Today's clinical autopsy has to satisfy teaching, research and questions of good clinical practice. In a sense, clinical autopsy finds itself as a subject between the physician and his patient but also between clinicians and pathologists. Medico-legal autopsy, on the other hand, is subject to an official act. It can be performed against the will of the deceased or his family. For clinicians or practitioners it is not possible to directly order medico-legal autopsies. However, they are obliged to inform the police in every case of uncertain death (non-natural death, aussergewöhnlicher Todesfall). Not only the questions to be answered do vary between clinical und medico-legal autopsy but also there are remarkable differences of technique. Thus, neither can clinical autopsy be replaced by medico-legal one nor is it in any way accurate to perform clinical autopsy in possibly forensic cases. PMID:18019179
Neonatal autopsy rates were in decline internationally at the end of the last century. Our objective was to assess the current value of neonatal autopsy in providing additional information to families and healthcare professionals.
The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed
A patient who received a 200-mCi dose of 131I for widespread carcinoma died 10 days after treatment with 50 mCi remaining in the cadaver. An autopsy was required. The radiation levels were sufficiently high that personnel radiation protection was needed. An autopsy procedure was designed that prevented ingestion of radioactivity by the pathologist and his assistants, prevented excessive exposure of any involved personnel, and prevented contamination of the autopsy room or other hospital space. (author)
At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.
Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels
The downward trend in the rate of clinical autopsies has been extensively documented in the literature. This decline is of concern when the benefits of the clinical autopsy are considered. In contrast, the rate of medicolegal autopsies has not been studied in such detail. What little reference there is to medicolegal autopsy rates suggests an absence of the same downward trend. A retrospective review of autopsy data over a 13-year period from the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Nova Scotia was conducted. This review showed a difference between the rates of clinical and medicolegal autopsies for the metro Halifax area. The clinical autopsy rate was consistently less than 30% and declined to 15% in 1999, while the medicolegal autopsy rate was consistently greater than 40% and rose to 62% in 1999. The literature proposes many reasons for the decline in the clinical autopsy rate, but none for this difference between rates. The explanation proposed here is the changing and currently uncertain purpose of the clinical autopsy versus the clear, and consistent over time, purpose of the medicolegal autopsy. PMID:11419978
Wood, M J; Guha, A K
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) surveillance relies on autopsy and neuropathologic evaluation. The 1990–2000 CJD autopsy rate in California was 21%. Most neurologists were comfortable diagnosing CJD (83%), but few pathologists felt comfortable diagnosing CJD (35%) or performing autopsy (29%). Addressing obstacles to autopsy is necessary to improve CJD surveillance.
Nolte, Kurt B.
Understanding of global health and changing morbidity and mortality is limited by inadequate measurement of population health. With fewer than one-third of deaths worldwide being assigned a cause, this long-standing dearth of information, almost exclusively in the world's poorest countries, hinders understanding of population health and limits opportunities for planning, monitoring, and evaluating interventions. In the absence of routine death registration, verbal autopsy (VA) methods are used to derive probable causes of death. Much effort has been put into refining the approach for specific purposes; however, there has been a lack of harmony regarding such efforts. Subsequently, a variety of methods and principles have been developed, often focusing on a single aspect of VA, and the resulting literature provides an inconsistent picture. By reviewing methodological and conceptual issues in VA, it is evident that VA cannot be reduced to a single one-size-fits-all tool. VA must be contextualized; given the lack of "gold standards," methodological developments should not be considered in terms of absolute validity but rather in terms of consistency, comparability, and adequacy for the intended purpose. There is an urgent need for clarified thinking about the overall objectives of population-level cause-of-death measurement and harmonized efforts in empirical methodological research. PMID:20203105
Fottrell, Edward; Byass, Peter
Full Text Available Objectives: To explore medical students' experiences of an emotionally challenging learning situation: the autopsy. Methods: Qualitative data were collected by means of written accounts from seventeen students after their first and third autopsies and a group interview with seven students after their first autopsy. Data was interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Students experienced the autopsy in three ways: as an unnatural situation, as a practical exercise, and as a way to learn how pathologists work. Most students found the situation unpleasant, but some were overwhelmed. Their experiences were characterised by strong unpleasant emotions and closeness to the situation. The body was perceived as a human being, recently alive. Students who experienced the autopsy as a practical exercise saw it mainly as a part of the course and their goal was to learn anatomy and pathology. They seemed to objectify the body and distanced themselves from the situation. Students who approached the autopsy as a way to learn how pathologists work concentrated on professional aspects of the autopsy. The body was perceived as a patient rather than as a biological specimen. Conclusions: Autopsies are emotionally challenging learning situations. If students attend autopsies, they need to participate in several autopsies in order to learn about procedures and manifestations of pathological changes. Students need opportunities to discuss their experiences afterwards, and teachers need to be aware of how different students perceive the autopsies, and guide students through the procedure. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating emotional aspects of medical education.
Cardiac sarcoidosis is a disease of young adults. In most cases it presents with sudden death, arrhythmias, conduction disorders, heart failure or cardiomyopathy. The authors describe two cases of myocardial involvement by sarcoidosis that lead to death of the patients. Case one was a 26-year-old Indian man who was previously well and presented with sudden death. Autopsy showed nodules of sarcoid granuloma involving the heart, lungs and lymph nodes. Case two was a 47-year-old Indian lady who complained of reduced effort tolerance. Echocardiography showed that she had restrictive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with heart failure. Seven months after initial presentation, she developed worsening of heart failure and died. Autopsy revealed involvement of the heart, lungs and liver by sarcoidosis. PMID:16196153
Wan Muhaizan, W M; Swaminathan, M; Daud, M S
The objective of this study was to assess the pattern of autopsy in 174 small lung cancer patients treated between 1971 and 1991 at seven Polish medical centres. Eighty nine autopsied patients were previously treated with different chemotherapy regimens including 32 patients who also received chest irradiation, 74 received only supportive care and for 11 patients the data on treatment were not available. The age range at diagnosis was 28-81 years (median 57); there were 39 females (22%) and 135 males (78%). Seventy two patients had limited disease at the time of diagnosis, 86 - extensive disease and in 16 the disease extent was not determined. The primary tumor and/or metastases in regional lymph nodes were present in 157 autopsies (90%). There was a significant difference in the rate of locoregional disease found at autopsy in patients given chemotherapy and in those who received only supportive care (85% and 100%, respectively; p = 0.01). Chest radiation therapy given in limited as an adjunct to chemotherapy did not decrease the rate of persistent locoregional disease (primary tumor in the chest was found in 92% of irradiated and in 96% of nonirradiated patients). Locoregional tumor deposit only was found in 28 (16%). Distant metastases were distributed in 143 patients (82%) and were found in 25 different locations, most frequently in liver (49%), supra-renal glands (25%), peripheral lymph nodes (21%), kidneys (18%), brain (17%) and pancreas (12%). In 3 patients no 17%) and pancreas (12%). In 3 patients no tumor foci were found. The number of organs involved varied between 0 and 10 (median 3). The number of involved organs was not dependent on the disease extent at the time of diagnosis and on the type of treatment. (author)
In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted
Most propeller injuries occur at water recreational facilities such as those with provision for water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving. Propeller injuries resulting from nautical accidents can be fatal. The sharp blades of propellers rotating at high speeds cause multiple and serious injuries such as deep laceration, chop wounds, bone fractures and mutilation of extremities. We present the autopsy reports of three people who died after colliding with boat propellers. PMID:19733336
Ihama, Yoko; Ninomiya, Kenji; Noguchi, Masamichi; Fuke, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Tetsuji
OBJECTIVES: Doctors are at higher risk of suicide than many other occupational groups. This study was conducted to investigate factors associated with suicide in doctors. METHOD: Psychological autopsy study of 38 working doctors who died by suicide in England and Wales between January 1991 and December 1993. RESULTS: Psychiatric illness was present in 25 of the doctors. Depressive illness and drug or alcohol abuse were the most common diagnoses. Twenty-five doctors had significant problems re...
Hawton, K.; Malmberg, A.; Simkin, S.
