Full Text Available Muitas vezes, em clínicas de países tropicais, não há tempo nem condições para se realizar uma necropsia adequada em um paciente que foi a óbito. Um técnica de biópsia por punção é descrita para fins de exame em necropsia limitadamente fechada, para esclarecimento da histologia do órgão. Dessa manei [...] ra, o clínico pode resolver enigmas de doenças fatais. Abstract in english Often in tropical practice there is not time or conditions to do a proper autopsy on a patient who has died. A needle biopsy technique is described for limited closed autopsy examination to clariffy organ histology. In this way the clinician may resolve puzzling fatal disease. [...
Philip Davis, Marsden.
Full Text Available Often in tropical practice there is not time or conditions to do a proper autopsy on a patient who has died. A needle biopsy technique is described for limited closed autopsy examination to clariffy organ histology. In this way the clinician may resolve puzzling fatal disease.Muitas vezes, em clínicas de países tropicais, não há tempo nem condições para se realizar uma necropsia adequada em um paciente que foi a óbito. Um técnica de biópsia por punção é descrita para fins de exame em necropsia limitadamente fechada, para esclarecimento da histologia do órgão. Dessa maneira, o clínico pode resolver enigmas de doenças fatais.
Philip Davis Marsden
Neonatal autopsy rates were in decline internationally at the end of the last century. Our objective was to assess the current value of neonatal autopsy in providing additional information to families and healthcare professionals.
Full Text Available Introducción: la autopsia es una herramienta útil que garantiza el estudio más completo del enfermo y la enfermedad, y evalúa la calidad del trabajo médico. El estudio de las autopsias pediátricas ofrece un importante volumen de información. Objetivo: demostrar la utilidad de la autopsia para la eva [...] luación de la calidad de la atención médica pediátrica. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo longitudinal. Se estudiaron 363 autopsias pediátricas realizadas en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto", desde su inauguración en 1962 hasta el 2011, a través del empleo del Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control en Anatomía Patológica. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino (56,1 %) y el grupo etario más frecuente correspondió al de 28 días a un 1 año (70,8 %). Las principales causas básicas de muerte fueron por infecciones digestivas, respiratorias y cerebrales. La principal causa directa e intermedia de muerte fue el tromboembolismo pulmonar. La discrepancia clínico patológica fue de un 14,7 % en la causa básica y de 10,3 % en la causa directa de muerte. Conclusiones: el trabajo científico combinado en 50 años de las especialidades de pediatría y anatomía patológica, demostró la utilidad de la autopsia para evaluar la calidad del trabajo médico y el apoyo que brinda el Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica. Abstract in english Introduction: autopsy is a useful tool to guarantee the most complete study of the sick person and of the disease, and to evaluate the quality of the physician's work. The study of pediatric autopsies provides a huge volume of information. Objective: to prove the usefulness of autopsy for the evalua [...] tion of the quality of pediatric medical care. Methods: retrospective longitudinal study of 363 pediatric autopsies conducted at "Luis Diaz Soto" central military hospital since its opening in 1962 through 2011. To this end, the Automated System of Registration and Control in Pathological Anatomy was used. Results: predominance of males (56.1 %) and of the group aged 28 days to one year (70.8 %). The main causes of death were digestive, respiratory and brain infections. The main direct and intermediate cause of death was pulmonary thromboembolism. The clinical and pathological discrepancy was 14.7% in the main cause and 10.3 % in the direct cause of death. Conclusions: the combined scientific work in 50 years by the pediatrics and pathological anatomy specialties proved the usefulness of autopsy to evaluate the quality of the physician's work and the support given by the Automated System of Registration and Control of Pathological Anatomy.
Fernando, Fernández Reverón; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de Jesús, Montero González; Clara, Santamaría Cuadrado; Ana E, Mera Fernández.
Verbal autopsy is an interview-based technique to determine the cause distribution of death in a population. The use of verbal autopsy for understanding neurological diseases is crucial to burden of disease analyses in many countries, particularly in locations where civil registration systems are non-functioning or absent. We review the purposes, strengths, and weaknesses in the use of verbal autopsy for neurological diseases.
Mateen, Farrah J.; Kalter, Henry D.
The aim of the study was to use psychological theory to identify and evaluate factors influencing clinical autopsy requests. A series of pilot interviews were conducted with 20 clinicians to identify beliefs about the benefits and drawbacks, social groups and circumstances influential in the decision to make an autopsy request. The most common beliefs, together with measures of intention to request autopsies, were incorporated into a questionnaire which was distributed among all appropriate c...
Birdi, K. S.; Bunce, D. J.; Start, R. D.; Cotton, D. W.
Full Text Available This is a case of a patient with bowel obstruction , imaging studies were suggestive for pneumatosis intestinalis. Clinically diagnosed as adhesion band and pnematosis intestinalis. She underwent laparatomy, enterolysis, obstructionolysis and enterorrhaphy. The patient developed respiratory distress and expired after 2 days. At autopsy we found gray-brown discoloration in the wall of some part of small bowel and flattening of mucus membrane. Grossly multiple gas-filled cysts were seen at the serosal surface. Microscopic evaluation of small intestine wall showed multiple cysts located in submucosal and serosal layers.
OBJECTIVES—To determine parents' views on autopsy after treatment withdrawal.?DESIGN—Face to face interviews with 59 sets of bereaved parents (108 individual parents) for whose 62 babies there had been discussion of treatment withdrawal.?RESULTS—All except one couple were asked for permission for postmortem examination; 38% refused. The main reasons for declining were concerns about disfigurement, a wish to have the child left in peace, and a feeling that an aut...
Mchaffie, H.; Fowlie, P.; Hume, R.; Laing, I.; Lloyd, D.; Lyon, A.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) surveillance relies on autopsy and neuropathologic evaluation. The 1990–2000 CJD autopsy rate in California was 21%. Most neurologists were comfortable diagnosing CJD (83%), but few pathologists felt comfortable diagnosing CJD (35%) or performing autopsy (29%). Addressing obstacles to autopsy is necessary to improve CJD surveillance.
Nolte, Kurt B.
This study reviews the deaths and autopsies carried out over 23 years, 1983-2005, in a British Infection Unit in HIV patients. Of 115 HIV patients known to have died, we obtained data on 93%. Of this 80% were male, median age 38 (25-68) years; 83% were Caucasian; 12% Black African. Major risk factors were men who have sex with men, 52%; heterosexual in Africa, 17%; and injecting drug use, 8%. The commonest diagnosis pre- and post-autopsy diagnosis was pneumonia. Changes in diagnoses in the 38% who underwent autopsy were high (we requested autopsy in 50%). Primary diagnosis changed in 70%, and 36% of all opportunistic infections were missed. This included six of nine cytomegalovirus, all tuberculosis and 75% of Kaposi's sarcoma. Lymphoma was overdiagnosed. Thus, despite excellent resources, the majority of primary diagnoses were wrong, suggesting inadequacy of current diagnostics. To improve these and improve both epidemiological data and future management autopsy should be considered for all deaths. PMID:19182052
Beadsworth, M B J; Cohen, D; Ratcliffe, L; Jenkins, N; Taylor, W; Campbell, F; Beeching, N J; Azadeh, B
Our objectives were to determine the perinatal autopsy rate in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and to quantify the value of the perinatal autopsy. All stillbirths, miscarriages, therapeutic abortions, and neonatal deaths between January 1, 2004, and August 31, 2009, were identified from the archives. The autopsy findings were compared with the clinical diagnoses. The autopsy reports were also reviewed to determine if it would be possible to improve the quality of the autopsies. There were 807 perinatal deaths, of which 36 (4.5%) included an autopsy. There were ethnic differences in the rate of autopsy, with the lowest rate among the Malays. The autopsy provided the diagnosis, changed the clinical diagnosis, or revealed additional findings in 58.3% of cases. Ancillary testing, such as microbiology, chromosomal analysis, and biochemistry, could improve the quality of the autopsy. This study provides further data on the perinatal autopsy rate from an emerging and developing country. It reaffirms the value of the perinatal autopsy. Attempts must be made to improve on the low autopsy rate while recognizing that the performance of autopsies can be enhanced through the use of ancillary testing. PMID:20367214
Tan, Geok Chin; Hayati, Abdul Rahman; Khong, Teck Yee
Fetal liver calcifications are occasionally found in fetal autopsies. However, the incidence, associated findings, clinical significance, and presumed pathogenesis of fetal liver calcifications are not well documented. This study analyzed the characteristics and significance of fetal liver calcifications found on fetal autopsies. Cases of fetal liver calcifications were collected from a fetal autopsy database. Their clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed in comparison to the remaining cases in the database. Thirty-five cases (4.2%) of fetal liver calcifications were found among 827 consecutive fetal autopsies that had been performed in our hospital during the 16-year period from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2009. Twenty-nine cases had nodular calcifications, predominantly subcapsular. Calcification in portal spaces and porta hepatis were present in six cases. Twenty cases were missed abortions and intrauterine fetal death. Missed abortion at or earlier than 23 weeks had significantly more subcutaneous edema and other evidence of circulatory abnormalities. Calcifications in older fetuses (>23 weeks) were located more commonly in portal spaces and in other organs. Fetal liver calcification is an incidental finding during autopsies. The significance of fetal liver calcifications has to be assessed in combination with other clinical and pathological parameters, including location and number of the lesions, signs of circulatory compromise, and abnormalities of placenta, umbilical cord, and fetal malformations. Fetal liver calcifications are commonly associated with conditions related to impaired circulation, including umbilical cord abnormalities and subcutaneous edema. We suggest that fetal liver calcifications might attest to circulatory compromise preceding death, especially if subcutaneous edema is present and even when no other abnormal findings are seen. PMID:22391985
Kidron, Debora; Sharony, Reuven
OBJECTIVES: Doctors are at higher risk of suicide than many other occupational groups. This study was conducted to investigate factors associated with suicide in doctors. METHOD: Psychological autopsy study of 38 working doctors who died by suicide in England and Wales between January 1991 and December 1993. RESULTS: Psychiatric illness was present in 25 of the doctors. Depressive illness and drug or alcohol abuse were the most common diagnoses. Twenty-five doctors had significant problems re...
Hawton, K.; Malmberg, A.; Simkin, S.
We report three autopsy cases of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in fetuses with a review of literature. The clinical manifestations in these cases of congenital CMV infection include intrauterine fetal death, hydrops fetalis, and CMV pneumonia associated with cardiovascular defect. The pathological characteristics were as follows: 1) the kidney was the most frequently involved organ, followed by lung and liver, 2) CMV inclusions were found predominantly in epithelial cells and to ...
Ko, H. M.; Kim, K. S.; Park, J. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, M. Y.; Lee, M. C.; Park, C. S.; Juhng, S. W.; Choi, C.
In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted
The pattern of psychiatric syndromes/mental illnesses among the 61 clinical autopsies carried out during the past decade in a psychiatric Institute in South India, is documented. Among the cases autopsied, 26.2% had clinical diagnosis of Schizophrenia, 21.3% dementia, 19.67% manic depressive Psychosis, the rest being cases of neurosis, mental retardation, alcoholism and other Psychosis. The importance of an autopsy study in understanding the pathomorphological basis of mental illness is highl...
Chandra, Prabha S.; Shankar, S. K.; Asha, T.; Vythilingam, Meena; Rao, T. Vasudev; Das, Sarala; Channabasavanna, S. M.
Full Text Available The present work is a conceptual approach on psychosocial factors related to suicidal psychobiography from the exploration of the lives of people who self-eliminate, for which there will be a review of the literature, based on input from journal articles and books published in various sources of documentation. Autopsy psychology is a data collection method that provides light on the psychosocial motivations that drive and reinforce the act of suicide, and is currently used by professionals responsible for investigating the causes of suicide while contributing data produced in the developing programs to promote mental health and prevention of suicidal ideation and behavior.
José Alonso Andrade Salazar
We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal being the most frequent. The clinical course can be asymptomatic, cause chronic or intermittent abdominal pain, or present with acute abdomen. The clinical entity is a diagnostic challenge, which is illustrated in the present case where there patient died during hospital admission. The case also emphasizes the difficulty in diagnosing the disease by plain abdominal radiography.
Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter
The recent influenza pandemic, caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as the seasonal influenza outbreaks caused by varieties of influenza A and B viruses, are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Few studies have evaluated the utility of real-time reverse transcription-PCR to detect influenza virus RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained at autopsy. In this work, respiratory autopsy tissues from 442 suspect influenza cases were tested by real-time reverse transcription-PCR for seasonal influenza A and B and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses and the results were compared to those obtained by immunohistochemistry. In total, 222 cases were positive by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and of 218 real-time, reverse transcription-PCR-positive cases also tested by immunohistochemistry, only 107 were positive. Although formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues can be used for diagnosis, frozen tissues offer the best chance to make a postmortem diagnosis of influenza because these tissues possess nucleic acids that are less degraded and, as a consequence, provide longer sequence information than that obtained from fixed tissues. We also determined that testing of all available respiratory tissues is critical for optimal detection of influenza virus in postmortem tissues. PMID:21354045
Denison, Amy M.; Blau, Dianna M.; Jost, Heather A.; Jones, Tara; Rollin, Dominique; Gao, Rongbao; Liu, Lindy; Bhatnagar, Julu; Deleon-Carnes, Marlene; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Christopher D.; Drew, Clifton; Adem, Patricia; Emery, Shannon L.; Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Batten, Brigid; Greer, Patricia W.; Smith, Chalanda S.; Bartlett, Jeanine; Montague, Jeltley L.; Patel, Mitesh; Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Klimov, Alexander I.; Zaki, Sherif R.
Autopsy is the gold standard for establishing the cause of death. We present results of the largest retrospective review of complete autopsies of subjects after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to better define the role of the autopsy in discovering a missed diagnosis. We reviewed the medical chart and autopsy records of 111 patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from July 1986 to June 2003 from a single center. We compared the cause of death as charted by the clinical team with data obtained from postmortem chart review and autopsy reports. Of 29 (26%) cases when the premortem and postmortem major diagnoses did not agree, only 4 (4%) autopsy records provided data that might have led to the initiation of new treatments, and none of these diagnoses would be missed today with more sensitive and specific diagnostics and improved supportive care. Although autopsies after transplantation can be important educational, research, and epidemiologic tools and provide an emotional benefit to patient's families, in our series they rarely provided missed diagnoses that would alter the management of subsequent patients. Improvements in noninvasive tests for relapse or occult infections may further erode the role of autopsies in discovering missed diagnoses. PMID:17222749
Hofmeister, Craig C; Marinier, David E; Czerlanis, Cheryl; Stiff, Patrick J
...this should be done only with the written understanding from the funeral home that no preparation for burial, including embalming, should be performed until a final decision is made on the need for an autopsy. (3) Medical staff shall arrange...
Joint capsule, meniscus, and cartilage from the patella and medial femoral condyle from 30 non-selected autopsies have been investigated for amyloid deposits with light and electron microscopy. Both right and left knee joints from 28 of the 30 autopsy specimens contained amyloid deposits (93%). The amyloid characteristically showed green dichroism in polarised light after staining with alkaline Congo red. The ultrastructural features were also characteristic of amyloid. Amyloid in capsule tis...
In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. PMID:25600888
Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige
Almost 250 years ago the autopsy of Agustin de Ahumada y Villalon was performed by Domingo Russi, Chief Surgeon at the Royal Hospital for Natives in Mexico City. This situation will be unimportant if the former wasn't the 42nd Viceroy of New Spain; his autopsy showed a situs inversus totalis, and probably this is the first scientific report of such malformation. For many years the report by Mathew Baillie (1761-1823) of an autopsy with the same findings as the first of its kind was believed, but actually the former almost three decades earlier was performed. In 1688 Jean M. Mery (1645-1722) at the Paris Academy of Medicine gave a talk reporting autopsy findings of the same malformations. Some aspects of the life of both personages are described, the autopsy report is showed and a short history about postmortem studies are mentioned mainly those made in Spain and New Spain. Through many centuries a very close relationship has been kept and medicine has not been the exception, in the field of human pathology in the middle third of the 20th century a distinguished pathologist, Dr. Isaac Costero-Tudanca, migrated to Mexico and gave flowering to pathology and a great generation of Mexican pathologists was generated headed by Dr. Ruy Perez-Tamayo. PMID:18807740
de la Garza-Villaseñor, J Lorenzo; Pantoja-Millán, Juan Pablo
Following the death of a British National on foreign soil, a primary investigation is conducted by the authorities of that country; HM Coroner and the United Kingdom police have no jurisdiction to conduct investigations abroad. Upon repatriation of a body, the legal investigation in the UK remains largely unchanged since the publication of the "harmonisation of medico-legal autopsy rules" (1999) and the passing of the Coroners and Justice Act (2009). We identified 44 cases within a 10-year period. An invasive autopsy had been performed abroad in 25 cases; an autopsy report was received prior to UK autopsy in one case. Seven cases showed incomplete evisceration; the absence of part or whole organs was recorded in 11 cases. Toxicology was performed abroad in five cases. Recurring technical difficulties related chiefly to embalming, including difficulty with dissection and noxious fumes. When an autopsy had been performed abroad, the time to UK inquest was prolonged by an average of seven months. A verdict of unlawful killing was returned in nine cases. The discussion expands on these issues, and attempts to offer reasoned explanation where possible. Two cases are used as exemplars to highlight difficulties to both the pathologist and Coroner. This casework remains rare but the potential problems include: absence of tissue; lack of information; technical difficulties; and a disproportionately high number of unlawful killings, making clear the need for experience and caution when making the post mortem examination. PMID:24189642
Williams, Edward John; Davison, Andrew
Full Text Available No Instituto Médico Legal de São Paulo, de maio de 1985 a maio de 1989, foram realizadas 126 necrópsias de indivíduos portadores de AIDS cujo óbito foi motivo de investigações policiais. 119 eram do sexo masculino e 17 do sexo feminino e o pico de incidência etária foi dos 20 aos 30 anos. Foram obse [...] rvadas 54 mortes em estabelecimentos penais, 29 suicídios, 17 homicídios dolosos, 17 mortes suspeitas, 5 homicídios culposos e 4 corpos em putrefação. Os presidiários, à exceçáo de um que foi estrangulado, faleceram do curso natural da doença. Chamou atenção nas perícias a alta incidência de micobacteriose extra pulmonar. Os suicídios se procederam das mais diferentes formas e as vítimas, em sua maioria, apresentavam o quadro inicial da doença. As mortes suspeitas e os corpos encontrados em deterioração resultaram do abandono dos pacientes pelos familiares. Nos homicídios, a morte quase sempre ocorreu tardiamente nos hospitais e a doença contribuiu certamente para o agravamento das lesões. Os autores chamam atenção sobre os problemas jurídicos e sociais que envolvem as vítimas da AIDS e realçam esses últimos como um obstáculo a um controle efetivo da epidemia. Abstract in english From May 1985 to May 1989, 126 necropsies were performed at the São Paulo City Morgue on cadavers of individuals AIDS victims whose unnatural deaths had prompted police investigations. One hundred and nineteen males and 17 females were included. Ages were most commonly in the 20-to-30 year range. Fi [...] fty four deaths occurred in penal institutions, 29 deaths resulted from suicides, 17 deaths from manslaughter, 17 deaths were considered suspicious, 5 willful murders and 4 others also considered suspicious because corpses were found in advanced stages of putrefaction. Inmates, except one man who was strangled, died as a consequence of the disease. During all autopsies, special attention was paid to the high rate of extrapulmonary Mycobacterial infections. Suicides were committed in different ways and the majority of the victims were documented to be still in the initial stages of the disease. Suspicious deaths and deteriorated corpses were the result of negligence of the subject's families. Homicidal deaths occurred in subjects in the terminal stages of the disease inside the hospital where these subjects were assisted and the immunedeficiency certainly contributed to aggravate the injuries leading to death. Attention is drawn to both legal and social issues affecting AIDS victims. The authors believe these issues may pose a hindrance for efficient control of the AIDS epidemic.
Carlos Delmonte, Prints; José Antonio de, Mello; Ruggero Bernardo, Guidugli; Conceição Gonçalves Caldeira, Cury.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008 from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%, the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16% patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16% cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma. Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool.
Fakler Johannes K
Schizophrenia is associated with premature mortality and a high rate of sudden, unexpected deaths. Autopsy data are scant, and in studies using death certificates or root cause assessments, a majority of sudden deaths remained unexplained. In the community, post-mortem data indicate that the most common cause of sudden "natural" death is coronary artery disease. In this study, we used autopsy findings to determine the cause of sudden death in a consecutive cohort of 7189 schizophrenia patients admitted to a free-standing, psychiatric teaching hospital from 1989 to 2013. Medical record review identified 57 patients (0.79%) who died suddenly and unexpectedly during hospitalization. Autopsies were performed in 51 (89.5%) patients (55.9±9.4years, male=56.9%). Autopsy-based causes of sudden death were most commonly cardiovascular disorders (62.8%). Specific causes included myocardial infarction (52.9%), pneumonia (11.8%), airway obstruction (7.8%), myocarditis (5.9%), and dilated cardiomyopathy, hemopericardium, pulmonary embolus, hemorrhagic stroke and brain tumor (2.0% each). The sudden death remained unexplained in 6 (11.8%) patients, 3 of whom had evidence of coronary arteriosclerosis on autopsy. Patients with and without myocardial infarction were similar regarding age, gender, smoking, body mass index and psychotropic treatment (p values?0.10). In conclusion, sudden cardiac death occurs at a 0.8% rate in a psychiatric hospital, well above general population rates. Autopsy findings indicate that sudden death in schizophrenia is caused by structural cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological abnormalities, with most cases due to acute myocardial infarction. Early recognition and treatment of coronary artery disease must become a clinical priority for all adults with schizophrenia. PMID:24704220
Ifteni, Petru; Correll, Christoph U; Burtea, Victoria; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter
Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twinning. This anomaly is characterised by craniofacial duplication to varying degrees and is associated with anomalies of the central nervous, cardiac, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. We present an infant characterised as diprosopus tetraophthalmus who underwent post-mortem CT, which served as a highly useful complement to autopsy. PMID:22190755
Laor, T; Stanek, J; Leach, J L
Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twinning. This anomaly is characterised by craniofacial duplication to varying degrees and is associated with anomalies of the central nervous, cardiac, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. We present an infant characterised as diprosopus tetraophthalmus who underwent post-mortem CT, which served as a highly useful complement to autopsy.
Laor, T.; Stanek, J.; Leach, J. L.
A Mittelmeier hip prosthesis was removed at autopsy 2 years after implantation in a patient who was fatally injured. Macroscopic, histological, radiographic, and metrological studies revealed interesting new aspects on the remodelling of bone and the behaviour of the components of the prosthesis.
Brach Del Prever, Elena Maria
Full Text Available Herein we describe a rare case of saccular renal artery aneurysm seen as an incidental autopsy finding in an elderly, hypertensive female. The aneurysm was seen as a small exophytic mass with calcified wall and lumen occluded by recanalized thrombus.
Forensic anthropologists and pathologists are more and more requested to answer questions on bone trauma. However limitations still exist concerning the proper interpretation of bone fractures and bone lesions in general. Access to known skeletal populations which derive from cadavers (victims of violent deaths) who underwent autopsy and whose autopsy reports are available are obvious sources of information on what happens to bone trauma when subjected to taphonomic variables, such as burial, decomposition, postmortem chemical and mechanical insults; such skeletal collections are still however quite rare. This study presents the results of the comparative analysis between the autopsy findings on seven cadavers (six of which victims of blunt, sharp or gunshot wounds) and those of the anthropological assessment performed 20 years later on the exhumed dry bones (part of the Milano skeletal collection). The investigation allowed us to verify how perimortem sharp, blunt and gunshot lesions appear after a long inhumation period, whether they are still recognizable, and how many lesions are no longer detectable or were not detectable at all compared to the autopsy report. It also underlines the importance of creating skeletal collections with known information on cause of death and trauma. PMID:25315679
Cappella, A; Castoldi, E; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C
This report is based on 30 deaths from chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in the United Kingdom with details of 19 autopsies. The majority were fluorescent lamp workers and machinists who died from respiratory failure. There were no cases of lung cancer. The survival times ranged from less than 1 to 29 years and was longest in machinists. All of the workers showed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis with varying degrees of cystic change. The majority showed hyalinized, and a few active sarcoid-type,...
Williams, W. J.
Background: Myocarditis is a diagnostic challenge in cardiology. The diagnosis is frequently made post-mortem, with no clinical evidence of myocardial failure. Autopsy studies report a frequency of myocarditis ranging from 0.11-0.55% in the general population. Myocarditis is presents with varied clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to sudden cardiac death, sometimes mimicking the Myocardial Infarction (MI). Case Summary: A 55 years old male presented with sudden onset of chest p...
Patil, S. Y.; Malur, P. R.; Gouda, H. S.; Lavlesh Kumar; Bannur, H. B.; Davanageri, R. S.
Forty-six consecutive autopsies performed in 1 year on patients who died in a 120-bed urban community hospital were analysed with respect to clinical-pathological correlation. The mean age of the patients was 71 years. Errors in clinical diagnosis were assigned to one of four classes: class I, a missed major diagnosis, the detection of which before death would probably have changed management and resulted in longer survival or possible cure; class II, a major missed diagnosis that, if detecte...
This report is based on 30 deaths from chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in the United Kingdom with details of 19 autopsies. The majority were fluorescent lamp workers and machinists who died from respiratory failure. There were no cases of lung cancer. The survival times ranged from less than 1 to 29 years and was longest in machinists. All of the workers showed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis with varying degrees of cystic change. The majority showed hyalinized, and a few active sarcoid-type, granulomas. Extrathoracic granulomas, as in a U.K. sarcoid autopsy series, were rare. A notable difference was the absence of myocardial involvement in CBD compared to an incidence of 20% in the sarcoid autopsies. The detection of beryllium in the criteria for diagnosis is emphasized and the cases classified as definite include 12 of 19 positive analysis, 6 of 19, negative or unavailable analysis. The remaining case was classified as dubious because, despite a positive analysis, granulomas were absent. The main differential diagnosis is sarcoidosis. PMID:8933040
Williams, W J
CT and US findings of 7 cases of splenic metastases are described and the prevalence of splenic metastases at autopsy in 641 cases of malignant tumors were evaluated. Metastatic foci in spleen appeared mostly as poorly-defined low density masses on CT. Iodinated contrast material was administered in 2 cases, but no contrast enhancement was observed. US showed both hypoechoic and hyperechoic patterns. These appearances were nonspecific, but were similar to those of metastatic lesions in the liver which were often visible on CT associated with splenic metastases. At autopsy splenic metastases were found in 34 of 641 cases (5.3%). Gastric, colon, lung and ovarian cancers were most common primary tumors. However, the rate of splenic metastasis per tumor was highest in ovarian cancer (50.0%), followed by malignant melanoma (33.3%), colon cancer (16.2%), and gastric cancer (8.2%). Hepatoma which had the largest number of autopsy cases in this series showed the lowest rate of splenic metastases (0.8%). (author)
Full Text Available Forensic pathologists/Autopsy surgeons and the forensic medicine personnel assisting to conduct an autopsy who come in direct contact with the body fluids, soft tissues of the dead and skeletal remains in different stages of decomposition, are at a continuous risk of acquiring various kinds of infections including blood-borne viral and other bacterial infections. However, limited data are available regarding these occupational risks to the persons who are usually exposed to dead bodies in the autopsy rooms. With the existing and growing HIV epidemic and high seroprevalence of hepatitis virus, safety becomes an issue not only relevant to the team performing the autopsy, but also has direct implications regarding the protection of the environment. Prevention strategies including immunization, exposure avoidance by the use of universal precautions and proper infrastructure in the autopsy rooms can go a long way in preventing the occupational hazards of the autopsy rooms
B. R. Sharma
The excessive release of inflammatory cytokines occasionally induces life-threatening hemophagocytosis referred to as hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). A similar condition, histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis (HHH), is often seen in bone marrow collected during autopsy. Unlike HPS, the pathogenesis of HHH remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a clinicopathological analysis of HHH from 70 autopsy cases at the University of Fukui Hospital. HHH was detected in 29 of 70 autopsies (41.4?...
Inai, Kunihiro; Noriki, Sakon; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Naiki, Hironobu
BACKGROUND: Eliminating silicosis is a priority of the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization. Prevalence is particularly high in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: We describe trends in silicosis among South African gold miners who had had an autopsy between 1975 and 2007 and quantify the contributions of age at autopsy and employment duration to these trends. METHODS: South African miners and ex-miners are eligible for autopsy examination for occupational l...
Nelson, Gill; Girdler-brown, Brendan V.; Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Murray, Jill
Thoracoomphalopagus is the commonest type of conjoined twin where the bodies are fused from upper chest to lower chest. The autopsy done can help counsil the parents for further pregnancies and determine the prognosis depending upon the type of cardiac anomaly by Seo classification when detected antenatally. We describe the detail pathological autopsy of such a case with single heart and single liver. A detail autopsy was done on the twin fetus. The twins shared a single heart and som...
Kar Asaranti; Mohanty Pranati; Kar Tushar; Behera Jagadish; Behera Susmita; Nayak Amarendra
The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of grey and white matter atrophy on MRI in autopsy confirmed PSP and CBD, and to determine whether the patterns vary depending on the clinical syndrome. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare patterns of atrophy in 13 PSP and 11 CBD subjects and 24 controls. PSP and CBD subjects were also subdivided into those with a dominant dementia or extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects showed brainstem atrophy with involvement of the cortex and unde...
Josephs, Keith A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Jack, Clifford R.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images
By reviewing 3,506 autopsy records to determine the prevalence of gallbladder disease among San Francisco county coroner cases for 1981 and 1982, we found an overall prevalence rate of 92.7 per 1,000. After confirming age as a significant risk factor (P ?.0001), the data were age adjusted and then analyzed using a stepwise logistic regression. Women were found to have a twofold to threefold greater prevalence compared with men. Latina women showed a higher prevalence than whites, blacks or ...
Arevalo, Jose A.; Wollitzer, Alison Okada; Corporon, Miguel Berry; Larios, Miriam; Huante, David; Ortiz, Maria Teresa
Current autopsy practice in forensic pathology is to a large extent based on experience and individual customary practices as opposed to evidence and consensus based practices. As a result there is the potential for substantial variation in how knowledge is applied in each case. In the present case series, we describe the variation observed in autopsy reports by five different pathologists of eight victims who died simultaneously from traumatic asphyxia due to compression during a human stampede. We observed that there was no mention of the availability of medical charts in five of the reports, of potentially confounding resuscitation efforts in three reports, of cardinal signs in seven reports and of associated injuries to a various degree in all reports. Further, there was mention of supplemental histological examination in two reports and of pre-autopsy radiograph in six reports. We inferred that reliance on experience and individual customary practices led to disparities between the autopsy reports as well as omissions of important information such as cardinal signs, and conclude that such reliance increases the potential for error in autopsy practice. We suggest that pre-autopsy data-gathering and the use of check lists specific to certain injury causes are likely to result in less deviation from evidence-based practices in forensic pathology. Pre-autopsy data-gathering and check lists will help ensure a higher degree of standardization in autopsy reports thus enhancing the quality and accuracy of the report as a legal document as well as rendering it more useful for data-gathering efforts.
Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Freeman, Michael
Current autopsy practice in forensic pathology is to a large extent based on experience and individual customary practices as opposed to evidence and consensus based practices. As a result there is the potential for substantial variation in how knowledge is applied in each case. In the present case series, we describe the variation observed in autopsy reports by five different pathologists of eight victims who died simultaneously from traumatic asphyxia due to compression during a human stampede. We observed that there was no mention of the availability of medical charts in five of the reports, of potentially confounding resuscitation efforts in three reports, of cardinal signs in seven reports and of associated injuries to a various degree in all reports. Further, there was mention of supplemental histological examination in two reports and of pre-autopsy radiograph in six reports. We inferred that reliance on experience and individual customary practices led to disparities between the autopsy reports as well as omissions of important information such as cardinal signs, and conclude that such reliance increases the potential for error in autopsy practice. We suggest that pre-autopsy data-gathering and the use of check lists specific to certain injury causes are likely to result in less deviation from evidence-based practices in forensic pathology. Pre-autopsy data-gathering and check lists will help ensure a higher degree of standardization in autopsy reports thus enhancing the quality and accuracy of the report as a legal document as well as rendering it more useful for data-gathering efforts. PMID:24485418
Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Freeman, Michael; Banner, Jytte; Lynnerup, Niels
Annually thousands of sudden deaths involving young individuals (< 35 years of age) remain unexplained following a complete medicolegal investigation that includes an autopsy. In fact, epidemiological studies have estimated that over half of sudden deaths involving previously healthy young individuals have no morphological abnormalities identifiable at autopsy. Cardiac channelopathies associated with structurally normal hearts such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ven...
Boczek, Nicole J.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.
Research has suggested that autopsy in pediatrics is a valued way for parents to better understand and process their child's death, yet physicians often express hesitancy in discussing this topic with parents. To better assist clinicians with initiating discussion about this often sensitive topic, the current study examined bereaved parents' preferences about the timing and content of the autopsy discussion as well as reasons for considering autopsy. This study explored the views of 30 parents who lost a child to a variety of malignancies between 6 months and 6 years ago. Results showed that 36.7% of parents recalled having a discussion about autopsy, and the vast majority of those who did not recall a discussion (89.5%) would have considered an autopsy if it had been discussed. The majority of participants in this study indicated their preference to have the first conversation about autopsy when it becomes clear that cure is no longer possible. Findings suggest that educating parents about the clinical, emotional, and potential research benefits of autopsy and tissue procurement will ultimately help them make informed decisions and understand the importance of autopsy in medical progress. The future research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24309611
Wiener, Lori; Sweeney, Corinne; Baird, Kristin; Merchant, Melinda S; Warren, Katherine E; Corner, Geoffrey W; Roberts, Kailey E; Lichtenthal, Wendy G
Cytokine storm-derived influenza-associated encephalopathy is a severe complication, affecting not only the brain but also multiple systemic organs including the heart and lungs. Hundreds of Japanese children are afflicted by influenza-associated encephalopathy every year. Influenza-associated encephalopathy can be diagnosed by pathological changes, such as advanced brain edema and disruption of astrocytic projections, which is known as clasmatodendrosis. In the present case, despite the absence of significant histopathological findings in the brain, the diagnosis of influenza-associated encephalopathy was made on the basis of autopsy findings such as brain swelling, pathological findings including diffuse alveolar damage, and increase in the concentrations of interleukin-6 in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In this case, the interval from high fever to death was approximately 7 hours and may have been too short for histopathological features to develop. This is an unusual autopsy case of cytokine storm-derived influenza-associated encephalopathy without typical histopathological findings. PMID:25376710
Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Iwase, Hirotaro; Mizuguchi, Masashi
: Strengthening the interaction between doctors and pathologists is essential in improving the autopsy process and utilization in the hospital. KBTH should create opportunities for doctors to attend autopsy demonstrations and for pathologists to attend clinicopathological meetings in the hospital.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. Method: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy an [...] d postmortem computed tomography. Results: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. Conclusions: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations.
Talita, Zerbini; Luiz Fernando Ferraz da, Silva; Antonio Carlos Gonçalves, Ferro; Fernando Uliana, Kay; Edson, Amaro Junior; Carlos Augusto Gonçalves, Pasqualucci; Paulo Hilario do Nascimento, Saldiva.
We evaluated the correlation between prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and autopsy findings, based on 52 second-trimester pregnancies terminated due to fetal malformations or chromosome aberrations diagnosed at a gestational age of 12-25 weeks. In 24 pregnancies, there was full agreement between ultrasound and autopsy. In 23 fetuses, the main diagnosis was confirmed and additional or more specific findings were observed on autopsy. In five fetuses, there were considerable differences. Discrepancies between ultrasound and autopsy findings were mainly anomalies undetectable by ultrasound and thus expected; however, about one-third of the discrepancies were not expected, representing findings that were 'missed' at ultrasound. The main ultrasound diagnoses were confirmed in the majority of the pregnancies, but the additional information obtained at autopsy in more than half of the fetuses clearly shows the value and benefit of postmortem fetal examination following termination of a pregnancy.
Hauerberg, Laura; Skibsted, Lillian
A 45-year-old man with right hypochondralgia and marked leukocytosis was found to have Borrmann type II carcinoma of the sigmoid colon and its metastasis to the liver. The peripheral leukocyte count gradually increased up to 150 X 10(3)/mm3 according to the tumor enlargement. The patient died of hepatic insufficiency, and autopsy revealed carcinoid of the colon and its metastasis to the liver. Leukemoid reaction has been reported in various kinds of malignancies. However, the present case seems to be of particular interest because of the rare association with carcinoid and marked leukocytosis of more than 100 X 10(3)/mm3 without any evidence of infection. PMID:3489111
Kobayashi, T; Akahonai, Y; Kawasaki, K; Suga, M; Yachi, A; Suzuki, T; Yamada, S; Narasaki, M; Oyamada, Y
Full Text Available Introduction. Primary melanocytosis of the leptomeninges is a rare tumor, most likely originating from the melanocytes in the leptomeninges. The average survival is only about 5 months. Case report. A 61- years-old woman presented with headache, amaurosis and hallucinations lasted for two months, and she had been treated at the Clinic for Psychiatry and Clinic for Infectious Diseases. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a lower level of glucose and a higher level of proteins. Small shaded areas of basal leptomeninges and hydrocephalus were found by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The autopsy showed a dark brown mass on basal leptomeninges with blurred boundaries. No pigmented skin lesions were found. Histopathological analysis revealed a primary leptomeningeal melanocytosis. Conclusion. Primary leptomeningeal melanocytosis is a rare tumor, difficult to diagnose. This case is being presented for its specificity, since this diagnosis is not frequently seen in practice.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images.
Park, Seung Hyun; Kang, Hyun Koo; Yu, Hyeon; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Since 1959, the Health Division, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has analyzed the tissues from 81 former employees of the Laboratory for plutonium. Additionally, approximately 700 autopsy cases from the general population have also been analyzed for Pu resulting from fallout. The variation in the distribution of Pu in the bodies of the occupationally exposed individuals suggest that each exposure incident is unique and must be evaluated on the basis of the chemical form, solubility, particle size, mode of entry, and duration of exposure. Particle size distribution of Pu in a lymph node of a long-term chronic exposure case was estimated to have a mass median diameter of 0.32 ?m with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5. The baseline concentrations of environmental Pu have been estimated for the general population and the tissue distributions compared with the occupationally exposed cases
The author aims to demonstrate the increased information which can be acquired from a correlated study of the computed tomogram and the pathomorphological patterns of the most common infarctions seen at autopsy. The discussion is divided into two sections: 1. A short bird's-eye view on the laws of distribution of flow in cases of cerebrovascular insufficiency, particularly all the deviations from simple hemodynamics in the process of infarction. 2. A systematic demonstration of the most frequent CT-patterns correlated with the corresponding pathomorphological specimens. This report is based on 6500 cerebral CTs, from which 590, i.e. 9%, showed infarcts. These include mainly cases seen in the neurological ward of the Merheim City Hospital. (Auth.)
By reviewing 3,506 autopsy records to determine the prevalence of gallbladder disease among San Francisco county coroner cases for 1981 and 1982, we found an overall prevalence rate of 92.7 per 1,000. After confirming age as a significant risk factor (P =.0001), the data were age adjusted and then analyzed using a stepwise logistic regression. Women were found to have a twofold to threefold greater prevalence compared with men. Latina women showed a higher prevalence than whites, blacks or Asians. Black women did not have a significantly higher prevalence than the white sample. Actual to ideal weight was also significantly related to the presence of gallbladder disease. PMID:3424805
Arevalo, J A; Wollitzer, A O; Corporon, M B; Larios, M; Huante, D; Ortiz, M T
By reviewing 3,506 autopsy records to determine the prevalence of gallbladder disease among San Francisco county coroner cases for 1981 and 1982, we found an overall prevalence rate of 92.7 per 1,000. After confirming age as a significant risk factor (P ?.0001), the data were age adjusted and then analyzed using a stepwise logistic regression. Women were found to have a twofold to threefold greater prevalence compared with men. Latina women showed a higher prevalence than whites, blacks or Asians. Black women did not have a significantly higher prevalence than the white sample. Actual to ideal weight was also significantly related to the presence of gallbladder disease. PMID:3424805
Arevalo, Jose A.; Wollitzer, Alison Okada; Corporon, Miguel Berry; Larios, Miriam; Huante, David; Ortiz, Maria Teresa
Full Text Available Yuichiro Imai,1 Yasushi Adachi,2,3 Takashi Kimura,4 Chikara Nakano,5 Toshiki Shimizu,4 Ming Shi,2 Mitsuhiko Okigaki,6 Tomohiko Shimo,1 Kazunari Kaneko,1 Susumu Ikehara2 1Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, 2Department of Stem Cell Disorders, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, 3Division of Clinical Pathology, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, 4First Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, 5Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, 6Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: For immunodeficient patients, fungi are life-threatening pathogens. In this paper, we present an autopsy case of combined zygomycosis and aspergillosis. A female in her 70s on chronic hemodialysis was admitted to a hospital suffering bloody sputum, dyspnea, and fever, probably due to perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related vasculitis. Antibiotics were administered and immunosuppressive therapy was started, resulting in an improvement in her condition. Pneumonia later developed, followed by pulmonary bleeding and intractable pneumothorax from which she ultimately died. On autopsy, the upper lobe of the left lung was found to have hemorrhagic necrosis and showed a large longitudinal fissure. Microscopically, Zygomycota were observed in both the lungs and heart, while Aspergillus was found in the middle lobe of the right lung. Zygomycosis, which usually has a poor prognosis, is assumed to have induced hemorrhagic infarction of the lungs, inducing pulmonary bleeding and necrosis, despite the use of lipid formulations of amphotericin B, which are effective medicines against Zygomycota. Keywords: pulmonary fissure, zygomycosis, aspergillosis, lung, immunosuppression
Full Text Available Introduction. Sudden natural death occurs unexpectedly in apparently healthy subjects, or in persons during an apparent benign phase in the course of disease. The most common cause is sudden cardiac death, which is sometimes the first and last manifestation of coronary heart disease. Alcohol directly influences excitation of myocytes, and therefore provokes arrhythmias and possibly, sudden cardiac death. Objective. To establish the frequency of sudden cardiac death in cases of acute alcohol intoxication, to determine blood alcohol concentration at the moment of death, and to determine frequency and level of ethanol intoxication in chronic alcohol abusers, as well as causes of sudden death in those cases. Method. Retrospective autopsy study was performed for a three-year-period. We analyzed cases of sudden natural death, in relation to age and gender, cause of death, and blood alcohol concentration (at least 0.5 g/L. We considered the person to be a chronic alcoholic abuser if gross examination of organs during autopsy showed changes typical for excessive and habitual alcohol consumption. Results. Our sample consisted of 997 cases: 720 men and 277 women, average age 62.0±15.2 years (min=11; max=98. Total of 753 of them died of sudden cardiac death: much more men (?2=167.364; p=0.000, significantly younger than women (t=6.203; p=0.000. We determined acute alcohol intoxication in 73 persons - average blood alcohol concentration 1.85±1.01 g/L (min=0.55; max=3.85, and 61 of them died of cardiovascular diseases (?2=236.781; df=5; p=0.000. Conclusion. In our observed sample, not many persons were under acute alcohol intoxication (around 7%. Most commonly, they were chronic alcohol abusers who died due to exacerbation of chronic heart disease, mildly or moderately intoxicated - the younger, the drunker.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data.
... Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order ... cause of death, National Vital Statistics System Autopsy rates declined more than 50 percent from 1972 through ...
Autopsy findings of a case of Lassa fever from the Eastern part of Nigeria are presented. The authors suggest that in Lassa fever there is an involvement of the brain in the nature of encephalitis. PMID:702621
Ikerionwu, S E; Sato, K; Katchy, K C; Suseelan, A A
Full Text Available An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy was reported. The patient was a 60-year-old female complaining of chest discomfort from the age of 40. At autopsy, both ventricles were dilated. Microscopically myocardial loss, fibrosis and disarray of hypertrophic myocardial fibers were observed. The areas showing myocardial disarray were distributed close to the scar-like fibrotic areas. Coronary arteries and intramyocardial arterioles showed minimal stenotic changes.
We examined 26 autopsy-proven cases of intracranial malignant lymphoma (IML) in immunocompetent patients to determine the extent of neoplastic involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) and to evaluate the effects of radiation on the tumor and brain tissue. All tumors were identified as diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of B-cell origin. In six patients who had not received radiotherapy, the clinical course of the disease was short and extensive infiltration of the tumor was seen. The remaining 20 patients were treated with radiotherapy and had a longer survival time. Leptomeningeal involvement was common, but extensive subarachnoid proliferation of the tumor was seen in only two cases. The posterior, but not anterior, lobe of the pituitary was involved in 5 of 22 cases, and choroid plexus involvement was seen in 4 of 21. Direct invasion of the tumor into the spinal cord, which tended to occur in patients with posterior fossa masses, was observed in 5 of 21 cases. Following irradiation, coagulation necrosis was frequently found in the invading zone as well as in the tumor mass, and degeneration of the white matter was also seen. We suggest that IML can extensively infiltrate into the CNS, including the posterior lobe of the pituitary and spinal cord, and that radiation injury to the brain appears to occur relatively easily in this disease. (author)
Onda, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Hitoshi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst
The aim of our study was to retrospectively assess morphological findings in thanatophoric dysplasia, particularly, in how many cases were cerebral manifestations with temporal lobe dysplasia identified. We also wanted to register and analyze the proportions between lung, brain, and body weight. Criteria for inclusion were an autopsy performed during the period ranging from 1985 to 2009 with a diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia. During a 25-year period 25 cases of thanatophoric dysplasia were registered. Temporal lobe dysplasia was recognized in 52% of the cases, and after 1998 temporal lobe dysplasia was described in all cases. In 19 cases the brain/body weight ratio was increased, and in all cases the lung/body weight ratio was below the corresponding ratio calculated according to standard measurements. In all but one case the ratio of brain to lung weight was increased. This study focuses on morphological findings, stressing the importance of temporal lobe dysplasia in confirming a diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia. Lung/body, brain/body, and brain/lung weight ratios confirm macrocephaly and lung hypoplasia, which are constant findings in cases involving thanatophoric dysplasia. Femur and brain morphology inclusive histology remains the ultimate tool for confirmation of this lethal condition, although it has to be seen in a context inclusive of radiological examination. PMID:23323754
Vogt, Christina; Blaas, Harm-Gerd K
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is one of the less common forms of primary cardiomyopathies. There is little data available on HCM in Indian literature. AIMS: To assess the incidence and analyse the clinicopathological features of HCM. SETTINGS: Analysis of data of 15 years from a tertiary care centre. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The clinical and pathological data in fourteen cases of HCM with respect to their gross and microscopic features and clinical presentation were reviewed. RESULTS: Incidence of HCM amongst the autopsied primary cardiomyopathies (N = 101 was 13.9% (n=14. Males were affected more. Common presenting symptoms were exertional dyspnoea, angina and palpitations. Concentric and asymmetric hypertrophy was equally seen. Obliterative small vessel disease was noted in 50% of the cases. Although significant myofibre disarray (>5% was seen in all fourteen cases, it could be demonstrated in only 40- 50% of an average of twenty sections studied. Type IA myofibre disarray was the commonest. Six of the fourteen patients died suddenly. Cardiac failure was the commonest cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Myofibre disarray is a highly sensitive and specific marker for HCM only when considered in a quantitative rather than a qualitative fashion. In this context, the rationale for performing endomyocardial biopsy is to rule out mimics of HCM.
National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ?71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ?71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use of forensic autopsy to confirm the cause of death in deaths classified as suicides raises doubts about the accuracy of the Danish suicide mortality statistics. Our finding is emphasised by those cases in which the cause of death was registered as intentional self-poisoning. The high number of suicides among the elderly in Denmark is striking and begs further investigation and research. Overall, our data from Finland and Denmark reveal striking differences between the two countries and warrant further comparative studies on the subject in other countries. PMID:25244292
Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti
We propose to use HST/COS to conduct autopsies of dead planetary systems around UV bright hydrogen-white dwarfs (WDs), which have dust disks found via their mid-IR emission in excess of that expected from the photosphere. As part of a WISE survey, and followed up with a combination of NASA Keck HIRES/Magellan MIKE optical spectroscopy, we have identified three new systems that are accreting dust. These WDs are bright in the mid-IR and UV, gold-standard targets for studies with HST/COS and later with JWST. The dusty material is debris resulting from the tidal disruption of exo-asteroids that accrete onto the WD surface. Many atomic elements from the accreted and dissociated dust particles are detectable with COS, enabling abundance determinations of exo-asteroidal material. Moreover, the photospheric abundances of this material can be directly compared with a determination of the dust mineralogy obtained with future JWST mid-IR spectroscopy-our proposed UV observations provide complementary constraints on mineralogical compositions of the accreting dust particles. UV spectroscopy is crucial for cataloging elemental abundances for these exo-asteroids. For the majority of WDs, optical spectroscopy reveals only a couple of lines of Ca or Mg, while UV spectroscopy captures lines from Al, Fe, Si, C, Ni, O, S, Cr, P, and Ti. Obtaining the elemental abundances of exo-asteroids is comparable to the spectroscopic characterization of transiting exoplanets or protoplanetary disks-all of these techniques determine how the chemical diversity of planetary systems translate into planetary architectures and the probability of habitable planets around solar-type stars.
