Philip Davis Marsden
Full Text Available Often in tropical practice there is not time or conditions to do a proper autopsy on a patient who has died. A needle biopsy technique is described for limited closed autopsy examination to clariffy organ histology. In this way the clinician may resolve puzzling fatal disease.Muitas vezes, em clínicas de países tropicais, não há tempo nem condições para se realizar uma necropsia adequada em um paciente que foi a óbito. Um técnica de biópsia por punção é descrita para fins de exame em necropsia limitadamente fechada, para esclarecimento da histologia do órgão. Dessa maneira, o clínico pode resolver enigmas de doenças fatais.
Neonatal autopsy rates were in decline internationally at the end of the last century. Our objective was to assess the current value of neonatal autopsy in providing additional information to families and healthcare professionals.
Described is the outline of autopsy imaging (Ai) by CT, MRI and ultrasonography (US) as the reading of the postmortem images is becoming important for radiologist on site. The present major Ai modality is CT, where the cause of death can be identified in most cases of injuries like that by traffic accident, and of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. It is difficult for CT alone to determine the cause due to acute heart failure, for which Ai by enhanced CT (2-min heart massage during the intravenous infusion of a contrast agent) has been introduced. CT findings in Ai are varied according to the death cause, anabiotic treatment conducted and postmortem changes. The second item includes the gastrointestinal tract dilation, rib fracture, pneumo- or hemo-thorax, bruise or rupture, and intravascular gas, and the third, the blood hypostasis, which emphasizing the shadow at the gravity-loaded portions in Ai CT. MRI signals vary dependently on the temperature and the inversion time should be shortened to suppress the cerebrospinal signal at Ai of the cold body like that stored in a refrigerator. US can detect clear, macroscopic morphological changes and the portable machine has been in practice at autopsy onsite. As sound speed depends on the temperature in water, Ai US images are obscure relative to living body due to the low temperature. Authors think the problem to identify the cause of death will be mostly solved in Japan when radiological technologists more actively participate in Ai. (K.T.)
The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed
Dick, Timothy T.; Watson, Jason
Introductory biology laboratory experiences frequently rely on preserved chordates for anatomical study. Unfortunately, these preserved organisms rarely reflect the appearance of a living creature. Since community colleges are generally prohibited the use of live chordates, this paper describes the autopsy of a "road kill" squirrel to facilitate…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a claim shall include a detailed gross macroscopic...
Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels
At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....
EKANEM, Victor James; AKHIGBE, Kingsley O.
The use of autopsy in medical education has been declining although autopsy as an educational experience helps students to correlate clinical findings with basic medical sciences. Students' views in relation to its relevance in medical education are necessary in order to justify its continuous inclusion in medical school curriculum. Two hundred and forty 5th and 6th year medical students who had completed their postings in Anatomical and forensic pathology from two institutions were rand...
Tan, Geok Chin; Hayati, Abdul Rahman; Khong, Teck Yee
Our objectives were to determine the perinatal autopsy rate in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and to quantify the value of the perinatal autopsy. All stillbirths, miscarriages, therapeutic abortions, and neonatal deaths between January 1, 2004, and August 31, 2009, were identified from the archives. The autopsy findings were compared with the clinical diagnoses. The autopsy reports were also reviewed to determine if it would be possible to improve the quality of the autopsies. There were 807 perinatal deaths, of which 36 (4.5%) included an autopsy. There were ethnic differences in the rate of autopsy, with the lowest rate among the Malays. The autopsy provided the diagnosis, changed the clinical diagnosis, or revealed additional findings in 58.3% of cases. Ancillary testing, such as microbiology, chromosomal analysis, and biochemistry, could improve the quality of the autopsy. This study provides further data on the perinatal autopsy rate from an emerging and developing country. It reaffirms the value of the perinatal autopsy. Attempts must be made to improve on the low autopsy rate while recognizing that the performance of autopsies can be enhanced through the use of ancillary testing. PMID:20367214
Chatelain, Denis; Manaouil, Cécile; Marc, Bernard; Ricard, Jannick; Brevet, Marie; Montpellier, Dominique; Defouilloy, Christian; Jardé, Olivier
We report a case of fatal Hirschsprung's disease (HD) discovered at autopsy. A 20-year-old man collapsed at home. Emergency medical personnel found him in cardiac arrest and all resuscitative efforts failed. He had a past history of chronic constipation since infancy. Forensic autopsy revealed a megacolon full of gas and stools. Microscopic examination showed absence of ganglion cells in a short segment of the rectum and enterocolitis in the left and transverse colon. HD is rarely described in adults. In many cases, patients complained of constipation since infancy but the affection remained misdiagnosed. The relative good tolerance of the disease is usually due to a short aganglionic bowel segment. Enterocolitis is a frequent and severe complication of HD in children but is rarely described in adults. This case suggests the importance of HD diagnosis in childhood in order to avoid fatal complications with forensic consequences. PMID:17018101
José Alonso Andrade Salazar; Cesar Humberto Téllez; Laura Angélica Giraldo Blanco
The present work is a conceptual approach on psychosocial factors related to suicidal psychobiography from the exploration of the lives of people who self-eliminate, for which there will be a review of the literature, based on input from journal articles and books published in various sources of documentation. Autopsy psychology is a data collection method that provides light on the psychosocial motivations that drive and reinforce the act of suicide, and is currently used by professionals re...
Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death.
The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death
In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted
Tokdemir, Murat Bülent; Çetin, Gürsel; Şam, Bülent; Özer, Erdal; Yıldırım, Ali; Bütün, Celal
Abstract Discrimination between antemortem and postmortem lesions inflicted by animals from other traumas, and contribution of these injuries to the cause of death which is often encountered in forensic autopsies may cause some difficulties. Detailed identification, and, evaluation of bite marks which has the depth and shape of the teeth and jaw of the animal interfering to the cadaver, tissue losses, paw and tooth marks nd vital signs must be performed during autopsy. Current autopsy reports...
Dedi Afandi; Budi Sampurna; Inge Sutanto; J. W. Marwoto; Nurjati Chairani; Sutisna Himawan; Rawina W; Ivan Riyanto
Severe malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, has a high mortality rate and is the main cause of death in malaria. Since clinical autopsy is unpopular in Indonesia, autopsy examination in malaria cases is rarely done. We reported a forty three year old woman from non endemic area that was dead because of severe malaria. Diagnosis was concluded from autopsy, histopathology, and toxicology. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 210-5)Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, cerebral malaria, black wate...
Full Text Available Severe malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, has a high mortality rate and is the main cause of death in malaria. Since clinical autopsy is unpopular in Indonesia, autopsy examination in malaria cases is rarely done. We reported a forty three year old woman from non endemic area that was dead because of severe malaria. Diagnosis was concluded from autopsy, histopathology, and toxicology. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 210-5Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, cerebral malaria, black water fever
José Alonso Andrade Salazar
Full Text Available The present work is a conceptual approach on psychosocial factors related to suicidal psychobiography from the exploration of the lives of people who self-eliminate, for which there will be a review of the literature, based on input from journal articles and books published in various sources of documentation. Autopsy psychology is a data collection method that provides light on the psychosocial motivations that drive and reinforce the act of suicide, and is currently used by professionals responsible for investigating the causes of suicide while contributing data produced in the developing programs to promote mental health and prevention of suicidal ideation and behavior.
Autopsy cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) have been rarely reported. A 73-year-old Japanese man consulted to a hospital because of flu-like sickness. He was diagnosed as pneumonia, and treated by antibiotics. He was referred to our hospital for further treatment. Chest X-P showed pneumonia involving the whole lungs. Blood laboratory test showed leukocytosis, increased CRP, and decreased PaO2. Despite of steroid therapy, he showed a downhill course and died one month after the fi...
Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro
Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327
Kandasamy, Yogavijayan; Kilcullen, Meegan; Watson, David
Over the past 30 years, the perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in Australia has been reduced to almost a quarter of that observed in the 1970s. To a large extent, this decline in the PMR has been driven by a reduction in neonatal mortality. Stillbirth rates have, however, remained relatively unchanged, and stillbirth rates for Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers have remained approximately twice that for non-Indigenous women over the last 10 years. The causes for this difference remain to be fully established. Fetal autopsy is the single most important investigative tool to determine the cause of fetal demise. While facilitators and barriers to gaining consent for autopsy have been identified in a non-Indigenous context, these are yet to be established for Indigenous families. In order to address the gap in stillbirths between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers, it is essential to identify culturally appropriate ways when approaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families for consent after fetal death. Culturally safe and appropriate counselling at this time provides the basis for respectful care to families while offering an opportunity to gain knowledge to reduce the PMR. Identifying the cause of preventable stillbirth is an important step in narrowing the disparity in stillbirth rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers. PMID:27250705
Shkrum, Michael James; Kent, Jessica
Any autopsy has safety and risk management issues, which can arise in the preautopsy, autopsy, and postautopsy phases. The London Health Sciences Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Autopsy Checklist was developed to address these issues. The current study assessed 1 measure of autopsy safety: the effectiveness of the checklist in documenting pathologists' communication of the actual or potential risk of blood-borne infections to support staff. Autopsy checklists for cases done in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. The frequency of communication, as recorded in checklists, by pathologists to staff of previously diagnosed blood-borne infections (hepatitis B/C and human immunodeficiency virus) or the risk of infection based on lifestyle (eg, intravenous drug abuse) was tabulated. These data were compared with medical histories of the deceased and circumstances of their deaths described in the final autopsy reports. Information about blood-borne infections was recorded less frequently in the checklists compared with the final reports. Of 4 known human immunodeficiency virus cases, there was no checklist documentation in 3. All 11 hand injuries were documented. None of these cases had known infectious risks. The Autopsy Checklist is a standardized means of documenting safety and risk issues arising during the autopsy process, but its effectiveness relies on accurate completion. PMID:27356015
Paperno, S.; Krug, B.; Lackner, L. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Riepert, T.; Rothschild, M.A.; Schultes, A.; Staak, M. [Inst. fuer Rechtsmedizin des Klinikums der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)
Purpose: to assess the diagnostic value of postmortem computed tomography (CT) in comparison to autopsy. Materials and methods: twenty-seven cadavers were examined by sequential cranial CT and helical CT through the neck, thorax and abdomen and subsequently underwent an autopsy with histomorphologic examination of the pathologic specimens. The findings of CT, autopsy and histology were registered and compared by three radiologists and one specialist for forensic medicine, using a data entry form. Results: in 19 of 27 cases, the findings explaining the cause of death were concordant for CT and autopsy. Intracranial, intraspinal and intracardiac gas accumulations (n = 12) were registered by CT alone. The detection of skull fractures was equal for both methods (n = 3). CT showed diagnostic problems in the assessment of pneumonic infiltrations (n = 16) and pulmonary edema (n = 21). Conclusion: CT is a useful and complementary method to autopsy. (orig.)
Full Text Available Sirenomelia also known as mermaid syndrome, characterized by fused lower limbs, is a lethal and rare congenital abnormality. This is an extreme example of caudal regression syndrome caused by vascular steal of single umbilical artery. Sirenomelia is found approximately one in 100,000 live births and is usually fatal because of complications associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, abnormal development of the kidneys and urinary bladder. Most of the cases are associated with maternal diabetes and single umbilical artery. We report a case of sirenomelia terminated at 21weeks of gestation due to multiple congenital abnormalities. Antenatal scan of a25-year old primi revealed a single live fetus of 21 weeks gestation with severe olighydramnios, non-visualization of kidneys and bladder and lower part of the spine. This pregnancy was terminated and the specimen sent to the department of anatomy for fetal autopsy. On external examination,a tail like rudimentary single midline lower limb without foot was noted. There were no external genitalia and anal orifice. Internal examination revealed hypoplastic lungs, atrial septal and ventricular septal defects, aberrant right subclavian artery, hypoplastic abdominal aorta distal to the single umbilical artery, complete agenesis of urinary system, rectal agenesis and rudimentary indeterminate gonads. We would like to discuss the clinical features, etio- pathogenesis and review of literature of sirenomelia. Early diagnosis and termination of this lethal congenital anomaly results in minimizing the trauma related to the termination of pregnancy at advanced gestation.
Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva
Since ancient times, the autopsy has been a relevant source for the improvement of technical and scientific knowledge in the health area. From the first anatomic studies in the Middle Ages to the use of modern molecular techniques for the study of physiopathological processes, the autopsy has proven to be a very rich source of material and inspiration for the advancement of scientific knowledge. However, in recent decades, there has been a marked decline in medical autopsies—a situation that ...
Full Text Available Background: An audit of autopsies of maternal deaths is important for the establishment of accurate cause of maternal deaths and to determine the contribution of various etiologies responsible in a given community. Aim: To study the causes of maternal deaths as determined by a pathological autopsy. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of all the cases of maternal deaths that underwent a pathological autopsy in a tertiary healthcare center from January 1998 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: The autopsy records with clinical notes were retrieved; gross and histopathology specimens and slides were studied to establish the accurate cause of maternal deaths. The variables like age (years, stay in the hospital, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy and method of delivery were used to classify and analyze the data from the autopsies. The causes of maternal deaths were divided in to direct and indirect; each being classified into subgroups based on the most evident pathology on autopsy. Results: The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR over a nine-year period (1998-2006 was 827/100000 live births (471 maternal deaths against 56944 live births. An autopsy was performed in 277 cases (58.8%. In the autopsy group, the most common causes of maternal mortality were pre-ecclampsia/ecclampsia (40 of 277, 14.44% and hemorrhage (32 of 277; 11.55%; However, indirect causes like infectious diseases (27 of 277; 9.75% and cardiac (27 of 277; 9.75% disease also contributed to maternal deaths. Conclusion: Indirect causes like rheumatic heart disease and infections like tuberculosis, malaria or leptospirosis and nutritional anemia are still major causes of maternal mortality in developing countries like India. Intensive efforts need to be taken in these areas to reduce the maternal mortality in developing countries like India.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Perinatal death rate is declining in developed and developing countries and so are perinatal autopsies. In the present days due to wider availability and awareness of prenatal scanning more and more congenital malformations are picked up in e arlier weeks of gestation. This helps in counselling of the couple which usually leads to an informed decision on medical termination of pregnancy. Autopsy performed on such fetuses , yields additional information in many cases. AIMS: The study was carried out to determine how well the prenatal ultrasound findings correlate with autopsy findings and also to determine the cause of death where ultrasound was not performed in patients who had spontaneous intrauterine death and abortion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his was a prospective study carried out over a period of two years in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre , Hyderabad , from January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 23 fetal autopsies were performed of wh ich one was a twin pregnancy. Brief maternal history , prenatal ultrasound scans , relevant biochemical markers and genetic studies wherever done , were noted. RESULTS : There were 14 male (60.86% and 8 female (34.78% fetuses , and in one case (4.34% gender could not be identified. Nineteen cases (82.60 % were less than 28 weeks of gestation. Medical termination of pregnancy was done in 13 cases (56.52 % whereas , 10 patients (43.47 % had spontaneous intrauterine death of the fetus. Ultrasound scanning was done in 15 cases (65.21 %. In 13 cases (86.66 % the ultrasound and autopsy findings were correlating whereas in two cases (13.33 % there were findings on imaging study which could not be identified on autopsy. Ultrasound was not done in 8 cases (34.78 % out of which 5 cases (62.5 % showed findings on autopsy which could have led to the fetal demise. Twelve cases (52.17 % were referral cases which had come from other hospitals
Chatelain, Denis; Brevet, Marie; Guernou, Malika; Manaouil, Cécile; Leclercq, Fabienne; Bruniau, Alexis; Cordonnier, Carole; Sevestre, Henri
We have reviewed the pathological reports of adult necropsies performed in Amiens hospital during the 1975-2005 period. 1,639 autopsies were performed in 1,049 men and 590 women. We distinguished three periods: 1975-1987 (period 1) with a high number of autopsies (86/year), 1988-1996 (period 2) with a huge decrease of autopsies performed (43/year) and 1997-2005 (period 3) with few autopsies performed (14/year). Patients were younger during period 3, 38% were less than 50 years old versus 26% and 29% during periods 1 and 2. The sex ratio M/F increased during period 3 (2.7 versus 1.7 and 1.9 during periods 1 and 2). Period 3 showed an increase of major diagnoses discovered during autopsies (36% versus 28% of autopsies performed during periods 1 and 2) and showed an increase of autopsies performed after iatrogenic events (20% versus 12% and 13% of autopsies of periods 1 and 2). Period 3 showed an increase of the delay between the death of patients and autopsy and a decrease of the delay of transmission of pathological reports. 2% of autopsies were never answered by the pathologists. In conclusion, our study confirms the major decline of autopsies during the last 30 years. Patients autopsied are currently young men and the autopsies are more frequently performed in potential forensic circumstances. Selection biases explain that major diagnoses are more frequently found at autopsies nowadays than 30 years ago. PMID:18185448
Mathai, Alka Mary; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, Suneet; Pai, Muktha R; Bhandary, Amritha; Fitzhugh, Valerie A
Body stalk anomaly (BSA) is a sporadic polymalformative syndrome incompatible with extrauterine life. In utero detection of BSA by two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging has been well documented. We herein describe a case of body stalk anomaly diagnosed at autopsy. The fetus had a large anterior midline abdominal wall defect with eventration of the visceral organs into the amnio-peritoneal sac and a completely absent umbilical cord. The associated anomalies included club foot, absent diaphragm, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal defects. The observed congenital anomalies supported the theory of embryonic dysgenesis as the etiologic factor. One of the major objectives in the performance of fetal autopsy is to be able to detect abnormalities that can have implications in future pregnancies. Despite the negligible familial recurrence rate of the broad spectrum of anomalies associated with this abdominal wall defect, the present case of fetal autopsy indeed delights to serve the living. PMID:19643652
Fakler Johannes K
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008 from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%, the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16% patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16% cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma. Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool.
Full Text Available We report a case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS and autopsy findings. A 35-year-old man presented with an ossified tumor in the right thigh and lung metastasis. The lung tumors continued to develop despite multiagent chemotherapy and caused death within 8 months. Autopsy revealed many secondary lesions in the lungs, especially in the left lung. Histopathologically, the primary tumor and one of the secondary tumors showed proliferation of spindle-shaped tumor cells focally forming lace-like osteoid material. Therefore, we made a definite diagnosis of ESOS.
Cristiano C. Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACTPierre Robin sequence is a neonatal disorder characterized by micrognathism, glossoptosis and cleft palate. We reported an autopsy case of a child whose malformations of the oropharynx were identified only at birth. The child was extremely preterm with severe neonatal depression and poor recovery, and the orofacial alterations prevented the correct treatment. There was facial disorder characterized by micrognathia associated with cleft palate and posterior displacement of the tongue, compressing the vallecula, structurally compatible with glossoptosis. This autopsy surpassed the scientific and epidemiological relevance, allowing the family genetic counseling and close monitoring of a subsequent pregnancy.
A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)
This article highlights findings of a study on the suicides of three academically talented male adolescents. Results of the psychological autopsies are reported in terms of commonalities with adolescent suicide in the general population; commonalities among the three cases related to their giftedness; and themes emerging across the cases,…
Aquila, I; Falcone, C; Di Nunzio, C; Tamburrini, O; Boca, S; Ricci, P
We report the case of a 70-year-old woman found dead in her apartment in the South of Italy in February 2011. The detailed data showed that the victim was affected by familiar-type paranoid schizophrenia. This finding was confirmed by the discovery of antipsychotic and tricyclic antidepressant drugs in the house and the deposition of her psychiatric therapist. Before the autopsy, a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scanning of the thoracic and facial maxillo-cervical area was performed that has allowed anatomical identification and diagnosis of a mechanical obstruction as the cause of death. The autopsy has showed the presence of materials obstructing the trachea totally. Histological and toxicological investigations were carried out on the victim. The toxicological investigation has shown the presence of metabolites of tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics in the blood and urine. The histology showed the presence of foreign-origin materials (starch fibres) inside the pulmonary alveolus. The cause of death was asphyxia due to obstruction by food-origin material. In this case the radiological data have been compared with the autopsy and toxicological and histological data. The comparison of results has shown that MSCT scanning may aid in identification of occlusion and then in determination of the cause of death. In conclusion, MSCT scanning can be proposed in the cases of suspected asphyxia, as the screening procedure of first instance to produce preliminary information useful to rapidly develop the successive autopsy performance. PMID:23582265
Full Text Available Herein we describe a rare case of saccular renal artery aneurysm seen as an incidental autopsy finding in an elderly, hypertensive female. The aneurysm was seen as a small exophytic mass with calcified wall and lumen occluded by recanalized thrombus.
