diagnosis compared to postmortem findings. METHODS: Four hundred nine consecutive autopsies between 2003 and 2006 were analyzed in a tertiary-care hospital in São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. The comparison of clinic-pathological cardiovascular findings was performed using Goldman's discrepancies classification. RESULTS: Autopsy rate at the hospital was 8%. Cardiovascular causes of death represented 42.8% (175 out of 409 patients of autopsy diagnoses. In 98 (56% patients, there were major discrepancies (class I and II, representing a large proportion of misdiagnoses for mesenteric infarction (84.6%, acute myocardial infarction (64.7%, aorta dissection (64.2%, and pulmonary embolism (62.5%. Highest concordance rates were observed in congestive heart failure (59% and acute ischemic stroke (58.8%. Age, sex, length of stay and the last admission unit at the hospital were not associated with Goldman criteria. CONCLUSION: Clinic-autopsy discrepancies concerning cardiovascular death remain high in Brazil, despite technological resources available. Moreover, our findings reinforce the importance of postmortem examination in contributing to medical care improvement.

Aline Fusco Fares

2011-12-01

319

Epidemiologic application of verbal autopsy to investigate the high occurrence of cancer along Huai River Basin, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, the media repeatedly reported water pollution and "cancer villages" along the Huai River in China. Due to the lack of death records for more than 30 years, a retrospective survey of causes of death using verbal autopsy was carried out to investigate cancer rates in this area. Methods An epidemiologic study was designed to compare numbers of deaths and causes of death between the study areas with water pollution and the control areas without water pollution in S County and Y District in 2005. The study areas were selected based on the distribution of the Huai River and its tributaries. Verbal autopsy was used to assist cause of death (COD diagnoses and to verify mortality rates. The standard mortality rates (SMRs of cancer in the study area were compared with those in the control areas. In order to verify the difference between mortality rates due to cancers in the study and the control areas, patients who reported having cancer in the survey received a second diagnosis by national and provincial oncologists with pathological and laboratory examinations. Comparisons were made to determine if differential cancer prevalence rates in the study and control areas were similar to the difference in mortality due to cancer in these study and control areas. Mortality rates of cancers in study and control areas were also compared with national statistics for the rural population of China. Results Over five years, 3,301 deaths were identified, including 1,158 cancer deaths. The annual average SMRs of cancer in the study areas of S County and Y District were 277.8/100,000 and 223.6/100,000, respectively, which is three to four times higher than those in the control areas. In addition, a total of 626 cases of cancer in the study and control areas were confirmed. The prevalence rates of cancer were 545/100,000 and 128.1/100,000 per year in the study and control areas in S County, respectively, and 440.9/100,000 and 200/100,000 per year in the study and control areas in Y District, respectively. The mortality and prevalence rates of digestive cancers were higher in the study areas than the control areas. In 2000, the SMR for cancer in rural areas nationwide was 120.9/100,000, and in study areas in S County and Y District, the excess rates of deaths were 184/100,000 and 138.8/100,000, respectively. Conclusions The death rates of digestive cancers were much higher in the study areas of S County and Y District. The patterns for between-area differences in prevalence and mortality rates of cancer were similar. Verbal autopsy is shown to be a useful tool in retrospective mortality surveys in low-resource areas with limited access to health care.

Ding Ding

2011-08-01

320

Hipertrofia cardíaca esquerda e direita em necropsias de hipertensos Left and right ventricular hypertrophy at autopsy of hypertensive individuals  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir a espessura ventricular direita e esquerda em falecidos com história de hipertensão arterial, submetidos a necropsias clínicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 90 casos do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos de Recife -PE, de ambos os sexos, com história de hipertensão arterial essencial, com relação à espessura das paredes cardíacas, além da correlação com outros achados de necropsia e informes clínicos. RESULTADOS: Observouse associação significativa entre a presença de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE e direita (HVD, e de cardiopatia hipertensiva grave e HVD. Houve predomínio da HVD e HVE em homens, na faixa etária dos 60-79 anos, com maior prevalência nas etnias parda e negra, e naqueles com estado nutricional adequado ou com sobrepeso e em obesos. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que a presença de HVD relaciona-se com HVE, sugerindo que há fatores patogênicos semelhantes envolvidos no desenvolvimento da hipertrofia bilateral. A HVD parece associar-se à doença cardíaca mais grave, podendo, a partir de outros estudos, ser considerada novo fator prognóstico na avaliação dos pacientes hipertensos.OBJECTIVE: To measure the right and left ventricular thickness in deceased individuals with a history of hypertension submitted to clinical autopsies. METHODS: We selected 90 cases from the Death Verification Service of the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, of both sexes, with a history of essential arterial hypertension related to heart wall thickness, in addition to correlation with autopsy findings and other clinical reports. RESULTS: There was a significant association between the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH and between severe hypertensive cardiomyopathy and RVH. There was a predominance of RVH and LVH in men aged 60-79 years and a higher prevalence in the Brazilian mulatto and Black ethnic groups and in those with adequate nutritional status or overweight and obese individuals. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the presence of RVH was related to LVH, suggesting that there are similar pathogenic factors involved in the development of bilateral hypertrophy. The RVH seems to be associated with more severe heart disease and may, based on other studies, be considered as a new prognostic factor in the evaluation of hypertensive patients.

Mirella Pessoa Sant'Anna

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Hipertrofia cardíaca esquerda e direita em necropsias de hipertensos / Left and right ventricular hypertrophy at autopsy of hypertensive individuals  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Medir a espessura ventricular direita e esquerda em falecidos com história de hipertensão arterial, submetidos a necropsias clínicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 90 casos do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos de Recife -PE, de ambos os sexos, com história de hipertensão arterial essencial, c [...] om relação à espessura das paredes cardíacas, além da correlação com outros achados de necropsia e informes clínicos. RESULTADOS: Observouse associação significativa entre a presença de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) e direita (HVD), e de cardiopatia hipertensiva grave e HVD. Houve predomínio da HVD e HVE em homens, na faixa etária dos 60-79 anos, com maior prevalência nas etnias parda e negra, e naqueles com estado nutricional adequado ou com sobrepeso e em obesos. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que a presença de HVD relaciona-se com HVE, sugerindo que há fatores patogênicos semelhantes envolvidos no desenvolvimento da hipertrofia bilateral. A HVD parece associar-se à doença cardíaca mais grave, podendo, a partir de outros estudos, ser considerada novo fator prognóstico na avaliação dos pacientes hipertensos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To measure the right and left ventricular thickness in deceased individuals with a history of hypertension submitted to clinical autopsies. METHODS: We selected 90 cases from the Death Verification Service of the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, of both sexes, with a history o [...] f essential arterial hypertension related to heart wall thickness, in addition to correlation with autopsy findings and other clinical reports. RESULTS: There was a significant association between the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and between severe hypertensive cardiomyopathy and RVH. There was a predominance of RVH and LVH in men aged 60-79 years and a higher prevalence in the Brazilian mulatto and Black ethnic groups and in those with adequate nutritional status or overweight and obese individuals. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the presence of RVH was related to LVH, suggesting that there are similar pathogenic factors involved in the development of bilateral hypertrophy. The RVH seems to be associated with more severe heart disease and may, based on other studies, be considered as a new prognostic factor in the evaluation of hypertensive patients.

Mirella Pessoa, Sant' Anna; Roberto José Vieira de, Mello; Luciano Tavares, Montenegro; Mônica Modesto, Araújo.