Full Text Available Severe malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, has a high mortality rate and is the main cause of death in malaria. Since clinical autopsy is unpopular in Indonesia, autopsy examination in malaria cases is rarely done. We reported a forty three year old woman from non endemic area that was dead because of severe malaria. Diagnosis was concluded from autopsy, histopathology, and toxicology. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 210-5Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, cerebral malaria, black water fever
A 69 year old male was treated with an ablative dose of 3.7GBq (10 mCi) of I131 for carcinoma of the thyroid and died 10 days after administration. The requirement for an autopsy and the level of radiation still present in the body necessitated the intervention of radiation safety personnel to minimise support staff radiation exposure and area contamination. Preventative measures were taken in accordance with the ALARA principle and a detailed procedure is presented as a suggested model for any future occurrence
We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal being the most frequent. The clinical course can be asymptomatic, cause chronic or intermittent abdominal pain, or present with acute abdomen. The clinical entity is a diagnostic challenge, which is illustrated in the present case where there patient died during hospital admission. The case also emphasizes the difficulty in diagnosing the disease by plain abdominal radiography.
Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter
During the last 13 years (1968-1980), 427 radiographic examinations were carried out during the course of medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the Free University of Berlin. Important problems were the demonstration of retained foreign bodies resulting from shooting, stabbing or blunt trauma, bone injuries, identification, and the question of life in neonates. An historical survey is given and 12 cases with special forensic problems are illustrated and discussed, and further means of investigations are described. (orig.)
Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to document the reasons of perinatal deaths in a large autopsy series performed in our institute, which is a reference center in the Çukurova region of Turkey. Material and Method: The study included 2150 autopsies performed between January 2000 and December 2012at our institute. Diagnoses were categorized according to the detected pathologies; congenital malformations were detailed based on systems. Results: A pathology was detected in 1619 of 2150 (73.3% autopsies. Congenital malformations were the most common diagnosis with 68.2%. Neural tube defects and central nervous system malformations were the most frequent system malformation in 28.8% of cases, followed by the urogenital system (11.4% and musculoskeletal system (8.3%, respectively. Malformation syndromes including multisystem anomalies were defined in 109 cases (9.3%. Conclusion: Congenital malformations are the most common reason for perinatal deaths, with autopsy having an additive role to prenatal and genetic evaluations and providing foresight for planning a subsequent pregnancy.
Full Text Available A 67-year-old male patient initially showed memory disturbance followed by tremors a year later. The symptoms rapidly aggravated to dementia and Parkinsonian symptoms, and the patient died 2 years and 6 months after the onset at the age of 69 years and 5 months. Autopsy revealed numerous senile plaques in the cerebral cortex and Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles in the inferior temporal lobe and hippocampus. A number of Lewy bodies were found in the cerebral cortex and brain stem. Lewy bodies were found abundantly in the third layer of the pyramidal cells in the gyrus parahippocamalis. The distribution of Lewy bodies in the cerebral cortex was similar to that of inflated cells in Pick's disease.
There are only scant literature data on reasons and circumstances of medico-legal second autopsies. The present study includes 12 second autopsies from the period 1992-1997; the first post-mortem examination took place either in the home country (institutes of pathology) or abroad. 7 of the 12 cases of death investigated happened in Germany (exclusively in hospitals) and 5 of them abroad (Netherlands, Romania, Portugal, Libya). Repeat autopsies were ordered by criminal courts (n = 9), private persons (n = 2) and social insurances (n = 1). The main indication was possible medical malpractice (n = 6); acts of violence (n = 3), insurance questions (n = 2) and accidents (n = 1) followed. The time lapse between death and second autopsy was 2-35 days. It was striking, that German institutes of pathology had partially performed autopsies despite the certification of a non-natural death. Clinical autopsies were stopped twice, when evidence of a possible non-natural death occurred. It could be fundamentally stated, that first autopsies in German institutes of pathology had been carefully performed and sufficiently documented. In these cases the second autopsy presented no or only little additional information, as far as the broader taking of (toxicological) samples is not considered. The final medico-legal expertise was then mainly based on the findings of the clinical first autopsy. However, the concurrence of the forensic expert (instead of the clinical pathologist) is undoubtedly essential for the evaluation of these issues involving frequently questions of malpractice. By contrast, the quality of postmortems performed abroad varies widely. 4 of the 5 first autopsies done abroad were regarded as completely or partly insufficient with superficial or almost absent preparation of organs or contradictions in the medical reports, respectively. A repeat autopsy is absolutely necessary in such cases. On the whole, the initial question could be answered in all second autopsies at least in part. This emphasizes the high value of second autopsies and expertises, especially in non-natural cases of death (10 of 12 deaths were finally judged as non-natural). PMID:10023492
Grellner, W; Glenewinkel, F; Madea, B
In France, families of the deceased raised concerns as regards to the conditions of restoration of body. If scientists hospital autopsies are organized by the Bioethics Law of August 6, 2004, the forensic autopsies were so far not provided with such a legal framework. The legislator has proposed the creation of a new chapter in the Code of Criminal Procedure institutionalizing forensic activities. This legislative evolution allows the harmonization of practices; forensic pathologists must be involved in these changes by bringing their scientific expertise, notably through improving their autopsy techniques. PMID:22560685
Delannoy, Yann; Becart-Robert, Anne; Houssaye, Cédric; Pollard, Jocelyn; Cornez, Raphaël; Tournel, Gilles; Gosset, Didier; Hedouin, Valéry
OBJECTIVE. Virtual autopsy methods, such as postmortem CT and MRI, are increasingly being used in forensic medicine. Forensic investigators with little to no training in diagnostic radiology and medical laypeople such as state's attorneys often find it difficult to understand the anatomic orientation of axial postmortem CT images. We present a computer-assisted system that permits postmortem CT datasets to be quickly and intuitively resliced in real time at the body to narrow the gap between radiologic imaging and autopsy. CONCLUSION. Our system is a potentially valuable tool for planning autopsies, showing findings to medical laypeople, and teaching CT anatomy, thus further closing the gap between radiology and forensic pathology. PMID:25539276
Ebert, Lars Christian; Ruder, Thomas D; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Flach, Patricia M; Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael J; Ampanozi, Garyfalia
Full Text Available The study of cause of death certification remains a largely neglected field in many developing countries, including Ghana. Yet, mortality information is crucial for establishing mortality patterns over time and for estimating mortality attributed to specific causes. In Ghana, in deaths occurring in homes and those occurring within 48 hours after admission into health facilities, autopsies remain the appropriate option for determining the cause of death. Although these organ-based autopsies may generate convincing results and are considered the ‘gold standard’ tools for ascertainments of causes of death, procedural and practical constraints could limit the extent to which autopsy results can be accepted and/or trusted. The objective of our study was to identify and characterise the procedural and practical constraints as well as to assess their potential effects on autopsy outcomes in Ghana. We interviewed 10 Ghanaian pathologists and collected and evaluated procedural manuals and operational procedures for the conduct of autopsies. A characterisation of the operational constraints and the Delphi analysis of their potential influence on the quality of mortality data led to a quantification of the validity threats as moderate (average expert panel score = 1 in the generality of the autopsy operations in Ghana. On the basis of the impressions of the expert panel, it was concluded that mortality data generated from autopsies in urban settings in Ghana were of sufficiently high quality to guarantee valid use in health analysis.
A retrospective autopsy-based study conducted in correlation with the relevant clinical records and the reports from investigating agencies to analyze the suitability of Injury Severity Score (ISS) and New Injury Severity Score (NISS) in predicting the mortality of trauma victims. Four hundred and forty six autopsy reports of the victims of road traffic accidents were thoroughly studied and the external and internal injuries were assigned AIS coding. Based on this coding ISS and NISS scoring ...
Sharma, B. R.; Manisha Gupta; Sumedha Bangar
Joint capsule, meniscus, and cartilage from the patella and medial femoral condyle from 30 non-selected autopsies have been investigated for amyloid deposits with light and electron microscopy. Both right and left knee joints from 28 of the 30 autopsy specimens contained amyloid deposits (93%). The amyloid characteristically showed green dichroism in polarised light after staining with alkaline Congo red. The ultrastructural features were also characteristic of amyloid. Amyloid in capsule tis...