Makihara, Kosuke; Hamada, Tetsuo; Kasai, Kentaro; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sato, Hiroaki
We had a forensic autopsy case that required additive pathological examination for the asbestos-related lung disease compensatory application afterwards. A man in his sixties with a history of occupational asbestos inhalation who had neither visited a hospital nor received a physical examination received forensic autopsy because of his death from unknown cause. An inmate said, "He developed cough and dyspnea, and died in the progression of the symptoms." The autopsy revealed widespread pleural plaques on both sides of the parietal pleura and multiple tumors in both sides of the lungs. The cause of death was diagnosed as lung cancer. Additional pathological examination was asked by his family to certify that he had suffered from asbestos-related lung disease in order to apply to the Asbestos-related Damage Relief Law. The Japanese criteria of the compensation law of asbestos-related lung cancer is the detection of more than 5,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry lung tissue, while his number of asbestos bodies was 4,860. Asbestos bodies were reported to be accumulated in the distal lung parenchyma with no pathological changes. The present lung samples were collected from proximal section around the tumor, which might have made the number of asbestos bodies less than the criteria. Both the number of patients suffering from asbestos-related lung disease and the number of forensic autopsy cases have increased in Japan. Collecting lung samples from the appropriate lung section is essential and should be noted when the lung cancer is suspected at forensic autopsy in order to apply for asbestos-related lung disease compensation. PMID:26972947
Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E
This work evaluates the benefits and applications of computers and multimedia systems in post-mortem examination practice and, more in particular, in the definition of data collection protocols. We examined issues concerning the different aims of autopsy (e.g. diagnostic, scientific, educational, legal), and found that the pathologist's main duty is to acquire a large amount of data in the best possible way. However, despite the will to carry out detailed post-mortem examinations, many pathologic anatomy services face objective difficulties in doing so, especially due to understaffing, lack of time and high costs. The Institute for Pathologic Anatomy of the University of Genoa has developed software for data handling and for outcome reporting, a particularly important aspect in fetal-perinatal diagnosis. The system consists of a relational database in a client-server environment (Fourth Dimension) with two integrated parts. The first part, with unrestricted access, contains patients' personal data, including gender, age, time and date of death, hospital department of origin, person and department requiring the post-mortem examination, hour and time of autopsy, pathologist's name, and clinical diagnosis of death. Using a scanner, a copy of the autopsy application is also field, together with the patient's medical file and any diagnostic images useful to document the case history. The second part of the information system is accessible by pathologists only, and contains the autopsy report. This part is organized to balance two different needs: it allows sufficient space and freedom for autopsy description while providing guidelines for presentation of the report. The structure of the conventional autopsy protocol has been maintained, with subdivisions for all the organs and apparatuses according to topographic criteria. Before this part, a section is dedicated to external cadaver examination and anthropometric data; weight, shape, volume and texture are described for
Knoll, James L; Hatters-Friedman, Susan
Homicide-suicide represents a single episode of violence which may decimate an entire family. This study aimed to further describe motives and context of these tragedies. Psychological autopsies were completed for 18 homicide-suicide cases in Dallas, Texas. This included postevent interviews with surviving family members and review of police and coroner records. Two-thirds of perpetrators had made either verbal or written threats prior to the homicide-suicide. A simplified typology describing victim-perpetrator relationship and motive type is suggested for future studies and clinical ease. Two-thirds of perpetrators fell into the category of Intimate-Possessive, most of whom were depressed men who were abusing substances and undergoing separation. Additional categories included Intimate-Ailing, Filial-Revenge, Familial-Psychotic, and Friend-Psychotic. Further, implications from this psychological autopsy study regarding risk assessment include use of collateral interviews regarding threats and past violence. PMID:26259152
Kakkar, Nandita; Menon, Santosh; Radotra, B D
A retrospective analysis of pediatric autopsies in the past 18 years was done with the aim of studying the histomorphology of renal dysplasia. Renal dysplasia comprised 150 (3.66%) of the 4,099 pediatric autopsies from 20 weeks of gestation to 1 year of life. Primitive ducts with the fibromuscular collar, the sine qua non of renal dysplasia, was seen in all cases. Lobar disorganization and cysts were seen in all cases except for the 7 cases of hypodysplasia. Other elements were seen in varying proportions: cartilage in 33.7%, bone in 1.08%, thickening of basement membrane of the primitive ducts in 64.13%, extramedullary hematopoiesis in 98.9%, nerve twigs in 72.8%, and nodular renal blastema in 2.17% cases. In unilateral multicystic dysplasia/renal agenesis, the contralateral kidney showed abnormalities in 44.45% and 47.37% of cases, respectively. PMID:16908457
Durão, Carlos; Carpinteiro, Dina; Pedrosa, Frederico; Machado, Marcos P; Cunha, Eugénia
Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) are a quite rare developmental defect of the parietal bone which has to be distinguished from the normal small parietal foramina. We report a forensic case of an individual found in an advanced state of putrefaction in his own house with an undetermined cause of death. No evidence of trauma was observed, and the toxicological exam was negative. The victim was a 40-year-old man with a history of epilepsy. The large biparietal foramina, a rare anatomical variation and unusual autopsy finding, were observed at autopsy. The recognition of anatomical variations is important to avoid false interpretations and conclusions and has a significant potential as an identity factor, thus contributing to positive identification. PMID:26233611
Oda, Eri; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Shiomi, Yuko; Ohnishi, Koji; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Chikamoto, Akira; Takeya, Motohiro; Baba, Hideo
Cancer of unknown primary is associated with unknown biology and dismal prognosis. The most common primary sites of cancer of unknown primary were usually the lungs in autopsy studies, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rare. We describe the case of a 57-year-old male patient with systemic lymph node metastasis. Imaging examination failed to reveal primary cancer; however, immunostaining of cytokeratins 7, 19, and 20 of a metastatic axillary lymph node suggested a pancreaticobiliary cancer as a primary lesion. He died of liver abscess and sepsis, and then, autopsy indicated occult intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We discuss the clinical course of this rare cholangiocarcinoma including the diagnostic procedure and also present a review of the English literature regarding patients with cancer of unknown primary. PMID:26943425
Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Murray, J. [University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban (South Africa). Center for Occupational & Environmental Health
Studies of dose-response relationships between respiratory outcomes at autopsy and coal dust exposure are limited. The Pathology Automation System (PATHAUT) database of South African miners, is one of the largest autopsy databases of occupational lung disease. This study described the prevalence of respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy, and determined whether dose response relationships existed between emphysema and exposure. Autopsies conducted from 1975 to 1997 on coal miners with exclusive coal mining exposure and having exposure duration information (n = 3,167) were analyzed from PATHAUT Logistic regression was used to determine relationships between exposure and outcomes, controlling for race, smoking and age on a subset for whom smoking history was available (n = 725). The prevalence of silicosis, tuberculosis (TB), coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and moderate and marked emphysema were 10.7%, 5.2%, 7.3%, and 64%, respectively. All diseases, except TB, were associated with exposure duration. Black miners had 8.3 and 1.2 fold greater risks for TB and CWP, respectively, than white miners. White miners had an increased risk of 1.4 and 5.4 for silicosis and moderate to marked emphysema, respectively. In models unadjusted for age, and including smoking, moderate to marked emphysema was strongly associated with exposure duration (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.9-5.9 for highest tercile of exposure duration). Exposure-related risk estimates were reduced when age was introduced into the model. However age and duration of exposure were highly correlated, = 0. 68) suggesting a dilution of the exposure effect by age. There were significant dose related associations of disease, including emphysema, with coal dust exposure.
Fatima, Uroos; Sherwani, Rana; Khan, Tamkin; Zaheer, Sufian
Introduction: Intrauterine death(IUD)/ Stillbirth forms a major part of perinatal mortality which thereby is a good indicator of pregnancy wastage as well as quality of healthcare available. The key objectives of autopsy examination are to know the cause(s) of death, elucidation of pathogenic mechanism and quality control of clinical management. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalent causes of IUD, thereby taking appropriate measures to prevent them and decrease the perinatal mor...
CT and US findings of 7 cases of splenic metastases are described and the prevalence of splenic metastases at autopsy in 641 cases of malignant tumors were evaluated. Metastatic foci in spleen appeared mostly as poorly-defined low density masses on CT. Iodinated contrast material was administered in 2 cases, but no contrast enhancement was observed. US showed both hypoechoic and hyperechoic patterns. These appearances were nonspecific, but were similar to those of metastatic lesions in the liver which were often visible on CT associated with splenic metastases. At autopsy splenic metastases were found in 34 of 641 cases (5.3%). Gastric, colon, lung and ovarian cancers were most common primary tumors. However, the rate of splenic metastasis per tumor was highest in ovarian cancer (50.0%), followed by malignant melanoma (33.3%), colon cancer (16.2%), and gastric cancer (8.2%). Hepatoma which had the largest number of autopsy cases in this series showed the lowest rate of splenic metastases (0.8%). (author)
Full Text Available Introduction. The risk of suicide among war veterans is a controversial issue, where findings so far have been contradictory. Objective. This study focusses on suicide in Serbian veterans from the wars in former Yugoslavia in the 1990s in order to create appropriate preventive measures and reduce the number of these fatal cases. Methods. The autopsy protocols of all 44 suicides committed by war veterans in the Belgrade District population over a period between 1992 and 2000 were investigated. Data were obtained from autopsy records, results of toxicological investigations and psychological autopsy protocols. Results. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were present in 27.3%, major depression in 9.1% and schizophrenia in 6.8% of veterans. The majority of suicides (84.1% were committed by recruits in the Yugoslav National Army, spending between three and eight months in the zone of war operations. Six committed suicide during the first 30 days after their war activities, while the majority of suicides occurred between five and six years after combat. The most frequent manner of suicide was the use of handguns (56.8% and bombs (18.2%. Conclusion. The results of this research may give useful information about the individuals with the highest suicidal risk in order to alleviate the consequences of war psychotraumas in veterans and prevent their growth into a permanent handicap or suicide. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175093
Adams, V I; Carrubba, C
Twenty autopsy reports, comprising 1 fall, 1 cutting, 1 burn, 1 drowning, 1 strangulation, 3 gunshot wound, and 13 traffic fatalities, were scored by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The codes were adequate for wounds of skin and long bones, and for most wounds of viscera. The autopsy descriptions were more detailed than the coding criteria for craniocerebral, cervicovertebral and muscular trauma, and less detailed for thoracoabdominal visceral, and long bone trauma. Lung contusions and rib fractures received scores that seemed unduly high, possibly reflecting the greater sensitivity of autopsy diagnosis over clinical diagnosis for these lesions. Complete hinge fractures of the skull base scored 4 (severe), which does not reflect the almost universally lethal nature of the accompanying cerebral concussion, which was itself not codeable. AIS scores were low and did not seem to reflect the lethal outcome when the lethal mechanism was purely physiologic and without a striking morphologic derangement, as in instances of cerebral or cardiac concussion, compression of the neck, occlusive airway hemorrhage, and visceral herniation into an adjacent body cavity. The scores were similarly low when therapy was delayed or adverse. Low AIS and ISS scores in a fatality from blunt or penetrating trauma may be useful retrospective clues to the presence of purely physiologic death mechanisms or therapeutic problems. PMID:9760090
Full Text Available Amatare Dinyain,1 G Olutoyin Omoniyi-Esan,2 Olaejirinde O Olaofe,3 Donatus Sabageh,3 Akinwumi O Komolafe,2 Olusegun S Ojo21Department of Anatomic Pathology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaAim: Maternal mortality is a major health problem, especially in Nigeria, where accurate autopsy-based data on the prevalent causes are not readily available. The aim of this study was therefore to accurately determine the causes of maternal death as seen in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria.Materials and methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective review of the postmortem autopsy findings from cases of maternal death at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Analyses were performed for differences in proportions using PEPI computer programs for epidemiologists (P is significant at <0.05.Results: A total of 84 cases of maternal deaths were used for the study. Approximately 71.4% of the maternal deaths were due to direct causes and 28.6% were due to indirect causes. The mean age at the time of death was 27.9±7.5 years. Overall, the three leading causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage (30.9%, complications of abortion (23.8%, and nongenital (nonobstetric infections (14.2%. Of the direct causes of maternal death, obstetric hemorrhage (43.3% was the leading cause, with postpartum hemorrhage accounting for most (65.0% of such deaths; other causes included complications of unsafe induced abortion (33.3% and of labor (11.7%. Of the indirect causes, nongenital infections (50.0%, anemia (25.0%, and preexisting hypertension (20.8% accounted for the majority of the maternal deaths. There was disparity between the clinical and
Kaar, T K
A prospective study of the pattern of responses to requests for autopsy in a general surgical unit was performed. Information on the characteristics of the deceased, of the requestee and of the requester was documented in the case of 66 patients who died while in hospital. Permission to perform autopsy was not requested in 39 out of 66 cases and this was the most frequent contributory factor to the low rate of autopsy. Once a decision to grant or refuse autopsy is made by relatives of the deceased, the decision is unlikely to be reversed. Permission to perform autopsy was more likely to be sought when the deceased was male than when deceased was female. The relatives of patients who had recently undergone surgery were more likely to refuse permission for autopsy than were those of patients who had not had recent surgery.
Zerbini, Talita; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Ferro, Antonio Carlos Gonçalves; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Junior, Edson Amaro; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto Gonçalves; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. METHOD: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. RESULTS: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the fi...
Talita Zerbini; Luiz Fernando Ferraz da Silva; Antonio Carlos Gonçalves Ferro; Fernando Uliana Kay; Edson Amaro Junior; Carlos Augusto Gonçalves Pasqualucci; Paulo Hilario do Nascimento Saldiva
Objective: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. Method: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. Results: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, th...
Kar Asaranti; Mohanty Pranati; Kar Tushar; Behera Jagadish; Behera Susmita; Nayak Amarendra
Thoracoomphalopagus is the commonest type of conjoined twin where the bodies are fused from upper chest to lower chest. The autopsy done can help counsil the parents for further pregnancies and determine the prognosis depending upon the type of cardiac anomaly by Seo classification when detected antenatally. We describe the detail pathological autopsy of such a case with single heart and single liver. A detail autopsy was done on the twin fetus. The twins shared a single heart and sometimes t...
Daulay, Putri Aini
Autopsy have important role in development of medical practice and science, but number do the autopsy have been decline in the world in a few last decade. Constraint which often faced in field by investigator in expressing cause of death of victim namely public often don't permit to be done by autopsy, along of the minim of knowledge of public concerning the important of forensic autopsy itself. This research aim to know level of knowledge of citizen of area of 14 sub-district of mi...
Bywaters, E G; Evans, S
This study describes the prevalence, distribution, pathology and pathogenesis of lumbar interspinous bursitis (described as a clinical syndrome by Baastrup in 1933). It is based on an anatomic study of 152 lumbar spines derived from routine and random postmortem material, together with selected specimens from autopsies on patients with various rheumatic diseases. From a statistical study of 50 randomly chosen spines, bursae are found when the interspinous distance is small compared with the total height of the lumbar spine ('bursal index'): nearly all bursal spaces show some sign of inflammation and a few show severe bony erosion. Crystal deposits therein are also described. PMID:7178764
Gh.- R. Walizadeh
Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.
Shaik Afshan Jabeen
Full Text Available Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG is a rare condition, characterized by infiltration of the meninges by glial cells without evidence of the primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Glioma arising primarily from the leptomeninges is extremely rare and often diagnosed only in post mortem examination and the diagnosis may be missed in meningeal biopsy. We describe a young female who presented with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure with imaging evidence of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement in whom autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PDLG. Our case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in making the pre-mortem diagnosis even with multiple cerebrospinal fluid cytologies and leptomeningeal biopsy.
Sahoo, Niranjan; Kumar, Nityanand; Panda, Bibhuti Bhusana; Dutta, Arunava
The external findings are utmost important in the opinion formation during autopsy of hanging deaths. Thus the current study was done with the aim of studying the significance of external findings in hanging cases during post-mortem examination in the Department of FMT, RIMS, Ranchi prospectively from 1st March, 2013 to 30th May, 2014. Majority of cases of hanging had not received any treatment. In maximum cases the nature of suspension was complete type. Atypical hangings were seen in most c...
Hitosugi, Masahito; Tsukada, Chie; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Matsushima, Kazumi; Furukawa, Satoshi; Morita, Satomu; Nagai, Toshiaki
We describe a first fatal case of repellent air freshener ingestion. A 79-year-old Japanese man with Alzheimer-type senile dementia orally ingested repellent air freshener containing three surfactants: polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether, polyoxyethylene (40) hydrogenated castor oil, and lauric acid amidopropyl amine oxide (weight ratio of 1.3%). About 1h after the collapse, he was in cardiopulmonary arrest and subsequently died 10h after his arrival. The forensic autopsy performed 5.5h after death revealed the 380ml of stomach contents with a strong mint perfume identical to that of the repellent air freshener and the findings of acute death. Toxicologically, 9.1μg/ml and 558.2μg/ml of polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether were detected from the serum and stomach contents taken at autopsy. Generally, ingestion of anionic or non-ionic surfactants have been considered as safe. However, because the patient suffered from cardiac insufficiency with a low dose of repellent air freshener ingestion, medical staff members must evaluate the elderly patient for cardiac and circulatory problems regardless of the ingested dose. Not only medical and nursing staff members, but also families who are obliged to care for elderly persons must be vigilant to prevent accidental ingestion of toxic substances generally used in the household. PMID:25982958
Full Text Available Komurcuoda leachate treatment plant, Istanbul, which consists of membrane bioreactor (MBR and nanofiltration (NF system, faced rapid flux decline in membranes after 3-year successful operation. To compensate rapid flux decline in membranes, the fouled membranes were renewed but replacement of the membranes did not solve the problem. To find the reasons and make a comprehensive analysis, membrane autopsy was performed. Visual and physical inspection of the modules and some instrumental analysis were conducted for membrane autopsy. Membranes were found severely fouled with organic and inorganic foulants. Main foulant was iron which was deposited on surface. The main reason was found to be the changing of aerator type of MBR. When surface aerators were exchanged with bottom diffusers which led to increasing of dissolved oxygen (DO level of the basin, iron particles were oxidized and they converted into particulate insoluble form. It was thought that probably this insoluble form of the iron particles was the main cause of decreased membrane performance. After the diagnosis, a new pretreatment alternative including a new iron antiscalant was suggested and system performance has been recovered.
Usumoto, Yosuke; Kudo, Keiko; Sameshima, Naomi; Sato, Kazuo; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki
Zolpidem is a widely used ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine in clinical practice; compared with benzodiazepines, it does not have side effects such as daytime hangover, rebound insomnia, and development of tolerance. We report an autopsy case of abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. A man in his 60's had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia about 2 months ago and had been prescribed zolpidem for insomnia. According to his family, he had no memory of his actions such as striking a wall, taking his futon outside, and eating 5 times a day after he took zolpidem. Because his postherpetic neuralgia did not improve, he was hospitalized and treated with an epidural block. During hospitalization, he took off his clothes, removed the epidural block catheter by himself, and slept on others' beds. He disappeared from the hospital one day; the next day, he was found dead in a narrow water storage tank 10 km away from the hospital. He was thought to have driven a car by himself to reach the place. Forensic autopsy revealed that the cause of death was drowning. Zolpidem and several other drugs were detected by toxicological analysis of his blood; the concentrations of these drugs were within therapeutic range. There are several reports about somnambulism induced by zolpidem such as sleepwalking, sleep driving, and eating. Considering the strange episodes following zolpidem administration, his behaviour on the day of his death was considered abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. PMID:26306385
Demir, Ibrahim; Koyuncu, Ismail; Guclu, Serkan; Yildiz, Senol; Balahorli, Vahit; Caglar, Suphi; Turken, Turker; Pasaoglu, Mehmet E.; Kaya, Recep; Sengur-Tasdemir, Reyhan
Komurcuoda leachate treatment plant, Istanbul, which consists of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) system, faced rapid flux decline in membranes after 3-year successful operation. To compensate rapid flux decline in membranes, the fouled membranes were renewed but replacement of the membranes did not solve the problem. To find the reasons and make a comprehensive analysis, membrane autopsy was performed. Visual and physical inspection of the modules and some instrumental analysis were conducted for membrane autopsy. Membranes were found severely fouled with organic and inorganic foulants. Main foulant was iron which was deposited on surface. The main reason was found to be the changing of aerator type of MBR. When surface aerators were exchanged with bottom diffusers which led to increasing of dissolved oxygen (DO) level of the basin, iron particles were oxidized and they converted into particulate insoluble form. It was thought that probably this insoluble form of the iron particles was the main cause of decreased membrane performance. After the diagnosis, a new pretreatment alternative including a new iron antiscalant was suggested and system performance has been recovered. PMID:26137593
Nielsen, Trine Skov; Hansen, Jakob; Nielsen, Lars Peter;
adenovirus, enterovirus, and parvovirus B19 (PVB) in myocardial autopsy samples from myocarditis related deaths and in non-inflamed control hearts in an effort to clarify their significance as the causes of myocarditis in a forensic material. METHODS: We collected all autopsy cases diagnosed with myocarditis...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false X-ray, biopsy, and autopsy evidence of... Pneumoconiosis § 410.428 X-ray, biopsy, and autopsy evidence of pneumoconiosis. (a) A finding of the existence of... shows the existence of pneumoconiosis, or (3) A biopsy (other than a needle biopsy) shows the...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. Method: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. Results: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. Conclusions: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations.
Matsuda, Katsuya; Yamaryo, Takeshi; Akazawa, Yuko; Kawakami, Kenji; Nakashima, Masahiro
We report a case of pleural angiosarcoma in an adult male patient confirmed by autopsy and possibly associated with pneumoconiosis. The lesion was characterized by thickened pleura of both lungs with nodular tumors. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-to-polygonal epithelioid cells that were positive for CD31, CD34, vimentin, and cytokeratin on immunohistochemical staining but were negative for calretinin. Further examination revealed mix-dust pathological findings consistent with the existence of pneumoconiosis; dystrophic ossification, anthracosis, and fractal small dust particles were observed in the lung parenchyma and a hilar lymph node. The current case suggests that pneumoconiosis-associated pathologies may be risk factors for the development of angiosarcoma in the pleura. PMID:26314557
The author aims to demonstrate the increased information which can be acquired from a correlated study of the computed tomogram and the pathomorphological patterns of the most common infarctions seen at autopsy. The discussion is divided into two sections: 1. A short bird's-eye view on the laws of distribution of flow in cases of cerebrovascular insufficiency, particularly all the deviations from simple hemodynamics in the process of infarction. 2. A systematic demonstration of the most frequent CT-patterns correlated with the corresponding pathomorphological specimens. This report is based on 6500 cerebral CTs, from which 590, i.e. 9%, showed infarcts. These include mainly cases seen in the neurological ward of the Merheim City Hospital. (Auth.)
Andrion, A.; Pira, E.; Mollo, F.
An investigation was made to correlate post-mortem findings of pleural plaques (PP) with the smoking habits and occupational history of asbestos exposure of 898 adults from the general population. A significant association between PP and smoking was found in middle-aged and elderly men (p less than 0.001). When occupational history was considered, such an association was present in both exposed (p less than 0.01) and non-exposed (p less than 0.05) men aged over 50 years. No association was observed in non-exposed women, while in those exposed, the absolute number of cases was too small to evaluate any relationship. The number of cigarettes smoked did not correlate significantly with the frequency of PP. This autopsy study confirms the association between occurrence of PP and the smoking habits.
Since 1959, the Health Division, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has analyzed the tissues from 81 former employees of the Laboratory for plutonium. Additionally, approximately 700 autopsy cases from the general population have also been analyzed for Pu resulting from fallout. The variation in the distribution of Pu in the bodies of the occupationally exposed individuals suggest that each exposure incident is unique and must be evaluated on the basis of the chemical form, solubility, particle size, mode of entry, and duration of exposure. Particle size distribution of Pu in a lymph node of a long-term chronic exposure case was estimated to have a mass median diameter of 0.32 μm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5. The baseline concentrations of environmental Pu have been estimated for the general population and the tissue distributions compared with the occupationally exposed cases
Cristiano Claudino Oliveira
Full Text Available Dicephalus dipus dibrachius twins are a rare form of conjoined twins. An autopsy of conjoined dicephalus twins is reported. The diagnosis was performed during the pregnancy and the family received a judicial authorization for termination of pregnancy. The preterm newborn progressed to cardiac arrest and died following a court order to terminate the pregnancy. The conceptus presented two arms, two legs, a trunk, two heads, and a single umbilical cord. The two spinal columns presented vertebral fusion in the sacral region. The heart exhibited complex malformations. The external genitalia were female; and cytogenetic analysis confirmed female sex (46, XX. This analysis also corroborated the etiopathogenic hypotheses described for this abnormality, which proposes failures in embryonic formation rather than specific chromosomal alterations. Current identification of cases by ultrasound permits medical management and multidisciplinary action with the family, enabling the legal termination of pregnancy.
Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)
Murray Christopher JL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff, which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data.
Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Freeman, Michael; Banner, Jytte;
Current autopsy practice in forensic pathology is to a large extent based on experience and individual customary practices as opposed to evidence and consensus based practices. As a result there is the potential for substantial variation in how knowledge is applied in each case. In the present case......-gathering and the use of check lists specific to certain injury causes are likely to result in less deviation from evidence-based practices in forensic pathology. Pre-autopsy data-gathering and check lists will help ensure a higher degree of standardization in autopsy reports thus enhancing the quality and...
Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Paik, Sang Hyun [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16- channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations
"At first glance the lungs may seem uncomplicated, but many wise men have gone astray in their labyrinths." These words were written by Dr. A.A. Liebow, a famous pathologist, in a foreword to the first edition of Pathology of the Lung by H. Spencer. This same thought can also be applied to the field of medicolegal autopsies. 1. The gross appearance of the lungs in medicolegal autopsies Plucks consisting of the lungs, neck organs, the esophagus and the aorta were removed from human cadavers and after taking photos of the frontal and rear view, the lungs were carefully examined to reveal whether the lung shows characteristic morphological changes depending on causes of death. Based on their appearance, the lungs were classified into the 3 following types: a collapsed, a non-collapsed and an inflated type, each of these types reflecting the probable cause of death. The collapsed type of lung was seen in cases of death from exanguination, and the lung falling into shrinkage due to traumatic pneumo- and/or hemo-thorax was also classified into the collapsed type. The non-collapsed type of lung was seen in cases whose lungs were thermo-coagulated and in a case of death from a pulmonary embolism. Also, the deflating lungs of drowning victims before falling into collapse, were classified into a non-collapsed type. The inflated type of lung consisted of lungs that showed ballooning soon after death by drowning, and lungs that had inflated due to emphysema or edema from various causes. This lung study has reconfirmed that the lungs show hypostatic changes more clearly than any other organs of the body, and in the absence of skin color changes reflecting hypostasis, the settling of the blood in the lung could be detected in most cases. 2. Early histopathological lung changes induced by shock One hundred and thirty medicolegal cases were reviewed to detect early histopathological changes of the lung induced by shock. In many cases of death from various causes, pulmonary edema
Full Text Available The present prospective autopsy study was carried out during the period July 2009 to May 2012 in Kingston, Jamaica. A total of 74 cases of cut throat injury were studied. All the cut throat injuries irrespective of those directly or indirectly contributing to the death were studied. Males dominated the list of victims, contributing to 71.62% (n = 53. Majority of those were in the age group 21–30 (n = 25 and 31–40 (n = 26 which contributed to 33.78% and 35.13% respectively. Majority of the cases were homicides contributing to 97.29% (n = 72 of cases, only 2.7% were suicides and accidental cut throat were never reported. Males dominated the homicides category contributing to 72.22% (n = 52 of the cases. Gang and relationship crisis (homosexual and heterosexual were the major motivating factors, each contributing to 39.19% (n = 29 and 32.43% (n = 24 of the cases, respectively. The disease suffered by individuals were the least motivating factors contributing to 1.35% of cases (n = 01. The most common cause of death was exsanguinations in 49.95% (n = 34 of cases followed closely by asphyxia due to aspiration of blood i.e. 36.49% (n = 27 of cases and air embolism was the least cause of death, contributing to 4.05% (n = 03 of cases. Cut throat injury was associated with other injuries like gunshot wound, chop wounds and stab wounds in 13.52% of (n = 10 autopsies. Chop injuries contributed to maximum number of other injuries in homicides (n = 46. The most preferred place for the crime was an open field or farm (n = 26. Majority of the cut throat wounds were situated in zone II level contributing to 66.21% (n = 49 of cases. Majority of the wounds were directed from left to right in 75.68% (n = 56 of cases and the cervical vertebra was affected in 8.11% (n = 06 of cases. Major weapon of choice was machete contributing to 83.78% (n = 62 of injuries. The low income group was the most affected group contributing to 91
Tester, David J.; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Will, Melissa L.; Haglund, Carla M.; Ackerman, Michael J.