2012-02-01

322

Verbal autopsy coding: are multiple coders better than one? / Codage des autopsies verbales: est-il préférable qu'il soit effectué par plusieurs codeurs au lieu d'un ? / Codificación de las autopsias verbales: ¿varios codificadores mejor que uno?  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto en los perfiles de causas de defunción notificadas de una estrategia de codificación de las autopsias verbales basada en el uso de uno o varios agentes codificadores para examinar cada caso de defunción. MÉTODOS: A lo largo de 12 meses durante 2003-2004 se documentaron l [...] as defunciones registradas en 45 aldeas (población total: 180 162 habitantes) del sur de la India, rellenándose para cada fallecimiento un cuestionario de autopsia verbal estándar. Dos codificadores médicos, sin conocer cada uno las decisiones del otro, asignaron las causas de defunción basándose en las causas enumeradas en los títulos de los capítulos de la décima revisión de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades y Problemas de Salud Conexos (CIE-10). Para los tres títulos de capítulos que se aplicaron a más de 100 defunciones, se analizó también el grado de coincidencia para subconjuntos de causas de defunción dentro del capítulo. En caso de discrepancia, un tercer codificador intervenía para dirimirla. La medición del grado de acuerdo entre los dos codificadores médicos se realizó mediante el estadístico kappa de Cohen (K). RESULTADOS: En total se documentaron 1354 defunciones, realizándose una autopsia verbal en 1329 (98%) de ellas. En lo que respecta a los títulos de los capítulos de la CIE-10, los codificadores médicos asignaron la misma causa a 1255 defunciones (94%) (K = 0,93; intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,92-0,94). Los perfiles de mortalidad derivados de las causas asignadas por cada médico fueron muy similares a los perfiles obtenidos mediante el proceso de consenso, hasta el punto de que el orden de importancia de las 10 causas principales de defunción fue el mismo con los tres métodos de codificación. CONCLUSIÓNS: La duplicación de la codificación de los resultados de las autopsias verbales no ofrece grandes ventajas respecto al sistema de codificador único en el contexto de la vigilancia de la mortalidad o la identificación de perfiles demográficos de la mortalidad. Se podrían desviar recursos hacia otros aspectos del proceso de vigilancia de la mortalidad, como por ejemplo la validación. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on the reported cause-of-death patterns of a verbal autopsy coding strategy based on a review of every death by multiple coders versus a single coder. METHODS: Deaths in 45 villages (total population 180 162) in southern India were documented during 12 months in 2003- [...] 2004, and a standard verbal autopsy questionnaire was completed for each death. Two physician coders, each unaware of the other's decisions, assigned an underlying cause of death in accordance with the causes listed in the chapter headings of the International classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). For the three chapter headings that applied to more than 100 of the deaths, agreement for subsets of causes of death within the chapter was also analysed. In the event of discrepancies, a third coder was used to finalize a cause of death. Cohen's kappa statistic (K) was used to measure levels of agreement between the two physician coders. FINDINGS: In total, 1354 deaths were documented, and a verbal autopsy was completed for 1329 (98%) of them. At the chapter heading level of the ICD-10, physician coders assigned the same cause to 1255 deaths (94%) (K = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.94). The patterns of death derived from the causes assigned by each physician were all very similar to the patterns obtained through the consensus process, with the rank order of the 10 leading causes of death being the same for all three coding methods. CONCLUSION: Duplicate coding of verbal autopsy results has little advantage over a single-coder system for mortality surveillance or for identifying population patterns of death. Resources could be better diverted to other parts of the mortality surveillance process, such as validation.

Rohina, Joshi; Alan D, Lopez; Stephen, MacMahon; Srinath, Reddy; Rakhi, Dandona; Lalit, Dandona; Bruce, Neal.

2009-01-01

323

A curious autopsy case of a car crash in which self-strangulation and lung collapse were found: a case report.  

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A curious autopsy case following the car crash of a 20-year-old male, in which self-strangulation and lung collapse were observed, is presented. His motor vehicle had crashed into a restaurant as a result of self-strangulation using an electrical cord wound four times around his neck. At autopsy, we found small rupture holes of spontaneous bullae in both lung apices, which had probably taken place upon collision during driving, petechial hemorrhages in the face skin and the absence of severe injuries. Since it seemed unlikely that the small holes in both lung apices caused fatal pneumothorax instantly, the cause of his death was judged to be asphyxia due to self-strangulation. It is not clear whether the self-strangulation was suicidal or autoerotic, because neither traces of suicidal intent nor circumstances suggesting either of them were disclosed. PMID:12201073

Watanabe-Suzuki, K; Suzuki, O; Kosugi, I; Seno, H; Ishii, A

2002-07-01

324

Primeira descrição de um caso autopsiado de melioidose no Estado do Ceará / First description of an autopsied case of Melioidosis in Ceará State  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se um caso autopsiado de paciente acometida por sepse fulminante com lesões predominantemente pulmonares, causada pela Burkholderia pseudomallei, agente etiológico da melioidose, proveniente de município do interior do Ceará, estado do nordeste do Brasil onde ainda não tinham sido descritos c [...] asos da doença. São discutidos os achados da autópsia e os diagnósticos diferenciais. Abstract in english An autopsied case is reported concerning fulminant sepsis with predominantly pulmonary lesions, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, etiologic agent of melioidosis, originating from interior of Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil where there had been no previous cases reported. Autopsy findings and dif [...] ferential diagnosis are discussed.

Marcus Davis Machado, Braga; Paulo Roberto Carvalho de, Almeida.

2005-02-01

325

Characteristics of cirrhosis undiagnosed during life: a comparative analysis of 73 undiagnosed cases and 149 diagnosed cases of cirrhosis, detected in 4929 consecutive autopsies.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 4929 consecutive autopsies performed during a period of 4 years, 222 cases (4.5%) of cirrhosis were found, of which 149 (3%) were detected while the patients were alive (diagnosed cirrhosis) and 73 (1.5%) were not detected while the patients were living (undiagnosed cirrhosis). Fifty-three of the 73 undiagnosed patients appeared to be completely without signs of cirrhosis (silent cirrhosis). In the diagnosed group, 70% of patients died from hepatic causes, in contrast to 16% in the undiagnosed group. At autopsy, the following complications of cirrhosis were found more frequently in the diagnosed group than in the undiagnosed group: ascites (41% vs. 8%), oesophageal varices (44% vs. 10%), splenomegaly (52% vs. 29%). The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma did not differ significantly in the two groups (12% vs. 8%). It is concluded that cirrhosis without obvious signs occurs relatively frequently, and that no sensitive non-invasive screening methods are available at present.

Leth, Peter Mygind

1991-01-01

326

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with neurolymphomatosis and intravascular lymphoma: a unique autopsy case with diverse neurological symptoms  

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Full Text Available Abstract A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell’s palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1?month after the symptom onset. At autopsy, an ill-defined large and soft tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver with direct invasion into the right adrenal gland was observed. The left adrenal gland or right iliopsoas muscle was also involved. Microscopic findings showed a monotonous proliferation of medium-sized to large atypical lymphoid cells, which were diffusely positive for CD20 in immunohistochemistry, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL. Furthermore, the lymphoma cells aggressively infiltrated endoneurial and subperineurial spaces not only in the peripheral nerves and plexuses, but partly in the spinal nerve roots, and intravascular spaces in various tissues. Therefore, systemic lymphoma (DLBL complicated with neurolymphomatosis (NL and intravascular lymphoma (IVL was diagnosed. Very early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the NL patients with poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5862472377020448.

Yamada Sohsuke

2012-08-01

327

A heart with multiple coronaries anomalies: myocardial bridging, left dominance and high takeoff of ostia-an autopsy case.  

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Myocardial bridging is a segment of coronary artery that runs intramurally through the myocardium. Though it is commonly seen in the anterior interventricular artery and less commonly in right coronary artery, it can cause limitation in the blood flow, which leads to myocardial ischaemia. Left dominance increases cardiac mortality because of association with the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and myocardial infarction. An earlier study has shown the correlation of myocardial bridging with left coronary circulation and it is rare in relation with right coronary and left dominance. Manifestations of high takeoff of the coronary ostia are highly debatable, with varied opinions given by various authors. It has been believed that myocardial bridging is congenital and that it also causes limitation of blood flow to the myocardium. Cardiac muscles have a unique capability to adapt in response to decreased blood supply, which is in the form of coronary collateral circulation. So, is their any correlation between myocardial bridging and dominance? Herein, we are reporting an unusual autopsy case of myocardial bridging on its right main coronary artery, left coronary dominance and high take off of left main coronary artery in the same heart. PMID:24701509

Haswani, Lokesh; M L, Harendra Kumar; Kiran, J

2014-02-01

328

[An anatomical and pathological study of autopsy material on the metastasis of pancreatic cancer to para-aortic lymph nodes].  