Medical examiners and coroners commonly determine cause and manner of death without an autopsy examination. Some death certificates generated in this way may not state the correct cause and manner of death. From the case files of the Department of Forensic Medicine in Sydney, Australia, the authors retrospectively reviewed investigative information of all cases in a 6-month period that were initially considered natural deaths (429). The authors, blinded to autopsy results, accepted 261 cases as appropriate for certification without autopsy and assigned a cause of death to each. Per standard local practice, all cases had been autopsied. The actual causes of death as determined by autopsy were then revealed and compared with the presumed causes of death. Most presumed and actual causes of death were cardiovascular (94% and 80%, respectively). The majority of presumed causes of death were listed as ASCVD as the cases lacked features of a more specific cardiovascular process. A large majority of cases had a presumed cause of death of ischemic heart disease based on individual case details. The actual causes of death demonstrated a large breadth of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular disease processes, even though ischemic heart disease accounted for 62% of deaths. The presumed cause of death was completely wrong in 28% of cases. A nonnatural manner of death was present in 3% of cases. This study demonstrates that experienced forensic pathologists may generate erroneous death certificates for cases that are not autopsied. PMID:14634467
Nashelsky, Marcus B; Lawrence, Christopher H
Forensic odontology plays an important role in the age estimation of a corpse. However, some cases exhibit a large margin of error when using conventional morphological methods. The final purpose of this study was to survey dental diseases to find the factors that result in errors in age estimation. First, we surveyed dental status related to dental caries in forensic autopsy cases to examine their characteristics. We investigated 335 forensic autopsy cases with accurate age and gender information available from autopsy and police reports. We assessed the number of teeth with caries, including the number of present teeth, missing teeth, sound teeth, treated teeth, untreated teeth, and the total number of carious teeth (DMF teeth: decayed, missing, and filled teeth).Then, each mean number of teeth from autopsy cases was compared with that from the results of a control survey of dental disease performed by Akita Prefecture. The autopsy cases, mainly in their 50's, showed a significantly higher incidence of DMF teeth, missing teeth, and untreated teeth. They also showed lower incidence of treated teeth. The more severe carious status in the autopsy cases suggested that they did not regularly visit dental clinics while they were alive. We will continue to analyze their past physical disease histories, the causes of death, and their antemortem lifestyles to find the factors that lead to incorrect age estimation. PMID:19409835
Ohtani, Maki; Chiba, Takashi; Yoshioka, Naofumi
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008 from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%, the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16% patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16% cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma. Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool.
Fakler Johannes K
The accuracy of liverscanning alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase in the detection of the hepatic metastases was studied in short interval autopsy material of 243 cancer patients. The highest percentage of correct diagnosis was by 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphatase was the second, and scanning third. The overall accuracy of liver scan was 68 per cent. It was the better the shorter the time interval between scanning and autopsy. The higher percentage of incorrect diagnoses of the scan was related to a larger number of false positives, the causes of which were to be verified only in half of the cases. (orig.)
Restoration of autopsy incisions can result in inadvertent needle stick injury to the prosector, which can be difficult to prevent even with the use of personal protective equipment such as Kevlar cut resistant gloves. We present a new technique for closure of autopsy incisions using a commonly available commercial hardware tool, a hole punch with a lever enhanced action, combined with blunt probe sewing, which results in an esthetic and leak-proof means of restoring cadavers. This technique is especially useful in cases which may pose blood-borne infection risks to the prosector. PMID:24117624
Duflou, Johan; McNamara, Bradley; Cluney, Robert
Full Text Available A retrospective autopsy-based study conducted in correlation with the relevant clinical records and the reports from investigating agencies to analyze the suitability of Injury Severity Score (ISS and New Injury Severity Score (NISS in predicting the mortality of trauma victims. Four hundred and forty six autopsy reports of the victims of road traffic accidents were thoroughly studied and the external and internal injuries were assigned AIS coding. Based on this coding ISS and NISS scoring was done. On comparing both scoring systems it was found that ISS, satisfactorily correlates to the survival period among the trauma patients of multiple wounds but NISS was a better scoring system.
Institutional autopsies can teach much about why learning centers fail the test of time. St. Augustine Junior College in north Florida, the brainchild of Dr. George Apel, was begun in 1942 and ended seven years later in 1949. The purposes of the short-lived college are identified for discussion in this paper. Also identified are the reasons for…
Lumadue, Richard T.
Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus is a common cause of invasive mycosis, especially in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals. Aims: To study the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and evaluate the predisposing factors and clinico-pathological manifestations. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of autopsy material from a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: All autopsies performed over a 12-year period were reviewed and cases with invasive aspergillosis were analysed with respect to their clinical presentation, predisposing factors, gross and histological features, complications and causes of death. Results: Among a total of 20475 autopsies performed in 12 years, 39 patients (0.19 % had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. There were 28 males and 11 females. Their ages ranged from five months to 67 years. Dyspnoea, fever, cough with mucopurulent expectoration, chest pain and haemoptysis were commonly encountered symptoms. Forty-one per cent of the patients had no respiratory symptoms. Fungal aetiology was not entertained clinically in any of the patients. The major underlying conditions were prolonged antibiotic therapy, steroid therapy, and renal transplantation, often associated with underlying lung diseases. Pneumonia, abscesses, vascular thrombosis and infarction were common findings at autopsy. Antecedent tuberculosis, mucormycosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus infection were also present. In most cases, death was related to extensive pulmonary involvement or fungal dissemination. Conclusion: A diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should always be borne in mind whenever one is dealing with recalcitrant lung infections even with subtle immunosuppression. Radiological investigations and serologic markers can be utilised for confirmation and prompt therapy.
Although severe reactions to the sting of the common honey bee (Apis mellifera) are a common problem in Australia, reported deaths are uncommon, with the estimated mortality varying from one to four persons each year. The following study presents the postmortem findings in three cases of bee sting fatality, including one in which no observable sting was found. An autopsy approach to such cases is detailed. Overreporting of bee sting-related deaths may occur due to the inclusion of deaths unrelated to a reaction to bee venom, while under-reporting may be due to unexplained deaths where a history of a bee sting is not available or apparent at autopsy. A classification of bee sting-related deaths is proposed, which would allow more accurate reporting of bee sting-related fatalies. A serum tryptase and specific IgE to bee venom on serum obtained at autopsy can assist in confirming anaphylactic reaction to bee venom as the cause of death, particularly in the absence of observable stings. Although there are limitations to the usefulness of serum tryptase tests in the postmortem situation, it may still be useful to confirm suspected anaphylaxis in autopsy cases with an undetermined cause of death. PMID:12109787
Riches, Karen J; Gillis, David; James, Ross A
Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twinning. This anomaly is characterised by craniofacial duplication to varying degrees and is associated with anomalies of the central nervous, cardiac, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. We present an infant characterised as diprosopus tetraophthalmus who underwent post-mortem CT, which served as a highly useful complement to autopsy.
Laor, T.; Stanek, J.; Leach, J. L.
Forensic anthropologists and pathologists are more and more requested to answer questions on bone trauma. However limitations still exist concerning the proper interpretation of bone fractures and bone lesions in general. Access to known skeletal populations which derive from cadavers (victims of violent deaths) who underwent autopsy and whose autopsy reports are available are obvious sources of information on what happens to bone trauma when subjected to taphonomic variables, such as burial, decomposition, postmortem chemical and mechanical insults; such skeletal collections are still however quite rare. This study presents the results of the comparative analysis between the autopsy findings on seven cadavers (six of which victims of blunt, sharp or gunshot wounds) and those of the anthropological assessment performed 20 years later on the exhumed dry bones (part of the Milano skeletal collection). The investigation allowed us to verify how perimortem sharp, blunt and gunshot lesions appear after a long inhumation period, whether they are still recognizable, and how many lesions are no longer detectable or were not detectable at all compared to the autopsy report. It also underlines the importance of creating skeletal collections with known information on cause of death and trauma. PMID:25315679
Cappella, A; Castoldi, E; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C
Multiple intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) without portal hypertension, now thought to be congenital in origin, is very rare. The presence of IPSS, unlike other congenital diseases, may not be recognized for several decades due to the time it takes to develop hepatic encephalopathy. In this article, we report an autopsy case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman with a one-month history of hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Radiological examination of the liver revealed some abnormal connections...