Objective To perform long QT syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia cardiac channel postmortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy) for a large cohort of cases of autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death (SUD). Methods From September 1, 1998, through October 31, 2010, 173 cases of SUD (106 males; mean ± SD age, 18.4±12.9 years; age range, 1-69 years; 89% white) were referred by medical examiners or coroners for a cardiac channel molecular autopsy. Using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and DNA sequencing, a comprehensive mutational analysis of the long QT syndrome susceptibility genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2) and a targeted analysis of the catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1–associated gene (RYR2) were conducted. Results Overall, 45 putative pathogenic mutations absent in 400 to 700 controls were identified in 45 autopsy-negative SUD cases (26.0%). Females had a higher yield (26/67 [38.8%]) than males (19/106 [17.9%]; P<.005). Among SUD cases with exercise-induced death, the yield trended higher among the 1- to 10-year-olds (8/12 [66.7%]) compared with the 11- to 20-year-olds (4/27 [14.8%]; P=.002). In contrast, for those who died during a period of sleep, the 11- to 20-year-olds had a higher yield (9/25 [36.0%]) than the 1- to 10-year-olds (1/24 [4.2%]; P=.01). Conclusion Cardiac channel molecular autopsy should be considered in the evaluation of autopsy-negative SUD. Several interesting genotype-phenotype observations may provide insight into the expected yields of postmortem genetic testing for SUD and assist in selecting cases with the greatest potential for mutation discovery and directing genetic testing efforts. PMID:22677073
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices AGENCY... and Best Practices''. The opportunity to provide comments on this document is open to...
Mortensen, Elin; Kearney, Michael Shelley
We studied the incidence, severity, and significance of intrauterine meconium aspiration (IUMA) in the midtrimester fetus. Lung sections from 219 midtrimester fetuses were examined for meconium, identified by finding meconium corpuscles. There were 21 cases (9.6%) with IUMA. Gestational age ranged from 13 to 23 weeks (mean 18.7 weeks); 11 were female, and 10 were male. Eighteen were spontaneous abortions, 11 of which were macerated, and 1 of these was associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device. There were 3 terminations of pregnancy, 2 for fetal abnormality and 1 for severe preeclampsia. One fetus was conceived by in vitro fertilization. Fifteen cases (71.4%) showed slight IUMA, 5 cases (23.8%) showed moderate IUMA, and in 1 case (4.8%) IUMA was massive. The incidence of IUMA in an autopsy series of midtrimester fetuses was 9.6%. The amount of aspirated meconium was usually small and possibly physiologic. When IUMA was moderate or massive, it was associated with severe abnormality of the umbilical cord or placenta, particularly subchorionic hematoma. PMID:19323599
Onda, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Hitoshi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst
We examined 26 autopsy-proven cases of intracranial malignant lymphoma (IML) in immunocompetent patients to determine the extent of neoplastic involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) and to evaluate the effects of radiation on the tumor and brain tissue. All tumors were identified as diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of B-cell origin. In six patients who had not received radiotherapy, the clinical course of the disease was short and extensive infiltration of the tumor was seen. The remaining 20 patients were treated with radiotherapy and had a longer survival time. Leptomeningeal involvement was common, but extensive subarachnoid proliferation of the tumor was seen in only two cases. The posterior, but not anterior, lobe of the pituitary was involved in 5 of 22 cases, and choroid plexus involvement was seen in 4 of 21. Direct invasion of the tumor into the spinal cord, which tended to occur in patients with posterior fossa masses, was observed in 5 of 21 cases. Following irradiation, coagulation necrosis was frequently found in the invading zone as well as in the tumor mass, and degeneration of the white matter was also seen. We suggest that IML can extensively infiltrate into the CNS, including the posterior lobe of the pituitary and spinal cord, and that radiation injury to the brain appears to occur relatively easily in this disease. (author)
Chaux, Alcides; Reuter, Victor; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa; Codas, Ricardo; Cubilla, Antonio L
The aim of this study was to describe pathologic features found at autopsy of 14 patients with penile cancer. Nine patients died from disseminated disease; 5 of them presented local/regional recurrences. Five patients died from other causes, 2 of them postoperatively. Local recurrence sites were corpus cavernosum, Buck's fascia and urethra, regional skin, and prostate. Metastatic sites were lymph nodes (9 cases), liver (7 cases), lungs (6 cases), heart (5 cases), adrenals, bone and skin (3 cases each), thyroid and brain (2 cases each), and pancreas, spleen, and pleura (1 case each). Patients with heart metastasis had arrhythmias. Patients who died and who did not die from penile cancer had different profiles: low-grade superficial tumors with usual and warty subtypes versus high-grade deeply invasive basaloid or hybrid verrucous/sarcomatoid carcinomas. A natural history model for penile cancer routes of spread is proposed: local intrapeneal, regional and systemic nodes, regional skin, liver, lungs, heart, and other multiple sites. PMID:19411278
Paraschakis, Antonios; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Lykouras, Lefteris; Douzenis, Athanassios
Objective To study the characteristics of a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area using the psychological autopsy method for the first time in Greece. Methods We studied all recorded cases of completed suicide for the 2-year time period November 2007-October 2009 collecting data from the victims' forensic records as well as from the completion of a psychological autopsy questionnaire. Results 335 persons were recorded as suicide victims. We contacted relatives of 256 victims ...
Yamazaki, Toshikazu; Kume, Hikaru; Murase, Setsuko; Yamashita, Eriko; Arisawa, Mikio
The data on visceral mycoses that had been reported in the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 1969 to 1994 by the Japanese Society of Pathology were analyzed epidemiologically. The frequency of visceral mycoses among the annual total number of pathological autopsy cases increased noticeably from 1.60% in 1969 to a peak of 4.66% in 1990. Among them, the incidences of candidiasis and aspergillosis increased the most. After 1990, however, the frequency of visceral mycoses dec...
Werlang Blanca Guevara; Botega Neury José
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability and the interrater reliability of a Semi-Structured Interview for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide. METHOD: The Semi-Structured Interview for Psychological Autopsy (SSIPA) proposed in this paper consists of four modules which evaluate key-topics associated to suicide. In order to evaluate the instrument's applicability, a sample formed by 42 subjects related to 21 suicide cases was used. The interviews were tape-recorded first and then tran...
Kubo, Shinichi; OGATA, Mamoru; Kitamura, Osamu; Nagasono, Ichiro
The case of a61-year-old male traffic accident victem with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is reported. The autopsy revealed massive hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and subarachnoidal space. Furthermore, multiple fractures of ribs, sternum and thoracic vertebrae were observed. Histopathological examination revealed changes characteristic of trauma, such as acute lung congestion, acute renal cortical necrosis, and embolization in the lungs and kidney. These autopsy and histological o...
Terracciano, Antonio; Iacono, Diego; O'Brien, Richard J; Troncoso, Juan C.; An, Yang; Sutin, Angelina R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.; Resnick, Susan M.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology is found at autopsy in about 30% of cognitively normal older individuals. We examine whether personality traits are associated with such resilience to clinical dementia in individuals with AD neuropathology. Broad factors and specific facets of personality were assessed up to 28 years (M=11, SD=7) before onset of dementia and up to 30 years (M=15, SD=7) before death in a cohort (N=111) evaluated for AD neuropathology at autopsy. Individuals with higher ...
ZHANG Ling; TANG Yi; LIU Fang; SHI Yu-ying; CAO Yu; XU Huan; FU Ping
We reported a case of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following about 300 wasp stings.The diagnosis was based on autopsy findings of acute pulmonary edema,acute kidney injury,hepatic and cardiac dysfunction,and cerebral edema.MODS is a life-threatening complication,and should be considered a possibility after multiple wasp stings.Our autopsy helped to establish the cause of unexpected death due to wasp stings and to elucidate a possible mechanism of MODS.
Kahn, K.; Tollman, S. M.; Garenne, Michel; Gear, J.S.S.
Objective : To validate the causes of death determined with a single verbal autopsy instrument covering all age groups in the Agincourt subdistrict of rural South Africa. Methods : Verbal autopsies (VAs) were conducted on all deaths recorded during annual demogrpahic and health surveillance over a 3-year period (1992-95) in a population of about 63,000 people. Trained field-workers elicited signs and symptoms of the terminal illness from a close caregiver, using a comprehensive questionnaire ...
Ruangritchankul, Komkrit; Chindamporn, Ariya; Worasilchai, Navaporn; Poumsuk, Ubon; Keelawat, Somboon; Bychkov, Andrey.
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) has high mortality rate, especially in the growing population of immunocompromised patients. In spite of introduction of novel diagnostic approaches, the intravital recognition of IFD is challenging. Autopsy studies remain a key tool for assessment of epidemiology of visceral mycoses. We aimed to determine species distribution and trends of IFD over the last 10 years in unselected autopsy series from a large university hospital. Forty-five cases of visceral mycos...
McCormack, Carmen A; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Louissaint, Abner; Stone, James R
Purpose Assessment of body size at autopsy is important for interpreting organ weight measurements and in some cases body identification. The reliability of post-mortem body size measurements, the causes for perturbations in these measurements from their corresponding pre-mortem values, and the impact of such perturbations on heart weight interpretation have not been fully explored. Methods Autopsy body length and weight measurements and pre-mortem height and body weight measurements were compared in 132 autopsies. Clinical records were evaluated for peripheral edema and serum albumin levels. Causes of death, body cavity fluid collections, and heart weights were obtained from the autopsy reports. A subset of patients underwent quantitative post-mortem computed tomography assessment of anasarca. Results At autopsy, body weight differed from the pre-mortem value by 11 ± 1 %, compared with -0.2 ± 0.3 % for body length (P edema (14 ± 2 % vs. 7 ± 2 %, P = 0.01), serum albumin edema/anasarca. Alterations in body weight at autopsy can confound the interpretation of organ weight measurements. PMID:27020890
Puri, Ratna Dua; Kotecha, Udhaya; Lall, Meena; Dash, Pratima; Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Verma, Ishwar Chander
The utility of fetal autopsy to corroborate antenatal ultrasound findings and to aid genetic counseling is well known. However, the ability to identify an underlying cause for the common indications for which it is performed is not well studied. This study aimed to determine if the diagnostic yield of fetal autopsy in identifying the underlying cause is determined by the indication of the autopsy. Five groups of fetuses were defined based on the indication for the autopsy performed in 903 cases: (i) malformations, (ii) intrauterine death (IUD), (iii) cystic hygroma and hydrops fetalis, (iv) isolated abnormalities of amniotic fluid, and (v) intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The highest diagnostic yield was in fetuses with isolated abnormalities of amniotic fluid (77%), followed by those with IUGR (75%), with IUD (69.6%), those in group five (55.2%) and lowest (45%) in fetuses with malformations (P IUD, IUGR, and oligohydramnios (43.1%; P < 0.003) whereas chromosomal analysis was most useful in cystic hygroma/NIHF (28.9%; P < 0.001). This information on the diagnostic yield in fetal autopsy related its common indications, can be utilized to counsel families of the utility of autopsy to establish cause and recurrence risks and thereby assist then to make an informed decision to consent for the procedure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27197608
Megha S Uppin
Full Text Available Context: With the continuing rise in the number of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased. Various studies have reported the trends of fungal infections in autopsies. Because of limitations in antemortem clinical diagnosis owing to lack of sensitive diagnostic tools, information regarding frequency and pathogenesis of fungal infections is largely dependent on autopsy studies. Aim: To study the prevalence of fungal infections at autopsy spanning a period of 20 years and to document recent trends, prevalence of various fungi over decades along with underlying predisposing factors and pathological findings. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods:All autopsies between 1988 and 2007 were reviewed and all cases showing fungal infections were analyzed. The clinical details and demographic data were retrieved from medical records. Representative sections from all organs were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains including Gomori′s silver methenamine (GMS and per-iodic acid Schiff (PAS. Culture details were noted, wherever available. Results: A total of 401 autopsies were performed during the study period. Fungal infections were identified in 35 (8.7% of these cases. Leukemia was the commonest risk factor. The commonest pathogen in the present study was Aspergillus sp. The commonest single organ involved was brain (n = 18. Culture positivity was seen in 23.8% cases. Conclusion: The study highlights various predisposing factors and organisms in autopsy series. Existing diagnostic modalities are not sensitive to ensure antemortem diagnosis of fungal infections.
LI Hong-jun; GAO Yan-qing; CHENG Jing-liang; ZHANG Yu-zhong
Background Aquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a challenge to medical researchers because of its unique pathological and clinical picture. The clinical data, particularly autopsy evidence, from China have failed to provide enough pathological and etiological evidence for AIDS diagnosis, which impairs the reliability of the diagnosis and our full understanding of the occurrence and development of AIDS complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the imaging and pathologic characteristics of AIDS.Methods Autopsy, imaging and pathological data from 8 cases of AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their periods of hospitalization. Transverse CT scanning was conducted from the skull to the pelvis immediately after the occurrence of death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cardevers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each section and organs for pathological examinations.Results The autopsy data indicated the presence of parasitic infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, and virus infections in AIDS patients. Pneumocystis pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, coccobacteria pneumonia, Aspergillus pneumonia, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, toxoplasma encephalitis, lymphoma and cerebrovascular diseases were found in these patients.Conclusions During the course of AIDS progression, the concurrent multiple infections as well as tumor development may result in multiple organ pathological changes and clinically complex symptoms that further complicate the imaging and pathological manifestations, thus resulting in difficult differential diagnosis. A combination of imaging data and autopsy data can help to clarify the diagnosis.
Karch, Steven B
No matter how meticulous the autopsy, non-traumatic deaths in the young go unexplained from 5-10% of the time. The percentage is higher in children and young adults. Advances in molecular biology and DNA technology now make it possible to explain many of those deaths. This development is not without irony. At the same time that many clinicians are expressing frustration about the lack of tangible gains provided by the Human Genome Project [Greenhalgh T. The Human Genome Project. J R Soc Med. Dec 2005;98(12):545], and pathologists are wondering about the viability of their field, DNA technology is about to reshape the field of forensic pathology. Emerging evidence suggests that the underlying cause of death in many is genetic, and that both the heart and liver abnormalities can both play a role. The problem is that death from a wide variety of genetic defects may leave no histological markers. The ability to identify these "invisible diseases" with postmortem genetic testing has become a reality far more quickly than anyone had ever imagined. The US Food and Drug Administration is about to place "black box" warnings on warfarin advising doctors screen potential recipients for the ability to metabolize that drug and the American Heart Association has recently editorialized that because of genetic-induced variations in electrical conduction that all newborns should have a screening electrocardiogram before they leave the hospital. The introduction of large-scale genetic screening will have an enormous effect on the practice of forensic pathology, far beyond anything seen in our lifetimes. It will also change the practice of medicine as we know it. This paper reviews the current status of the problem. PMID:17720589
Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Menezes, Ritesh G; Pant, Sadip; Shetty, Soumya B
Unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age (range 12-49 years) have a serious psychological and social impact on the family and community. Deaths among women of reproductive age reported as medico-legal cases were investigated to see the trend in terms of cause and manner of death. The study group consisted of a series of 328 consecutive forensic autopsies on women in the reproductive age group, performed between 2009 and 2011 at the Government Wenlock District Hospital, Mangalore, India by qualified specialist forensic medicine experts. Unnatural deaths formed 93.6% of the cohort. The top three causes of death included burns, poisoning and hanging forming 69.5% of the cases. The manner of death was suicide in 45.4% cases, accident in 43.6% cases and homicide in 4.6% cases. The circumstances of death were related to alleged medical negligence in 2.4% cases. Death in 4% cases was natural mannered with a disease being the cause of death. Three-fourths of the victims were married. Married women formed 63.1% of the suicidal victims. Homicidal deaths were not reported among unmarried women. The preponderant method of suicide was by poisoning at 42.3% (63 cases), followed by hanging (34.9%), burns (11.4%) and drowning (9.4%). These four methods comprised 98% of the total suicidal deaths in this study cohort. Accidental deaths were predominantly caused by burns (62.2%) and road traffic accident (23.1%). Two-thirds of the homicidal deaths were due to assault caused by blunt-force trauma, ligature strangulation and sharp-force trauma. One-third of the homicidal victims died due to burns. With a clear understanding of the cause and manner of death, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age who form a very important group of society. PMID:23910855
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Considering the variations in racial, dietary and lifestyle patterns in our population, it is essential to study the biology of coronary atherosclerosis in our patients. Vulnerable plaques have a large number of foam cells, extracellular lipid, thin fibrous caps and clusters of inflammatory cells and are more prone to rupture. These plaques are nourished by the microvessels arising from the vasa vasorum of the blood vessels and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. This autopsy study was designed to analyse the coronary arterial tree in cases of sudden cardiac death, classify coronary atherosclerotic plaques and to assess the factors contributing to vulnerability of the plaques including inflammation, calcification and microvascular density. Materials and Methods: Seven cases of sudden cardiac death were included in the study. The hearts were perfusion-fixed and the coronary arteries along with their main branches were dissected and studied. The location of the plaques, type of plaques, presence of inflammation and calcification were assessed. The cap thickness and microvessel density per 1000um 2 were assessed. The statistical significance was estimated. Results and Conclusions: Extensive high-grade coronary atherosclerotic disease was seen in all sudden cardiac death cases. Majority of the plaques were vulnerable. High-grade inflammation was seen in most of the vulnerable and ruptured plaques. All the ruptured plaques were uncalcified indicating that calcification probably stabilizes the plaques and protects against rupture. Increased microvessel density was noted in ruptured plaques compared to vulnerable plaques. However, it was not statistically significant.
Leth, Peter Mygind
Introduction: Can CT-scanning of deceased at the medico legal external examination improve the selection of cases to autopsy? Is CT-scanning a substitute or a supplement to the traditional forensic autopsy? Material: In 2006 60 deceased individuals from Southern Denmark (counties of Fyn and...... Sønderjylland) (15 females and 45 males) were CT-scanned before autopsy. Method: A double-blind prospective investigation of CT-scanning in autopsy cases. A multislice spiral CT-scanner (Siemens Somatom Spirit) was used. Data from the CT-scanning and the autopsy were registered in a computer database and...... compared. Results: The scanning could be performed in 10 minutes per case. In approximately a third of the cases the cause of death could be established by CT-scanning alone. CT-scanning was found to be most useful in cases of traumatic death, and was superior to autopsy in visualizing fractures...
Full Text Available Background. Obesity is a growing public health problem associated with increased morbidity and rate of death. Postmortem examination is imperative to determine the cause of death, to detect clinically unsuspected disease entities, and consequently to determine the actual impact of obesity on patient mortality. Methods. A total of 849 adult autopsies were retrospectively reviewed. Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and nonobese patients were separately studied. The primary cause of death in each group was categorized into malignancy, infection, stroke, ischemic and nonischemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage, and primary nonneoplastic diseases of different organ systems. Results. Of 849 autopsies, 32.3% were obese. The leading causes of death in the obese population were malignancy (31.4%, infection (25.9%, ischemic heart disease (12.8%, and pulmonary embolism (6.2%. Obese individuals were statistically more likely to die from pulmonary embolism and liver disease and less likely to die from neurologic diseases and nonischemic heart disease. Conclusion. Autopsies on obese individuals constitute a third of all adult medical autopsies in our center. Increased death rates in the obese due to pulmonary embolism and liver disease should receive special clinical attention. Autopsy findings in the obese population should contribute to overall premortem disease detection, prevention, and management.
Berg-Pedersen, Riikka Mari; Ripel, Ase; Karinen, Ritva; Vevelstad, Merete; Bachs, Liliana; Vindenes, Vigdis
The codeine to morphine concentration ratio is used in forensic toxicology to assess if codeine has been ingested alone or if morphine and/or heroin have been ingested in addition. In our experience, this interpretation is more difficult in autopsy cases compared with samples from living persons, since high morphine concentrations are observed in cases where only codeine is assumed to have been ingested. We have investigated if codeine and morphine glucuronides are subject to cleavage to the same extent in living and autopsy cases in vitro. We included whole blood samples from eight living subjects and nine forensic autopsy cases, where only codeine ingestion was suspected. All samples were incubated for 2 weeks at 37°C and analyzed for codeine and six codeine metabolites using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A reduction in the codeine to morphine concentration ratio was found, both in samples from living subjects (mean 33%, range 22-50%) and autopsy cases (mean 37%, range 13-54%). The increase in the morphine concentrations was greater in the autopsy cases (mean 85%, max 200%) compared with that of the living cases (mean 51%, max 87%). No changes were seen for codeine or codeine-6-glucuronide concentrations. The altered ratios might mislead the forensic toxicologist to suspect morphine or heroin consumption in cases where only codeine has been ingested. PMID:24324229
Postmortem radiography may reveal skeletal and soft-tissue abnormalities of importance for the diagnosis of cause of death. To review the radiographs of children under 3 years of age who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. To compare the radiological and autopsy findings evaluating possible differences in children dying of SIDS and of an explainable cause. A total of 110 consecutive skeletal surveys performed between 1998 and 2002 were reviewed. All but one were performed before autopsy and comprised AP views of the appendicular and axial skeleton and thorax/abdomen, lateral views of the axial skeleton and thorax, and two oblique views of the ribs. Radiography and autopsy findings were compared. Causes of death were classified as SIDS/borderline SIDS (n = 52) and non-SIDS (n = 58), with one case of abuse. In 102 infants there were 150 pathological findings, 88 involving the chest, 24 skeletal, and 38 miscellaneous findings. The radiological-pathological agreement was poor concerning pulmonary findings. Skeletal findings were sometimes important for the final diagnosis. Radiography revealed many skeletal and soft-tissue findings. Pulmonary pathology was most frequently found, but showed poor agreement with autopsy findings. Recognizing skeletal findings related to abuse is important, as these may escape recognition at autopsy. (orig.)
Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\
This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indonesia provides the largest single source of pilgrims for the Hajj (10%. In the last two decades, mortality rates for Indonesian pilgrims ranged between 200-380 deaths per 100,000 pilgrims over the 10-week Hajj period. Reasons for high mortality are not well understood. In 2008, verbal autopsy was introduced to complement routine death certificates to explore cause of death diagnoses. This study presents the patterns and causes of death for Indonesian pilgrims, and compares routine death certificates to verbal autopsy findings. METHODS: Public health surveillance was conducted by Indonesian public health authorities accompanying pilgrims to Saudi Arabia, with daily reporting of hospitalizations and deaths. Surveillance data from 2008 were analyzed for timing, geographic location and site of death. Percentages for each cause of death category from death certificates were compared to that from verbal autopsy. RESULTS: In 2008, 206,831 Indonesian undertook the Hajj. There were 446 deaths, equivalent to 1,968 deaths per 100,000 pilgrim years. Most pilgrims died in Mecca (68% and Medinah (24%. There was no statistically discernible difference in the total mortality risk for the two pilgrimage routes (Mecca or Medinah first, but the number of deaths peaked earlier for those traveling to Mecca first (p=0.002. Most deaths were due to cardiovascular (66% and respiratory (28% diseases. A greater proportion of deaths were attributed to cardiovascular disease by death certificate compared to the verbal autopsy method (p<0.001. Significantly more deaths had ill-defined cause based on verbal autopsy method (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Despite pre-departure health screening and other medical services, Indonesian pilgrim mortality rates were very high. Correct classification of cause of death is critical for the development of risk mitigation strategies. Since verbal autopsy classified causes of death differently to death certificates, further studies
Full Text Available Abstract Background Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA study of 48 000 adult (aged ≥ 25 yrs deaths in the city of Chennai (urban during 1995–97 and 32 000 in rural Villupuram during 1997–98 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death to estimate cause specific mortality. Methods A ten day training on writing verbal autopsy (VA report for adult deaths was given to non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education. They interviewed surviving spouse/close associates of the deceased to write a verbal autopsy report in local language (Tamil on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. Random re-interviewing of 5% of the VA reports was done to check the reliability and reproducibility of the VA report. The validity of VA diagnosis was assessed only for cancer deaths. Results Verbal autopsy reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified and unknown causes from 54% to 23% (p Conclusion A ten day training programme to write verbal autopsy report with adequate feed back sessions and random sampling of 5% of the verbal autopsy reports for re-interview worked very well in Tamilnadu, to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death reliably for deaths in early adult life or middle age (25–69 years and less reliably for older ages (70+. Thus VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age.
Nuwadatta Subedi,1 BN Yadav,2 Shivendra Jha,3 Deepa Shah,3 Utsav Shrestha,3 Anil Sharma,3 Mrityunjay K Rai31Department of Forensic Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Chitwan, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, 3BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, NepalBackground: Autopsy is examination of a body post-mortem, with a view to determining the cause of death. Performing an autopsy has benefits for many parties: the family of the deceased, the clinician and hospital, and ...
Mollo, F.; Andrion, A.; Colombo, A.; Segnan, N.; Pira, E.
The relationship between the occurrence of neoplastic diseases and the presence of pleural plaques was studied in a series of 1097 autopsies performed in Turin from the adult general population. In men, pleural plaques showed an association with the presence of laryngeal, pulmonary, esophageal, and colorectal cancer. Only cancer of the larynx was strongly related to the occurrence of such pleural changes. This autopsy investigation confirms previous observations by others based on x-ray findings, and suggests that pleural plaques may be regarded as risk indicators of possibly asbestos-related tumors in the general population.
Ekpo Memfin Dan
Full Text Available Background: Autopsy is an essential auditing tool in clinical practice. ObjectiveS: The study set out to review all autopsies that were performed over a four-year period in order to determine the rate, indications, as well as the age and sex distribution of dead bodies, which autopsies were performed on them in the Hospital. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective study that was undertaken at the department of Pathology of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo, Nigeria between January 2007 and December 2010. Materials and Methods: All the cases of death that underwent pathological autopsies in the UUTH were reviewed. The autopsy records, clinical case notes, gross and histopathological specimens as well as slides were retrieved and examined. Results: A total of 1679 dead bodies were received at the mortuary of the institution studied during the 4-year period. Autopsies were performed in 78 cases giving a request rate of 4.7%. Coroner′s autopsy was commonly performed, and this accounted for 60 (76.9% cases, while the remaining 18 (23.1% were clinical autopsies. Autopsies were commonly performed on male bodies more than females (M: F = 2.6:1.0 with the majority having died at their second decade of life. It was observed that the majority (57.7% of the request for autopsies were from peripheral centers outside the teaching hospital, while the remaining 42.3% cases were drawn from various clinical departments in the teaching hospital. Road traffic accident was the leading indication for coroner′s autopsy (51.7%, while gastroenteritis and chronic liver disease were the two most common indications for clinical autopsy, 27.8% and 22.2% respectively. The concordance rate between clinical diagnosis and autopsy diagnosis was found to be 72.2% (13/18 cases. Conclusion: The rate of request for Autopsy at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital during the period of this study was low, similar to other previous reports.
Celbis, Osman; Aydin, N Engin; Kok, Ahmet Nezih
European Union (EU) is expanding its territories, and Turkey has been making adaptive changes in many aspects for an integration with EU. In this regard, amendments on forensic autopsy procedures have been effective from June 1, 2005. This article delineates these changes, emphasizing the differences between the previous and the current procedures. PMID:17133036
Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup;
. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for...
Karata, Hiroki; Tanaka, Tomonori; Egashira, Ryoko; Tabata, Kazuhiro; Otani, Kyoko; Hayashi, Ryuji; Hori, Takashi; FUKUOKA, JUNYA
We report an educational autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Radiological patterns of the upper lung were considered as mostly emphysema, but pathological observation revealed significant interstitial fibrosis of usual interstitial pneumonia as a major pathology. The patient eventually developed acute exacerbation of background interstitial pneumonia. Careful radiological and pathological correlation of the current case indicates that regions with distal acinar emphysem...
Conner, Kenneth R.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brent, David A.; Conwell, Yeates; Phillips, Michael R.; Schneider, Barbara
The psychological autopsy (PA) is a systematic method of assessing the psychological and contextual circumstances preceding suicide. The method requires interviews with one or more proxy respondents (i.e., informants) of suicide decedents. Procedural challenges that need to be addressed to conduct PA interviews are described in this article and…
Conner, Kenneth R.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brent, David A.; Conwell, Yeates; Phillips, Michael R.; Schneider, Barbara
The psychological autopsy (PA) is a systematic method to understand the psychological and contextual circumstances preceding suicide. The method requires interviews with one or more proxy respondents (i.e., informants) of decedents. The methodological challenges that need to be addressed when determining the content of these research interviews…
Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães
Full Text Available Involvement of the digestive system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is frequent and many changes in these patients are diagnosed only at autopsy. There are few studies of autopsy with detailed analysis of this system and only one was conducted in Brazil. We evaluated each segment of the digestive system in 93 consecutive autopsies of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and the importance of these lesions to death. Of these, 90 (96.8% patients had AIDS. We reviewed medical records, autopsy reports and histological sections from tongue to rectum stained with hematoxylin-eosin. When necessary, we analyzed special stains and immunohistochemistry to investigate infections. There was damage to the digestive system in 73 (78.5% cases. The most common infections were candidiasis (42%, cytomegalovirus (29%, histoplasmosis (11.8%, toxoplasmosis (9.7% and mycobacterial infection (9.7%. Malignancies were rare, present in four (4.3% cases (two Kaposi's sarcoma, one adenocarcinoma and one metastatic embryonal carcinoma. All segments showed lesions: tongue (48.6%, esophagus (44.8%, stomach (44.7%, colon (43.2% and small intestine (28.9%. The lesions found were immediate cause of death in five (5.4% cases. In another 36 (38.7% cases the basic disease was systemic and also compromised the digestive system.
Kochhar Rakesh K; Dutta Usha; Vasishta Rakesh K; Gupta Kirti; Singh Kartar
Abstract We report a case of embolism of the sclerosant dye with subsequent formation of foreign-body giant cell reaction within the veins of pulmonary and portal circulation in an autopsy case of hepatocellular carcinoma developing over an underlying primary biliary cirrhosis.
Kochhar Rakesh K
Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of embolism of the sclerosant dye with subsequent formation of foreign-body giant cell reaction within the veins of pulmonary and portal circulation in an autopsy case of hepatocellular carcinoma developing over an underlying primary biliary cirrhosis.
Full Text Available Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is an uncommon yet potentially lethal gram-negative bacterium typically affecting patients with comorbidities. We report a case of A. succiniciproducens infection in an autopsy patient who had hepatitis C and type 2 diabetes and describe the difficulties in the laboratory identification of this pathogen.
Significant reasons militate for the implementation of clinical autopsies: On the part of physicians and nurses, there is quality assurance, establishment of legal certainty regarding possible accusations of medical errors and development of treatment methods. On the part of patients and their relatives, there is consolation and relief in cases of unexpected death, insight into genetic dispositions and insurance law concerns, to name only a few. However, a continuing decrease of clinical autopsies can be observed in Switzerland, Germany and Austria. The thesis asserting that the often required informed consent of the deceased during his/her lifetime or of close relatives is a crucial reason for this decrease needs to be called into question due to recent studies. Mainsprings are rather structural reasons, such as the often deficient communication with the patient or close relatives, economic reasons, namely the frequently insufficient remuneration for the clinical autopsy, organizational causes, in particular the repeatedly encountered suboptimal collaboration between the individual departments and the pathology department, the high administrative effort and probably the decreasing appreciation of the clinical autopsy. PMID:21805100
Die Kriminalistik-Reihe "Autopsie" präsentiert Tod, Verwesung und menschliche Abgründe in wohl bislang nicht gesehener Aufdringlichkeit. Rezeptionspsychologisch erklären lässt sich der Erfolg der Serie, wenn man aufzeigt, welch raffiniertes Spiel mit heterogenen Affekten und Lustquellen sie im Zuschauer erzeugt.
Objective: To investigate the imaging findings with pathologic correlation in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Imaging findings, autopsy and pathological data were retrospectively analyzed in eight patients with AIDS. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their hospitalization. CT scanning was performed from the skull to the pelvis immediately following their death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cadavers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each sections and organs for pathological examinations. Results: The autopsy data showed parasitic infections (5 cases), bacterial infections (3 cases), fungal infections (2 cases), virus infections (2 cases), lymphoma (1 case) and cerebrovascular diseases (1 case)in eight patients with AIDS. The CT scanning demonstrated symmetrical ground glass liked shadows with pulmonary hilus as the center in 5 cases of pulmonary PCP infection; pulmonary patchy shadows, scattering distribution of nodular shadows, extensive military nodular shadows with even distribution and tuberculous pleurisy; cloudy shadows for 2 cases of fungi infection with multiple foci of chronic inflammation; pulmonary net-like parenchymal changes for 2 cases of pulmonary CMV infection; thickened intestinal wall and narrowed intestinal lumen for 1 case of intestinal tumor; low density shadows of brain tissue for 1 case of CMV encephalitis and MRI findings of high T1 and high T2 signals as well as MRA findings of broken vascular channels in liquefied areas of brain tissues; patchy low density areas inside a cyst of brain for one case of brain toxoplasmosis infection; multiple small patchy low density areas in cerebral basal ganglia for one case of brain cryptococcus infection. Conclusions: In AIDS patients, infection and tumor may occur in various organs resulting in complex symptoms, which makes it more complicated and difficult to make
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of
Full Text Available Melanoma metastasizing to the lungs is common, but primary pulmonary or pleural melanoma is extremely rare. We present an autopsy case of malignant melanoma of the pleura without primary skin lesion in a 49-year-old man. A mass found in the right chest was diagnosed as spindle cell sarcoma by antemortem fine-needle aspiration cytology. At autopsy, a yellow-white tumor located primarily in the right visceral pleura (diagnosed as an amelanotic melanoma was found to have invaded into the right lung, right parietal pleura, and right diaphragm, and to have metastasized into the left lung and visceral pleura, thyroid, and left adrenal gland. No primary site was found. The tumor cells were positive for S100 and focally positive for HMB-45, but negative for other markers. Immuno-histochemical examination for S100 and HMB-45 would thus appear to be useful for the diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma.
Larsen, S; Rygaard, K; Asnaes, S; Spang-Thomsen, M
21-118 h postmortem. Extracted RNA and DNA were examined by Northern and Southern blot analysis using oligo-labelled human DNA probes recognizing gene transcripts of 2-5 kb. The results indicated that, in general, Northern blot analysis was feasible with the applied probes when the tissue was......Fresh biopsy material for molecular biological investigations is not obtainable from all relevant normal human tissues. We studied the feasibility of using RNA and DNA from autopsies for Northern and Southern blot analysis. Tissue samples from seven organs were obtained from 10 autopsies performed...... obtained less than two days postmortem. Histological examination showing slight or no autolysis and the presence of ribosomal bands after gel electrophoresis were both indicative parameters of RNA preservation. DNA was appropriate for Southern blotting when the tissue was obtained less than three to five...
Between the years of 1958 to 1980, 1636 patients suffering from histologically demonstrated bronchial carcinomas were submitted to an intensive radiotherapy at the Robert-Roessle Hospital in Berlin-Buch. The tumors received a minimum dose of 5000 Gy. The autopsy reports of 649 cases could be evaluated. The tumor destruction rate determined by autopsy and the distribution of metastases in dependence on the histologic tumor type are described and compared to the frequency of metastases determined by clinical or X-ray examination. With respect to clinical practice, the conclusion is drawn that a prophylactic radiotherapy to the brain, the upper abdominal lymph nodes and the adrenal glands possibly could improved the therapeutic results because of the high rate of metastases of microcellular and non-differentiated bronchial carcinomas found in these regions. (orig.)
Bhakti D. Deshmukh
Full Text Available Background: Renal papillary adenoma is usually an incidental finding at autopsy with an incidence of 7% to 23%. The frequency of small papillary tumours of kidney increases with age to approximately 40% of the population over the age of 65. These tumours occur morefrequently in scarred kidneys, acquired renal cystic disease and in children with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Case history: In this report we describe renal papillary adenoma incidentally detected during autopsies of two elderly males. Gross examination of kidneyshowed two tiny subcapsular yellowish nodules in one case and single nodule with similar morphology in the other. Microscopic examination in both the cases showed a well circumscribed tumour composed of densely packed tubules and papillae lined by small cuboidal to columnar cells with rounded uniform nuclei. However there was no nuclear atypia, mitosis or necrosis.
Autopsy detected no tumor tissues in a patient who died 6.5 years after the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. A 54-year-old male developed left hemiparesis one month prior to admission. Computed tomography demonstrated a cystic lesion in the right frontal region with irregular ring-like enhancement. The tumor was extensively removed together with the surrounding tissues followed by irradiation (whole brain 32.4 Gy, local 28.8 Gy), and intravenous administration of interferon-β. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiform. He died of accidental head trauma 6.5 years after surgery. Autopsy of the brain detected no evidence of glioblastoma multiform. The only findings were cerebral edema and hematoma caused by head trauma, as well as histological changes due to radiation damage. This case apparently confirms the histological disappearance of tumor tissue in a long-term survivor with glioblastoma multiform. (author)
Full Text Available Rhodotorula species have been reported as a causative agent of opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of sepsis and meningoencephalitis caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 20-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which was diagnosed at autopsy. The patient presented with longstanding fever. She was diagnosed with SLE after admission to the hospital and died on day 5 of the hospital stay. Autopsy was performed to confirm the presence of infection. Sepsis and meningoencephalitis due to Rhodotorula glutinis was confirmed by postmortem blood cultures and histopathological examination of biopsies taken from the brain at autopsy. Infection by Rhodotorula spp. is rare but can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts. Infections by such uncommon yeasts may often be difficult to diagnose, especially in the setting of febrile neutropenia. This report also emphasizes the value of autopsy as a powerful educational tool.
The study examined the effect of exposure to autopsy workers to formaldehyde using urinary mutagenicity testing with Salmonella typhimurium. A matched control group was also studied. Additional studies including the recovery of histidine from urine samples, the determination of h...
Gauravi A Dhruva,; Amit H Agravat; Hardik K Sanghvi
The incidence of coronary heart disease has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Ischemic heart disease, the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing countries today is overwhelmingly contributed by atherosclerosis. The study highlights the impact of atherosclerotic lesions in the population of Rajkot district. We studied atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries in cases subjected to autopsy in last 4 years, to grade and to evaluate the athe...
Shinozaki Minoru; Sasai Daisuke; Hiruta Nobuyuki; Abe Fumihito; Yokose Tomoyuki; Nemoto Tetsuo; Kitahara Kanako; Wakayama Megumi; Okubo Yoichiro; Nakayama Haruo; Ishiwatari Takao; Shibuya Kazutoshi
Abstract Background Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) has been known as a rare and serious cancer-related pulmonary complication. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this debilitating condition still remains obscure and no effective management was recommended. The present study aims to elucidate the pathophysiology of PTTM. Methods Autopsy records were searched to extract cases of pulmonary tumor embolism induced by metastasis of gastric carcinoma in the Toho Univ...
Small bowel mesenteric volvulus when compared with mesocolonic volvulus, have not high incidence. Two autopsy cases of small bowel mesenteric volvulus in infants, highlighting the importance of a suspicion in early recognition of this rare but potentially fatal intra-abdominal emergency are reported. We also review the literature on possible aetiologies and mechanism of small bowel mesenteric volvulus, as well as its management. (author)
Joron, G. E.; Laryea, E; Jaeger, D.; Macdonald, L
The pathological reports for all patients over 13 years of age who had had an autopsy at one of three university-affiliated hospitals between 1967 and 1976 were reviewed to determine the principal cause of death. The clinical records of the patients with diabetes were reviewed to verify the diagnosis and to determine the known duration of diabetes. There were 1144 patients with diabetes mellitus and 5674 without. The sex distribution was similar in the two groups. The patients with diabetes w...
Ben A Lopman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vital registration and cause of death reporting is incomplete in the countries in which the HIV epidemic is most severe. A reliable tool that is independent of HIV status is needed for measuring the frequency of AIDS deaths and ultimately the impact of antiretroviral therapy on mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A verbal autopsy questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 381 adults of known HIV status who died between 1998 and 2003 in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. Individuals who were HIV positive and did not die in an accident or during childbirth (74%; n = 282 were considered to have died of AIDS in the gold standard. Verbal autopsies were randomly allocated to a training dataset (n = 279 to generate classification criteria or a test dataset (n = 102 to verify criteria. A rule-based algorithm created to minimise false positives had a specificity of 66% and a sensitivity of 76%. Eight predictors (weight loss, wasting, jaundice, herpes zoster, presence of abscesses or sores, oral candidiasis, acute respiratory tract infections, and vaginal tumours were included in the algorithm. In the test dataset of verbal autopsies, 69% of deaths were correctly classified as AIDS/non-AIDS, and it was not necessary to invoke a differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Presence of any one of these criteria gave a post-test probability of AIDS death of 0.84. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of verbal autopsy data in this rural Zimbabwean population revealed a distinct pattern of signs and symptoms associated with AIDS mortality. Using these signs and symptoms, demographic surveillance data on AIDS deaths may allow for the estimation of AIDS mortality and even HIV prevalence.
Zhang, Jie; Wieczorek, William F.; JIANG, CHAO; Zhou, Li; Jia, Shuhua; Sun, Yueji; Jin, Shenghua; Conwell, Yeates
As China opens its door to the world, suicide research is making rapid progress using methods and instruments developed in the West. This is a feasibility study of the psychological autopsy methodology applied in China, with its emphasis on the social and cultural environments. With samples of 66 completed suicides and 66 community normal living controls, the authors found that it is feasible to interview at least two informants for each suicide case and each control, between 2 and 6 months a...
Todorović Miloš S.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug abuse remains a significant social problem in many countries. The aim of the study was to estimate association between pulmonary histopathological changes and results of toxicological analyses in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users. Methods. This investigation was performed in the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Belgrade, and in the Clinical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Kragujevac, from 2000 to 2004, and included 63 medicolegal autopsies of heroin or other drug consumers who suddenly died. Autopsies, postmortem toxicological examination of drugs and serological analyses of anti- HIV/HBV/HCV antibodies were performed. Results. The deceased persons were mostly male, 46/63 (73.01%, ranged in age from 19 to 49 years (mean 31 years and all were whites. Postmortem toxicological examination was performed on all of the deceased persons and drugs in the fatal range were identified in only eight of them (12.7%, in the toxic range in ten (15.87%, and in minimal concentrations in 35 (55.56% of the deceased persons. Drugs identified in the fatal, toxic or minimal range included heroin-morphine (38/53, cocaine (4/53, tramadol (3/53, and lorazepam (1/53. In the 7 remaining subjects, ethanol in combination with heroin was found in 4 cases, and diazepam in combination with heroin in 3 cases. Dominant pathomorphological changes were findings in the lung tissue. Most common histological changes observed in drug users were pulmonary edema - 55/63 (87.3%, acute alveolar hemorrhages - 49/63 (77.78%, hemosiderin-laden macrophages (siderophages - 52/63 (82,54%, and emphysematous changes - 51/63 (80,95%. Conclusion. Pulmonary edema is the frequent non-specific autopsy finding which is associated with virtually all routes of drug administration. The histopatological study is necessary to determinate a cause of death when a deceased person has the history of dependence or abouse of psychoactive drugs with negative toxicological
Khan, Nizamuddin; Pradhan, Manas Ranjan
Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to m...
Sousse, Linda E.; Herndon, David N.; Andersen, Clark R.; Zovath, Andrew; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Cox, Robert A.; Traber, Daniel L.; Hawkins, Hal K.
Pulmonary abnormalities occur in 30–80% of fatalities after burn injury. The objective of our study is to investigate lung pathology in autopsy tissues of pediatric burn patients. METHODS Three scientists with pathology training in pediatric burn care reviewed masked autopsy slides of burned children who died after admission to a burn center from 2002–2012 (n=43). Autopsy lung tissue was assigned scores for histologic abnormalities in 9 categories, including alveolar and interstitial fibrosis, hyaline membranes, and type II epithelial cell proliferation. Scores were then tested for correlation with age, TBSA burn, number of days between burn and death, time between burn and admission, and the presence of inhalation injury using analyses with linear models. RESULTS Type II epithelial cell proliferation was significantly more common in cases with a longer time between burn and admission (p<0.02). Interstitial fibrosis was significantly more severe in cases with longer survival after burn (p<0.01). The scores for protein were significantly higher in cases with longer survival after burn (p<0.03). Enlarged air spaces were significantly more prominent in cases with longer survival after burn (p<0.01), and in cases with the presence of inhalation injury (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Histological findings associated with Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD), which is the pathological correlate of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), were seen in approximately 42% of autopsies studied. Protein-rich alveolar edema, which is the abnormality that leads to ARDS, may occur from multiple causes, including inhalation injury. PMID:25445004
Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)
Yamaguchi, Takashi; SEKI, TOSHIHITO; MIYASAKA, CHIKA; INOKUCHI, RYOSUKE; KAWAMURA, RINAKO; SAKAGUCHI, YUUTAKU; Murata, Miki; Matsuzaki, Koichi; NAKANO, YORIKA; Uemura, Yoshiko; Okazaki, Kazuichi
Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor currently approved in Japan for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Interstitial pneumonia induced by sorafenib may have a fatal outcome, and therefore, has recently been the focus of many studies. The current report presents an autopsy case of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) that occurred in a 59-year-old male, who had been treated with sorafenib. The patient had been given sorafenib for six months and had exhibited no respiratory sympto...
Tuusov, J; Lang, K.; Väli, M; Pärna, K; Tõnisson, M; Ringmets, I; McKee, M; Helander, A; Leon, DA
Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological...
Elisa Krackow; Vanessa M. Jacoby; Scotti, Joseph R.
The current study examined the effects of stressful life events on memory for a stressful event. Two groups ofcollege students (N = 61) were formed for analysis based on the presence or absence of particular stressful lifeevents. Participants then viewed a graphic video depicting an autopsy, and received a memory interview fourdays later. Results showed similar group performance on correctly leading questions. However, participants inthe Specific Stressor-Exposed group were less suggestible t...
Camila Lourencini Cavellani; Aline Cristina Souza da Silva; Grace Kelly Naves de Aquino Ribeiro; Lívia Ferreira Oliveira; Mara Lúcia Fonseca Ferraz; Vicente de Paula Antunes Teixeira
Chronic infections including the cysticercosis induce inflammatory cells to produce free radicals and synthesize carcinogenic toxins. The cells with genetic mutations proliferate in a disorganized manner, leading to the development of neoplasia. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the relation between cysticercosis and neoplasia. Patients autopsied were divided into 4 groups: patients with neoplasia and cysticercosis (NC), patients with neoplasia only (NN), patients with cysticerc...
A sensitive method for the determination of plutonium in autopsy samples is described. After a suitable chemical pretreatment of the samples the plutonium is separated by extraction chromatography with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on microporus polyethylene. After electrodeposition of plutonium the activity is counted by alpha spectroscopy. The global yield was 75-80%. The reagent blank activity was such to allow the determination of some femtocuries of plutonium
PARK, Y.; Gong, G.; Choe, G.; Yu, E; Kim, K.S.; I. Lee
Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS) is a condition manifested by malformations of vertebral bodes and related ribs. There are two major subtypes spondylocostal dysostosis and spondylothoracic dysostosis, with different survival rates, associated malformations, and inheritance patterns. We have experienced an autopsy case of a premature female fetus with multiple congenital anomalies. She was 30 weeks of gestational age, born as the second baby of twins and expired shortly after birth. A post-mortem e...