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The purpose of the present study was to clarify the anatomy of the lymphatic system of the para-aortic region with special reference to lymphatic pathways from the pancreas, and the incidence and extent of lymphatic metastases of pancreatic cancer to para-aortic lymph nodes. Lymph nodes were found mostly on the bilateral and anterior sides of the aorta, and rarely on its posterior side. Lymphatic vessels from the pancreas (peripancreatic nodes) were closely related to the para-aortic lymph nodes on the bilateral and anterior surfaces of the aorta ranging from the root of the celiac artery and that of the inferior mesenteric artery. Out of 10 autopsy cases of relatively small pancreatic cancer, 4 cases were found to have microscopic metastases in a few para-aortic lymph nodes. The localization of involved para-aortic nodes was compatible with that of anatomically related para-aortic lymph nodes. Lymph node dissection of the para-aortic region, if carried out in a patient with a possibility of radical resection of the primary pancreatic cancer, should be an en bloc resection of lymph nodes and surrounding soft tissues in the area ranging between the root of the celiac artery and that of the inferior mesenteric artery. PMID:3600584

Nagai, H

1987-03-01

329

Autopsy findings of human fetuses of descendant (F sub 1 , F sub 2 ) of the A-bomb survivors  

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An analysis was made of autopsy population of human fetuses and neonates (652 cases for F{sub 1} and 115 cases for F{sub 2} ) obtained from A-bomb exposed and non-exposed groups. In a study of delivery mode, the incidence of abnormal findings, including congenital anomaly, was found higher in the group of spontaneous delivery than the group of artificial delivery. Anomaly of the heart or great vessels was the most common, followed by anomaly of the central nervous system and urinary system in both F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} groups. Abnormal findings in the group of spontaneous delivery were observed in a total of 148 cases. For evaluable 32 cases in which the exposure distance was confirmed, these abnormalities were not related to distance from the hypocenter. Anomaly in this group was seen in 74 cases, in which autosomal dominant inheritance had induced chondrodystrophy (two cases) and polycystic kidney disease (one). For F{sub 2}, anomaly was observed in 22 cases in the group of spontaneous delivery. Polycystic kidney disease was seen in each one case exposed at {le}2,000 m or 2,000-4,000 m from the hypocenter. The incidence of other anomalies was independent of exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure to A-bombing. Nor was correlation between the incidence of macerated fetuses and exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure. (N.K.).

Satow, Yukio; Hori, Hiroshi; Ito, Akihiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology) (and others)

1990-03-01

330

Autopsy findings of human fetuses of descendant (F1, F2) of the A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis was made of autopsy population of human fetuses and neonates (652 cases for F1 and 115 cases for F2 ) obtained from A-bomb exposed and non-exposed groups. In a study of delivery mode, the incidence of abnormal findings, including congenital anomaly, was found higher in the group of spontaneous delivery than the group of artificial delivery. Anomaly of the heart or great vessels was the most common, followed by anomaly of the central nervous system and urinary system in both F1 and F2 groups. Abnormal findings in the group of spontaneous delivery were observed in a total of 148 cases. For evaluable 32 cases in which the exposure distance was confirmed, these abnormalities were not related to distance from the hypocenter. Anomaly in this group was seen in 74 cases, in which autosomal dominant inheritance had induced chondrodystrophy (two cases) and polycystic kidney disease (one). For F2, anomaly was observed in 22 cases in the group of spontaneous delivery. Polycystic kidney disease was seen in each one case exposed at ?2,000 m or 2,000-4,000 m from the hypocenter. The incidence of other anomalies was independent of exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure to A-bombing. Nor was correlation between the incidence of macerated fetuses and exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure. (N.K.)

331

Selective, quantitative measurement of releasable synaptic zinc in human autopsy hippocampal brain tissue from Alzheimer's disease patients.  

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Aberrant central nervous system zinc homeostasis has been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are conflicting reports describing zinc concentration either increased or decreased in the brain of AD patients. Such discrepancies may be due to differences in the brain area examined, zinc detection method, and/or tissue composition. Furthermore, detection and measurement of the releasable zinc pool in autopsy tissue is difficult and usually unreliable. Obtaining an adequate assessment of this releasable zinc pool is of particular significance in AD research in that zinc can coordinate with and stabilize toxic amyloid beta oligomers, which are believed to play a key role in AD neuropathology. In addition, zinc released into the synaptic cleft can interact with the postsynaptic neurons causing altered signaling and synaptic dysfunction, which is a well established event in AD. The method presented here combines two approaches, biochemical fractionation and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, to allow, in addition to extracellular zinc concentration, the reliable and quantitative measurement of zinc specifically localized in synaptic vesicles, which contain the majority of the neuronal releasable zinc. Using this methodology, we found that synaptic vesicle zinc concentrations were increased in AD hippocampi compared to age-matched controls and that this increase in releasable zinc matched increased concentration of zinc in the extracellular space. PMID:21945000

Bjorklund, Nicole L; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Taglialatela, Giulio

2012-01-15

332

Involvement of the larynx by hemopoietic neoplasms. An investigation of autopsy cases and review of the literature.  

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Involvement of the larynx by hemopoietic tumors is generally considered a rare event and little is known about the associated clinicopathologic features. Laryngeal tissue removed at autopsy from 14 patients with known disseminated hematologic malignancies and at operation from one patient with multicentric malignant lymphoma of low-grade malignancy (MALToma) of the head and neck region was investigated. A systematic survey of the main clinicopathologic features of the published cases of hemopoietic tumors with laryngeal involvement was also performed. Primary involvement of the larynx by hemopoietic neoplasms must be clearly distinguished from secondary involvement by disseminated or leukemic tumors. Most of the primary tumors are localized lesions that may involve the regional lymph nodes (stages IE or IIE). Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice, and the prognosis is generally favorable. However, secondary involvement by disseminated or leukemic disease carries a very poor prognosis in most cases. Extramedullary plasmacytoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), particularly B-cell lymphoma of high-grade malignancy, appear to be the most common hemopoietic tumors with primary laryngeal involvement, while primary tumors of myelogenous origin (granulocytic sarcoma and mast cell sarcoma) are extremely rare. Extramedullary plasmacytoma and NHL occur mainly in older persons and in men, are generally associated with a relatively short history of hoarseness and dysphagia, and exhibit preferential involvement of the supraglottic parts of the larynx, in particular the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds. They are generally polypoid, non-ulcerated lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7567682

Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

1995-03-01

333

"Gliomatosis encephali" as a novel category of brain tumors by the first autopsy case report of gliomatosis cerebelli.  

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Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare diffuse glioma that is neither mass-forming nor necrotic, and does not disrupt existing structures. Gliomatosis occurring in the cerebellum is known as gliomatosis cerebelli, and only three such cases examined by biopsy have been reported. Here we describe the first autopsy findings of a patient who was diagnosed as having gliomatosis in the cerebellum. Neuropathological examination identified the tumor cells as being positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and nestin, with atypical nuclei that were cashew-nut- or dishcloth-gourd-shaped. These tumor cells were dense in the right cerebellum, but also spread broadly throughout the brain including the left cerebrum and optic nerve. Mitotic figures were frequently seen in the cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. Scherer's secondary structures were evident not only in the cerebellum but also the cerebrum. No necrosis, microvascular proliferation or destruction of anatomical structures was detected in the whole brain. Differences in the origin of the tumors of the gliomatoses cerbri and cerebelli suggests these tumors are different types of brain tumors. Thus the findings support that the gliomatosis cerebelli is a novel type of brain tumor classification. Furthermore, by the similarities of the histological features among the tumors, it appears appropriate to establish a novel category of "gliomatosis encephali" which includes both gliomatosis cerebri and gliomatosis cerebelli. PMID:24354431

Nakahara, Asa; Yoshida, Toshikazu; Yazawa, Masanobu; Ehara, Takashi; Nakayama, Jun; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Ogura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Mika; Suzuki-Kouyama, Emi; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu

2014-06-01

334

Assessing a new approach to verbal autopsy interpretation in a rural Ethiopian community: the InterVA model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Verbal autopsy (VA- the interviewing of family members or caregivers about the circumstances of a death after the event- is an established tool in areas where routine death registration is non-existent or inadequate. We assessed the performance of a probabilistic model (InterVA for interpreting community-based VA interviews, in order to investigate patterns of cause-specific mortality in a rural Ethiopian community. We compared results with those obtained after review of the VA by local physicians, with a view to validating the model as a community-based tool. METHODS: Two-hundred and eighty-nine VA interviews were successfully completed; these included most deaths occurring in a defined community over a 1-year period. The VA interviews were interpreted by physicians and by the model, and cause-specific mortality fractions were derived for the whole community and for particular age groups using both approaches. FINDINGS: The results of the two approaches to interpretation correlated well in this example from Ethiopia. Four major cause groups accounted for over 60% of all mortality, and patterns within specific age groups were consistent with expectations for an underdeveloped high-mortality community in sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSION: Compared with interpretation by physicians, the InterVA model is much less labour intensive and offers 100% consistency. It is a valuable new tool for characterizing patterns of cause-specific mortality in communities without death registration and for comparing patterns of mortality in different populations.