Takahashi, Seishiro; Yoshida, Eriko; Sakanishi, Yasushi; Tohyama, Norihiro; Ayhan, Ayse; Ogawa, Hiroshi
Argyrophilic grains (AGs) are a pathologic feature found in association with neurodegenerative disease. Some have suggested that these features may occur as a distinctive condition. We reviewed 80 subjects from our tissue bank with pathologically confirmed AGs and identified their clinical features. We compared these subjects' features to the features of subjects with matched clinical diagnoses but without AGs. Subjects with AGs represented 21.7% of the entire autopsy sample from 1999 through...
Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Sandhu, Sonny S.; Farlow, Martin R.; Vedders, Linda; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Connor, Donald J.; Sue, Lucia; Adler, Charles H.; Beach, Thomas G.
We evaluated 214 fetuses sent for autopsy with gestational ages ranging from 12 to 39 weeks. Of these, seventeen fetuses (7.9%) had single umbilical artery. Thirteen of these fetuses were aborted after antenatal detection of severe malformations and 4 died in utero. Genito-urinary system (n=6) and central nervous system (n=4) were the most common sites of involvement. Presence of single umbilical artery warrants a detailed evaluation of the fetus for other anomalies. PMID:25638195
Nayak, Shalini S; Shukla, Anju; Girisha, Katta M
Full Text Available Brunner gland hamartoma (BGH, is a very rare benign tumor of the duodenum. It is usually asymptomatic and detected incidentally by endoscopy or other imaging modality. But, the definitive diagnosis is only by histopathological examination. We report an autopsy case in which a duodenal mass was found incidentally which was then confirmed histologically as Brunner gland hamartoma and the cause of death in this case was cerebral haemorrhage.
Shushan Shweta Jayker
Abstract Background The suicide rate in Bali has significantly increased in recent years. However, to date, there have been no case-control studies investigating risk factors for suicide. Methods A psychological autopsy study was conducted comparing 60 suicide cases and 120 living controls matched in age, sex, and area of residence. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors for suicide: at least one diagnos...
Reverger Robert; Kato Motoichiro; Kurihara Toshiyuki; Gusti, Tirta I.
The vertebral arteries are important blood vessels that supply the cerebral circulation in conjunction with the internal carotid arteries. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is necessary to examine the vertebral arteries as potential sources of bleeding due to blunt trauma (head and neck) or of cerebral embolism that originated on the surface of the damaged intima as a result of hyperflexion or hyperextension. However, a considerable part of the vertebral arterial surface is surrounded by bone, resulting in challenges during examination in a routine autopsy. In this study, angioscopy was used to inspect the vertebral artery intima for damage in cases of neck injury, head injury, or neck strangulation. Intimal damage was detected in 34 out of the total 75 cases. Of the 28 cases with cervical discopathy or fracture, 61% had intimal damage. In addition, postmortem application of computed tomography angiography was performed to identify the injured vessel in a case with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and a perforated hole was detected using angioscopy, which did not introduce autopsy-related artifacts. Therefore, angioscopy may be a useful and nondestructive method to identify intimal damage in the vertebral arteries during an autopsy. PMID:25030189
Motomura, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Go; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Makino, Yohsuke; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Sato, Kaoru; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro
The progress in quality and availability of imaging studies has made them an invaluable part of the clinical diagnostic process, so much so that the forensic medical community had to acknowledge their importance and to implement them in death investigations. Since 2011 roughly 200 post-mortem radiographic examinations were conducted, mostly followed by full autopsies. Four of those cases are given as an example of the benefits and limitations of these methods. A review of the literature and our experience so far, show that computed tomography provides better visualization and 3D reconstruction of traumatic bone injuries, as well as good assessment of air in the tissues and vascular system, gunshot wound tracts, and anthropological characteristics for identification. Imaging methods are relatively limited in definite diagnostic findings in cases of sudden death from natural causes, such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction or meningitis, problems which can be partially solved with the aid of angiographic studies. These methods also do not allow for sampling of tissues for microscopic examination, nor fluid samples for cultures and toxicology. In the current cultural and social reality in Israel, imaging studies enable minimization of the autopsy and, in certain cases, its relinquishment serves as a compromise between the necessity of death investigation and beliefs in the wholeness of the body. In light of the advantages of imaging, no autopsy of a trauma-related death can be complete without it. PMID:24450029
Gips, Hadas; Zaitsev, Konstantin; Tal, Siga; Vasserman, Margarita; Hiss, Jehuda
Patterns of malformations seen in autopsies may contribute to the understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. Two entities, acardiac twins (ATs) and amniotic band disruption complex (ABDC), have distinct patterns, indicating different mechanisms, namely vascular perfusion deficit and external disruption. With ATs and ABDC as model groups, this study was undertaken to see if other dysmorphic infants with the characteristic defects of these models formed distinct and numerically important groups. A total of 192 autopsies with nongenetic malformations was divided into groups including (1) those with defects found in the ATs but not in the ABDC, (2) those with defects found only in the ABDC, and (3) those with a mixture of exclusive defects from each model group. The cases followed the characteristic defects of ATs or ABDC in 20% (group 1) and 28% (group 2), respectively, forming 2 large and distinct groups; only 4% had mixed malformations (group 3). Group 1 had different characteristics from group 2 as a result of the frequent multiple malformations, often with congenital heart defects (CHDs), internal and inferior malformations. These cases were probably related to a vascular perfusion deficit. Group 2 had a majority of females and single, external, and superior defects, but it lacked CHDs and inferior malformations. These cases were likely due to external disruption. Two large and distinct groups of autopsies with nongenetic malformations were thus identified, and their mechanisms are proposed to be similar to those of the model groups. PMID:21105785
Davies, Belinda R; Giménez-Scherer, Juan Antonio
A prospective study of the pattern of responses to requests for autopsy in a general surgical unit was performed. Information on the characteristics of the deceased, of the requestee and of the requester was documented in the case of 66 patients who died while in hospital. Permission to perform autopsy was not requested in 39 out of 66 cases and this was the most frequent contributory factor to the low rate of autopsy. Once a decision to grant or refuse autopsy is made by relatives of the deceased, the decision is unlikely to be reversed. Permission to perform autopsy was more likely to be sought when the deceased was male than when deceased was female. The relatives of patients who had recently undergone surgery were more likely to refuse permission for autopsy than were those of patients who had not had recent surgery.
Kaar, T K
Thoracoomphalopagus is the commonest type of conjoined twin where the bodies are fused from upper chest to lower chest. The autopsy done can help counsil the parents for further pregnancies and determine the prognosis depending upon the type of cardiac anomaly by Seo classification when detected antenatally. We describe the detail pathological autopsy of such a case with single heart and single liver. A detail autopsy was done on the twin fetus. The twins shared a single heart and som...