Aruna, E.; Chakravarthy, V. Kalyan; Rao, D. Naveen Chandar; Rao, D. Ranga
Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder which results from a failure of cleavage or the incomplete differentiation of the forebrain structures at various levels or to various degrees, is related to hereditary factors, chromosomal anomalies, cytogenetic abnormalities, and environmental teratogenic factors. We are reporting a case of a multiparous woman who was G3,P3,L2, who delivered a full term foetus with holoprosencephaly and multiple craniofacial anomalies. An autopsy was conducted. Multiple a...
Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S.E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; al Sabir, A.
While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh De...
Siddappa, Santhosh Chandrappa; C, Siddesh R; G, Viswanathan K; Gupta, Ashok
Pediatrics is the branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases. Injury & Violence are major killers of children and adolescents under the age of 18 years throughout the world, and are responsible for about 950000 deaths each year. Unnatural childhood deaths are not only associated with intense trauma and separation distress, but also relate to a sense of self neglect to protect children from harm. Out of 532 autopsies performed during the study period from January 2010 to D...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remains the number one killer of children, taking the lives of 1.3 million in 2011 alone. More than 99% of all pneumonia deaths occur in developing countries. The majority of pneumonia cases are preventable and treatable, but clinical diagnosis is highly fallible in many cases and the frequency of morbid state is best assessed by post-mortem examination that may reveal diagnosis which may not be suspected clinically or may, in some way, discredit. AIMS: 1. To ascertain various pulmonary lesions in paediatric deaths. 2. To find incidence of pulmonary lesions. 3. To study the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, 4. To find incidence of pulmonary pathology directly and indirectly contributing to the death. SETTINGS: Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: In this study pediatric age group of (0-15 years admitted in IPCU,NICU and Pediatric, Medicine and Surgery unit are included from the period of 2006-2013. The lung pathology in various diseases entities were studied and co-related with age, sex and clinical history. RESULTS: Of total 3606 autopsies, 642 were pediatric autopsies i.e. 17.8% of all autopsies, and 111 were neonatal autopsies. Of 642, 531(82.7% had primary lung pathology and 157(24.4% had secondary lung pathology. The common age group affected is < 5 years. Bronchopneumonia was the commonest pathology observed as primary lung pathology. Interstitial/viral pneumonia was 2nd most common of primary lung pathology Infective pathology was the most common lesions, of which bronchopneumonia was the most common pathology observed and tuberculosis contributed to 3%of primary lung pathologies. CONCLUSION: The most common lung lesion in pediatric age is infections, which are preventable and curative with appropriate measures. This study will help to improve mother child health services
Sorlie, P. D.; Garcia-Palmieri, M. R.; Castillo-Staab, M. I.; Costas, R.; Oalmann, M. C.; Havlik, R
Among 9824 Puerto Rican men, aged 35-79, participating in a prospective study of cardiovascular risk factors, there were 970 deaths during the period 1965-1977. About 14%, or 139, of these deaths had a protocol autopsy following the procedures of the International Atherosclerosis Project. The percentage of involvement with raised atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries was higher in the urban deceased than in the rural. The coronary heart disease death rate was also found to be highe...
Suzuki, Hideto; Hayashi, Kino; Fukunaga, Tatsushige
Herein, we report the findings of 2 forensic autopsy cases, in which unexpected pituitary lesions were the underlying cause of death. Case 1: A 56-year-old woman was found dead at her home during a cold winter spell. Macroscopic autopsy findings included a difference in the color of blood that filled her left and right cardiac chambers (deep red and dark red, respectively), collapse of both lungs, atrophy of the thyroid gland, and a large tumor arising from the sella turcica. Microscopic examination revealed a pituitary adenoma along with extensive bleeding. The cause of death was considered to be hypothermia, resulting from dysregulation of thermogenesis due to the pituitary adenoma. Case 2: An 86-year-old man with a history of pollakiuria was found dead in a bathtub, with his face and chest submerged in bathwater and his legs positioned outside the bathtub. The macroscopic findings of the autopsy included hyper-inflated lungs, fluid collection in the thoracic cavity, and aspiration of gastric contents in the bronchi. The atherosclerotic changes of the man's coronary and cerebral arteries were considered mild for his age. Microscopic examination showed a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the posterior pituitary gland, as well as in the liver, pancreas, and submandibular gland. Considering the results of the autopsy and the findings from the investigation conducted at the death scene, we concluded that the man probably lost consciousness following a neurally mediated syncope, which was induced by diabetes insipidus (lymphocytic hypophysitis). After losing consciousness, the man likely fell in the filled bathtub and then drowned. These 2 cases highlight the need for a thorough post-mortem investigation, including a microscopic examination of the pituitary gland. In addition, forensic pathologists should carefully study the pituitary gland in cases where the cause of death is thought to be related to dysfunction of thermoregulation or
Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Vock, Peter; Allmen, Gabriel v; Dirnhofer, Richard
The authors documented and evaluated experimental gunshots to a skull-brain model with high-speed photography and subsequent radiographic examination for comparison of the morphologic findings in the model. The artificial skull was a polyurethane ball constructed in layers, with a porous diploe sandwiched between a tabula externa and a tabula interna. The brain itself was simulated with gelatin 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at the model from a distance of 10 m and documented with high-speed photography (up to 50 million frames/sec). Subsequently, a complete examination of the artificial skull was performed, including spiral computed tomography (with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructions) and classic skull autopsy. The high-speed photographs clearly showed the dynamic development of the skull fracture system from an external perspective. The subsequent radiographic examination of the entire head volume created two-dimensional reformations in any plane and three-dimensional reconstructions of the gunshot injury of the polyurethane skull-brain model, especially the wound channel and the fracture system. Thanks to the model and high-speed photographs, the dynamic development of the morphology of a gunshot wound could be documented and studied. The data from computed tomography, using two-dimensional and three-dimensional postprocessing with a perspective view, were very similar to those from classic head autopsy, but derived in a hands-off and nondestructive manner. This examination method leads the way to radiographic digital autopsy or virtual autopsy. PMID:12198345
Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Monsell, Sarah E; Frosch, Matthew P.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Hyman, Bradley T.
To test the hypothesis that Alzheimer disease (AD) is a clinical and pathologic continuum between normal aging and end-stage dementia, we selected a convenience sample of subjects from the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center 2005 to 2012 autopsy cohort (n = 2,083) with the last clinical evaluation within 2 years before autopsy and no other primary neuropathologic diagnosis. Demographic and neuropathologic characteristics were correlated with the Clinical Dementia Rating–Sum of Boxes in the...
Ferruelo, Antonio; González, Constancio
[Background]: Samples used for genotyping and transcription studies are obtained and conserved in very specific conditions. The possibility to use autopsy tissue samples, which contain nucleic acids of very poor quality, would open new possibilities for genetic studies. [Methods]: We have used liver tissue samples from autopsy cases to (i) determine its quality; (ii) study gene expression of 13 genes involved in different cell processes, before and after cDNA pre-amplification (quantitative r...
Ferruelo, Antonio; El-Assar, Mariam; Lorente, José A; Nin, Nicolás; Peñuelas, Oscar; Fernández-Segoviano, Pilar; Gonzalez, Constancio; Esteban, Andrés
Background: Samples used for genotyping and transcription studies are obtained and conserved in very specific conditions. The possibility to use autopsy tissue samples, which contain nucleic acids of very poor quality, would open new possibilities for genetic studies. Methods: We have used liver tissue samples from autopsy cases to (i) determine its quality; (ii) study gene expression of 13 genes involved in different cell processes, before and after cDNA pre-amplification (quantitative rever...
Pryce, J. W.; Weber, M A; Ashworth, M T; Roberts, S; Malone, M.; Sebire, N. J.
OBJECTIVES: Infant mortality has undergone a dramatic reduction in the UK over the past century because of improvements in public health policy and medical advances. Postmortem examinations have been performed at Great Ormond Street Hospital for over 100 years, and analysis of cases across this period has been performed to assess changing patterns of infant deaths undergoing autopsy. DESIGN: Autopsy reports from 1909 and 2009 were examined. Age, major pathology and cause of death was reviewed...
Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Weissberger, Gali H.; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.
We examined the relationships of ante-mortem vascular risk factors to post-mortem cerebrovascular and AD pathologies. Eighty-four AD patients underwent assessment of vascular risk (blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, transient ischemic attack [TIA] or stroke) and later underwent brain autopsy. Given our aim to examine mild cerebrovascular changes (CVC), individuals were excluded if autopsy revealed large stroke. The most common forms of...
Ruppert, Aline Domingos Pinto; Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; de Almeida, Maria Carolina Feres; de Oliveira, Múcio Tavares; Serrano, Carlos V; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza
Background To correlate underlying diseases, in autopsies of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) to histological findings and manifestations reviewed in the medical records. Methods The autopsy records between 2001 and 2008 of 291 patients whose cause of death was PTE were reviewed. The following data were obtained: age, sex, clinical “in vivo” manifestations, postmortem pathological patterns, and main associated underlying diseases, cancers, and surgeries performed in the last hosp...
Brinkerhoff, Brian T; Houghton, Donald C; Troxell, Megan L
Renal injury in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients may be related to a combination of factors including chemotherapy, radiation, infection, immunosuppressive agents, ischemia, and graft-versus-host disease, and can involve glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular structures. We reviewed renal pathology from 67 patients at a single institution (2009-2014), including 14 patients with biopsy for clinical dysfunction, 6 patients with surgical kidney resection for other causes, and 47 autopsy patients. Kidney specimens frequently contained multiple histopathologic abnormalities. Thrombotic microangiopathy, membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were the most common glomerular findings. Pathologies not previously reported in the hematopoietic cell transplant setting included collapsing glomerulopathy, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, and in the case of two surgical resections distinctive cellular segmental glomerular lesions that defied classification. Kidney specimens frequently demonstrated acute tubular injury, interstitial fibrosis, arteriolar hyaline, and arteriosclerosis. Other kidney findings at autopsy included leukemia and amyloid (both recurrent), diabetic nephropathy, bacterial infection, fungal invasion, and silver deposition along glomerular and tubular basement membranes. Also in the autopsy cohort, C4d immunohistochemistry demonstrated unexpected membranous nephropathy in two patients, yet C4d also colocalized with arteriolar hyaline. This retrospective hematopoietic cell transplant cohort illustrates multifaceted renal injury in patients with renal dysfunction, as well as in patients without clinically recognized kidney injury. PMID:27015134
Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim; Kondziella, Daniel; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kerrn-Jespersen, Bjørg Morell; Lindelof, Mette; Lassmann, Hans; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Paul, Friedemann
Objective: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. Methods: We performed a detailed neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential advantages of 7.0T MRI compared to 3.0T MRI in reflecting widespread inflammation, perivascular pathology, and axonal damage, and (3) the possibility of lymphoma. Results: In the autopsy case, perivascular inflammation dominated by CD4+ T cells was not only detected in the brainstem and cerebellum but also in brain areas with normal appearance on 3.0T MRI, including supratentorial regions and cranial nerve roots. There was no evidence of lymphoma in any of the 4 patients. The 7.0T MRI in clinical remission also revealed supratentorial lesions and perivascular pathology in vivo with contrast-enhancing lesions centered around a small venous vessel. Ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T disclosed prominent T1 hypointensities in the brainstem, which were not seen on 3.0T MRI. This corresponded to neuropathologic detection of axonal injury in the autopsy case. Conclusion: Our findings suggest more widespread perivascular inflammation and postinflammatory axonal injury in patients with CLIPPERS. PMID:27144217
Koffi Alain K; Babille Marzio; Salgado Rene; Kalter Henry D; Black Robert E
Abstract "Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, ...
Using the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation series of over 5000 autopsies, we examined death-certificate accuracy for several disease categories and assessed the effect of potential modifying factors on this accuracy. For 12 cause-of-death categories, the overall percent agreement between death-certificate and autopsy diagnoses was only 52.5%. Although neoplasms had the highest detection rate (on the death certificate) in the study, still almost 25% of cancers diagnosed at autopsy were missed on the death certificate. Only for neoplasms and external causes of death were confirmation and detection rates above 70%. Confirmation rates were between 50% and 70% for infectious and parasitic diseases and heart and other vascular diseases. Detection rates reached a similar level for infectious and parasitic, cerebrovascular, and digestive diseases. Specificity rates were above 90% for all but the cerebrovascular disease category. Overall agreement decreased with increasing age of the decedents and was lower for deaths occurring outside of hospital vs those occurring in a hospital. There was some suggestion that agreement rates were higher for more-recent deaths but no indication that radiation dose, sex, city of residence, or inclusion in a biennial clinical-examination program influenced agreement. Because the inaccuracy of death-certificate diagnoses can have major implications for many aspects of health research and planning, it is important to be aware that death-certificate accuracy is low and can vary widely depending on the patient's age at death and the place of death. (J.P.N.)
Sanat Rathod, MP Singh, Rahul Damor, Dharmendra Jankar, Vibha Gosalia, Harshad Patel, Devang Raval
Full Text Available Objectives: To study socio-demographic profile of all registered infant deaths in Bhavnagar city. Materials and Method: This was a community based retrospective analytical study carried out in municipal corporation area of Bhavnagar city for which list of all registered infant deaths from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009 from municipal corporation, Bhavnagar was obtained. Data collection was carried out between January to May 2010 at respondentâ€™s house with help of restructured verbal autopsy questionnaire developed by WHO. Result: Out of 96 total verbal autopsies 73(76% infant deaths were in neonatal period chiefly focus in early neonatal period (62.5%. Male infant were 57.3% & 42.7% were female. Average family size was 4.9%. 61.5% from socio-economic class IV and 38.5% from classV. Poor housing was reported in 90% cases. Mother age less than 20 years at time of birth of the baby was in 15%. >1/3rd infant deaths in gravida & parity one. In 53.9% cases birth spacing was <2years. Conclusion: By studying verbal autopsy, this study shows how important it is to correctly identify socio-demographic factors responsible for infant deaths. The present study concluded highest chances of infant deaths in ENP( Early Neonatal Period mainly within one hour with significant male infant deaths in ENP. Most deaths were in lower socio-economic strata & first gravida/parity with birth spacing less than two years.
Subedi, Nuwadatta; Yadav, B.N.; Jha, Shivendra; Gurung, Sharmila; Pradhan, Amshu
Background: Liver is the largest gland in the body and it frequently gets wounded. The objective of this study was to determine the patterns, types and severities of liver injuries which were caused by mechanical trauma and to study the organs associated with liver injuries. Material and Methods: This was a hospital based, cross sectional study which was conducted on the autopsies showing the evidence of liver injuries in the mortuary of a tertiary hospital in eastern Nepal. All consecutive autopsy cases which were handled within one year’s time (n=46) were included in our study. The cases were studied in detail for liver injuries, which included age, sex, severity, associated injuries, site of the injury, description of the injury, etc. Results: The mean age of the victims was 33.87 years and there was a male: female ratio of 3.6:1. The injuries had resulted from blunt trauma in 41 (89.1%) cases, the most common of which was road traffic accidents, constituting 37(80.4%) cases. Grade III injuries were seen in 14 (30.4%) cases. Laceration of the liver was the most frequent finding that was evident in 34 (73.9%) cases. Right lobe of the liver was injured in 30 (74%) cases. The sole presence of liver injuries among abdomino-pelvic organs was seen in 14 (30.4%) cases. In 40 (87%) cases, liver injuries were associated with other regional injuries. Conclusion: Laceration is the most common liver injury among autopsy cases. Right lobe is mostly affected and grade III injuries are the most common ones. Liver injuries are frequently associated with other abdomino-pelvic organs and multiple regional injuries. PMID:24086875
Yashar Moharamzad; Hamidreza Taghipour; Nader Hodjati Firoozabadi; Abolfazl Hodjati Firoozabadi; Mojtaba Hashemzadeh; Mehdi Mirjalili; Abed Namavari
Objective: To describe mortality pattern and to deter-mine undiagnosed fatal injuries according to autopsy find-ings among road traffic accident victims in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, 251 victims of road traffic accidents who were admitted to a tertiary trauma hospital over a two-year period (2006 and 2007) and received medical cares were included. Hospital records were reviewed to gather demographic characteristics, road user type, and medical data. Autopsy records were also reviewed to determine actual causes of death and possible undiagnosed injuries occurred in the initial assessment of the emergency unit or during hospitalization. Results: There were 202 males (80.5%) and 49 females (19.5%). The mean (±SD) age of fatalities was 34.1 (±21.5) years. Pedestrian-vehicle accidents were the most common cause of trauma (100 cases, 39.8%). The most common cause of death was central nervous system injury ( 146 cases, 58.1%). The other causes were skull base fractures (10%), internal bleeding (8%), lower limb hemorrhage (8%), skull vault fractures (4%), cervical spinal cord injury (3.6%), airway com-promise (3.2%), and multifactor cases (5.1%), respectively.Thirtysix fatal injuries in 30 victims (12%) mainly contributed to death according to autopsy, but were not diagnosed in initial assessments. The head (72.2%) and cervical spine (13.8%) regions were the two most common sites for undiagnosed injuries. Conclusion: Training courses for emergency unit medical staff with regard to interpreting radiological findings of head and neck and high clinical suspicion for cervical spine injuries are essential to improve the quality of early hospital care and reduce the mortality and morbidity of traffic accident patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on adolescent mortality particularly from developing countries with unreliable death registration systems. This calls for the use of other sources of data to ascertain cause of adolescent mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the causes of death among Ghanaian adolescents 10 to 19 years in Accra, Ghana utilizing data from autopsies conducted in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH. Findings Out of the 14,034 autopsies carried out from 2001 to 2003 in KBTH, 7% were among adolescents. Of the 882 deaths among adolescents analyzed, 402 (45.6% were females. There were 365 (41.4% deaths from communicable disease, pregnancy related conditions and nutritional disorders. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 362 (41% cases and the rest were attributable to injuries and external causes of morbidity and mortality. Intestinal infectious diseases and lower respiratory tract infections were the most common communicable causes of death collectively accounting for 20.5% of total deaths. Death from blood diseases was the largest (8.5% among the non-communicable conditions followed by neoplasms (7%. Males were more susceptible to injuries than females (χ2 = 13.45, p = .000. At least five out of ten specific causes of death were as a result of infections with pneumonia and typhoid being the most common. Sickle cell disease was among the top three specific causes of death. Among the females, 27 deaths (6.7% were pregnancy related with most of them being as a result of abortion. Conclusions The autopsy data from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital can serve as a useful source of information on adolescent mortality. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases accounted for most deaths highlighting the need for health care providers to avoid complacency in their management of adolescents presenting with these diseases.
Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Hishmat, Asmaa Mohammed; Oritani, Shigeki; Takama, Masashi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi
Toxicological analysis is indispensable in forensic autopsy laboratories, but often depends on the limitations of individual institutions. The present study reviewed routine drug screening data of forensic autopsy cases (n=2996) during an 18.5-year period (January 1996-June 2014) at our institute to examine the efficacy of the procedures and findings in autopsy diagnosis and interpretation. Drug screening was performed using on-site immunoassay screening devices and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in all cases, followed by re-examination using GC/MS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) at a cooperating institute in specific cases in the last 4 years. GC/MS detected drugs in 486 cases (16.2%), including amphetamines (n=160), major tranquilizers (n=72), minor tranquilizers (n=294), antidepressants (n=21), cold remedies (n=77), and other drugs (n=19). Among these cases, fatal intoxication (n=123) involved amphetamines (n=73), major tranquilizers (n=37), minor tranquilizers (n=86), antidepressants (n=3), and cold remedies (n=9); most cases involved self-administration, alleged suicide and accidental overdose, while homicide was not included. These drugs were also identified in other manners of death, including homicide (n=40/372), suicide (n=34/226), accidental falls (n=27/129), and natural death (n=72/514). In these cases, on-site immunoassay screening of drugs of abuse showed negative findings in 2440 cases (81.4% in all cases), while GC/MS detected other drugs in 218 cases (7.3% in all cases), including several antipsychotic drugs, acetaminophen and salicylic acid. Further analysis using LC/MS/MS detected low concentrations of benzodiazepines in 32 cases, and also anti-diabetic and hypertensive drugs in a case of fatal abuse. These observations indicate the efficacy of systematic routine toxicological analysis to investigate not only the cause of death but also the background of fatalities in forensic autopsy. The provision of
A 57Fe Moessbauer-effect study of autopsied lung tissue from Canadian asbestos mine workers is presented. The spectra typically show large quantities of iron storage protein. This exhibits a quadrupole-split doublet at room temperature and both a doublet and a Zeeman-split sextet at 4.2 K, due to a distribution of particle sizes. A comparison is made with Moessbauer spectra of lung tissue from an individual not occupationally exposed to respirable asbestos, and with spectra of respirable chrysotile asbestos taken from Canadian mines. (author)
Blaabjerg, M.; Ruprecht, K.; Sinnecker, T.; Kondziella, D.; Niendorf, T; Kerrn-Jespersen, B.M.; Lindelof, M.; Lassmann, H.; Kristensen, B.W.; F. Paul; Illes, Z.
OBJECTIVE: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. METHODS: We performed a detailed neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential ...
The biological effects of different fractionation schemes have been evaluated by the histological examination of bronchial carcinomas removed at operation or autopsy following radiotherapy. Radiation was given in daily, small fractions (200 cGy (rad)), large fractions (600 cGy (rad)) every fifth day, or a single high dose followed by daily low-dose treatment. The highest proportion of tumours free of viable cells was found in patients who had received small daily fractions in both operable and inoperable tumours. A hypothesis is put forward to explain this apparent change in radio-sensitivity with different fractionation schemes. (author)
James Spencer L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-coded verbal autopsy (CCVA is a promising alternative to the standard approach of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA, because of its high speed, low cost, and reliability. This study introduces a new CCVA technique and validates its performance using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 verbal autopsies (VAs. Methods The Random Forest (RF Method from machine learning (ML was adapted to predict cause of death by training random forests to distinguish between each pair of causes, and then combining the results through a novel ranking technique. We assessed quality of the new method at the individual level using chance-corrected concordance and at the population level using cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression. We also compared the quality of RF to PCVA for all of these metrics. We performed this analysis separately for adult, child, and neonatal VAs. We also assessed the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE. Results For all metrics, for all settings, RF was as good as or better than PCVA, with the exception of a nonsignificantly lower CSMF accuracy for neonates with HCE information. With HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 3.4 percentage points higher for adults, 3.2 percentage points higher for children, and 1.6 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was 0.097 higher for adults, 0.097 higher for children, and 0.007 lower for neonates. Without HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 8.1 percentage points higher than PCVA for adults, 10.2 percentage points higher for children, and 5.9 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was higher for RF by 0.102 for adults, 0.131 for children, and 0.025 for neonates. Conclusions We found that our RF Method outperformed the PCVA method in terms of chance-corrected concordance and
Full Text Available Introduction. The increasing global prevalence of suicide has made it a major public health concern. Research designed to retrospectively study suicide cases is now being conducted in populations around the world. This field of research is especially crucial in Aboriginal populations, as they often have higher suicide rates than the rest of the country. Objective. This article presents the methodological aspects of the first psychological autopsy study on suicide among Inuit in Nunavut. Qaujivallianiq Inuusirijauvalauqtunik (Learning from lives that have been lived is a large case-control study, including all 120 cases of suicide by Inuit that occurred in Nunavut between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2006. The article describes the research design, ethical considerations and strategies used to adapt the psychological autopsy method to Nunavut Inuit. Specifically, we present local social and cultural issues; data collection procedures; and the acceptability, reliability and validity of the method. Method. A retrospective case-control study using the psychological autopsy approach was carried out in 22 communities in Nunavut. A total of 498 individuals were directly interviewed, and medical and correctional charts were also reviewed. Results. The psychological autopsy method was well received by participants as they appreciated the opportunity to discuss the loss of a family member or friend by suicide. During interviews, informants readily identified symptoms of psychiatric disorders, although culture-specific rather than clinical explanations were sometimes provided. Results suggest that the psychological autopsy method can be effectively used in Inuit populations.