The frequency of chronic non-rheumatic valvular heart disease in Iceland was investigated via autoposies performed from November 1965 through December 1974. During this period, about 12.400 Icelanders died at the age of 16 years and older and 28.8 per cent of these were included in the study. At autopsy, males outnumbered females by 2:1. The frequency of calcific aortic stenosis was found to be 3.63 per cent and the prevalence was calculated to be 3.17 per cent among males and 4.50 per cent among females. Calcific aortic stenosis in tricuspid valves was more frequent in females and calcific aortic stenosis in bicuspid valves was more frequent in males. Among the hearts with calcific aortic stenosis, 70.8 per cent were found to have normally tricuspid valves, 25.4 per cent bicuspid valves and 3.8 per cent tricuspid valves with an unicommissural fusion. In 0.59 per cent of the hearts the aortic valve was either bicuspid or had an uncommissural fusion without the features of calcific stenosis. However, a functional stenosis was suggested by the increased weight of most of these hearts. The frequency of bicuspid aortic valves was 1.2 per cent with a prevalence in males of 1.54 per cent and in females 0.50 per cent. A calcified mitral annulus was found in 1.98 per cent of the hearts and in most, it was either associated with calcific aortic stenosis in a tricuspid valve, or it was a single valvular disease. Rheumatic valvular disease was found in 1.08 per cent of the heart examined. PMID:1274589
The results of 100 consecutive autopsy studies performed since the introduction and use of cyclosporine (1984 to 1991) in patients who died less than 2.5 months after cardiac transplantation were analysed to try to prevent this type of lethal damage. The lesions were complex but the causes of death may be classified as follows: 44 infections (20 aspergillosis, with 13 septicaemias and 7 predominantly pulmonary complications, 15 severe lung infections, 9 other infections including 7 pyogenic mediastino-pericarditis), 12 acute myocardial rejects, 14 pulmonary arteriolitis reflecting the fact that pulmonary resistances affect the results of cardiac transplantation, 13 non-infectious pericarditis, 17 immediate postoperative deaths (incompetent graft, DIVC). In the discussion, the authors underline the importance of pericardial damage, the direct cause of death in 13 cases but also present in most cases of infection when sometimes clinically confused with the diagnosis of "acute reject". Acute pancreatitis (over 10% of cases) were often labelled "septicaemic shock". Pulmonary involvement is one of the commonest complications related to infection and changes due to passive pulmonary hypertension related to the causal preoperative disease, by silent pulmonary embolism during the 3 months of cardiac failure before surgery and DIVC. Infection was the cause of death in nearly half of the early fatalities, and aspergillosis was particularly common whereas systematic prevention with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has eliminated pneumocystosis for example. The management of immuno-depression varies from centre to centre and this is also a factor in the incidence of anatomical complications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8338396
Loire, R; Tabib, A
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Considering the variations in racial, dietary and lifestyle patterns in our population, it is essential to study the biology of coronary atherosclerosis in our patients. Vulnerable plaques have a large number of foam cells, extracellular lipid, thin fibrous caps and clusters of inflammatory cells and are more prone to rupture. These plaques are nourished by the microvessels arising from the vasa vasorum of the blood vessels and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. This autopsy study was designed to analyse the coronary arterial tree in cases of sudden cardiac death, classify coronary atherosclerotic plaques and to assess the factors contributing to vulnerability of the plaques including inflammation, calcification and microvascular density. Materials and Methods: Seven cases of sudden cardiac death were included in the study. The hearts were perfusion-fixed and the coronary arteries along with their main branches were dissected and studied. The location of the plaques, type of plaques, presence of inflammation and calcification were assessed. The cap thickness and microvessel density per 1000um 2 were assessed. The statistical significance was estimated. Results and Conclusions: Extensive high-grade coronary atherosclerotic disease was seen in all sudden cardiac death cases. Majority of the plaques were vulnerable. High-grade inflammation was seen in most of the vulnerable and ruptured plaques. All the ruptured plaques were uncalcified indicating that calcification probably stabilizes the plaques and protects against rupture. Increased microvessel density was noted in ruptured plaques compared to vulnerable plaques. However, it was not statistically significant.
Full Text Available Se estudiaron bacteriológicamente 83 muestras provenientes de autopsias (34 de tejido pulmonar, 25 de tejido ganglionar y 24 leptomeninges) correspondientes a 34 pacientes fallecidos y con sospecha clínica de tuberculosis y/o VIH. En el 10,8% (9/83) hubo crecimiento de micobacterias: cuatro de M. tu [...] berculosis y cinco micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT): un (1) M. gordonae, un (1) M. vaccae y tres que no pudieron ser identificadas bioquímicamente. Seis de estos aislados fueron estudiados por PCR, mediante amplificación de la secuencia IS6110. Se reconfirmaron como micobacterias del complejo tuberculoso (MCT) tres aislados (50%). En los tres aislados restantes, correspondientes a MNT, no se obtuvo amplificación de la secuencia IS6110. Sin embargo, utilizando la amplificación seguida de un análisis de polimorfismo de restricción (PRA) de un segmento del gen hsp65, éstos pudieron ser identificados como M. porcinum, M. vaccae y M. gordonae tipo II. Abstract in english Eighty three samples coming from autopsies (34 of lung tissue, 25 of ganglion tissue and 24 of leptomeninges) corresponding to 34 deceased patients with clinic suspicious of tuberculosis and/or HIV, were bacteriologically studied. In 10,8% (9/83) were mycobacterial growth: four M. tuberculosis and f [...] ive non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM): one (1) M. gordonae, one (1) M. vaccae and three that could not be identified biochemically. Six of these isolated were studied by PCR amplification of the IS6110 sequence. Three isolates (50%) were reconfirmed as mycobacteria belonging to the tuberculous complex (MTC). In the three remaining isolates, corresponding to NTM, IS6110 amplification was not obtained. However using amplification followed by polymorphism restriction analysis (PRA) of hsp65 gen segment, they were identified as M. porcinum, M. vaccae and M. gordonae type II.
MF, Correa de Adjounian; C, Hernández; O, Alveárez; S, González Rico; R, Pedroza; G, Céspedes; B, Rodríguez; M, Gómez.
Introduction: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease in both children and adults, characterized by recurrent benign squamous papillomas of the respiratory mucosa. Malignant transformation is rare. The present report concerns the natural history of RRP in two children. Materials and Methods: Clinical records, autopsy material and tissue from previous surgical excisions were reviewed in both cases. Select surgical and autopsy specimens were examined using p16 immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization for low and high risk HPV. Results: Both children had pulmonary involvement with incidental invasive keratinizing squamous carcinoma of the lung at autopsy. Low-risk HPV was present in the papillomas and carcinoma at autopsy in both cases. Conclusions: The autopsy examinations in these two cases emphasize the serious, if uncommon, pulmonary complications of this disease. In conjunction with previously reported autopsies, destructive lung disease may be as frequent a cause of death as disseminated malignancy. PMID:25353697
Can, Nhu Thuy; Tretiakova, Maria S; Taxy, Jerome B
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los datos sobre causas de defunción obtenidos a partir de autopsias verbales (AV) son usados con creciente frecuencia con fines de planificación de la salud, establecimiento de prioridades, seguimiento y evaluación en los países con sistemas de registro civil incompletos o inexistentes. En algunas r [...] egiones del mundo es el único método disponible para poder estimar la distribución de las causas de mortalidad. Hoy día el método de las AV se utiliza sistemáticamente en más de 35 lugares, sobre todo en África y Asia. En este artículo presentamos un panorama general del sistema de las AV y los resultados de un análisis de los instrumentos de AV y los procedimientos operativos utilizados en los sitios de vigilancia demográfica y los sistemas de registro de estadísticas vitales por muestreo. Solicitamos información a 36 sitios sobre el terreno acerca de los procedimientos operativos y examinamos 18 cuestionarios de autopsia verbal y 10 listas de causas de defunción usadas en 13 países. El formato y el contenido de los cuestionarios de AV, los procedimientos operativos sobre el terreno, las listas de las causas de defunción y los procedimientos empleados para calcular las causas de mortalidad a partir de las AV diferían sustancialmente de un sitio a otro. Analizamos las consecuencias de utilizar distintos métodos y llegamos a la conclusión de que es necesario normalizar los instrumentos y los procedimientos de AV y hacerlos más fiables si se desea hacer comparaciones más precisas de los datos de AV en los planos nacional e internacional. Ponemos de relieve, además, las medidas adicionales que habría que adoptar para desarrollar un procedimiento de AV normalizado. Abstract in english Cause-of-death data derived from verbal autopsy (VA) are increasingly used for health planning, priority setting, monitoring and evaluation in countries with incomplete or no vital registration systems. In some regions of the world it is the only method available to obtain estimates on the distribut [...] ion of causes of death. Currently, the VA method is routinely used at over 35 sites, mainly in Africa and Asia. In this paper, we present an overview of the VA process and the results of a review of VA tools and operating procedures used at demographic surveillance sites and sample vital registration systems. We asked for information from 36 field sites about field-operating procedures and reviewed 18 verbal autopsy questionnaires and 10 cause-of-death lists used in 13 countries. The format and content of VA questionnaires, field-operating procedures, cause-of-death lists and the procedures to derive causes of death from VA process varied substantially among sites. We discuss the consequences of using varied methods and conclude that the VA tools and procedures must be standardized and reliable in order to make accurate national and international comparisons of VA data. We also highlight further steps needed in the development of a standard VA process.
Nadia, Soleman; Daniel, Chandramohan; Kenji, Shibuya.
The aim of this study was to assess the role of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) as an alternative for autopsy in determining the cause of death and the identification of specific injuries in trauma victims. A systematic review was performed by searching the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. Articles were eligible if they reported both PMCT as well as autopsy findings and included more than one trauma victim. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and quality of the articles. The outcomes were described in terms of the percentage agreement on causes of death and amount of injuries detected. The data extraction and analysis were performed together. Fifteen studies were included describing 244 victims. The median sample size was 13 (range 5-52). The percentage agreement on the cause of death between PMCT and autopsy varied between 46 and 100%. The overall amount of injuries detected on CT ranged from 53 to 100% compared with autopsy. Several studies suggested that PMCT was capable of identifying injuries not detected during normal autopsy. This systematic review provides inconsistent evidence as to whether PMCT is a reliable alternative for autopsy in trauma victims. PMCT has promising features in postmortem examination suggesting PMCT is a good alternative for a refused autopsy or a good adjunct to autopsy because it detects extra injuries overseen during autopsies. To examine the value of PMCT in trauma victims there is a need for well-designed and largthere is a need for well-designed and larger prospective studies. (orig.)
Discrepancy between clinical and autopsy diagnosis in children supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has not been previously described. To assess the utility of autopsy examination in children supported on ECMO and assess discrepancies between premortem and postmortem diagnosis in these patients. Retrospective chart review. General pediatric and cardiac intensive care units (ICUs) in a tertiary children's hospital. The hospital's ECMO database was queried for patients supported on ECMO from 2000 through 2010 who died and underwent autopsy examination. Fifty-four autopsies were performed in 139 nonsurvivors (28%) who required ECMO support in the pediatric and cardiac ICU. Major discrepancies between premortem and postmortem diagnoses were found in 29 patients (53.7%). The commonest missed diagnosis was myocardial infarction that occurred in 16 patients, followed by adrenal hemorrhage in three patients. Five patients with a cardiac diagnosis had both major (type 1 discrepancy) and minor (type 2 discrepancy) discrepancies. Surgical complications were noted in four postmortem study with three of them being class 1 discrepancy. We report significant discrepancy between autopsy and clinical findings among ECMO-supported pediatric patients. Our findings underscore the need for enhanced premorbid surveillance in patients supported on ECMO. PMID:24399061
Blanco, Carlos; Steigman, Carmen; Probst, Nathan; Stroud, Michael; Bhutta, Adnan T; Dyamenahalli, Umesh; Imamura, Michiaki; Prodhan, Parthak
To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non classifiable. (author)
Historically, coronary angiography of the isolated heart has played an important role in the detection of stenotic or occlusive lesions that are difficult to identify by autopsy alone. Meanwhile, although the application of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to forensic fields has accelerated recently, isolated single organ angiography with MDCT is rarely performed. In this article, we present an evaluation of postmortem selective coronary CT angiography of the isolated heart with MDCT and discuss its utility for autopsy. First, in a preliminary experiment using pig coronary artery, we examined the behavior of water soluble contrast material on postmortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) and found that better angiographic images were acquired when the viscosity of the contrast material was increased and CT was performed under conditions of sustained perfusion. Based on these results, we devised a selective coronary angiography procedure using a pressurized bag for drip infusion that can be performed easily, quickly, and at low cost. The angiographic images obtained provided useful supportive evidence of autopsy findings suggestive of ischemic heart disease. With active discussions underway in forensic fields on the proper use of postmortem computed tomography, PMCTA has also naturally attracted attention as it compensates for some of the shortcomings of CT alone. Although PMCTA typically involves whole-body angiography, if we view PMCTA as one of the many useful and supplementary tools available for autopsy, then isolated heart angiography continues to have utility in autopsy today. PMID:23846906
Inokuchi, Go; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Iwase, Hirotaro
The most seriously affected casualties of the radiological accident caused by the opening of a 137Cs source capsule in Goiania were treated at the Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (HNMD) in Rio de Janeiro in the period from October to December 1987. Four of the injured died in October. The autopsies were performed at this institution. Due to the external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to enable the medical team to perform their duties. The radiation protection staff, under the co-ordination of technicians of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), were responsible for the preparation of the autopsy room and for advising the professionals on duty during these events. The radiation protection staff took specific measures to prevent the spread of contamination throughout the hospital, the contamination of persons attending the autopsies and to minimize any radiation dose to the medical and professional team. The measures aimed at personal control and the preparation of the autopsy room are described as well as the radiation protection steps applied in connection with the performance of the autopsies, the emplacement of the bodies into the coffins and their transport back to Goiania. (author)
Practical experience shows that the autopsy assistant society is fairly divided. There are some people who would have needed a thorough basic training, and there are those who - due to their diligence and the close cooperation with physician colleagues - would deserve an opportunity for further progress due to their extensive knowlegde. As regards the autopsy assistant profession the training, and the training system as well has changed significantly, and it requires further changes. Examining the issue in a wide spectrum, the aim of the authors is, as much as possible, to promote the formation of an "Autopsy assistant career," in which they want to create a predictable way for the members of the profession from the phase of becoming a student (competency, training, exams, vocational training, single note) to obtaining the master's degree. The authors would like to provide a summary about their experience and plans regarding this issue. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(10), 399-403. PMID:25726768
Kormos, Timea; Csatai, Tamás; Jäckel, Márta
This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)
A study was conducted on 102 patients submitted to renal transplant who died and were autopsied at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, from 1968 to 1991. The cause of death, based on a review of medical records and autopsy reports, was assigned to one of the following categories: infectious (69.6%); cardiovascular (12.7%); gastrointestinal (7.8%); graft rejection (6.9%); tumoral (2.0%); and undetermined (1.0%). Among the 71 cases of death caused by infecti...
Reis, M. A.; Costa, R. S.; Ferraz, A. S.
Concentrations of sup(239,240)Pu in human autopsy tissue samples from the general population in Japan are reported for 1970. The mean plutonium concentration was determined to be 0.23 +- 0.63, 0.57 +- 0.37, and 1.10 +- 0.63 pCi/kg for the lung, liver and vertebrae samples, respectively; no appreciable concentration of plutonium was found in the kidney samples. These results are being compared with the data obtained from autopsy cases from the general population in the United States for the same year. (author)
Full Text Available Pulmonary lesions compatible with adenovirus infection were detected by gross and microscopic examination of autopsy tissues children aged from 5 to 34 months. Hepatic lesions indicative of systemic infection were also found in four of the chisldren. The viral etiology was confirmed in three cases by in-situ hibridization, electro-microscopy and immunofluorescence performed in parafin-embedded tissues, and in one case by cell culture isolation of adenovirus type 2 from nasopharyngeal exudate. Routine testing by methods additional to conventional light microscopy would probably have revealed a larger number of adenovirus infections among the 1.103 autopsy records analyzed in this study.
A. G. P. Garcia
Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of embolism of the sclerosant dye with subsequent formation of foreign-body giant cell reaction within the veins of pulmonary and portal circulation in an autopsy case of hepatocellular carcinoma developing over an underlying primary biliary cirrhosis.
Kochhar Rakesh K
The predictors of autopsy and the accuracy of European short list (E) codes of respiratory diseases lack recent knowledge. A 10% random sample (n=6811) of inhabitants of Bergen, Norway, aged 20-70 years, was invited to participate in a survey in 1965-1971 (participation rate 83%). By December 31, 2005, 4387 (64%) participants had died and 1163 (27% of the deceased) had been given an autopsy. Causes of death were tuberculosis (E02, 0.2%), lung malignancy (E15, 3.5%), influenza (E38, 0.2%), pneumonia (E39, 6.5%) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (E40, 3.2%). Male sex, early deaths in the surveillance period and E15 were positive predictors of an autopsy examination, whereas old age and E39 were strong negative predictors. Among those referred for a post mortem examination, the cause of death was verified as tuberculosis in 0.3%, lung cancer in 8.1%, acute pneumonia in 2.0% and chronic obstructive lung diseases in 4.9%. Cohen's kappa coefficients (E codes versus autopsy) were 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) for E15, 0.37 (95% CI 0.20-0.54) for E39 and 0.65 (95% CI 0.54-0.76) for E40. These findings matter when deaths from respiratory diseases are used as end-points in epidemiological association studies and clinical trials. PMID:25359344
Gulsvik, Anne K; Henriksen, Andreas H; Svendsen, Einar; Humerfelt, Sjur; Gulsvik, Amund
Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…
Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh
Background: The study was designed to assess the atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries in cases subjected to autopsy to grade by applying Modified American Heart Association (AHA) classification, evaluate the atheromatous & vulnerable plaques to find out the to age and sex related prevalence of atherosclerosis in the semi-urban & urban population of Jamnagar, a district in Western India.
Bhanvadia, Viral M.; Desai, Nandini J.; Agarwal, Neeru M.
A 78-year-old man with pancreatic carcinoma with carcinoid tumor of the appendix is reported. Upon autopsy, the tumor consisted of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with scirrhous-like spreading. In the appendix a carcinoid tumor, size measuring 2 mm X 1 mm, was seen; the carcinoid cells were argentaffin. PMID:6887529
Kawaura, Y; Ohike, E; Hirano, M; Iwa, T; Haratake, J
We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined
Social, economic, violence, political, and gun access predictors of suicide and gun suicide were examined via sociological autopsy. The model predicting suicide rates overall had the best results, X[superscript 2](9, N = 50) = 5.279 (CMIN, the goodness of fit statistic that represents the minimum discrepancy between the unrestricted sample…
Slater, Greta Yoder
We report the first case in which a fluid-blood interface was identified at autopsy in a patient with acute intracerebral hematoma on anticoagulant therapy. Anticoagulation may be one of the major factors contributing to the production of an intracerebral blood sedimentation level. (orig.)
We report the first case in which a fluid-blood interface was identified at autopsy in a patient with acute intracerebral hematoma on anticoagulant therapy. Anticoagulation may be one of the major factors contributing to the production of an intracerebral blood sedimentation level. (orig.) With 3 figs., 12 refs.
Ichikawa, K.; Yanagihara, C. [Department of Neurology, Amagasaki, Hygo (Japan)
The psychological autopsy (PA) is a systematic method of assessing the psychological and contextual circumstances preceding suicide. The method requires interviews with one or more proxy respondents (i.e., informants) of suicide decedents. Procedural challenges that need to be addressed to conduct PA interviews are described in this article and…
Conner, Kenneth R.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brent, David A.; Conwell, Yeates; Phillips, Michael R.; Schneider, Barbara
Full Text Available Context: Autopsy rates have declined all over the world recently. Clinical autopsy is considered to be an essential element for medical auditing and teaching and a useful tool for the evaluation of accuracy of the clinical diagnoses. Objetive: We describe the concordance between clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings in a tertiary care center. Materials and methods: We compared the diagnosis recorded on medical charts with reports of 100 autopsies performed between 1970 and 1975, and in 100 autopsies performed between 1990 and 1995 in the department of pathology of a terciary care hospital. The autopsy diagnoses were used as the ?gold standard?. Results: The higher sensivity for diagnosis was observed for neoplasic disease in both period and for hemodinamics disorders, thrombosis and shock in 1970. The clinical diagnosis of the basic cause of death was confirmed at autopsy in 73% and 64% of cases in period 1970 and 1990 respectively. The percent confirmation fell when the immediate terminal cause of death was considered, and in 36.5% of cases, the terminal cause was only diagnosed at autopsy. Of 200 adults patients, 62 (31% had an infectious disease at autopsy. In 25 (40.3% of 62 patients, the infectious disease diagnoses were unknown clinically. There are substantial discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses of infectious disease. The bronchopneumonia is the infectious disease most often missed clinically (24.5% of the cases, similar in both periods. The discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnosis were even larger for secondary diagnoses: 63% of them were not suspected upon clinical diagnosis. The most frequently omitted diagnosis was bronchopneumonia. Iatrogenic injuries were very frequent, and approximately 28% of them were not described in clinical reports. Conclusions: Our results suggest that highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are necessary but cannot substitute the clinical practice for the elaboration of correct diagnoses. The possibility that a given autopsy will reveal an important unsuspected diagnosis not has decreased over time, remains sufficiently high encouraging ongoing use of the autopsy.
Objective: To investigate the imaging findings with pathologic correlation in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Imaging findings, autopsy and pathological data were retrospectively analyzed in eight patients with AIDS. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their hospitalization. CT scanning was performed from the skull to the pelvis immediately following their death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cadavers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each sections and organs for pathological examinations. Results: The autopsy data showed parasitic infections (5 cases), bacterial infections (3 cases), fungal infections (2 cases), virus infections (2 cases), lymphoma (1 case) and cerebrovascular diseases (1 case)in eight patients with AIDS. The CT scanning demonstrated symmetrical ground glass liked shadows with pulmonary hilus as the center in 5 cases of pulmonary PCP infection; pulmonary patchy shadows, scattering distribution of nodular shadows, extensive military nodular shadows with even distribution and tuberculous pleurisy; cloudy shadows for 2 cases of fungi infection with multiple foci of chronic inflammation; pulmonary net-like parenchymal changes for 2 cases of pulmonary CMV infection; thickened intestinal wall and narrowed intestinal lumen for 1 case of intestinal tumor; low density shadows of brain tissue for 1 case of CMV encephalitis and tissue for 1 case of CMV encephalitis and MRI findings of high T1 and high T2 signals as well as MRA findings of broken vascular channels in liquefied areas of brain tissues; patchy low density areas inside a cyst of brain for one case of brain toxoplasmosis infection; multiple small patchy low density areas in cerebral basal ganglia for one case of brain cryptococcus infection. Conclusions: In AIDS patients, infection and tumor may occur in various organs resulting in complex symptoms, which makes it more complicated and difficult to make accurate diagnosis. A correlative study of imaging findings and pathological manifestation of AIDS patients at autopsy could be helpful for clinical diagnosis. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of a physician shortage in many low-income countries, the use of nonphysicians to classify perinatal mortality (stillbirth and early neonatal death using verbal autopsy could be useful. Objective To determine the extent to which underlying perinatal causes of deaths assigned by nonphysicians in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo using a verbal autopsy method are concordant with underlying perinatal cause of death assigned by physician panels. Methods Using a train-the-trainer model, 13 physicians and 40 nonphysicians were trained to determine cause of death using a standardized verbal autopsy training program. Subsequently, panels of two physicians and individual nonphysicians from this trained cohort independently reviewed verbal autopsy data from a sample of 118 early neonatal deaths and 134 stillbirths. With the cause of death assigned by the physician panel as the reference standard, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and cause-specific mortality fractions were calculated to assess nonphysicians' coding responses. Robustness criteria to assess how well nonphysicians performed were used. Results Causes of early neonatal death and stillbirth assigned by nonphysicians were concordant with physician-assigned causes 47% and 57% of the time, respectively. Tetanus filled robustness criteria for early neonatal death, and cord prolapse filled robustness criteria for stillbirth. Conclusions There are significant differences in underlying cause of death as determined by physicians and nonphysicians even when they receive similar training in cause of death determination. Currently, it does not appear that nonphysicians can be used reliably to assign underlying cause of perinatal death using verbal autopsy.
Forensic medicine can provide access to autopsies for students in undergraduate medical education. Previous qualitative studies reported that attending autopsies promotes learning and is helpful in organising information in the context of self-directed learning, covering cognitive, emotional and societal issues. In the present study, learning outcome regarding specific pathophysiological learning objectives of students who attended an autopsy elective (intervention group, n?=?32) was estimated in comparison to peer students who signed up for the course but were not selected (control group A, n?=?47) and students who had not signed up (control group B, n?=?186). Learning outcome (expressed as a percent knowledge gain) was measured by means of comparative self-assessments (CSA). Furthermore, group interviews were conducted to evaluate the attending students' perceptions and experiences of the course. In the intervention group, the percent knowledge gain for learning objectives reflecting pathophysiological mechanisms was about twice as high than that in the control groups, while all three groups showed comparable knowledge gain for learning objectives covered by mandatory courses that were held during the study period. Results of mandatory post-course assessments showed no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups. Therefore, the knowledge gain regarding learning objectives not covered by mandatory courses that was observed in the intervention group reflected the additional benefit of attending the autopsy course. Group interviews with the participants revealed gain of integrated knowledge and understanding of pathophysiological relations as important issues, while negative effects were reported infrequently. Our findings suggest that attendance of a series of autopsies fosters learning and understanding of important issues in medical education and should therefore be part of undergraduate medical curricula wherever possible. PMID:24487723
Anders, Sven; Mueller, Martina; Sperhake, Jan-Peter; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna; Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias
Many times at autopsy, on the basis of colour change of the stomach and intestinal mucosa, the forensic pathologist is able to suspect a particular nature of poisoning which leads to conclusive investigation of the case. An intense bluish discolouration of the gastric mucosa owing to capsule shell instead of the content is rarely encountered at autopsy. We report a case of fatal dextropropoxyphene poisoning, where gastric and small intestinal mucosa showed bluish discolouration owing to the gelatine capsule of the drug. Other causes of bluish discolouration of gastrointestinal tract mucosa at autopsy are also discussed. PMID:23606385
Swain, Rajanikanta; Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Behera, C; Murty, O P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of providing reasonable cause specific mortality estimates in Ethiopia. However, the limited generalizability of this study due to the fact that matched verbal autopsy deaths were all in-hospital deaths in an urban center, thus results may not be generalizable to rural home deaths. Such application and refinement of existing verbal autopsy methods holds out the possibility of obtaining replicable, sustainable and internationally comparable mortality statistics of known quality. Similar validation studies need to be undertaken considering the limitation of medical records as “gold standard” since records may not be confirmed using laboratory investigations or medical technologies. The validation studies need to address child and maternal causes of death and possibly all underlying causes of death.
Full Text Available Melanoma metastasizing to the lungs is common, but primary pulmonary or pleural melanoma is extremely rare. We present an autopsy case of malignant melanoma of the pleura without primary skin lesion in a 49-year-old man. A mass found in the right chest was diagnosed as spindle cell sarcoma by antemortem fine-needle aspiration cytology. At autopsy, a yellow-white tumor located primarily in the right visceral pleura (diagnosed as an amelanotic melanoma was found to have invaded into the right lung, right parietal pleura, and right diaphragm, and to have metastasized into the left lung and visceral pleura, thyroid, and left adrenal gland. No primary site was found. The tumor cells were positive for S100 and focally positive for HMB-45, but negative for other markers. Immuno-histochemical examination for S100 and HMB-45 would thus appear to be useful for the diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma.
Autopsy detected no tumor tissues in a patient who died 6.5 years after the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. A 54-year-old male developed left hemiparesis one month prior to admission. Computed tomography demonstrated a cystic lesion in the right frontal region with irregular ring-like enhancement. The tumor was extensively removed together with the surrounding tissues followed by irradiation (whole brain 32.4 Gy, local 28.8 Gy), and intravenous administration of interferon-?. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiform. He died of accidental head trauma 6.5 years after surgery. Autopsy of the brain detected no evidence of glioblastoma multiform. The only findings were cerebral edema and hematoma caused by head trauma, as well as histological changes due to radiation damage. This case apparently confirms the histological disappearance of tumor tissue in a long-term survivor with glioblastoma multiform. (author)
We report an autopsy case of a 60-year-old man with Weil's disease who died of fulminant hepatic failure. Ante-mortem blood culture yielded the growth of Leptospira interrogans (serovar icterohaemorrhagiae). At autopsy, the liver weighed 1210 g and showed a typical appearance of "acute yellow liver atrophy". Zone 3 (centrilobular region) showed submassive necrosis of hepatocytes accompanied by marked hemorrhage. Hepatocytes in zones 1 and 2 were well preserved, and the leptospira antigen was immunohistochemically demonstrated in several hepatocytes. Dissociation of liver cell plates was not observed. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that CD31-positive, sinusoidal endothelial cells had almost completely disappeared in zone 3. This finding suggested that severe and selective damage to endothelial cells in zone 3 was the main cause of the submassive hepatocellular necrosis, which led to fulminant hepatic failure in the present case. PMID:24997567
Shintaku, Masayuki; Itoh, Hirotaka; Tsutsumi, Yutaka
In this pilot study, the authors tested whether photogrammetry can replace or supplement physical measurements made during autopsies and, based on such measurements, whether virtual computer models may be applicable in forensic reconstructions. Photogrammetric and physical measurements of markers denoting wounds on five volunteers were compared. Virtual models of the volunteers were made, and the precision of the markers' locations on the models was tested. Twelve of 13 mean differences between photogrammetric and physical measurements were below 1 cm, which indicates that the photogrammetric method has a high accuracy. The precision of the markers' location on the models was somewhat less, although the method is still promising and potentially superior to the current procedures used for reconstructions. The possibility to measure any distance on a body, even after the autopsy is concluded and the corpse is no longer available, is one of the biggest benefits of photogrammetry.
Slot, Liselott; Larsen, Peter K
A 19-year-old woman was found dead with her face and head wrapped in plastic adhesive tape in a cupboard beside an opened helium cylinder. Despite the alleged presence of a suicide message on a social networking website, the unusual circumstances raised the possibility at the time of autopsy of either accidental death from sexual asphyxia or homicide. A carefully monitored reenactment demonstrated, however, that the type of commercial adhesive tape that had been used did not cause complete airway obstruction and that it was possible to wrap a considerable length of tape around the head and neck with the breath held. All of the features at autopsy were, therefore, compatible with self-infliction. Asphyxial death was attributed to the combined effects of smothering from tape and anoxia from helium, an extremely rare combination in young females. PMID:24502562
Herbst, Jonathon; Stanley, Wayne; Byard, Roger W
Full Text Available Myocardial abscess is a severe and life-threatening infectious complication thatis commonly but not exclusively associated with infective endocarditis. It mayalso be developed in necrotic myocardial tissue, post trauma, in septic burnpatients, in transplanted heart, in ventricular aneurysm and post angioplasty.Patients on hemodialysis are prone to bacteremia, and infectious complicationsoccur in 48-73% of cases. Myocardial abscess is a rare complication of aninfected arteriovenous fistula. We present an autopsy report of a hemodialysispatient who had an arteriovenous fistula with a polytetrafluoroethylene graftwhere a local infection developed. The patient presented with fever and toxemia.On post-admission day 2, he unexpectedly suffered sudden cardiopulmonaryarrest and died. The autopsy revealed a myocardial abscess, near a branch ofthe left coronary artery, with septic embolism.
Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira
We report an extremely rare case of pulmonary lipiodol embolism with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 77-year-old man who was diagnosed with a huge HCC was admitted for TACE. Immediately after the procedure, this patient experienced severe dyspnea. We suspected that his symptoms were associated with a pulmonary lipiodol embolism after TACE, and we began intensive treatment. However, his condition did not improve, and he died on the following day. A subsequent autopsy revealed that the cause of death was ARDS due to pulmonary lipiodol embolism. No cases have been previously reported for which an autopsy was performed to explain the most probable mechanism of pulmonary lipiodol embolism; thus, ours is the first report for such a rare case. PMID:25632211
Hatamaru, Keiichi; Azuma, Shunjiro; Akamatsu, Takuji; Seta, Takeshi; Urai, Shunji; Uenoyama, Yoshito; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Ono, Kazuo
Full Text Available A primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF, defined as a communication between the native aorta and the gastrointestinal tract, is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. The preoperative diagnosis of PAEF is extremely difficult. Consequently, PAEF may cause sudden and unexpected death. We present an autopsy case of a 68-year-old man who died of massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to a PAEF. Autopsy revealed a pinhole rupture located on the third part of the duodenal mucosa and fistulized into the adjacent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Our case indicates that the aortoenteric fistula can result in fatal gastrointestinal bleeding. Consequently, a PAEF should be included in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding.
Yoko Ihama, Tetsuji Miyazaki, Chiaki Fuke, Yasushi Ihama, Ryoji Matayoshi, Hiroshi Kohatsu, Fukunori Kinjo
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pulmonary lesions compatible with adenovirus infection were detected by gross and microscopic examination of autopsy tissues children aged from 5 to 34 months. Hepatic lesions indicative of systemic infection were also found in four of the chisldren. The viral etiology was confirmed in three cases b [...] y in-situ hibridization, electro-microscopy and immunofluorescence performed in parafin-embedded tissues, and in one case by cell culture isolation of adenovirus type 2 from nasopharyngeal exudate. Routine testing by methods additional to conventional light microscopy would probably have revealed a larger number of adenovirus infections among the 1.103 autopsy records analyzed in this study.
A. G. P., Garcia; M. E. F., Fonseca; M. de, Bonis; H. I. B., Ramos; Z. P. A., Ferro; J. P., Nascimento.
Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to m...
Khan, Nizamuddin; Pradhan, Manas Ranjan
Primary angiitis of CNS(PACNS) or granulomatous angiitis of CNS is a rare inflammatory disease of small blood vessels mostly confined to the CNS. The clinical and pathological features of 3 autopsied cases are described. Clinically all the three PACNS patients were young males, age ranging from 19 to 31 years. All presented with varied neurological manifestations. There was no evidence of systemic disease in any of the cases. The ESR was normal and CSF analysis showed chronic meningitic patte...
Panda K; Santosh V; Yasha T; Das De S; Shankar S
The current methods used by the tissue analysis program at LASL for the determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue are described. Problems affecting radiochemical yield are discussed. Included are problems associated with sample preparation, separation of plutonium from large amounts of bone ash, and reagent contamination. The average 242Pu tracer yield for 1800 Pu determinations is 78 +- 12%. The average 242Am tracer yield is 85 +- 7% for 40 determinations
As China opens its door to the world, suicide research is making rapid progress using methods and instruments developed in the West. This is a feasibility study of the psychological autopsy methodology applied in China, with its emphasis on the social and cultural environments. With samples of 66 completed suicides and 66 community normal living controls, the authors found that it is feasible to interview at least two informants for each suicide case and each control, between 2 and 6 months a...
Zhang, Jie; Wieczorek, William F.; Jiang, Chao; Zhou, Li; Jia, Shuhua; Sun, Yueji; Jin, Shenghua; Conwell, Yeates
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia entre diagnósticos clínicos y patológicos con base en los resultados de necropsias. Material y métodos. Se revisaron 67 protocolos de necropsia y expedientes clínicos de niños y adultos del servicio de patología del Centro de Especialidades Médicas del Estado de Veracruz Doctor Rafael Lucio, durante 1995 y 1996. Se obtuvieron las frecuencias simples de las variables de estudio, y la concordancia se calculó con el estadístico kappa simple. Resultados. En general la cifra de necropsias fue de 10.5%. Correspondió a la población infantil la mayor frecuencia (17.5%. El 59% de diagnósticos clínicos en niños y el 57% en adultos presentaron algún tipo de error La concordancia del diagnóstico principal ante y postmortem fue de 26% (infantes y 41% (adultos. Conclusiones. La alta cifra de errores diagnósticos y la consecuente baja concordancia clínicopatológica apoyan el hecho de que, a pesar del avance tecnológico en los procedimientos diagnósticos, es necesario realizar necropsias con el fin de documentar de manera más definitiva el control de calidad del ejercicio de la medicina.Objective. To determine the degree of concordance between clinical and autopsy diagnosis. Material and methods. The records of 67 autopsies and clinical files of children and adults, comprising the years 1995 to 1996, from a third level hospital in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, were revised. The concordance score was calculated with the statistical kappa. Results. In general, the rate of autopsy was 10.5%, with higher frequency for children (17.5%. In children, 59% of clinical diagnoses revealed mistakes and in adults, 57%. The degree of agreement in the underlying cause ante and postmortem was 6% in children and 41% in adults. Conclusions The high rate of diagnostic error and low concordance score between clinical and autopsy diagnosis strongly suggests that, in spite of increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques, the necessity of postmortem studies to control the level of medical practice is evident.
A sensitive method for the determination of plutonium in autopsy samples is described. After a suitable chemical pretreatment of the samples the plutonium is separated by extraction chromatography with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on microporus polyethylene. After electrodeposition of plutonium the activity is counted by alpha spectroscopy. The global yield was 75-80%. The reagent blank activity was such to allow the determination of some femtocuries of plutonium
OBJECTIVES In our study, tricuspid valves in cases of sudden death secondary to congenital differences of the tricuspid valve with significant papillary muscle anatomy were investigated. No studies of papillary muscle anatomy of the tricuspid valve have been found in medicolegal autopsies in literature. The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship of papillary muscle in tricuspid valve in cases of sudden deaths, especially those resulting from cardiac disease, with the muscl...
Aktas, Ekin O.; Figen Govsa; Aytac Kocak; Bahar Boydak; Yavuz, Ismail C.
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate in young people in the United Kingdom has increased over the last decade. As there is a paucity of information about the characteristics of young suicides we have undertaken a detailed investigation of suicides in people aged 15-24 years by means of the psychological autopsy approach. METHODS: The sample consisted of 27 subjects (25 males, two females) whose deaths received a verdict of suicide (N=24) or undetermined cause (N=3). Information was collected from inf...
Houston, K.; Hawton, K.; Shepperd, R.
The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the effects of common risk factors for suicide by meta-analyses using data extracted from studies based on the psychological autopsy method. We focused on five common risk factors of suicide: substance-related disorders, mood disorders, adverse marital status, adverse employment status, and self-harm behaviors. A total of 24 articles were identified from MEDLINE in which the crude odds ratio (OR) could be calculated for the above five risk fact...
Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Miyashita, Kazuhisa
Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer’s disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged ?85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had po...
Hooshmand, Babak; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Tanskanen, Maarit; Myllykangas, Liisa; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Ma?kela?, Mira; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, Anders; Scheltens, Philip; Straaten, Elizabeth C. W.; Sulkava, Raimo; Solomon, Alina
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug abuse remains a significant social problem in many countries. The aim of the study was to estimate association between pulmonary histopathological changes and results of toxicological analyses in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users. Methods. This investigation was performed in the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Belgrade, and in the Clinical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Kragujevac, from 2000 to 2004, and included 63 medicolegal autopsies of heroin or other drug consumers who suddenly died. Autopsies, postmortem toxicological examination of drugs and serological analyses of anti- HIV/HBV/HCV antibodies were performed. Results. The deceased persons were mostly male, 46/63 (73.01%, ranged in age from 19 to 49 years (mean 31 years and all were whites. Postmortem toxicological examination was performed on all of the deceased persons and drugs in the fatal range were identified in only eight of them (12.7%, in the toxic range in ten (15.87%, and in minimal concentrations in 35 (55.56% of the deceased persons. Drugs identified in the fatal, toxic or minimal range included heroin-morphine (38/53, cocaine (4/53, tramadol (3/53, and lorazepam (1/53. In the 7 remaining subjects, ethanol in combination with heroin was found in 4 cases, and diazepam in combination with heroin in 3 cases. Dominant pathomorphological changes were findings in the lung tissue. Most common histological changes observed in drug users were pulmonary edema - 55/63 (87.3%, acute alveolar hemorrhages - 49/63 (77.78%, hemosiderin-laden macrophages (siderophages - 52/63 (82,54%, and emphysematous changes - 51/63 (80,95%. Conclusion. Pulmonary edema is the frequent non-specific autopsy finding which is associated with virtually all routes of drug administration. The histopatological study is necessary to determinate a cause of death when a deceased person has the history of dependence or abouse of psychoactive drugs with negative toxicological results.
Todorovi? Miloš S.
A large retrospective autopsy study of patients was analyzed to evaluate the major etiologic and pathologic factors contributing to fatal acute pancreatitis (AP). From an autopsy population of 50,227 patients, 405 cases were identified where AP was defined as the official primary cause of death. AP was classified according to morphological and histological, but not biochemical, criteria. Patients with AP died significantly earlier than a control autopsy population of 38,259 patients. Sixty percent of the AP patients died within 7 days of admission. Pulmonary edema and congestion were significantly more prevalent in this group, as was the presence of hemorrhagic pancreatitis. In the remaining 40% of patients surviving longer than 7 days, infection was the major factor contributing to death. Major etiologic groups in AP were chronic alcoholism; postabdominal surgery; common duct stones; a small miscellaneous group including viral hepatitis, drug, and postpartum cases; and a large idiopathic group comprising patients with cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus, and ischemia. The prevalence of established diabetes mellitus in the AP group was significantly higher than that observed in the autopsy control series, suggesting that this disease should be considered as an additional risk factor influencing survival in AP. Pulmonary complications, including pulmonary edema and congestion, appeared to be the most significant factor contributing to death and occurred even in those cases where the pancreatic damage appeared to be only moderate in extent. Emphasis placed on the early recognition and treatment of pulmonary edema in all cases of moderate and severe AP should contribute significantly to an increase in survival in this disease. PMID:3896700
Renner, I G; Savage, W T; Pantoja, J L; Renner, V J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional multiplexed gene expression methods require well preserved, intact RNA. Such specimens are difficult to acquire in clinical practice where formalin fixation is the standard procedure for processing tissue. Even when special handling methods are used to obtain frozen tissue, there may be RNA degradation; for example autopsy samples where degradation occurs both pre-mortem and during the interval between death and cryopreservation. Although specimens with partially degraded RNA can be analyzed by qRT-PCR, these analyses can only be done individually or at low levels of multiplexing and are laborious and expensive to run for large numbers of RNA targets. Methods We evaluated the ability of the cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension, and Ligation (DASL assay to provide highly multiplexed analyses of cryopreserved and formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues obtained at autopsy. Each assay provides data on 1536 targets, and can be performed on specimens with RNA fragments as small as 60 bp. Results The DASL performed accurately and consistently with cryopreserved RNA obtained at autopsy as well as with RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue that had a cryopreserved mirror image specimen with high quality RNA. In FFPE tissue where the cryopreserved mirror image specimen was of low quality the assay performed reproducibly on some but not all specimens. Conclusion The DASL assay provides reproducible results from cryopreserved specimens and many FFPE specimens obtained at autopsy. Gene expression analyses of these specimens may be especially valuable for the study of non-cancer endpoints, where surgical specimens are rarely available.
Pulmonary lesions compatible with adenovirus infection were detected by gross and microscopic examination of autopsy tissues children aged from 5 to 34 months. Hepatic lesions indicative of systemic infection were also found in four of the chisldren. The viral etiology was confirmed in three cases by in-situ hibridization, electro-microscopy and immunofluorescence performed in parafin-embedded tissues, and in one case by cell culture isolation of adenovirus type 2 from nasopharyngeal exudate....
Garcia, A. G. P.; Fonseca, M. E. F.; Bonis, M.; Ramos, H. I. B.; Ferro, Z. P. A.; Nascimento, J. P.
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the follo...
Alexandre de Matos Soeiro; Ruppert, Aline D.; Mauro Canzian; Parra, Edwin R.; Cecília Farhat; Capelozzi, Vera L.
Perinatal autopsy detects the cause of death and also finds the various types of congenital malformation involving one or more than one system. Congenital malformations are one of the leading causes of perinatal deaths and infant mortality. In the present study various visceral malformations were detected in perinatal autopsies and categorised them systemwise. The prospective study was conducted during the period of June 2007 to May 2009 consisting of 32 cases. Out of 32 perinatal deaths studied, 30 were stillborn and in 2 there were early neonatal deaths. In each case, an attempt was made to find out the congenital malformation in perinatal deaths and clinicopathological correlation was attempted after a detailed postmortem and histopathological study. Congenital malformations were seen in 10 cases which accounted for 31.2% of perinatal deaths. A total of 64 congenital malformations were observed in 10 cases. Malformations of the alimentary system (20.31%) were most common followed by genito-urinary system (18.75%), musculoskeletal system (17.18%) and central nervous system (9.37%). There were other 22 congenital anomalies. Two cases of harlequin icthyosis and one case each of Meckel Gruber syndrome, sirenomelia and twin reverse arterial perfusion syndrome were also seen. In many of the perinatal deaths, internal malformations were not suspected clinically. Thus, autopsy is an invaluable tool for detecting visceral malformations, adding to the clinical diagnosis and counselling the parents for subsequent pregnancy. PMID:24003564
Kalyani, R; Bindra, Mandeep S; Mahansetty, Hemalatha
Analysis of mass death events, often involving partial or skeletal human remains, requires investigators to condense information on a large number of victims into a single report. Prosecution of war crimes typically requires that victims be categorized according to the injuries sustained. Reports recognizing only the presence or absence of trauma are misleading or misrepresentative. This study introduces a 4 class system for skeletal remains based on morphologic autopsy findings. Each class corresponds to the lethal potential of the trauma or pathologic conditions evident at autopsy, and the certainty with which cause of death can be determined. Data were extracted from 766 autopsy cases involving decomposed or skeletal remains from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator in which cause and manner of death were ruled. Statistically significant associations between morphology class and the cause and manner of death, positive identification, and natural and non-natural deaths were evident in this study. Intraobserver and interobserver tests revealed excellent replicability and reliability in the assignment of morphology classes to individual cases. In addition to its mass death applications, this classification system offers potential research contributions to physical anthropologists and bioarchaeologists studying human populations in antiquity. PMID:19259011
Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah; Potter, Wendy
Despite the fact that mites were used at the dawn of forensic entomology to elucidate the postmortem interval, their use in current cases remains quite low for procedural reasons such as inadequate taxonomic knowledge. A special interest is focused on the phoretic stages of some mite species, because the phoront-host specificity allows us to deduce in many occasions the presence of the carrier (usually Diptera or Coleoptera) although it has not been seen in the sampling performed in situ or in the autopsy room. In this article, we describe two cases where Poecilochirus austroasiaticus Vitzthum (Acari: Parasitidae) was sampled in the autopsy room. In the first case, we could sample the host, Thanatophilus ruficornis (Küster) (Coleoptera: Silphidae), which was still carrying phoretic stages of the mite on the body. That attachment allowed, by observing starvation/feeding periods as a function of the digestive tract filling, the establishment of chronological cycles of phoretic behavior, showing maximum peaks of phoronts during arrival and departure from the corpse and the lowest values in the phase of host feeding. From the sarcosaprophagous fauna, we were able to determine in this case a minimum postmortem interval of 10 days. In the second case, we found no Silphidae at the place where the corpse was found or at the autopsy, but a postmortem interval of 13 days could be established by the high specificity of this interspecific relationship and the departure from the corpse of this family of Coleoptera. PMID:22914911
González Medina, Alejandro; González Herrera, Lucas; Perotti, M Alejandra; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto
In legal medicine in many cases drugs are detected in autopsy material without connection to the cause of death, and until now no further investigations have taken place. In our study more than 50 drugs were measured directly in several compartments. The deceased had received continual therapeutic treatment, treatment during an operation or an unsuccessful emergency therapy. Liquid-liquid extraction and an LC-MS/MS method were developed for the determination of these drug concentrations. When measuring many transitions in a biological matrix, two problems should be excluded: ion suppression and too few measurement points per peak. A relatively short operation time and sufficient separation were achieved by column, eluent and gradient optimization with POPLC (phase-optimized liquid chromatography). Various autopsy materials from about 170 cases were investigated. In particular, in nine cases with four or more simultaneously determined drugs, their distribution in the compartments is very interesting for pharmacokinetic examinations. The distribution patterns of the drugs in the compartments of one individual deceased were compared. This meant that the great differences between subjects that are normally encountered these studies could be excluded. Measurements of drug concentrations in human autopsy material deepens knowledge of the respective drugs' pharmacokinetics. PMID:22495807
Oertel, R; Pietsch, J; Arenz, N; Zeitz, S G; Goltz, L; Kirch, W
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, which results in systemic accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. Accumulation of these GAGs causes characteristic features as disproportionate dwarfism associated with skeletal deformities, genu valgum, pigeon chest, joint laxity, and kyphoscoliosis. However, the pathological mechanism of systemic skeletal dysplasia and involvement of other tissues remain unanswered in the paucity of availability of an autopsied case and successive systemic analyses of multiple tissues. We report here a 20-year-old male autopsied case with MPS IVA, who developed characteristic skeletal features by the age of 1.5 years and died of acute respiratory distress syndrome five days later after occipito-C1-C2 cervical fusion. We pathohistologically analyzed postmortem tissues including trachea, lung, thyroid, humerus, aorta, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testes, bone marrow, and lumbar vertebrae. The postmortem tissues relevant with clinical findings demonstrated 1) systemic storage materials in multiple tissues beyond cartilage, 2) severely vacuolated and ballooned chondrocytes in trachea, humerus, vertebrae, and thyroid cartilage with disorganized extracellular matrix and poor ossification, 3) appearance of foam cells and macrophages in lung, aorta, heart valves, heart muscle, trachea, visceral organs, and bone marrow, and 4) storage of chondrotin-6-sulfate in aorta. This is the first autopsied case with MPS IVA whose multiple tissues have been analyzed pathohistologically and these pathological findings should provide a new insight into pathogenesis of MPS IVA. PMID:23683769
Yasuda, Eriko; Fushimi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Katsuji; Takami, Tsuyoshi; Zustin, Jozef; Patel, Pravin; Ruhnke, Kristen; Shimada, Tsutomu; Boyce, Bobbie; Kokas, Terry; Barone, Carol; Theroux, Mary; Mackenzie, William; Nagel, Barbara; Ryerse, Jan S; Orii, Kenji E; Iida, Hiroki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji
An autopsy case of myelofibrosis is reported and is literarily discussed. The patient was a 30-year-old man and was exposed to sublethal dose of radiation at 1.1 km from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion in Nagasaki Prefecture, when he was 10 months old. Serious bone marrow disturbances were suspected. About 25 years after the exposure, clinical symptoms like aplastic anemia were shown and this disease developed. Hepatosplenomegaly was not clinically found until the late period. The liver weighed 3180 g and the spleen weighed 1540 g at autopsy. Blood examination revealed low value of neutrophilic alkaline phosphatase only at the late period, and no abnormal chromosome was seen in the peripheral blood. Reticulum-like cells were not histologically found at biopsy, but were found at autopsy. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, always accompanied with bleeding, was observed not only in the spleen, the liver and the lymphnodes, but also in the dura mater, the stomach, the renal pelves and so on. It was the direct cause of death. (Kanao, N.)