Kar Asaranti; Mohanty Pranati; Kar Tushar; Behera Jagadish; Behera Susmita; Nayak Amarendra
On the basis of an analysis of 2398 autopsies of infants aged up to 1 year in 194 cases congenital anomalies of the central nervous system were found (8.1%). Most cases of these anomalies were noted in the group of newborns (85%) and the most frequent anomalies were: myelomeningocele (35.6%), multiple anomalies (20.1%), congenital hydrocephalus (17%), anencephaly (14.4%) and corpus callosum malformations (3.6%). Myelomeningocele, congenital hydrocephalus, anencephaly and true microcephaly were more frequent in girls, while multiple anomalies and corpus callosum malformations were more frequent in boys. PMID:2623859
Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Ostapiuk, H; Sulkowski, S; Sobaniec, W; Sulik, M; Famulski, W
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images
Multiple intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) without portal hypertension, now thought to be congenital in origin, is very rare. The presence of IPSS, unlike other congenital diseases, may not be recognized for several decades due to the time it takes to develop hepatic encephalopathy. In this article, we report an autopsy case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman with a one-month history of hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Radiological examination of the liver revealed some abnormal connections between the branches of the portal veins and the hepatic veins, but the cause of the aberrant blood flow was not found. The cause of death was extensive cerebral infarction due to thromboembolism. At postmortem examination, multiple anomalous blood vessels were identified histologically in both lobes of the non-cirrhotic liver. In comparison with the few similar cases existing in the literature, this case should be diagnosed as congenital IPSS. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed histological study of IPSS, as several autopsy case reports exist but their histological descriptions are poor. Unlike past reports, the shunt vessels were accompanied by clear elastic lamellae that were microscopically observed. In addition to shunt vessels, septal fibrosis, disorder of hepatic acinar structure, and sinusoidal dilatation and capillarization were observed in the liver. We suggest that these histological modifications observed in the circumference of the shunt vessels acted as secondary regenerative/hyperplastic changes based on blood-flow imbalance caused by the IPSS. PMID:24427367
Takahashi, Seishiro; Yoshida, Eriko; Sakanishi, Yasushi; Tohyama, Norihiro; Ayhan, Ayse; Ogawa, Hiroshi
Mucolipidosis Type IV is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by corneal opacification, mental retardation, and delayed motor milestones. Whereas lysosomal storage material has been demonstrated in biopsied tissues and leukocytes, the complete autopsy pathology, including neuropathology, is unknown. The metabolic defect remains speculative. We report the general and neuropathologic findings of the only known autopsy. In the central nervous system, neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, deep cerebellar nuclei, and brainstem nuclei was marked by astrocytosis; the cytoplasm of residual neurons had brown granules. These granules were positive with periodic acid-Schiff, Concanavalia ensiformis, and Sudan black, but not with Luxol-fast blue. Ultrastructurally, neurons contained lysosomes laden with osmiophilic, amorphous and granular material, and few lamellated membrane structures. Hepatocytes, epithelia, endothelia, chondrocytes, and tissue macrophages also stained positively with Datura stramonium and Ricinus communis-I agglutinins, with renal glomeruli also staining with peanut agglutinin; most non-neural cells contained osmiophilic granules on toluidine blue-stained, plastic embedded sections, corresponding to lamellated membrane structures. These findings complement the previously reported ocular morphology and brain and liver biochemistry performed in the same patient, and suggest that the storage material in neurons differs from that in non-neural cells. Furthermore, the underlying defect is not likely to be a deficiency of a single enzyme (i.e. a lysosomal hydrolase). PMID:7876885
Folkerth, R D; Alroy, J; Lomakina, I; Skutelsky, E; Raghavan, S S; Kolodny, E H
Intracranial chordoma is a locally invasive, relatively rare tumour at the base of the skull. The tumour usually grows slowly but there have been several case reports of sudden death, all of which were due to tumour-associated haemorrhages. We report an autopsy case of a sudden unexpected death due to clinically undiagnosed intracranial chordoma in the brainstem without haemorrhage. A 44-year-old man was found dead at home. The autopsy revealed two small gelatinous and semi-translucent greyish tumours on the ventral surface of the brainstem between the midbrain and pons. The tumours were not attached to the dura or bone. The brain was markedly swollen, with enlarged lateral and third ventricles, but the aqueduct was compressed and narrowed. Microscopically, the tumour invaded the cerebral peduncles, and was classified as a chordoma. The cause of death was diagnosed as acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to a ventral brainstem tumour. Even a minor intracranial tumour that is not primarily life-threatening may cause sudden death due to subsequent obstructive hydrocephalus. The brainstem is one of the most vulnerable regions in the brain, and careful examination of this region is important for forensic pathologists. PMID:20444561
Li, Dong-Ri; Ishikawa, Takaki; Zhao, Dong; Michiue, Tomomi; Quan, Li; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi
Current autopsy practice in forensic pathology is to a large extent based on experience and individual customary practices as opposed to evidence and consensus based practices. As a result there is the potential for substantial variation in how knowledge is applied in each case. In the present case series, we describe the variation observed in autopsy reports by five different pathologists of eight victims who died simultaneously from traumatic asphyxia due to compression during a human stampede. We observed that there was no mention of the availability of medical charts in five of the reports, of potentially confounding resuscitation efforts in three reports, of cardinal signs in seven reports and of associated injuries to a various degree in all reports. Further, there was mention of supplemental histological examination in two reports and of pre-autopsy radiograph in six reports. We inferred that reliance on experience and individual customary practices led to disparities between the autopsy reports as well as omissions of important information such as cardinal signs, and conclude that such reliance increases the potential for error in autopsy practice. We suggest that pre-autopsy data-gathering and the use of check lists specific to certain injury causes are likely to result in less deviation from evidence-based practices in forensic pathology. Pre-autopsy data-gathering and check lists will help ensure a higher degree of standardization in autopsy reports thus enhancing the quality and accuracy of the report as a legal document as well as rendering it more useful for data-gathering efforts.
Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Freeman, Michael
Objective To determine bereaved parents’ perceptions about participating in autopsy-related research and to elucidate their suggestions about how to improve the process. Study design A prospective multicenter study was conducted to collect tumor tissue by autopsy of children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). In the study, parents completed a questionnaire after their child’s death to describe the purpose for, hopes (ie, desired outcomes of), and regrets about their participation in autopsy-related research. Parents also suggested ways to improve autopsy-related discussions. A semantic content analytic method was used to analyze responses and identify themes within and across parent responses. Results Responses from 33 parents indicated that the main reasons for participating in this study were to advance medical knowledge or find a cure, a desire to help others, and choosing as their child would want. Parents hoped that participation would help others or help find a cure as well as provide closure. Providing education/anticipatory guidance and having a trusted professional sensitively broach the topic of autopsy were suggestions to improve autopsy discussions. All parents felt that study participation was the right decision, and none regretted it; 91% agreed that they would make the choice again. Conclusion Because autopsy can help advance scientific understanding of the disease itself and parents reported having no regret and even cited benefits, researchers should be encouraged to continue autopsy-related research. Parental perceptions about such studies should be evaluated in other types of pediatric diseases. PMID:23433673
Baker, Justin N; Windham, Jennifer A; Hinds, Pamela S; Gattuso, Jami S; Mandrell, Belinda; Gajjar, Poorna; West, Nancy K; Hammarback, Teresa; Broniscer, Alberto
Research has suggested that autopsy in pediatrics is a valued way for parents to better understand and process their child's death, yet physicians often express hesitancy in discussing this topic with parents. To better assist clinicians with initiating discussion about this often sensitive topic, the current study examined bereaved parents' preferences about the timing and content of the autopsy discussion as well as reasons for considering autopsy. This study explored the views of 30 parents who lost a child to a variety of malignancies between 6 months and 6 years ago. Results showed that 36.7% of parents recalled having a discussion about autopsy, and the vast majority of those who did not recall a discussion (89.5%) would have considered an autopsy if it had been discussed. The majority of participants in this study indicated their preference to have the first conversation about autopsy when it becomes clear that cure is no longer possible. Findings suggest that educating parents about the clinical, emotional, and potential research benefits of autopsy and tissue procurement will ultimately help them make informed decisions and understand the importance of autopsy in medical progress. The future research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24309611
Wiener, Lori; Sweeney, Corinne; Baird, Kristin; Merchant, Melinda S; Warren, Katherine E; Corner, Geoffrey W; Roberts, Kailey E; Lichtenthal, Wendy G
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. Method: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy an [...] d postmortem computed tomography. Results: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. Conclusions: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations.
Talita, Zerbini; Luiz Fernando Ferraz da, Silva; Antonio Carlos Gonçalves, Ferro; Fernando Uliana, Kay; Edson, Amaro Junior; Carlos Augusto Gonçalves, Pasqualucci; Paulo Hilario do Nascimento, Saldiva.