Ananda, Sunnassee; Shaohua, Zhu; Fan, Yang; Liang, Liu
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a true plague and a major health concern globally. It is one of the most significant pandemics in recorded history. Despite worldwide efforts to fight the pandemic, and now with the re-emergence of tuberculosis, those clinicians, personnel performing autopsies and medical caregivers are again at risk in the work place, especially in developing countries. We describe a case where a drug abuser, whose addiction was concealed by his parents, died in hospital. He was tested HIV-negative there. A medical tangle ensued and forensic autopsy was carried out. Autopsy confirmed he was an intravenous drug addict and had tuberculosis. Post-mortem blood was positive for HIV antibodies and he was diagnosed with AIDS. Due to social stigmas, lack of knowledge or inefficient medical laboratory procedures etc, such type of cases can become a hazard to those attending the sick and to autopsy pathologists alike. We provide the case description, autopsy findings and review of pertinent literature. PMID:21420653
Gauravi A Dhruva,
Full Text Available The incidence of coronary heart disease has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Ischemic heart disease, the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing countries today is overwhelmingly contributed by atherosclerosis. The study highlights the impact of atherosclerotic lesions in the population of Rajkot district. We studied atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries in cases subjected to autopsy in last 4 years, to grade and to evaluate the atheromatous plaques; and to assess the cases of myocardial infarction amongst them. The study comprises dissected specimens of heart in total 360 cases subjected for autopsy. The vessels were examined for the presence of atherosclerotic lesions which were graded according to American Heart Association and examined for evidence of myocardial infarction. The study comprises the cases in age group between 20 to 80 years. Commonest type of atherosclerosis seen was grade-4. Left Anterior Descending Coronary was most commonly involved artery. Myocardial infarction was the cause of death in 35 cases (9.72% The data obtained may form a baseline for the forthcoming studies.
Moriwaki, Shousuke; Mandai, Kouichi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Saeki, Hideyuki; Ohsumi, Syozo [Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan)
The purpose of this study was to determine the histopathologic therapeutic effects in metastatic bone marrow for various therapy in cancer patients. Autopsy cases at Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, mainly cancer of breast, stomach, lung and prostate examined radiotherapy (28-60 Gy) and chemotherapy and/or endocrine chemotherapy (medroxyprogesterone acetate, tamoxifen). Histological evaluation of effects for radio-and chemotherapy have been criteria of UICC and criteria for the evaluation of the clinical and pathological effects by Japan Society for Cancer Therapy. The precise effects for various therapy is difficult to measure objectively in metastatic bone. Histopathologic changes of metastatic bone marrow for radiotherapy revealed decrease and degeneration of tumor cells - swelling, vacuoles of cytoplasm and nuclei, bizarre and giant multinucleated giant cells etc. Stromal reaction was found postnecrotic fresh and/or old granulation-fibrosis and hyalinization, woven bone formation and fatty marrow. Systemic therapy of breast cancer revealed stromal fibrosis and chondroid ossification more than other tumors and therapy. Morphological features of metastatic bone marrow at autopsy cases may be necessary from viewpoint of therapeutic effects. (author)
Full Text Available Background: The first goal of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and the fourth goal of Millennium Development are to reduce under-five mortality rate. In India, data is available for aprox. 3% of the perinatal deaths. The need for good quality data on perinatal deaths is mandatory for public health planning and resources allocation. This has lead to a renewed interest in Verbal autopsy (VA in poor resource settings. Objective: To validate a simplified community-based VA instrument. Materials and Methods: A simplified community-based VA instrument was developed. The sample size of 50 was calculated at power – 80%, significance – 5% and sensitivity – 70%. ANMs were trained to assign COD according to the ICD – 10. Following which they administered Verbal Autopsies for every perinatal death occurring in their area. A panel of 3 Physicians was formed who reviewed the VA data and assigned cause of death according to the ICD–10. Kappa Statistics was used to measure the degree of agreement between the ANM and Physician panel assigned COD. Results: Out of 50 Perinatal Deaths, the COD assigned by ANM and the COD assigned by the Physician panel were same for 40 of the perinatal deaths, which showed the agreement of 80% [Kappa Statistics = 0.838; P = 0.000 (<0.001] which indicates statistically significant agreement. There was agreement of 93% for 14 Stillbirths and 75% agreement for 36 Early Neonatal Deaths.
Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi
For drug screening and pharmaco-/toxicokinetic analysis, bile as a major drug excretion route in addition to urine may be used in forensic autopsy cases; however, there are limited published data on correlations between bile and blood or urine drug concentrations. The present study retrospectively investigated drug concentrations in bile, compared with blood and urine concentrations, reviewing forensic autopsy cases during 6 years (January 2009-December 2014). Drugs were analyzed using automated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following solid-liquid phase extraction. Compared with peripheral blood concentrations, bile concentrations were higher for most drugs; however, caffeine concentrations were similar. Bile concentrations were mostly lower than urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine and methylephedrine, but were usually similar to or higher for other drugs. Significant correlations were detected between bile and peripheral blood concentrations for amphetamines, several cold remedies, phenobarbital, phenothiazine derivatives and diazepam, as well as between bile and urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine, diphenhydramine, phenobarbital and promethazine derivatives. These findings suggest that bile can provide supplemental data useful in routine forensic toxicology, for the spectrum of drugs mentioned above, as well as for investigating pharmaco-/toxicokinetics and postmortem redistribution when analyzed in combination with drug concentrations at other sites. PMID:27185819
Hefti, Marco M; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Haynes, Robin L; Hassett, Catherine; Volpe, Joseph J; Kinney, Hannah C
The care of premature infants in the 20th century is remarkable for technical advances that have dramatically improved survival, but little is known about temporal changes in the neuropathology of the premature infant over this time frame. We hypothesize that the autopsy rate of germinal matrix hemorrhage changed in the 20th century relative to combined influences of clinical interventions that were both harmful and helpful. We examined germinal matrix hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in 345 premature infants (gestational age 25-36 weeks) autopsied at Boston Children's Hospital from 1914 to 2015. There was a median of 19 cases/decade (range 7-68). Over the course of the study median gestational age decreased from 33 to 27 gestational weeks (P3-fold around the time of the introduction of positive pressure ventilation into premature intensive care in the mid-1960s. The increased incidence of GMH-IVH in the 1970s-1980s likely reflects respiratory and hemodynamic imbalances complicating mechanical ventilation. We speculate that the subsequent decreased incidence of GMH-IVH likely reflects stabilization of respiratory function with improvements in ventilators and in ventilator management beginning in the 1970s and the use of surfactant and antenatal steroids in the 1980s. PMID:26372101
Roberts, C S; Roberts, W C
Clinical and autopsy findings are described in 12 patients who had fatal aortic dissection with the entrance tear in the transverse aorta. The 12 patients represent 7% of 182 autopsies of spontaneous aortic dissection studied by us. The ages of the 12 patients at death ranged from 37 to 87 years (mean, 67 years). Eight were men; 8 had a history of systemic hypertension, and 10 had hearts of increased weight. Diagnosis of aortic dissection was made during life in only 4 of the 12 patients. All 12 patients died of rupture of the false channel within 2 weeks of onset of signs or symptoms compatible with dissection. The direction of aortic dissection from the entrance tear was entirely retrograde in 4 patients, entirely anterograde in 4 patients, and in both directions in 4 patients. Hemopericardium occurred in the first group, left hemothorax in the second group, and either in the last group. Of the 8 patients in whom the ascending aorta was involved, the retrograde dissection in each extended to the aortic root, 6 had pulmonary adventitial hemorrhage, and 4 had involvement of the arch arteries by dissection. In the 4 patients with strictly anterograde dissection, none had dissection in the arch arteries. Thus, tear in the transverse aorta causes a dissection that is usually fata, that often dissects retrogradely, and that may mimic dissection from a tear in ascending aorta. Aortic dissection from a tear in transverse aorta requires early operative intervention. PMID:2241339
Knudsen, P J; Theilade, P
The 7.62 mm x 51 military rifle bullet (7.62 mm NATO) as manufactured in Denmark, and in some other countries as well, has been claimed to fragment when fired at ranges encountered in forensic practice. All autopsied cases of death due to this bullet in Denmark since 1975 were investigated by studying autopsy reports and the bullets retrieved by the police. With one exception, all bullets that were found in, or known to have passed through the body, had fragmented. This behaviour is assumed to be due to a lack of strength in the jacket causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high velocity. The fragments will increase the already sizeable lesions and may leave the body through several separate exit wounds, presenting problems both for the surgeon treating survivors and for the forensic scientists when defining the direction of the shot. The legality of this and similar bullets in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899 may be questioned, and we feel that the bullet should be redesigned. A programme to this end has been initiated by the Danish state owned ammunition factory. PMID:8217867
Yuri, Takashi; Kato, Kouta; Hirohara, y; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo
An autopsy case report of Trousseau's syndrome caused by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is presented, and seven previously reported cases are reviewed. A 73-year-old woman experiencing light-headedness and dementia of unknown cause for 6 months developed severe hypotonia. A hypointense lesion compatible with acute cerebral infarction was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an ill-defined large liver mass in the right lobe. The mass was not further investigated because of the patient's poor condition. She died of multiple organ failure, and an autopsy was conducted. Postmortem examination revealed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, fibrous vegetations on the mitral valves and multiple thromboemboli in the cerebrum, spleen and rectum. Trousseau's syndrome is defined as an idiopathic thromboembolism in patients with undiagnosed or concomitantly diagnosed malignancy. This syndrome is encountered frequently in patients with mucin-producing carcinomas, while the incidence in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is uncommon. We found that tissue factor and mucin tumor marker (CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA-125) expression in cancer cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism. A patient with unexplained thromboembolism may have occult visceral malignancy; thus, mucin tumor markers may indicate the origin of a mucin-producing carcinoma, and postmortem examination may play an important role in revealing the hidden malignancy. PMID:24987359
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to develop a simplified low cost method for the collection and fixation of pediatric autopsy cells and to determine the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of extracted DNA. Touch and scrape preparations of pediatric liver cells were obtained from 15 cadavers at autopsy and fixed in 95% ethanol or 3:1 methanol:acetic acid. Material prepared by each fixation procedure was submitted to DNA extraction with the Wizard® genomic DNA purification kit for DNA quantification and five of the preparations were amplified by multiplex PCR (azoospermia factor genes. The amount of DNA extracted varied from 20 to 8,640 µg, with significant differences between fixation methods. Scrape preparation fixed in 95% ethanol provided larger amount of extracted DNA. However, the mean for all groups was higher than the quantity needed for PCR (50 ng or Southern blot (500 ng. There were no qualitative differences among the different material and fixatives. The same results were also obtained for glass slides stored at room temperature for 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. We conclude that touch and scrape preparations fixed in 95% ethanol are a good source of DNA and present fewer limitations than cell culture, tissue paraffin embedding or freezing that require sterile material, culture medium, laboratory equipment and trained technicians. In addition, they are more practical and less labor intensive and can be obtained and stored for a long time at low cost.
Corder Elizabeth H.
Full Text Available Autopsy information on cardiovascular damage was investigated for pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD patients (n = 84 and non-AD control patients (n = 60 . The 51 relevant items were entered into a grade-of-membership model to describe vascular damage in AD. Five latent groups were identified “I: early-onset AD,” “II: controls, cancer,” “III: controls, extensive atherosclerosis,” “IV: late-onset AD, male,” and “V: late-onset AD, female.” Expectedly, Groups IV and V had elevated APOE ϵ 4 frequency. Unexpectedly, there was limited atherosclerosis and frequent myocardial valve and ventricular damage. The findings do not indicate a strong relationship between atherosclerosis and AD, although both are associated with the APOE ϵ 4 . Instead, autopsy findings of extensive atherosclerosis were associated with possible, not probable or definite AD, and premature death. They are consistent with the hypothesis that brain hypoperfusion contributes to dementia, possibly to AD pathogenesis, and raise the possibility that the APOE allele ϵ 4 contributes directly to heart valve and myocardial damage.
Maekawa, I; Yosida, K; Hirasawa, K; Mayumi, T; Kanda, M
An autopsy case of smoldering adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is presented. 67 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of fever, cough and increasing dyspnea on October 2, 1985. Laboratory findings revealed high LDH, azothermia and slightly leukocytosis with low percentage of flower cells. CRP was strongly positive. Gas disturbance was markedly. Anti-ATLA antibody using indirect immunofluorescence method was X40 positive. Subsets of peripheral lymphocytes showed OKT 4 dominant. (OKT 3; 67.5%, OKT4; 60.6%, OKT8; 8.8%). A chest X-ray film revealed cardiomegaly and fine granular shadows in bilateral lower pulmonary fields. Diagnosis of interstitial pneumonitis was defined in transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimen. O2 therapy, steroid therapy added antibiotics were ineffective, respiratory failure and renal failure were progressive, she died by septic shock in 39th hospital days. In autopsy, no characteristic histological changes of ATL were found in lymph node, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidney and lung. Sepsis was the cause was of death. Finally this case diagnosed smoldering ATL and pulmonary fibrosis due to bronchial ectasia with repeated pulmonary bacterial infections. The pulmonary complications of patients with ATL were discussed. PMID:2886412
The results obtained from a pathological study of the cancer spread, postoperative recurrence and intraoperative radiotherapy in 68 autopsy cases of pancreatic cancer were as follows: 1) The study of pancreatic cancer was conducted by classifying the cases according to the location of the cancer; uncus, head, body and tail. Difference was seen in the mode of cancer spread and also in the clinical symptoms among the pancreatic cancers in each location. Especially, it was maintained that cancer in the uncus should be treated independently from the cancer in the head. 2) There was no difference in the mode of cancer spread between postoperative recurrence or intraoperative radiotherapy cases and non-operated or non-intraoperative radiotherapy cases. Moreover, it suggested one side of difficulty of the surgical treatment, that is, all cases considered curative operation were performed through histological study of the resected specimen at operation have had retroperitoneal recurrence. 3) By histological study of autopsy cases of intraoperative radiotherapy, it was suggested that cancer cells remained or regrew in the periphery of the radiotherapy field, which is a meaningful finding for evaluating intraoperative radiotherapy in the future. (author)
Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Jiang, J.
GLUT3 is expressed in rat muscle, but this glucose transporter protein has not been identified previously in adult human skeletal muscle. We quantified the rapidity of disappearance of mRNA and protein from human skeletal muscle at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Fifty percent of the immunologically detectable GLUT3 protein disappeared by 1 hour at 20 degrees C and by 2 hours at 4 degrees C. mRNA for GLUT3 was decreased 50% by 2.2 hours at 20 degrees C and by 24 hours at 4 degrees C. Half of the measurable mRNAs for GLUT4, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha-actin, and beta-myosin disappeared by 0.8 to 2.1 hours at 20 degrees C and by 5.0 to 16.6 hours at 4 degrees C. Previous conclusions that GLUT3 is not expressed in human muscle were likely drawn because of artifacts related to degradation of GLUT3 protein in the specimens prior to study. Because of the rapid degradation of protein and mRNA, autopsy specimens of muscle must be obtained within 6 hours of death, and even then, protein and mRNA data will likely dramatically underestimate their expression in fresh muscle. Some previously published conclusions and recommendations regarding autopsy specimens are not stringent enough to consistently yield useful protein and mRNA.
B. N. Macharia
Full Text Available Problem statement. Suicide is one of the ten leading causes of death in the world, accounting for more than 400,000 deaths annually. The pattern of suicide and the incidence of suicide vary from country to country. Cultural, religious and social values play some role in suicide. Currently, there is no data regarding the incidence of suicide in Kenya. Setting. Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital Mortuary. Study population. A seven-year retrospective study of all the autopsies performed at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital was analysed and the cases that were definitely determined as suicides were further studied. Objective. To characterize the pattern of suicide cases through autopsies conducted at MTRH mortuary between the years 2005 to 2012. Methodology. Retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Suicide cases were identified from the MTRH autopsy record books. From these record books, the autopsy number was used to retrieve the pathologists autopsy report. Data regarding age, gender and methods of suicide was retrieved and entered into a data collection form. Data analysis: Data collected was analysed using Stata version 10. Results. There were 213 autopsies performed. Majority were male 180(85%. The subjects had a median age of 29(IQR: 23–37 years. Organophosphate poisoning was the most preferred method followed by hanging. Organophosphate poisoning accounted for 195(91.54% and hanging for 17(7.98% of the subjects. Conclusion. The preferred methods of suicide were poisoning and hanging. The study may have missed some cases where the relatives could have declined for the postmortem procedure and hence the body released without postmortem examinations.
Hooman Khademi; Arash Etemadi; Farin Kamangar; Mehdi Nouraie; Ramin Shakeri; Behrooz Abaie; Akram Pourshams; Mohammad Bagheri; Afshin Hooshyar; Farhad Islami; Abnet, Christian C.; Paul Pharoah; Paul Brennan; Paolo Boffetta; Dawsey, Sanford M.
BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA) is one method to obtain valid estimates of causes of death in the absence of valid medical records. We tested the reliability and validity of a VA questionnaire developed for a cohort study in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. METHOD: A modified version of the WHO adult verbal autopsy was used to assess the cause of death in the first 219 Golestan Cohort Study (GCS) subjects who died. The GCS cause of death was determined by two internists who independent...
Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Yokota, Taro; Kondo, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Junko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Oyamada, Yumiko; Tsuji, Yasushi
Clinicians generally suspect pulmonary tumor embolism (PTE) with uncontrolled carcinomas which often spread to lungs. We, however, experienced an autopsy case of diffuse microscopic PTE despite controlled liver metastases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). A 66-year-old man with progressing respiratory symptoms showed almost normal chest findings on computed tomography. Although liver metastases were successfully shrunk by chemotherapy, the patient died from aggressive respiratory failure. An autopsy revealed small pulmonary vessels showing diffuse tumor emboli. TCC can cause PTE even if liver metastases are controlled. We must therefore be aware that PTE can manifest as respiratory symptoms without any computed tomography findings. PMID:27580549
Leth, Peter Mygind
same period the autopsy rate in teaching hospitals has declined. A comprehensive and updated version is therefore most welcome. Part I have six completely new chapters, and contain an assortment of tools of great practical value for the forensic pathologist. There is for example a next-of-kin letter...... specialized techniques used for post-mortem investigation of the cardio-vascular system, the nervous system and eye and adnexa. Autopsy microbiology, chemistry and chromosome analysis and autopsies of bodies containing radioactive material are also among the topics that are addressed in this handbook, as well...... III provides a series of tables providing organ weights and body measurements for foetuses, children and adults. The Handbook of Autopsy Practice fulfils its purpose, and is a very worthwhile purchase for any autopsy facility....
Uzün, Ibrahim; Büyük, Yalçin; Gürpinar, Kağan
We retrospectively analyzed the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine during the five-year period between 1998 and 2002 to document the characteristics of fatalities resulting from hanging which is the commonest mode of suicide in Istanbul. Upon analysis of death scene investigation and autopsy reports together with the information gathered from the police, the cases of hanging fatalities of suicidal origin were selected. Seven hundred sixty one hanging cases of suicidal origin were detected and evaluated in terms of demographic features, the type of hanging material used for ligature, cause of death, internal findings in neck organs, other traumatic findings suggesting the use of another method for suicide, toxicological findings and microscopic findings in delayed death cases. In 364 of these cases suspension was complete and in 397 incomplete. Five hundred thirty seven of those (70.56%) were male and 224 (29.44%) were female. The preponderance of male cases in our autopsy population was also detected in suicidal hanging cases. There was no case aged lower 10 and the number of the cases in the age group of cases aged over 80 was the lowest (n=3, 0.4%). In 634 of cases, the place of hanging was the subject's own house, most victims selected rope (652 cases) for the ligature with the rest using sheet, belt, cable and necktie. There were traumatic findings showing attempts of suicide other than hanging in 24 cases (tentative marks in 22 cases and non-fatal burning in 2). In 23 of cases, there were bruises of different ages. In these cases females constituted the majority suggesting violence against women that is a social problem in various cultural subgroups of our country. This violence may have played a role in the decision of suicide. Superficial bruises were detected in 56 cases and were attributed to the trauma. Fractures in neck organs were detected in 446 of cases. In fracture-determined cases, fracture in hyoid bone was seen in 177, in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and discusses methodological and logistical challenges associated with the implementation of a nation-wide assessment of mortality based on surveys. Verbal autopsy interviews, using the WHO standard questionnaire, were conducted with close relatives of the 6798 deaths identified in the 2007 population change survey in Vietnam. Data collectors were health staff recruited from the commune health station who undertook 3-day intensive training on VA interview. The Preston-Coale method assessed the level of completeness of mortality reporting from the population change survey. The number of deaths in each age-sex grouping is inflated according to the estimate of completeness to produce an adjusted number of deaths. Underlying causes of death were aggregated to the International Classification of Diseases Mortality Tabulation List 1. Leading causes of death were tabulated by sex for three broad age groups: 0-14 years; 15-59 years; and 60 years and above. Findings Completeness of mortality reporting was 69% for males and 54% for females with substantial regional variation. The use of VA has resulted in 10% of deaths being classified to ill-defined among males, and 15% among females. More ill-defined deaths were reported among the 60 year or above age group. Incomplete death reporting, wide geographical dispersal of deaths, extensive travel between households, and substantial variation in local responses to VA interviews challenged the implementation of a national mortality and cause of death assessment based on surveys. Conclusions Verbal autopsy can be a viable tool to identify cause
Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally invasive autopsy by post mortem magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been suggested as an alternative for conventional autopsy in view of the declining consented autopsy rates. However, large prospective studies rigorously evaluating the accuracy of such an approach are lacking. We intend to compare the accuracy of a minimally invasive autopsy approach using post mortem MR imaging with that of conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children for detection of the major pathological abnormalities and/or determination of the cause of death. Methods/Design We recruited 400 consecutive fetuses, newborns and children referred for conventional autopsy to one of the two participating hospitals over a three-year period. We acquired whole body post mortem MR imaging using a 1.5 T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Enlargen, Germany prior to autopsy. The total scan time varied between 90 to 120 minutes. Each MR image was reported by a team of four specialist radiologists (paediatric neuroradiology, paediatric cardiology, paediatric chest & abdominal imaging and musculoskeletal imaging, blinded to the autopsy data. Conventional autopsy was performed according to the guidelines set down by the Royal College of Pathologists (UK by experienced paediatric or perinatal pathologists, blinded to the MR data. The MR and autopsy data were recorded using predefined categorical variables by an independent person. Discussion Using conventional post mortem as the gold standard comparator, the MR images will be assessed for accuracy of the anatomical morphology, associated lesions, clinical usefulness of information and determination of the cause of death. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values of post mortem MR alone and MR imaging along with other minimally invasive post mortem investigations will be presented for the final diagnosis, broad diagnostic categories and for specific diagnosis of each system
Introduction: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians’ ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. Study design: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. Results: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. Conclusion: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.
Kimura, Tadashi; Miura, Takeshi; Aoki, Kenju; Saito, Shoji; Hondo, Hiroaki; Konno, Takuya; Uchiyama, Akio; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), or Fahr's disease, is a neurological disorder characterized by widespread calcification in the brain. Recently, several causative genes have been identified, but the histopathologic features of the brain lesions and expression of the gene products remain unclear. Here, we report the clinical and autopsy features of a 62-year-old Japanese man with familial IBGC, in whom an SLC20A2 mutation was identified. The patient developed mild cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. A brain CT scan demonstrated abnormal calcification in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalami and cerebellum. An MRI study at this point revealed glioblastoma, and the patient died 6 months later. At autopsy, symmetric calcification in the basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar white matter and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex was evident. The calcification was observed in the tunica media of small arteries, arterioles and capillaries, but not in veins. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody against type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT-2), the SLC20A2 product, demonstrated that astrocytic processes were labeled in several regions in control brains, whereas in the patient, reactivity in astrocytes was apparently weak. Immunoblotting demonstrated a marked decrease of PiT-2 in the patient. There are few autopsy reports of IBGC patients with confirmation of the genetic background. The autopsy features seem informative for better understanding the histogenesis of IBGC lesions. PMID:26635128
INTRODUCTION: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians\\' ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. RESULTS: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.