Full Text Available Pediatrics is the branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases. Injury & Violence are major killers of children and adolescents under the age of 18 years throughout the world, and are responsible for about 950000 deaths each year. Unnatural childhood deaths are not only associated with intense trauma and separation distress, but also relate to a sense of self neglect to protect children from harm. Out of 532 autopsies performed during the study period from January 2010 to December 2013, 87 victims belongs to the pediatric age group, were autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology at J.J.M.Medical College’s, Bapuji hospital and Research center, Davangere.The purposes of this study were to report the autopsy findings of unnatural child deaths, and to identify the prevalence of specific factors such as age, sex, postmortem findings, cause of death and manner of death. The adolescent age group (12–18 years were most commonly affected, with a significant male preponderance. Many of the cases were accidental in nature with road traffic accident being the cause. There was much coexistence of the parameters typical of both industrialization and population explosion in developing countries, indicating the epidemiological transition. It is important to find out the origin and causes of childhood deaths to guide health policies in preventing the unnatural deaths. Besides, different legal approaches are also needed for different causes.
Santhosh Chandrappa Siddappa
The excessive release of inflammatory cytokines occasionally induces life-threatening hemophagocytosis referred to as hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). A similar condition, histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis (HHH), is often seen in bone marrow collected during autopsy. Unlike HPS, the pathogenesis of HHH remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a clinicopathological analysis of HHH from 70 autopsy cases at the University of Fukui Hospital. HHH was detected in 29 of 70 autopsies (41.4 %) and was significantly complicated with hematological diseases (p HHH (p HHH patients as compared with non-HHH patients. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators including IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly increased in HHH patients. Multivariate risk factor analysis identified hematological diseases (odds ratio (OR), 11.71), ? 15 % BM macrophages (OR, 9.42), sepsis (OR, 7.77), and high serum IL-6 levels (OR, 1.00) as independent risk factors for HHH. HHH with hypocellular BM, the most aggressive form of HHH, was recognized in 8 of 29 HHH patients and was associated with ? 25 % BM macrophages (p HHH patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of HPS. These findings suggest that HHH is a different entity from HPS and that it preferentially develops under conditions of excessive inflammation and its associated risks, such as hematological diseases and sepsis. PMID:24852692
Inai, Kunihiro; Noriki, Sakon; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Naiki, Hironobu
Full Text Available El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue identificar las discrepancias clínico-patológicas en las autopsias realizadas en la institución. Se revisaron 53 autopsias de casos clínicos en adultos en el período comprendido entre enero de 2005 y junio de 2009, realizadas en el servicio de Anatomía [...] Patológica del Hospital Privado de Córdoba, Argentina. Se excluyeron seis debido a información insuficiente. Se aplicó la clasificación de Goldman y col. para establecer las discrepancias clínico-patológicas entre los diagnósticos pre y post-mortem. Los diagnósticos clínicos más frecuentes fueron las infecciones respiratorias y el tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Los hallazgos de autopsia más frecuentes fueron las infecciones respiratorias y el infarto agudo de miocardio. Se detectaron 17 discrepancias mayores y 30 concordancias, no se detectaron discrepancias menores. Las infecciones respiratorias fueron la principal causa de error, seguidas por el infarto agudo de miocardio. Concluimos que en 17/47 (37%) de los casos se realizó un diagnóstico clínico diferente al post-mortem, y que las infecciones respiratorias constituyen el principal tipo de error. Se sugiere adoptar estrategias informativas y educativas, revalorizar la autopsia y las prácticas clínicas tradicionales. Abstract in english The main objective of this study was to identify the clinical-pathological discrepancies in autopsies performed in the institution. We reviewed autopsies of clinical cases in 53 adults in the period between January 2005 and June 2009, carried out in the Pathology Service at the Hospital Privado de C [...] órdoba, Argentina. Six autopsies were excluded due to insufficient information. The Goldman et al. classification was applied to establish clinico-pathologic discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings. Frequently clinical diagnoses were respiratory infections and acute pulmonary embolism. The most frequently reported postmortem diagnoses were respiratory infections and acute myocardial infarction. There were 17 major discrepancies and 30 coincidences. No any minor discrepancy was detected. Respiratory infections were the main cause of error, followed by myocardial infarction. We conclude that in 17/47 (37%) of cases the pre-mortem and postmortem diagnoses were different, and that respiratory infections were the main cause of error. We suggest to adopt educational and informative strategies, to revalue the importance of autopsy, and traditional clinical practices.
María Virginia, Bürgesser; Diego, Camps; Patricia, Calafat; Ana, Diller.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician review of a verbal autopsy (VA and completion of a death certificate remains the most widely used approach for VA analysis. This study provides new evidence about the performance of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs. The study was also designed to analyze issues related to PCVA, such as the impact of a second physician reader on the cause of death assigned, the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE, and the importance of local information for physicians reading VAs. Methods The certification was performed by 24 physicians. The assignment of VA was random and blinded. Each VA was certified by one physician. Half of the VAs were reviewed by a different physician with household recall of health care experience included. The completed death certificate was processed for automated ICD-10 coding of the underlying cause of death. PCVA was compared to gold standard cause of death assignment based on strictly defined clinical diagnostic criteria that are part of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC gold standard verbal autopsy study. Results For individual cause assignment, the overall chance-corrected concordance for PCVA against the gold standard cause of death is less than 50%, with substantial variability by cause and physician. Physicians assign the correct cause around 30% of the time without HCE, and addition of HCE improves performance in adults to 45% and slightly higher in children to 48%. Physicians estimate cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs with considerable error for adults, children, and neonates. Only for neonates for a cause list of six causes with HCE is accuracy above 0.7. In all three age groups, CSMF accuracy improves when household recall of health care experience is available. Conclusions Results show that physician coding for cause of death assignment may not be as robust as previously thought. The time and cost required to initially collect the verbal autopsies must be considered in addition to the analysis, as well as the impact of diverting physicians from servicing immediate health needs in a population to review VAs. All of these considerations highlight the importance and urgency of developing better methods to more reliably analyze past and future verbal autopsies to obtain the highest quality mortality data from populations without reliable death certification.
Flaxman Abraham D
Establishing the identity of the deceased becomes essential when highly decomposed bodies, mutilated body parts or skeletal remains are recovered from mass fatality sites. In these situations, estimation of stature along with other parameters such as age, sex and race/ethnicity becomes important to establish the biological profile of the deceased. Following the Maoist insurgency in Nepal, there have been numerous discoveries of unidentified human remains in mass graves or otherwise. No systemic studies and anthropological data on the Nepalese population however, is available posing problems in anthropologic evaluation of the remains. The sample of the present study consisted of 200 autopsied cases (148 males and 52 female adult cadavers). During the autopsy, the scalp was reflected after giving a coronal incision extending from one mastoid to the other exposing the cranium in each case. Maximum cranial length (MCL), maximum cranial breadth (MCB), bi-zygomatic breadth (BZB), minimum frontal breadth (MFB) and length of parietal chord (PC) were then measured. Stature was measured as the length of the body from head to heel in centimeters with the heel, buttocks, back of the shoulders and the head in contact with the autopsy table. Linear and stepwise multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from cranial measurements. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate regression models show statistically significant correlation between stature and the cranial measurements. The present study opines that the stature estimation from cranial dimensions using multivariate linear regression models is more accurate than those of the univariate and bivariate regression models. This study presents a rare data from Nepalese population that show typical Asian features and thus, is significant from anthropologic and genetic point of view. The study observations further contribute a baseline data bank for forensic pathologists and specialists. PMID:25595547
Shrestha, Rijen; Shrestha, Pramod Kumar; Wasti, Harihar; Kadel, Tulsi; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on adolescent mortality particularly from developing countries with unreliable death registration systems. This calls for the use of other sources of data to ascertain cause of adolescent mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the causes of death among Ghanaian adolescents 10 to 19 years in Accra, Ghana utilizing data from autopsies conducted in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH. Findings Out of the 14,034 autopsies carried out from 2001 to 2003 in KBTH, 7% were among adolescents. Of the 882 deaths among adolescents analyzed, 402 (45.6% were females. There were 365 (41.4% deaths from communicable disease, pregnancy related conditions and nutritional disorders. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 362 (41% cases and the rest were attributable to injuries and external causes of morbidity and mortality. Intestinal infectious diseases and lower respiratory tract infections were the most common communicable causes of death collectively accounting for 20.5% of total deaths. Death from blood diseases was the largest (8.5% among the non-communicable conditions followed by neoplasms (7%. Males were more susceptible to injuries than females (?2 = 13.45, p = .000. At least five out of ten specific causes of death were as a result of infections with pneumonia and typhoid being the most common. Sickle cell disease was among the top three specific causes of death. Among the females, 27 deaths (6.7% were pregnancy related with most of them being as a result of abortion. Conclusions The autopsy data from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital can serve as a useful source of information on adolescent mortality. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases accounted for most deaths highlighting the need for health care providers to avoid complacency in their management of adolescents presenting with these diseases.
Full Text Available Introduction. The increasing global prevalence of suicide has made it a major public health concern. Research designed to retrospectively study suicide cases is now being conducted in populations around the world. This field of research is especially crucial in Aboriginal populations, as they often have higher suicide rates than the rest of the country. Objective. This article presents the methodological aspects of the first psychological autopsy study on suicide among Inuit in Nunavut. Qaujivallianiq Inuusirijauvalauqtunik (Learning from lives that have been lived is a large case-control study, including all 120 cases of suicide by Inuit that occurred in Nunavut between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2006. The article describes the research design, ethical considerations and strategies used to adapt the psychological autopsy method to Nunavut Inuit. Specifically, we present local social and cultural issues; data collection procedures; and the acceptability, reliability and validity of the method. Method. A retrospective case-control study using the psychological autopsy approach was carried out in 22 communities in Nunavut. A total of 498 individuals were directly interviewed, and medical and correctional charts were also reviewed. Results. The psychological autopsy method was well received by participants as they appreciated the opportunity to discuss the loss of a family member or friend by suicide. During interviews, informants readily identified symptoms of psychiatric disorders, although culture-specific rather than clinical explanations were sometimes provided. Results suggest that the psychological autopsy method can be effectively used in Inuit populations.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a true plague and a major health concern globally. It is one of the most significant pandemics in recorded history. Despite worldwide efforts to fight the pandemic, and now with the re-emergence of tuberculosis, those clinicians, personnel performing autopsies and medical caregivers are again at risk in the work place, especially in developing countries. We describe a case where a drug abuser, whose addiction was concealed by his parents, died in hospital. He was tested HIV-negative there. A medical tangle ensued and forensic autopsy was carried out. Autopsy confirmed he was an intravenous drug addict and had tuberculosis. Post-mortem blood was positive for HIV antibodies and he was diagnosed with AIDS. Due to social stigmas, lack of knowledge or inefficient medical laboratory procedures etc, such type of cases can become a hazard to those attending the sick and to autopsy pathologists alike. We provide the case description, autopsy findings and review of pertinent literature. PMID:21420653
Ananda, Sunnassee; Shaohua, Zhu; Fan, Yang; Liang, Liu
A 15-year-old African-American female with a 4-month history of sporadic rapid heartbeat and fatigue was found pulseless and apneic in her residence. At autopsy, patchy scarring was diffuse throughout the circumference of the left ventricle of the heart. Microscopically, the myocardium had diffuse infiltration of rhabdomyoma-like cells with significant associated fibrosis. Unlike cardiac rhabdomyoma, there was no discrete tumor mass. Differential diagnoses considered were congenital cardiac rhabdomyoma with partial regression, cardiac fibroma, histiocytoid cardiomyopathy, glycogen storage diseases, and drug-induced vacuolar cardiomyopathy. However, the findings are most consistent with cardiac rhabdomyomatosis, an entity not well described in the literature. PMID:25130767
Fuller, Maren Y; Wolf, Dwayne A; Buja, L Maximilian
Abstract Background Three million babies are stillborn each year and 3.6 million die in the first month of life. In India, early neonatal deaths make up four-fifths of neonatal deaths and infant mortality three-quarters of under-five mortality. Information is scarce on cause-specific perinatal and neonatal mortality in urban settings in low-income countries. We conducted verbal autopsies for stillbirths and neonatal deaths in Mumbai slum settlements. Our objectives were to classify deaths acc...
Bapat Ujwala; Alcock Glyn; More Neena; Das Sushmita; Joshi Wasundhara; Osrin David
[3H]muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of [3H]muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of [3H]muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention
A correlative study of autopsy findings and retrospective review of gallium scintigrams were performed in 106 older ages cases. Of these cases studied, 57 % demonstrated positive gallium study in the present series. Histological correlation was undertaken in cases of lung cancer. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma showed the highest incidence of positive results (83 %), whereas adenocarcinoma was the lowest (35 %). There is no apparent correlation between subtypes of histological classification of adenocarcinoma and abnormal accumulation of gallium. However, abnormal accumulation of the nuclide seems to be rather related with interstitial reactions, namely fibrotic changes, lymphocyte infiltration and vascularization. (author)
Full Text Available The current study examined the effects of stressful life events on memory for a stressful event. Two groups ofcollege students (N = 61 were formed for analysis based on the presence or absence of particular stressful lifeevents. Participants then viewed a graphic video depicting an autopsy, and received a memory interview fourdays later. Results showed similar group performance on correctly leading questions. However, participants inthe Specific Stressor-Exposed group were less suggestible to misleading questions than their SpecificStressor-Absent counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of stress sensitization theory and cognitiveprocessing models.
Toxicological analysis is indispensable in forensic autopsy laboratories, but often depends on the limitations of individual institutions. The present study reviewed routine drug screening data of forensic autopsy cases (n=2996) during an 18.5-year period (January 1996-June 2014) at our institute to examine the efficacy of the procedures and findings in autopsy diagnosis and interpretation. Drug screening was performed using on-site immunoassay screening devices and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in all cases, followed by re-examination using GC/MS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) at a cooperating institute in specific cases in the last 4years. GC/MS detected drugs in 486 cases (16.2%), including amphetamines (n=160), major tranquilizers (n=72), minor tranquilizers (n=294), antidepressants (n=21), cold remedies (n=77), and other drugs (n=19). Among these cases, fatal intoxication (n=123) involved amphetamines (n=73), major tranquilizers (n=37), minor tranquilizers (n=86), antidepressants (n=3), and cold remedies (n=9); most cases involved self-administration, alleged suicide and accidental overdose, while homicide was not included. These drugs were also identified in other manners of death, including homicide (n=40/372), suicide (n=34/226), accidental falls (n=27/129), and natural death (n=72/514). In these cases, on-site immunoassay screening of drugs of abuse showed negative findings in 2440 cases (81.4% in all cases), while GC/MS detected other drugs in 218 cases (7.3% in all cases), including several antipsychotic drugs, acetaminophen and salicylic acid. Further analysis using LC/MS/MS detected low concentrations of benzodiazepines in 32 cases, and also anti-diabetic and hypertensive drugs in a case of fatal abuse. These observations indicate the efficacy of systematic routine toxicological analysis to investigate not only the cause of death but also the background of fatalities in forensic autopsy. The provision of extensive drug screening is needed for forensic and social risk management, considering the marked diversity of medical and illicit drugs. PMID:25637163
Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Hishmat, Asmaa Mohammed; Oritani, Shigeki; Takama, Masashi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi
Two unusual autopsy cases of fatal Ascaris infection have been presented. The first case presents lethal diffuse peritonitis due to duodenal rupture caused by the presence of parasitic Ascaris worm in gastrointestinal tract of 2.5-year-old child. The second one is a case of subacute asphyxia caused by obturation of upper respiratory tract by a large number of adult Ascaris roundworms. General economic crisis and inefficient medical service make possible spreading of almost eradicated disease, thus the possibility of the most serious complications of this helminthiasis must not be forgotten. PMID:19696591
Maletin, Miljen; Veselinovi?, Igor; Stojiljkovic, Goran B; Vapa, Dusan; Budakov, Branislav
The biological effects of different fractionation schemes have been evaluated by the histological examination of bronchial carcinomas removed at operation or autopsy following radiotherapy. Radiation was given in daily, small fractions (200 cGy (rad)), large fractions (600 cGy (rad)) every fifth day, or a single high dose followed by daily low-dose treatment. The highest proportion of tumours free of viable cells was found in patients who had received small daily fractions in both operable and inoperable tumours. A hypothesis is put forward to explain this apparent change in radio-sensitivity with different fractionation schemes. (author)
Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area. PMID:810769
Cromartie, E; Reichel, W L; Locke, L N; Belisle, A A; Kaiser, T E; Lamont, T G; Mulhern, B M; Prouty, R M; Swineford, D M
It has been repeatedly shown that synaptically released zinc contributes to excitotoxic neuronal injury in ischemia, epilepsy, and mechanical head trauma. Such zinc-induced injury leaves an unmistakable "footprint" in the injured neurons, allowing an easy and unambiguous postmortem diagnosis. This footprint is the presence of weakly bound, histochemically reactive zinc in the cytoplasm of the perikaryon and proximal dendrites. Such staining appears to be a necessary and sufficient marker for zinc-induced neuronal injury. Here we show how to prepare and stain tissue from biopsy, autopsy, or experimental animal sources for maximal contrast and visibility of zinc-injured neurons.
Suh, S W; Listiack, K
Teebi and Shaltout [1989: Am J Med Genet 33: 58-60] described a new syndrome of craniofacial anomalies, abnormal hair, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage in children born to a consanguineous couple. We report on a second family with the same pattern of anomalies occurring in a liveborn female and 3 spontaneously aborted fetuses, and include autopsy findings. As additional findings 2 of our cases had unilateral microphthalmia and kidney anomalies. Our observation confirms that this pattern of anomalies is a distinct syndrome with autosomal recessive inheritance; we suggest the synonym Teebi-Shaltout syndrome. PMID:8267003
Froster, U G; Rehder, H; Höhn, W; Oberheuser, F
Twenty carotid bifurcations were examined. During autopsy, carotid bifurcations were removed in toto. Unfixed carotids were ligated and cannulated for injection of an angiographic contrast medium followed by injection of a tissue-embedding medium at physiologic pressure and temperature. The carotid bifurcation was frozen and cut manually in 3-mm cross-sections. Photographs were then taken of every slice. Angiography, filling with tissue-embedding material, and sectioning were successful in all cases. In the macropathologic sections, the extent, configuration and location of atherosclerotic lesions could be identified
... study of tissue removed from the body after death. Examination of the whole brain is important in understanding FTD because the patterns ... be carried out as soon as possible after death (preferably within 6 hours) to get ... center or brain bank with experience in neurological disorders and, if ...
A study was conducted on 102 patients submitted to renal transplant who died and were autopsied at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, from 1968 to 1991. The cause of death, based on a review of medical records and autopsy reports, was assigned to one of the following categories: infectious (69.6%); cardiovascular (12.7%); gastrointestinal (7.8%); graft rejection (6.9%); tumoral (2.0%); and undetermined (1.0%). Among the 71 cases of death caused by infection, 28 (39.4%) showed disseminated agents involving two or more organs. Isolated pneumonia involved 17 patients (23.9%), followed by acute pyelonephritis in the transplanted kidney in 10 patients (14.1%). The most frequent agents were: bacteria (58.0%), divided into 'non-classified' (83.0%), Nocardia (10.6%) and Mycobacterium (6.4%); fungi (27.5%) represented by Cryptococcus (22.7%), Aspergillus, Candida and Pneumocystis carinii (18.1% each), Histoplasma (13.6%), Mucor and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (4.5% each); viruses (6.2%) represented by Herpes simplex (60.0%); metazoa (5.0%, S. stercoralis), and protozoa (2.5%, T. cruzi). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was identified in the lungs of 12 patients and was not directly correlated with death but was associated with other agents. In conclusion, immunodepressed patients such as renal transplant recipients should be carefully monitored for infection due to the high mortality rate. PMID:7884765
Reis, M A; Costa, R S; Ferraz, A S
Patients with malignant mesothelioma typically present with a pleural effusion or pleural thickening and masses. A rare autopsy case of mesothelioma presenting with multiple bilateral lung nodules without clinically detectable pleural lesions is presented. A definitive diagnosis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen could not be made, though a pattern of fibrosis mimicking organizing pneumonia was identified. Despite corticosteroid therapy, follow-up chest computed tomography showed enlargement of multiple nodules accompanied by the appearance of pleural thickening and effusions. The patient died of respiratory failure 11 months after initial presentation. Autopsy and retrospective analysis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen using a p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed p16 homozygous deletion. The final diagnosis was sarcomatoid mesothelioma, and the lung nodules were intrapulmonary metastases from a clinically undetectable pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma. It is important both to consider the possibility of mesothelioma with unusual clinical, radiological and pathological presentations and to remember that p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis can play an important role in the diagnosis of mesothelioma. PMID:25425731
Hasegawa, Mizue; Sakai, Fumikazu; Sato, Akitoshi; Tsubomizu, Sayuri; Arimura, Ken; Katsura, Hideki; Koh, Eitetsu; Sekine, Yasuo; Wu, Di; Hiroshima, Kenzo
Full Text Available Introduction: In this retrospective study, we decided to determine the death causes and severity of injuries in traffic accidents according to reports of the forensic medical center of Yazd. Methods: A total of 251 fatalities due to traffic accidents that had undergone autopsy examinations at the Yazd forensic medicine center from2006 till 2008 were included in the study by census method. Data regarding gender, road user type, type of vehicle (car, motorcycle, autobus or minibus, consciousness level, and intensive care unit (ICU admission was gathered. For evaluation of injury severity, we used Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results: The population under study consisted of 202 men (80.5% and 49 women (19.5% with an average age of 34.1 years (range: 1-89 years. Motorcycle-pedestrian accidents were the most common type of injury (100, 39.8%. Head (220, 87.6% and face (169, 67.3% were the two most common sites of injuries. Mean (±SD of ISS was 23.2 (±10.4. According to autopsy records, the main cause of death was head trauma (146, 58.1%. Conclusion: Public awareness in terms of primary prevention of road accidents should be considered important. Also, regarding the high prevalence of brain injuries and complications associated with skull fractures, accessibility to neurosurgeons and availability of imaging devices have an important role in decreasing the mortality rate of traffic accidents.
Tolperisone (Mydocalm) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant with few sedative side effects that is used for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. We describe three cases of suicidal tolperisone poisoning in three healthy young subjects in the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. In all cases, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings did not reveal the cause of death. Systematic toxicological analysis (STA) including immunological tests, screening for volatile substances and blood, urine and gastric content screening by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD demonstrated the presence of tolperisone in all cases. In addition to tolperisone, only the analgesics paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen and naproxen could be detected. The blood ethanol concentrations were all lower than 0.10 g/kg. Tolperisone was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using n-chlorobutane as the extraction solvent. The quantification was performed by GC-NPD analysis of blood, urine and gastric content. Tolperisone concentrations of 7.0 mg/l, 14 mg/l and 19 mg/l were found in the blood of the deceased. In the absence of other autopsy findings, the deaths in these three cases were finally explained as a result of lethal tolperisone ingestion. To the best of our knowledge, these three cases are the first reported cases of suicidal tolperisone poisonings. PMID:21683537
Sporkert, Frank; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc P; Mangin, Patrice
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease affecting adults, being characterized clinically by a combination of extrapyramidal signs and focal cortical syndromes. In both diseases, tau deposits are a characteristic neuropathological feature. We report two new patients with autopsy-proven AD, in whom clinical diagnoses of CBD were made during life. The ages of the patients at onset were 52 and 67 years, and the disease durations were 9 and 15 years, respectively. At autopsy, both cases exhibited marked cortical atrophy with evident neuronal loss in the convex areas of the frontal and parietal lobes. Immunohistochemically, AT8-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and Abeta-positive senile plaques (SPs) were widespread and abundant in the cerebral cortex (Alzheimer pathology stage VI/C of Braak and Braak), leading us to the final pathological diagnosis of AD. No tau lesions suggestive of CBD were observed, and the deep gray matter areas, including the substantia nigra, were unremarkable (exceptionally, only mild neuronal loss was noted in the putamen in case 2). These findings further strengthen the idea that in AD, neurodegeneration with tau and Abeta deposits may begin in the fronto-parietal neocortical areas, which are often preferentially affected in CBD, earlier than, or as early as the medial temporal lobe, and that extrapyramidal signs, such as rigidity and tremor, can occur in the absence of neuronal loss in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. PMID:19780981
Okazaki, Kenichi; Fu, Yong-Juan; Nishihira, Yasushi; Endo, Minoru; Fukushima, Takao; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Takahashi, Hitoshi
Clinicopathologic data from 285 autopsies were analyzed. The decedents were long-standing participants in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study, a prospective epidemiologic investigation of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. We assessed the prevalence at death of four primary neuropathologic processes using specific microscopic lesions as indicators. An algorithm was developed to assign each decedent to one of six subsets, corresponding to pathologic dominance by microvascular lesions (14% of decedents), Alzheimer lesions (12%), hippocampal sclerosis (5%), cortical Lewy bodies (5%), codominance by two or more primary processes (9%), or without a dominant pathologic process recognized (55%). Definite or probable dementia had been identified in 118 of the decedents. The proportions of men in each subset identified as demented were (in the same order) 57%, 53%, 79%, 57%, 76%, and 25%. In this autopsied panel of older Japanese-American men, the importance of microvascular lesions as a likely explanation for dementia was nearly equal to that of Alzheimer lesions. The cerebrovascular lesion type most essentially and inclusively related to dementia was multiple microinfarction. PMID:12480729
White, Lon; Petrovitch, Helen; Hardman, John; Nelson, James; Davis, Daron G; Ross, G Webster; Masaki, Kamal; Launer, Lenore; Markesbery, William R
The purpose of this was to study the mechanisms of cancer pain and effects of irradiation in metastatic bone marrow patients, histopathologically. Sixteen autopsy cases including 9 breast tumors, 4 hepatic cell carcinomas, 2 gastric cancers and 1 triple cancer of the renal pelvis, urinary bladder and liver were studied. Symptomatically, the effects of radiotherapy (36?56 Gy) for cancer pain were freedom from pain in 4 (25%), pain relief in 8 (50%), no effect in 3 (18.8%) and undetectable in 1. The sites of irradiation were thoracic in 7, lumbar in 5, thoracolumbar in 3, and cervicothoracic vertebra in 1. At autopsy, no cancer cells were found at the site of irradiation in 5 subjects. The histopathologic appearance of painful metastases to bones was periosteal infiltration in 8, perineural invasion in 3, nervous compression in 4 and compression fracture or collapse in 8. The reaction of metastatic bone marrow to irradiation showed mixed type in 8, intertrabecullar types in 4, osteolytic type in 1, and osteoplastic type in 2. Cancer pain was associated with several histopathologic findings, and the histopathological effects of radiation for such pain were weak. Further histopathologic study of the mechanisms of cancer pain and effects of irradiation may be necessary for better quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)
We discuss the importance of Contrast-Enhanced CT (C.E.CT) in establishing the variety of the intracranial pathological process in acute severe head injuries. During a two-and-a-half-year period (June, 1977 - December, 1979) thirty-three patients with acute severe head injuries were autopsied, all of whom had been scanned on admission. Among them, 14 patients had undergone both plain CT and C.E.CT on admission. Brain slices were examined macroscopically in three categories; brain contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Each category was then compared retrospectively with the plain CT and C.E.CT findings. C.E.CT was found to correspond much better to the autopsy finding than plain CT in the following three points: (1) C.E.CT clearly enhances the contusion areas and reveals occult contusion areas. (2) C.E.CT enhances the areas corresponding to the subarachnoid space due to the breakdown of brain-surface blood vessels. (3) C.E.CT reveals the enlargement and formation of the intracerebral hematoma by the extravasation of the intravenous contrast material from injured arterial vessels. (author)
Intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs is a rare observation at coronial autopsy examinations. The article reports 5 cases of accidental drug overdoses at the Westmead Coronial Morgue, Sydney New South Wales, over a 6-year period with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment known as body packing or body stuffing. Three different forms of anatomic concealment of drugs are illustrated, Case 2 involving therapeutic medication in the form of glass ampoules for parenteral injection not previously reported. Three deaths were the result of acute toxicity due to polydrug abuse rather than as a consequence of the body packing behavior and rupture of the drug packaging, with the intracorporeal drug concealments an adjunct finding at the autopsy examinations. The cause of death in Case 3 was the direct result of acute cocaine intoxication due to rupture of drug packages in the rectum and mucosal absorption. The article details forensic sociological aspects of drug concealment and subcultural group human behavior that can assist in providing information for the initiation of investigations. PMID:20938327
Lipid accumulation in the cardiac parenchyma has historically been known as fatty heart. Myocardial lipotoxicity and cardiac steatosis have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetic mellitus (DM). Mutated adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key catalytic enzyme of triglyceride, has been found to cause human triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV). Nevertheless, the significance of fatty heart in the disease process is still unclear. Here, we investigated myocardial lipid deposition (LD) in 73 autopsy cases. Nile blue staining revealed seven cases (9.5%) showing LD with elevated tissue triglyceride content, all of which suffered from DM. Immunohistochemically, ATGL expression was preserved in all tested cases. Rates of myocardial infarction and heart failure were higher in LD/DM cases than in non-LD cases. Semi-quantitative histological analysis revealed no significant differences in the degree of myocardial hypertrophy, myofibrillar loss, fibrosis, small vascular disease, inflammation or fat invasion between LD/DM and non-LD cases. However, more severe histological damage was seen in DM cases than in non-DM cases. Our data suggest that DM is a major risk for fatty heart with myocardial LD based on recent autopsy cases. PMID:24836730
Nakanishi, Takaya; Kato, Seiya
Full Text Available Autopsy information on cardiovascular damage was investigated for pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD patients (n = 84 and non-AD control patients (n = 60 . The 51 relevant items were entered into a grade-of-membership model to describe vascular damage in AD. Five latent groups were identified “I: early-onset AD,” “II: controls, cancer,” “III: controls, extensive atherosclerosis,” “IV: late-onset AD, male,” and “V: late-onset AD, female.” Expectedly, Groups IV and V had elevated APOE ϵ 4 frequency. Unexpectedly, there was limited atherosclerosis and frequent myocardial valve and ventricular damage. The findings do not indicate a strong relationship between atherosclerosis and AD, although both are associated with the APOE ϵ 4 . Instead, autopsy findings of extensive atherosclerosis were associated with possible, not probable or definite AD, and premature death. They are consistent with the hypothesis that brain hypoperfusion contributes to dementia, possibly to AD pathogenesis, and raise the possibility that the APOE allele ϵ 4 contributes directly to heart valve and myocardial damage.
Corder Elizabeth H.
A 23-year-old woman was rescued from an accidental fire in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. Based on the diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, she received hyperbaric oxygen therapy and survived in a vegetative state. After 1 and a half years, she died without recovering from the vegetative state. At autopsy, the brain was observed to be moderately softened with a severely atrophied appearance and ventricular enlargement. In addition, a characteristic damage of hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy was also observed clearly in both the bilateral globus pallidus and cerebral white matter, which are typical findings of past acute CO poisoning. A long-term vegetative state causes the brain to soften and liquefy because of reactive gliosis and autolytic change. The cause of death becomes difficult to diagnose only from the autopsy findings in general. This case is rare in that the past acute CO poisoning could be diagnosed from the remaining typical cerebral findings even after a long-term vegetative state. PMID:23099545
Sato, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kasai, Kentaro; Tanaka, Noriyuki
Klippel-Feil syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly that is characterized by abnormal fusion of the cervical vertebrae and occasionally accompanied by various anomalies of other bones and internal organs. We report the autopsy case of a 5-year-old girl with this syndrome ssociated with congenital cervical dislocation, with special reference to the pathological findings of the vertebral column and spinal cord. Principal anomalies of the cranio-spinal axis were as follows: partial defect of the clivus, scoliosis, hypoplasia of the whole cervical vertebrae, anterior dislocation of C7 with S-shaped deformity of the spinal canal, fusion of the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, fusion of the vertebral bodies of C6 and C7 with collapse of C7, and spina bifida occulta of L5 and S1. In addition to these skeletal anomalies, subarachnoid vascular malformation in the medulla oblongata, a bronchogenic cyst in the posterior mediastinum, anomalous lobation of the lungs, and the mobile cecum were found at autopsy. The cervical cord showed an increase of the antero-posterior diameter, multifocal spongy changes of the white matter, and partial branching or duplication of the central canal. The brain showed features of anoxic encephalopathy. The partial defect of the clivus, C7 dislocation, and various lesions of the medulla oblongata and cervical cord were interpreted as integral components of, or lesions closely associated with, Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:22762890
Shintaku, Masayuki; Wada, Kyosuke; Koyama, Takashi; Kohno, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hida, Shinya
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to develop a simplified low cost method for the collection and fixation of pediatric autopsy cells and to determine the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of extracted DNA. Touch and scrape preparations of pediatric liver cells were obtained from 15 cadavers [...] at autopsy and fixed in 95% ethanol or 3:1 methanol:acetic acid. Material prepared by each fixation procedure was submitted to DNA extraction with the Wizard® genomic DNA purification kit for DNA quantification and five of the preparations were amplified by multiplex PCR (azoospermia factor genes). The amount of DNA extracted varied from 20 to 8,640 µg, with significant differences between fixation methods. Scrape preparation fixed in 95% ethanol provided larger amount of extracted DNA. However, the mean for all groups was higher than the quantity needed for PCR (50 ng) or Southern blot (500 ng). There were no qualitative differences among the different material and fixatives. The same results were also obtained for glass slides stored at room temperature for 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. We conclude that touch and scrape preparations fixed in 95% ethanol are a good source of DNA and present fewer limitations than cell culture, tissue paraffin embedding or freezing that require sterile material, culture medium, laboratory equipment and trained technicians. In addition, they are more practical and less labor intensive and can be obtained and stored for a long time at low cost.
C.N.M., Ribeiro; L.C., Peres; J.M., Pina-Neto.
Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was done to investigate the cause of death due to coronary artery pathology found on autopsies received between November 2007 to October 2012. The study was conducted at the Histopathology laboratory, Pathology Department, P. D. U. Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.MethodsIn the present study, total 350 postmortem cases with coronary artery specimen received from Saurashtra region(formed by seven districts of Gujarat,India from November 2008 to October 2012 were considered. Histopathological sectioning of these specimens was done & slides were prepared & stained by Hematoxylin & Eosin stains, examined microscopically for coronary artery pathology. Each and every autopsy cases received irrespective of natural, unnatural or sudden death were considered for this study. Patients’ relatives were approached and detailed history about the life style, habit & clinical complains of the patient was noted for further evaluation.ResultsA direct relationship was observed between death due to coronary artery disease and personal history including risk factors like sedentary life style, smoking, alcohol, obesity, diabetes & also with particular age groups viz. 45-65 years.ConclusionsOur study confirms that coronary artery diseases are more common among the population with sedentary life style, habit of smoking, alcohol & obesity. Also relationships with diabetes & hypertension were observed. These signify, increasing incidence of coronary artery diseases with modernization & adaptation of western lifestyle in the developing countries as emphasized by this study in our study population. These informations are valuable in policy formation for the control of coronary as artery diseases.
Dr Amit H Agravat
Abstract Objective: With advances in therapy, more neonates with severe congenital anomalies are surviving, albeit some with neurologic disorders, possibly related to antenatal low brain blood flow. This autopsy series reports antenatal brain injury in neonates expiring due to severe anomalies, and provides correlation with umbilical cord blood gas and acid-base analysis. Methods: We identified autopsies of third trimester neonates expiring shortly following delivery due to severe anomalies or malformations. Brain injury classified as "older" included periventricular leukomalacia, gliosis and karyorrhectic neurons, and "recent" included red neurons and reactive glial changes. Results: We identified 22 cases (nine term, 13 preterm). 16 (73%) had brain injury, including 11 with older injury. Cord arterial blood was analyzed in 17, and six had pH 12?mmol/L. Four out of 5 (80%) neonates with neuronal necrosis compared to two out of 12 (17%) without had a pH 12?mmol/L (p?=?0.03). Five out of nine (56%) neonates with white matter injury compared to one out of 8 (13%) without had pH 12?mmol/L (p?=?NS). Conclusions: Antenatal brain injury is frequent in neonates with severe congenital anomalies. Severely abnormal cord blood analysis results correlate significantly with neuronal necrosis and show a trend toward white matter injury; however, the absence of these abnormal results does not preclude the presence of brain injury. PMID:25123519
Jacques, Suzanne M; Kupsky, William J; Qureshi, Faisal
Full Text Available Objetivos: mostrar los principales resultados obtenidos de la autopsia y utilizarlos en la mejora continua de la calidad asistencial. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, longitudinal, de la base de datos de autopsias del SARCAP, realizadas en el Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo [...] Rivero" entre los años 1991-2011. Se analizaron el sexo, la edad, las especialidades de egreso, la estadía hospitalaria, las principales enfermedades, causas de muerte y evaluación de sus diagnósticos premortem. Resultados: se estudiaron 2 480 autopsias. Predominó el sexo masculino con el 51,7 % y las edades de 75-84 años con el 31 %. El 79,65 % de los casos fallecidos ocurrieron en el área de atención al grave y el 47,8 % de ellos fallecieron con una estadía de hasta 48 horas. La bronconeumonía y el infarto cardíaco fueron las principales causas directas de muerte, mientras en las básicas lo fueron la aterosclerosis coronaria, cerebral y generalizada. La hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus fueron las principales causas contribuyentes. Las discrepancias para las causas directas y básicas de muerte fueron de una cada cuatro autopsias. Conclusiones: el estudio multicausal de la muerte permite caracterizar los principales problemas de salud. La aplicación del SARCAP y el diagnóstico del DMO han sido logros importantes de la especialidad alcanzados en esta institución. La metodología de trabajo obtenida en el estudio de la autopsia y su empleo en la mejora continua de la calidad de la asistencia médica en este centro constituye referencia para otros hospitales. Abstract in english Objectives: to show the main results of autopsy and to use tehm in the continuous improvement of care quality. Methods: a retrospective, longitudinal study was conducted in SARCAP autopsy database at "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Military Hospital from 1991 to 2011. Different items were analyze [...] d such as sex, age, specialties of discharge, the hospital stay, major diseases, causes of death and its premortem diagnostic evaluation. Results: 2 480 autopsies were studied; most of them were male (51.7 %) and the mean age rate of 75-84 years (31 %). 79,65 % of the died cases happened in the area of attention to the serious patients and 47,8 % of the cases died with up to 48 hours of hospital stay. Bronchopneumonia and heart attacks were the main direct causes of death, while coronary, cerebral and generalized atherosclerosis were the basic causes of death. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the main contributing causes. Discrepancies for basic and direct causes of death were one in four autopsies. Conclusions: this multicausal-death study allowed characterizing those major health problems. Applying SARCAP and BMD diagnosis have been an important achievement in the specialty of this institution. The gained methodology during this autopsy study and its use in the continuous improvement of medical care quality in this center is a reference to other hospitals.
Ygnacio, Ygualada Correa; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and discusses methodological and logistical challenges associated with the implementation of a nation-wide assessment of mortality based on surveys. Verbal autopsy interviews, using the WHO standard questionnaire, were conducted with close relatives of the 6798 deaths identified in the 2007 population change survey in Vietnam. Data collectors were health staff recruited from the commune health station who undertook 3-day intensive training on VA interview. The Preston-Coale method assessed the level of completeness of mortality reporting from the population change survey. The number of deaths in each age-sex grouping is inflated according to the estimate of completeness to produce an adjusted number of deaths. Underlying causes of death were aggregated to the International Classification of Diseases Mortality Tabulation List 1. Leading causes of death were tabulated by sex for three broad age groups: 0-14 years; 15-59 years; and 60 years and above. Findings Completeness of mortality reporting was 69% for males and 54% for females with substantial regional variation. The use of VA has resulted in 10% of deaths being classified to ill-defined among males, and 15% among females. More ill-defined deaths were reported among the 60 year or above age group. Incomplete death reporting, wide geographical dispersal of deaths, extensive travel between households, and substantial variation in local responses to VA interviews challenged the implementation of a national mortality and cause of death assessment based on surveys. Conclusions Verbal autopsy can be a viable tool to identify cause of death in Vietnam. However logistical challenges limit its use in conjunction with the national sample survey. Sentinel population clusters for mortality surveillance should be tested to develop an effective and sustainable option for routine mortality and cause of death data collection in Vietnam.
INTRODUCTION: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians\\' ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. RESULTS: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.
Charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong between 2002-2004 in the 15 to 59-year-old age group were investigated using the psychological autopsy method. The psychopathological profiles of charcoal burning suicides (N = 53) were compared against "other suicides" (N = 97). The two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of "DSM-IV" axis I…
Chan, Sandra S. M.; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Wong, Paul W. C.; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Law, Y. W.; Yip, Paul S. F.
Primary natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We here report the case of a "nasal type" NK/T cell lymphoma arising in the uterus. The diagnosis was established only at autopsy. PMID:16424671
Briese, Juliane; Noack, Frank; Harland, Albrecht; Horny, Hans-Peter
To clarify a relationship between A-bomb exposure and Hashimoto's disease and that between Hashimoto's disease and carcinoma of the thyroid gland, autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease (112 cases in Hiroshima and 43 cases in Nagasaki) were examined. Incidence of Hashimoto's disease was not related to exposure doses and ages at the time of exposure. Incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland from Hashimoto's disease was 1.3% (2 cases), and there was no relationship between them. Incidence of ovarian cancer as cancer accompanied with Hashimoto's disease was significantly high, but that of stomach cancer was significantly low. Incidence of total cancer from Hashimoto's disease was also significantly low. Incidences of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis which were collagen diseases and diseases similar to them complicated by Hashimoto's disease was significantly high. (Tsunoda, M.)
Proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been used to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, and Pb in liver, spleen, aorta, kidney medulla, kidney cortex, abdominal fat, pancreas, and hair taken at autopsy from Southwest Indians, primarily of the Pima tribe. Samples were prepared by a low-temperature ashing procedure which is compared to other preparation methods. Data were analyzed by a computer program, ANALEX. The accuracy is tested with NBS standard reference materials and with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric results. The precision allowed observation of element concentration differences between replicate, half-gram samples of the same tissue. The differences appeared to arise from tissue inhomogeneities. 5 figures, 4 tables
The patient, a 61-year-old male, noticed he had dysphagea in October 1975. He visited a radiologist and his illness was diagnosed as an esophageal cancer. Irradiation therapy was given; a dose of 6000 rad to the region of Th3-Th12, another 1000 rad to Th6-Th9. The patient progressed well until he noticed a sensory disturbance on the right toe. He entered our clinic in July 1979. He had Brown-Sequard syndrome at left thoracic level. His condition grew worse and resulted in complete paraplegia. He died in 1980. Autopsy revealed neither reccurrence nor metastasis. Spinal cord was atrophied from Th5 to Th10. (author)
Chlamydia trachomatis and the genital mycoplasmas are significantly prevalent in sexually active women. How these organisms may affect the outcome of pregnancy and the neonate was the principal thrust of this investigation. Placenta, liver, and lung tissue were cultured from Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, and aerobic as well as anaerobic bacteria in 432 stillborn and neonatal autopsies. Genital mycoplasmas were isolated from 36 cases (8.3%). Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis were present significantly more often in cases with genital mycoplasma than in those without these organisms. Isolation of genital mycoplasmas was not associated with an increased incidence of intrauterine fetal death, villitis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital anomalies, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes in alveolar spaces. Chlamydia trachomatis was not found in any of the sites sampled. PMID:3382330
Madan, E; Meyer, M P; Amortegui, A J
A 70-year-old woman died of systemic metastasis from anaplastic meningioma and underwent autopsy. The patient underwent twice total removal of the right sphenoid ridge meningioma 2 years ago. The tumor recurred 3 times, and then stereotactic radiotherapy was employed. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed for the fourth local recurrence and an additional new lesion. Proliferative activity of the newly developed meningioma, which had been treated with BNCT only, was significantly lower than that of untreated metastatic liver tumor, as well as that of the meningioma specimen obtained at the second surgery. Our pathological findings demonstrated, for the first time, the therapeutic effect of BNCT on anaplastic meningioma at an early stage (2.5 months). PMID:24807102
Kawaji, Hiroshi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Shinmura, Kazuya; Kawabata, Shinji; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki
Sirenomelia, a developmental defect involving the caudal region of the body, is associated with several internal visceral anomalies. We report a detailed spectrum of anomalies in an autopsy study of four fetuses with sirenomelia (gestational ages - 20, 21, 22.4, and 22.5 weeks). Three of the fetuses had single umbilical artery, with genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies. Central nervous system anomalies were evident in two of the fetuses, with alobar holoprosencephaly in one and lumbar meningomyelocele in another. The most common gastrointestinal anomaly was blind ended gut (imperforate anus), while esophageal atresia and omphalocele were noted in one case each. Renal hypoplasia was seen in two fetuses, renal agenesis in one and cystic renal dysplasia was noted in one case. Literature regarding pathogenesis of this condition is briefly discussed. PMID:24656289
Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Mahadevan, Anita; Gosavi, Manasi; Kangle, Ranjit; Anuradha; Shankar, S K
The aim of this study was to derive regression equations for estimating stature and further to estimate sex from four measured sternal lengths. This study included intact sterna from 65 males and 30 females, aged between 25 and 40 years, obtained during medico-legal autopsies. Stature and four sternal lengths, length of the manubrium (LM), length of the body (LB), length of the manubrium and body (LMB) and total sternal length, of each cadaver were measured. Stature and all measured sternal lengths were greater in males compared to females (p statistically significant (p < 0.05 for all). These findings suggested that measured sternal lengths can be used for estimation of sex. However, LB and LMB measurements were found to be the most reliable sternal lengths for estimating sex with an accuracy rate of 90 %. Our results revealed that the sternum is a useful tool for estimating stature and sex when other skeletal bones are not available. PMID:24748542
Yonguc, Goksin Nilufer; Kurtulus, Ayse; Bayazit, Onur; Adiguzel, Esat; Unal, Ilker; Demir, Sumeyra; Acar, Kemalettin
Thallium has been responsible for many intoxications since its discovery; however, toxicological profiles for thallium in human fatalities have not been updated recently. Autopsy, microscopic investigations, and toxicological analyses were performed on a married couple who died from thallium sulfate intended homicidal poisoning. The distribution of thallium was established by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hair samples showing the highest thallium concentration. Electron microscopy revealed a dystrophic condition of hair with disorganized cuticle and atrophy of the hair bulb. Thallium interacts with cells at different levels, with prominent ultrastructural injuries in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and high concentration of electron dense granules observed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of several organs. Alopecia, toxic encephalopathy, and peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed in the victims and suggested to be crucial implications for thallium poisoning. The analytical procedures used in this case are of considerable forensic importance in the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. PMID:25407479
Li, Shangxun; Huang, Wen; Duan, Yijie; Xing, Jingjun; Zhou, Yiwu
Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from aneurysmal rupture is very low in India when compared with that in the Western world and Japan. Either they are not recognised or diagnosed adequately or there may be a true decreased geographical/racial incidence. To have an idea of the true incidence of aneurysms, a study of Circle of Willis with its anatomical variations and incidence of atherosclerosis was carried out in 1021 consecutive autopsies. The incidence of anatomical variations was slightly less than that seen in most of the other studies. Atherosclerosis was seen in 9.2% of the Circles of Willis. There were only two aneurysms, both located at the bifurcation of middle cerebral artery. This incidence of 0.2% is definitely much lower than that seen in other series, thus, suggesting that the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from aneurysmal rupture is likely to be genuinely less in India. PMID:8215197
Bhagwati, S N; Deshpande, H G
Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disease resulting in defective copper metabolism, which is usually seen in young adults, predominantly affecting liver and brain. Although it is not uncommon in India, variation in epidemiology, clinical presentation and course are reported. However, community-based incidence and prevalence rates are not available in India and incidences are limited to hospital based reports. Most often, the diagnosis is delayed. We present a clinical autopsy case in a 39 year-old female who had presented with clinical symptoms at 18 years of age. The duration of illness was 21 years. Patient's parent had consanguineous marriage and the younger sibling had died at 5 years of age with similar complaints.