We evaluated the correlation between prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and autopsy findings, based on 52 second-trimester pregnancies terminated due to fetal malformations or chromosome aberrations diagnosed at a gestational age of 12-25 weeks. In 24 pregnancies, there was full agreement between ultrasound and autopsy. In 23 fetuses, the main diagnosis was confirmed and additional or more specific findings were observed on autopsy. In five fetuses, there were considerable differences. Discrepancies between ultrasound and autopsy findings were mainly anomalies undetectable by ultrasound and thus expected; however, about one-third of the discrepancies were not expected, representing findings that were 'missed' at ultrasound. The main ultrasound diagnoses were confirmed in the majority of the pregnancies, but the additional information obtained at autopsy in more than half of the fetuses clearly shows the value and benefit of postmortem fetal examination following termination of a pregnancy.
Hauerberg, Laura; Skibsted, Lillian
Full Text Available Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD or Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder first described by Juan Rosai and Ronald Dorfman in 1969, whose etiology remains unknown. Since then, many cases were reported in the literature. The disease primarily involves the lymph nodes, and is characterized by painless, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy accompanied by fever, night sweats, malaise and weight loss, reason why many patients are clinically misdiagnosed as malignant lymphoma. In some cases, extranodal involvement may be present. Leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and hypergamaglobulinemia are often present. The authors report a case of a 52-year-old female patient admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of pneumonia and progressed to multiple organs failure and death. During the hospitalization an attempt to diagnose a lymphoproliferative disease trough an axillary lymph node biopsy was disappointing. The autopsy was crucial for the diagnosis, illustrating a severe and unusual presentation of Rosai-Dorfman disease.
João da Costa Veloso Neto
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is an indolent chronic lymphoproliferative disorder within the spectrum of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL), characterized by a proliferation of plasmacytoid lymphocytes and the production of monoclonal IgM. Although, peripheral neurologic complications commonly occurs due to hyperviscosity in WM, central nervous system (CNS) involvement is very rare. Herein, we present the case of a 67-year-old man who initially presented with progressive visual loss and was diagnosed as WM/LPL with a very aggressive clinical course. He underwent chemotherapy with high dose methotrexate (MTX) plus cytarabine (Ara-C). However, he died and findings of a subsequent autopsy revealed the presence of lymphoplasmacytoid cells in the optic nerve. PMID:25027010
Nishida, Hiroko; Hashida, Risa; Hatano, Mami; Hori, Masao; Obara, Katsuyuki
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images.
Park, Seung Hyun; Kang, Hyun Koo; Yu, Hyeon; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The author aims to demonstrate the increased information which can be acquired from a correlated study of the computed tomogram and the pathomorphological patterns of the most common infarctions seen at autopsy. The discussion is divided into two sections: 1. A short bird's-eye view on the laws of distribution of flow in cases of cerebrovascular insufficiency, particularly all the deviations from simple hemodynamics in the process of infarction. 2. A systematic demonstration of the most frequent CT-patterns correlated with the corresponding pathomorphological specimens. This report is based on 6500 cerebral CTs, from which 590, i.e. 9%, showed infarcts. These include mainly cases seen in the neurological ward of the Merheim City Hospital. (Auth.)
Acupuncture is one of the most popular oriental medical techniques in China, Korea and Japan. This technique is also popular as alternative therapy in the Western World. Serious adverse events are rare following acupuncture, and fatal cases have been rarely reported. A male in his late forties died right after acupuncture treatment. A medico-legal autopsy disclosed severe haemorrhaging around the right vagus nerve in the neck. Other organs and laboratory data showed no significant findings. Thus, it was determined that the man could have died from severe vagal bradycardia and/or arrhythmia resulting from vagus nerve stimulation following acupuncture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a death due to vagus nerve injury after acupuncture. PMID:25465674
Watanabe, Mayumi; Unuma, Kana; Fujii, Yusuke; Noritake, Kanako; Uemura, Koichi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data.
In 270 Throtrast-administered autopsy cases reported in Japan during the 1945-1983 period, 267 had been injected with Thorotrast intravascularly and the remaining 3 had been given by other routes, such as pyelography, etc. Of the 267 intravascularly Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases, 180 were malignant hepatic tumors, 20 liver cirrhosis, 16 leukemias, 5 aplastic anemias, 5 lung cancers, 3 sarcomas of Thorotrast injected site, 2 mesotheliomas, 1 hemangioendothelioma of the spleen, 1 malignant lymphoma, and 1 osteosarcoma. The dosimetry of 96 intravascularly Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases was performed for an estimate of the absorbed dose of critical organs, such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. (author)
Thoracoomphalopagus is the commonest type of conjoined twin where the bodies are fused from upper chest to lower chest. The autopsy done can help counsil the parents for further pregnancies and determine the prognosis depending upon the type of cardiac anomaly by Seo classification when detected antenatally. We describe the detail pathological autopsy of such a case with single heart and single liver. A detail autopsy was done on the twin fetus. The twins shared a single heart and sometimes the liver and part of digestive system. The combined weight was 4.1?KG. Both were full-term male babies joined from below the nipple till umbilicus. Autopsy in conjoined twins helps in deciding the type of fusion of the body and also of the heart and great vessels. It can help in counseling parents about future pregnancies that there is no chance of recurrence of this abnormality and no need to be scared. PMID:22957286
Asaranti, Kar; Pranati, Mohanty; Tushar, Kar; Jagadish, Behera; Susmita, Behera; Amarendra, Nayak
The patient was a 70-year-old male with complaint of macrohematuria at the first visit to our clinic on June 10, 1986. At that time, cystoscopy revealed a thumb sized papillary tumor and a rice sized non papillary tumor, and the biopsy specimen was pathologically diagnosed as undifferentiated carcinoma. But, he refused admission. On January 30, 1987, he came back to our clinic with complaints of dyspnea, general fatigue and weight loss. Moderate lt. gynecomastia was found and the level of serum hCG-beta was detected as high as 101 ng/ml. Excretory urogram and enhanced CT revealed a large mass in the bladder. In the seventeenth day after admission, he died of lung edema and heart failure. The findings of autopsy showed a large light greenish to light brownish tumor of 10 X 10 X 3 cm in the bladder. Distant metastases were observed in internal, common iliac and paraaortic lymph nodes, but without other distant metastasis. In histological and immunohistochemical studies, the final diagnosis is choriocarcinoma of the bladder, containing syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells with hCG-beta granules as an undifferentiated carcinoma. To our knowledge this case is the eighth described in Japan. Herein we report a new case of primary choriocarcinoma of the bladder and make a brief review of the literatures. PMID:2677466
Sone, A; Furukawa, Y; Nakatsuka, S; Tanaka, H
We report the pathologic and radiologic observations at autopsy of an 85-year-old man with Thorotrastosis due to angiography performed at age 37, and with double carcinoma comprising renal pelvic and gastric carcinoma. Thorotrast deposits were found in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrows; the liver showed Thorotrast-induced cirrhosis. Renal pelvic carcinoma and gastric carcinoma were histologically squamous cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma, moderately differentiated, respectively. Renal pelvic carcinoma had metastasized to the lungs and lymph nodes. On the other hand, no metastasis of gastric carcinoma was detected. These neoplasms seemed unlikely to be in direct association with Thorotrast because there was no Thorotrast deposit in the primary sites. However, there seems to be an intense correlation between Thorotrast carcinogenicity and histologic type of the tumor, because squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is more frequent in patients with retrograde pyelography with Thorotrast than without Thorotrast. It should be kept in mind that the incidence of carcinoma due to either direct or indirect influence of Thorotrast is high in these patients. (author)
This paper reported the roentgenographic, laparoscopic and autopsy findings of a patient with thorotrast liver complicated with malignant liver tumor, which was considered to develop 35 years after the infusion of thorotrast. Laboratory findings of a 67-year-old man, who got a war wound before 35 years and received angiography by using thorotrast at that time, indicated marked symptoms of liver parenchymal disturbance, biliary occlusion and malignant liver tumor. X-ray examination revealed arborescent and reticular abnormal shadow in the liver and the spleen and spotted shadow at the liver hilus. Laparoscopic findings revealed reticulate grayish-yellow particles adhered to the recessus of the nodules in the surface of the liver. Liver biopsy showed deposition of thorotrast granules and necrosis and scar formation of the hepatic cells. Microautoradiography revealed ?-track from the region where thorotrast was deposited. Postmortem findings revealed thorotrast liver cirrhosis, primary liver tumor (reticulo-endothelial sarcoma), circular calcium deposit in the hepatic duct, the bile duct and the portal vein, and cholangitis, demonstrating delayed disturbance by thorotrast. (Kanao, N.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The suicide rate in Bali has significantly increased in recent years. However, to date, there have been no case-control studies investigating risk factors for suicide. Methods A psychological autopsy study was conducted comparing 60 suicide cases and 120 living controls matched in age, sex, and area of residence. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors for suicide: at least one diagnosis of axis-I mental disorder (OR: 14.84 CI: 6.12 - 35.94; low level of religious involvement (OR: 7.24 CI: 2.28 - 22.95; and severe interpersonal problems (OR: 3.86 CI: 1.36 - 11.01. Forty-eight (80.0% of the suicide cases were diagnosed with mental disorders; however, only 16.7% visited a primary care health professional and none received psychiatric treatment during the 1 month prior to death. Conclusion Clinical, religious, and psychosocial factors were associated with suicide. These results highlight the significance of early recognition and treatment of mental disorders, religious activities, and interpersonal problem-solving strategies for suicide prevention in Bali.