Fantahun Mesganaw

2006-01-01

335

Completed Suicide with Violent and Non-Violent Methods in Rural Shandong, China: A Psychological Autopsy Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study aims to describe the specific characteristics of completed suicides by violent methods and non-violent methods in rural Chinese population, and to explore the related factors for corresponding methods. Methods Data of this study came from investigation of 199 completed suicide cases and their paired controls of rural areas in three different counties in Shandong, China, by interviewing one informant of each subject using the method of Psychological Autopsy (PA). Results There were 78 (39.2%) suicides with violent methods and 121 (60.8%) suicides with non-violent methods. Ingesting pesticides, as a non-violent method, appeared to be the most common suicide method (103, 51.8%). Hanging (73 cases, 36.7%) and drowning (5 cases, 2.5%) were the only violent methods observed. Storage of pesticides at home and higher suicide intent score were significantly associated with choice of violent methods while committing suicide. Risk factors related to suicide death included negative life events and hopelessness. Conclusions Suicide with violent methods has different factors from suicide with non-violent methods. Suicide methods should be considered in suicide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:25111835

Sun, Shi-Hua; Jia, Cun-Xian

2014-01-01

336

Chemical Degradation of Cathode Linings in Hall-Héroult Cells—An Autopsy Study of Three Spent Pot Linings  

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Cathode autopsies are used frequently in the aluminum industry to investigate pot failure and the degradation of the cathode lining. The materials observed in spent pot lining (SPL) has so far been assumed to reflect the sequence of layers from the cathode to the nonreacted refractory lining as present during the operation of the cell. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal gradient in the lining is reversed during cooling and that the physical appearance of the SPL is caused both by processes taking place during operation and cooling of the shutdown cell. X-ray diffraction and microscopy of the SPL from three shutdown cells revealed that sodium metal is the main component responsible for the chemical degradation of the refractory lining. Two distinct reaction fronts were identified in the three SPL showing that sodium is penetrating deeper down into the lining than the molten fluorides from the electrolyte. The mechanisms for the transport of sodium and bath components in the refractory lining are proposed based on the experimental observations. The sodium penetration is inhibited by the formation of a viscous barrier as suggested previously, but the current findings suggest that the barrier retards diffusion of O2- and F- anions rather than Na+ as proposed previously.

Tschöpe, Kati; Schøning, Cristian; Rutlin, Jørn; Grande, Tor

2012-04-01

337

Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: concentrations in autopsy tissues.  

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This study is a part of a monitoring program for the determination of metals in various human tissues of the population living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Constantí (Tarragona County, Spain). Concentrations of arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) were determined in brain, bone, kidney, liver, and lung autopsy samples collected in 2003 from 22 individuals who had been living for at least 10 yr in the area under evaluation. Results were compared with the metal levels obtained in a baseline study, which was performed during the construction of the HWI (1996--1998). In the present survey, As, Be, Tl, and V levels were not detected in any of the analyzed tissues, while Cr concentrations were very close to the limit of detection. The highest levels of Cd and Hg were found in kidney (17.46 microg/g and 0.23 microg/g, respectively), those of Mn in liver (1.07 microg/g), and those of Ni, Pb, and Sn in bone (1.16 microg/g, 2.11 microg/g, and 0.34 microg/g, respectively). In comparison to the results of the baseline study, a general reduction of most metal concentrations was observed in the current survey. PMID:16037609

Bocio, Ana; Nadal, Martí; Garcia, Francisco; Domingo, Jose L

2005-07-01

338

Doenças infecciosas como causas de morte em idosos autopsiados / Infeccious diseases as causes of death in autopsied elderly  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil está associado às alterações na morbimortalidade da população. Nesse estudo, foi verificado as causas de morte e outros processos patológicos em idosos autopsiados. Os idosos com idade maior ou igual a 60 anos, no período de 1976 a 1998 representaram 394 casos [...] (24,4%). A mediana da idade foi 69 (60 a 120) anos, sendo maior nas mulheres (70,5 versus 68 anos; p Abstract in english The population aging in Brazil was associated with the alterations in the morbimortality of the population. The aim of this study was to verify the causes of death and other pathological processes in autopsied elderly. The elderly with 60 years or more in the period from 1976 to 1998 represented 394 [...] cases (24.4%). The age median was 69 years ranged from 60 to 120 years, being higher in the women (70.5 versus 68yrs;p

Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis; Eumênia Costa da Cunha, Castro; Selma Freire de Carvalho da, Cunha; Vicente de Paula Antunes, Teixeira.

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Pathomorphology of the brain at autopsy in patients treated with radiation-chemoimmunotherapy (RAFP therapy) for malignant glioblastoma  

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Fifteen patients with malignant glioblastoma (MGB) were treated with radiation and chemoimmunotherapy, consisting of ACNU + FT 207 + PSK, (RAFP therapy). Autopsy findings of the brain were examined pathomorphologically in these patients, and were compared with those in the other 15 MGB patients not treated with RAFP therapy. Viable tumor tissues massively remained in the primary tumor site in only three patients in the FAFP group; however, this finding was common in the control group (10/15). Tumor infiltration into the other cerebral lobes, contralateral cerebral hemisphere, and tumor tissues below the tentorium was infrequent and slight in the RAFP group, as compared with that in the control group. Radiation necrosis in the brain tissues surrounding the tumor was more noticeable in the FAFP group than in the control group. Widespread edema, which was considered due to radiation, was seen in association with damage in the brain parenchyma. Major causes of increased intracranial pressure were tumor necrotic lesions, their surrounding radiation-induced necrosis, and edema in the RAFP group, and an increase and infiltration of residual tumor tissues in the control group. The results suggest that radiation, as well as tumor size and infiltration, may have been responsible for severe failure of central nervous system function. (Namekawa, K.)

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Infectious Diseases and Tropical Disease Pathology: SC16-1 rRNA SEQUENCING IN MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN THE AUTOPSY SETTING.  

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Diagnosing the aetiology of infectious diseases at autopsy, such as pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis or SUDI, is complicated due to issues including post mortem contamination, difficulty culturing fastidious organisms and subjective interpretation of polymicrobial cultures. Death of organisms may also occur post mortem, especially if antibiotics were given to the patient, but residual DNA from non-viable organisms, amenable to molecular detection, may remain. The 16S rRNA gene is present in all ...