Raju, Kalyani; Bangalore, Gayathri Nagaraj; Thuruvekere, Suresh Nagaraj; Pathavanalli, Venkatarathnamma Narayanappa
Full Text Available An autopsy case of spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM was reported. The patient was a 75-year-old male and his initial neurologic symptoms were paraplegia, paresthesia below the umbilical level and urination difficulty. Subsequently night delirium and parkinsonism also appeared. The clinical and pathological findings in this case are identical with those in the spinal AVM except for Parkinson's disease. In addition, the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord in the middle thoracic segment showed pallor: Under light microscopy, the funiculus was spongiform, with a thinner wall of the myelin sheath, enlargement of the axon and the perivascular infiltration of phagocytes without plasma exudation. The changes in the lateral funiculus seemed to indicate early congestive changes.
A 41-year-old man was admitted with decompensated heart failure. Mechanical ventilation was maintained with a large dose of propofol. On day 4, significant ST elevation with complete atrioventricular block was noted, which subsequently induced cardiopulmonary arrest. Treatment with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and therapeutic hypothermia was initiated. Emergent cardiac angiography showed simultaneous multivessel coronary spasms. Although nitroglycerin and nicorandil were ineffective, the intracoronary administration of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, successfully resolved the vasospasms. However, during rewarming, the coronary vasospasms recurred, and the patient died of cardiogenic shock. In addition to hypertrophy, the autopsied heart demonstrated the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the pericardium and adventitia of the coronary arteries. PMID:24785887
Arakawa, Kentaro; Himeno, Hideo; Gondo, Toshikazu; Kirigaya, Jin; Otomo, Fumie; Matsushita, Kensuke; Nakahashi, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Satoru; Nitta, Manabu; Yano, Hideto; Endo, Mitsuaki; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi
Background In this study, our aim was to evaluate the fatal occupational accidents that occurred in Zonguldak coal mines between the years 2005–2008. Material/Methods We retrospectively evaluated 42 fatal coal mine occupational accidents in Zonguldak (Turkey) between the years 2005–2008. The forensic records of autopsies referred to the chief prosecutors’ office during 2005–2008 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 42 cases. The cases were evaluated with respect to age, mechanism of injury, body region of wound, cause of death, and legality of the mine. Results Ages of the deceased ranged between 17 and 52 (median: 32.9 yrs). Deaths were mostly in the 21–30 (35.8%), and 31–40 (30.9%) age groups. Only 1 case was younger than 18 years of age. Review of occupational fatalities has revealed that fatal accidents occurred mostly (76.2%) in the private, and fewer (23.8%) in the public mining enterprises. Crime scene investigation findings have demonstrated that of all occupational deaths (total n=42), 27 (64.3%) were due to subsidence, followed by methane gas poisoning (n=6, 14.2%), tram crash (n=3, 7.1%), log falls (n=2, 4.8%), electrocution (n=2, 4.8%), and methane explosion (n=2, 4.8%). Conclusions Despite laws and regulations concerning mining and because of problems in their implementation, Turkey leads the world in work-related accidents, occupational injuries, and deaths. Evaluation of autopsy findings of deaths in fatal occupational accidents occurring in coal mines is quite important in planning to decrease rates of occupational fatalities. PMID:24643126
Ozer, Erdal; Yilmaz, Riza; Evcuman, Durmus; Yildirim, Ali; Cetin, Ilhan; Kocak, Ugur; Ergen, Kivanc
Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. Methods We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron. Results There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255; gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p Conclusions The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.
Acton Ronald T
Full Text Available Abstract Background MeduMobile was a project to develop and evaluate learning scenarios for medical students and teachers by use of video communication and notebooks. Its core part was assigned to various medical routines, conferences or meetings such as doctor-patient bedside conversation. These were filmed by video teams and broadcasted live via the WLAN of the Charité campus to course participating students. One type of the learning arrangements was the autopsy conference as an on-call scenario. Materials and methods The MeduMobile project consisted of two main compartments: the regular seminar event which took place every week or month, and the on-call event. For an on-call event the students were informed two hours before the lesson's start. A mobile video team organised the video conference via a specific MeduMobile seminar system. This software offered the students to log. The MeduMobile seminar system is based on the Windows operating system and realises an extended video communication via WLAN. Thirteen access points were implemented at the Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum and Campus Mitte. A questionnaire was developed to investigate in the response and learning effect of the mobile seminar system. Results During the MeduMobile project 42 video conferences with (cumulative 145 participating students took place. Four autopsy conferences could be organised as on-call scenarios within this project. A prospective, not randomised follow-up study was included 25 students of the 1st – 6th clinical semester. According to the answers, professional reasoning, professional performance, sustainability, and the complexity were broadly accepted by the students. Discussion In principle, the MeduMobile realised an interdisciplinary case presentation using video conference and web page. The evaluation indicates a high acception of such complex case presentation with multidisciplinary settings. The use of the notebooks in mobile learning enables an interconnective training and promotes a complex learning.
Full Text Available A leptospirose é uma doença febril aguda septicêmica que afeta humanos e/ou animais com alta incidência mundial principalmente em países tropicais em desenvolvimento.É uma doença de ocorrência na zona rural e urbana com algumas características próprias ocupacionais ou recreativas. Os indivíduos mais acometidos na grande maioria das vezes são jovens ou adultos jovens. Aproximadamente 5% - 15% dospacientes apresentam a forma grave da doença conhecida como doença de Weill que pode se associar a síndrome da hemorragia pulmonar da leptospirose. Apresentamosum relato de autópsia de uma paciente octogenária, residente na zona urbana do município de São Paulo, internada no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, que apresentou quadro de evolução fulminante. A autópsia revelou comprometimento dos pulmões com hemorragia alveolar difusa e infiltração mononuclear dos septos alveolares. A histologia do fígado apresentava destrabeculação dos hepatócitos, alargamento dos sinusóides e hiperplasia das células de Kupfer. Necrose tubular aguda e nefrite intersticial caracterizaram a histologia dos rins. Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness affecting humans and/or animals, with a high global incidence mainly in the tropical developing countries. Outbreaks are frequently related to rainy season, floods and the presence of reservoirs animals more commonly rodents and dogs. The disease occurs in the rural and urban areas linked to some occupational and recreational activities. The younger population is at higher risk of infection. Approximately 5% - 15% of the patients develop the severemanifestations of the disease known as Weill’s disease that can be associated with leptospirosis pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome. We present an autopsy case of an octogenarian patient, resident of the urban area of the city of São Paulo, admitted to the Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, who presented a fulminant outcome. The autopsy revealed pulmonary involvement characterized by diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and interstitial mononuclear infiltration. The liver histology presented disorganization of the liver cell plates, congested sinusoids and Kupfer cells hyperplasia. Acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis was the hallmark of kidneys involvment.
Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos
Background: The study was designed to assess the atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries in cases subjected to autopsy to grade by applying Modified American Heart Association (AHA) classification, evaluate the atheromatous & vulnerable plaques to find out the to age and sex related prevalence of atherosclerosis in the semi-urban & urban population of Jamnagar, a district in Western India. Material & Methods: Autopsy was conducted on 264 cases whose age ranged from 8-79 years, by the conventional technique; heart was removed & dissected along the direction of blood flow. Microscopic assessment of the three main coronary arteries was done. Result: According to Modified AHA classification of atherosclerosis, maximum number of cases were in the 40-49 years age group. Intimal xanthoma was the most common type in all three coronary arteries. The number of males was 168(64%) and females was 96(36%). 59% males & 52% female were affected from atherosclerosis. An intermediate lesion was noted commonly in young individuals (10-39 years) and older individuals (40-79 years) were 46% & 41% respectively. Pathological Intimal thickening was more common in left anterior descending coronary artery compared to others. Thin fibrous cap atheroma was more common in Left circumflex artery than compared to Left anterior descending artery & Right coronary artery. Conclusion: The study highlights the impact of atherosclerotic lesions in the population of Jamnagar, a district in Gujarat state of Western India. The increased amount of intermediate atherosclerotic lesions found in the young population gives an indication that anti-atherogenic preventive measures and drastic dietary & life style modification need to be implemented in young individuals, this will help to prevent coronary artery disease from causing premature death that lead to huge financial burden on the economy and health sector of India. PMID:24392381
Bhanvadia, Viral M.; Desai, Nandini J.; Agarwal, Neeru M.
Background: Recent clinical and histopathologic data suggests that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery plaque instability and subsequent occlusive thrombosis. The intima has received much attention as a site of inflammation, while the adventitia has remained relatively unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of inflammatory activity in the cap and shoulder region of un ruptured, atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries and to correlate these findings with distribution of inflammatory cells in adventitia. Methods: The study was carried out in Histopathology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from August 2008 to July 2009. Sixty-seven autopsy cases performed at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan were selected. The cases were divided into study group and control group. Case group (n=35) included those where cause of death was ischemic heart disease. Those coronary arteries were taken as control (n=32) where atherosclerotic changes were found by chance (death without history of ischemic heart disease). Plaques in each group were assessed by light microscopy and by immunohistochemistry. Results: The ages of the deceased ranged from 38 to 49 years. Within study group, adventitial lymphocytes exhibited strong correlation with erosion, thrombus formation in culprit plaque (p=0.001). No correlation was found between adventitial T-lymphocytes and erosion oen adventitial T-lymphocytes and erosion of plaque (p=0.700) in control group. In 72% of culprit plaques moderate staining for T-lymphocytes was observed in adventitia as well as intima. In control group, most of the cases contained scattered cells. Few cases of stable plaques revealed lymphocytes as clusters, both in adventitia and in intima. Conclusion: Adventitial inflammation may play a pivotal role for atherosclerotic lesion histology and atheroma instability. With the help of these autopsy findings, we hope to be able to reduce the incidence of culprit plaques related to inflammatory reaction in patients of ischemic heart disease. (author)
An autopsy case of osteosarcoma derived from the right mandible was reported. The case was a 64 year-old-female who received radiotherapy (60Co) for Hodgkin's disease in the right neck 15 years prior to the development of her osteosarcoma. By autopsy findings, large nodular growths in the right facial region and the lung metastases of the osteosarcoma were remarkable. No recurrence of Hodgkin's disease was revealed by autopsy. The authors considered that right mandibular osteosarcoma were suspected to be radiation-induced according to the long latent interval and the development of the sarcoma derived from the same location of the irradiation field. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se actualiza la situación de la autopsia en Cuba y se contrasta con la de otros países. El propósito de este trabajo es argumentar criterios y propuestas en el intento de lograr que la autopsia sea aprovechada al máximo y brinde todos los beneficios que puede y debe aportar. Se destaca que, a pesar [...] de que el índice de autopsias ha descendido al 53,8 %, en fallecidos hospitalizados es mucho mayor que las de otros países. La aplicación de resultados de la investigación científica y de un Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control en Anatomía Patológica, contribuyeron a mejorar la calidad de la autopsia. Se señala el bajo aprovechamiento de los beneficios que brinda la autopsia. Cuba, puede y debe hacer más para confirmar su supremacía en el trabajo con la autopsia, que es una fortaleza de su Sistema Nacional de Salud. Se exponen las perspectivas que permitiría lograr estos propósitos y el papel fundamental que tienen los patólogos en el intento de alcanzar la máxima eficiencia de la autopsia y su mayor aprovechamiento apoyándose en las reuniones sobre fallecidos y en estrecha relación con el resto de los participantes en el proceso. Conseguir estas metas significa contribuir a alargar y hacer más feliz la vida del hombre. Abstract in english This paper presented an update on the situation of autopsy in Cuba and a comparison with that of other countries. The objective was to substantiate criteria and proposals in an attempt to make a full use of autopsy so that it may provide all the benefits that it can and should contribute to medicine [...] . It was underlined that, despite the decrease in the rate of autopsy to 53.8 %, the rate is much higher than that of other nations as far as hospitalized dead people are concerned. It analyzed the quality of autopsy and how some factors -the implementation of the scientific research results and of an automated system of registration and control in pathological anatomy- supported the rise of quality. There was pointed out the low utilization of the benefits of autopsy in the country. Cuba can and should do a lot more to confirm its supremacy in performing autopsy, which is one of the strengths of the Cuban national health care system. The perspectives that would allow attaining these objectives and the fundamental role of pathologists in achieving the highest efficiency and more utilization, supported on the meetings about the dead persons and in close relation with the rest of the participants in this process, were disclosed. Attainment of these goals means to extend the man's life and to make it happier.
José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Ignacio, Ygualada Correa.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se actualiza la situación de la autopsia en Cuba y se contrasta con la de otros países. El propósito de este trabajo es argumentar criterios y propuestas en el intento de lograr que la autopsia sea aprovechada al máximo y brinde todos los beneficios que puede y debe aportar. Se destaca que, a pesar [...] de que el índice de autopsias ha descendido al 53,8 %, en fallecidos hospitalizados es mucho mayor que las de otros países. La aplicación de resultados de la investigación científica y de un Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control en Anatomía Patológica, contribuyeron a mejorar la calidad de la autopsia. Se señala el bajo aprovechamiento de los beneficios que brinda la autopsia. Cuba, puede y debe hacer más para confirmar su supremacía en el trabajo con la autopsia, que es una fortaleza de su Sistema Nacional de Salud. Se exponen las perspectivas que permitiría lograr estos propósitos y el papel fundamental que tienen los patólogos en el intento de alcanzar la máxima eficiencia de la autopsia y su mayor aprovechamiento apoyándose en las reuniones sobre fallecidos y en estrecha relación con el resto de los participantes en el proceso. Conseguir estas metas significa contribuir a alargar y hacer más feliz la vida del hombre. Abstract in english This paper presented an update on the situation of autopsy in Cuba and a comparison with that of other countries. The objective was to substantiate criteria and proposals in an attempt to make a full use of autopsy so that it may provide all the benefits that it can and should contribute to medicine [...] . It was underlined that, despite the decrease in the rate of autopsy to 53.8 %, the rate is much higher than that of other nations as far as hospitalized dead people are concerned. It analyzed the quality of autopsy and how some factors -the implementation of the scientific research results and of an automated system of registration and control in pathological anatomy- supported the rise of quality. There was pointed out the low utilization of the benefits of autopsy in the country. Cuba can and should do a lot more to confirm its supremacy in performing autopsy, which is one of the strengths of the Cuban national health care system. The perspectives that would allow attaining these objectives and the fundamental role of pathologists in achieving the highest efficiency and more utilization, supported on the meetings about the dead persons and in close relation with the rest of the participants in this process, were disclosed. Attainment of these goals means to extend the man's life and to make it happier.
José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Ignacio, Ygualada Correa.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever ocorrência e morfologia da neurocisticercose (NCC) autópsias. Revisou-se 2218 autópsias realizadas no Hospital Escola da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), 1970-2003. Registrou-se idade, gênero e cor dos pacientes, analisou-se macroscopia e micr [...] oscopia da NCC. Encontrou-se 53 (2,4%) casos de NCC. A média das idades foi 50 anos, sendo 34 (64,1%) do sexo masculino e 36 (67,9%) brancos, não havendo diferença significante na comparação da idade, gênero e cor dos pacientes. Analisou-se macroscopicamente 17 cisticercos. A localização mais comum foi a meningo-cortical em 12 (70,6%) casos. Microscopicamente, os cisticercos apresentaram forma oval contendo a larva íntegra em 4 (23,5%) casos ou em grau de destruição em 13 (76,5%) casos. Portanto, na NCC foram verificados vários processos patológicos gerais (necrose, depósitos intersticiais, fibrose, gliose, inflamação) destacando-se: beta-fibrilose em 13 (76,5%) casos associada ao processo inflamatório em 16(94,1%) casos causado pelo parasito, ainda não relatada na NCC, e calcificação presente no parasito viável e em destruição. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to describe the occurrence and morphology of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in autopsies. We revised 2218 autopsies performed at the School Hospital from Federal Unversity of Triangulo Mineiro, 1970-2003. Data referring to age, gender and color of patients were reported and NCC w [...] as microscopically and macroscopically analyzed. We found 53 (2.4%) NCC cases. The mean age was 50 years old, 34 (64.1%) individuals were male and 36 (67.9%) white. Macroscopically, 17 cysticerci were analyzed. The most frequent location was meningocortical in 12 (70.6%) cases. Microscopically, the cysticerci presented an ovoid shape, containing the larvae preserved in 4 (23.5%) cases or in destruction degrees in 13 (76.5%) cases. Therefore, in NCC was found several general pathologic processes (necrosis, interstitial deposits, fibrosis, gliosis, inflammation) amongst which are highlighted beta-fibrillose in 13 (76.5%) cases associated to inflammatory process in 16 (94.1%) cases caused by the parasite, not yet related to NCC, and calcification present in viable and destruction parasites.
Ruy de Souza, Lino-Junior; Ana Carolina Guimarães, Faleiros; Marina Clare, Vinaud; Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Janaína Valadares, Guimarães; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis; Vicente de Paula Antunes, Teixeira.
The origin of the psychological autopsy was in the late 1950s and the result of a collaboration between the Los Angeles County Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner's Office and the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center. It was conceptualized as a thorough retrospective analysis of the decedent's state of mind and intention at the time of death. It was used initially in "equivocal" deaths where the manner of death was possibly either suicide or accident. Later, it was used in cases where a party (primarily family members) protested the Medical Examiner-Coroner's suicide determination. Over the past 25 years, the University of Southern California Institute of Psychiatry, Law, and Behavioral Science has served as the psychiatric/psychological consultants to the Coroner's Department. Research findings, the use of this approach in high-profile cases, and the most recent manner in which the psychological autopsy is conducted are discussed. PMID:23551031
Botello, Timothy; Noguchi, Thomas; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H
Pulmonary venous stenosis is rare and is most commonly found in association with cardiac malformations. Recent studies have associated pulmonary venous stenosis with prematurity, especially with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, although no such case has been documented at autopsy. We report the case of a 26-week-gestation infant who required ventilation at birth and who, among other complications, developed chronic lung disease of prematurity by the age of 3 months. Imaging showed suprasystemic right-sided pressures and pulmonary venous stenosis. Despite aggressive management of respiratory status and surgical marsupialization of stenoses, the infant expired after 3 weeks. At autopsy, 3 of 4 pulmonary veins showed a fibrous ridge obstructing atrial ostia with otherwise normal anatomy. The lungs showed bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertensive vascular changes, and features of venous obstruction. Pulmonary venous stenosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants may be pathogenetically related. Coincidence of these diseases is likely underrecognized, and careful cardiac examination in these patients is warranted. PMID:22313395
Smith, Steven Christopher; Rabah, Raja
The method most often used in Sweden for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from animal autopsy material is a cold enrichment method. This method is very slow. The International Dairy Federation (IDF) has recently presented a method for detection of L. monocytogenes in milk and milk products that is complete in one week. During a two year period 69 specimens from dead animals with suspected listeriosis were examined for L. monocytogenes in parallel analyses with both the cold enrichment method and the IDF method. Samples derived from different autopsy material representing a variety of animals. L. monocytogenes was isolated in 27.5% of the samples with the IDF method but only in 4.3% with the cold enrichment method. It is concluded that the IDF method was more sensitive than the cold enrichment method. PMID:8236778
Eld, K; Danielsson-Tham, M L; Gunnarsson, A; Tham, W
This is a restrospective correlative study of cranial computed tomography (CT) and autopsy findings in 50 patients after central nervous system radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Most patients had more than one posttherapy CT scan and all cases were autopsied. Twenty-six cases (52%) showed no posttherapy CT changes. In 18 cases (36%) enlargement of intracranial subarachnoid spaces and/or ventricles was seen on CT, but only two of these cases showed gross atrophy on postmortem examination; even in these, the cortex was histologically normal, suggesting that these CT changes may be reversible. In six cases a decrease in white-matter density was seen on CT. Two of these cases were histologically normal, two cases showed some white-matter rarefaction, one case contained multiple foci of white-matter and vessel well necrosis, and one case had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
Wang, A.M.; Skias, D.D.; Rumbaugh, C.L.; Schoene, W.C.; Zamani, A.
Although the Japanese Thorotrast study was limited by the number of cases that could be followed or autopsied, (286 and 333) the following conclusions were made:- 1. Shortening of the lifespan occurred in the intravascular Thorotrast follow-up cases as compared with their controls. 2. The incidence of malignant hepatic tumours, liver cirrhosis, blood diseases and carcinoma of the gall-bladder was significantly higher in the intravascular Thorotrast cases than in their controls. 3. A chronological change occurred in the distribution of histological types of Thorotrast-induced malignant hepatic tumours during the 42-year period from 1945 to 1986. 4. A significantly higher rate of malignant peritoneal tumours was proved in the intravascular Thorotrast autopsy series as compared with the control autopsy series. 5. From the relationship between the follow-up study and the autopsy series, the authors estimated that 2000-3000 Japanese lived more than 3 years after intravascular injection of Thorotrast. (author)
Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in younger persons. Specifically, we recorded information on symptoms, comorbidity, medical contact, if this had been required, and subsequent autopsy findings.
Theilade, J; Winkel, B G
We set out to investigate suicide among women in a post-conflict context in Northern Uganda using qualitative psychological autopsy interviews. Three to five relatives and friends for each of the three suicides recruited were interviewed (N=11). Through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) we found that the women all had been through traumatic experiences attributable to the protracted war/conflict between the rebel groups and Ugandan Government armed forces. Nevertheless, the decis...
Kizza, Dorothy; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Kinyanda, Eugene; Hjelmeland, Heidi
Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an av...
Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.
Reduction of deaths associated with malaria in children is a primary goal of malaria control programmes in Africa, but there has been little discussion about how changes in mortality will be measured. This paper assesses recent historical changes in the contribution of malaria to child survival in Africa by examining data from demographic surveillance systems (DSS) in 25 mainly rural settings. The data were adjusted for the varying sensitivity and specificity of verbal autopsies (VA) in diffe...
Korenromp, El; Williams, Bg; Gouws, E.; Dye, C.; Snow, Rw
Aberrant central nervous system zinc homeostasis has been reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, there are conflicting reports describing zinc concentration either increased or decreased in the brain of AD patients. Such discrepancies may be due to differences in the brain area examined, zinc detection method, and/or tissue composition. Furthermore, detection and measurement of the releasable zinc pool in autopsy tissue is difficult and usually unreliable. Obtaining an adequate asse...
Bjorklund, Nicole L.; Sadagoparamanujam, V. M.; Taglialatela, Giulio
The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreati...
Embuscado, Erlinda E.; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G. Steven; Iacobuzio-donahue, Christine A.
The authors present the results of the autopsy of the exhumed corpse of general W?adys?aw Sikorski, the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, deceased in Gibraltar on the 4th of July, 1943. Multiple multilocal bone fractures, indicated that death occurred as a results of multi-organ injuries that might correspond to the effects of an aircraft crash. PMID:19711813
Wo?niak, Krzysztof; Gross, Adam; Konopka, Tomasz; Pohl, Jerzy; K?ys, Ma?gorzata
Introduction. The increasing global prevalence of suicide has made it a major public health concern. Research designed to retrospectively study suicide cases is now being conducted in populations around the world. This field of research is especially crucial in Aboriginal populations, as they often have higher suicide rates than the rest of the country. Objective. This article presents the methodological aspects of the first psychological autopsy study on suicide among Inuit in Nunavut. Qauji...
Eduardo Chachamovich; Jack Haggarty; Margaret Cargo; Jack Hicks; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Gustavo Turecki
The relationship between endothelial reactivity to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) and the permeability of the vascular wall in human autopsied cases ol' cerebral infarction was studied. Sections from the cerebral cortex were reacted with horseradish peroxidase UEA-1 to demonstrate the surface membrane of endothelial cells. Albumin in the neuropil of sections was de~nonstrated for the estimation of increased vascular permeability. The results showed that en...
Eizi Kadota; Kurenai Tanji; Shozo Nishida; Manabu Takahashi; Mitsuyo Maeda; Shingo Hiruma; Yoshiki Enomoto; Shigeo Hashimoto; Fumiharu Akai
Abstract A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell’s palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1?month after the symptom onset. At autopsy,...
Yamada Sohsuke; Tanimoto Akihide; Nabeshima Atsunori; Tasaki1 Takashi; Wang Ke-Yong; Kitada Shohei; Noguchi Hirotsugu; Sasaguri Yasuyuki
This 4th edition of Handbook of Autopsy Practice is a thoroughly updated version. Autopsy practice has undergone significant changes in recent time due to technological advancements such as molecular diagnostics, immunohistochemisty and the introduction of post-mortem imaging techniques. In the same period the autopsy rate in teaching hospitals has declined. A comprehensive and updated version is therefore most welcome. Part I have six completely new chapters, and contain an assortment of tools of great practical value for the forensic pathologist. There is for example a next-of-kin letter for the family of the deceased and a quality assurance worksheet. The text is written in a well-formulated language, and is not too long. The illustrations and photos are of a high quality. All photos are black-and-white. The book covers a broad area of relevance to autopsy practice, including specialized techniques used for post-mortem investigation of the cardio-vascular system, the nervous system and eye and adnexa. Autopsy microbiology, chemistry and chromosome analysis and autopsies of bodies containing radioactive material are also among the topics that are addressed in this handbook, as well as post-mortem imaging techniques. Part II begins with a list of special histologic stains, but the bulk is devoted to an alphabetic listing of major diseases with possible or expected findings and recommended procedures. This part has also been updated with new diseases and recent references. Part III provides a series of tables providing organ weights and body measurements for foetuses, children and adults. The Handbook of Autopsy Practice fulfils its purpose, and is a very worthwhile purchase for any autopsy facility.
Leth, Peter Mygind
Autopsy-proven causes of death in lungs of patients immunocompromised by secondary interstitial pneumonia Causas de óbito por pneumonia intersticial secundária em autópsias pulmonares de pacientes imunocomprometidos
PURPOSE: To present the more frequent associations found in autopsies of immunocompromised patients who developed secondary interstitial pneumonia as well as the risk of death (odds ratio) in having specific secondary interstitial pneumonia according to the cause of immunocompromise. METHOD: From January 1994 to March 2004, 17,000 autopsies were performed at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. After examining the pathology report review, we selected 558 of these auto...
Alberto Antonio Terrabuio Junior; Edwin Roger Parra; Cecília Farhat; Vera Luiza Capelozzi
The concentrations of a number of metals were determined in the brain, bone, kidney, liver, and lung of 20 autopsied subjects who had lived, at least 10 years, in the neighborhood of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). Results were compared with those obtained in 1998 (baseline survey) and previous surveys (2003 and 2007). Arsenic, Be, Ni, Tl, and V showed concentrations below the corresponding detection limits in all tissues. Cadmium showed the highest levels in the kidney, with a mean value of 21.15 ?g/g. However, Cd was found below the detection limit in the brain and bone. Chromium showed similar concentrations in the kidney, brain, and lung (range of mean values, 0.57-0.66 ?g/g) and higher in the bone (1.38 ?g/g). In turn, Hg was below the detection limit in all tissues with the exception of the kidney, where the mean concentration was 0.15 ?g/g (range, highest levels in the liver and kidney (1.45 and 1.09 ?g/g, respectively). Moreover, Pb showed the highest concentrations in bone (mean, 1.39 ?g/g; range, highest values in the bone (0.17 ?g/g). The current metal levels in human tissues from individuals living near the HWI of Tarragona are comparable and of a similar magnitude to previously reported results corresponding to general populations, as well as those of our previous surveys. PMID:24728924
Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Barbería, Eneko; García, Francisco; Domingo, José L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between splenic arteriolar hyaline and cause of death. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of splenic arteriolar hyaline in autopsy cases and estimate the applicability of hyaline for diagnosing the cause and rapidity of death. Methods Archival data and histological slides from 82 cases were reviewed retrospectively. One section of each spleen was evaluated microscopically. The tinctorial pattern of splenic arteriolar hyaline was examined with Heidenhain’s Azan trichrome stain, and the relationships between this pattern and age, cause of death, and rapidity of death were investigated. Results Fifty-four cases demonstrated hyaline change, with 3 different tinctorial patterns: red, blue, and a combination of red and blue. The 3 patterns coexisted in various proportions in each tissue section. Frequency of the blue pattern increased with age (P?P? Conclusions Estimation of splenic arteriolar hyaline with Heidenhain’s Azan trichrome stain is useful for assessment of the cause and rapidity of death. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1132441651796836
Computed tomographic findings of atherosclerosis in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Peru, the American Southwest and the Aleutian Islands challenge our understanding of the fundamental causes of atherosclerosis. Could these findings be true? Is so, what traditional risk factors might be present in these cultures that could explain this apparent paradox? The recent computed tomographic findings are consistent with multiple autopsy studies dating as far back as 1852 that demonstrate calcific atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptians and Peruvians. A nontraditional cause of atherosclerosis that could explain this burden of atherosclerosis is the microbial and parasitic inflammatory burden likely to be present in ancient cultures inherently lacking modern hygiene and antimicrobials. Patients with chronic systemic inflammatory diseases of today, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, experience premature atherosclerosis and coronary events. Might the chronic inflammatory load of ancient times secondary to infection have resulted in atherosclerosis? Smoke inhalation from the use of open fires for daily cooking and illumination represents another potential cause. Undiscovered risk factors could also have been present, potential causes that technologically cannot currently be measured in our serum or other tissue. A synthesis of these findings suggests that a gene-environmental interplay is causal for atherosclerosis. That is, humans have an inherent genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, whereas the speed and severity of its development are secondary to known and potentially unknown environmental factors. PMID:25667093
Thomas, Gregory S; Wann, L Samuel; Allam, Adel H; Thompson, Randall C; Michalik, David E; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Lombardi, Guido P; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Valladolid, Clide M; Abd El-Maksoud, Gomaa; Al-Tohamy Soliman, Muhammad; Badr, Ibrahem; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Clarke, Emily M; Thomas, Ian G; Miyamoto, Michael I; Kaplan, Hillard S; Frohlich, Bruno; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Zink, Albert; Finch, Caleb E
Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F1) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F2) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F1 and F2. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F1 and F2. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F1 and F2. (author)
The extent and importance of genotype heterogeneity of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis within lungs have not previously been investigated. Two hundred forty PCR clones obtained from respiratory specimens and lung segments from three patients with fatal P. carinii pneumonia were investigated to detect genetic diversity in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rRNA operon, the mitochondrial large-subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene, and the dihydropteroate synthase-encoding gene. For two of the three examined patients, a mixture of different mtLSU rRNA and ITS genotypes was observed. Not all genotypes present in the lungs at autopsy were detected in the diagnostic respiratory samples. Compartmentalization of specific ITS and mtLSU rRNA sequence types was observed in different lung segments. In conclusion, the interpretation of genotype data and in particular ITS sequence types in the assessment of epidemiological questions should be cautious since genotyping done on respiratory samples cannot a priori be assumed to represent all genotypes present within the lung.
Helweg-Larsen, J; Lundgren, Bettina
The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital malformation of the diaphragm, resulting in the herniation of the abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. The most common types of congenital diaphragmatic hernia are Bochdalek hernia (postero-lateral hernia), Morgagni hernia (anterior defect), and diaphragm eventration (abnormal displacement of part or all of an otherwise intact diaphragm into the chest cavity). Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a life-threatening pathology in infants, and a major cause of death due to pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. We present a fatal case of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a newborn. At the autopsy, a central defect of the diaphragm was found, 8?×?5?cm in size, that led to a herniation of the small intestine, the right lobe of the liver, and the right adrenal gland into the thorax. An esophageal atresia was associated with the congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The lungs showed severe hypoplasia and atelectasia. Physicians should pay attention to a prenatal diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in order to prevent newborn fatalities. PMID:25573226
Bolino, Giorgio; Gitto, Lorenzo; Serinelli, Serenella; Maiese, Aniello
In this study, we compared the clinicopathological findings of two autopsy cases of patients with calpainopathy (LGMD2A) from different families. The patient in case 1 was a 72-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. He exhibited recent memory impairments from the age of 70. ECG revealed an incomplete right bundle branch block. A homozygous frameshift mutation c.1796dupA was found in the CAPN3 gene. Cause of death was respiratory insufficiency and heart failure. The patient in case 2 was a 70-year-old man with a history of hypertension. ECG revealed an incomplete right bundle branch block. A homozygous missense mutation c.1080G>C (p.Trp360Cys) in CAPN3 gene was identified. Cause of death was ischemic cardiomyopathy and systemic circulatory failure. In both cases, muscle pathology revealed severe dystrophic changes. In case 2, cardiac hypertrophy and old myocardial infarcts with stenosis of coronary arteries were observed. Histological examination of the sinoatrial node showed fatty infiltration with ischemic changes in case 2. In both cases, the patients' brains showed cerebral atrophy and well preserved neurons. Calpain 3 abnormality was correlated with skeletal muscle involvement. It should be considered that LGMD2A might be complicated by dysfunction of the cardiac conduction system. PMID:25200581
Hashiguchi, Shuji; Adachi, Katsuhito; Inui, Toshio; Arii, Yoshiharu; Kashiwagi, Setsuko; Saito, Miho; Kagawa, Noriko; Kawai, Hisaomi
Full Text Available Primary angiitis of CNS(PACNS or granulomatous angiitis of CNS is a rare inflammatory disease of small blood vessels mostly confined to the CNS. The clinical and pathological features of 3 autopsied cases are described. Clinically all the three PACNS patients were young males, age ranging from 19 to 31 years. All presented with varied neurological manifestations. There was no evidence of systemic disease in any of the cases. The ESR was normal and CSF analysis showed chronic meningitic pattern. The cerebral angiogram in one case was normal and the CT scan done in another case showed multiple intracerebral haematoma due to vasculitis. Brain biopsy was not done. Diagnosis was made at post-mortem examination. Histology showed characteristic but variable degree of granulomatous and non-granulomatous angiitis of small vessels. Venulitis with parenchymal haemorrhages was the predominant feature and in one case phlebitis with thrombosis was noted. Since the disease responds to steroids and immunosuppressive therapy, establishing antemortem diagnosis is important. In view of the association of angiitis of CNS with bacteria and viral infections, their role in the evolution of the disease needs to be investigated.
Recent organ retention scandals and law suits have created a focus on the practice of saving postmortem tissues for extended examination or research purposes. The New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator (OMI) established a policy to notify families about organ retention and the subsequent disposition of the tissue. The OMI examined the success of this policy in regards to the retention of brains for extended examination by analyzing data abstracted from verbal consent forms from 2003 to 2006. During this time, 715 cases were identified as needing an extended examination of the brain. The percentages of brains saved in any given year, as a percent of the total number of autopsies performed that year, were: 2003 6.5%, 2004 10.4%, and 2005 11.8%. The disposition was cremation in 79% of cases, release with the body after a determined period of time in 14%, and cut fresh in 4%. In conclusion, the instigation of a policy on the verbal notification of the next of kin when organs are retained can be successfully implemented. PMID:20102456
Krinsky, Clarissa S; Lathrop, Sarah L; Reichard, Robert Ross
We retrospectively analyzed central tegmental tract (CTT) lesions in 120 consecutive autopsy cases of developmental brain disorders to investigate the significance of symmetrical CTT lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CTT lesions have been sporadically reported in various cases of child neurological diseases. In this study, symmetrical CTT lesions were observed in 25 (20.8%) among 120 cases of developmental brain disorders. These 25 cases were classified into three groups (groups I-III) in decreasing order of the severity of the lesion. Compared to five cases of group I in which CTT lesions were accompanied by diffuse tegmental damage, 20 cases of groups II or III developed relatively selective CTT lesions in which the medial longitudinal fasciculus and/or medial or lateral lemniscus were preserved. The causes of brain disorders in all three groups seemed to be different, and lysosomal disorders and congenital brain anomalies were frequently seen in cases in groups II and III, respectively. The dentato-rubro-olivary system is known to be involved in palatal myoclonus, and five out of 13 cases in group II showed myoclonic epilepsy. Compared with 95 cases without the CTT lesion, the changes in the pontine reticular formation were more closely associated with the CTT lesion than those in the inferior olivary nucleus. In conclusion, in cases of developmental brain disorders, the neuropathology of the symmetrical CTT lesion should be investigated. PMID:20970935
Shioda, Mutsuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Osawa, Makiko
This paper reports the results of a forensic pathological study of 89 autopsy cases of Sudden Coronary Death (SCD). Of 89 cases, 63 (52 male, 11 female) were narrowed by 76-100% in cross-sectional area (XSA) of the coronary artery (CA) and 26 (22 male, 4 female), by 51-75%. Atherosclerotic plaques in the CA were serious and extensive, especially in the left anterior descending and often involved several branches of CA at the same time. Recent thrombosis was found in 18 cases, haemorrhage in plaques in 17 cases. Only 2 cases had visible acute myocardial infarction. Inflammatory cell infiltration was found in coronary plaques in 36 cases. Myocardial fibrosis or small scar formation was detected in 51 cases. It is suggested that although the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is low in China, SCD is the commonest mode of Sudden Unexpected Death. The majority of SCD (52%) were middle aged males (30-49 years old). Most of the cases died suddenly during sleep without any clear precipitating factors. The characteristics of occurrence and pathological changes in the CA and myocardium and the pathological diagnosis of SCD are also analysed and discussed. PMID:1473804
Chen, X; Huang, G
Esophageal symptoms in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) have been investigated radiologically. We investigated the esophageal lesions in MCTD histopathologically, and analyzed relationships between these lesions and autoantibodies extracted from the serum of MCTD patients. Esophageal tissues from 27 MCTD patients submitted to autopsy were examined. We compared histopathological features of the esophagus in different wall layers from the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layer to the adventitia, and in the upper, middle, and lower portions of esophagus. The most striking change observed was severe atrophy and occasional loss of smooth muscle cells in the muscular layer, followed by fibrosis. These muscular changes were particularly prominent in the inner layer of the lower esophagus. Immunohistochemically, degenerated muscular tissues of the esophagus were positive for anti-IgG and anti-C3 antibodies, but not for anti-IgM antibodies. IgG fractions extracted from three MCTD patients were immunohistochemically used to examine whether some antibodies in MCTD patients showed reactivity for esophageal components. The IgG fractions isolated from MCTD patients reacted with smooth muscle from non-connective tissue disease cases, suggesting that some serum antibodies may trigger esophageal changes. These findings suggest that esophageal lesions associated with clinical dysphagia in MCTD may be related to autoantibodies. PMID:21620578
Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Watanabe, Mika; Sasaki, Nobuhito; Miura, Yasuhiro; Sawai, Takashi
The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of unnatural deaths in the elderly. Data were collected on 4405 male and female victims of unnatural deaths aged 50 years or more from the total number of 21,235 autopsies performed in King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India over a 5-year period, from 2008 to 2012. There were 3165 male victims and 1240 female victims. Unnatural deaths were higher in rural (64%) than in urban (37%) areas. Accidental deaths were the most common manner of unnatural deaths (59%), followed by suicidal deaths (34%) and homicidal deaths (7%). Traumas were the most common cause of unnatural death (77.3%), followed by undetermined causes (16.6%) and toxicological causes (6.1%). The most common causes of traumatic deaths were blunt head injuries (34%) followed by stab in the chest (6%), burn (16%), blunt injuries in abdomen and chest (10%), firearm injuries in the head and trunk (9%), strangulation (3%), stab in the abdomen (4%), smothering (4%), cut throat (3%), throttling (1%) and hanging (10%). Carbamate poisoning was the most common cause of toxicological deaths (44%) followed by organophosphorous poisoning (33%), ethyl alcohol poisoning (12%), barbiturate poisoning (3%) and zinc phosphide poisoning (8%). PMID:24166690
Kumar, S; Verma, A K
The aim of this investigation was to identify and characterise pathogenic mutations in a sudden cardiac death (SCD) cohort suspected of cardiomyopathy in persons aged 0-40 years. The study material for the genetic screening of cardiomyopathies consisted of 41 cases and was selected from the case database at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. Mutational screening by DNA sequencing was performed to detect mutations in DNA samples from deceased persons suspected of suffering from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricle cardiomyopathy (ARVC). A total of 9 of the examined 41 cases had a rare sequence variant in the MYBPC3, MYH7, LMNA, PKP2 or TMEM43 genes, of which 4 cases (9.8%) were presumed to be pathogenic mutations. The presumed pathogenic mutations were distributed with one case of suspected HCM and DCM (MYH7; p.R442H), one case of suspected DCM (LMNA; p.R471H), and two cases of suspected ARVC (PKP2; p.R79X and LMNA; p.R644C). The presented data adds important information on the genetic elements of SCD in the young, and calls for expert pathological evaluation and molecular autopsy in the post-mortem examination of SCD victims with structural anomalies of the heart.
Larsen, Maiken Kudahl; Nissen, P H
Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.
Cardiac disease and cardiac death in AIDS patients is seldom reported. In recent years minor cardiac abnormalities have been demonstrated, especially by echocardiography. Cardiac pathology in AIDS patients is here reported from 60 consecutive autopsies where the heart was investigated either using single samples of ventricular myocardium (the first 21 cases) or by an examination of the whole heart (the last 39 cases). Myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria was seen in 25 of 60 cases (42%), and in seven of these cases a probable pathogen (Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, fungi) was demonstrated. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis was seen in 40 of 60 cases (67%) and is considered to be partly due to repair after myocyte necrosis/myocarditis. A myocardium thus weakened might not be able to meet an increase in functional demand, and in 15 of the 39 cases (38%) where an examination of the whole heart was performed, there was dilation and/or hypertrophy of the right ventricle. This is in agreement with our knowledge that the main diseases and main causes of death in AIDS patients are pulmonary. Survival time in AIDS is increasing due to ever improving symptomatic treatment, and the results of this study indicate that the prevalence of especially right-sided heart failure will increase.
Hansen, B F
Full Text Available Infecção assintomática por Strongyloides stercoralis pode resultar em doença potencialmente fatal em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Os autores relatam caso de hiperinfecção por Strongyloides stercoralis descoberto à autópsia, enfatizando aspectos clinicopatológicos, em homem de 55 anos, em tratamento para mieloma múltiplo. Apresentava, havia um dia, cefaléia intensa, dor abdominal e oligúria desenvolvendo insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque séptico. Devido à dificuldade no diagnóstico, o tratamento empírico antes do início da terapia imunossupressora pode ser a melhor estratégia para prevenir a hiperinfecção pelo verme.Asymptomatic infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis may result in potentially fatal disease in immunodepressed patients. A case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection discovered at autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had been undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma is reported, emphasizing the clinical and pathological findings. One day earlier, he presented severe headache, abdominal pain and oliguria, from which he developed acute respiratory failure and septic shock. Because of difficulty in reaching this diagnosis, empirical treatment before starting immunosuppressive therapy may be the best strategy for preventing hyperinfection by this worm.
Moema Gonçalves Pinheiro Veloso
To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)
Full Text Available Se define el concepto de autopsia psicológica desde su origen en los años cincuenta en California cuando empezó a utilizarse buscando un acercamiento a la comprensión de las circunstancias que rodearon la muerte de un individuo, investigando retrospectivamente sus características de personalidad y las condiciones que tuvo en vida. Se establecen las características del método y su utilidad en psiquiatría clínica y en psiquiatría forense, siendo relevante su aplicación en psiquiatría forense, siendo relevante su aplicaci ón potencial en el diseño de políticas de promoción de la salud y prevención de suicidio, homicidio o accidentes. Finalmente se resumen algunos resultados obtenidos mediante su aplicación en el Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Colombia.From its origins in California, in the fifties, the concept of psychological autopsy is defined. Understand of circunstances around the death of an individual, along with the study of his or her distinctive personality traits and life condition constitute its aim. Method characteristics and its usefulness in clinical forensic psychiatry, and accidents programs in suicide, homicide and accidents are established. Finally, some results in the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic of Colombia are here presented.
IVÁN ALBERTO JIMÉNEZ ROJAS
Objective: To know the frequency of fatal poisoning in Peshawar regarding the toxic agents mostly involved and year wise percentage. To know the age group and the gender that is most vulnerable to fatal poisoning. Results: Poisoning was the cause of death in 1.48% of the total autopsies conducted during the five years. Males were more involved than the females, 90.38%. Suicidal poisoning was present in 17.30% of the total cases and accidental poisoning was found in 80.72% cases, while homicidal cases were 1.29% only. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the most commonly involved agent, 65.38%, of the total cases. The incidence of poisoning was more during the third and fourth decades of life. Conclusion: Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the main causative agent involved in young males due to accidental over-dosage. Accidental and suicidal deaths should not be considered as inevitable. More elaborative studies are required in this area of recent research to adopt appropriate and adequate measures to save precious lives.(author)
A 71-year-old female with Stage IIIB primary adenocarcinoma was administered a three-drug combination therapy consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin and bevacizumab as a first-line treatment based on the Phase II clinical trial. On the 32nd day after the fourth course of chemotherapy, the patient developed bloody sputum. She was found dead at home on the 34th day. Autopsy revealed a diffuse alveolar hemorrhage without diffuse alveolar damage. Endothelial cells of the small arteries and capillaries were swollen and desquamated, indicating that alveolar capillaries were injured. The similar pathological changes in blood vessels were also observed in the kidney and the digestive tract. Because diffuse alveolar hemorrhage caused by cisplatin and docetaxel has never been reported apart from interstitial pneumonitis, bevacizumab is the most suspicious drug for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in our case. Chest physicians and oncologists should be aware that although it is very rare, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage can develop during any course of chemotherapy with bevacizumab. PMID:24683198
Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Kato, Terufumi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Ogata, Ryo; Baba, Tomohisa; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Okudela, Koji; Ogura, Takashi
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A patient with mantle cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented herself with fever, nausea, right upper quadrant pain on the 7th day of R-CHOP chemotherapy. After hospitalization with the suspicion of acute cholecystitis, she received antibiotherapy with G-CSF because of emerging neutropenia at the 10th [...] day of chemotherapy. Abdominal computed tomography revealed small infarcts in the spleen and kidneys. The echymotic lesion which developed on her right lateral malleolus, became bullous in the following days and treated as ecthyma gangrenosum. Altough the patient was afebrile with a normal neutrophil count on the third day of antibiotherapy, she developed acute renal failure and deteriorated rapidly. The patient underwent hemodialysis but expired on the 10th day of hospitalization. Post mortem autopsy findings showed ischemic infarction and necrosis of parenchyma due to mycotic thrombosis of arteries and veins of many organs (heart, lung, diaphgram, kidneys, spleen, gut mucosa) as well as invasion of vessel walls and parenchyma by mucor. We reviewed mucormycosis in the light of this case.
Inci, Alacacioglu; Aydanur, Kargi; Mehmet Ali, Ozcan; Ozden, Piskin; Cilem, Solak; Mustafa, Secil; Mehtat, Unlu; Fatih, Demirkan; Guner Hayri, Ozsan; Bulent, Undar.
Full Text Available A patient with mantle cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented herself with fever, nausea, right upper quadrant pain on the 7th day of R-CHOP chemotherapy. After hospitalization with the suspicion of acute cholecystitis, she received antibiotherapy with G-CSF because of emerging neutropenia at the 10th day of chemotherapy. Abdominal computed tomography revealed small infarcts in the spleen and kidneys. The echymotic lesion which developed on her right lateral malleolus, became bullous in the following days and treated as ecthyma gangrenosum. Altough the patient was afebrile with a normal neutrophil count on the third day of antibiotherapy, she developed acute renal failure and deteriorated rapidly. The patient underwent hemodialysis but expired on the 10th day of hospitalization. Post mortem autopsy findings showed ischemic infarction and necrosis of parenchyma due to mycotic thrombosis of arteries and veins of many organs (heart, lung, diaphgram, kidneys, spleen, gut mucosa as well as invasion of vessel walls and parenchyma by mucor. We reviewed mucormycosis in the light of this case.