Behera, C; Sikary, Asit Kumar; Krishna, Karthik; Garg, Aayushi; Chopra, Saurav; Gupta, S K
Foeticide and the abandonment of newborns are important, albeit frequently neglected, issues. Concealment of childbirth is often seen in the setting of unwanted pregnancy which has been recognised as one of the most important factors in both cases. This study highlights the medico-legal autopsy findings of 238 abandoned foetuses and newborns over a period of 17 years (1996-2012) from the region of South Delhi, India. There was no sex predilection. The majority of the cases were full term. Nearly 35% of the foetuses were still born, about 29% were live born and the remainder were non-viable. Among the live born, death by homicide was more common than a natural death and most were left by the roadside. The abandoning and killing of newborns needs urgent attention, and strict measures are needed to save thousands of innocent lives. PMID:26857075
Full Text Available A 57-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with a moist cough. Chest radiographic imaging showed a left hilar shadow. Adenocarcinoma cells were found on cytologic screening of fresh sputum. Although multiple metastases including brain were detected, no tumor was observed in the kidneys. The patient underwent whole-brain irradiation and chemotherapy for advanced-stage lung cancer. One month before his death, carcinomatous meningitis was detected. Hyponatremia, hypo-osmolality, and hypertonic urine suggested the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Restricting water intake improved the hyponatremia; however, he developed fever and hematuria. Despite systemic administration of an antibacterial drug, he died. Primary tumor in the lung was absent, but adenocarcinoma of the right kidney was evident on autopsy. Lectin histochemical analysis of the carcinoma revealed its distal nephron origin, confirming collecting duct carcinoma. Severe carcinomatous meningitis, which is possibly caused the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, was observed, with no cancer involvement of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus.
Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Mahadevan, Anita; Gosavi, Manasi; Kangle, Ranjit; Anuradha; Shankar, S K
Sirenomelia, a developmental defect involving the caudal region of the body, is associated with several internal visceral anomalies. We report a detailed spectrum of anomalies in an autopsy study of four fetuses with sirenomelia (gestational ages - 20, 21, 22.4, and 22.5 weeks). Three of the fetuses had single umbilical artery, with genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies. Central nervous system anomalies were evident in two of the fetuses, with alobar holoprosencephaly in one and lumbar meningomyelocele in another. The most common gastrointestinal anomaly was blind ended gut (imperforate anus), while esophageal atresia and omphalocele were noted in one case each. Renal hypoplasia was seen in two fetuses, renal agenesis in one and cystic renal dysplasia was noted in one case. Literature regarding pathogenesis of this condition is briefly discussed. PMID:24656289
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a range of birth defects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most serious form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Infants with FAS are prone to death because of various physical abnormalities. Consequently, infants with FAS may be presented in the medicolegal investigation as a form of sudden unexpected death in infancy. The author reported a 6-month-old male infant who was found dead at home. The history of maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy was obtained. The infant was diagnosed with FAS at the autopsy because he was presented with postnatal growth retardation, multiple facial abnormalities, and abnormal brain structures, which met the criteria of FAS. The cause of death was severe aspiration pneumonia. The purposes of this case report are to show an uncommon manifestation of sudden unexpected death in infancy case for the forensic pathologists and to emphasize on the national healthcare problem. PMID:26730801
Ota, Kyoko; Matsuyama, Masashi; Kokuho, Nariaki; Masuko, Hironori; Hayashi, Hiroki; Iizuka, Takashi; Hayashibara, Kenji; Saito, Takefumi; Kawabata, Yoshinori
A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea, cough, bloody sputum, and backache. Chest radiography and CT scans showed bilateral diffuse interstitial shadows, bilateral pleural effusion and dilatation of the pulmonary artery. Echocardiography indicated pulmonary hypertension, and the serum tumor marker levels were elevated. We performed right cardiac catheterization, and withdrew some blood from a pulmonary artery catheter in the wedge position. We confirmed moderate pulmonary hypertension, and adenocarcinoma-like malignant cells were seen in the aspirated blood. The patient died of progressive respiratory failure despite supportive care. In addition to PTTM and lymphangiosis carcinomatosa, autopsy of the right lung revealed interstitial pneumonia and lipoid pneumonia, both of which were not reported before to be associated with PTTM. PMID:19601530
Hansen, B F
Cardiac disease and cardiac death in AIDS patients is seldom reported. In recent years minor cardiac abnormalities have been demonstrated, especially by echocardiography. Cardiac pathology in AIDS patients is here reported from 60 consecutive autopsies where the heart was investigated either using...... single samples of ventricular myocardium (the first 21 cases) or by an examination of the whole heart (the last 39 cases). Myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria was seen in 25 of 60 cases (42%), and in seven of these cases a probable pathogen (Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, fungi) was...... heart was performed, there was dilation and/or hypertrophy of the right ventricle. This is in agreement with our knowledge that the main diseases and main causes of death in AIDS patients are pulmonary. Survival time in AIDS is increasing due to ever improving symptomatic treatment, and the results of...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Glomerulocystic kidney disease is an uncommon type of cystic renal disease. It is characterized by cortical microsysts, which are represented by cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces. Case presentation We describe a case of glomerulocystic disease in a neonate and another in an abortus associated with tracheo-oesophageal fistula and megacystic-megaureter syndrome. The kidney on autopsy was sponge-like and revealed presence of cysts corresponding to dilatations of Bowman's space microscopically. In these two cases, the Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease in one case corresponded to a sporadic form and, in the other, to a syndromic, non-heritable form of glomerulocystic kidney disease. Conclusion The associated anomalies in Glomerulocystic Kidney disease are well described in the literature. Two more new unrelated associations are described in this article.
Oka, Kuniyuki; Sarashina, Gen; Yonekawa, Nobuo; Watanabe, Osamu; Miyao, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Yatabe, Yasushi
This study reports a 54-year-old man who was a carpenter by occupation. He suffered from left chest and back pain and left pleural effusion. Peripheral blood showed granulocytosis and high serum titers of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CYFRA. He died 20 months later. At autopsy, a pleural tumor located around the left lung and thickening of the pericardium, diaphragm, and esophagus by tumor infiltration was seen. The tumor proliferated in papillary and solid alveolar patterns by neoplastic cells. They were positive for calretinin, D2-40, CK5/6, HBME-1, G-CSF, CK19, and E-cadherin. He was diagnosed with G-CSF-producing epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:21911431
A case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma in a radiation technologist, who had worked in this field for 34 years, is reported. Histopathologically, a biopsy specimen from the retroperitoneal tumor revealed a biphasic type of malignant mesothelioma. Electron microscopy disclosed that the tumor cells contained prominent microvilli, basal laminae adjacent to the stroma, junctional complexes, desmosomes, tonofilaments, clusters of glycogen granules, well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), confronting cisternae showing direct continuity with the RER and membrane-bound granules suggestive of secretory activity. No increased amount of asbestos was detected in autopsied lung material or the peritoneal mesothelioma. The estimated cumulative dose of occupational irradiation was calculated to be about 40 to 50 rad at most. Irradiation was discussed in relation to the etiology of the peritoneal mesothelioma. (author)
Kizza, Dorothy; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Kinyanda, Eugene; Hjelmeland, Heidi
The psychosocial circumstances surrounding men's suicide in postconflict Central Northern Uganda were investigated using qualitative psychological autopsy interviews. Records of 17 men who died by suicide were identified through police and local leaders in Internally Displaced Peoples' camps of Amuru and Gulu Districts. Two to five significant others were interviewed around each case. Data were analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Lost dignity and social value, lack of hope for the family's future, overwhelming family responsibility, and mental illness were circumstances found to have preceded the suicides. The protracted war in the Northern region of Uganda left men in rural communities feeling disempowered and disenfranchised. This may have contributed to suicidal behavior in some of them. Suicide prevention in this area needs to be multidisciplinary with an emphasis on helping both men and women understand and deal with the many social changes that have evolved over time and affected their traditional roles and responsibilities. PMID:23075801
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM has been known as a rare and serious cancer-related pulmonary complication. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this debilitating condition still remains obscure and no effective management was recommended. The present study aims to elucidate the pathophysiology of PTTM. Methods Autopsy records were searched to extract cases of pulmonary tumor embolism induced by metastasis of gastric carcinoma in the Toho University Omori Medical Center from 2000 to 2006. And then, tissue sections of extracted cases were prepared for not only light microscopic observation but morphometric analysis with the use of selected PTTM cases. Results Six autopsies involved PTTM and clinicopathological data of them were summarized. There was a significant negative association between pulmonary arterial diameter and stenosis rate in four cases. Although all cases showed an increase of stenosis rate to some degree, the degree of stenosis rate varied from case to case. Significant differences were found for average stenosis rate between the under 100 micrometer group or the 100 to 300 micrometer group and the 300 micrometer group in four cases. However, no significant differences were found for average stenosis rate between the under 100 micrometer group and the 100 to 300 micrometer group in all cases. Meanwhile, all cases showed positive reactivity for tissue factor (TF, five showed positive reactivity for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and three showed positive reactivity for osteopontin (OPN. Conclusions In the present study, we revealed that the degree of luminal narrowing of the pulmonary arteries varied from case to case, and our results suggested that pulmonary hypertension in PTTM occurs in selected cases which have a widespread pulmonary lesion with severe luminal narrowing in the smaller arteries. Furthermore, our immunohistochemical examination indicated that gastric
Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N
As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4 : 1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6 : 1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2 ± 11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261
Anita van der Linden
Full Text Available Bereaved relatives often refuse to give consent for post-mortem investigation of deceased cancer patients, mainly because of the mutilation due to conventional autopsy (CA. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA may be a more acceptable alternative and, if implemented in clinical practice, creates an opportunity to more often obtain post-mortem tissue samples of (recurred primary tumors and metastases for molecular research. As a measure for tissue quality for molecular studies, we hereby present a feasibility study, comparing the RNA quality of MIA and CA samples, and fresh frozen samples as reference.Tissue samples of heart, liver and kidney were prospectively collected from 24 MIAs followed by CA, and compared to corresponding archival fresh frozen tissue. After RNA isolation and RT-qPCR, RNA integrity numbers (RIN and GAPDH expression (six amplicon sizes ranging from 71 to 530 base pairs were measured. RIN values and GAPDH Cq values were analyzed and compared between all sample groups and post-mortem intervals (PMI.RIN values in MIA samples were significantly higher than those in CA samples. GAPDH was expressed significantly higher in MIA samples than in CA samples and 530 bp PCR products could be measured in all cases. GAPDH expression was significantly lower in samples with PMI >15 hours. As expected, the samples of the fresh frozen reference standard performed best in all analyses.MIA samples showed better RNA quality than CA samples, probably due to shorter PMI. Both had lower RNA quality and expression levels than fresh frozen tissue, however, remaining GAPDH RNA was still sufficiently intact. Therefore, other highly expressed genes are most likely also detectable. Gene array analysis should be performed to gain insight into the quality of entire post-mortem genomes. Reducing PMI will further improve the feasibility of demanding molecular research on post-mortem tissues, this is most likely more feasible with MIA than CA.
Maria Fernanda Braggion-Santos
Full Text Available Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD is a sudden unexpected event, from a cardiac cause, that occurs in less than one hour after the symptoms onset, in a person without any previous condition that would seem fatal or who was seen without any symptoms 24 hours before found dead. Although it is a relatively frequent event, there are only few reliable data in underdeveloped countries. Objective: We aimed to describe the features of SCD in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil (600,000 residents according to Coroners’ Office autopsy reports. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 4501 autopsy reports between 2006 and 2010, to identify cases of SCD. Specific cause of death as well as demographic information, date, location and time of the event, comorbidities and whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was attempted were collected. Results: We identified 899 cases of SCD (20%; the rate was 30/100000 residents per year. The vast majority of cases of SCD involved a coronary artery disease (CAD (64% and occurred in men (67%, between the 6th and the 7th decades of life. Most events occurred during the morning in the home setting (53.3% and CPR was attempted in almost half of victims (49.7%. The most prevalent comorbidity was systemic hypertension (57.3%. Chagas’ disease was present in 49 cases (5.5%. Conclusion: The majority of victims of SCD were men, in their sixties and seventies and the main cause of death was CAD. Chagas’ disease, an important public health problem in Latin America, was found in about 5.5% of the cases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background MeduMobile was a project to develop and evaluate learning scenarios for medical students and teachers by use of video communication and notebooks. Its core part was assigned to various medical routines, conferences or meetings such as doctor-patient bedside conversation. These were filmed by video teams and broadcasted live via the WLAN of the Charité campus to course participating students. One type of the learning arrangements was the autopsy conference as an on-call scenario. Materials and methods The MeduMobile project consisted of two main compartments: the regular seminar event which took place every week or month, and the on-call event. For an on-call event the students were informed two hours before the lesson's start. A mobile video team organised the video conference via a specific MeduMobile seminar system. This software offered the students to log. The MeduMobile seminar system is based on the Windows operating system and realises an extended video communication via WLAN. Thirteen access points were implemented at the Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum and Campus Mitte. A questionnaire was developed to investigate in the response and learning effect of the mobile seminar system. Results During the MeduMobile project 42 video conferences with (cumulative 145 participating students took place. Four autopsy conferences could be organised as on-call scenarios within this project. A prospective, not randomised follow-up study was included 25 students of the 1st – 6th clinical semester. According to the answers, professional reasoning, professional performance, sustainability, and the complexity were broadly accepted by the students. Discussion In principle, the MeduMobile realised an interdisciplinary case presentation using video conference and web page. The evaluation indicates a high acception of such complex case presentation with multidisciplinary settings. The use of the notebooks in mobile learning enables an
Background: Recent clinical and histopathologic data suggests that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery plaque instability and subsequent occlusive thrombosis. The intima has received much attention as a site of inflammation, while the adventitia has remained relatively unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of inflammatory activity in the cap and shoulder region of un ruptured, atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries and to correlate these findings with distribution of inflammatory cells in adventitia. Methods: The study was carried out in Histopathology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from August 2008 to July 2009. Sixty-seven autopsy cases performed at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan were selected. The cases were divided into study group and control group. Case group (n=35) included those where cause of death was ischemic heart disease. Those coronary arteries were taken as control (n=32) where atherosclerotic changes were found by chance (death without history of ischemic heart disease). Plaques in each group were assessed by light microscopy and by immunohistochemistry. Results: The ages of the deceased ranged from 38 to 49 years. Within study group, adventitial lymphocytes exhibited strong correlation with erosion, thrombus formation in culprit plaque (p=0.001). No correlation was found between adventitial T-lymphocytes and erosion of plaque (p=0.700) in control group. In 72% of culprit plaques moderate staining for T-lymphocytes was observed in adventitia as well as intima. In control group, most of the cases contained scattered cells. Few cases of stable plaques revealed lymphocytes as clusters, both in adventitia and in intima. Conclusion: Adventitial inflammation may play a pivotal role for atherosclerotic lesion histology and atheroma instability. With the help of these autopsy findings, we hope to be able to reduce the
Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of data collection and the methods used to assign the cause of death vary significantly among different verbal autopsy protocols, but there are few data to describe the consequences of the choices made. The aim of this study was to objectively define the impact of the format of data presented to physician reviewers on the cause-specific mortality fractions defined by a verbal autopsy-based mortality-surveillance system. Methods Verbal autopsies were done by primary health care workers for all deaths between October 2006 and September 2007 in a community in rural Andhra Pradesh, India (total population about 180,162. Each questionnaire had a structured section, composed of a series of check boxes, and a free-text section, in which a narrative description of the events leading to death was recorded. For each death, a physician coder was presented first with one section and then the other in random order with a 20- to 40-day interval between. A cause of death was recorded for each data format at the level of ICD 10 chapter headings or else the death was documented as unclassified. After another 20- to 40-day interval, both the structured and free-text sections of the questionnaire were presented together and an index cause of death was assigned. Results In all, 1,407 verbal autopsies were available for analysis, representing 94% of all deaths recorded in the population that year. An index cause of death was assigned using the combined data for 1,190 with the other 217 remaining unclassified. The observed cause-specific mortality fractions were the same regardless of whether the structured, free-text or combined data sources were used. At the individual level, the assignments made using the structured format matched the index in 1,012 (72% of cases with a kappa statistic of 0.66. For the free-text format, the corresponding figures were 989 (70% and 0.64. Conclusions The format of the verbal autopsy data used to assign
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Postmortem swelling of the brain is a typical finding on PMCT and occurs concomitant with potential antemortem or agonal brain edema. •Cerebral edema despite normal postmortem swelling is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebral tonsils on PMCT. •Cases with intoxication or asphyxia demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units) and a ratio >1.58 between the gray and white matter. •The Hounsfield measurements of the white and gray matter help to determine the cause of death in cases of intoxication or asphyxia. -- Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. Materials and methods: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n = 109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter. The results were compared with the findings of subsequent autopsies as the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral edema. p-Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cerebellar edema (despite normal postmortem swelling) can be reliably assessed using postmortem computed tomography and is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebellar tonsils (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between intoxication (or asphyxia) and all other causes of death; the former causes demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units), and the gray to
Full Text Available Background: Information on the leading causes of mortality will continue to rely on verbal autopsy (VA in developing countries. The accuracy of VA methods in correctly ascertaining the cause for each individual death is crucial in order to have confidence in the data collected through the procedure. Accuracy of the VA procedure is generally established by carrying out validation studies involving a comparison of the underlying cause of death derived from the VA with a reference underlying cause from medical records. Such validation is only possible in cases for which clinical records are available, and this is clearly not the case for most deaths in developing countries. We attempt to verify the accuracy of VA evidence by reviewing the responses to specific symptom questions and other information recorded in verbal autopsy questionnaires that were assigned cerebrovascular conditions (stroke as causes of death upon physician review in Vietnam. Materials and Methods: A national sample mortality surveillance activity identified deaths and causes of death that had occurred during 2008 in selected communes in 16 provinces distributed across Vietnam. All cases from the northern provinces of Hanoi, Hai Duong, Quang Ninh and Thanh Hoa with ICD codes pertaining to cerebrovascular diseases were identified. A total of 326 VA questionnaires for deaths from cerebrovascular diseases were reviewed and analysed in detail for the presence of symptoms pertaining to stroke. The respondents′ narration of the chronological disease history and the hospital diagnosis was also examined with an aim to explore supporting signs for diagnosis and to verify the quality of VA interview. Differences between responses among cases with and without hospital admission were examined using Chi-squared test of statistical significance. Results: Ninty percent of the cases diagnosed as stroke were found to have positive response to the key symptoms; viz., paralysis (in structured
Clear data on the epidemiology of medical malpractice are missing, at least for Germany. Especially data on the frequency of malpractice claims in penal and civil law are not available. However, from epidemiological and healthcare research some data on the frequency of adverse events (AE), preventable adverse events (PAE) and negligent adverse events (NAE) are available. According to a review of the German Alliance of Patient Safety adverse events can be expected in 5-10%, preventable adverse events in 2-4%, negligent adverse events in about 1% and lethal outcome in about 0.1% of hospitalized patients. However, these data are not compatible with figures from civil and penal law and there seems to be a great "litigation gap". Data on malpractice cases are available from the files of the arbitration committees on medical malpractice, files of liability insurance companies and files of the institutes of forensic medicine. However, these files are not complete and data sources may have some interferences. The arbitration committees are, however, mainly dealing with living patients. Lethal cases are a special subgroup and the best available data source are the files of the institutes of forensic medicine. This subgroup is of special importance since death is the most severe outcome of medical malpractice and the reproach to have caused the death of a patient by medical negligence is the most severe malpractice claim. From a retrospective multicentre study on autopsies performed in cases of medical malpractice claims (altogether 101.358 autopsies, 4450 due to medical malpractice claims) the most important data will be presented (disciplines concerned, cause of accusation, classification of accusation, causes of preliminary proceedings, occupational group and number of approved medical malpractice, outcome of medical malpractice proceedings). However, these data are not only of a descriptive value but have utmost importance also for risk analysis and to increase patient
Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; Wakamatsu, Alda; dos Santos Cirqueira, Cinthya; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira
AIM: To assess the distribution of proteins coded by genes reported as relevant for the molecular classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the following clinicopathological data were analyzed in 80 autopsied HCC patients: sex, age, ethnicity, alcohol intake, infection with hepatitis B and/or C virus, infection with human immunodeficiency virus, prior treatment, basic and immediate causes of death, liver weight, presence of cirrhosis, number and size of nodules, gross pattern, histological grade and variants, architectural pattern, invasion of large veins, and presence and location of extrahepatic metastases. The protein products of genes known to be involved in molecular pathogenesis of HCC, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MET, keratin 19 (K19), vimentin, beta-catenin, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), extracellular signaling-related kinase (ERK)1, ERK2, Ki67, cyclin D1, caspase 3 and p53, were detected by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The expression levels were scored and statistically assessed for correlation with HCC parameters. RESULTS: Infection with hepatitis C virus was identified in 49% of the 80 autopsy patients, cirrhosis in 90%, advanced tumors in 95%, and extrahepatic metastases in 38%. Expression of K19, p53 and ERK1 correlated to high-grade lesions. Expression of ERK1, nuclear beta-catenin, cyclin D1 and ERK2 correlated to higher rates of cell proliferation as determined by Ki67. Expression of MET, EGFR (> 0) and caspase 3 correlated with lower histological grades. Expression of EGFR correlated to that of caspase 3, and overexpression of EGFR (≥ 200/300) was observed in low-grade tumors more frequently (grades 1 and 2: 67% vs grade 3: 27% and grade 4: 30%). Expression of ERK1 was associated with that of K19 and vimentin, whereas expression of ERK2 was associated with that of cyclin D1, MET and membrane beta-catenin. Expression of vimentin was
Karger, B; Billeb, E; Koops, E; Brinkmann, B
A total of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies from the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Münster and Hamburg was investigated retrospectively. In a subsample of 284 suicides and 293 homicides (n=577), a large variety of features such as firearm, ammunition, number and site of entrance wounds, shooting distance and direction of the internal bullet path were recorded and binary logistic regression analysis performed in the case of bullet paths. Females constituted 26.3% of the homicide victims and 10.6% of the suicides. Short-barrelled firearms outnumbered long arms in homicides by 6:1 and in suicides by 2:1. More than 1 gunshot injury was found in 5.6% of the suicides (maximum 5 gunshots) and in 53.9% of the homicides (maximum 23 gunshots). The suicidal gunshots were fired from contact or near contact range in 89% while this was the case in only 7.5% of the homicides. The typical entrance wound sites in suicides were the temple (36%), mouth (20%), forehead (11%) and left chest (15%) but uncommon entrance wound sites such as the eye, ear, and back of the neck and head were also encountered. In suicidal gunshots to the right temple (n=107), only 6% of the bullet paths were directed downwards and only 4% were directed from back-to-front. In gunshots to the left chest (n=130), bullet paths running right-to-left or parallel occurred frequently in suicides (75%) and infrequently in homicide victims (19%). From 61 suicides who fired the gun inside their mouth, only 1 pointed the gun downwards. Consequently, some bullet path directions cannot be considered indicative of suicide: downwards and back-to-front in gunshots to the temple, left-to-right in gunshots to the left chest and downwards in mouth shots. The isolated autopsy findings can only be indicative of suicide or homicide but the combined analysis of several findings can be associated with a high probability. PMID:12376836
Berger, Nicole [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Schweitzer, Wolf; Ross, Steffen G.; Gascho, Dominic [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas D. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Flach, Patricia M., E-mail: email@example.com [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Postmortem swelling of the brain is a typical finding on PMCT and occurs concomitant with potential antemortem or agonal brain edema. •Cerebral edema despite normal postmortem swelling is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebral tonsils on PMCT. •Cases with intoxication or asphyxia demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units) and a ratio >1.58 between the gray and white matter. •The Hounsfield measurements of the white and gray matter help to determine the cause of death in cases of intoxication or asphyxia. -- Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. Materials and methods: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n = 109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter. The results were compared with the findings of subsequent autopsies as the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral edema. p-Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cerebellar edema (despite normal postmortem swelling) can be reliably assessed using postmortem computed tomography and is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebellar tonsils (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between intoxication (or asphyxia) and all other causes of death; the former causes demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units), and the gray to
Birngruber, Christoph G; Görner, Nicole; Ramsthaler, H Frank
The number of tattooed people in Germany has constantly grown over the past few years. The present study deals with the question if this social trend can be seen in foren- sic autopsy cases as well. In a retrospective study, forensic autopsy cases of two periods (1990-1994 and 2010-2014) have been reviewed and statistically analyzed. Comparison of the two periods revealed a significant increase in tattooed individuals, especially in the female subgroup. Between 2010 and 2014, 14.2 % of the deceased showed tattoos. There are significant differences in the frequency and localization of tattoos dependent on age and sex. About 50 % of the tattooed deceased showed tattoos on body sites that are visible for other persons in everyday life. The resulting value of tattoos for the purpose of identifying unknown bodies is discussed and illustrated. PMID:26934763
WAN Lei; ZHANG Jian-hua; HUANG Ping; YING Chong-liang; LIU Ning-guo; ZHU Guang-you
It is never an easy thing to diagnose heart vascular disease only depending on the unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (PMCT).This article reported a case of sudden natural death after the complaint of anterior chest pain in which coronary artery calcification (CAC) was clearly displayed using PMCT scan.The entire coronary artery system was almost reconstructed via multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume-rendering reconstruction (VR),and the total calcium score of the coronary arteries was obtained with CaScoring automatic analysis software.The results showed that CAC was conspicuous; the total calcium score was 640.3,considerably higher than 400.The pulmonary ground-glass opacity (GGO) and small amount of fluid both in the subglottic trachea and main bronchi were also found.The imaging results confirmed those of autopsy.In addition,the results concluded that PMCT might serve as an invaluable adjunct to the classic autopsy procedure.