Hart, Jd; Street, T.; Wrightson, Jm; Moore, Dp; Scott, Ag; Crook, Dw; Turner, Gd

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Aplicación del sistema de puntuación del daño múltiple de órganos en autopsias / Application of the scoring system of multiple organ failure at autopsy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el estudio sistemático de las autopsias ha permitido caracterizar el daño múltiple de órganos. El sistema de puntuación, comprobado primero en un modelo experimental y adaptado posteriormente a la morfología humana, permite modificar los criterios diagnósticos sobre dicho daño, y por e [...] nde, una interpretación más objetiva del estudio. Objetivo: caracterizar el empleo del referido sistema de puntuación en la práctica del trabajo asistencial para estudiar las autopsias. Métodos: se revisaron las autopsias contenidas en la base de datos del Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica para identificar el diagnóstico del daño y reevaluarlos con los criterios actuales. Resultados: la reevaluación de los casos mostró la presencia del daño múltiple de órganos en el 87 % de los casos estudiados, excluyendo al 13 % de este criterio diagnóstico. Conclusiones: el sistema de puntuación para el diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos aplicado en la reevaluación de autopsias, permite caracterizar con mayor precisión y objetividad este diagnóstico. Abstract in english Introduction: the systematic study of autopsies has allowed the characterization of multiple organ failure. The scoring system, first tested in experimental and subsequently adapted to human morphology, allows modifying the diagnostic criteria for such damage, and therefore a more objective interpre [...] tation of the study. Objective: To describe the use of this scoring system in practice care to study the autopsies. Methods: The autopsies, contained in the database of the Automated System of Registration and Control of Pathology, were reviewed to identify the diagnosis of the damage and reassess current criteria. Results: Re-assessment of cases showed the presence of multiple organ failure in 87 % of the cases studied, excluding 13 % from this diagnostic criterion. Conclusions: The scoring system for the diagnosis of multiple organ failure, applied for reassessing autopsies allows characterizing this diagnosis much precisely and objectively.

Idalmis, Rodríguez Rivera; Teresita, Montero González; José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Pablo Luis, Cabrera Rosell.

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Aplicación del sistema de puntuación del daño múltiple de órganos en autopsias Application of the scoring system of multiple organ failure at autopsy  

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Full Text Available Introducción: el estudio sistemático de las autopsias ha permitido caracterizar el daño múltiple de órganos. El sistema de puntuación, comprobado primero en un modelo experimental y adaptado posteriormente a la morfología humana, permite modificar los criterios diagnósticos sobre dicho daño, y por ende, una interpretación más objetiva del estudio. Objetivo: caracterizar el empleo del referido sistema de puntuación en la práctica del trabajo asistencial para estudiar las autopsias. Métodos: se revisaron las autopsias contenidas en la base de datos del Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica para identificar el diagnóstico del daño y reevaluarlos con los criterios actuales. Resultados: la reevaluación de los casos mostró la presencia del daño múltiple de órganos en el 87 % de los casos estudiados, excluyendo al 13 % de este criterio diagnóstico. Conclusiones: el sistema de puntuación para el diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos aplicado en la reevaluación de autopsias, permite caracterizar con mayor precisión y objetividad este diagnóstico.Introduction: the systematic study of autopsies has allowed the characterization of multiple organ failure. The scoring system, first tested in experimental and subsequently adapted to human morphology, allows modifying the diagnostic criteria for such damage, and therefore a more objective interpretation of the study. Objective: To describe the use of this scoring system in practice care to study the autopsies. Methods: The autopsies, contained in the database of the Automated System of Registration and Control of Pathology, were reviewed to identify the diagnosis of the damage and reassess current criteria. Results: Re-assessment of cases showed the presence of multiple organ failure in 87 % of the cases studied, excluding 13 % from this diagnostic criterion. Conclusions: The scoring system for the diagnosis of multiple organ failure, applied for reassessing autopsies allows characterizing this diagnosis much precisely and objectively.

Idalmis Rodríguez Rivera

2012-12-01

343

Combining diagnostic categories to improve agreement between death certificate and autopsy classifications of cause of death for atomic bomb survivors, 1950-87  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

sions led to unacceptable accuracy rates for some of the resulting diagnostic groups. Using the derived classification system, there was 72 % agreement overall between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses compared to 53 % agreement for a second system obtained by grouping strictly by major disease category. Eighty-seven percent agreement was observed for a similar classification system with vascular disease grouped with all other nonneoplastic diseases. Further agglomeration achieved very little additional improvement. (J.P.N.)

344

Postmortem virtual volumetry of the heart and lung in situ using CT data for investigating terminal cardiopulmonary pathophysiology in forensic autopsy.  

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Postmortem CT (PM-CT) is useful to investigate the viscera in situ before opening the body cavity at autopsy. The present study investigated heart and lung volumes in situ with regard to the cause of death as possible indexes of terminal cardiopulmonary dysfunction by means of PM-CT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases within 3 days postmortem (n=70). Estimated heart volume was larger in sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10) and fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=5) than in other groups, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), drowning (n=11), acute alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8), fire fatality (n=12), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=6). Estimated combined lung volume was larger in drowning, smaller in fire fatality due to carbon monoxide intoxication and SCD, and intermediate in other groups. Volume ratio of the lung to heart was higher in drowning, lower in SCD, and intermediate or varied in other groups; high and low ratios can indicate predominant/antecedent pulmonary and cardiac dysfunctions, respectively. These findings provide quantitative data that are not available at conventional autopsy or by routine two-dimensional CT morphology to assess three-dimensional gross heart and lung morphologies for interpreting terminal cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, detecting significant difference between SCD and other causes of death, especially mechanical asphyxiation and drowning. PMID:24703760

Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

2014-07-01

345

An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author)

346

DNA extraction and molecular analysis of non-tumoral liver, spleen, and brain from autopsy samples: the effect of formalin fixation and paraffin embedding.  

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The use of molecular biology in combination with morphological analysis is increasing because of the treatments by target therapies. However, to improve the methods for obtaining DNA for molecular analyses from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the DNA extracted from FFPE tissue blocks (non-tumoral liver, spleen, and brain), obtained from autopsy, 8-24 h post mortem, using three methods of DNA extraction. PCR of the ?-actin (136 pb) and human amelogenin (AMEL 212-218 bp/106-112 bp) genes, as well as short tandem repeat (STR) (100-400 bp fragments), reported in forensic scientific analysis, was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods of DNA extraction. We used 28 archived (1 and 5 years) and 12 recent autopsy cases. The commercial kit showed reproducible and consistent results in the PCR amplification of the ?-actin and AMEL genes and in analysis by STR used in forensic analysis. This is the first report using non-tumoral samples from FFPE autopsy tissues, comparing the three most common methods of DNA extraction and using the STR previously described in forensics. Our study has clarified the challenges for pathologists in applying the molecular biology approach in combination with methods suited for morphology, which must be improved. The data provided here should be used in other molecular studies in FFPE samples. PMID:22920941

Funabashi, Karina Silva; Barcelos, Denise; Visoná, Iria; e Silva, Marcelo Souza; e Sousa, Maria Luiza Almeida Prado Oliveira; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

2012-10-15

347

Patient and surgery related factors associated with fatigue type polyethylene wear on 49 PCA and DURACON retrievals at autopsy and revision  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyethylene wear is an important factor for longevity of total knee arthroplasty. Proven and suspicious factors causing wear can be grouped as material, patient and surgery related. There are more studies correlating design and/or biomaterial factors to in vivo wear than those to patient and surgery related factors. Many retrieval studies just include revision implants and therefore may not be representative. This study is aimed to correlate patient- and surgery- related factors to visual wear score by minimizing design influence and include both autopsy and revision implants. Comparison between the groups was expected to unmask patient and surgery-related factors responsible for wear. Methods The amount of joint side wear on polyethylene retrievals was measured using a modification of an established visual wear score. Fatigue type wear was defined as summation of the most severe wear modes of delamination, pitting and cracks. Analysis of patient and surgery related variables suspicious to cause wear included prospectively sampled patient activity which was measured by self reported walking capacity. Statistical analysis was done by univariate analysis of variance. Activity level and implantation time were merged to an index of use and correlated to the wear score. Results Wear score after comparable implantation time was significantly less in the autopsy group. Even so, fatigue type wear accounted for 84 and 93 % of total wear score on autopsy and revision implants respectively. A highly significant influence on wear score was found in time of implantation (p = 0.002, level of activity (p = 0.025 and inserts belonging to revision group (p = 0.006. No influence was found for the kind of patella replacement (p = 0.483. Body mass index and accuracy of component alignment had no significant influence on visual wear score. Fatigue-type wear in the medial compartment was closely correlated to the index of use in the autopsy (R2 = 0.383 and the revision group (R2 = 0.813. Conclusion The present study's finding of substantial fatigue type wear in both autopsy and revision retrievals supports the theory that polyethylene fatigue strength is generally exceeded in this type of prosthesis. Furthermore, this study correlated fatigue-type polyethylene wear to an index of use as calculated by activity over time. Future retrieval studies may use activity over time as an important patient related factor correlated to the visual wear score. When evaluating total knee arthroplasty routine follow up, the surgeon must think of substantial wear present even without major clinical signs.