Five autopsy cases involving electrocution were examined to determine the pathophysiology of death. Cases 1-4 (industrial accidents: about 160-3800 V-AC) showed pathological findings of acute death, whereas Case 5 (suicide: 100 V-AC) showed those of subacute death. Electrical marks were observed as collapsed blisters with/without charring in Cases 1-4, and markedly charred burns with erythema in Case 5. There was evident cardiomyolysis in Cases 3 and 4, and marked congestive edema of the lungs in Cases 3 and 5. In postmortem biochemistry, a peculiar elevation of creatine kinase-MB in the heart blood was seen in Cases 1 and 2, suggesting myocardial cytoplasmic membrane injury. In Cases 3 and 4, showing cardiomyolysis, cardiac troponin I was markedly elevated in the heart and peripheral blood, suggesting cardiac myofibrillary injury. Case 5 showed findings of prolonged hypoxia and skeletal muscle injury involving elevations in serum uric acid and creatinine, and a typical pattern of acute respiratory distress in pulmonary surfactant immunostaining. These findings suggest that the main fatal factors were acute circulatory failure following myocardial injury in Cases 1 and 2, more advanced myocardial injury in Cases 3 and 4, and respiratory failure due to skeletal muscle injury in Case 5. The present study suggested that the mode of death due to electrocution might be closely related to the macromorphology of electrical marks. PMID:19369109
Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Zhao, Dong; Kamikodai, Yasunobu; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi
Despite the availability of modern imaging and molecular tools, traditional autopsy, and laboratory findings remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of drowning. This article presents two cases of freshwater drowning in which hemolytic staining of the endocardium of the left heart chambers was observed at autopsy. One case was a suicidal drowning of an 84-year-old man, and the other case was an accidental drowning of an 86-year-old woman. In both cases, there was marked hemolytic staining of the endocardium of the left atrium and ventricle. The endocardium of the right heart chambers was clear and transparent in appearance. Hemolytic intimal staining of the aortic root was observed in one case. Gettler's test was positive in both cases. Hemolytic discoloration of the endocardium of the left heart chambers after freshwater drowning is analogous to hemolytic staining of the aortic root. Both staining patterns result from the hypo-osmolar hemolysis that occurs in the left heart chambers and systemic circulation after hypotonic fluid passes across the alveolocapillary membrane. Hemolytic discoloration of the endocardium of the left heart chambers at autopsy may support a diagnosis of freshwater drowning. PMID:25326681
Zátopková, Lenka; Hejna, Petr; Janík, Martin
Hemopericardium is a common finding at autopsy, but it may represent a challenge for the forensic pathologist when the etiopathological relationship in causing death is requested. Hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade can be evaluated in living people using radiological techniques, in particular computer tomography (CT). Only a few studies are reported in literature involving post-mortem (PM) cases, where PMCT imaging has been used in order to investigate acute hemopericardium, and they have shown a good accuracy of this technique. Here we report a case involving a 70-year-old white male found dead on the beach, with a medical history of hepatitis C and chronic hypertension with a poor pharmacological response. A PMCT was performed about 3 h after the discovery of the body. The PMCT examination showed an intrapericardial aortic dissection associated to a periaortic hematoma, a sickle-shaped intramural hematoma, a false lumen, and a hemopericardium consisting in fluid and clotted blood. In this case, the PMCT was able to identify the cause of death, even though a traditional autopsy was required to confirm the radiological findings. PMCT is a reliable technique, which in chosen cases, can be performed without the need for a traditional autopsy to be carried out. PMID:25593587
Gitto, Lorenzo; Serinelli, Serenella; Busardò, Francesco P; Panebianco, Valeria; Bolino, Giorgio; Maiese, Aniello
Different techniques are used in fetal cardiology, and their accuracy has been demonstrated on several occasions. Color Doppler US has proved to be a reliable and valuable tool in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetal heart has, so far, played no role in prenatal diagnostics. We report on a truncus arteriosus communis diagnosed prenatally during a screening ultrasound at 22 weeks of gestation. In addition to real-time ultrasound and color Doppler echocardiography, fetal MRI was performed. Fetal echocardiography arose suspicion of a type I common trunk. Fetal MR showed solely a widened vessel coursing retrocardially and additionally an inhomogeneous fluid distribution of the lung not shown on prenatal US. After termination of pregnancy at 23 weeks of gestation, MR fetography and autopsy were performed, and both found a type II common trunk. MR autopsy of the heart was very reliable in this case and could be an alternative when fetal pathology is not available for different reasons. Postmortem MRI was also able to demonstrate the inhomogeneous fluid distribution in the lung, which was confirmed by autopsy. Fetal and postmortem MR was reliable in the detection of an inhomogeneous fluid distribution in the lung not shown on prenatal US, providing a relevant additional finding to US. Therefore, MRI should be used more often in fetal cardiology, although it still must be further developed. (orig.)developed. (orig.)
Different techniques are used in fetal cardiology, and their accuracy has been demonstrated on several occasions. Color Doppler US has proved to be a reliable and valuable tool in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetal heart has, so far, played no role in prenatal diagnostics. We report on a truncus arteriosus communis diagnosed prenatally during a screening ultrasound at 22 weeks of gestation. In addition to real-time ultrasound and color Doppler echocardiography, fetal MRI was performed. Fetal echocardiography arose suspicion of a type I common trunk. Fetal MR showed solely a widened vessel coursing retrocardially and additionally an inhomogeneous fluid distribution of the lung not shown on prenatal US. After termination of pregnancy at 23 weeks of gestation, MR fetography and autopsy were performed, and both found a type II common trunk. MR autopsy of the heart was very reliable in this case and could be an alternative when fetal pathology is not available for different reasons. Postmortem MRI was also able to demonstrate the inhomogeneous fluid distribution in the lung, which was confirmed by autopsy. Fetal and postmortem MR was reliable in the detection of an inhomogeneous fluid distribution in the lung not shown on prenatal US, providing a relevant additional finding to US. Therefore, MRI should be used more often in fetal cardiology, although it still must be further developed. (orig.)
Muehler, Matthias R.; Lembcke, Alexander; Fischer, Thomas; Kivelitz, Dietmar [CCM, Department of Radiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Rake, Anett; Chaoui, Rabih; Heling, Kay-Sven [CCM, Section for Prenatal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Schwabe, Michael [CCM, Department of Pathology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Planke, Christiane [Carl-Thiem-Klinikum Cottbus, Department of Pediatrics and Juvenile Medicine, Cottbus (Germany)
Validity of verbal autopsy for ascertaining the causes of stillbirth / Validité de l'autopsie verbale dans la détermination des causes de mortinaissance / Validez de las investigaciones verbales para determinar las causas de la mortinatalidad
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar las entrevistas verbales a parientes y allegados para determinar las causas de la mortinatalidad que utiliza la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), empleando el diagnóstico hospitalario de las causas subyacentes a la mortinatalidad («criterio de referencia») y comparar la propo [...] rción de mortinatos atribuidos a determinadas causas específicas, a través de la valoración del hospital, en comparación con los resultados de las investigaciones verbales. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo de todos los mortinatos que nacieron en un hospital de Chandigarh (India) entre el 15 de abril de 2006 y el 31 de marzo de 2008 y cuya causa de defunción se diagnosticó dentro de un plazo de 2 días. Todas las madres debían encontrarse como mínimo en la semana 24 de gestación y vivir dentro de un radio de 100 km del hospital. Para las entrevistas verbales, los trabajadores en el terreno visitaron a las madres entre las 4 y las 6 semanas posteriores a la mortinatalidad. Dos obstetras independientes revisaron los resultados de las autopsias y, en caso de desacuerdo, se solicitó la participación de un tercer experto. Se comparó la frecuencia de las causas de la mortinatalidad, según lo establecido por la valoración hospitalaria y por las investigaciones verbales. RESULTADOS: Tanto la valoración hospitalaria como la entrevista verbal coincidieron en cuáles eran las cinco causas de mortinatalidad más frecuentes: preeclampsia (30%), hemorragia prenatal (16%), enfermedad subyacente de la madre (12%), malformaciones congénitas (12%) y complicaciones obstétricas (10%). La precisión general del diagnóstico mediante investigación verbal, en comparación con el diagnóstico basado en la información hospitalaria para las cinco causas más frecuentes de mortinatalidad, fue del 64%. Las áreas bajo la curva de eficacia diagnóstica (ROC) fueron: para las malformaciones congénitas, 0,91 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC: 0,83-0,97); enfermedad pre-gestacional de la madre, 0,75 (95%, IC: 0,65-0,84); preeclampsia, 0,76 (95%, IC: 0,69-0,81); hemorragia prenatal, 0,76 (95%, IC: 0,67-0,84) y complicaciones obstétricas, 0,82 (95%, CI: 0,71-0,93). CONCLUSION: La herramienta de investigación verbal de la mortinatalidad que emplea la OMS puede ofrecer unas estimaciones razonablemente aceptables de las causas subyacentes más frecuentes a la mortinatalidad en los ámbitos con recursos limitados, en los que la causa de mortinatalidad pueda no estar certificada por un médico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To validate the verbal autopsy tool for stillbirths of the World Health Organization (WHO) by using hospital diagnosis of the underlying cause of stillbirth (the gold standard) and to compare the fraction of stillbirths attributed to various specific causes through hospital assessment ver [...] sus verbal autopsy. METHODS: In a hospital in Chandigarh, we prospectively studied all stillbirths occurring from 15 April 2006 to 31 March 2008 whose cause was diagnosed within 2 days. All mothers had to be at least 24 weeks pregnant and live within 100 km of the hospital. For verbal autopsy, field workers visited mothers 4 to 6 weeks after the stillbirth. Autopsy results were reviewed by two independent obstetricians and disagreements were resolved by engaging a third expert. Causes of stillbirths as determined by hospital assessment and verbal autopsy were compared in frequency. FINDINGS: Hospital assessment and verbal autopsy yielded the same top five underlying causes of stillbirth: pregnancy-induced hypertension (30%), antepartum haemorrhage (16%), underlying maternal illness (12%), congenital malformations (12%) and obstetric complications (10%). Overall diagnostic accuracy of verbal autopsy diagnosis versus hospital-based diagnosis for all five top causes of stillbirth was 64%. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) were, for congenital malformations, 0.91 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83-0.97); pre-gestational maternal illness, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65-0.84);
Arun K, Aggarwal; Vanita, Jain; Rajesh, Kumar.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Methods Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. Results At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. Conclusion While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and appropriate treatment in Dodowa HDSS, there were severe challenges to prompt and adequate case management in the health system in both study sites in Ghana and Uganda. Meanwhile, caretaker awareness of danger signs needs to improve in both countries to promote early care seeking and to reduce the number of children needing referral. Social autopsy methods can improve this understanding, which can assist health planners to prioritize scarce resources appropriately.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An autopsy study of aortic dissection (AD at our institution was previously reported. In the approximately 20 years since then, however, many aspects of diagnosis and treatment of this disease have changed, with a fall in mortality reported in many centers around the world. An impression amongst our pathologists that, there might be an increase in the prevalence of AD in the autopsy service at our hospital, since that earlier report, led to this repeated study, in an attempt to validate that notion. We also sought to identify any changes in clinicopathological features between the two series or any occurring during this study period itself. Findings All cases of AD identified at autopsy, during the 20-year period since the conclusion of the last study, were collected and pertinent clinical and pathological data were analyzed and compared, both within the two decades of this study period and against the results of the last study. Fifty-six cases comprised this study group including 36 males and 20 females, with a mean age of 63.9 years. There were, more patients in the second decade (n = 33; 59% compared with the first decade (n = 23; 41%. Hypertension as a risk factor was identified in 52 (93% cases and rupture occurred in 49 (88% cases. A clinical diagnosis of AD was considered prior to surgery or autopsy in 25 (45% cases overall, more during the second decade. Surgery was attempted in 25% of all cases with an increase in the second decade compared with the first. Conclusions Compared with the earlier review, a variety of changes in the profile of patients with AD in the autopsy service has been noted, including a reversal in the female predominance seen previously. Other observations include an increase in cases where the correct clinical diagnosis was considered and in which surgical treatment was attempted, changes also evident when the second decade of the present study was compared with the earlier decade. Overall, there were many positive trends. However, areas that could still be improved include an increased index of suspicion for the diagnosis of AD and perhaps in the initiation of treatment, earlier, in those cases where the correct diagnosis was considered.
Coard Kathleen CM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol makes an important contribution to premature mortality in many countries in Eastern Europe, including Estonia. However, the full extent of its impact, and the mechanisms underlying it, are challenging issues to research. We describe the design and initial findings of a study aimed at investigating the association of alcohol with mortality in a large series of forensic autopsies of working-age men in Estonia. Methods 1299 male deaths aged 25-54 years were subject to forensic autopsy in 2008-2009. The routine autopsy protocol was augmented by a more systematic inspection of organs, drug testing, assay of liver enzymes and novel biomarkers of alcohol consumption (EtG, EtS and PEth, together with proxy interviews with next of kin for deaths among men who lived in or close to a major town. Results 595 augmented autopsies were performed. Of these, 66% were from external causes (26% suicide, 25% poisoning. 17% were attributed to circulatory system diseases and 7% to alcoholic liver disease. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC of ? 0.2 mg/g were found for 55% of deaths. Interviews were conducted with proxy informants for 61% of the subjects who had resided in towns. Of these, 28% were reported in the previous year to have been daily or almost daily drinkers and 10% had drunk non-beverage alcohols. Blood ethanol and the liver enzyme GGT were only associated with daily drinking. However, the novel biomarkers showed a more graded response with recent consumption. In contrast, the liver enzymes AST and ALT were largely uninformative because of post-mortem changes. The presence of extremely high PEth concentrations in some samples also suggested post-mortem formation. Conclusion We have shown the feasibility of deploying an extended research protocol within the setting of routine forensic autopsies that offer scope to deepen our understanding of the alcohol-related burden of premature mortality. The most unique feature of the study is the information on a wide range of informative alcohol biomarkers, several of which have not been used previously in this sort of post-mortem research study. We have demonstrated, for the first time, the epidemiological value and validity of these novel alcohol biomarkers in post-mortem samples.
Full Text Available Abstract "Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the concept and development of social autopsy, focusing on the contributions of the Pathway Analysis format for child deaths and the Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response program in India to social autopsy's success in meeting key objectives. The Pathway Analysis social autopsy format, based on the Pathway to Survival model designed to support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach, was developed from 1995 to 2001 and has been utilized in studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Adoption of the Pathway model has enriched the data gathered on care seeking for child illnesses and supported the development of demand- and supply-side interventions. The instrument has recently been updated to improve the assessment of neonatal deaths and is soon to be utilized in large-scale population-representative verbal/social autopsy studies in several African countries. Maternal death audit, starting with confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in Britain more than 50 years ago, is a long-accepted strategy for reducing maternal mortality. More recently, maternal social autopsy studies that supported health programming have been conducted in several developing countries. From 2005 to 2009, 10 high-mortality states in India conducted community-based maternal verbal/social autopsies with participatory data sharing with communities and health programs that resulted in the implementation of numerous data-driven maternal health interventions. Social autopsy is a powerful tool with the demonstrated ability to raise awareness, provide evidence in the form of actionable data and increase motivation at all levels to take appropriate and effective actions. Further development of the methodology along with standardized instruments and supporting tools are needed to promote its wide-scale adoption and use.
Koffi Alain K
We researched the application of immunohistochemistry for the purpose of establishing forensic pathological diagnoses. In the present study, we examined the induction and expression of heat shock protein (HSP), oxygen regulated protein (ORP), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and apolipoprotein E (apo E) in the human brain using forensic autopsy cases as our subjects. Hypoxic/ischemic brain damage. In cases of longer survival and with a history of hypoxic attacks, the proteins HSP and ORP were found in the parieto-occipital lobe and hippocampus. And we are able to observe a weak stain for EAAT2 in almost all asphyxia deaths. Traumatic brain injury (TBI). In traumatic brain injury (TBI), the prolonged induction of iNOS was demonstrated in the neutrophils, microglia/macrophage, and vascular smooth muscle cells in the traumatized brain. Apo E was identified with neurons in the traumatized cortical hemisphere from only a two-hour survival case to long survival cases. To the contrary, there was no positive apo E staining in the contralateral cortical hemisphere at all. In one one-hour survival case, a weak stain for EAAT2 was observed, but intensive expression of EAAT2 was observed from brief to one-day survival cases. Sudden infant death (SID). Numerous ferritin-positive cells were observed in the brain in the cases of pneumonia or myocarditis that we examined. To the contrary, the numbers of ferritin-positive cells were obviously decreased in the cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The transferrin-positive cells were in an inverse proportion to the ferritin positive cells in each SIDS case. Also, numerous ORP-150 positive cells were observed in the brain in cases of pneumonia and the SIDS group. In forensic practice, immunohistochemical investigation of these proteins can be a great value for diagnosing not only the cause of death but also the pathophysiological changes and the victims past history. PMID:11905039
Background Dengue fever is a public health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical world. Dengue cases have grown dramatically in recent years as well as dengue mortality. Colombia has experienced periodic dengue outbreaks with numerous dengue related-deaths, where the Santander department has been particularly affected. Although social determinants of health (SDH) shape health outcomes, including mortality, it is not yet understood how these affect dengue mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and pre-test a social autopsy (SA) tool for dengue mortality. Methods and Findings The tool was developed and pre-tested in three steps. First, dengue fatal cases and ‘near misses’ (those who recovered from dengue complications) definitions were elaborated. Second, a conceptual framework on determinants of dengue mortality was developed to guide the construction of the tool. Lastly, the tool was designed and pre-tested among three relatives of fatal cases and six near misses in 2013 in the metropolitan zone of Bucaramanga. The tool turned out to be practical in the context of dengue mortality in Colombia after some modifications. The tool aims to study the social, individual, and health systems determinants of dengue mortality. The tool is focused on studying the socioeconomic position and the intermediary SDH rather than the socioeconomic and political context. Conclusions The SA tool is based on the scientific literature, a validated conceptual framework, researchers’ and health professionals’ expertise, and a pilot study. It is the first time that a SA tool has been created for the dengue mortality context. Our work furthers the study on SDH and how these are applied to neglected tropical diseases, like dengue. This tool could be integrated in surveillance systems to provide complementary information on the modifiable and avoidable death-related factors and therefore, be able to formulate interventions for dengue mortality reduction. PMID:25658485
Arauz, María José; Ridde, Valéry; Hernández, Libia Milena; Charris, Yaneth; Carabali, Mabel; Villar, Luis Ángel
A 64-year-old female was admitted to our hospital on 8, July, 1980 with a history of three previous subarachnoid hemorrhages. Neurological examinations revealed incontinentia urinae, gait disturbance, recent memory disturbance and motor weakness on the left side. The results of the neuroradiological examinations were as follows. Plain X-ray films showed a ring-like calcification in the right frontal region. A plain CT scan showed a ring-shaped iso- and high-density area in the intra hemispheric region, the intra bilateral anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, the intra septum pellucidum, and the intra anterior part of the third ventricle. A small high-density region was enhanced as an island within it by means of a Conray infusion. Left carotid angiography showed a large aneurysmal shadow arising from the anterior communicating artery and another from the left middle cerebral artery. In the venous phase the venous angle was supero-posteriorly shifted, and the septal vein was elevated. She died unexpectedly with a status epilepticus of unknown origin. Clinically, rerupture was not verified. An autopsy specimen revealed that a giant aneurysm (6 x 5 x 4 cm in size) arising from the anterior communicating artery occupied the intra ventricular space, the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the right thalamic region. Also, there was a large berry aneurysm (2 x 1.7 x 1.5 cm in size) arising from the middle cerebral artery. A coronary section through the giant aneurA coronary section through the giant aneurysm showed a markedly compressed left lateral ventricle, right thalamus, and hypothalamus, while the third ventricle had shifted toward the left side. (J.P.N.)
Estimation of sex is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology and requires foremost attention in the analysis of commingled and unidentified remains. In India, there is a paucity of population specific morphometric standards for identifying sex from unknown human remains in different population groups. The present research is an osteometric analysis to study the sexual dimorphism of the sternum of South Indian origin using statistical considerations. The study sample constituted of adult autopsied sternums of known age and sex. Five linear measurements (length of the manubrium, mesosternum, manubrium and mesosternum together, and width at 1st and at 3rd sternebra) were examined during the study. Three indices (manubrio-corpus Index, ratio of the length of the mesosternum and manubrium, and sternubrial-width index) were computed from the length and width measurements of the sternum. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software and Student's t-test was applied to find the sex differences in these variables. While statistically significant sex differences were observed for all the five linear measurements of the sternum, none of the sternal indices showed statistically significant sex differences. Discriminant function and logistic regression analysis were performed to derive the predicting models for estimation of sex from the different variables. The predictability of sternal measurements in sexing using univariate models ranged between 67.5% for the width at 3rd sternebra and 74.4% for the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum. The classification accuracy rates of sternal measurements were observed to be higher when multivariate analysis was performed. Length of manubrium and mesosternum together along with width at 1st sternebra yielded maximum accuracy of 79.5% (discriminant function analysis) and 81.2% (logistic regression analysis) in sexing of male and female sternum. The present research concludes that the application of sternum in sex estimation should be restricted to cases when other more reliable bones for sexing are not available to the investigators. PMID:25127732
Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal
Renal venous drainage presents a large degree of variability. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphological expression of the renal veins. Renal vein formation patterns, their morphometry, and frequency of additional veins were studied in a sample of 156 pairs of kidneys, the vascular beds of which were subjected to an injection-corrosion technique, taken from cadaver specimens autopsied at National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensics Sciences in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A single renal vein (RV) was found bilaterally in 122 (78.2%) samples, whereas 34 (21.8%) kidneys had additional RVs (left side 33 cases, right side one case). Of the specimens with multiple right renal veins (RRV), 28 (17.9%) had two RVs and five (3.2%) had three RVs. Of the left kidneys, 99.4% had one LRV and 0.6% had two LRVs. The lengths of the left and right renal veins were 56.5±12.7 mm and 23.6±8.21 mm, respectively; the caliber of the left renal vein (LRV) was 12.3±1.41 mm, whereas the caliber of the RRV was 10.9±1.56 mm, a statistically non-significant difference (p=0.262). 82.7% of the LRVs and the 73.1% of the RRVs (p=0.768) originated at the extra-hilum level. Renal vein formation pattern characterized by the confluence of upper and lower tributaries was found in 61.6% of the cases, whereas 16.3% of the specimens had upper, medium, and lower tributaries. Variation patterns found in this study point towards a wide morphological expression of these vessels that needs to be taken into account for both imaging and surgical procedures. PMID:24715169
Ballesteros, Luis Ernesto; Saldarriaga, Vladimir; Ramirez, Luis Miguel
OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for atherosclerosis have limited ability to identify persons at high risk of coronary heart disease. Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries might improve this limitation. We studied the relationship between atherosclerotic plaques in peripheral arteries, coronary plaques, and coronary death. METHODS: Predefined segments from the left anterior descending coronary artery, the right coronary artery, bilateral carotid, and superficial femoral arteries (SFA) were obtained from 100 autopsies (20-82 years, 30 females, 27 coronary deaths). Based on microscopic examination of 4756 sections, the extension of atherosclerosis (plaque burden) and the largest plaque area in each segment were quantified. RESULTS: Plaque burden in all arteries increased with age and was larger in coronary death (P < .05). SFA plaques occurred later than coronary and carotid plaques. When SFA plaque had developed, coronary plaque was also present. SFA plaque (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 7.07 [2.40-20.81]), but not carotid plaque, was significantly associated with coronary death, also after age and gender adjustment (21.25 [5.02-89.97]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the identification of coronary death individuals was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.83) for coronary plaque, and 0.80 (0.72-0.89) for SFA plaque (age and gender adjusted). CONCLUSIONS: Atherosclerosis develops slower in SFA compared with coronary and carotid arteries. In persons with plaque in the SFA, plaque is always present in the coronary arteries. In younger persons, the presence of SFA plaque indicates a generalized susceptibility to atherosclerosis and vulnerability to coronary death.
Dalager, SØren; Falk, Erling
A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578
Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171 of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI. We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005. The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively. The most frequent place of death (98% among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-tumor activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether LTA polymorphisms influence the presence of cancer. Methods LTA polymorphisms C804A (rs1041981, T60N and T495C (rs2229094, C13R were determined in 1,536 consecutive autopsy cases and were registered in the Japanese single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for geriatric research (JG-SNP Internet database. Tumors were systematically reviewed, pathologically confirmed, and assessed in relation to LTA genotype. Results The study population consisted of 827 males and 709 females, with a mean age of 80 years. Altogether, we studied 606 subjects without cancer and 930 subjects with cancer of the stomach (n = 183, lung (n = 164, colon or rectum (n = 143, or other sites. The presence of cancer was higher in males than in females. The C804A and T495C polymorphisms were associated with cancer in males (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53 – 0.99; TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04 – 2.02; respectively but not in females. In males, the C804A polymorphism was associated with lung cancer (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37 – 0.97, whereas the T495C polymorphism was associated with gastric cancer (TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.06 – 2.65. Conclusion We found some evidence of an association between LTA polymorphisms and cancer risk in elderly Japanese men. Further studies in larger populations should examine this hypothesis.
Relative quantification of mRNA using quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR is a commonly used method for analysis and comparison of gene expression levels. This method requires a normalisation of data against expression levels of a control gene. In the past, several ubiquitously expressed genes were used as such endogenous controls. When working with human tissue samples obtained during autopsy one has to deal with postmortem intervals of usually more than 10 h. The aim of this study was to investigate whether commonly used endogenous control genes show stability over various postmortem intervals. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from three different human tissues of five postmortem intervals ranging from 15 to 118 h. The Ct values from five commonly used endogenous control genes--beta-actin, B2M, CyPA, TBP, and UBC--were obtained by real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed a relatively high stability of Ct values in skeletal muscle tissue regarding different postmortem intervals. In heart and brain tissues, all endogenous controls were found to be highly variable. B2M appeared to be the least unstable control in this set. Nevertheless, all endogenous controls showed variability in their expression levels regarding both the stability among different tissues and different postmortem intervals. Data obtained in the present study show that postmortem mRNA degradation is a complex process, and that the use of one single endogenous control in gene expression studies of postmortem tissue would lead to erroneous data interpretation. Further studies on this topic should be performed in the future including an increased number of well documented samples. PMID:19083749
Heinrich, Marielle; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Matt, Katja; Schmidt, Ulrike
Morphological changes in the digestive system of 93 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: an autopsy study Alterações morfológicas no sistema digestivo de 93 pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana: um estudo de autopsias
Involvement of the digestive system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is frequent and many changes in these patients are diagnosed only at autopsy. There are few studies of autopsy with detailed analysis of this system and only one was conducted in Brazil. We evaluated each segment of the digestive system in 93 consecutive autopsies of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the importance of these lesions to death. Of these, 90 (96.8%) patients ...
Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães; Ana Cristina Araujo Lemos Silva; Adilha Misson Rua Micheletti; Everton Nunes Melo Moura; Mario Leon de Silva-Vergara; Sheila Jorge Adad
Full Text Available Aline Domingos Pinto Ruppert,1 Alexandre de Matos Soeiro,2 Maria Carolina Feres de Almeida,2 Múcio Tavares de Oliveira Jr,2 Carlos V Serrano Jr,2 Vera Luiza Capelozzi1 1Department of Pathology, 2Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil Background: To correlate underlying diseases, in autopsies of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE to histological findings and manifestations reviewed in the medical records. Methods: The autopsy records between 2001 and 2008 of 291 patients whose cause of death was PTE were reviewed. The following data were obtained: age, sex, clinical “in vivo” manifestations, postmortem pathological patterns, and main associated underlying diseases, cancers, and surgeries performed in the last hospitalization. The pulmonary histopathological changes were categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Odds ratios of positive relations were obtained by logistic regression and were considered significant when P<0.05. Results: The median age was 64 years old. About 64% of patients presented cardiovascular illness associated with PTE. The most prevalent pulmonary finding was pulmonary edema. Only 13% of cases had clinical suspicion of PTE. Acute respiratory failure was positively related to pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and diffuse alveolar damage as well as hemodynamic instability to alveolar hemorrhage and diffuse alveolar damage. Conclusion: We found important relations between clinical data and histological findings of patients with fatal PTE. A greater understanding of the pulmonary physiopathological mechanisms involved with each disease associated to PTE could improve its diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: pulmonary embolism, autopsy, pathology, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, fatal
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases. The pulmonary histopathology was categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of the concordance between the major associated diseases and specific autopsy findings was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 33.9% of the cases and cancer in 28.1%. The pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 40.7% (1,917 of the cases. A multivariate analysis showed a significant and powerful association between diffuse alveolar damage and bronchopneumonia, HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and septic shock, between liver cirrhosis and pulmonary embolism, between pulmonary edema and acute myocardial infarction, between dilated cardiomyopathy and cancer, between alveolar hemorrhage and bronchopneumonia and pulmonary embolism, and between lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia and HIV/ AIDS and liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis in these cases. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which was associated with different inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complete pathophysiological mechanisms involved with each disease and the development of acute respiratory failure.
Alexandre de Matos Soeiro
Clinical course and autopsy findings of an 80-year-old male, an atomic bomb survivor, with 8 trisomy were reported. The patient's disease was in the category of atypical acute myelogenous leukemia, smoldering acute leukemia, or hemopoietic dysplasis. An abnormal nucleus type of 47, XY, and +8 was found in all bone marrow cells examined. However, there was no evidence that this patient had exposed to high radioactivity due to a-bomb, no that the disease was induced by radiation exposure. Though the activity of glutathione was not high in this case, the relation between the glutathione activity and 8 trisomy should be further investigated. (Nakanishi, T.)
Primary mediastinal liposarcoma was observed in a 73-year-old man. Because of tight adhesions to adjacent tissues, neither complete resection nor surgical debulking of the tumor was possible. A T-tube was inserted into the patient's trachea for severe dyspnea, and he was treated with radiotherapy and an oral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist. The patient died 6 years after the initial diagnosis. Autopsy revealed liposarcoma composed of 3 subtypes in the primary tumor: well-differentiated, dedifferentiated, and round cell components. Round cell and dedifferentiated liposarcomas were predominantly observed in the metastatic nodules. PMID:20424369
Konno, Satoshi; Oizumi, Satoshi; Shinagawa, Naofumi; Kikuchi, Eiki; Konishi, Jun; Ito, Kenichiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Takiyama, Akihiro; Tanaka, Shinya; Nishimura, Masaharu
Polymorphisms in the gene encoding SORL1, involved in cellular trafficking of APP, have been implicated in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, by a mechanism thought to affect mRNA expression. To search for regulatory polymorphisms, we have measured allele-specific mRNA expression of SORL1 in human autopsy tissues from the prefrontal cortex of 26 Alzheimer’s patients, and 51 controls, using two synonymous marker SNPs (rs3824968 in exon 34 (11 heterozygous AD subjects and 16 controls), and rs1...
Alachkar, Houda; Kataki, Maria; Scharre, Douglas W.; Papp, Audrey; Sadee, Wolfgang
Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of the HIV pandemic and the more recent prevention and therapeutic interventions have resulted in extensive and rapid changes in cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is demand for timely and accurate cause-specific mortality data to steer public health responses and to evaluate the outcome of interventions. The objective of this study is to describe cause-specific mortality trends based on verbal autopsies conducted on all deaths in a rural population in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, over a 10-year period (2000-2009. Methods The study used population-based mortality data collected by a demographic surveillance system on all resident and nonresident members of 12,000 households. Cause of death was determined by verbal autopsy based on the standard INDEPTH/WHO verbal autopsy questionnaire. Cause of death was assigned by physician review and the Bayesian-based InterVA program. Results There were 11,281 deaths over 784,274 person-years of observation of 125,658 individuals between Jan. 1, 2000 and Dec. 31, 2009. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF for the population as a whole were: HIV-related (including tuberculosis, 50%; other communicable diseases, 6%; noncommunicable lifestyle-related conditions, 15%; other noncommunicable diseases, 2%; maternal, perinatal, nutritional, and congenital causes, 1%; injury, 8%; indeterminate causes, 18%. Over the course of the 10 years of observation, the CSMF of HIV-related causes declined from a high of 56% in 2002 to a low of 39% in 2009 with the largest decline starting in 2004 following the introduction of an antiretroviral treatment program into the population. The all-cause age-standardized mortality rate (SMR declined over the same period from a high of 174 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 165, 183 deaths per 10,000 person-years observed (PYO in 2003 to a low of 116 (95% CI: 109, 123 in 2009. The decline in the SMR is predominantly due to a decline in the HIV-related SMR, which declined in the same period from 96 (95% CI: 89, 102 to 45 (95% CI: 40, 49 deaths per 10,000 PYO. There was substantial agreement (79% kappa = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.69 between physician coding and InterVA coding at the burden of disease group level. Conclusions Verbal autopsy based methods enabled the timely measurement of changing trends in cause-specific mortality to provide policymakers with the much-needed information to allocate resources to appropriate health interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascertainment of cause for deaths that occur in the absence of medical attention is a significant problem in many countries, including Thailand, where more than 50% of such deaths are registered with ill-defined causes. Routine implementation of standardized, rigorous verbal autopsy methods is a potential solution. This paper reports findings from field research conducted to develop, test, and validate the use of verbal autopsy (VA methods in Thailand. Methods International verbal autopsy methods were first adapted to the Thai context and then implemented to ascertain causes of death for a nationally representative sample of 11,984 deaths that occurred in Thailand in 2005. Causes of death were derived from completed VA questionnaires by physicians trained in ICD-based cause-of-death certification. VA diagnoses were validated in the sample of hospital deaths for which reference diagnoses were available from medical record review. Validated study findings were used to adjust VA-based causes of death derived for deaths in the study sample that had occurred outside hospitals. Results were used to estimate cause-specific mortality patterns for deaths outside hospitals in Thailand in 2005. Results VA-based causes of death were derived for 6,328 out of 7,340 deaths in the study sample that had occurred outside hospitals, constituting the verification arm of the study. The use of VA resulted in large-scale reassignment of deaths from ill-defined categories to specific causes of death. The validation study identified that VA tends to overdiagnose important causes such as diabetes, liver cancer, and tuberculosis, while undercounting deaths from HIV/AIDS, liver diseases, genitourinary (essential renal, and digestive system disorders. Conclusions The use of standard VA methods adapted to Thailand enabled a plausible assessment of cause-specific mortality patterns and a substantial reduction of ill-defined diagnoses. Validation studies enhance the utility of findings from the application of verbal autopsy. Regular implementation of VA in Thailand could accelerate development of the quality and utility of vital registration data for deaths outside hospitals.
We retrospectively examined the clinical features and the neuroradiological findings on autopsy of 2 cases of young-onset dementia. The patient in case 1 was a 43-year-old woman who was unable to determine the time on the clock and who made frivolous remarks. Neuropsychological test batteries demonstrated memory impairment and frontal lobe dysfunction. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed abnormal high-intensity signals around the lateral ventricles and thinning of the corpus callosum. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed patchy reduction in the accumulation of tracers in both the frontal lobes. Her neurological condition gradually deteriorated, and she died 13 years after the onset of the disease. She was clinically diagnosed with atypical Alzheimer's disease on the basis of visual cognitive impairment and memory impairment observed in the initial phase. However, the neuropathological diagnosis was adult-onset leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids. The patient in case 2 was a 43-year-old man who had gradually started behaving selfishly and had become ill-tempered and apathetic. He was admitted to a hospital. He was anosognosic and showed frontal lobe dysfunction. T2-weighted MRI scan of the brain showed abnormal high-intensity signals around the lateral ventricles; atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, hippocampus, and brainstem; and thinning of the corpus callosum. SPECT revealed patchy reduction in the accumulation of tracers in both the frontal lobes and the cerebellum. His neurological condition gradually deteriorated, and he died after being clinically ill for 7 years. The patient was clinically diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia on the basis of the clinical features and MRI findings. However, the neuropathological diagnosis was chronic meningoencephalitis. The frequency of neurological metabolic and inflammatory diseases is significantly high although it is not as high as that of degenerative diseases in young-onset dementia. Since such diseases may respond to therapy, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia, especially in patients presenting with atypical clinical features. Neuroradiological examination may contribute to the differential diagnosis of atypical dementia at young age. PMID:21987568
Ishihara, Kenji; Horibe, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideki; Sugie, Masayuki; Shiota, Jun'ichi; Nakano, Imaharu; Kawamura, Mitsuru
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main forms of mercury (Hg exposure in the general population are methylmercury (MeHg from seafood, inorganic mercury (I-Hg from food, and mercury vapor (Hg0 from dental amalgam restorations. While the distribution of MeHg in the body is described by a one compartment model, the distribution of I-Hg after exposure to elemental mercury is more complex, and there is no biomarker for I-Hg in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between on the one hand MeHg and I-Hg in human brain and other tissues, including blood, and on the other Hg exposure via dental amalgam in a fish-eating population. In addition, the use of blood and toenails as biological indicator media for inorganic and organic mercury (MeHg in the tissues was evaluated. Methods Samples of blood, brain (occipital lobe cortex, pituitary, thyroid, abdominal muscle and toenails were collected at autopsy of 30 deceased individuals, age from 47 to 91 years of age. Concentrations of total-Hg and I-Hg in blood and brain cortex were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry and total-Hg in other tissues by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. Results The median concentrations of MeHg (total-Hg minus I-Hg and I-Hg in blood were 2.2 and 1.0 ?g/L, and in occipital lobe cortex 4 and 5 ?g/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between MeHg in blood and occipital cortex. Also, total-Hg in toenails correlated with MeHg in both blood and occipital lobe. I-Hg in both blood and occipital cortex, as well as total-Hg in pituitary and thyroid were strongly associated with the number of dental amalgam surfaces at the time of death. Conclusion In a fish-eating population, intake of MeHg via the diet has a marked impact on the MeHg concentration in the brain, while exposure to dental amalgam restorations increases the I-Hg concentrations in the brain. Discrimination between mercury species is necessary to evaluate the impact on Hg in the brain of various sources of exposure, in particular, dental amalgam exposure.
Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer's disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged ?85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had post-mortem brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methenamine silver staining was used for amyloid-? and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy, and ?-synuclein pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for visual ratings of the degree of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Elevated baseline homocysteine was associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles count at the time of death: for the highest homocysteine quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.60 (1.28-5.28). The association was observed particularly in people with dementia, in the presence of cerebral infarcts, and with longer time between the baseline homocysteine assessment and death. Also, elevated homocysteine tended to relate to amyloid-? accumulation, but this was seen only with longer baseline-death interval: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.52 (0.88-7.19) for the highest homocysteine quartile. On post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, for the highest homocysteine quartile odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 3.78 (1.12-12.79) for more severe medial temporal atrophy and 4.69 (1.14-19.33) for more severe periventricular white matter hyperintensities. All associations were independent of several potential confounders, including common vascular risk factors. No relationships between homocysteine and cerebral macro- or microinfarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy or ?-synuclein pathology were detected. These results suggest that elevated homocysteine in adults aged ?85 years may contribute to increased Alzheimer-type pathology, particularly neurofibrillary tangles burden. This effect seems to be more pronounced in the presence of cerebrovascular pathology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the impact of homocysteine-lowering treatments on dementia-related pathology. PMID:23983028
Hooshmand, Babak; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Tanskanen, Maarit; Myllykangas, Liisa; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Mäkelä, Mira; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, Anders; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elizabeth C W; Sulkava, Raimo; Solomon, Alina
Full Text Available Background: Due to a paucity of statistics from vital registration systems in developing countries, the verbal autopsy (VA approach has been used to obtain cause-specific mortality data by interviewing lay respondents on the signs and symptoms experienced by the deceased prior to death. In societies where the culture of mourning is adhered to, the use of VA could clash with traditional norms, thus warranting ethical consideration by researchers. Objective: The study was designed to explore the ethics and cultural context of collecting VA information through a demographic and health surveillance system in the Kassena-Nankana District (KND of Ghana. Study Design: Data were collected through qualitative in-depth interviews (IDIs with four field staff involved in the routine conduct of VAs, four physicians who code VAs, 20 selected respondents to the VA tool, and eight opinion leaders in the KND. The interviews were supplemented with observation by the researchers and with the field notes of field workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, and local language versions transcribed into English. Thematic analysis was performed using QSR NVivo 8 software. Results: The data indicate that cultural sensitivities in VA procedures at both the individual and family levels need greater consideration not only for ethical reasons but also to ensure the quality of the data. Discussions of some deaths are culturally prohibited and therefore lead to refusal of interviews. Families were also concerned about the confidentiality of information because of the potential of blame for the death. VA teams do not necessarily engage in culturally appropriate bereavement practices such as the presentation of tokens. The desire by families for feedback on the cause of death, which is currently not provided by researchers, was frequently expressed. Finally, no standard exists on the culturally acceptable time interval between death and VA interviews. Conclusion: Ethical issues need to be given greater consideration in the collection of cause of death data, and this can be achieved through the establishment of processes that allow active engagement with communities, authorities of civil registrations, and Institutional Review Boards to take greater account of local contexts.
Raymond A. Aborigo
To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)
Purpose: To investigate the interrelationships between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations including the existence of precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses. Material and Methods: CT of bronchial arteriography (BAG-CT) was performed in 10 patients and BAG-CT during a pulmonary artery block test (PA-block) in 5 patients with lung cancer. Bronchial and pulmonary circulations were evaluated in 5 autopsied normal lungs by injecting silicone rubber with different colors into the bronchial and pulmonary arteries. Results: BAG-CT correlated well with the findings at silicone rubber injection into lung autopsy samples. BAG-CT demonstrated inflow of contrast medium into the pulmonary artery during PA-block in all cases, while no inflow was observed before and following reversal of PA-block. Mixed silicone rubber was observed in the lobar to subsubsegmental bronchial arteries in all cases and in the subsubsegmental pulmonary artery in one case. Conclusion: Precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses may exist at the level of the lobar bronchi to the periphery. If either the pulmonary or bronchial circulation is disturbed, flow occurs inside the anastomoses to supplement the other flow, especially flow from the bronchial to the pulmonary arteries via the anastomoses, which occurs within 30 min. (orig.)
Hasegawa, I.; Kohda, E.; Hiramatsu, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, K. [Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
To investigate the interrelationships between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations including the existence of precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses, CT of bronchial arteriography (BAG-CT) was performed in 10 patients and BAG-CT during a pulmonary artery block test (PA-block) in 5 patients with lung cancer. Bronchial and pulmonary circulations were evaluated in 5 autopsied normal lungs by injecting silicone rubber with different colors into the bronchial and pulmonary arteries. BAG-CT correlated well with the findings at silicone rubber injection into lung autopsy samples. BAG-CT demonstrated inflow of contrast medium into the pulmonary artery during PA-block in all cases, while no inflow was observed before and following reversal of PA-block. Mixed silicone rubber was observed in the lobar to subsubsegmental bronchial arteries in all cases and in the subsubsegmental pulmonary artery in one case. Precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses may exist at the level of the lobar bronchi to the periphery. If either the pulmonary or bronchial circulation is disturbed, flow occurs inside the anastomoses to supplement the other flow, especially flow from the bronchial to the pulmonary arteries via the anastomoses, which occurs within 30 min
Fatalities resulted from aluminium phosphide (ALP) intoxication in completely healthy children with no preceded clinical sings or symptoms were presented. Data regarding circumstances, autopsy reports, histopathological examination, toxicological investigation, and police enquiries were also collected and evaluated. The affected children were females, and 6-16 years old. They were completely healthy and died suddenly in relation to some physical activities such as running, walking, and bathing, without any prior complain. The viscera showed intense congestion with moderate to severe pulmonary edema. The cause of the sudden termination of life in the reported cases is mostly cardiac ones. Physical exertion may precipitate death due to increased cardiac stress, increased oxygen demand, and by aggravating metabolic acidosis. The absence of clinical symptoms before death may be due to the low level ALP, or due to the occurrence of death in the early stages after exposure to poison. Death due to ALP could result in cases of mild, moderate, or severe ALP intoxication. This may explain partly the differences encountered in clinical, autopsy, and histopathology findings of ALP intoxication. Fatalities are not the mere consequences of the dose of the poison, but factors such as physical activity and low oxygen level may be quite important. PMID:19573839
Abder-Rahman, Hasan A
To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)
Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Surer, Eddie; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael; Schweitzer, Wolf [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Elliott, Marina [Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)
An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia, presumably on a sequela to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is reported. On admission, severe anemia and thrombocytosis were found and the bone marrow aspiration showed myeloid hyperplasia without definite maturation arrest. Mild to moderate eosinophilia and basophilia continued during the course of the disease, accompaning mild monocytosis 2 years later. Furthermore, he had the radical operation for the early gastric cancer in this preleukemic stage. After the administration of methenolone acetate (25 mg/day), severe anemia has dramatically improved, but leukocytosis with profound monocytosis persisted, and subsequently acute myelocytic leukemia developed. He died from an intracerebral bleeding due to an accidental trauma on the head. Autopsy findings disclosed the systemic leukemic infiltration. Repeated chromosome analyses revealed the mosaic karyotype of 46, XY/45, XY, -16 on admission, but it was 46, XY/46, XY, del (8) (p 12) in the overt leukemic phase. The granulopoietic colony forming capacity of bone marrow cells was already low one year before the onset of overt leukemia. This finding suggested that the existence of an abnormal clone could be predictable. In addition, the possible causative effect of the exposure to the atomic bomb in leukemogenesis in this case is discussed. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El hemoperitoneo secundario a la rotura de un carcinoma hepatocelular (CH) es una complicación poco frecuente en nuestro medio, siendo más infrecuente su hallazgo como causa de muerte en individuos no diagnosticados de CH. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 87 años con antecedentes patológicos de h [...] epatitis C crónica e hipertensión arterial y sin constancia de traumatismo abdominal previo, que debutó con un cuadro inespecífico de malestar general, náuseas y vómitos de varias horas de evolución, motivo por el cual se le prescribió y administró domiciliariamente metoclopramida. Falleció a las pocas horas de la atención médica, motivo por el cual se practicó la autopsia judicial. Durante la misma se evidenció un hemoperitoneo de 3.000 cc secundario a una rotura intratumoral sobre un hígado cirrótico. Abstract in english Hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (CH) is a rare complication in our environment. His find, still more, is uncommon cause of death in individuals not diagnosed of CH. We report the case of a woman of 87 years-old with clinical history of chronic hepatitis C, hypertensio [...] n, and abdominal trauma without evidence of prior, which debuted with a nonspecific malaise, nausea and vomiting several hours of evolution, why was prescribed and administered metoclopramide home. She died a few hours after care, which is why judicial autopsy was performed. The autopsy was shown a 3000 cc hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture intratumoral in a cirrhotic liver.
M., Subirana Domènech; M., Ortega Sánchez; G., Font Valsecchi; J.I., Galtés Vicente; J., Castellà García.
Full Text Available Relata-se um caso autopsiado de paciente acometida por sepse fulminante com lesões predominantemente pulmonares, causada pela Burkholderia pseudomallei, agente etiológico da melioidose, proveniente de município do interior do Ceará, estado do nordeste do Brasil onde ainda não tinham sido descritos casos da doença. São discutidos os achados da autópsia e os diagnósticos diferenciais.An autopsied case is reported concerning fulminant sepsis with predominantly pulmonary lesions, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, etiologic agent of melioidosis, originating from interior of Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil where there had been no previous cases reported. Autopsy findings and differential diagnosis are discussed.
Marcus Davis Machado Braga
The recent influenza pandemic, caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as the seasonal influenza outbreaks caused by varieties of influenza A and B viruses, are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Few studies have evaluated the utility of real-time reverse transcription-PCR to detect influenza virus RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained at autopsy. In this work, respiratory autopsy tissues from 442 suspect influenza cases were tested by r...