A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)
Bareng AS Nonyane 1,2
Full Text Available We conducted a social and verbal autopsy study to determine cultural–, social– and health system–related factors that were associated with the delay in formal care seeking in Sylhet district, Bangladesh.
Jacobsen, Christina; Bech, Birthe H; Lynnerup, Niels
BACKGROUND: Computed Tomography (CT) has become a widely used supplement to medico legal autopsies at several forensic institutes. Amongst other things, it has proven to be very valuable in visualising fractures of the cranium. Also CT scan data are being used to create head models for biomechani...... reconstructions. Difficulties remained in the minute diagnosis of hairline fractures. These inconsistencies need to be resolved in order to use CT scan data of victims for individual head modelling and trauma analysis....
Chachamovich, Eduardo; Haggarty, Jack; Cargo, Margaret; Hicks, Jack; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Turecki, Gustavo
Introduction: The increasing global prevalence of suicide has made it a major public health concern. Research designed to retrospectively study suicide cases is now being conducted in populations around the world. This field of research is especially crucial in Aboriginal populations, as they often have higher suicide rates than the rest of the country. Objective: This paper presents the methodological aspects of the first psychological autopsy study on suicide among Inuit in Nunavut. Qaujiva...
Sumikura, Hiroyuki; Takao, Masaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinji; Nakano, Yuta; Uchino, Akiko; Nogami, Akane; Saito, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hideki; Murayama, Shigeo
Background Lewy body–related α-synucleinopathy (LBAS, the abnormal accumulation of pathologic α-synuclein) is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and sympathetic ganglia, of Parkinson’s disease patients. However, few studies have focused on the distribution of LBAS in the spinal cord, primary sensory neurons, and preganglionic sympathetic nerves. Results We analyzed 265 consecutive subjects with LBAS who underwent autopsy at a g...
Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G M; Miller, R. E.
Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an av...
Computed Tomography (CT) has become a widely used supplement to medico legal autopsies at several forensic institutes. Amongst other things, it has proven to be very valuable in visualising fractures of the cranium. Also CT scan data are being used to create head models for biomechanical trauma analysis by Finite Element Analysis. If CT scan data are to be used for creating individual head models for retrograde trauma analysis in the future we need to ascertain how well cranial fractures are captured by CT scan. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic agreement between CT and autopsy regarding cranial fractures and especially the precision with which cranial fractures are recorded. The autopsy fracture diagnosis was compared to the diagnosis of two CT readings (reconstructed with Multiplanar and Maximum Intensity Projection reconstructions) by registering the fractures on schematic drawings. The extent of the fractures was quantified by merging 3-dimensional datasets from both the autopsy as input by 3D digitizer tracing and CT scan. The results showed a good diagnostic agreement regarding fractures localised in the posterior fossa, while the fracture diagnosis in the medial and anterior fossa was difficult at the first CT scan reading. The fracture diagnosis improved during the second CT scan reading. Thus using two different CT reconstructions improved diagnosis in the medial fossa and at the impact points in the cranial vault. However, fracture diagnosis in the anterior and medial fossa and of hairline fractures in general still remained difficult. The study showed that the forensically important fracture systems to a large extent were diagnosed on CT images using Multiplanar and Maximum Intensity Projection reconstructions. Difficulties remained in the minute diagnosis of hairline fractures. These inconsistencies need to be resolved in order to use CT scan data of victims for individual head modelling and trauma analysis
T. Butler; Islam, M; Azad, A K; M. R. Islam; Speelman, P
The cause of death (besides dehydration) for 140 diarrhoeal patients who died in hospital following rehydration was determined by autopsy examination. Children under 5 years comprised 74% of the patients. Diarrhoeal pathogens were identified as Shigella spp. in 27%, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 17%, Entamoeba histolytica in 16%, Campylobacter jejuni in 12%, Salmonella spp. in 4%, Vibrio cholerae in 4%, and Giardia lambliain 4% of cases. The most frequent underlying causes of death were...
B. N. Macharia; Iddah, M. A.; F. M. Ndiangui; Keter, A.
Problem statement. Suicide is one of the ten leading causes of death in the world, accounting for more than 400,000 deaths annually. The pattern of suicide and the incidence of suicide vary from country to country. Cultural, religious and social values play some role in suicide. Currently, there is no data regarding the incidence of suicide in Kenya. Setting. Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital Mortuary. Study population. A seven-year retrospective study of all the autopsies performed at the M...
Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S. E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; al Sabir, A.
While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1993-94. About 25% of the deaths were associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and about 20% with diarrhoea. Neonatal tetanus and measles remained important causes of death, and drowning was a major cause for 1-4-year-olds. Research and programmes to enable mothers to identify ALRI cases, particularly pneumonia, and to encourage timely and appropriate care-seeking and strengthening of ALRI case management at the primary care facilities are important priorities. While promotion of oral rehydration for watery diarrhoea and antibiotic treatment for dysentery should continue, broader preventive interventions including provision of safe water and sanitation, and improvements in personal hygiene require more attention. Further intensification of immunization programmes and innovative experimental interventions to reduce childhood from drowning should be designed and tested. PMID:9648357
Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bollweg, Brigid C; Schulz, Thadeus J; Forrester, Joseph D; DeLeon Carnes, Marlene; Molins, Claudia; Ray, Gregory S; Cummings, Peter M; Ritter, Jana M; Blau, Dianna M; Andrew, Thomas A; Prial, Margaret; Ng, Dianna L; Prahlow, Joseph A; Sanders, Jeanine H; Shieh, Wun Ju; Paddock, Christopher D; Schriefer, Martin E; Mead, Paul; Zaki, Sherif R
Fatal Lyme carditis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi rarely is identified. Here, we describe the pathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of five case patients. These sudden cardiac deaths associated with Lyme carditis occurred from late summer to fall, ages ranged from young adult to late 40s, and four patients were men. Autopsy tissue samples were evaluated by light microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain, immunohistochemistry, and PCR for B. burgdorferi, and immunohistochemistry for complement components C4d and C9, CD3, CD79a, and decorin. Post-mortem blood was tested by serology. Interstitial lymphocytic pancarditis in a relatively characteristic road map distribution was present in all cases. Cardiomyocyte necrosis was minimal, T cells outnumbered B cells, plasma cells were prominent, and mild fibrosis was present. Spirochetes in the cardiac interstitium associated with collagen fibers and co-localized with decorin. Rare spirochetes were seen in the leptomeninges of two cases by immunohistochemistry. Spirochetes were not seen in other organs examined, and joint tissue was not available for evaluation. Although rare, sudden cardiac death caused by Lyme disease might be an under-recognized entity and is characterized by pancarditis and marked tropism of spirochetes for cardiac tissues. PMID:26968341
The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissues for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fallout from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods minimum detection limits, problems with aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed
Ishikawa, Takaki; Yuasa, Isao; Endoh, Minoru
Caffeine has long been recognized as an addictive substance that causes autonomic nerve effect, and is known to increase catecholamine secretion from the adrenal glands. In recent years, the risk of ingesting toxic levels of caffeine has increased because of the easy availability of analgesics, CNS (Central Nervous System) stimulant medicine and dietary supplements at shops, health stores and through online purchases. We report the death of a young female resulting from the ingestion for suicide of an online purchased sleepiness-preventing medicine containing caffeine. The autopsy findings included pulmonary edema and congestion plus cutaneous emphysema. The stomach contents included a dark-brown viscous fluid without tablet or food residue. Toxicological examination revealed the presence of caffeine in the right heart blood (154.2 μg/mL) and stomach contents (197.5 μg/mL) (lethal blood level, >80 μg/mL). The highest caffeine content was in the bile (852.3 μg/mL). Biochemical findings showed that catecholamine concentration in the peripheral blood in the iliac vein was elevated. Immunostaining of catecholamine was weak in the adrenal medulla. We recommend highlighting the toxicity risk of ingesting substances with a high caffeine concentration, and we propose that caffeine concentrations should be included in the comprehensive routine forensic toxicological tests for all cases. PMID:26594005
Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.
Objective: To know the frequency of fatal poisoning in Peshawar regarding the toxic agents mostly involved and year wise percentage. To know the age group and the gender that is most vulnerable to fatal poisoning. Results: Poisoning was the cause of death in 1.48% of the total autopsies conducted during the five years. Males were more involved than the females, 90.38%. Suicidal poisoning was present in 17.30% of the total cases and accidental poisoning was found in 80.72% cases, while homicidal cases were 1.29% only. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the most commonly involved agent, 65.38%, of the total cases. The incidence of poisoning was more during the third and fourth decades of life. Conclusion: Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the main causative agent involved in young males due to accidental over-dosage. Accidental and suicidal deaths should not be considered as inevitable. More elaborative studies are required in this area of recent research to adopt appropriate and adequate measures to save precious lives.(author)
Full Text Available A patient with mantle cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented herself with fever, nausea, right upper quadrant pain on the 7th day of R-CHOP chemotherapy. After hospitalization with the suspicion of acute cholecystitis, she received antibiotherapy with G-CSF because of emerging neutropenia at the 10th day of chemotherapy. Abdominal computed tomography revealed small infarcts in the spleen and kidneys. The echymotic lesion which developed on her right lateral malleolus, became bullous in the following days and treated as ecthyma gangrenosum. Altough the patient was afebrile with a normal neutrophil count on the third day of antibiotherapy, she developed acute renal failure and deteriorated rapidly. The patient underwent hemodialysis but expired on the 10th day of hospitalization. Post mortem autopsy findings showed ischemic infarction and necrosis of parenchyma due to mycotic thrombosis of arteries and veins of many organs (heart, lung, diaphgram, kidneys, spleen, gut mucosa as well as invasion of vessel walls and parenchyma by mucor. We reviewed mucormycosis in the light of this case.
Hirose, Izumi; Harada, Kazuki; Kuroda, Ryohei; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Makoto; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Takazawa, Yutaka; Yoshida, Ken-ichi
The rudimentary horn is a rare developmental anomaly of the Müllerian duct. Ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is estimated to occur in one out of 76,000-150,000 pregnancies. A 30-year-old primigravida suddenly collapsed after 3 days of continuous abdominal pain. Emergency laparotomy revealed a massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage and fetal demise. The growth of the fetus after 19 weeks of gestation is believed to have caused the rudimentary horn rupture, thereby rapidly leading to hemorrhagic shock in the mother and ischemic death in the fetus. This is the first autopsy report on maternal death due to the rudimentary horn or other Müllerian duct anomalies, which emphasizes the need for forensic pathologists to consider this condition as a possible cause of unexpected death in fertile women. In addition, it is very important for clinicians to detect Müllerian duct anomalies by sonography during routine obstetric examinations, and promptly diagnose anomaly related ectopic pregnancies in women displaying symptoms of an acute abdomen, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, or shock in the emergency practice. PMID:23265443
Choy, D S; Altman, P A; Case, R B; Trokel, S L
The interaction of laser radiation with the nucleus pulposus from autopsy specimens of human intervertebral disks was evaluated at different wavelengths (193 nm, 488 nm & 514 nm, 1064 nm, 1318 nm, 2150 nm, 2940 nm, and 10600 nm). A significant correlation of linear least squares fit of the mass ablated as a function of incident energy was found for all lasers used except the Excimer at 193 nm. The 2940-nm Erbium:YAG laser was most efficient in terms of mass of disk ablated per joule in the limited lower range where this wavelength was observed. At higher energy levels, the CO2 laser in the pulsed mode was most efficient. However, the Nd:YAG 1064-nm and 1318-nm lasers are currently best suited for percutaneous laser disk decompression because of the availability of usable waveguides. Carbonization of tissue with the more penetrating Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser increases the efficiency of tissue ablation and makes it comparable to the Nd:YAG 1318-nm laser. PMID:1904334
Ariel Barreto Nogueira
Full Text Available Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by non-differentiation of the renal proximal convoluted tubules, resulting in oligohydramnios. It is usually diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy, following the oligohydramnios sequence, pulmonary hypoplasia and hypocalvaria. The prognosis is poor, and death usually occurs in utero or within the first few days of life. The pathogenesis of RTD is associated with the perinatal use of drugs, such as angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and anti- inflammatory drugs, as well as with fetal transfusion syndrome, genetic mutations in the pathway of the renin-angiotensin system pathway, cocaine snorting, or other pathological mechanisms that reduce renal blood flow. Here, we report the autopsy of a neonate born to consanguineous parents at 38 weeks of gestation, with RTD, decreased amniotic fluid, oligohydramnios sequence, hypocalvaria, pulmonary hypoplasia, and ileocecal valve agenesis. To our knowledge, the latter has never been reported associated with RTD.
GONG-HUAN YANG; MICHAEL R. PHILLIPS; MAI-GENG ZHOU; LI-JUN WANG; YAN-PING ZHANG; DONG XU
Objective To compare the characteristics of suicides in the four main demographic groups: urban males, urban females,rural males and rural females in order to help clarify the demographic pattern of suicides in China. Methods A detailed psychological autopsy survey instrument was independently administered to 895 suicide victims in family members and close associates from 23 geographically representative locations from around the country. Results Pesticide ingestion accounted for 58% (519) of all suicides and 61% (318/519) of deaths were due to unsuccessful medical resuscitation. A substantial proportion (37%) of suicide victims did not have a mental illness. Among the 563 victims with mental illness, only 13%(76/563) received psychiatric treatment. Compared to other demographic groups, young rural females who died from suicide had the highest rate of pesticide ingestion (79%), the lowest prevalence of mental illness (39%), and the highest acute stress from precipitating life events just prior to the suicide. Conclusion Many suicides in China are impulsive acts of deliberate self-harm following acute interpersonal crises. Prevention of suicides in China must focus on improving awareness of psychological problems, improving mental health services, providing alternative social support networks for managing acute interpersonal conflicts, limiting access to pesticides, and improving the resuscitation skills of primary care providers.
Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F1) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F2) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F1 and F2. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F1 and F2. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F1 and F2. (author)
Bolino, Giorgio; Gitto, Lorenzo; Serinelli, Serenella; Maiese, Aniello
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital malformation of the diaphragm, resulting in the herniation of the abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. The most common types of congenital diaphragmatic hernia are Bochdalek hernia (postero-lateral hernia), Morgagni hernia (anterior defect), and diaphragm eventration (abnormal displacement of part or all of an otherwise intact diaphragm into the chest cavity). Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a life-threatening pathology in infants, and a major cause of death due to pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. We present a fatal case of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a newborn. At the autopsy, a central defect of the diaphragm was found, 8 × 5 cm in size, that led to a herniation of the small intestine, the right lobe of the liver, and the right adrenal gland into the thorax. An esophageal atresia was associated with the congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The lungs showed severe hypoplasia and atelectasia. Physicians should pay attention to a prenatal diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in order to prevent newborn fatalities. PMID:25573226
Full Text Available Hiroki Karata,1 Tomonori Tanaka,1 Ryoko Egashira,2 Kazuhiro Tabata,1 Kyoko Otani,3 Ryuji Hayashi,4 Takashi Hori,5 Junya Fukuoka1 1Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan; 3Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama, Japan; 5Laboratory of Pathology, Toyama University Hospital, Toyama, Japan Abstract: We report an educational autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Radiological patterns of the upper lung were considered as mostly emphysema, but pathological observation revealed significant interstitial fibrosis of usual interstitial pneumonia as a major pathology. The patient eventually developed acute exacerbation of background interstitial pneumonia. Careful radiological and pathological correlation of the current case indicates that regions with distal acinar emphysema on computed tomography image may possess histologically marked dense fibrosis of lethal interstitial pneumonia. Keywords: interstitial pneumonia, CPFE, AEF, smoking, CT
To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)
Gordon, G V; Villanueva, T; Schumacher, H R; Gohel, V
Inflammation has been suggested as a component in the osteoarthritic process. We have examined 150 knees at autopsy to correlate the degree of osteoarthritis (OA) with synovial inflammation, and with radiographic or pathologic evidence of calcification as a possible source of crystal induced inflammation. Roentgenographic evidence of calcification and histologic finding of synovial reaction (proliferation or inflammation) were seen more frequently (p less than .05) in the knees of patients with more advanced OA. Perichondrocytic staining for calcium and phosphorus was seen in 93% of patients with severe OA and in only 24% of those with normal or minimal OA. Calcium hydroxyapatite crystals were identified by electron microscopy in perichondrocytic and other areas in 8 of 15 cartilage samples with moderate to severe OA and in none with normal appearing cartilage. In advanced OA, there were bone fragments embedded in cartilage and synovium. Although the pathogenetic sequences are uncertain, we speculate that calcium hydroxyapatite (and pyrophosphate) crystals and/or bone shards can contribute to both synovitis and cartilage degeneration. PMID:6096542
Haunsø, S; Theilade, J; Winkel, B G; Holst, A G; Tfelt-Hansen, J; Svendsen, J H; Haunsø, Stig
Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in younger persons. Specifically, we recorded information on symptoms, comorbidity, medical contact, if this had been required, and subsequent autopsy findings.......Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in younger persons. Specifically, we recorded information on symptoms, comorbidity, medical contact, if this had been required, and subsequent autopsy findings....
Koski, Anniina; Bramante, Simona; Kipar, Anja; Oksanen, Minna; Juhila, Juuso; Vassilev, Lotta; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli
In clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses, there has been no mortality associated with treatment vectors. Likewise, in the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), where 290 patients were treated with 10 different viruses, no vector-related mortality was observed. However, as the patient population who received adenovirus treatments in ATAP represented heavily pretreated patients, often with very advanced disease, some patients died relatively soon after receiving their virus treatment mandating autopsy to investigate cause of death. Eleven such autopsies were performed and confirmed disease progression as the cause of death in each case. The regulatory requirement for investigating the safety of advanced therapy medical products presented a unique opportunity to study tissue samples collected as a routine part of the autopsies. Oncolytic adenoviral DNA was recovered in a wide range of tissues, including injected and noninjected tumors and various normal tissues, demonstrating the ability of the vector to disseminate through the vascular route. Furthermore, we recovered and cultured viable virus from samples of noninjected brain metastases of an intravenously treated patient, confirming that oncolytic adenovirus can reach tumors through the intravascular route. Data presented here give mechanistic insight into mode of action and biodistribution of oncolytic adenoviruses in cancer patients. PMID:26156245
Ferruelo, Antonio; El-Assar, Mariam; Lorente, José A; Nin, Nicolás; Peñuelas, Oscar; Fernández-Segoviano, Pilar; Gonzalez, Constancio; Esteban, Andrés
Background: Samples used for genotyping and transcription studies are obtained and conserved in very specific conditions. The possibility to use autopsy tissue samples, which contain nucleic acids of very poor quality, would open new possibilities for genetic studies. Methods: We have used liver tissue samples from autopsy cases to (i) determine its quality; (ii) study gene expression of 13 genes involved in different cell processes, before and after cDNA pre-amplification (quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction); and (iii) analyze the presence of 2 common polymorphisms of relevance for illness (ACE I/D genotype by PCR amplification, and TNF-α promoter gene polymorphism, by DNA sequencing). Results: Samples were grouped according to different buffered formalin fixation times (group 1, <15 days; group 2, 60-90 days; group 3, 150-180 days; group 4, 240-270 days). Nucleic acids showed a time-dependent degradation. The expression of 13 genes could be studied in all cases from groups 1 and 2, only 7 from group 3 and none from group 4. cDNA preamplification allowed the study of all genes in all samples. DNA genotyping for ACE and TNF-α promoter region was possible in all cases. Conclusions: We conclude that nucleic acids extracted from autopsy specimens after prolonged periods of time in formalin were of sufficient quality to study gene expression and genotyping using currently available methodology and cDNA pre-amplification. PMID:21326810
To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs
Full Text Available The TB death rate and the TB prevalence are considered two indicators of infectious diseases measured to asses treatment progress to reach the MDGs target in 2015. Verbal autopsy is used to captured TB death cases happened at home. The sample of " true” TB and "non” TB tests were selected from three gold standard hospital in Metro city. Verbal autopsy was conducted by well trained nurses/midwives from Puskesmas, interviewing families having the death cases. Two reviewers set up diagnoses based on the results of the VA. A referee team would decide the final cause of death (COD if the two diagnoses made by these two reviewers were unmatched. To avoid bias in this study, the blind technique was applied. The result of validation test shows out of 95 cases picked out from the three hospitals, only 65 of them were available for interview, 16 were defined to be TB cases and the other 49 cases were non TB, based as gold standard. There were 13 cases of well matched diagnoses between VA result and gold standard with Sensitivity value of 81 per cent (13 per 16. Twenty one death cases were defined TB through VA, the Positive Predictive Value was then 62 per cent (13 per 21. Those result is not much difference with the other place. The quality to determine the cause of death should be improved based on the /CD-10 mortality coding. Key words: Validation, verbal autopsy, tuberculosis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol makes an important contribution to premature mortality in many countries in Eastern Europe, including Estonia. However, the full extent of its impact, and the mechanisms underlying it, are challenging issues to research. We describe the design and initial findings of a study aimed at investigating the association of alcohol with mortality in a large series of forensic autopsies of working-age men in Estonia. Methods 1299 male deaths aged 25-54 years were subject to forensic autopsy in 2008-2009. The routine autopsy protocol was augmented by a more systematic inspection of organs, drug testing, assay of liver enzymes and novel biomarkers of alcohol consumption (EtG, EtS and PEth, together with proxy interviews with next of kin for deaths among men who lived in or close to a major town. Results 595 augmented autopsies were performed. Of these, 66% were from external causes (26% suicide, 25% poisoning. 17% were attributed to circulatory system diseases and 7% to alcoholic liver disease. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC of ≥ 0.2 mg/g were found for 55% of deaths. Interviews were conducted with proxy informants for 61% of the subjects who had resided in towns. Of these, 28% were reported in the previous year to have been daily or almost daily drinkers and 10% had drunk non-beverage alcohols. Blood ethanol and the liver enzyme GGT were only associated with daily drinking. However, the novel biomarkers showed a more graded response with recent consumption. In contrast, the liver enzymes AST and ALT were largely uninformative because of post-mortem changes. The presence of extremely high PEth concentrations in some samples also suggested post-mortem formation. Conclusion We have shown the feasibility of deploying an extended research protocol within the setting of routine forensic autopsies that offer scope to deepen our understanding of the alcohol-related burden of premature mortality. The most unique feature of the