Ochsner Peter E

2008-02-01

348

Cerebral and cardiac amyloidosis in autopsied elderly individuals / Beta-fibrilose encefálica e cardíaca em idosos autopsiados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A amiloidose em idosos pode ser uma alteração independente e própria do envelhecimento. Entretanto, as características clínicas, fisiopatológicas e bioquímicas da Amiloidose relacionada à idade ainda permanecem incertas. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o coração e o encéfalo de indivíduos [...] acima de 60 anos apresentavam depósito amilóide. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados laudos consecutivos de autópsias de indivíduos acima de 60 anos realizadas entre 1976 e 2000, que apresentavam corações sem cardiopatias, com sorologia negativa para Doença de Chagas e encéfalos sem alterações morfológicas de encefalopatias, chegando a um n de 10 casos. Lâminas de fragmentos do coração e de encéfalo foram processadas e analisadas em microscopia de luz comum e polarizada. RESULTADOS: Dos 10 casos, 3 apresentaram depósito amilóide no encéfalo e 1 no encéfalo e no coração. Em 50% dos casos, os indivíduos tinham entre 60 e 69 anos. A relação entre o peso encefálico e o peso corporal mostrou ter uma associação significativa com os casos positivos, sendo esta menor em relação aos negativos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise conjunta de depósitos amilóides em encéfalo e coração de indivíduos idosos talvez direcione para um acometimento sistêmico comum ao envelhecimento natural. Alguma alteração adicional do organismo poderia determinar a quebra de um equilíbrio natural sobre o acúmulo dessas proteínas, levando dessa forma aos contextos patológicos da amiloidose. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Amyloidosis in elderly individuals can be an independent alteration and a characteristic of aging. However, the clinical, pathophysiologic, and biochemical characteristics of amyloidosis related to age remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent t [...] o which the heart and/or the brain of individuals aged 60 years or over exhibits amyloid deposits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The autopsy findings of individuals who were at least 60 years old were studied. The autopsies took place between the years of 1976 and 2000. A total of 10 cases were selected that had hearts without cardiopathies, had negative serology for Chagas' disease, and had brains without morphological changes related to encephalopathies. Slides with fragments of heart and brain were processed and analyzed using polarized and common light microscopy. RESULTS: Of the 10 cases, 4 were positive for amyloidosis. All had positive findings in the brain, and 1 case also had positive findings in the heart. Among the positive cases, 50% were of people aged 60 to 69 years. There appeared to be a relationship between the presence of amyloid deposits and the ratio of brain and body weight, with the ratio in the positive cases being smaller than in the negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of amyloid deposits in the brains and hearts of elderly individuals shows that such deposits may lead to a systemic attack of senility, common to natural aging. It is not certain that beta-amyloid deposits would alone bring such drastic repercussions to the individual. Some additional disorders of the organism could cause the breakdown of the natural balance related to the accumulation of these proteins, leading the way to the pathological contexts of amyloidosis.

Lucas Martins de Exel, Nunes; Ana Karina Marques, Salge; Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Vicente de Paula A., Teixeira; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis.

2006-04-01

349

[Chondrosarcoma of the skull base associated with fatal intratumoral hemorrhage : report of an autopsy case and review of the literature].  

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We report a case of intracranial chondrosarcoma of the skull base with fatal intra- and peritumoral hemorrhage. A 75-year-old woman complained of right blepharoptosis and diplopia in 1989. An initial diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome was made, and the patient was treated with steroid hormone therapy at a local hospital. Because the symptoms had not been relieved, she was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a large mass extending from the right side of the clivus to the parasellar region and petrous apex. The mass was partially calcified and had destroyed the base of the middle cranial fossa. The lesion had homogeneous enhancement with contrast medium. Preoperative diagnosis was chordoma or chondroma. A biopsy of the tumor was made. The pathological diagnosis of biopsy specimen was chondroid chordoma. The patient was followed up but no palliative treatment such as radiotherapy was given. On June 25, 1991, she suffered from cerebral infarction. On June 29, 1993, she died of sudden respiratory failure. Autopsy was performed. It revealed intra- and peritumoral hematoma compressing the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. Histologically immature chondroid cells proliferated in a myxoid-rich extracellular matrix. The tumor cells were composed of hyperchromatic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, but there was no evidence of notochordal differentiation. Compared with biopsy findings, the tumor showed high cellular density. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells reacted positively for S - 100 protein, vimentin and cytokeratin, but negatively for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In view of these histopathological findings, the diagnosis of low-grade myxoid chondrosarcoma was established. Intratumoral hemorrhage often occurs in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and metastatic brain tumor, but chondroid tumors rarely develop a fatal type of intratumoral hemorrhage. Only 8 cases have been reported in detail to date. We discuss the immunohistochemical features and spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage of chondrosarcoma. PMID:8849479

Fukuchi, M; Fushimi, S; Yoneya, M; Hirayama, A; Mineura, K; Kowada, M; Saito, M

1996-02-01

350

Suicidio y género en Antioquia (Colombia: estudio de autopsia psicológica Suicide and Gender in Antioquia (Colombia: A Psychological Autopsy Study  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar diferencias en las características sociodemográficas y clínicas entre hombres y mujeres suicidas en una muestra de Antioquia (Colombia. Método: Se estudiaron mediante autopsia psicológica 144 sujetos que se habían suicidado entre 2006 y 2007. Se determinaron las diferencias entre suicidas por sexos y las características que se asociaron de manera independiente con ser hombre o mujer. Resultados: Se identificaron diferencias significativas independientes del sexo. La manera de muerte con arma de fuego, vivir solo y suicidio bajo efectos del alcohol se asociaron con el sexo masculino; mientras, el suicidio en casa y dejar una nota previa se asociaron con el sexo femenino. Conclusiones: El presente estudio, realizado en población antioqueña, identificó diferencias en variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y características del acto suicida entre hombres y mujeres. A Zesar de las limitaciones, los presentes hallazgos apuntan hacia la posibilidad de realizar intervenciones de salud mental de prevención del suicidio de mayor especificidad teniendo en cuenta el sexo de la población.Objective: To identify differences in the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics between suicidal men and women in a sample from Antioquia (Colombia. Method: 144 subjects who committed suicide between 2006 and 2007 were studied by means of a psychological autopsy. Gender differences and characteristics associated independently to being a man or a woman were determined. Results: Significant differences independent of sex were identified. Death by firearm, living alone and suicide under the effects of alcohol intoxication were associated with the male gender, whereas suicide at home and leaving a note were associated with the female gender. Conclusions: The present study identified differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and characteristics of the suicide act, between men and women. In spite of its limitations, the present findings point towards the possibility of carrying out more specific actions in suicide prevention by taking gender into account.

Andrea González

2010-06-01

351

Determining the morphometry and variations of the confluens sinuum and related structures via a silicone painting technique on autopsy patients.  

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In this study, we aimed to investigate the morphometric and morphologic structures of the confluens sinuum (CS) and related structures with a silicone painting technique. We studied 30 cadavers. Twelve of them were washed with alcohol and filled with a silicone painting technique via the vena jugularis interna, internal carotid artery, and vertebral artery. The other 18 were autopsied postmortem. The CS and related structures were dissected under microscope. Their anatomy was investigated, and variations were noted. The diameters of the sinus sagittalis superior (SSS), CS, occipital sinus (OS), sinus rectus (SR), and bilateral transverse sinus (TS), and the angle between SSS and SR were measured. The mean diameters were 11.7 mm for SSS, 22.3 mm for CS, 5.25 mm for OS, 7.5 mm for SR, and 9.7 (right) and 9.1 mm (left) for TS. The angle between the SR and SSS was 58°. There was no difference in the bilateral venous structures that drained to the SSS and TS. There was an extra drainage to the CS from the left side in 4 cases. The right TS was located superiorly in 7 cases compared with the left TS, and this process was correlated with the type of CS. A septum in the SSS was detected in 2 cases. In addition, we encountered an OS in 80% of the cases. We conclude that the septum inside the CS affects the dominancy of the TS, the angle between the SSS and SR, and the other venous variations. PMID:24448535

Cosar, Murat; Seker, Askn; Ceylan, Davut; Tatarli, Necati; Sahin, Fevzi; Tokmak, Mehmet; Songur, Ahmet; Kilic, Turker; Ozen, Oguz Aslan

2014-11-01

352

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of the nervous system: an autopsy study of 268 adult, pediatric, and fetal brains.  