Denison, Amy M.; Blau, Dianna M.; Jost, Heather A.; Jones, Tara; Rollin, Dominique; Gao, Rongbao; Liu, Lindy; Bhatnagar, Julu; Deleon-carnes, Marlene; Shieh, Wun-ju; Paddock, Christopher D.; Drew, Clifton; Adem, Patricia; Emery, Shannon L.; Shu, Bo
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: evaluar la relación de la medida del panículo adiposo abdominal con la edad y el sexo, los parámetros hospitalarios, las causas de muerte y otras enfermedades diagnosticadas. Métodos: se procesaron por el Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica 591 autopsias, en l [...] as que se midió el panículo adiposo abdominal a nivel del ombligo. Se crearon tres grupos de estudio según el grosor, con un número similar de casos: 0,1-1,6 cm; 1,7-2,6 cm y 2,7-9,2 cm. Resultados: en el grupo de mayor grosor el promedio de edad fue de 65 años; el 33,3 % correspondió al sexo masculino y el 62,6 % al femenino. Entre las causas de muerte aumentó el infarto agudo del miocardio y disminuyó la enfermedad cerebrovascular. Los tumores malignos se incrementaron en correspondencia con el aumento del grosor del panículo adiposo. Como causas contribuyentes se encontraron la elevación de la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus. En los trastornos relacionados con el síndrome metabólico, los órganos más afectados fueron las arterias, el páncreas, el hígado, el corazón y la vesícula biliar. Conclusiones: el grosor del panículo adiposo abdominal resulta un indicador apropiado para precisar la grasa abdominal y su importancia; así como su relación con la edad y el sexo, parámetros hospitalarios, causas de muerte y otras enfermedades diagnosticadas, principalmente aquellas que forman parte del síndrome metabólico. Abstract in english Objective: to evaluate the relationship among the size of panniculus adiposus abdominis , age, sex, hospital parameters, causes of death and other diagnosed diseases Methods: using the automated system of registry and control of pathological anatomy, 591 autopsies were processed in which the abdomin [...] al fatty panniculus adiposus abdominis around the navel. Three study groups were created according to thickness, with a similar number of cases: 0.1-1.6 cm: 1.7-2.6 cm and 2.7-9.2 cm. Results: the average age in the group with the thickest panniculus adiposus abdominis was 65 years: 33.3 % in males and 62.6 % in females. Acute myocardial infarction increased whereas the cerebrovascular disease decreased. The number of malignant tumors increased as the panniculus adiposus thickness increases too. The contributing causes were high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. Regarding the metabolic syndrome related disorders, the most affected organs were arteries, pancreas, liver, heart and gallbladder. Conclusions: the panniculus adiposus abdominis thickness is an adequate indicator to measure abdominal adiposity and its importance, as well as its relationship with age and sex, hospital parameters, causes of death and other diagnosed diseases, mainly those related to the metabolic syndrome.
José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Justo, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat.
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate and evaluate the cause-of-death structure and disease-specific mortality rates in a rural area of The Gambia as determined using the InterVA-4 model. Design: Deaths and person-years of observation were determined by age group for the population of the Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance area from January 1998 to December 2007. Causes of death were determined by verbal autopsy (VA using the InterVA-4 model and ICD-10 disease classification. Assigned causes of death were classified into six broad groups: infectious and parasitic diseases; cancers; other non-communicable diseases; neonatal; maternal; and external causes. Poisson regression was used to estimate age and disease-specific mortality rates, and likelihood ratio tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results: A total of 3,203 deaths were recorded and VA administered for 2,275 (71%. All-age mortality declined from 15 per 1,000 person-years in 1998–2001 to 8 per 1,000 person-years in 2005–2007. Children aged 1–4 years registered the most marked (74% decline from 27 to 7 per 1,000 person-years. Communicable diseases accounted for half (49.9% of the deaths in all age groups, dominated by acute respiratory infections (ARI (13.7%, malaria (12.9% and pulmonary tuberculosis (10.2%. The leading causes of death among infants were ARI (5.59 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI: 4.38–7.15] and malaria (4.11 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI: 3.09–5.47]. Mortality rates in children aged 1–4 years were 3.06 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 2.58–3.63 for malaria, and 1.05 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.79–1.41 for ARI. The HIV-related mortality rate in this age group was 1.17 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.89–1.54. Pulmonary tuberculosis and communicable diseases other than malaria, HIV/AIDS and ARI were the main killers of adults aged 15 years and over. Stroke-related mortality increased to become the leading cause of death among the elderly aged 60 years or more in 2005–2007. Conclusions: Mortality in the Farafenni HDSS area was dominated by communicable diseases. Malaria and ARI were the leading causes of death in the general population. In addition to these, diarrhoeal disease was a particularly important cause of death among children under 5 years of age, as was pulmonary tuberculosis among adults aged 15 years and above.
Verbal autopsy coding: are multiple coders better than one? / Codage des autopsies verbales: est-il préférable qu'il soit effectué par plusieurs codeurs au lieu d'un ? / Codificación de las autopsias verbales: ¿varios codificadores mejor que uno?
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto en los perfiles de causas de defunción notificadas de una estrategia de codificación de las autopsias verbales basada en el uso de uno o varios agentes codificadores para examinar cada caso de defunción. MÉTODOS: A lo largo de 12 meses durante 2003-2004 se documentaron l [...] as defunciones registradas en 45 aldeas (población total: 180 162 habitantes) del sur de la India, rellenándose para cada fallecimiento un cuestionario de autopsia verbal estándar. Dos codificadores médicos, sin conocer cada uno las decisiones del otro, asignaron las causas de defunción basándose en las causas enumeradas en los títulos de los capítulos de la décima revisión de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades y Problemas de Salud Conexos (CIE-10). Para los tres títulos de capítulos que se aplicaron a más de 100 defunciones, se analizó también el grado de coincidencia para subconjuntos de causas de defunción dentro del capítulo. En caso de discrepancia, un tercer codificador intervenía para dirimirla. La medición del grado de acuerdo entre los dos codificadores médicos se realizó mediante el estadístico kappa de Cohen (K). RESULTADOS: En total se documentaron 1354 defunciones, realizándose una autopsia verbal en 1329 (98%) de ellas. En lo que respecta a los títulos de los capítulos de la CIE-10, los codificadores médicos asignaron la misma causa a 1255 defunciones (94%) (K = 0,93; intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,92-0,94). Los perfiles de mortalidad derivados de las causas asignadas por cada médico fueron muy similares a los perfiles obtenidos mediante el proceso de consenso, hasta el punto de que el orden de importancia de las 10 causas principales de defunción fue el mismo con los tres métodos de codificación. CONCLUSIÓNS: La duplicación de la codificación de los resultados de las autopsias verbales no ofrece grandes ventajas respecto al sistema de codificador único en el contexto de la vigilancia de la mortalidad o la identificación de perfiles demográficos de la mortalidad. Se podrían desviar recursos hacia otros aspectos del proceso de vigilancia de la mortalidad, como por ejemplo la validación. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on the reported cause-of-death patterns of a verbal autopsy coding strategy based on a review of every death by multiple coders versus a single coder. METHODS: Deaths in 45 villages (total population 180 162) in southern India were documented during 12 months in 2003- [...] 2004, and a standard verbal autopsy questionnaire was completed for each death. Two physician coders, each unaware of the other's decisions, assigned an underlying cause of death in accordance with the causes listed in the chapter headings of the International classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). For the three chapter headings that applied to more than 100 of the deaths, agreement for subsets of causes of death within the chapter was also analysed. In the event of discrepancies, a third coder was used to finalize a cause of death. Cohen's kappa statistic (K) was used to measure levels of agreement between the two physician coders. FINDINGS: In total, 1354 deaths were documented, and a verbal autopsy was completed for 1329 (98%) of them. At the chapter heading level of the ICD-10, physician coders assigned the same cause to 1255 deaths (94%) (K = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.94). The patterns of death derived from the causes assigned by each physician were all very similar to the patterns obtained through the consensus process, with the rank order of the 10 leading causes of death being the same for all three coding methods. CONCLUSION: Duplicate coding of verbal autopsy results has little advantage over a single-coder system for mortality surveillance or for identifying population patterns of death. Resources could be better diverted to other parts of the mortality surveillance process, such as validation.
Rohina, Joshi; Alan D, Lopez; Stephen, MacMahon; Srinath, Reddy; Rakhi, Dandona; Lalit, Dandona; Bruce, Neal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from VA studies is an analysis technique that estimates CSMFs in a population without predicting individual-level cause of death as an intermediate step. In previous studies, KL has shown promise as an alternative to physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA. However, it has previously been impossible to validate KL with a large dataset of VAs for which the underlying cause of death is known to meet rigorous clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods We applied the KL method to adult, child, and neonatal VA datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study, a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs where gold standard cause of death was established using strict clinical diagnostic criteria. To emulate real-world populations with varying CSMFs, we evaluated the KL estimations for 500 different test datasets of varying cause distribution. We assessed the quality of these estimates in terms of CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression and compared this with the results of PCVA. Results KL performance is similar to PCVA in terms of CSMF accuracy, attaining values of 0.669, 0.698, and 0.795 for adult, child, and neonatal age groups, respectively, when health care experience (HCE items were included. We found that the length of the cause list has a dramatic effect on KL estimation quality, with CSMF accuracy decreasing substantially as the length of the cause list increases. We found that KL is not reliant on HCE the way PCVA is, and without HCE, KL outperforms PCVA for all age groups. Conclusions Like all computer methods for VA analysis, KL is faster and cheaper than PCVA. Since it is a direct estimation technique, though, it does not produce individual-level predictions. KL estimates are of similar quality to PCVA and slightly better in most cases. Compared to other recently developed methods, however, KL would only be the preferred technique when the cause list is short and individual-level predictions are not needed.
Birnbaum Jeanette K
Postmortem CT (PM-CT) is useful to investigate the viscera in situ before opening the body cavities at autopsy. The present study involved a virtual morphometric analysis of thoracic and abdominal great vessels with regard to the cause of death as a possible index of terminal circulatory status in forensic autopsy cases, using PM-CT data of forensic autopsy cases within 3 days postmortem (n?=?93). Perimeters and cross-sectional areas of the aorta and vena cava depended on the age and/or gender of subjects; however, when the vessel flattening index (vFI) was calculated as the ratio of the cross-sectional area (a) to the estimated circle area having the same perimeter (l), using the formula vFI?=?4?a/l(2), the vFI showed distinct differences among the causes of death without significant postmortem time dependence. The index was low for each vessel in fatal bleeding, while the vFI of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava was low in hyperthermia (heatstroke), but higher in drowning, hypothermia (cold exposure) and sudden cardiac death. These CT findings provide quantitative data as supplementary indicators to reinforce autopsy findings for interpreting terminal circulatory status. PMID:25194711
Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi
The present study investigated the interobserver variation between a radiologist and a forensic pathologist in 994 injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography (CT) of 67 traffic fatality victims, and the results were compared with diagnoses obtained by autopsy. The injuries were coded according to the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). We found a low interobserver variability for postmortem CT injury diagnoses, and the variability was the lowest for injuries with a high AIS severity score. The radiologist diagnosed more injuries than the pathologist, especially in the skeletal system, but the pathologist diagnosed more organ injuries. We recommend the use of a radiologist as a consultant for the evaluation of postmortem CT images. Training in radiology should be included in forensic medicine postgraduate training. CT was superior to autopsy in detecting abnormal air accumulations, but autopsy was superior to CT in the detection of organ injuries and aortic ruptures. We recommend a combination of CT and autopsy for the postmortem investigation of traffic fatality victims.
Leth, Peter Mygind; Struckmann, Henrik
The importance of autopsy procedures leading to the establishment of the cause of death is well-known. A recent addition to the autopsy work flow is the possibility of conducting postmortem imaging, in its 3D version also called virtual autopsy (VA), using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) or magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) data from scans of cadavers displayed with direct volume rendering (DVR) 3D techniques. The use of the data and their workflow are presented. Data acquisition was performed and high quality data-sets with submillimeter precision were acquired. New data acquisition techniques such as dual-energy CT (DECT) and quantitative MRI, then were implemented and provided additional information. Particular findings hardly visualized in conventional autopsy can rather easy be seen at the full body CT, such as air distribution, e.g. pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, air embolism, and wound channels. MRI shows natural deaths such as myocardial infarctions. Interactive visualization of these 3D data-sets can provide valuable insight into the corpses and enables non-invasive diagnostic procedures. In postmortem CT imaging, not being limited by a patient depending radiation dose limit the data-sets can, however, be generated with such a high resolution that they become difficult to handle in today's archive retrieval and interactive visualization systems, specifically in the case of full body scans. To take full advantage of these new technologies the postmantage of these new technologies the postmortem workflow needs to be tailored to the demands and opportunities that the new technologies allow
A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.
HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov
The importance of autopsy procedures leading to the establishment of the cause of death is well-known. A recent addition to the autopsy work flow is the possibility of conducting postmortem imaging, in its 3D version also called virtual autopsy (VA), using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) or magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) data from scans of cadavers displayed with direct volume rendering (DVR) 3D techniques. The use of the data and their workflow are presented. Data acquisition was performed and high quality data-sets with submillimeter precision were acquired. New data acquisition techniques such as dual-energy CT (DECT) and quantitative MRI, then were implemented and provided additional information. Particular findings hardly visualized in conventional autopsy can rather easy be seen at the full body CT, such as air distribution, e.g. pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, air embolism, and wound channels. MRI shows natural deaths such as myocardial infarctions. Interactive visualization of these 3D data-sets can provide valuable insight into the corpses and enables non-invasive diagnostic procedures. In postmortem CT imaging, not being limited by a patient depending radiation dose limit the data-sets can, however, be generated with such a high resolution that they become difficult to handle in today's archive retrieval and interactive visualization systems, specifically in the case of full body scans. To take full advantage of these new technologies the postmortem workflow needs to be tailored to the demands and opportunities that the new technologies allow
Persson, Anders (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Univ. of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Dept. of Radiology of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Linkoeping Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)), email: email@example.com; Lindblom, Maria (Dept. of Radiology of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Linkoeping Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jackowski, Christian (Inst. of Legal Medicine, Univ. of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland))
Full Text Available Atualmente os avanços tecnológicos se fazem cada vez mais importantes nas ciências forenses. Por outro lado a autópsia ainda é uma abordagem tradicional na prática médica-odontológica, na qual evidências são coletadas por meio fotográfico e radiológico. Neste contexto, a Autópsia Virtual surge como [...] uma ferramenta útil e complementar para o exame cadavérico. Através da alta tecnologia radiológica a Autópsia Virtual fornece uma visão eficiente e precisa do caso a ser analisado. Esta revisão crítica tem o objetivo de atualizar os Cirurgiões-dentistas apresentando o primeiro trabalho com o conteúdo voltado a Autópsia Virtual. Abstract in english Nowadays, technological advances are becoming more and more important in forensic sciences. Yet autopsy is still one of the very traditional methods. This also applies for dentalautopsies, in which visual, photographic and radiological evidences are collected. In this context, Virtual Autopsy appear [...] s as a helpful and complementary tool for dental and medical cadaveric examination. Usinghigh-tech radiological approaches, Virtual Autopsy may provide, through images, an efficient and more accurate view on the individual case. This critical review aims to update the dental professionalspresenting the first national paper with explanations on Virtual Autopsy.
Ademir Franco do, Rosário Junior; Paulo Henrique Couto, Souza; Walter, Coudyzer; Patrick, Thevissen; Guy, Willems; Reinhilde, Jacobs.
Full Text Available We set out to investigate suicide among women in a post-conflict context in Northern Uganda using qualitative psychological autopsy interviews. Three to five relatives and friends for each of the three suicides recruited were interviewed (N=11. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA we found that the women all had been through traumatic experiences attributable to the protracted war/conflict between the rebel groups and Ugandan Government armed forces. Nevertheless, the decision of self-inflicted death seemed to have been due to a combination of unpleasant experiences/events that prevailed within the last 3 months prior to the suicide. These experiences are summarized in two broad themes: No control in life and No care. Changes in the traditional gender roles, men's quest for their lost masculinity, and women's attempt to fight for their rights that was perceived as a cultural transgression contributed to the women's suicides.
An autopsy case of multiple myeloma which accompanied radiation-induced veno-occlusion of the liver is presented. A 62-year-old woman with a chief complaint of low back pain was diagnosed as having multiple myeloma. Approximately one year later, the patient was treated with chemotherapy, consisting of VCR, MCNU, ADR, PSL, and CPA, and X-irradiation of 30 Gy to the bilateral trunk for medically intractable rib pain. The irradiation field included the entire liver. Six months later, she was admitted to the hospital due to abdominal distention and massive amounts of ascites. Various examinations failed to make a qualitative diagnosis. Postmortem examination revealed fibrotic occlusion of the central vein which is typical for veno-occlusion disease of the liver. This finding was restricted to the area that was not shielded, irrespective of anatomical structure, strongly suggesting radiation-induced veno-occlusion of the liver. (N.K.)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial nas autópsias em um hospital público universitário; identificar os fatores de risco relacionados à pneumonia nosocomial e os potenciais fatores prognósticos relacionados à ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial fatal; e correlacionar os achados [...] anatomopatológicos com a ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial e/ou pneumonia aspirativa. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 199 pacientes autopsiados, maiores de 1 ano de idade, internados no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista entre 1999 e 2006, cuja causa de morte (causa básica ou associada) foi pneumonia nosocomial. Testou-se a associação dos dados demográficos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos com os desfechos pneumonia nosocomial fatal e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. As variáveis significativas entraram na análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 59 ± 19 anos. A prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial em autópsias foi 29%, e essa foi a causa mortis de 22,6% dos pacientes autopsiados. A pneumonia nosocomial fatal correlacionou-se com os achados anatomopatológicos de alterações estruturais tabágicas (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-2,95; p = 0,02) e acometimento pulmonar bilateral (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-8,30; p = 0,01). Não houve associações significativas entre as variáveis e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. CONCLUSÕES: Em nossa amostra, a pneumonia nosocomial teve prevalência elevada e foi responsável por quase 25% das mortes. A mortalidade é favorecida por alterações estruturais tabágicas e pneumonia bilateral. Esses achados corroboram os resultados de diversos estudos clínicos sobre pneumonia nosocomial. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies at a public university hospital; to identify the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia and the potential prognostic factors associated with fatal nosocomial pneumonia and with fatal aspiration pneumonia; and to determine whe [...] ther anatomopathological findings correlate with nosocomial pneumonia or aspiration pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 199 autopsied patients, older than 1 year of age, who had been admitted to the São Paulo State University Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas and died of nosocomial pneumonia (underlying or contributing cause), between 1999 and 2006. Demographic, clinical and anatomopathological variables were tested regarding their association with the outcomes (fatal nosocomial pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia). The significant variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 59 ± 19 years. The prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies was 29%, and the disease was the cause of death in 22.6% of the autopsied patients. Fatal nosocomial pneumonia correlated with the following anatomopathological findings: tobacco-associated structural lesions (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-2.95; p = 0.02) and bilateral pneumonia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-8.30; p = 0.01). None of the variables were found to be significantly associated with fatal aspiration pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, there was a high prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia, which was responsible for almost 25% of all of the deaths. Smoking-related structural lesions and bilateral pneumonia all favored mortality. These findings corroborate the results of various clinical studies on nosocomial pneumonia.
Luiz Mário Baptista, Martinelli; Paulo José Fortes Villas, Boas; Thais Thomaz, Queluz; Hugo Hyung Bok, Yoo.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) results in an increased risk of sudden death. We sought mutations of desmoglein-2 (DSG2), desmoplakin (DSP), and plakophilin-2 (PKP2) in 15 cases of sudden death whose causes of death could not be determined at autopsy. In three victims, mutations were identified in DSP. Two of these mutations were novel; one had previously been reported in a patient with ARVC that had been diagnosed clinically. Histological findings were not typical of ARVC; however, it was notable that these mutations were present in three of 15 cases, a relatively high proportion. The causal relationship between the mutations and ARVC is unclear, but the mutations might have been associated with faulty desmosomal proteins resulting in fatal arrhythmia. Combining information gathered by the traditional means of gross and histological examination with postmortem genetic analysis of young victims would assist in identifying their cause of death. PMID:25693453
Sato, Takako; Nishio, Hajime; Suzuki, Koichi
A 34-year-old woman presented with urination difficulty and consciousness disturbance, followed by persistent neurologic findings, such as semicomatose mental status and bilateral optic neuritis, and monophasic clinical course. Cranial CT showed multifocal low density areas in cerebral white matter. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. She died of sepsis four months later. Autopsy revealed multifocal large demyelinating lesions confined to the cerebral white matter, shown as low density areas on CT scans, and demyelinating plaques scattered in the optic nerves and chiasm, and cerebral peduncle. The final diagnosis was acute multiple sclerosis. The CT appearance of multifocal low density areas was most likely due to demyelinating lesions causing edema and tissue necrosis. (Namekawa, K.)
The association of heart-related mortality with tissue cadmium and lead in a study of autopsies performed on persons who resided in a soft-water, leached-soil area of North Carolina was examined. Liver cadmium concentrations and aortic lead level were indices of these elements. Both cadmium and lead levels had statistically significant correlations with cause of death (heart-related disease vs. non-heart-related disease, excluding cancer). Although cause of death was significantly associated with age, the association with cadmium and lead persisted after statistical adjustment for the effect of age. The combined effects of cadmium and lead provided sufficient information in an additive model to predict cause of death correctly for 80% of the cases, with age contributing insignificantly. These findings indicate the intimate relation of these two trace metals with increased risk of heart-related mortality, even in light of known conventional causes of such deaths.
Voors, A.W. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans); Johnson, W.D.; Shuman, M.S.
The association of heart-related mortality with tissue cadmium and lead in a study of autopsies performed on persons who resided in a soft-water, leached-soil area of North Carolina was examined. Liver cadmium concentrations and aortic lead level were indices of these elements. Both cadmium and lead levels had statistically significant correlations with case of death (heart-related disease vs. non-heart-related disease, excluding cancer). Although cause of death was significantly associated with age, the association with cadmium and lead persisted after statistical adjustment for the effect of age. The combined effects of cadmium and lead provided sufficient information in an additive model to predict cause of death correctly for 80% of the cases, with age contributing insignificantly. These findings indicate the intimate relation of these two trace metals with increased risk of heart-related mortality, even in light of known conventional causes of such deaths.
Voors, A.W. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans); Johnson, W.D.; Shuman, M.S.
Objective To compare patients with autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease (AD, #14) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) on the frequency of behaviors related to frontal systems dysfunction and the association of these behaviors with dementia severity. Design Cross-sectional survey of longitudinal cohort. Setting University Alzheimer’s disease research center. Participants Volunteer sample of 19 DLB and 38 AD participants with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses, similar in age (DLB: 77.3, AD: 77.5), education (15.2, 14.7), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (20.6, 20.5), with impairment ranging from mild deficits to moderate dementia. Measurements The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe)-Family Rating Form assessing patient apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction by a knowledgeable informant. Results A two-way analysis of variance with the FrSBe total as the dependent variable revealed a significant MMSE by diagnosis interaction (F(1,53)=9.34, p=.004). Mean FrSBe total for AD patients showed significant impairment across the range of dementia severity, while it was relatively preserved for DLB patients in early stage of disease. The interaction term showed the same pattern for the executive dysfunction (F(1,53)=7.62, p=.008), disinhibition (F(1,53)=4.90, p=.031), and apathy (F(1,53)=9.77, p=.003) subscales. Conclusions While frontal behavioral symptoms in AD patients were present regardless of stage of dementia, DLB patients showed significant frontal dysfunction only in later stages. Results suggest that frontal subcortical circuits associated with behaviors assessed by the FrSBe are affected early in AD but not until later stages in DLB. Assessing specific behaviors related to frontal systems, coupled with stage of cognitive decline, may aid in clinical differentiation of AD and DLB. PMID:23567425
Peavy, Guerry M.; Salmon, David P.; Edland, Steven D.; Tam, Steven; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Masliah, Eliezer; Galasko, Douglas; Hamilton, Joanne M.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo revisa las líneas seguidas en casos de autopsia por sospecha de mala praxis. Se revisan las indicaciones, propósitos generales, técnicas de disección, exámenes complementarios, junto con los problemas éticos, de acuerdo con la experiencia del autor y la literatura. Un grado signi [...] ficativo de entrenamiento y experiencia tanto clínica como patológica es requerido en estos casos. Esta necesidad puede contrastar con la relativa falta de expertizatión de los médicos forenses en España, y con las limitaciones de la autopsia médico-legal. Algunas guías para solucionar este problema, como consulta con especialistas independientes, o con los comités de las especialidades médicas, son consideradas. Existen importantes problemas éticos en estos fallecimientos. En consecuencia, hay una necesidad de enfoque correcto de estos problemas. Se consideran algunas orientaciones en este sentido. Abstract in english The present paper reviews the guidelines for autopsy in cases of suspected clinical malpractice. Indications, general purposes, dissection techniques, laboratory and complementary examinations, as well as ethical problems are revised, according to the author's experience and literature review. A sig [...] nificant degree of training and skill, both clinical and pathologically, are required. This needing can contrast with the relative lack of specialization of Forensic Pathologists in Spain, and limitations of the judicial autopsy in these cases. Some guidelines to solve this problem, like independent expert consultation or advise by the Specialties Boards, are considered. Important ethical issues can arise from these deaths, therefore, a needing of correct address of these issues is perceived. Some orientations in this subject are considered.
J., Aso Escario.
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As discrepâncias entre os diagnósticos clínicos e em autópsia persistem em todo o mundo. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos as autópsias em um hospital-escola para analisar a precisão dos diagnósticos cardiovasculares clínicos em comparação aos achados post-mortem. MÉTODOS: As 409 autópsias consecutiva [...] s entre 2003 e 2006 foram analisadas em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP), Brasil. A comparação dos achados cardiovasculares clínicos e patológicos foi realizada por meio da classificação de discrepâncias de Goldman. RESULTADOS: A taxa de autópsia no hospital foi de 8%. As causas cardiovasculares de óbito representavam 42,8% (175 de 409 pacientes) dos diagnósticos de autópsia. Em 98 pacientes (56%), houve discrepâncias significativas (classes I e II), o que representa uma grande proporção de diagnósticos equivocados de infarto mesentérico (84,6%), infarto agudo do miocárdio (64,7%), dissecção da aorta (64,2%) e embolia pulmonar (62,5%). Foram observadas maiores taxas de concordância para a insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (59%) e para o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (58,8%). A idade, o sexo, o tempo de permanência e a última unidade de admissão no hospital não foram associados aos critérios de Goldman. CONCLUSÃO: As discrepâncias dos diagnósticos clínicos e em autópsia relativos à morte cardiovascular permanecem elevados no Brasil, a despeito dos recursos tecnológicos disponíveis. Além disso, nossos achados reforçam a importância do exame post-mortem como uma contribuição para a melhoria da assistência médica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses persists worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated autopsies in a university hospital in order to assess the accuracy of clinical cardiovascular diagnosis compared to postmortem findings. METHODS: Four hundred nine consecutive autopsies betwe [...] en 2003 and 2006 were analyzed in a tertiary-care hospital in São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. The comparison of clinic-pathological cardiovascular findings was performed using Goldman's discrepancies classification. RESULTS: Autopsy rate at the hospital was 8%. Cardiovascular causes of death represented 42.8% (175 out of 409 patients) of autopsy diagnoses. In 98 (56%) patients, there were major discrepancies (class I and II), representing a large proportion of misdiagnoses for mesenteric infarction (84.6%), acute myocardial infarction (64.7%), aorta dissection (64.2%), and pulmonary embolism (62.5%). Highest concordance rates were observed in congestive heart failure (59%) and acute ischemic stroke (58.8%). Age, sex, length of stay and the last admission unit at the hospital were not associated with Goldman criteria. CONCLUSION: Clinic-autopsy discrepancies concerning cardiovascular death remain high in Brazil, despite technological resources available. Moreover, our findings reinforce the importance of postmortem examination in contributing to medical care improvement.
Aline Fusco, Fares; Jorge, Fares; Gislaine Fusco, Fares; José Antônio, Cordeiro; Marcelo Arruda, Nakazone; Patrícia Maluf, Cury.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, the media repeatedly reported water pollution and "cancer villages" along the Huai River in China. Due to the lack of death records for more than 30 years, a retrospective survey of causes of death using verbal autopsy was carried out to investigate cancer rates in this area. Methods An epidemiologic study was designed to compare numbers of deaths and causes of death between the study areas with water pollution and the control areas without water pollution in S County and Y District in 2005. The study areas were selected based on the distribution of the Huai River and its tributaries. Verbal autopsy was used to assist cause of death (COD diagnoses and to verify mortality rates. The standard mortality rates (SMRs of cancer in the study area were compared with those in the control areas. In order to verify the difference between mortality rates due to cancers in the study and the control areas, patients who reported having cancer in the survey received a second diagnosis by national and provincial oncologists with pathological and laboratory examinations. Comparisons were made to determine if differential cancer prevalence rates in the study and control areas were similar to the difference in mortality due to cancer in these study and control areas. Mortality rates of cancers in study and control areas were also compared with national statistics for the rural population of China. Results Over five years, 3,301 deaths were identified, including 1,158 cancer deaths. The annual average SMRs of cancer in the study areas of S County and Y District were 277.8/100,000 and 223.6/100,000, respectively, which is three to four times higher than those in the control areas. In addition, a total of 626 cases of cancer in the study and control areas were confirmed. The prevalence rates of cancer were 545/100,000 and 128.1/100,000 per year in the study and control areas in S County, respectively, and 440.9/100,000 and 200/100,000 per year in the study and control areas in Y District, respectively. The mortality and prevalence rates of digestive cancers were higher in the study areas than the control areas. In 2000, the SMR for cancer in rural areas nationwide was 120.9/100,000, and in study areas in S County and Y District, the excess rates of deaths were 184/100,000 and 138.8/100,000, respectively. Conclusions The death rates of digestive cancers were much higher in the study areas of S County and Y District. The patterns for between-area differences in prevalence and mortality rates of cancer were similar. Verbal autopsy is shown to be a useful tool in retrospective mortality surveys in low-resource areas with limited access to health care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the pelvic fractures (PFx population in auditing effective components of trauma care is the subject of this study. Methods A retrospective, case-control, autopsy-based study compared a population with PFx to a control-group using a template with trauma outcome variables, which included demographics, ICD-9, intention, mechanisms, toxicology, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-90, Injury Severity Score (ISS, causes of haemorrhage, comorbidity, survival time, pre-hospital response, in hospital data, location of death, and preventable deaths. Results Of 970 consecutive patients with fatal falls, 209 (21.5% had PFx and constituted the PFx-group while 761 (78.5% formed the control-group. Multivariate analysis showed that gender, age, intention, and height of fall were risk factors for PFx. A 300% higher odds of a psychiatric history was found in the PFx-group compared to the control-group (p The median ISS was 50 (17-75 for the PFx-group and 26 (1-75 for the control-group (p Associated injuries were significantly more common in the PFx-group than in the control-group. Potentially preventable deaths (ISS A subset of 126 (60.3% potentially preventable deaths in the PFx-group had at least one AIS-90 code other than the PFx, denoting major haemorrhage. Deaths directly attributed to PFx were limited to 6 (2.9%. The median survival time was 30 minutes for the PFx-group and 20 hours for the control-group (p Pre-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the PFx-group i.e. 70.3% of the PFx-group versus 42.7% of the control-group (p Conclusions The PFx-group shared common causative risk factors, high severity and multiplicity of injuries that define the PFx-group as a paradigm of injury for audit. This reduced sample of autopsies substantially contributed to the audit of functional, infrastructural, management and prevention issues requiring transformation to reduce mortality.
In 4929 consecutive autopsies performed during a period of 4 years, 222 cases (4.5%) of cirrhosis were found, of which 149 (3%) were detected while the patients were alive (diagnosed cirrhosis) and 73 (1.5%) were not detected while the patients were living (undiagnosed cirrhosis). Fifty-three of the 73 undiagnosed patients appeared to be completely without signs of cirrhosis (silent cirrhosis). In the diagnosed group, 70% of patients died from hepatic causes, in contrast to 16% in the undiagnosed group. At autopsy, the following complications of cirrhosis were found more frequently in the diagnosed group than in the undiagnosed group: ascites (41% vs. 8%), oesophageal varices (44% vs. 10%), splenomegaly (52% vs. 29%). The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma did not differ significantly in the two groups (12% vs. 8%). It is concluded that cirrhosis without obvious signs occurs relatively frequently, and that no sensitive non-invasive screening methods are available at present.
Graudal, Niels; Leth, Peter Mygind
In order to cooperate with voluntary screening programs aimed at the surveillance of the HIV epidemic in Finland, we have studied medicolegal autopsies for HIV antibodies since 1986 using an enzyme immunoassay on postmortem sera. The investigation covered 47.4% and 39.2%, respectively, of all deaths under the age of 65 years in the metropolitan areas of Helsinki and Turku--two cities on the densely populated southern coast of Finland from which most HIV infections have thus far been detected. Nine HIV-positive cases (0.12%) were detected among the 7305 medicolegal autopsies tested in 1986 to 1990. This figure is higher than the prevalence of 0.01 to 0.03% in voluntary screening programs for the general population would suggest. Seven of our cases had previously tested positive, and two were previously unknown cases, indicating that people at high risk are clustered in the medicolegal autopsy series. Of the six cases in an early stage of infection, three committed suicide suggesting the importance of HIV-screening in suicide cases in tracing symptomless HIV carriers. Five of the cases were detected in 1990, a year when the number of new HIV infections had more than doubled compared to the previous two years. This suggests that testing of medicolegal autopsies as surrogate tests for the population gives useful information even in low-prevalence areas like Finland. Such testing has none of the ethical problems of many other back-up surveys, and may be particularly sensitive to early changes in epidemiology. PMID:1402751
Karhunen, P J; Brummer-Korvenkontio, H; Laaksonen, H; Kantanen, M L; Arstila, P; Leinikki, P
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents ...
Freuchen Anne; Kjelsberg Ellen; Lundervold Astri J; Grøholt Berit
Background: The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger.
Methods: We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed i...
Freuchen, Anne; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Grøholt, Berit
South Gujarat is endemic zone for leptospirosis in paddy workers but recently we have post flood plenty of urban patients who were presented with high grade fever, dyspnea & haemoptysis with rapid deterioration. Clinicians were suspecting an outbreak of Hantavirus or leptospirosis. Both our patients were serologically negative for leptospirosis ante mortem, but alveolar hemorrhage & raised urea was the only finding. Both our patient rapidly deteriorated. We performed autopsy &...
Mandakini M Patel, Bhavna Gamit
There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by beta-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies, and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were tra...
Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Hollister-lock, Jennifer; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Markmann, James; Bonner-weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.
We used a novel approach to molecular quantification in standard fixed and embedded tissue to measure amyloid ? 42 (A?(42)) and paired helical filament-? (PHF-?) in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices from 325 consecutive brain autopsies collected as part of a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia in the Seattle area. We observed significant effects of APOE ?4 on A?(42) levels in both diagnostic groups by disease stage and region. In contrast, we did not observe a significant effect of APOE ?4 on PHF-? levels by disease stage in any region. Levels of A?(42) and PHF-? in cerebral cortex were correlated more strongly in the Dementia group, and these measures had independent explanatory power for dementia beyond those of standard neuropathologic indices. Associations between Lewy body disease and A?(42) or PHF-? levels and between A?(42) levels and microvascular brain injury suggested that these comorbid diseases enhanced the penetrance of Alzheimer disease. Our novel approach brings additional insights into the molecular pathogenesis of common causes of dementia and may serve as a platform for future studies pursuing associations between molecular changes in Alzheimer disease and genetic or environmental risk. PMID:25575135
Postupna, Nadia; Keene, Christopher Dirk; Crane, Paul K; Gonzalez-Cuyar, Luis F; Sonnen, Joshua A; Hewitt, Jessica; Rice, Samantha; Howard, Kimberly; Montine, Kathleen S; Larson, Eric B; Montine, Thomas J
Full Text Available Abstract A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell’s palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1?month after the symptom onset. At autopsy, an ill-defined large and soft tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver with direct invasion into the right adrenal gland was observed. The left adrenal gland or right iliopsoas muscle was also involved. Microscopic findings showed a monotonous proliferation of medium-sized to large atypical lymphoid cells, which were diffusely positive for CD20 in immunohistochemistry, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL. Furthermore, the lymphoma cells aggressively infiltrated endoneurial and subperineurial spaces not only in the peripheral nerves and plexuses, but partly in the spinal nerve roots, and intravascular spaces in various tissues. Therefore, systemic lymphoma (DLBL complicated with neurolymphomatosis (NL and intravascular lymphoma (IVL was diagnosed. Very early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the NL patients with poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5862472377020448.
The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.
Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF is rapidly fatal and liver transplant is the treatment of choice. The condition is known for its heterogeneity of defining criteria, clinical presentation, histologic spectrum and etiologic factors. The etiology of FHF varies widely, some of which includes viral hepatitis, drug overdose and idiosyncratic drug reactions. The identification of the etiology of FHF is critically important, because it influences the management. A histopathological classification of FHF has not been reported earlier in the literature. Methods The current study was conducted retrospectively on 224 autopsies at a tertiary care hospital in India. In all of these cases the liver was examined grossly and microscopically. Clinical findings, serological data and immunohistochemical findings were correlated with the morphological subtypes and a consensus morphological classification was formulated. Results Young females, especially those in the reproductive age group were most susceptible to the disease. Hepatotropic viruses and drugs were the likely causes in most of the patients. Clinical presentation is important, as delayed onset of encephalopathy or the subacute FHFs lead to maximum mortality. After careful gross and microscopic examination the morphological findings of FHF were divided into four distinct categories. Histologic typing can sometimes be misleading if solely made on H & E slides without application of special stains. Conclusion Fulminant hepatic failure is a medical emergency, proper histological categorization can help in deciding the treatment modalities.
An analysis was made of autopsy population of human fetuses and neonates (652 cases for F1 and 115 cases for F2 ) obtained from A-bomb exposed and non-exposed groups. In a study of delivery mode, the incidence of abnormal findings, including congenital anomaly, was found higher in the group of spontaneous delivery than the group of artificial delivery. Anomaly of the heart or great vessels was the most common, followed by anomaly of the central nervous system and urinary system in both F1 and F2 groups. Abnormal findings in the group of spontaneous delivery were observed in a total of 148 cases. For evaluable 32 cases in which the exposure distance was confirmed, these abnormalities were not related to distance from the hypocenter. Anomaly in this group was seen in 74 cases, in which autosomal dominant inheritance had induced chondrodystrophy (two cases) and polycystic kidney disease (one). For F2, anomaly was observed in 22 cases in the group of spontaneous delivery. Polycystic kidney disease was seen in each one case exposed at ?2,000 m or 2,000-4,000 m from the hypocenter. The incidence of other anomalies was independent of exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure to A-bombing. Nor was correlation between the incidence of macerated fetuses and exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure. (N.K.)
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive drug of abuse and toxic to the brain. Recent studies indicated that besides direct damage to dopamine and 5-HT terminals, neurotoxicity of METH may also result from its ability to modify the structure of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present study investigated the postmortem brain mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), claudin5 (CLDN5), and aquaporins (AQPs) in forensic autopsy cases of carbon monoxide (n?=?14), METH (n?=?21), and phenobarbital (n?=?17) intoxication, compared with mechanical asphyxia (n?=?15), brain injury (n?=?11), non-brain injury (n?=?21), and sharp instrument injury (n?=?15) cases. Relative mRNA quantification using Taqman real-time PCR assay demonstrated higher expression of AQP4 and MMP9, lower expression of CLDN5 in METH intoxication cases and lower expression of MMP2 in phenobarbital intoxication cases. Immunostaining results showed substantial interindividual variations in each group, showing no evident differences in distribution or intensity among all the causes of death. These findings suggest that METH may increase BBB permeability by altering CLDN5 and MMP9, and the self-protective system maybe activated to eliminate accumulating water from the extracellular space of the brain by up-regulating AQP4. Systematic analysis of gene expressions using real-time PCR may be a useful procedure in forensic death investigation. PMID:24522335
Wang, Qi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhu, Bao-Li; Guan, Da-Wei; Maeda, Hitoshi
Involvement of the larynx by hemopoietic tumors is generally considered a rare event and little is known about the associated clinicopathologic features. Laryngeal tissue removed at autopsy from 14 patients with known disseminated hematologic malignancies and at operation from one patient with multicentric malignant lymphoma of low-grade malignancy (MALToma) of the head and neck region was investigated. A systematic survey of the main clinicopathologic features of the published cases of hemopoietic tumors with laryngeal involvement was also performed. Primary involvement of the larynx by hemopoietic neoplasms must be clearly distinguished from secondary involvement by disseminated or leukemic tumors. Most of the primary tumors are localized lesions that may involve the regional lymph nodes (stages IE or IIE). Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice, and the prognosis is generally favorable. However, secondary involvement by disseminated or leukemic disease carries a very poor prognosis in most cases. Extramedullary plasmacytoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), particularly B-cell lymphoma of high-grade malignancy, appear to be the most common hemopoietic tumors with primary laryngeal involvement, while primary tumors of myelogenous origin (granulocytic sarcoma and mast cell sarcoma) are extremely rare. Extramedullary plasmacytoma and NHL occur mainly in older persons and in men, are generally associated with a relatively short history of hoarseness and dysphagia, and exhibit preferential involvement of the supraglottic parts of the larynx, in particular the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds. They are generally polypoid, non-ulcerated lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7567682
Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E
A 64-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a history of three previous subarachnoid hemorrhages. Neurological examinations revealed incontinentia urinae, gait disturbance, recent memory disturbance and motor weakness on the left side. Plain X-ray films showed a ring-like calcification in the right frontal region. A plain CT scan showed a ring-shaped iso- and high-density area in the intra hemispheric region, the intra bilateral anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, the intra septum pellucidum, and the intra anterior part of the third ventricle. Left carotid angiography showed a large aneurysmal shadow arising from the anterior communicating artery and another from the left middle cerebral artery. In the venous phase the venous angle was supero-posteriorly shifted, and the septal vein was elevated. She died unexpectedly with a status epilepticus of unknown origin. An autopsy specimen revealed that a giant aneurysm occupied the intra ventricular space, the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the right thalamic region. Also, there was a large berry aneurysm arising from the middle cerebral artery. A coronary section through the giant aneurysm showed a markedly compressed left lateral ventricle, right thalamus, and hypothalamus, while the third ventricle had shifted toward the left side.
Shinmura, Fujio; Takayasu, Kenji; Ohiwa, Yasuyuki; Sakata, Ryuichi; Ariwa, Rokuro
Cathode autopsies are used frequently in the aluminum industry to investigate pot failure and the degradation of the cathode lining. The materials observed in spent pot lining (SPL) has so far been assumed to reflect the sequence of layers from the cathode to the nonreacted refractory lining as present during the operation of the cell. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal gradient in the lining is reversed during cooling and that the physical appearance of the SPL is caused both by processes taking place during operation and cooling of the shutdown cell. X-ray diffraction and microscopy of the SPL from three shutdown cells revealed that sodium metal is the main component responsible for the chemical degradation of the refractory lining. Two distinct reaction fronts were identified in the three SPL showing that sodium is penetrating deeper down into the lining than the molten fluorides from the electrolyte. The mechanisms for the transport of sodium and bath components in the refractory lining are proposed based on the experimental observations. The sodium penetration is inhibited by the formation of a viscous barrier as suggested previously, but the current findings suggest that the barrier retards diffusion of O2- and F- anions rather than Na+ as proposed previously.
Tschöpe, Kati; Schøning, Cristian; Rutlin, Jørn; Grande, Tor
A 40-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital after test results indicated elevated hepatobiliary enzymes. He had worked at a printing plant for 8 years and been exposed to organic solvents, including 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and dichloromethane (DCM). Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed an intrahepatic tumor with dilation of the intrahepatic bile duct. He was diagnosed with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. He had no known risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma. Extended left hepatectomy with lymph node dissection was performed and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. A histological examination also showed biliary intraepithelial preneoplastic lesions in non-cancerous liver areas. Two years after surgery, the patient developed jaundice, esophageal varices and ascites. A CT examination showed liver cirrhosis without recurrence of the cholangiocarcinoma. Although a liver transplantation was planned as a therapeutic option for his liver cirrhosis, his liver failure progressed rapidly and he died before transplantation could be performed. At autopsy, fibrosis was found in the whole liver, especially in the wall of the bile duct and periductal area suggesting chronic bile duct injury due to exposure to organic solvents. Taken together, the current case may suggest that exposure to organic solvents, including 1,2-DCP and DCM, is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. Identifying risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma will help identify the mechanism and help prevent development of the disease. PMID:24849871
Tomimaru, Yoshito; Kobayashi, Shogo; Wada, Hiroshi; Hama, Naoki; Kawamoto, Koichi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Kira, Toshihiko; Morii, Eiichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Nagano, Hiroaki
Full Text Available The frequency of myocarditis associated with meningococcal disease in children was reported only in two autopsied series (United States and South Africa. Here we report the frequency of associated myocarditis in 31 children who died of meningoccal infection at Hospital Infantil N.S. da Glória in Vitória, Espirito Santo State, Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of Neisseria meningitidis . At least three sections of fragments of both atria and ventricles were studied using the Dallas Criteria for the morphologic diagnosis of myocarditis. The mean age was 47.6 ± 39.8 months and the mean survival time after the onset of symptoms was 46.1 ± 26.5h (12-112h. Myocarditis was present in 13 (41.9% patients, being of minimal severity in 11 cases and of moderate severity in 2 cases. There were no cases with severe diffuse myocarditis. The frequency of myocarditis was not influenced by sex, presence of meningitis, survival time after the onset of symptoms or use of vasoactive drugs. The frequency of myocarditis reported here was intermediate between the values reported in the only two case series published in the literature (57% in the United States and 27% in South Africa. Although our data confirm the high frequency of myocaditis in meningoccal disease, further investigations are necessary to elucidate the contribution of myocarditis to myocardial dysfunction observed in cases of meningococcal infection in children.
Garcia Norma S.
Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare diffuse glioma that is neither mass-forming nor necrotic, and does not disrupt existing structures. Gliomatosis occurring in the cerebellum is known as gliomatosis cerebelli, and only three such cases examined by biopsy have been reported. Here we describe the first autopsy findings of a patient who was diagnosed as having gliomatosis in the cerebellum. Neuropathological examination identified the tumor cells as being positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and nestin, with atypical nuclei that were cashew-nut- or dishcloth-gourd-shaped. These tumor cells were dense in the right cerebellum, but also spread broadly throughout the brain including the left cerebrum and optic nerve. Mitotic figures were frequently seen in the cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. Scherer's secondary structures were evident not only in the cerebellum but also the cerebrum. No necrosis, microvascular proliferation or destruction of anatomical structures was detected in the whole brain. Differences in the origin of the tumors of the gliomatoses cerbri and cerebelli suggests these tumors are different types of brain tumors. Thus the findings support that the gliomatosis cerebelli is a novel type of brain tumor classification. Furthermore, by the similarities of the histological features among the tumors, it appears appropriate to establish a novel category of "gliomatosis encephali" which includes both gliomatosis cerebri and gliomatosis cerebelli. PMID:24354431
Nakahara, Asa; Yoshida, Toshikazu; Yazawa, Masanobu; Ehara, Takashi; Nakayama, Jun; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Ogura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Mika; Suzuki-Kouyama, Emi; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu
In 1,382 autopsied cases of sudden death we found 409 which died of a non-coronarogenic cause. The proportion of women was significantly higher (37.2%) than that of men (23%). The age at death in the different kinds of sudden death of this genesis was lower than in those persons whose death was not acute. The death age was especially low in the group of instantaneous death. Like in coronarogenic death the part of sudden death was higher in males than in females. The distribution of the frequency of causes of sudden death was the same as that in general mortality. Embolia of the lung was most frequent in both sexes and followed by cerebrovascular lesions. Acquired heart/valve/diseases ranged next in women and were followed by malignant tumors and aortic rupture. On the other hand, aortic rupture was at the third place in males and followed by malignant tumors and hemorrhages of the gastrointestinal tract. In both sexes the mentioned causes of death belong over 70% to all sudden deaths of non-coronarogenic origin. Other important causes of non-coronarogenic acute death are discussed. PMID:6730745
Hecht, A; Löffler, D
In India, it is estimated that about 13 million people are homeless. As these individuals have no close acquaintances, in the event of death, their bodies remain unclaimed. These unclaimed corpses pose a major challenge for the local law enforcement agencies in identification and thus become an obstacle in solving the cases of missing persons. We sought to review the autopsy characteristics and causes of death in the unclaimed/unidentified bodies autopsied at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) from 2006 to 2012. Among the total of 11,786 cases autopsied during the year 2006 to 2012, 1335 (11%) were unclaimed. Most of the cases were males (91%) with a male-to-female ratio of 9:1. Mean age of the cohort was 43 years (range, 1-85 years). Natural events were the foremost cause of death and were more commonly seen in males. While accidental, suicidal and homicidal modes were common in younger age groups; natural manner of death predominated in the elderly. Most of the cases were found dead on the roadside. This paper also compares with the previous study in the same set-up during the time period 2001 to 2005. The authors believe that knowledge about the existing healthcare facilities need to be reinforced and their utilisation promoted. PMID:24871325
Saurav, Chopra; Aayushi, Garg; Behera, C; Karthik, Krishna; Millo, T; Gupta, Sk
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a huge hardship for parents, but also for health professionals. In 2007, 210 cases occurred in France, corresponding to a crude rate of 31.8 for 100,000 births. Between 1994 and 2007, 140 children of less than 2 years old were examined in the reference centre for SIDS in Rennes, France. We included in our study the children who were aged more than 28 days at death date, did not have a known lethal disease and were autopsied. A total of 80 children fulfilled those criteria. Post-mortem investigation included an autopsy, clinical and paraclinical exams (blood test, radiography, CT-scan...), and investigation of the circumstances of the death. Most of the cases were boys and were 2- to 5-month old. Ventral decubitus and gastrointestinal symptoms were often present. Autopsy gave elements about the causes of death in 23 cases and the other exams performed frequently showed an infectious viral context. Thanks to prevention and information campaigns about childcare done in the 1990s, SIDS incidence has largely decreased in France, but it is still too frequent. In our opinion, advice needs to be given again and again, especially concerning safe sleep practices, in order to increase adherence to these recommendations. Moreover, research should be continued to better understand this unexplained syndrome. PMID:20615676
Saint-Stéban, C; Leray, E; Jouan, H; Loget, P; Venisse, A; Roussey, M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyethylene wear is an important factor for longevity of total knee arthroplasty. Proven and suspicious factors causing wear can be grouped as material, patient and surgery related. There are more studies correlating design and/or biomaterial factors to in vivo wear than those to patient and surgery related factors. Many retrieval studies just include revision implants and therefore may not be representative. This study is aimed to correlate patient- and surgery- related factors to visual wear score by minimizing design influence and include both autopsy and revision implants. Comparison between the groups was expected to unmask patient and surgery-related factors responsible for wear. Methods The amount of joint side wear on polyethylene retrievals was measured using a modification of an established visual wear score. Fatigue type wear was defined as summation of the most severe wear modes of delamination, pitting and cracks. Analysis of patient and surgery related variables suspicious to cause wear included prospectively sampled patient activity which was measured by self reported walking capacity. Statistical analysis was done by univariate analysis of variance. Activity level and implantation time were merged to an index of use and correlated to the wear score. Results Wear score after comparable implantation time was significantly less in the autopsy group. Even so, fatigue type wear accounted for 84 and 93 % of total wear score on autopsy and revision implants respectively. A highly significant influence on wear score was found in time of implantation (p = 0.002, level of activity (p = 0.025 and inserts belonging to revision group (p = 0.006. No influence was found for the kind of patella replacement (p = 0.483. Body mass index and accuracy of component alignment had no significant influence on visual wear score. Fatigue-type wear in the medial compartment was closely correlated to the index of use in the autopsy (R2 = 0.383 and the revision group (R2 = 0.813. Conclusion The present study's finding of substantial fatigue type wear in both autopsy and revision retrievals supports the theory that polyethylene fatigue strength is generally exceeded in this type of prosthesis. Furthermore, this study correlated fatigue-type polyethylene wear to an index of use as calculated by activity over time. Future retrieval studies may use activity over time as an important patient related factor correlated to the visual wear score. When evaluating total knee arthroplasty routine follow up, the surgeon must think of substantial wear present even without major clinical signs.
Ochsner Peter E
Full Text Available RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A amiloidose em idosos pode ser uma alteração independente e própria do envelhecimento. Entretanto, as características clínicas, fisiopatológicas e bioquímicas da Amiloidose relacionada à idade ainda permanecem incertas. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o coração e o encéfalo de indivíduos [...] acima de 60 anos apresentavam depósito amilóide. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados laudos consecutivos de autópsias de indivíduos acima de 60 anos realizadas entre 1976 e 2000, que apresentavam corações sem cardiopatias, com sorologia negativa para Doença de Chagas e encéfalos sem alterações morfológicas de encefalopatias, chegando a um n de 10 casos. Lâminas de fragmentos do coração e de encéfalo foram processadas e analisadas em microscopia de luz comum e polarizada. RESULTADOS: Dos 10 casos, 3 apresentaram depósito amilóide no encéfalo e 1 no encéfalo e no coração. Em 50% dos casos, os indivíduos tinham entre 60 e 69 anos. A relação entre o peso encefálico e o peso corporal mostrou ter uma associação significativa com os casos positivos, sendo esta menor em relação aos negativos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise conjunta de depósitos amilóides em encéfalo e coração de indivíduos idosos talvez direcione para um acometimento sistêmico comum ao envelhecimento natural. Alguma alteração adicional do organismo poderia determinar a quebra de um equilíbrio natural sobre o acúmulo dessas proteínas, levando dessa forma aos contextos patológicos da amiloidose. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Amyloidosis in elderly individuals can be an independent alteration and a characteristic of aging. However, the clinical, pathophysiologic, and biochemical characteristics of amyloidosis related to age remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent t [...] o which the heart and/or the brain of individuals aged 60 years or over exhibits amyloid deposits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The autopsy findings of individuals who were at least 60 years old were studied. The autopsies took place between the years of 1976 and 2000. A total of 10 cases were selected that had hearts without cardiopathies, had negative serology for Chagas' disease, and had brains without morphological changes related to encephalopathies. Slides with fragments of heart and brain were processed and analyzed using polarized and common light microscopy. RESULTS: Of the 10 cases, 4 were positive for amyloidosis. All had positive findings in the brain, and 1 case also had positive findings in the heart. Among the positive cases, 50% were of people aged 60 to 69 years. There appeared to be a relationship between the presence of amyloid deposits and the ratio of brain and body weight, with the ratio in the positive cases being smaller than in the negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of amyloid deposits in the brains and hearts of elderly individuals shows that such deposits may lead to a systemic attack of senility, common to natural aging. It is not certain that beta-amyloid deposits would alone bring such drastic repercussions to the individual. Some additional disorders of the organism could cause the breakdown of the natural balance related to the accumulation of these proteins, leading the way to the pathological contexts of amyloidosis.
Lucas Martins de Exel, Nunes; Ana Karina Marques, Salge; Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Vicente de Paula A., Teixeira; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Identificar diferencias en las características sociodemográficas y clínicas entre hombres y mujeres suicidas en una muestra de Antioquia (Colombia). Método: Se estudiaron mediante autopsia psicológica 144 sujetos que se habían suicidado entre 2006 y 2007. Se determinaron las diferencias en [...] tre suicidas por sexos y las características que se asociaron de manera independiente con ser hombre o mujer. Resultados: Se identificaron diferencias significativas independientes del sexo. La manera de muerte con arma de fuego, vivir solo y suicidio bajo efectos del alcohol se asociaron con el sexo masculino; mientras, el suicidio en casa y dejar una nota previa se asociaron con el sexo femenino. Conclusiones: El presente estudio, realizado en población antioqueña, identificó diferencias en variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y características del acto suicida entre hombres y mujeres. A Zesar de las limitaciones, los presentes hallazgos apuntan hacia la posibilidad de realizar intervenciones de salud mental de prevención del suicidio de mayor especificidad teniendo en cuenta el sexo de la población. Abstract in english Objective: To identify differences in the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics between suicidal men and women in a sample from Antioquia (Colombia). Method: 144 subjects who committed suicide between 2006 and 2007 were studied by means of a psychological autopsy. Gender differences and cha [...] racteristics associated independently to being a man or a woman were determined. Results: Significant differences independent of sex were identified. Death by firearm, living alone and suicide under the effects of alcohol intoxication were associated with the male gender, whereas suicide at home and leaving a note were associated with the female gender. Conclusions: The present study identified differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and characteristics of the suicide act, between men and women. In spite of its limitations, the present findings point towards the possibility of carrying out more specific actions in suicide prevention by taking gender into account.
Andrea, González; Ángela, Rodríguez Betancur; Alejandro, Aristizábal; Jenny, García Valencia; Carlos, Palacio; Carlos, López Jaramillo.
The hemophagocytic syndrome(HPS) after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(SHCT) may be triggered by the reactivation of virus such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) under immunosuppressive state. The present case was a 17-year old man who was diagnosed as B lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow aspiration showed 96.4% of lymphoblasts with positive for CD19 and CD20, negative for CD66 and POX, and dot staining for PAS. E2A/PBX1 chimeric mRNA was positive as assessed by RT-PCR method. He received three courses of induction chemotherapy followed by allo-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from his sister, but had a relapse three months after allo-BMT. He received allo peripheral blood-SCT (PBSCT) from his mother. The hematopoietic cells successfully engrafted, but the mixed chimerism of 2 donors persisted. On day 149, he had a fever, and hemophagocytosis was found by bone marrow aspiration. EBV genomic DNA was detected for 1.62 x 10(3) copies. CMV and fungus were negative in blood. On day 165, the patient had been observed disturbance of consciousness, neck stiffness, and died on day 170 due to multiple organ failure. Autopsy examination showed infiltration of CD20+ leukemic cells into the perivascular space of cerebrum, brainstem and spinal cord, with hemophagocytosis by CD6+ macrophages. In situ hybridization of EB-virus encoded small RNA (EBER) confirmed EBV infection of B-lymphoblastic cells infiltrated in the cerebrum. HPS was considered to be triggered by the reactivation of EBV, due to hematopoietic dysfunction based on long-term immunosuppressive treatment and mixed chimerism derived from a HSCT from 2 donors. PMID:24218764
Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji; Tanaka, Shizu; Tanaka, Haruyuki; Amano, Itsuto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Konishi, Noboru
Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar diferencias en las características sociodemográficas y clínicas entre hombres y mujeres suicidas en una muestra de Antioquia (Colombia. Método: Se estudiaron mediante autopsia psicológica 144 sujetos que se habían suicidado entre 2006 y 2007. Se determinaron las diferencias entre suicidas por sexos y las características que se asociaron de manera independiente con ser hombre o mujer. Resultados: Se identificaron diferencias significativas independientes del sexo. La manera de muerte con arma de fuego, vivir solo y suicidio bajo efectos del alcohol se asociaron con el sexo masculino; mientras, el suicidio en casa y dejar una nota previa se asociaron con el sexo femenino. Conclusiones: El presente estudio, realizado en población antioqueña, identificó diferencias en variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y características del acto suicida entre hombres y mujeres. A Zesar de las limitaciones, los presentes hallazgos apuntan hacia la posibilidad de realizar intervenciones de salud mental de prevención del suicidio de mayor especificidad teniendo en cuenta el sexo de la población.Objective: To identify differences in the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics between suicidal men and women in a sample from Antioquia (Colombia. Method: 144 subjects who committed suicide between 2006 and 2007 were studied by means of a psychological autopsy. Gender differences and characteristics associated independently to being a man or a woman were determined. Results: Significant differences independent of sex were identified. Death by firearm, living alone and suicide under the effects of alcohol intoxication were associated with the male gender, whereas suicide at home and leaving a note were associated with the female gender. Conclusions: The present study identified differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and characteristics of the suicide act, between men and women. In spite of its limitations, the present findings point towards the possibility of carrying out more specific actions in suicide prevention by taking gender into account.
We report a case of intracranial chondrosarcoma of the skull base with fatal intra- and peritumoral hemorrhage. A 75-year-old woman complained of right blepharoptosis and diplopia in 1989. An initial diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome was made, and the patient was treated with steroid hormone therapy at a local hospital. Because the symptoms had not been relieved, she was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a large mass extending from the right side of the clivus to the parasellar region and petrous apex. The mass was partially calcified and had destroyed the base of the middle cranial fossa. The lesion had homogeneous enhancement with contrast medium. Preoperative diagnosis was chordoma or chondroma. A biopsy of the tumor was made. The pathological diagnosis of biopsy specimen was chondroid chordoma. The patient was followed up but no palliative treatment such as radiotherapy was given. On June 25, 1991, she suffered from cerebral infarction. On June 29, 1993, she died of sudden respiratory failure. Autopsy was performed. It revealed intra- and peritumoral hematoma compressing the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. Histologically immature chondroid cells proliferated in a myxoid-rich extracellular matrix. The tumor cells were composed of hyperchromatic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, but there was no evidence of notochordal differentiation. Compared with biopsy findings, the tumor showed high cellular density. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells reacted positively for S - 100 protein, vimentin and cytokeratin, but negatively for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In view of these histopathological findings, the diagnosis of low-grade myxoid chondrosarcoma was established. Intratumoral hemorrhage often occurs in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and metastatic brain tumor, but chondroid tumors rarely develop a fatal type of intratumoral hemorrhage. Only 8 cases have been reported in detail to date. We discuss the immunohistochemical features and spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage of chondrosarcoma. PMID:8849479
Fukuchi, M; Fushimi, S; Yoneya, M; Hirayama, A; Mineura, K; Kowada, M; Saito, M
Several investigators have observed less-than-desirable agreement between death certificate diagnoses and autopsy diagnoses for most specific causes of death, and even for some causes grouped by major disease category. Our results from data on 5130 autopsies of members of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki conducted prior to September 1987 were equally discouraging. Among diseases with more than 10 cases observed, confirmation rates ranged from 13 % to 97 % and detection rates from 6 % to 90 %. Both rates were greater than 70 % for only 6 of 60 disease categories studied and for only 1 of 16 categories defined by major International Classification of Disease categories (neoplasms). This deficiency suggests cautious interpretation of results from studies based on death certificate diagnoses. To determine whether any groupings of diagnoses might meet acceptable accuracy requirements, we applied a hierarchical clustering method to data from these 5130 cohort members. The resulting classification system had 10 categories: breast cancer; other female cancers; cancers of the digestive organs; cancer of the larynx; leukemia; nasal, ear, or sinus cancer; tongue cancer; external causes; vascular disease; and all other causes. Confirmation and detection rates for each of these categories were at least 66 %. Although the categories are broad, particularly for nonneoplastic diseases, further divisions led to unacceptable accuracy rates for some of the resulting diagnostic groups. Using the derived classification system, there was 72 % agreement overall between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses compared to 53 % agreement for a second system obtained by grouping strictly by major disease category. Eighty-seven percent agreement was observed for a similar classification system with vascular disease grouped with all other nonneoplastic diseases. Further agglomeration achieved very little additional improvement. (J.P.N.)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding, low molecular weight proteins and are involved in pathophysiological processes like metabolism of essential metals, metal ion homeostasis and detoxification of heavy metals. Metallothionein expression is induced by various heavy metals especially cadmium, mercury and zinc; MTs suppress toxicity of heavy metals by binding themselves to these metals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the - 5 A/G metallothionein 2A (MT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex from autopsy cases. MT2A core promoter region - 5 A/G SNP was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method using 114 autopsy kidney tissues and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were found as 87.7% homozygote typical (AA), 11.4% heterozygote (AG) and 0.9% homozygote atypical (GG). In order to assess the Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the same autopsy kidney tissues, a dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system was used and the average levels of Cd, Zn and Cu were measured as 95.54 ± 65.58 ?g/g, 181.20 ± 87.72 ?g/g and 17.14 ± 16.28 ?g/g, respectively. As a result, no statistical association was found between the - 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene and the Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex (p > 0.05), but considerably high accumulation of Cd was monitored for individuals having AG (151.24 ± 60.21 ?g/g) and GG genotypes (153.09 ?g/g) compared with individuals having AA genotype (87.72 ± 62.98 ?g/g) (p < otype (87.72 ± 62.98 ?g/g) (p < 0.05). These results show that the core promoter region polymorphism of metallothionein 2A increases the accumulation of Cd in human renal cortex.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP) é ainda uma afecção enigmática em diversos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos e frequentemente erroneamente diagnosticada. OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e os achados anatomopatológicos de TEP em uma série de 5261 autópsias realizadas em um hospital unive [...] rsitário de nível terciário, correlacionar estes achados com as doenças de base e verificar a freqüência de suspeita clínica antemortem de TEP. MÉTODO: Revisão dos registros das autópsias consecutivas realizadas de 1979 a 2002 para um estudo retrospectivo. Dos prontuários e dos relatórios de autópsias dos pacientes que tiveram TEP documentada, macro e/ou microscopicamente, foram extraídos dados demográficos, doenças de base, suspeita antemortem de TEP, localização dos trombos nos pulmões e provável local de origem da TEP. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de autópsias foi de 42,0% e TEP foi encontrada em 544 pacientes, sendo a principal causa da morte (TEP fatal) em 225 casos. Doenças infecciosas (p=0,0003) foram associadas com TEP não fatal e trauma (p=0,007) com TEP fatal. A taxa de não suspeita antemortem de TEP foi 84,6% e 40,0% destes pacientes apresentaram TEP fatal. Doenças do sistema circulatório (p=0,0001), infecções (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is still an enigmatic disorder in many epidemiological and clinical features, remaining one of the most commonly misdiagnosed disorders. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and pathological findings of PTE in a series of autopsies, to correlate these fin [...] dings with underlying diseases, and to verify the frequency of PTE clinically suspected before death. METHOD: The reports on 5261 consecutive autopsies performed from 1979 to 2002 in a Brazilian tertiary referral medical school were reviewed for a retrospective study. From the medical records and autopsy reports of the patients found with macroscopically and/or microscopically documented PTE, were gathered data on demographics, underlying diseases, antemortem suspicion of PTE, and probable PTE site of origin. RESULTS: The autopsy rate was 42.0% and PTE was found in 544 patients. In 225 cases, PTE was the main cause of death (fatal PTE). Infections (p=0.0003) were associated with nonfatal PTE and trauma (p=0.007) with fatal PTE. The rate of antemortem unsuspected PTE was 84.6% and 40.0% of these patients presented fatal PTE. Diseases of the circulatory system (p=0.0001), infections (p
Hugo Hyung, Bok Yoo; Fabiana Guandalini, Mendes; Christine Elisabete Rubio, Alem; Alexandre Todorovic, Fabro; José Eduardo, Corrente; Thais Thomaz, Queluz.
Full Text Available Para conocer la información fundamental contenida en el banco de datos de autopsias realizadas en el Hospital "Dr Luis Díaz Soto", creado mediante el Sistema Automatizado de Registo y Control de Anatomía Patológica, se procesaron las 10 099 autopsias realizadas entre diciembre de 1962 y diciembre de 1995, y de ellas se estudiaron en particular 7 886 de adultos. El sexo masculino predominó, así como el grupo de edad de 65-74 años. Medicina Interna, Terapia Intensiva y Medicina de Urgencia fueron las especialidades de egreso más representadas. Las principales causas básicas de muerte fueron los trastornos cardiovasculares, en especial aterosclerosis, y los tumores malignos, y en partícular el cáncer del pulmón. Sus complicaciones se correspondieron con las principales causas directas e intermedias de muerte. En general, los trastornos cardiovasculares, las infecciones, los tumores malignos y el daño multiorgánico constituyeron los grupos de trastornos de mayor trascendencia tanto como causa de muerte como en la morbilidad asociada. Entre 1987 y 1995 hubo el 32,6 % de discrepancias diagnósticas pre y postmortem en causas básicas de muerte y 28,5 % en causas directas e intermedias de muerte. Se destacó la importancia del estudio de las causas directas e intermedias de muerte (multicausalidad, la evaluación de la calidad de los diagnósticos premortem y la utilidad de la creación de un banco de datos de autopsias para continuar este estudio.A number of 10 099 autopsies performed between December, 1962 and December, 1985 were processed in order to know the main information contained in the databank of autopsies performed at "Dr: Luis Díaz Soto"hospital, created by the Automated System of Register and Control of Pathologic Anatomy. Of these autopsies 7 886 of adult subjects were studied in particular. Male sex predominated, as well as the 65-74 years old age group. The most represented specialties were Internal Medicine, Intensive Therapy, and Emergency Medicine. The principal basic causes of death were cardiovascular disorders, especially atherosclerosis, and malignant tumors, particularly lung cancer. The complications were in agreement with the principal direct or intermediate causes of death. In general, cardiovascular disorders, infections, malignant tumors, and multiorgan damage constituted the groups with a higher frequency as a cause of death in associated morbidity. Between 1987 and 1995 there was a 32.6% of diagnostic discrepancies regarding the basic causes of death and 28.5% with respect to direct or intermediate causes of death. The importance of the study the direct and intermediate causes of death (multicausality,the evaluation of the quality of premorten diagnosis, and the usefulness of the creation of an autopsy databank were higlighted in order to continue this study.
José Hurtado de Mendoza Amat
Hanging is a type of strangulation by means of rope or any other similar material. This kind of ligature strangulation occurs by weight of the body dragging due to gravity and applying force to the neck. Hanging almost never occurs by accident, but occurs mostly as a way to commit suicide.A total number of 82,871 autopsies were performed in the Council of Forensic Medicine of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Justice (Istanbul) between 1979 and 2012, and 4500 (5.43%) of these deaths occurred as a result of hanging. Thirteen of these reported cases have been observed and resulted in death occurring by accident. Seven of these victims were males, and 6 of them were females. Examination of their ages revealed that 3 of these victims were aged 1 year, and 3 victims were aged 6 years. The oldest victim was aged 13 years, and the youngest one was aged 1 year. It has been recorded that 8 of the deaths occurred with rope, 2 with sweater, 2 with scarf, 1 with belt, and 1 with tights. Investigation of the incidents revealed that 3 of the cases occurred by tangling in a rope swing and 2 with a head scarf. Ligature marks on the neck from aforementioned materials and ecchymosis on soft tissue were observed on all of the victims, and the thyroid cartilages and cervical vertebrae were intact. No substance was found in the toxicological analysis performed on all victims.In conclusion, our study showed that although accidental death by hanging took place rarely in these ages, all of the victims were between the ages of 1 and 13 years who recently started walking and entering their teenage years. It is important not to leave the children at home or in the playgrounds alone for a long time (unsupervised at home or in the playgrounds). Precautionary measures must be taken against danger, and the design of materials manufactured for this age group must be reconsidered. PMID:25310372
Kumral, Bahadir; Ozdes, Taskin; Avsar, Abdullah; Buyuk, Yalcin
H1N1 influenza A virus can trigger fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in immunocompromised patients and in immunocompetent hosts, usually children. We present a case of a 50-year-old man with low-burden chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had sudden reactivation of his leukemia triggered by influenza A (H1N1) infection with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. His rapid course was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome with diffuse alveolar damage, a 6-fold rise in lymphocyte count, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and, ultimately, cardiac arrest. Major findings at autopsy included: bilateral H1N1 pneumonitis with diffuse alveolar damage, intra-alveolar pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary microthromboemboli, pulmonary hemorrhagic infarction, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in multiple locations, and diffuse chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a serious and often fatal condition, which may be primary or secondary. It may be associated with high-grade lymphoproliferative malignancies, especially in patients with therapy-related leukocytopenia, but only rarely is it seen in uncomplicated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis may be triggered by a variety of infections (viral, fungal, bacterial and parasitic), but H1N1 influenza A-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is often rapidly fatal, especially in children. This adult patient's clinical presentation with low tumor burden and leukocytosis is thus unique. We review the recently published autopsy findings in fatal influenza A (H1N1) infection and the association with resultant secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PMID:21724431
Lai, Syeling; Merritt, Brian Y; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Xiaodong; Green, Linda K
Obesity is a global problem and in aspects of lethal ethanol intoxications virtually unexplored. The cause of death in ethanol intoxication is generally considered to be suppression of the respiratory function. Previous research indicates that respiratory function is more vulnerable in obese subjects than in those of normal weight. We hypothesized that lethal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is lower in obese subjects compared to those of normal weight. We used the Swedish medicolegal autopsy register and identified all medicolegal autopsy cases in Sweden during the period from 1999 to 2013 (N=79,060), and identified 1545 cases with ethanol intoxication identified as the primary cause of death. We studied the association between body mass index and lethal BAC using logistic regression models that we adjusted using several potential confounders such as age, sex, drugs, and extent of decomposition. We observed an association between obesity and lower lethal BACs. The estimated adjusted odds ratio of the association between obesity and a lethal BAC >3‰, using subjects of normal weight as reference, was 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.74. The result indicates that in obese subjects the lethal BAC is lower than in those of normal weight. PMID:25300068
Wingren, Carl Johan; Ottosson, Anders
Full Text Available Se realiza en este documento una propuesta metodológica para la ejecución siguiendo un protocolo de la técnica de autopsia psicológica, empleando técnicas pertenecientes a la sociometría conductual. Dentro de este artículo, inicialmente se hace una revisión histórica-conceptual de la técnica de autopsia psicológica, para ubicar sus alcances, así como para delimitar su campo de aplicación y utilidades. Enseguida se exponen algunas cuestiones fundamentales de la sociometría conductual. Finalmente se describe el diseño metodológico propuesto, pretendiendo que esta propuesta sea útil para el trabajo de esclarecimiento de casos suicidas y criminales, así como un apoyo para la labor investigativa policial y la conformación de bases de datos de tipo epidemiológico. It is carried out in this document a methodological proposal for the execution using a protocol of the psychological autopsy technique applying social-behavioral and social-cognitive maps. This article initially shows a historic-conceptual review of the technique of psychological autopsy in order to locate its reaches, as well as for delimit its field of application and utilities. After that the article exposes some sociometrics behavioral basics. Finally the proposed methodological design is described. The design looks to be useful for the clarification work in suicide and criminal cases and can also help the police work and the configure of epidemiological data base.
Jacobo Herrera Rodríguez (México
All unexpected deaths in New Mexico from 1977 to 1988 were reviewed. By statute each such death must be reported to the Office of the Medical Examiner (OMI) and according to institutional policy autopsied even when death is presumed to be from natural causes. From this group the 650 index cases that form the basis of this report were obtained. The crude rate of sudden, unexpected death among New Mexico residents 5 to 39 years old during the study period was 6.6/100,000 persons at risk. As documented by autopsy, the underlying cause of death in a majority of these cases (53.4%) was related to cardiovascular disease and alcoholism. Male persons in general are at increased risk for sudden, unexpected death, and American Indian and black male persons are at greater risk than their Anglo and Hispanic counterparts. American Indians account for a disproportionate share of the unexpected deaths resulting from alcoholism, and black male persons are at particular risk for unexpected death resulting from cardiovascular diseases. This report emphasizes the importance of life style and diet in the well-being of persons 5 to 39 years old. PMID:8001928
Anderson, R E; Hill, R B; Broudy, D W; Key, C R; Pathak, D
A study was made on the autopsy of a subject who had been exposed at the age of 10 months old to the atomic bomb at a distance of 1,112 m from a bombed area, and who found to have myelofibrosis which followed aplastic anemia-like symptoms. The autopsy findings showed 400 ml of bloody ascites, hyperplastic bone marrow in which no fatty cells were observed but many reticular cell-like cells and granular hematopoiesis were observed, and diffuse proliferation of reticular fibers without remarkable new bone findings in the trabecula. The liver was enlarged to the weight of 3.18 g, and showed extramedullary hematopoiesis. Infiltration of lymphocytes, slight fibrosis, and marked accumulation of hemosiderin (caused by the transfusion of the blood) were seen in the Glisson's sheath. The spleen, which was enlarged to the weight of 1.54 g, was brown, and showed fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis and many plasma cells. Lymphatic glands were swollen in the mesentery, in the retroperitoneum, around the gastro-pancreatic area, and at the bifurcation of the trachea, where marked extramedullary hematopoiesis and many giant globuli were observed. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was also seen in other sites such as the subdura, both of the renal pelvises, and in a hyperplastic polyp in the gastric pit. Therefore, this patient was diagnosed as having myelofibrosis and hematopoietic dysplasia caused by radiation. (Kanao, N.)
[Autopsy case of a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and suspected chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, which was later diagnosed as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].
We report an autopsy case of a 74-year-old man with late onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) diagnosed by genetic screening, later associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). At the age of 70 years, the patient was admitted to our hospital because of progressive weakness and dysesthesia in the right upper limb. In the early stages of the illness, he was diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and transient improvement was achieved with intravenous immunoglobulin. However, the symptoms progressively worsened and became refractory. Gene analysis revealed PMP22 gene duplication, which confirmed CMT1A. On sural nerve biopsy, severe demyelinating neuropathy and abundant onion-bulb formations with endoneurial infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed. Thereafter, pseudo-bulbar palsy and respiratory muscle weakness developed insidiously and progressed rapidly along with muscle weakness in the limbs and trunk. The patient died about four years after the onset of this disease. Postmortem examination showed moderate neuronal cell loss, Bunina bodies, and TDP-43-positive inclusions in the anterior horn cells. The spinal cord revealed axonal loss and extensive macrophage permeation in the corticospinal tracts. On the basis of these findings, the final neuropathological diagnosis was ALS. This is the first report of an autopsy case of CMT1A complicated with ALS. We here discuss the significant clinical and neuropathological findings of this case. PMID:23064625
Higuchi, Yujiro; Sakiyama, Yusuke; Nishihira, Yasushi; Endo, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Shugo; Suehara, Masahito
Full Text Available Objectives: This study considers 489 autopsies of HIV/AIDS patients who died from acute respiratory failure and describes the demographic data, etiology, and histological pulmonary findings of HIV associated diseases, comparing results before and after introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Methods: The following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases (found at the autopsy. Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as: diffuse alveolar damage; pulmonary edema; alveolar hemorrhage; and acute interstitial pneumonia. Odds ratio of the HIV/AIDS-associated diseases developing a specific histopathological pattern was determined by logistic regression. Results: A total of 355 men were studied. The mean age was 37 years old. Bronchopneumonia presented in 43% and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in 38% of patients. Pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 31% and acute interstitial pneumonia in 23%. The multivariate analysis showed a significant and positive association between diffuse alveolar damage with disseminated tuberculosis, cirrhosis and sepsis; and acute interstitial pneumonia with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirosis. After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy we observed an increase in the prevalence of bacterial bronchopneumonia, sepsis and cirrhosis; and a decrease in Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirosis. Conclusions: Coherent to literature, this study showed a decrease of respiratory failure mortality associated with some opportunistic infections after antiretroviral therapy introduction. But an increased prevalence of sepsis, bronchopneumonia and sepsis was observed too. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which suggested a positive association with disseminated tuberculosis, sepsis and cirrhosis.
Aline Domingos Pinto Ruppert
Abstract Background In resource- poor settings, verbal autopsy data are often reviewed by physicians in order to assign the probable cause of death. But in addition to being time and energy consuming, the method is liable to produce inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the InterVA 3.2 model for establishing pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of death in comparison with physician review of verbal autopsy data. Methods A population-based cross-sectional s...
Tadesse Sebsibe; Tadesse Takele
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a proporção de mortes por causa mal definida no Estado de São Paulo entre 1980 e 2002, considerando a influência da realização de necropsia nessa proporção. MÉTODO: O número de óbitos foi obtido do Ministério da Saúde. Dividiu-se o Estado de São Paulo em três áreas: 1 municípios com serviço de verificação de óbitos (SVO, que pode realizar necropsias; 2 municípios sem SVO; e 3 Baixada Santista, região onde houve um aumento marcante na proporção de mortes por causa mal definida entre 1980 e 1995. O impacto das necropsias na proporção de óbitos por causa mal definida foi medido com base na classificação da causa de óbito pelo primeiro médico avaliador (aquele que encaminhou o caso para o SVO para necropsia ou que preencheu a declaração de óbito sem encaminhar o caso. Os óbitos por causas externas foram excluídos por ter necropsia obrigatória. Foram avaliadas as proporções 1 de casos classificados como de causa mal definida pelo primeiro avaliador; 2 de necropsias no total de óbitos excluindo causas externas; e 3 de óbitos com causa esclarecida por necropsia entre os classificados como de causa mal definida pelo primeiro avaliador. RESULTADOS: A proporção de óbitos classificados como de causa mal definida pelo primeiro avaliador aumentou entre 1980 e 2002 em todas as áreas: nos municípios com SVO, nos municípios sem SVO e na Baixada Santista. Para o Estado de São Paulo como um todo, o aumento foi de quase 30% no período de 1980 a 2002. Para o período de 1998 a 2002, a proporção média de necropsias no total de óbitos excluindo causas externas foi de 21,2, 6,4 e 2,6%, respectivamente, nas áreas com e sem SVO e na Baixada Santista. Entre 1998 e 2002, a proporção de óbitos com causa mal definida esclarecidos pela necropsia foi de 92,9 nas áreas com SVO, 32,5 nas áreas sem SVO e 10,7% na Baixada Santista. CONCLUSÕES: A realização de necropsias explica a diferença na mortalidade proporcional por causa mal definida entre as áreas estudadas. O aumento observado entre 1980 e 2002 na classificação de óbitos por causa mal definida pelo primeiro avaliador no Estado de São Paulo indica uma importante piora na qualidade do preenchimento da declaração de óbito nessa instância. São necessárias investigações adicionais para esclarecer as causas dessa mudança.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proportion of deaths with an ill-defined cause in the Brazilian state of São Paulo between 1980 and 2002, taking into account the influence of autopsies on this proportion. METHOD: Data on the number of deaths were obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The communities of the state of São Paulo were divided into three groups: (1 municipalities with a service to verify the cause of death (and that may conduct an autopsy, (2 municipalities without a cause of death verification service, and (3 the region of Baixada Santista, which had an extremely large increase in the proportion of deaths from ill-defined causes between 1980 and 1995. The impact of autopsies on the proportion of deaths with an ill-defined cause was defined based on the classification made by the first physician evaluating the cause of death, that is, the physician who referred the case to the verification service for autopsy or who completed the death certificate without referring the case to the verification service. Deaths from external causes were excluded, since autopsy is mandatory in these cases. The following were evaluated: (1 proportion of cases classified by the first evaluating physician as having an ill-defined cause, (2 proportion of autopsies in relation to the total number of deaths (except from external causes, and (3 proportion of deaths classified as ill-defined by the first evaluating physician but explained by the autopsy. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths classified by the first evaluating physician as having an ill-defined cause increased over the 1980-2002 period in all three groups studied: the municipalities with a verification service, the
Mauro Abrahão Rozman
Autopsy samples from 17 Greenlanders and 12 Danes were analysed for total and organic mercury by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and for cellular localisation by autometallography. The concentration of total mercury in the Greenlanders (median: 174 micrograms Hg/kg wet weight brain tissue, range 59-4782, highest in cerebellum: 492) was found to be significantly higher than in the Danish group (3.7 micrograms Hg/kg w.w., range 1.2-11.8). Furthermore, the total concentration of mercury was positively correlated to age (rho = 0.56, p <0.05), and the fraction of methyl mercury was negatively correlated to age (rho = -0.66, p <0.01) among the Greenlanders. This suggests an age dependent accumulation of total mercury and a slow transformation of methyl mercury to inorganic mercury in the brain. The autometallographically demonstrable mercury was primarily located in glia cells.
Pedersen, M B; Hansen, J C
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP é ainda uma afecção enigmática em diversos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos e frequentemente erroneamente diagnosticada. OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e os achados anatomopatológicos de TEP em uma série de 5261 autópsias realizadas em um hospital universitário de nível terciário, correlacionar estes achados com as doenças de base e verificar a freqüência de suspeita clínica antemortem de TEP. MÉTODO: Revisão dos registros das autópsias consecutivas realizadas de 1979 a 2002 para um estudo retrospectivo. Dos prontuários e dos relatórios de autópsias dos pacientes que tiveram TEP documentada, macro e/ou microscopicamente, foram extraídos dados demográficos, doenças de base, suspeita antemortem de TEP, localização dos trombos nos pulmões e provável local de origem da TEP. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de autópsias foi de 42,0% e TEP foi encontrada em 544 pacientes, sendo a principal causa da morte (TEP fatal em 225 casos. Doenças infecciosas (p=0,0003 foram associadas com TEP não fatal e trauma (p=0,007 com TEP fatal. A taxa de não suspeita antemortem de TEP foi 84,6% e 40,0% destes pacientes apresentaram TEP fatal. Doenças do sistema circulatório (p=0,0001, infecções (pBACKGROUND: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is still an enigmatic disorder in many epidemiological and clinical features, remaining one of the most commonly misdiagnosed disorders. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and pathological findings of PTE in a series of autopsies, to correlate these findings with underlying diseases, and to verify the frequency of PTE clinically suspected before death. METHOD: The reports on 5261 consecutive autopsies performed from 1979 to 2002 in a Brazilian tertiary referral medical school were reviewed for a retrospective study. From the medical records and autopsy reports of the patients found with macroscopically and/or microscopically documented PTE, were gathered data on demographics, underlying diseases, antemortem suspicion of PTE, and probable PTE site of origin. RESULTS: The autopsy rate was 42.0% and PTE was found in 544 patients. In 225 cases, PTE was the main cause of death (fatal PTE. Infections (p=0.0003 were associated with nonfatal PTE and trauma (p=0.007 with fatal PTE. The rate of antemortem unsuspected PTE was 84.6% and 40.0% of these patients presented fatal PTE. Diseases of the circulatory system (p=0.0001, infections (p<0.0001, diseases of the digestive system (p=0.0001, neoplasia (p=0.024 and trauma (p=0.005 were associated with unsuspected PTE. The most frequent PTE site of origin was the lower limbs (48.9%. Probable PTE sites of origin such as right-sided cardiac chambers (p=0.012 and pelvic veins (p=0.015 were associated with fatal PTE. CONCLUSION: A large number of cases do not have antemortem suspicion of PTE. Special attention should be paid to the possibility of PTE in patients with diseases of the circulatory system, infections, diseases of the digestive system, neoplasia, and trauma.
Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para conocer la información fundamental contenida en el banco de datos de autopsias realizadas en el Hospital "Dr Luis Díaz Soto", creado mediante el Sistema Automatizado de Registo y Control de Anatomía Patológica, se procesaron las 10 099 autopsias realizadas entre diciembre de 1962 y diciembre de [...] 1995, y de ellas se estudiaron en particular 7 886 de adultos. El sexo masculino predominó, así como el grupo de edad de 65-74 años. Medicina Interna, Terapia Intensiva y Medicina de Urgencia fueron las especialidades de egreso más representadas. Las principales causas básicas de muerte fueron los trastornos cardiovasculares, en especial aterosclerosis, y los tumores malignos, y en partícular el cáncer del pulmón. Sus complicaciones se correspondieron con las principales causas directas e intermedias de muerte. En general, los trastornos cardiovasculares, las infecciones, los tumores malignos y el daño multiorgánico constituyeron los grupos de trastornos de mayor trascendencia tanto como causa de muerte como en la morbilidad asociada. Entre 1987 y 1995 hubo el 32,6 % de discrepancias diagnósticas pre y postmortem en causas básicas de muerte y 28,5 % en causas directas e intermedias de muerte. Se destacó la importancia del estudio de las causas directas e intermedias de muerte (multicausalidad), la evaluación de la calidad de los diagnósticos premortem y la utilidad de la creación de un banco de datos de autopsias para continuar este estudio. Abstract in english A number of 10 099 autopsies performed between December, 1962 and December, 1985 were processed in order to know the main information contained in the databank of autopsies performed at "Dr: Luis Díaz Soto"hospital, created by the Automated System of Register and Control of Pathologic Anatomy. Of th [...] ese autopsies 7 886 of adult subjects were studied in particular. Male sex predominated, as well as the 65-74 years old age group. The most represented specialties were Internal Medicine, Intensive Therapy, and Emergency Medicine. The principal basic causes of death were cardiovascular disorders, especially atherosclerosis, and malignant tumors, particularly lung cancer. The complications were in agreement with the principal direct or intermediate causes of death. In general, cardiovascular disorders, infections, malignant tumors, and multiorgan damage constituted the groups with a higher frequency as a cause of death in associated morbidity. Between 1987 and 1995 there was a 32.6% of diagnostic discrepancies regarding the basic causes of death and 28.5% with respect to direct or intermediate causes of death. The importance of the study the direct and intermediate causes of death (multicausality),the evaluation of the quality of premorten diagnosis, and the usefulness of the creation of an autopsy databank were higlighted in order to continue this study.
José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Reynaldo, Álvarez Santana; Verónica, Walwyn Salas; Teresita de Jesús, Montero González; Roberto, Carriles Martínez-Pinillos; Jesús, Rodríguez Guerra.
The apparent effect of ionizing radiation on lung cancer in A-bomb survivors has not been large enough to still doubts as to its validity. It has seemed essential to determine whether the apparent radiation effect could have resulted from a confounding of heavy smoking and high radiation dose, or if the occupational exposure of high-dose subjects with lung cancer was suggestive of the influence of environmental hazards other than radiation. The available series consists of 204 subjects with lung cancer verified by autopsy, 61 of whom were low-dose (less than 1 rad) and 13 high-dose (200+ rads) subjects. No evidence could be found that the influence of either smoking or occupational exposure upon lung cancer was exerted so as to suggest that the apparent radiation effect is other than real. The study also provides additional evidence of the relationship between lung cancer and smoking in Japan
Alterações histopatológicas pulmonares em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória aguda: um estudo em autopsias / Pulmonary histopathological alterations in patients with acute respiratory failure: an autopsy study
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar alterações histopatológicas pulmonares encontradas em autopsias de pacientes falecidos por insuficiência respiratória aguda (IRA) e verificar se doenças de base e específicos fatores de risco associados aumentam a incidência dessas alterações. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados laudos fi [...] nais de autopsias e selecionadas 3.030 autopsias de pacientes > 1 ano de idade, com infiltrado pulmonar radiológico, portadores de doença de base e fatores de risco associados, que morreram por alterações pulmonares decorrentes de IRA. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações histopatológicas pulmonares causadoras de morte imediata foram: dano alveolar difuso (DAD); edema pulmonar; pneumonia intersticial linfocítica (PIL) e hemorragia alveolar. As principais doenças de base encontradas foram: AIDS; broncopneumonia; sepse; cirrose hepática; tromboembolismo pulmonar; infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM); acidente vascular cerebral; tuberculose; câncer; insuficiência renal crônica e leucemia. Os principais fatores de risco associados foram: idade > 50 anos; hipertensão arterial; insuficiência cardíaca congestiva; doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e diabetes mellitus. Pacientes com esses fatores de risco e AIDS apresentaram alta probabilidade de desenvolver PIL; pacientes com esses mesmos fatores, de desenvolver DAD, se portadores de sepse ou cirrose hepática; pacientes com tromboembolismo e os mesmos fatores de risco, de desenvolver hemorragia alveolar; pacientes com esses fatores de risco e IAM, de desenvolver edema pulmonar. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados pulmonares em pacientes com óbito por IRA apresentaram quatro padrões histopatológicos: DAD, edema pulmonar, PIL e hemorragia alveolar. Doenças de base e específicos fatores de risco associados correlacionaram-se positivamente com determinados padrões histopatológicos detectados à autópsia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present the pulmonary histopathological alterations found in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and determine whether underlying diseases and certain associated risk factors increase the incidence of these histopathological patterns. METHODS: Final autopsy r [...] eports were reviewed, and 3030 autopsies of patients > 1 year of age with an underlying disease and associated risk factors were selected. All had developed diffuse infiltrates and died of ARF-related pulmonary alterations. RESULTS: The principal pulmonary histopathological alterations resulting in immediate death were diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), pulmonary edema, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and alveolar hemorrhage. The principal underlying diseases were AIDS, bronchopneumonia, sepsis, liver cirrhosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cerebrovascular accident, tuberculosis, cancer, chronic kidney failure and leukemia. The principal associated risk factors were as follows: age > 50 years; arterial hypertension; congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and diabetes mellitus. These risk factors and AIDS correlated with a high risk of developing LIP; these same risk factors, if concomitant with sepsis or liver cirrhosis, correlated with a risk of developing DAD; thromboembolism and these risk factors correlated with a risk of developing alveolar hemorrhage; these risk factors and AMI correlated with a risk of developing pulmonary edema. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary findings in patients who died of ARF presented four histopathological patterns: DAD, pulmonary edema, LIP and alveolar hemorrhage. Underlying diseases and certain associated risk factors correlated positively with specific histopathological findings on autopsy.
Alexandre de Matos, Soeiro; Edwin Roger, Parra; Mauro, Canzian; Cecília, Farhat; Vera Luiza, Capelozzi.
Alterações histopatológicas pulmonares em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória aguda: um estudo em autopsias Pulmonary histopathological alterations in patients with acute respiratory failure: an autopsy study
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar alterações histopatológicas pulmonares encontradas em autopsias de pacientes falecidos por insuficiência respiratória aguda (IRA e verificar se doenças de base e específicos fatores de risco associados aumentam a incidência dessas alterações. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados laudos finais de autopsias e selecionadas 3.030 autopsias de pacientes > 1 ano de idade, com infiltrado pulmonar radiológico, portadores de doença de base e fatores de risco associados, que morreram por alterações pulmonares decorrentes de IRA. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações histopatológicas pulmonares causadoras de morte imediata foram: dano alveolar difuso (DAD; edema pulmonar; pneumonia intersticial linfocítica (PIL e hemorragia alveolar. As principais doenças de base encontradas foram: AIDS; broncopneumonia; sepse; cirrose hepática; tromboembolismo pulmonar; infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM; acidente vascular cerebral; tuberculose; câncer; insuficiência renal crônica e leucemia. Os principais fatores de risco associados foram: idade > 50 anos; hipertensão arterial; insuficiência cardíaca congestiva; doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e diabetes mellitus. Pacientes com esses fatores de risco e AIDS apresentaram alta probabilidade de desenvolver PIL; pacientes com esses mesmos fatores, de desenvolver DAD, se portadores de sepse ou cirrose hepática; pacientes com tromboembolismo e os mesmos fatores de risco, de desenvolver hemorragia alveolar; pacientes com esses fatores de risco e IAM, de desenvolver edema pulmonar. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados pulmonares em pacientes com óbito por IRA apresentaram quatro padrões histopatológicos: DAD, edema pulmonar, PIL e hemorragia alveolar. Doenças de base e específicos fatores de risco associados correlacionaram-se positivamente com determinados padrões histopatológicos detectados à autópsia.OBJECTIVE: To present the pulmonary histopathological alterations found in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF and determine whether underlying diseases and certain associated risk factors increase the incidence of these histopathological patterns. METHODS: Final autopsy reports were reviewed, and 3030 autopsies of patients > 1 year of age with an underlying disease and associated risk factors were selected. All had developed diffuse infiltrates and died of ARF-related pulmonary alterations. RESULTS: The principal pulmonary histopathological alterations resulting in immediate death were diffuse alveolar damage (DAD, pulmonary edema, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP and alveolar hemorrhage. The principal underlying diseases were AIDS, bronchopneumonia, sepsis, liver cirrhosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, cerebrovascular accident, tuberculosis, cancer, chronic kidney failure and leukemia. The principal associated risk factors were as follows: age > 50 years; arterial hypertension; congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and diabetes mellitus. These risk factors and AIDS correlated with a high risk of developing LIP; these same risk factors, if concomitant with sepsis or liver cirrhosis, correlated with a risk of developing DAD; thromboembolism and these risk factors correlated with a risk of developing alveolar hemorrhage; these risk factors and AMI correlated with a risk of developing pulmonary edema. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary findings in patients who died of ARF presented four histopathological patterns: DAD, pulmonary edema, LIP and alveolar hemorrhage. Underlying diseases and certain associated risk factors correlated positively with specific histopathological findings on autopsy.
Alexandre de Matos Soeiro
Discussion was made as to the relationship of radiation dose to primary sites and histological types of malignant tumors in 1,810 autopsy cases selected from the fixed group set up from 1951 to 1975 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation doses of the subjects were made clear. The sites and histological types of malignant tumors were classified according to SNOP edited by Japan Pathological Society. As to primary sites, there was a relationship of radiation dose to the bone marrow and malignant tumor of the lung. As to histological types, there was a significant relationship of radiation dose to leukemia, especially acute and chronic granulocytic leukemia and adenocarcinoma, especially papillary and undifferenciated adenocarcinoma. (Tsunoda, M.)
We report clinicopathological features of a 23-year-old woman with Down syndrome (DS) presenting with subacute myelopathy treated with chemotherapy, including intravenous and intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX), and with allogenic bone-marrow transplantation for B lymphoblastic leukemia. Autopsy revealed severe demyelinating vacuolar myelopathy in the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, associated with macrophage infiltration, marked axonal loss and some swollen axons. Pathological changes of posterior and lateral columns were observed from the medulla oblongata to lumbar cord. Proximal anterior and posterior roots were preserved. Cerebral white matter was relatively well preserved. There were no vascular lesions or meningeal dissemination of leukemia. Longitudinal extension of cord lesions was extensive, unlike typical cases of subacute combined degeneration (SACD), but distribution of lesions and histological findings were similar to that of SACD. DS patients show heightened sensitivity to MTX because of their genetic background. Risk factors for toxic myelopathy of DS are discussed, including delayed clearance of MTX despite normal renal function, alterations in MTX polyglutamation and enhanced folic acid depletion due to gene dosage effects of chromosome 21. Alteration of folate metabolism and/or vitamin B12 levels through intravenous or intrathecal administration of MTX might exist, although vitamin B12 and other essential nutrients were managed using intravenous hyperalimentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an autopsy case that shows myelopathy mimicking SACD in a DS patient accompanied by B lymphoblastic leukemia. The case suggests a pathophysiological mechanism of MTX-related myelopathy in DS patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia mimicking SACD. PMID:24661121
Satomi, Kaishi; Yoshida, Mari; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Okita, Hajime; Hosoya, Yosuke; Shioda, Yoko; Kumagai, Masa-Aki; Mori, Tetsuya; Morishita, Yukio; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Atsuko
Full Text Available O presente estudo tece investigações sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos de malformações do aparelho urinário de uma população de natimortos, neomortos, lactentes, pré-escolares e escolares de uma amostra representativa da população de Curitiba e região metropolitana - análise de 40 anos de necropsias na Unidade de Patologia Pediátrica e Perinatal (UPPP do Serviço de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital de Clínicas de Curitiba da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR. Variáveis como sexo, idade, faixa etária e causas de morte são correlacionadas, estratificando a amostra em grupos específicos de indivíduos, apontando anormalidades epidemiológicas, doenças raras e a relação das doenças com o processo de morte. Foram encontrados 182 casos com malformações do aparelho urinário, correspondendo a 2,9% do número de necropsias avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os sexos, e houve maior prevalência de recém-natos com tais anormalidades. A classe mais prevalente foi a de malformações renais e de trato urinário superior, com 150 casos.The presented study investigates epidemiologic aspects regarding congenital malformations of the urinary tract in a representative sample of stillborns, newborns, infants and children from Curitiba, analising autopsies from the Pediatric and Perinatal Pathology Unit (Service of the Clinical Hospital - Curitiba, Paraná in a 40-year period. Sex, age groups and death causes are correlated, dividing the cases in specific groups of study, revealing epidemiologic abnormalities, rare diseases and diseases related to the death process. Out of 6,245 autopsies, 182 cases (2.9% presented urinary tract congenital malformations. There was no difference between sex, and the group of newborns was the most prevalent. The group of malformations of the kidney and upper urinary tract contributed with 150 abnormalities.