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The central nervous system (CNS) of 221 adults and 31 infants or children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was examined with immunocytochemistry for infectious agents and for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) antigen (gp41). Since the major risk factor in this population was intravenous drug abuse, there were more female and pediatric patients than in other neuropathology autopsy series. Although children had a different spectrum of pathologic changes, including less frequent opportunistic infections, women did not differ from men in terms of types or incidence of opportunistic infections, vascular disease, neoplasia, and subacute AIDS encephalitis (SAE). Subacute AIDS encephalitis was detected in 26% of adult and 48% of pediatric brains. Immunocytochemical analysis of 100 adult and 20 pediatric brains revealed gp41 immunoreactivity in 78% and 40%, respectively. Virtually all adult brains with SAE had gp41 immunoreactivity in macrophages and microglia. Even brains with no significant pathology had frequent gp41 immunoreactivity, especially in the basal ganglia. In pediatric brains, including cases with SAE, gp41 immunoreactivity was less abundant, suggesting the possibility of latent infection or viral clearance. Spinal cords with vacuolar myelopathy or corticospinal tract degeneration had only rare gp41-positive cells. Brains from 16 aborted fetuses from HIV-1-seropositive women were all negative for gp41 immunoreactivity, but 12 brains were positive for HIV-1 by the polymerase chain reaction. These results may indicate that HIV-1 infection in fetal brains is below the limits of detection of immunocytochemistry. The differences noted between adults and children suggest that adults more often have productive CNS HIV-1 infection. PMID:2071114

Kure, K; Llena, J F; Lyman, W D; Soeiro, R; Weidenheim, K M; Hirano, A; Dickson, D W

1991-07-01

353

Suicidio y género en Antioquia (Colombia): estudio de autopsia psicológica / Suicide and Gender in Antioquia (Colombia): A Psychological Autopsy Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Identificar diferencias en las características sociodemográficas y clínicas entre hombres y mujeres suicidas en una muestra de Antioquia (Colombia). Método: Se estudiaron mediante autopsia psicológica 144 sujetos que se habían suicidado entre 2006 y 2007. Se determinaron las diferencias en [...] tre suicidas por sexos y las características que se asociaron de manera independiente con ser hombre o mujer. Resultados: Se identificaron diferencias significativas independientes del sexo. La manera de muerte con arma de fuego, vivir solo y suicidio bajo efectos del alcohol se asociaron con el sexo masculino; mientras, el suicidio en casa y dejar una nota previa se asociaron con el sexo femenino. Conclusiones: El presente estudio, realizado en población antioqueña, identificó diferencias en variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y características del acto suicida entre hombres y mujeres. A Zesar de las limitaciones, los presentes hallazgos apuntan hacia la posibilidad de realizar intervenciones de salud mental de prevención del suicidio de mayor especificidad teniendo en cuenta el sexo de la población. Abstract in english Objective: To identify differences in the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics between suicidal men and women in a sample from Antioquia (Colombia). Method: 144 subjects who committed suicide between 2006 and 2007 were studied by means of a psychological autopsy. Gender differences and cha [...] racteristics associated independently to being a man or a woman were determined. Results: Significant differences independent of sex were identified. Death by firearm, living alone and suicide under the effects of alcohol intoxication were associated with the male gender, whereas suicide at home and leaving a note were associated with the female gender. Conclusions: The present study identified differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and characteristics of the suicide act, between men and women. In spite of its limitations, the present findings point towards the possibility of carrying out more specific actions in suicide prevention by taking gender into account.

Andrea, González; Ángela, Rodríguez Betancur; Alejandro, Aristizábal; Jenny, García Valencia; Carlos, Palacio; Carlos, López Jaramillo.

2010-06-01

354

Discrepâncias clínico-patológicas e achados cardiovasculares em 409 autópsias consecutivas / Clinical and pathological discrepancies and cardiovascular findings in 409 consecutive autopsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: As discrepâncias entre os diagnósticos clínicos e em autópsia persistem em todo o mundo. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos as autópsias em um hospital-escola para analisar a precisão dos diagnósticos cardiovasculares clínicos em comparação aos achados post-mortem. MÉTODOS: As 409 autópsias consecutiva [...] s entre 2003 e 2006 foram analisadas em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP), Brasil. A comparação dos achados cardiovasculares clínicos e patológicos foi realizada por meio da classificação de discrepâncias de Goldman. RESULTADOS: A taxa de autópsia no hospital foi de 8%. As causas cardiovasculares de óbito representavam 42,8% (175 de 409 pacientes) dos diagnósticos de autópsia. Em 98 pacientes (56%), houve discrepâncias significativas (classes I e II), o que representa uma grande proporção de diagnósticos equivocados de infarto mesentérico (84,6%), infarto agudo do miocárdio (64,7%), dissecção da aorta (64,2%) e embolia pulmonar (62,5%). Foram observadas maiores taxas de concordância para a insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (59%) e para o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (58,8%). A idade, o sexo, o tempo de permanência e a última unidade de admissão no hospital não foram associados aos critérios de Goldman. CONCLUSÃO: As discrepâncias dos diagnósticos clínicos e em autópsia relativos à morte cardiovascular permanecem elevados no Brasil, a despeito dos recursos tecnológicos disponíveis. Além disso, nossos achados reforçam a importância do exame post-mortem como uma contribuição para a melhoria da assistência médica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses persists worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated autopsies in a university hospital in order to assess the accuracy of clinical cardiovascular diagnosis compared to postmortem findings. METHODS: Four hundred nine consecutive autopsies betwe [...] en 2003 and 2006 were analyzed in a tertiary-care hospital in São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. The comparison of clinic-pathological cardiovascular findings was performed using Goldman's discrepancies classification. RESULTS: Autopsy rate at the hospital was 8%. Cardiovascular causes of death represented 42.8% (175 out of 409 patients) of autopsy diagnoses. In 98 (56%) patients, there were major discrepancies (class I and II), representing a large proportion of misdiagnoses for mesenteric infarction (84.6%), acute myocardial infarction (64.7%), aorta dissection (64.2%), and pulmonary embolism (62.5%). Highest concordance rates were observed in congestive heart failure (59%) and acute ischemic stroke (58.8%). Age, sex, length of stay and the last admission unit at the hospital were not associated with Goldman criteria. CONCLUSION: Clinic-autopsy discrepancies concerning cardiovascular death remain high in Brazil, despite technological resources available. Moreover, our findings reinforce the importance of postmortem examination in contributing to medical care improvement.

Aline Fusco, Fares; Jorge, Fares; Gislaine Fusco, Fares; José Antônio, Cordeiro; Marcelo Arruda, Nakazone; Patrícia Maluf, Cury.