Lucia de Noronha
Full Text Available O presente estudo tece investigações sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos de malformações do aparelho urinário de uma população de natimortos, neomortos, lactentes, pré-escolares e escolares de uma amostra representativa da população de Curitiba e região metropolitana - análise de 40 anos de necropsias [...] na Unidade de Patologia Pediátrica e Perinatal (UPPP) do Serviço de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital de Clínicas de Curitiba da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR). Variáveis como sexo, idade, faixa etária e causas de morte são correlacionadas, estratificando a amostra em grupos específicos de indivíduos, apontando anormalidades epidemiológicas, doenças raras e a relação das doenças com o processo de morte. Foram encontrados 182 casos com malformações do aparelho urinário, correspondendo a 2,9% do número de necropsias avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os sexos, e houve maior prevalência de recém-natos com tais anormalidades. A classe mais prevalente foi a de malformações renais e de trato urinário superior, com 150 casos. Abstract in english The presented study investigates epidemiologic aspects regarding congenital malformations of the urinary tract in a representative sample of stillborns, newborns, infants and children from Curitiba, analising autopsies from the Pediatric and Perinatal Pathology Unit (Service of the Clinical Hospital [...] - Curitiba, Paraná) in a 40-year period. Sex, age groups and death causes are correlated, dividing the cases in specific groups of study, revealing epidemiologic abnormalities, rare diseases and diseases related to the death process. Out of 6,245 autopsies, 182 cases (2.9%) presented urinary tract congenital malformations. There was no difference between sex, and the group of newborns was the most prevalent. The group of malformations of the kidney and upper urinary tract contributed with 150 abnormalities.
Lucia de, Noronha; Adriane, Reichert; Vanessa Dello Monaco, Martins; Gilberto Antunes, Sampaio; Israil, Cat; Maria José, Serapião.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se cuenta con poca información acerca de los pacientes fallecidos por asma certificada por autopsia en São Paulo, Brasil. Se caracterizaron 73 pacientes de asma sometidos a autopsia en el Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos da Universidade de São Paulo entre 1996 y 2004. Mediante entrevistas con sus pa [...] rientes se estableció el nivel socioeconómico, los antecedentes de asma y el tratamiento seguido. Del los 73 pacientes (42 mujeres y 31 hombres), 56 (76,7%) eran mayores de 34 años; 63,0% eran caucásicos y 77,3% tenían menos de 8 años de escolaridad. La mediana de los ingresos era de 1,6 veces el salario mínimo. De los pacientes, 22 (30,1%) eran fumadores y 14 (19,2%) lo habían sido. Solamente 25 (34,2%) pacientes tenían seguimiento médico regular y solo 12,3% usaba inhaladores de esteroides; 35 (47,9%) presentaban asma moderada o intensa; 55 (75,3%) de las muertes ocurrieron fuera de los hospitales. Se concluye que esta población se caracterizaba por padecer de asma intensa o poco controlada, bajo nivel educacional y socioeconómico, carecía de atención médica y no usaba inhaladores de esteroides. Abstract in english Few data are available on autopsy-proven fatal asthma patients in São Paulo, Brazil. We characterized 73 asthma patients who were autopsied at the Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos da Universidade de São Paulo between 1996 and 2004. An interview with the next of kin assessed socioeconomic status, his [...] tory, and treatment of asthma. There were 42 women and 31 men. Fifty-six (76.7%) of them were older than 34 years. Sixty-three percent were Caucasians, 77.3% had
Thais, Mauad; Diogenes S., Ferreira; Maria Beatriz G., Costa; Bianca B., Araujo; Luiz Fernando F., Silva; Milton A., Martins; Sally E., Wenzel; Marisa, Dolhnikoff.
Annually, thousands of sudden deaths in individuals under 35 years remain unexplained following comprehensive medico-legal autopsy. Previously, post-mortem genetic analysis by Sanger sequencing of four major cardiac channelopathy genes revealed that approximately one-fourth of these autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY) cases harbored an underlying mutation. However, there are now over 100 sudden death-predisposing cardiac channelopathy-, cardiomyopathy-, and metabolic disorder-susceptibility genes. Here, we set out to determine whether post-mortem whole exome sequencing (WES) is an efficient strategy to detect ultra-rare, potentially pathogenic variants. We performed post-mortem WES and gene-specific analysis of 117 sudden death-susceptibility genes for 14 consecutively referred Caucasian SUDY victims (average age at death 17.4 ± 8.6 years) to identify putative SUDY-associated mutations. On average, each SUDY case had 12,758 ± 2,016 non-synonymous variants, of which 79 ± 15 localized to these 117 genes. Overall, eight ultra-rare variants (seven missense, one in-frame insertion) absent in three publically available exome databases were identified in six genes (three in TTN, and one each in CACNA1C, JPH2, MYH7, VCL, RYR2) in seven of 14 cases (50 %). Of the seven missense alterations, two (T171M-CACNA1C, I22160T-TTN) were predicted damaging by three independent in silico tools. Although WES and gene-specific surveillance is an efficient means to detect rare genetic variants that might underlie the pathogenic cause of death, accurate interpretation of each variant is challenging. Great restraint and caution must be exercised otherwise families may be informed prematurely and incorrectly that the root cause has been found. PMID:25500949
Narula, Nupoor; Tester, David J; Paulmichl, Anna; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Ackerman, Michael J
Full Text Available El estudio de más de 14 000 autopsias ha permitido integrar un conjunto de alteraciones morfológicas con el término de daño múltiple de órganos. El propósito del presente trabajo fue determinar la vigencia de los elementos diagnósticos iniciales del daño múltiple de órganos en fallecidos con factores causales. Se realizó un estudio de estos y se analizaron las relaciones de las causas de muerte con los factores causales y el número de órganos afectados con la estadía hospitalaria. Se revisaron 448 fallecidos y a quienes se les había realizado autopsia en el Instituto Superior de Medicina Militar "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto". Se revisaron los protocolos de autopsias, historias clínicas y láminas histopatológicas. Se seleccionaron los 145 casos con criterio de daño múltiple de órganos que constituyeron el objeto de estudio del presente trabajo. Los resultados muestran la presencia del daño múltiple de órganos en un tercio de los fallecidos, que fue mayormente en los menores de 50 años y en los procedentes de las terapias y unidades de cuidados intermedios. Se destacan entre las causas de muerte el daño tisular severo y la infección. Los órganos más afectados fueron los pulmones, el intestino, las glándulas suprarrenales, el hígado y el cerebro. Estuvo presente el daño múltiple de órganos en el 59,3 % de los fallecidos entre los primeros 4 días de estadía hospitalaria, con predominio del daño en 5 y 6 órganos. El daño múltiple de órganos se presentó en más de un tercio de los casos estudiados. La respuesta del organismo ante los factores causales, desencadena la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica que se expresa morfológicamente en el daño múltiple de órganos y puede llevar al paciente a la muerte.The study of more than 14 000 autopsies has allowed to integrate a series of morphological alterations with the term of multiple organ damage. The purpose of this paper was to determine the validity of the initial diagnostic elements in the deceased with causal factors. A study of them was carried out and the relations of the death causes with the causal factors and of the number of organs affected with the hospital stay were analyzed. 448 dead, whose autopsy had been performed at "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" Higher Institute of Military Medicine, were examined. The protocols of the autopsy, medical histories and histopathological laminae were reviewed. The 145 cases with criterion of multiple organ damage that were the object of study of this paper, were selected. The results showed the presence of multiple organ damage in a third of the dead. It was mostly observed in those under 50 and in the ones coming from the intermediate therapy and care units. Among the death causes, the severe tissue damage and infection stood out. The most affected organs were the lungs, the bowels, the suprarenal glands, the liver and the brain. Multiple organ damage was present in 59.3 % of the deceased in the first 4 days of hospital stay, with predominance of damage in 5 and 6 organs. The response of the organism to the causal factors triggers the systemic inflammatory response that is morphologically expressed in the multiple organ damage and may cause the death of the patient.
Teresita Montero González
Full Text Available El estudio de más de 14 000 autopsias ha permitido integrar un conjunto de alteraciones morfológicas con el término de daño múltiple de órganos. El propósito del presente trabajo fue determinar la vigencia de los elementos diagnósticos iniciales del daño múltiple de órganos en fallecidos con factore [...] s causales. Se realizó un estudio de estos y se analizaron las relaciones de las causas de muerte con los factores causales y el número de órganos afectados con la estadía hospitalaria. Se revisaron 448 fallecidos y a quienes se les había realizado autopsia en el Instituto Superior de Medicina Militar "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto". Se revisaron los protocolos de autopsias, historias clínicas y láminas histopatológicas. Se seleccionaron los 145 casos con criterio de daño múltiple de órganos que constituyeron el objeto de estudio del presente trabajo. Los resultados muestran la presencia del daño múltiple de órganos en un tercio de los fallecidos, que fue mayormente en los menores de 50 años y en los procedentes de las terapias y unidades de cuidados intermedios. Se destacan entre las causas de muerte el daño tisular severo y la infección. Los órganos más afectados fueron los pulmones, el intestino, las glándulas suprarrenales, el hígado y el cerebro. Estuvo presente el daño múltiple de órganos en el 59,3 % de los fallecidos entre los primeros 4 días de estadía hospitalaria, con predominio del daño en 5 y 6 órganos. El daño múltiple de órganos se presentó en más de un tercio de los casos estudiados. La respuesta del organismo ante los factores causales, desencadena la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica que se expresa morfológicamente en el daño múltiple de órganos y puede llevar al paciente a la muerte. Abstract in english The study of more than 14 000 autopsies has allowed to integrate a series of morphological alterations with the term of multiple organ damage. The purpose of this paper was to determine the validity of the initial diagnostic elements in the deceased with causal factors. A study of them was carried o [...] ut and the relations of the death causes with the causal factors and of the number of organs affected with the hospital stay were analyzed. 448 dead, whose autopsy had been performed at "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" Higher Institute of Military Medicine, were examined. The protocols of the autopsy, medical histories and histopathological laminae were reviewed. The 145 cases with criterion of multiple organ damage that were the object of study of this paper, were selected. The results showed the presence of multiple organ damage in a third of the dead. It was mostly observed in those under 50 and in the ones coming from the intermediate therapy and care units. Among the death causes, the severe tissue damage and infection stood out. The most affected organs were the lungs, the bowels, the suprarenal glands, the liver and the brain. Multiple organ damage was present in 59.3 % of the deceased in the first 4 days of hospital stay, with predominance of damage in 5 and 6 organs. The response of the organism to the causal factors triggers the systemic inflammatory response that is morphologically expressed in the multiple organ damage and may cause the death of the patient.
Teresita, Montero González; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Verónica, Walwyn Salas; Reynaldo, Álvarez Santana.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma entrevista semi-estruturada para autópsia psicológica de casos de suicídio e avaliar a confiabilidade entre avaliadores desse instrumento. MÉTODO: A Entrevista Semi-estruturada para Autópsia Psicológica (ESAP) é constituída por 69 itens distribuídos em quatro módulos para a [...] valiação dos temas-chave associados ao suicídio: precipitadores e/ou estressores, motivação, letalidade e intencionalidade. Para avaliar a sua aplicabilidade foi utilizada uma amostra de 42 sujeitos, relacionados a 21 casos de suicídio. As entrevistas realizadas foram gravadas em áudio e posteriormente transcritas. O material correspondente e os dados do inquérito policial foram avaliados pela entrevistadora, por uma auxiliar de pesquisa e dois juízes, sempre de modo independente. A avaliação das informações foi realizada com o auxílio de um formulário para a tomada de decisão. A análise dos dados foi feita através da estatística kappa. RESULTADOS: A ESAP é aplicável, porque fornece informações que permitem um grau marcante de concordância entre avaliadores, verificado nos quatro módulos do instrumento. Em três módulos, houve concordância entre os avaliadores, em grau estatisticamente significante em todos os passos, exceto em um em cada módulo. Isso, entretanto, não comprometeu a concordância final sobre a avaliação de precipitadores e/ou estressores, motivação e intencionalidade. No módulo relativo à avaliação da letalidade, houve 100% de concordância. Os julgamentos dos quatro avaliadores, nos quatro módulos, permitiu chegar à concordância final quanto ao modo de morte sendo suicídio. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram que é possível usar, com boa fidedignidade, um instrumento semi-estruturado para autópsia psicológica, em casos de suicídio, quando os informantes são familiares dispostos a prestar informações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability and the interrater reliability of a Semi-Structured Interview for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide. METHOD: The Semi-Structured Interview for Psychological Autopsy (SSIPA) proposed in this paper consists of four modules which evaluate key-topics a [...] ssociated to suicide. In order to evaluate the instrument's applicability, a sample formed by 42 subjects related to 21 suicide cases was used. The interviews were tape-recorded first and then transcribed. The related material as well as the police inquiry data were presented to four judges. Evaluation of information has been performed with the help of a four-module formulary for decision making: precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, lethality, and intentionality. Data processing, whenever possible, has been accomplished using kappa statistics. When kappa statistic was not applicable, concordance percentage has been used. RESULTS: The SSIPA is applicable because it provides information containing a significant degree of agreement between evaluators, found in one hundred and twenty measurements of judgements made by four judges. There has been significant statistical agreement between the judges in three modules (precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, and intentionality) of the model for decision, except in one step of each module, which did not interfere in the final agreement on the present evaluation. In the lethality evaluation module, there has been a 100% agreement between judges. The judgement made by the raters on the four modules have allowed to reach a final agreement regarding the death mode as suicide. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that it is possible to use a semi-structured instrument for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide, when the interviewees are relatives who accepted to provide information.
Blanca Guevara, Werlang; Neury José, Botega.
Full Text Available Introducción: en 1985 se presentó el Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica, objeto de estudio para la docencia y múltiples investigaciones. Objetivo: actualizar las principales causas de muerte en adultos y obtener las experiencias para elevar la calidad de la asistencia [...] médica que se brinda. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, longitudinal con el referido sistema entre los años 1962 y 2011 de las autopsias realizadas en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto". Se analizaron los grupos de edad, sexo, especialidad de egreso, presencia de infección, cáncer, daño múltiple de órganos, causas de muerte y relación clínico-patológica. Resultados: la mitad de los casos fallecidos ocurrió en el área de atención al grave y el daño múltiple de órganos afectó casi el 50 %. La bronconeumonía y el infarto cardiaco constituyeron las principales causas de muerte, mientras que en las básicas resultaron las aterosclerosis. Las discrepancias para ambas causas de muerte fueron de una cada cinco autopsias. Conclusiones: las principales causas de muerte permiten caracterizar los principales problemas de salud. El Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica y el daño múltiple de órganos han sido logros importantes de la especialidad obtenidos en 50 años en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto". La metodología de trabajo alcanzada en el estudio de la autopsia en dicha institución constituye referencia para otros hospitales y permite elevar la calidad de la asistencia médica que se brinda. Abstract in english Introduction: the Automated Pathological Anatomy Registration and Control System was first introduced in the year 1985 as an object of study for both teaching and a large number of research tasks. Objective: update the main causes of death among adults and obtain experience useful to improve the qua [...] lity of the medical care offered. Methods: retrospective longitudinal study, based on the aforementioned system, of the autopsies performed at "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" Central Military Hospital between the years 1962 and 2011. The variables analyzed were age group, sex, discharge specialty, presence of infection, cancer, multiple organ damage, cause of death and clinico-pathological relationship. Results: half of the deaths occurred in the critical care area, and multiple organ damage affected nearly 50 %. Bronchopneumonia and cardiac infarction were the main causes of death, whereas atherosclerosis were the basic causes of death. Discrepancies for both causes of death were one in every five autopsies. Conclusions: the main causes of death make it possible to characterize the main health problems. The Automated Registration and Control System for Pathological Anatomy and multiple organ damage is an important achievement obtained by the specialty in the 50 years of "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" Central Military Hospital. The methodology developed for the study of autopsies in the center constitutes a reference for other hospitals, and makes it possible to improve the quality of the medical care offered.
Teresita, Montero González; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat.
Autopsy-proven causes of death in lungs of patients immunocompromised by secondary interstitial pneumonia Causas de óbito por pneumonia intersticial secundária em autópsias pulmonares de pacientes imunocomprometidos
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present the more frequent associations found in autopsies of immunocompromised patients who developed secondary interstitial pneumonia as well as the risk of death (odds ratio in having specific secondary interstitial pneumonia according to the cause of immunocompromise. METHOD: From January 1994 to March 2004, 17,000 autopsies were performed at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. After examining the pathology report review, we selected 558 of these autopsies (3.28% from patients aged 15 years or more with primary underlying diseases who developed radiologically diffuse infiltrates of the lung during their hospital course and died after secondary interstitial pneumonia (bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary recurrence of underlying disease, drug-induced lung disease, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, or pulmonary embolism. Histology slides were reviewed by experienced pathologists to confirm or not the presence of secondary interstitial pneumonia. Statistical analysis included the Fisher exact test to verify any association between histopathology and the cause of immunocompromise; a logistic regression was used to predict the risk of death for specific histological findings for each of the independent variables in the model. RESULTS: Secondary interstitial pneumonia was histologically represented by diffuse interstitial pneumonitis ranging from mild nonspecific findings (n = 213 to a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage (n = 273. The principal causes of immunocompromise in patients with diffuse alveolar damage were sepsis (136 cases, neoplasia (113 cases, diabetes mellitus (37 cases, and transplantation (48 cases. A high risk of death by pulmonary edema was found for patients with carcinoma of colon. Similarly, in patients with lung cancer or cachexia, A high risk of death by bronchopneumonia (OR = 3.6; OR = 2.6, respectively was found. Pulmonary thromboembolism was associated with an appreciable risk of death (OR = 2.4 in patients with arterial hypertension. The risk of death was also high in patients presenting hepatic cancer (OR = 2.5 or steroid therapy (OR = 2.4 who developed pulmonary hemorrhage as the histological pattern of secondary interstitial pneumonia . The risk of death by lung metastasis was also elevated (OR = 1.6 for patients that were immunosuppressed after radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with secondary immunosuppression who developed secondary interstitial pneumonia during treatment in hospital should be evaluated to avoid death by diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, bronchopneumonia, lung hemorrhage, pulmonary thromboembolism, or lung metastasis. The high-risk patients are those immunosuppressed by hematologic disease; those under steroid treatment; or those with colon or hepatic carcinoma, cachexia, or arterial hypertension.OBJETIVO: Apresentar as associações mais freqüentes encontradas em autópsias de pacientes imunossuprimidos que desenvolveram pneumonia intersticial secundária bem como o risco de óbito (Odds Ratio de desenvolver PIS associada à causa da imunossupressão. MÉTODO: De janeiro de 1994 a março de 2004, 17000 autópsias foram realizadas no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. A partir da revisão dos laudos patológicos foram selecionados 558 destas autópsias (3,28% de pacientes com 15 anos de idade ou mais, com alguma doença de base que desenvolveu um infiltrado pulmonar radiologicamente difuso durante o curso da hospitalização e que depois foi para óbito com pneumonia intersticial secundária (broncopneumonia, pneumonia lobar, pneumonia intersticial, dano alveolar difuso, doença pulmonar recorrente, doença pulmonar induzida por drogas, edema pulmonar cardiogênico e embolismo pulmonar. As lâminas histológicas foram revisadas por patologistas experientes para confirmar ou não a presença de pneumonia intersticial secundária. A análise estatística incluiu o "Teste exato de Fisher" para verificar associação en
Alberto Antonio Terrabuio Junior
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de un varón de 72 años de edad, ex fumador desde hace años, diagnosticado de silicosis y carcinoma epidermoide de pulmón derecho, solicitándose por parte de la familia autopsia judicial por la sospecha de padecimiento de asbestosis y tras su confirmación reclamación como enfermed [...] ad profesional. La exposición de este suceso nos permite realizar una revisión de una enfermedad profesional que suele pasar como desconocida en las salas de autopsia, a pesar de su repercusión judicial. La asbestosis es un tipo de neumoconiosis reconocida como enfermedad profesional producida por la inhalación de fibras de asbesto. Su inhalación provoca fibrosis pulmonar. Presenta un tiempo de latencia clínica inversamente proporcional al nivel de exposición. Además de fibrosis pulmonar pueden producirse derrames pleurales, placas fibrosas pleurales, mesoteliomas, carcinomas pleurales y carcinoma de laringe. La silicosis es la neumoconiosis producida por inhalación de partículas de sílice, entendiendo por neumoconiosis la enfermedad ocasionada por el depósito de polvo en los pulmones con una reacción patológica frente a este, en especial de tipo fibroso. La silicosis es una enfermedad fibrótica-pulmonar de carácter irreversible y considerada enfermedad profesional incapacitante en muchos países, una de cuyas variantes más raras es la silico-asbestosis, la cual requiere exposición al sílice y al amianto. Abstract in english The case is presented the case of a 72-year-old ex-smoker for years, diagnosed with silicosis and squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung, being requested by the judicial autopsy family suspected of suffering from asbestosis and after confirmation complaint as an occupational disease. The exposure [...] of this event allows us to conduct a review of an occupational disease usually happens as unknown in autopsy rooms despite its legal repercussions. Asbestosis is a type of pneumoconiosis recognized as an occupational disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers. Inhalation causes pulmonary fibrosis in the lung presenting a time inversely proportional to the exposure level clinical latency. Besides pulmonary fibrosis may occur pleural effusions, pleural fibrous plaques, mesothelioma, pleural carcinomas and laryngeal carcinoma. Silicosis is produced by inhalation pneumoconiosis silica particles, meaning the disease caused by pneumoconiosis dust deposit in the lungs with a pathological reaction to the same, especially fibrous. Silicosis is a fibrotic lung disease-and considered irreversible disabling occupational disease in many countries one of which is the more rare variants silico asbestosis, which requires exposure to silica and asbestos.
A., Sibón Olano; E., Sánchez Rodríguez; E., Barrera Pérez; J., Larrondo Espinosa; M., Salguero Villadiego.
Full Text Available Esse estudo analisa autópsias psicológicas e contextualiza problemas e fatores que levaram algumas pessoas idosas a acabar com a própria vida na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, entre 2004 e 2007. O estudo parte de 26 laudos periciais de homens e mulheres que cometeram suicídios no centro, na zona norte e na zona sul da cidade. As famílias desses idosos foram contatadas por carta e telefone e depois, pessoalmente. Foram oito autópsias psicológicas, por meio das quais foram coletados dados de identificação, genograma da família e uma entrevista que reconstituiu o modo de vida e as razões da violência autoinfligida. Os entrevistados foram familiares, amigos e conhecidos das vítimas. Os suicídios estão associados a depressão, a enfermidades físicas e mentais graves e a fatores socioculturais como decadência profissional e socioeconômica. Esses eventos ocorreram com e sem apoio familiar, com e sem acompanhamento médico. A fragilização cumulativa de recursos pessoais e sociais no ciclo vital revela que o risco do suicídio em idosos exige cuidados permanentes de saúde pública.This study analyses psychological autopsies and contextualizes problems and issues that led to elderly people taking their own lives in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2007. The study began with an analysis of 26 expert findings of elderly men and women who committed suicide in the central, northern and southern areas of Rio de Janeiro. The sample was contacted by letter and telephone and after that, by a one-on-one conversation. Eight psychological autopsies were conducted, in which identification data and family genograms were collected followed by an interview to profile the life style and the reasons for the self-inflicted violence. The interviewees were family members, friends and acquaintances of the victims. The suicides are associated with depression, serious physical and mental illness, as well as socio-cultural factors related to professional and socio-economic decline. The suicides occurred with and without family support, with and without medical care. The cumulative fragility of personal and social resources within the life cycle reveals that the risk of suicide among the elderly demands permanent care from the public health authorities.
Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo
Full Text Available Esse estudo analisa autópsias psicológicas e contextualiza problemas e fatores que levaram algumas pessoas idosas a acabar com a própria vida na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, entre 2004 e 2007. O estudo parte de 26 laudos periciais de homens e mulheres que cometeram suicídios no centro, na zona norte e [...] na zona sul da cidade. As famílias desses idosos foram contatadas por carta e telefone e depois, pessoalmente. Foram oito autópsias psicológicas, por meio das quais foram coletados dados de identificação, genograma da família e uma entrevista que reconstituiu o modo de vida e as razões da violência autoinfligida. Os entrevistados foram familiares, amigos e conhecidos das vítimas. Os suicídios estão associados a depressão, a enfermidades físicas e mentais graves e a fatores socioculturais como decadência profissional e socioeconômica. Esses eventos ocorreram com e sem apoio familiar, com e sem acompanhamento médico. A fragilização cumulativa de recursos pessoais e sociais no ciclo vital revela que o risco do suicídio em idosos exige cuidados permanentes de saúde pública. Abstract in english This study analyses psychological autopsies and contextualizes problems and issues that led to elderly people taking their own lives in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2007. The study began with an analysis of 26 expert findings of elderly men and women who committed suicide in the centr [...] al, northern and southern areas of Rio de Janeiro. The sample was contacted by letter and telephone and after that, by a one-on-one conversation. Eight psychological autopsies were conducted, in which identification data and family genograms were collected followed by an interview to profile the life style and the reasons for the self-inflicted violence. The interviewees were family members, friends and acquaintances of the victims. The suicides are associated with depression, serious physical and mental illness, as well as socio-cultural factors related to professional and socio-economic decline. The suicides occurred with and without family support, with and without medical care. The cumulative fragility of personal and social resources within the life cycle reveals that the risk of suicide among the elderly demands permanent care from the public health authorities.
Maria Cecília de Souza, Minayo; Fátima Gonçalves, Cavalcante; Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento, Mangas; Juliana Rangel Alves de, Souza.
The etiology of maternal mortality in developing countries: what do verbal autopsies tell us? / Etiologie des décès maternels dans les pays en développement: quelle est la valeur des autopsies verbales ? / Etiología de la mortalidad materna en los países en desarrollo: ¿qué valor tienen las autopsias verbales?
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Reevaluar el valor práctico de los datos de autopsias verbales que, a falta de información más rigurosa, se han utilizado para describir las causas de mortalidad materna e identificar las prioridades de los programas destinados a reducir la mortalidad femenina en los países en desarrollo. [...] MÉTODOS: Reanalizamos los datos de autopsias verbales de un estudio de 145 defunciones maternas que tuvieron lugar en Guerrero, Querétaro y San Luis Potosí (México) en 1995, teniendo en cuenta otras causas de defunción y el sistema de clasificación de la OMS. Los resultados se compararon además con la información suministrada sobre certificados de defunción deficientes. RESULTADOS: La reclasificación reveló grandes diferencias en la atribución de defunciones maternas a causas médicas específicas únicas. CONCLUSIÓN: El método de las autopsias verbales presenta limitaciones inherentes como medio de anamnesis de los eventos médicos. Como mucho permite corroborar una vez más el hecho ya conocido de que la mortalidad entre las mujeres pobres que apenas tienen acceso a atención médica es mayor que entre las mujeres ricas que disfrutan de un mayor acceso a esa atención. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To reassess the practical value of verbal autopsy data, which, in the absence of more definitive information, have been used to describe the causes of maternal mortality and to identify priorities in programmes intended to save women's lives in developing countries. METHODS: We reanalysed [...] verbal autopsy data from a study of 145 maternal deaths that occurred in Guerrero, Querétaro and San Luis Potosí, Mexico, in 1995, taking into account other causes of death and the WHO classification system. The results were also compared with information given on imperfect death certificates. FINDINGS: The reclassification showed wide variations in the attribution of maternal deaths to single specific medical causes. CONCLUSION: The verbal autopsy methodology has inherent limitations as a means of obtaining histories of medical events. At best it may reconfirm the knowledge that mortality among poor women with little access to medical care is higher than that among wealthier women who have better access to such care.
Nancy L., Sloan; A., Langer; B., Hernandez; M., Romero; B., Winikoff.
Causas de óbito em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, necropsiados na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas Causes of death among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome autopsied at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar em 129 pacientes com AIDS, necropsiados na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas de 1996 a 2003, as causas do óbito, observando o grau de concordância entre os diagnósticos necroscópicos com os diagnósticos clínicos. A doença mais freqüente que causou o óbito foi tuberculose 28%, seguida de pneumonia bacteriana 17%, histoplasmose 13%, toxoplasmose 10%, pneumocistose 8%, criptococose 5%, sepse bacteriana 4% e 15% outras causas. A concordância entre o diagnóstico clínico antemortem e a necropsia foi de 51,9%. O principal órgão acometido foi o pulmão 82,2%. O tempo de sobrevivência após o diagnóstico laboratorial até o óbito variou entre um mês e 120 meses. A média de sobrevivência foi 15 dias e 56% morreram menos de um mês após o diagnóstico, 15 pacientes morreram na mesma data do diagnóstico. Esses resultados demonstram a importância da necropsia na causa mortis em pacientes com AIDS.The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of death among 129 AIDS patients that were autopsied at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas between 1996 and 2003. The degree of concordance between the autopsy diagnoses and the clinical diagnoses was observed. The disease that most frequently caused death was tuberculosis (28%, followed by bacterial pneumonia (17%, histoplasmosis (13%, toxoplasmosis (10%, pneumocystosis (8%, cryptococcosis (5%, bacterial sepsis (4% and other causes (15%. The concordance between the clinical diagnosis before death and the autopsy was 51.9%. The main organ involved was the lungs (82.2%. The length of survival from the time of the laboratory diagnosis to death ranged from one month to 120 months. The mean length of survival was 15 days and 56% died less than one month after the diagnosis, while 15 patients died on the same day that they were diagnosed. These results show the importance of autopsies in elucidating the causes of death among AIDS patients.
Sílvia Leopoldina Santos de Souza
Causas de óbito em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, necropsiados na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas / Causes of death among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome autopsied at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar em 129 pacientes com AIDS, necropsiados na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas de 1996 a 2003, as causas do óbito, observando o grau de concordância entre os diagnósticos necroscópicos com os diagnósticos clínicos. A doença mais freqüente que causou o óbit [...] o foi tuberculose 28%, seguida de pneumonia bacteriana 17%, histoplasmose 13%, toxoplasmose 10%, pneumocistose 8%, criptococose 5%, sepse bacteriana 4% e 15% outras causas. A concordância entre o diagnóstico clínico antemortem e a necropsia foi de 51,9%. O principal órgão acometido foi o pulmão 82,2%. O tempo de sobrevivência após o diagnóstico laboratorial até o óbito variou entre um mês e 120 meses. A média de sobrevivência foi 15 dias e 56% morreram menos de um mês após o diagnóstico, 15 pacientes morreram na mesma data do diagnóstico. Esses resultados demonstram a importância da necropsia na causa mortis em pacientes com AIDS. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of death among 129 AIDS patients that were autopsied at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas between 1996 and 2003. The degree of concordance between the autopsy diagnoses and the clinical diagnoses was observed. The disease that most frequ [...] ently caused death was tuberculosis (28%), followed by bacterial pneumonia (17%), histoplasmosis (13%), toxoplasmosis (10%), pneumocystosis (8%), cryptococcosis (5%), bacterial sepsis (4%) and other causes (15%). The concordance between the clinical diagnosis before death and the autopsy was 51.9%. The main organ involved was the lungs (82.2%). The length of survival from the time of the laboratory diagnosis to death ranged from one month to 120 months. The mean length of survival was 15 days and 56% died less than one month after the diagnosis, while 15 patients died on the same day that they were diagnosed. These results show the importance of autopsies in elucidating the causes of death among AIDS patients.
Sílvia Leopoldina Santos de, Souza; Pablo Vinícius Silveira, Feitoza; José Ribamar de, Araújo; Rosilene Viana de, Andrade; Luiz Carlos de Lima, Ferreira.
Postmortem Genetic Testing for Conventional Autopsy–Negative Sudden Unexplained Death: An Evaluation of Different DNA Extraction Protocols and the Feasibility of Mutational Analysis From Archival Paraffin-Embedded Heart Tissue
One third of autopsy-negative sudden unexplained deaths (SUDs) can be attributed to a cardiac channelopathy. Typically, paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) is the only source of DNA available for genetic analyses. We examined different DNA extraction procedures, involving 2 deparaffinization methods, 2 digestion methods, 4 laboratory-based purification methods, and 5 commercial kits. Mutational analysis involving 25 RYR2 exons was performed on PET DNA from 35 SUD cases to evaluate the feasibility ...
Carturan, Elisa; Tester, David J.; Brost, Brian C.; Basso, Cristina; Thiene, Gaetano; Ackerman, Michael J.
The authors report an unusual autopsy case of a motorcyclist who wore a full-face type helmet and had incomplete decapitation and herniation of the heart and a portion of the right lung through an extensive lacerate wound on the front of the neck after his motorcycle crashed. The authors identified 2 main offensive dynamics that occurred simultaneously: First, partial decapitation with a extensive gaping wound on the neck caused by the chin strap after a violent angular movement of the head; second, the translocation of the abdominal organs into the thorax and the herniation of the thoracic organs through the neck wound generated by a compressive trauma of the thorax and abdomen. This singular case, like few others in forensic literature, shows the possibility of helmet chin strap-related traumas and highlights the limitations of modern protective helmets. If the postulated mechanism is confirmed despite the massive benefits derived from the compulsory use of protective helmets, the properties of the helmet chin strap would need to be reassessed to improve the protection of the soft tissue and bones in the neck. PMID:24189629
Gioia, Sara; Suadoni, Fabio; Carlini, Luigi; Lancia, Massimo; Bacci, Mauro
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a thrombohemorrhagic disorder, occurs as a secondary complication in many diseases, but the histopathological features of kidneys in DIC have not been extensively characterized thus far. We reviewed 21 autopsy cases of patients with a clinical diagnosis of DIC and studied the repertoire of renal pathology. Eighteen patients had elevated serum creatinine levels and 15 patients had a variable degree of proteinuria. Underlying disorders included malignant neoplasms in 12 patients, and abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute myocardial infarction, and systemic infections in other patients. Coexistent glomerular pathology, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) with different morphological variants, and microthrombi formation, was present in many patients. The microthrombi were histologically similar to that seen in thrombotic microangiopathy, but characteristics associated with DIC were detected by special staining. The presence of FSGS correlated with the degree of urinary protein (P = 0.0044), and the presence of acute tubular injury (ATI) and the extent of global glomerulosclerosis both correlated with serum creatinine levels (P = 0.019 and 0.0003, respectively). FSGS was probably due to endothelial cell damage, another potential etiology for FSGS. Global glomerulosclerosis, a result of previous renal injury, can be a determinant of renal function during the acute phase of DIC. PMID:25146453
Ohashi, Ryuji; Ishii, Hideaki; Naito, Zenya; Shimizu, Akira
A method of trace element analysis using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques with energy dispersive x-ray detection methods is described. Data were processed using the computer program ANALEX. PIXE analysis methods were applied to the analysis of liver, spleen, aorta, kidney medulla, kidney cortex, abdominal fat, pancreas, and hair from autopsies of Pima Indians. Tissues were freeze dried and low temperature ashed before analysis. Concentrations were tabulated for K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd, and Cs and examined for significant differences related to diabetes. Concentrations of Ca and Sr in aorta, Fe and Rb in spleen and Mn in liver had different patterns in diabetics than in nondiabetics. High Cs concentrations were also observed in the kidneys of two subjects who died of renal disorders. Analyses by atomic absorption and PIXE methods were compared. PIXE methods were also applied to elemental analysis of obsidian artifacts from Campeche, Mexico. Based on K, Ba, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr and Zr concentrations, the artifacts were related to several Guatemalan sources. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)
Tattoos serve as a form of forensic personal identification and providing evidence of possible gang affiliation, incarceration history, and high-risk lifestyle factors such as drug use. Despite their forensic applications, tattoo typology and frequencies in specific ethnic and racial groups are underreported and poorly understood. This study examined autopsy records from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator from 2002 to 2005. A total of 3430 individuals (1666 white Hispanics; 1764 white non-Hispanics), aged 18 to 100 years, with homicidal or accidental manners of death were included in the study. In addition to demographic information, data were recorded on the presence/absence of tattoos, singular or multiple tattoos, and the language of text tattoos. Tattoos depicting gang or religious symbolism were also recorded. Results indicate statistically significant differences in tattoo frequencies by ethnicity (52% Hispanic vs. 29.5% non-Hispanic), sex (46.8% men vs. 25.9% women) and age cohort. Hispanics were more likely to have multiple tattoos than non-Hispanics (41% and 19%, respectively), and were 4.67 times more likely to have a religious tattoo and 7.13 times more likely to have a gang tattoo than non-Hispanics. Significant patterns in language of text tattoos and correlations with manner of death were also noted. PMID:19259010
Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah
The Harwell Approved Dosimetry Services have produced assessments of intakes by workers for a wide range of radionuclides including tritium, mixed fission products, uranium, thorium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium. The current assessments are based upon ICRP 30, ICRP 48 and ICRP 54, but the results will be compared with the new lung model and the new draft recommendations of ICRP, 1990, to consider the implications of the changes. The European dosimetry committee, Eurados-Cendos has set up a working group to study the assessment of internal dose. The group has organised an intercomparison of dose assessments for a variety of nuclides and conditions and has just obtained a study contract to evaluate the feasibility of establishing European Registries of internal dose assessments, models and autopsy data. The main aim is to produce a common database within Europe with compatibility with the US databases as far as is possible. The group also hopes to assist in the exchange of information, particularly in the assessment of unusual intakes, and to improve models used in such assessments. (author)
A fire is an important cause of mass disasters, involving various forensic issues. Before dawn on an early morning, 16 male visitors in their twenties to sixties were killed in a possibly incendiary fire at a 'private video parlor' consisting of small compartments in a building. The main causes of death as determined by forensic autopsy were acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication for all of the 15 found-dead victims, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following acute CO intoxication for a victim who died in hospital. Burns were mild (analysis. Blood carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb) was higher for victims found dead in the inner area. Blood cyanide levels were sublethal, moderately correlated to COHb, but were higher in victims found around the estimated fire-outbreak site. There was no evidence of thinner, alcohol or drug abuse, or an attack of disease as a possible cause of an accidental fire outbreak. These observations contribute to evidence-based reconstruction of the fire disaster, and suggest how deaths could have been prevented by appropriate disaster measures. PMID:25311374
Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi
Full Text Available O miocárdio não compactado de ventrículo esquerdo é cardiomiopatia genética em decorrência de uma anormalidade da morfogênese endomiocárdica. Quando presente, geralmente está associado a outras anomalias cardíacas congênitas, sendo raro seu achado isolado sem outras alterações estruturais cardíacas [...] associadas. Desde seu primeiro relato em 1990, a não compactação do miocárdio vem sendo amplamente estudada a fim de se estabelecerem caráter genético, história natural, métodos de diagnóstico, repercussões hemodinâmicas e prognóstico. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de miocárdio não compactado isolado de ventrículo esquerdo com estudo de necrópsia. Abstract in english Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a genetic cardiomyopathy due to an alteration in endomyocardial morphogenesis. When present, it is commonly associated with other congenital cardiac diseases, whereas it is rare as an isolated finding without other associated cardiac structural alterati [...] ons. Since its first report in 1990, the noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium has been widely studied in order to establish its genetic character, natural history, diagnostic methods, hemodynamic repercussions and prognosis. This study aims to report the case of an isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium with autopsy.
Henrique, Pott Junior; Maria Cristina Furian, Ferreira.
We investigated whether polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes influence the metabolic ratios and enantiomeric S/R ratios of venlafaxine (VEN) and its metabolites O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV), N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) and N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine (DDV) in blood from forensic autopsy cases. In all, 94 postmortem cases found positive for VEN during toxicological screening were included. The CYP2D6 genotype was shown to significantly influence the ODV/VEN (P=0.003), DDV/NDV (P=0.010) and DDV/ODV (P=0.034) ratios. The DDV/ODV (P=0.013) and DDV/VEN (P=0.021) ratios were significantly influenced by the CYP2C19 genotype. The S/R ratios of VEN were significantly influenced by both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes. CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) had lower S/R VEN ratios and CYP2C19 PMs had high S/R ratios of VEN in comparison. Our results show that the CYP2D6 genotype influences the O-demethylation whereas CYP2C19 influences the N-demethylation of VEN and its metabolites. In addition, we show a stereoselective metabolism where CYP2D6 favours the R-enantiomer whereas CYP2C19 favours the S-enantiomer. PMID:25245581
Karlsson, L; Zackrisson, A-L; Josefsson, M; Carlsson, B; Green, H; Kugelberg, F C
Full Text Available Atrial septal defects (ASD are the most common congenital cardiac lesionin adults, representing up to 40% of acyanotic shunt lesions in patients olderthan 40 years. Secundum ASD comprises defects in the area of the ovalfossa, and may be associated with other types of interatrial communications.We present a case of a 25 year-old female patient who was asymptomaticuntil the age 22 when she started presenting exertion dyspnea and lowerlimbs edema, during her third pregnancy. The patient was admitted in theemergency department because of a febrile respiratory distress syndromedying in less than 36 hours after her arrival. The autopsy examination revealedpneumonia and a secundum ASD, associated with a rare form of interatrialcommunication, the inferior sinus venosus defect, which is characterized byan anomalous connection of the right pulmonary veins to the inferior caval veinat its opening in the right atrial cavity, while retaining partially their connectionto the left atrium. A dysplastic and thickened mitral valve was also present.Signs of pulmonary hypertension confirm the Eisenmenger syndrome in thisadult patient.
Silvana Maria Lovisolo
Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16?years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15?years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n?=?84. We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling.
Methodological trends in studies based on verbal autopsies before and after published guidelines / Tendances méthodologiques des études reposant sur des autopsies verbales avant et après la publication de directives / Tendencias metodológicas de los estudios basados en autopsias verbales antes y después de la publicación de directrices al respecto
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Informar sobre el seguimiento de las directrices publicadas a comienzos de los años noventa con recomendaciones específicas para el diseño de los futuros estudios de vigilancia de la mortalidad basados en autopsias verbales. MÉTODOS: Llevamos a cabo una búsqueda sistemática de la bibliogra [...] fía para localizar todos los estudios basados en autopsias verbales publicados antes de enero de 2006 y extraer de ellos un conjunto estándar de datos. Para comparar los estudios diseñados antes y después de que se formularan las recomendaciones se emplearon siete indicadores metodológicos clave. RESULTADOS: Hallamos 102 estudios realizados en 39 países; 60 se habían diseñado antes de que se publicaran las directrices, y 42 después de su publicación. Se observaron diferencias considerables en los métodos utilizados por esos 102 estudios. Aunque se detectaron algunas tendencias alentadoras, no hay indicios de que se hayan aplicado sistemáticamente las recomendaciones en materia de diseño. Más concretamente, no aumentó claramente la proporción de estudios con un cuestionario combinado (63% antes de las recomendaciones frente a 74% después de las mismas; p = 0,3), un encuestador adiestrado (70% frente a 70%; p = 1,0), un encuestado idóneo (98% frente a 100%; p = 1,0), un periodo de rememoración óptimo (84% frente a 97%; p = 0,2), algoritmos predefinidos (28% frente a 38%; p = 0,4), una opción para asignar varias causas de defunción (30% frente a 38%; p = 0,3), o un estudio de validación de seguimiento (83% frente a 72%; p = 0,7). CONCLUSIÓN: Las recomendaciones formuladas por los expertos para optimizar el diseño de los estudios basados en autopsias verbales se han aplicado solo parcialmente hasta la fecha. Un mayor cumplimiento de ese tipo de recomendaciones gracias a una colaboración más idónea entre los equipos de investigación permitiría probablemente obtener mejores estadísticas de mortalidad a partir del creciente número de estudios basados en autopsias verbales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report on the uptake of guidelines published in the early 1990s with specific recommendations about the design of future studies based on verbal autopsy conducted for mortality surveillance. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of all verbal autopsy studies published be [...] fore January 2006 and extracted from the studies a standard set of data. We then compared studies designed before and after the recommendations were issued in terms of seven key methodological indicators. FINDINGS: We found 102 studies conducted in 39 countries; 60 were designed before and 42 after the guidelines were issued. The methods used in these 102 studies varied considerably. While some encouraging trends were noted, there is no evidence that the design recommendations have been systematically implemented. Specifically, there was no clear increase in the proportion of studies with a combined questionnaire (63% before recommendations versus 74% after; P = 0.3), a trained interviewer (70% versus 70%; P = 1.0), a suitable respondent (98% versus 100%; P = 1.0), an optimal recall period (84% versus 97%; P = 0.2), predefined algorithms (28% versus 38%; P = 0.4), an option for assigning multiple causes of death (30% versus 38%; P = 0.3), or a follow-up validation study (83% versus 72%; P = 0.7). CONCLUSION: Expert recommendations for optimal design of verbal autopsy studies have been incompletely implemented to date. Better uptake of design recommendations through enhanced collaboration between research teams is likely to produce better mortality statistics from an increasing number of verbal autopsy studies.
Rohina, Joshi; Andre Pascal, Kengne; Bruce, Neal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource- poor settings, verbal autopsy data are often reviewed by physicians in order to assign the probable cause of death. But in addition to being time and energy consuming, the method is liable to produce inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the InterVA 3.2 model for establishing pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of death in comparison with physician review of verbal autopsy data. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2012. All adults aged ?14 years and died between 01 January 2010 and 15 February 2012 were included in the study. Data were collected by using a pre-tested and modified WHO designed verbal autopsy questionnaire. The verbal autopsy interviews were reviewed by the InterVA model and the physicians. Cohen’s kappa statistic, receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivity, and specificity values were applied to compare the agreement between the InterVA model and the physician review. Results A total of 408 adult deaths were studied. The proportion of tuberculosis-specific mortality was established to be 36.0% and 23.0% by the InterVA model and the physicians, respectively. The InterVA model predicted pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of death with the probability of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85. In classifying all deaths as tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis, the sensitivity and specificity values were 0.82 and 0.78, respectively. A moderate agreement was found between the model and physicians in assigning pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of deaths [kappa= 0.5; 95% CI: (0.4-0.6]. Conclusions This study has revealed that the InterVA model showed a more promising result as a community-level tool for generating pulmonary tuberculosis-specific mortality data from verbal autopsy. The conclusion is believed to provide policymakers with a highly needed piece of information for allocating resources for health intervention.
Full Text Available Fundamento: Morte súbita cardíaca (MSC) é um evento súbito e inesperado, de causa cardiovascular, que ocorre em menos de uma hora após o início dos sintomas, em indivíduo sem qualquer condição clínica prévia potencialmente fatal ou assintomático nas últimas 24 horas antes do óbito, em caso de morte [...] não testemunhada. Apesar de ser um evento relativamente frequente, há poucos dados confiáveis na literatura sobre países em desenvolvimento. Objetivo: Descrever as características da MSC em Ribeirão Preto (SP 600.000 habitantes) baseando-se nos relatórios de autopsias do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos do Interior. Métodos: Foram revisados retrospectivamente 4.501 relatórios de autopsias entre 2006 e 2010, para identificar casos de MSC. Foram coletados dados como causa específica do óbito, características demográficas e comorbidades das vítimas, data, local e hora do evento, e se foram realizadas manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP). Resultados: Foram identificados 899 casos de MSC (20%; razão 30/100.000 habitantes por ano). A principal causa de MSC foi doença arterial coronariana (DAC - 64%), acometendo homens (67%) entre a sexta e a sétima década de vida. A maior parte dos eventos ocorreu durante a manhã, no domicílio (53,3%), e a RCP foi realizada em quase metade das vítimas (49,7%). A comorbidade mais prevalente foi hipertensão arterial sistêmica (57,3%). Doença de Chagas foi detectada em 49 casos (5,5%). Conclusão: A maioria dos casos de MSC ocorreu por DAC em homens entre a sexta e a sétima década de vida. Doença de Chagas, um importante problema de saúde pública na América Latina, foi detectada em 5,5% dos casos. Abstract in english Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden unexpected event, from a cardiac cause, that occurs in less than one hour after the symptoms onset, in a person without any previous condition that would seem fatal or who was seen without any symptoms 24 hours before found dead. Although it is a r [...] elatively frequent event, there are only few reliable data in underdeveloped countries. Objective: We aimed to describe the fe