2011-12-01

355

Accidental deaths by hanging among children in istanbul, Turkey: retrospective analysis of medicolegal autopsies in 33 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hanging is a type of strangulation by means of rope or any other similar material. This kind of ligature strangulation occurs by weight of the body dragging due to gravity and applying force to the neck. Hanging almost never occurs by accident, but occurs mostly as a way to commit suicide.A total number of 82,871 autopsies were performed in the Council of Forensic Medicine of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Justice (Istanbul) between 1979 and 2012, and 4500 (5.43%) of these deaths occurred as a result of hanging. Thirteen of these reported cases have been observed and resulted in death occurring by accident. Seven of these victims were males, and 6 of them were females. Examination of their ages revealed that 3 of these victims were aged 1 year, and 3 victims were aged 6 years. The oldest victim was aged 13 years, and the youngest one was aged 1 year. It has been recorded that 8 of the deaths occurred with rope, 2 with sweater, 2 with scarf, 1 with belt, and 1 with tights. Investigation of the incidents revealed that 3 of the cases occurred by tangling in a rope swing and 2 with a head scarf. Ligature marks on the neck from aforementioned materials and ecchymosis on soft tissue were observed on all of the victims, and the thyroid cartilages and cervical vertebrae were intact. No substance was found in the toxicological analysis performed on all victims.In conclusion, our study showed that although accidental death by hanging took place rarely in these ages, all of the victims were between the ages of 1 and 13 years who recently started walking and entering their teenage years. It is important not to leave the children at home or in the playgrounds alone for a long time (unsupervised at home or in the playgrounds). Precautionary measures must be taken against danger, and the design of materials manufactured for this age group must be reconsidered. PMID:25310372

Kumral, Bahadir; Ozdes, Taskin; Avsar, Abdullah; Buyuk, Yalcin

2014-12-01

356

Coexistence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuro-Behçet's disease presenting as a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion: clinicopathologic features of an autopsied patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the clinical and autopsy features of a 65-year-old Japanese man who clinically exhibited overlap of both neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The patient had a HLA-B51 serotype, a recent history of uveitis and had suffered paraparesis, sensory and autonomic disturbance, frontal signs and tremor. A brain and spine MRI study revealed a longitudinally extensive thoracic cord (Th) lesion, but no apparent intracranial abnormalities. The lesion extended ventrally from Th4 to Th9, exhibiting low intensity on T1-weighted images, high intensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and gadolinium enhancement. The patient's upper and lower motor neuron signs and sensory disturbance worsened and he died 16 months after admission. At autopsy, the spinal cord and brain exhibited characteristic histopathological features of both NBD and ALS, including chronic destruction of the ventral thoracic white and gray matter, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, binucleated neurons, lower and upper motor neuron degeneration, Bunina bodies and skein-like inclusions. Although incidental coexistence of these rare disorders could occur in an individual, this case raises the possibility of a pathomechanistic association between NBD and ALS. PMID:24118427

Sato, Tomoe; Ouchi, Haruka; Shimbo, Junsuke; Sato, Aki; Yamazaki, Motoyoshi; Hashidate, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

2014-04-01

357

Anatomical distribution of HTLV-I proviral sequence in an autopsy case of HTLV-I associated myelopathy: a polymerase chain reaction study.  

Science.gov (United States)

HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) is a slowly progressive paraplegia of the lower extremities observed among HTLV-I carriers. An autopsy of a typical HAM case in which perivascular lymphocytic infiltration was not limited to the central nervous system was examined. Spinal dorsal roots, salivary gland, lungs, liver and kidney showed non-specific, but unusual sporadic perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, which resembled the findings in the spinal cord. To investigate the anatomical distribution of HTLV-I provirus, the HTLV-I proviral sequences, tax and pol, were amplified from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of the autopsy case using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By PCR, strong HTLV-I provirus signals were detected in the spinal cord, peripheral nerve, muscle, lungs and liver. Weak signals were detected in the medulla oblongata, optic nerve and lymph node, while the other organs, including the cerebrum, were negative. The data from this study show the specific distribution of HTLV-I provirus in the distinct organs of a HAM patient. PMID:8025646

Sueyoshi, K; Goto, M; Johnosono, M; Sato, E; Shibata, D

1994-01-01

358

Beta-D-glucan detection as a diagnostic test for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised critically ill patients with symptoms of respiratory infection: an autopsy-based study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta-(1,3)-D-glucan (BG) detection is an emerging tool to diagnose invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the second most common IFI in immunocompromised intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We retrospectively analyzed the serum BG concentration (Fungitell; Associates of Cape Cod) in immunocompromised ICU patients with proven IA and in immunocompromised ICU patients in whom autopsy failed to show IFI. The study was performed in a 17-bed medical ICU in a 1,900-bed referral hospital. Patients at risk for IA were eligible for inclusion when at least two additional clinical signs were present. Patients with other IFIs were excluded. Fourteen patients with IA and 33 patients who had no IFI were eligible for inclusion. Serum BG levels were significantly higher in patients with IA than patients without an IFI (P < 0.01). Using a cutoff of 140 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7 and 69.7%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 54.5 and 92.0%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.83 and 0.21, respectively. Although serum BG concentrations were higher in immunocompromised ICU patients with IA than in patients with the same risk factors who did not have IFI on autopsy, the moderate performance characteristics of this test limit its use as a diagnostic test for IA in this population. PMID:21880959

De Vlieger, Greet; Lagrou, Katrien; Maertens, Johan; Verbeken, Eric; Meersseman, Wouter; Van Wijngaerden, Eric

2011-11-01

359

Beta-d-Glucan Detection as a Diagnostic Test for Invasive Aspergillosis in Immunocompromised Critically Ill Patients with Symptoms of Respiratory Infection: an Autopsy-Based Study ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta-(1,3)-d-glucan (BG) detection is an emerging tool to diagnose invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the second most common IFI in immunocompromised intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We retrospectively analyzed the serum BG concentration (Fungitell; Associates of Cape Cod) in immunocompromised ICU patients with proven IA and in immunocompromised ICU patients in whom autopsy failed to show IFI. The study was performed in a 17-bed medical ICU in a 1,900-bed referral hospital. Patients at risk for IA were eligible for inclusion when at least two additional clinical signs were present. Patients with other IFIs were excluded. Fourteen patients with IA and 33 patients who had no IFI were eligible for inclusion. Serum BG levels were significantly higher in patients with IA than patients without an IFI (P < 0.01). Using a cutoff of 140 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7 and 69.7%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 54.5 and 92.0%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.83 and 0.21, respectively. Although serum BG concentrations were higher in immunocompromised ICU patients with IA than in patients with the same risk factors who did not have IFI on autopsy, the moderate performance characteristics of this test limit its use as a diagnostic test for IA in this population. PMID:21880959

De Vlieger, Greet; Lagrou, Katrien; Maertens, Johan; Verbeken, Eric; Meersseman, Wouter; Van Wijngaerden, Eric

2011-01-01

360

An autopsied case of myelofibrosis which had been exposed to the atomic bomb near the site of blast (1,112m from that area)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made on the autopsy of a subject who had been exposed at the age of 10 months old to the atomic bomb at a distance of 1,112 m from a bombed area, and who found to have myelofibrosis which followed aplastic anemia-like symptoms. The autopsy findings showed 400 ml of bloody ascites, hyperplastic bone marrow in which no fatty cells were observed but many reticular cell-like cells and granular hematopoiesis were observed, and diffuse proliferation of reticular fibers without remarkable new bone findings in the trabecula. The liver was enlarged to the weight of 3.18 g, and showed extramedullary hematopoiesis. Infiltration of lymphocytes, slight fibrosis, and marked accumulation of hemosiderin (caused by the transfusion of the blood) were seen in the Glisson's sheath. The spleen, which was enlarged to the weight of 1.54 g, was brown, and showed fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis and many plasma cells. Lymphatic glands were swollen in the mesentery, in the retroperitoneum, around the gastro-pancreatic area, and at the bifurcation of the trachea, where marked extramedullary hematopoiesis and many giant globuli were observed. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was also seen in other sites such as the subdura, both of the renal pelvises, and in a hyperplastic polyp in the gastric pit. Therefore, this patient was diagnosed as having myelofibrosis and hematopoietic dysplasia caused by radiation. (Kanao, N.)

 
 
 
 
361

An autopsy case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with polycystic kidney disease caused by a novel PKD1 mutation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common genetic disorders and is characterized by the development and progressive enlargement of cysts in the kidneys. ADPKD is caused by mutations of either PKD1 or PKD2. The prevalence of brain aneurysm in patients with ADPKD is increased, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is one of the frequent complications. We describe an autopsy case of death of a 31-year-old woman by aneurysmal SAH. ADPKD as an underlining disease was suggested by the autopsy findings. Sequence analysis of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes revealed deletion of a guanine at position 8019 in PKD1 (8019delG) in a heterozygous state resulting in a shift in the reading frame and generation of a premature termination codon at amino acid 2684 (G2673fs12X). This mutation is novel and highly suspected as the causal mutation of ADPKD of this case. PMID:25022697

Soejima, Mikiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Koda, Yoshiro

2014-09-01