It is not unusual for laypersons to object on the conduct of an autopsy of a loved one for fear of disfigurement or burial delays. In this paper, we discuss a new possible reason for objection among Arabic speaking communities related to the language. The Arabic word for autopsy is "al-tashreeh" which, when examining its other linguistic uses, might result in wrong inferences among laypersons. PMID:25572083
Al-Amad, Suhail H; Cordner, Stephen; Al Haddidi, Mu'men; Al-Amad, Hani
Abstract Background Because of a physician shortage in many low-income countries, the use of nonphysicians to classify perinatal mortality (stillbirth and early neonatal death) using verbal autopsy could be useful. Objective To determine the extent to which underlying perinatal causes of deaths assigned by nonphysicians in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo using a verbal autopsy method are concordant with underlying perinatal ...
Wallace Dennis; McClure Elizabeth M; Tshefu Antoinette; Pasha Omrana; Chomba Elwyn; Mazariegos Manolo; Thorsten Vanessa; Phiri Mutinta; Garces Ana; Jehan Imtiaz; Ditekemena John; Engmann Cyril; Goldenberg Robert L; Carlo Waldemar A; Wright Linda L
We reported a case of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following about 300 wasp stings. The diagnosis was based on autopsy findings of acute pulmonary edema, acute kidney injury, hepatic and cardiac dysfunction, and cerebral edema. MODS is a life-threatening complication, and should be considered a possibility after multiple wasp stings. Our autopsy helped to establish the cause of unexpected death due to wasp stings and to elucidate a possible mechanism of MODS. PMID:22884081
Zhang, Ling; Tang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Shi, Yu-Ying; Cao, Yu; Xu, Huan; Fu, Ping
Full Text Available An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy was reported. The patient was a 60-year-old female complaining of chest discomfort from the age of 40. At autopsy, both ventricles were dilated. Microscopically myocardial loss, fibrosis and disarray of hypertrophic myocardial fibers were observed. The areas showing myocardial disarray were distributed close to the scar-like fibrotic areas. Coronary arteries and intramyocardial arterioles showed minimal stenotic changes.
An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy was reported. The patient was a 60-year-old female complaining of chest discomfort from the age of 40. At autopsy, both ventricles were dilated. Microscopically myocardial loss, fibrosis and disarray of hypertrophic myocardial fibers were observed. The areas showing myocardial disarray were distributed close to the scar-like fibrotic areas. Coronary arteries and intramyocardial arterioles sho...
Yamadori, Ichiro; Murakami, Motomasa
The importance of autopsy data in cancer epidemiological investigation is well appreciated by researchers at the Mayo Clinic. The Rochester Epidemiology Program Project is a complete population-based collection of morbidity and mortality data in Olmsted County, Minnesota (population, 100,000), funded by the National Institutes of Health since 1964. Comprehensive ascertainment of cancer in this community cohort has been augmented by initial diagnosis at autopsy for 12% of colorectal cancers, 35% of intracranial neoplasms, 45% of phaeochromocytomas and 37% of renal-cell carcinomas. These rates are in stark contrast to autopsy diagnoses in our cancer registry--usually less than 1%. The difference is attributable to the denominator in these comparisons, a concept of vital importance to the epidemiological interpretation of autopsy findings. Despite the enormous value of the autopsy in our research, social and economic factors diminished autoptic rates in Olmsted County from 63% in 1970 to 39% in 1984. These rates are well above that for the USA as a whole but parallel our national decline in frequency of autopsy. The major factors responsible for this reduction appear to be the increasing proportion of deaths in nursing homes and the advent of declining reimbursement in US health care. PMID:1855938
Chute, C G; Ballard, D J; Nemetz, P N
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RESUMO OBJETIVO: Pacientes vítimas de trauma cardíaco morrem, na maioria das vezes, antes de receberem atendimento médico. Porém, são poucos os estudos epidemiológicos deste tipo de lesão descrevendo a porcentagem de pacientes que chegam a ser tratados. O objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar as c [...] aracterísticas das vítimas de trauma cardíaco através da interpretação de laudos de necropsia. MÉTODO: Foram revisados 1.976 casos de óbito por causas externas submetidos a necropsia no Instituto Médico Legal de Campinas, num período de dois anos. Os casos foram divididos em dois grupos: I, trauma penetrante; e II, trauma fechado. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio dos traumas penetrantes (1.294 casos - 65,5%). Trauma cardíaco foi identificado em 359 laudos (18,2%), sendo 296 do grupo I e 63 do grupo II. No grupo I, 73,6% dos óbitos ocorreram no local do trauma e apenas 18 pacientes (6%) foram atendidos em hospital e submetidos a toracotomia. No grupo II o tratamento cirúrgico foi indicado em dois dos 14 traumatizados (3,2% dos traumas fechados) admitidos com presença de sinais vitais. A câmara cardíaca mais acometida no grupo I foi o ventrículo esquerdo (lesão isolada em 24,6% dos casos) e no grupo II o ventrículo direito (25%). CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que as lesões cardíacas são eminentemente fatais e apenas 5,6% destes traumatizados que morreram chegaram a receber tratamento efetivo. Abstract in english ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The vast majority of cardiac trauma victims die before receiving medical care. However, epidemiological studies are few about this injury, describing the patients whom treatment is provided. The objective of this study is to evaluate cardiac injuries victims' profile through the [...] autopsy findings. METHODS: We have reviewed 1.976 external causes death cases, which were autopsied in the Campinas Medical Legal Institute, over a two-year period. The cases were assigned for two groups: I, penetrating trauma, and II, blunt trauma. RESULTS: Penetrating trauma was predominant (1.294 cases - 65.5%). Heart trauma was identified in 359 cases (18.2%), out of 296 in Group I and 63 in Group II. In Group I, 73.6% of the victims died at the scene and only 18 patients (6%) were admitted at hospital and submitted to thoracotomy. In Group II, surgical care was offered for two out of 14 patients (3.2% of blunt trauma) who were admitted with vital signs. The most affected heart chamber in Group I was the left ventricle (isolated injury in 24.6%) and in Group II the was the right ventricle (25%). CONCLUSION: We conclude that heart injuries are eminently fatal and only 5.6% of this victims who died received effective medical care.
Gustavo Pereira, Fraga; Luiz Rogério, Heinzl; Bárbara Sugui, Longhi; Daniel Carlos da, Silva; Francisco Américo, Fernandes Neto; Mario, Mantovani.
Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: Pacientes vítimas de trauma cardíaco morrem, na maioria das vezes, antes de receberem atendimento médico. Porém, são poucos os estudos epidemiológicos deste tipo de lesão descrevendo a porcentagem de pacientes que chegam a ser tratados. O objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar as características das vítimas de trauma cardíaco através da interpretação de laudos de necropsia. MÉTODO: Foram revisados 1.976 casos de óbito por causas externas submetidos a necropsia no Instituto Médico Legal de Campinas, num período de dois anos. Os casos foram divididos em dois grupos: I, trauma penetrante; e II, trauma fechado. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio dos traumas penetrantes (1.294 casos - 65,5%. Trauma cardíaco foi identificado em 359 laudos (18,2%, sendo 296 do grupo I e 63 do grupo II. No grupo I, 73,6% dos óbitos ocorreram no local do trauma e apenas 18 pacientes (6% foram atendidos em hospital e submetidos a toracotomia. No grupo II o tratamento cirúrgico foi indicado em dois dos 14 traumatizados (3,2% dos traumas fechados admitidos com presença de sinais vitais. A câmara cardíaca mais acometida no grupo I foi o ventrículo esquerdo (lesão isolada em 24,6% dos casos e no grupo II o ventrículo direito (25%. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que as lesões cardíacas são eminentemente fatais e apenas 5,6% destes traumatizados que morreram chegaram a receber tratamento efetivo.ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The vast majority of cardiac trauma victims die before receiving medical care. However, epidemiological studies are few about this injury, describing the patients whom treatment is provided. The objective of this study is to evaluate cardiac injuries victims' profile through the autopsy findings. METHODS: We have reviewed 1.976 external causes death cases, which were autopsied in the Campinas Medical Legal Institute, over a two-year period. The cases were assigned for two groups: I, penetrating trauma, and II, blunt trauma. RESULTS: Penetrating trauma was predominant (1.294 cases - 65.5%. Heart trauma was identified in 359 cases (18.2%, out of 296 in Group I and 63 in Group II. In Group I, 73.6% of the victims died at the scene and only 18 patients (6% were admitted at hospital and submitted to thoracotomy. In Group II, surgical care was offered for two out of 14 patients (3.2% of blunt trauma who were admitted with vital signs. The most affected heart chamber in Group I was the left ventricle (isolated injury in 24.6% and in Group II the was the right ventricle (25%. CONCLUSION: We conclude that heart injuries are eminently fatal and only 5.6% of this victims who died received effective medical care.
Gustavo Pereira Fraga
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Considering the variations in racial, dietary and lifestyle patterns in our population, it is essential to study the biology of coronary atherosclerosis in our patients. Vulnerable plaques have a large number of foam cells, extracellular lipid, thin fibrous caps and clusters of inflammatory cells and are more prone to rupture. These plaques are nourished by the microvessels arising from the vasa vasorum of the blood vessels and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. This autopsy study was designed to analyse the coronary arterial tree in cases of sudden cardiac death, classify coronary atherosclerotic plaques and to assess the factors contributing to vulnerability of the plaques including inflammation, calcification and microvascular density. Materials and Methods: Seven cases of sudden cardiac death were included in the study. The hearts were perfusion-fixed and the coronary arteries along with their main branches were dissected and studied. The location of the plaques, type of plaques, presence of inflammation and calcification were assessed. The cap thickness and microvessel density per 1000um 2 were assessed. The statistical significance was estimated. Results and Conclusions: Extensive high-grade coronary atherosclerotic disease was seen in all sudden cardiac death cases. Majority of the plaques were vulnerable. High-grade inflammation was seen in most of the vulnerable and ruptured plaques. All the ruptured plaques were uncalcified indicating that calcification probably stabilizes the plaques and protects against rupture. Increased microvessel density was noted in ruptured plaques compared to vulnerable plaques. However, it was not statistically significant.
We propose to use HST/COS to conduct autopsies of dead planetary systems around UV bright hydrogen-white dwarfs (WDs), which have dust disks found via their mid-IR emission in excess of that expected from the photosphere. As part of a WISE survey, and followed up with a combination of NASA Keck HIRES/Magellan MIKE optical spectroscopy, we have identified three new systems that are accreting dust. These WDs are bright in the mid-IR and UV, gold-standard targets for studies with HST/COS and later with JWST. The dusty material is debris resulting from the tidal disruption of exo-asteroids that accrete onto the WD surface. Many atomic elements from the accreted and dissociated dust particles are detectable with COS, enabling abundance determinations of exo-asteroidal material. Moreover, the photospheric abundances of this material can be directly compared with a determination of the dust mineralogy obtained with future JWST mid-IR spectroscopy-our proposed UV observations provide complementary constraints on mineralogical compositions of the accreting dust particles. UV spectroscopy is crucial for cataloging elemental abundances for these exo-asteroids. For the majority of WDs, optical spectroscopy reveals only a couple of lines of Ca or Mg, while UV spectroscopy captures lines from Al, Fe, Si, C, Ni, O, S, Cr, P, and Ti. Obtaining the elemental abundances of exo-asteroids is comparable to the spectroscopic characterization of transiting exoplanets or protoplanetary disks-all of these techniques determine how the chemical diversity of planetary systems translate into planetary architectures and the probability of habitable planets around solar-type stars.
Introduction: Can CT-scanning of deceased at the medico legal external examination improve the selection of cases to autopsy? Is CT-scanning a substitute or a supplement to the traditional forensic autopsy? Material: In 2006 60 deceased individuals from Southern Denmark (counties of Fyn and Sønderjylland) (15 females and 45 males) were CT-scanned before autopsy. Method: A double-blind prospective investigation of CT-scanning in autopsy cases. A multislice spiral CT-scanner (Siemens Somatom Spirit) was used. Data from the CT-scanning and the autopsy were registered in a computer database and compared. Results: The scanning could be performed in 10 minutes per case. In approximately a third of the cases the cause of death could be established by CT-scanning alone. CT-scanning was found to be most useful in cases of traumatic death, and was superior to autopsy in visualizing fractures. Conclusions: CT-scanning is not a substitute for autopsy, but can be used at the medico legal external examination to evaluate in which cases an autopsy is needed. It can also be used as a supplement to the autopsy in cases of traumatic death, and is especially useful in evaluation of injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents and in gunshot injuries, and for identification purposes.
Leth, Peter Mygind
Postmortem radiography may reveal skeletal and soft-tissue abnormalities of importance for the diagnosis of cause of death. To review the radiographs of children under 3 years of age who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. To compare the radiological and autopsy findings evaluating possible differences in children dying of SIDS and of an explainable cause. A total of 110 consecutive skeletal surveys performed between 1998 and 2002 were reviewed. All but one were performed before autopsy and comprised AP views of the appendicular and axial skeleton and thorax/abdomen, lateral views of the axial skeleton and thorax, and two oblique views of the ribs. Radiography and autopsy findings were compared. Causes of death were classified as SIDS/borderline SIDS (n = 52) and non-SIDS (n = 58), with one case of abuse. In 102 infants there were 150 pathological findings, 88 involving the chest, 24 skeletal, and 38 miscellaneous findings. The radiological-pathological agreement was poor concerning pulmonary findings. Skeletal findings were sometimes important for the final diagnosis. Radiography revealed many skeletal and soft-tissue findings. Pulmonary pathology was most frequently found, but showed poor agreement with autopsy findings. Recognizing skeletal findings related to abuse is important, as these may escape recognition at autopsy. (orig.)
Postmortem radiography may reveal skeletal and soft-tissue abnormalities of importance for the diagnosis of cause of death. To review the radiographs of children under 3 years of age who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. To compare the radiological and autopsy findings evaluating possible differences in children dying of SIDS and of an explainable cause. A total of 110 consecutive skeletal surveys performed between 1998 and 2002 were reviewed. All but one were performed before autopsy and comprised AP views of the appendicular and axial skeleton and thorax/abdomen, lateral views of the axial skeleton and thorax, and two oblique views of the ribs. Radiography and autopsy findings were compared. Causes of death were classified as SIDS/borderline SIDS (n = 52) and non-SIDS (n = 58), with one case of abuse. In 102 infants there were 150 pathological findings, 88 involving the chest, 24 skeletal, and 38 miscellaneous findings. The radiological-pathological agreement was poor concerning pulmonary findings. Skeletal findings were sometimes important for the final diagnosis. Radiography revealed many skeletal and soft-tissue findings. Pulmonary pathology was most frequently found, but showed poor agreement with autopsy findings. Recognizing skeletal findings related to abuse is important, as these may escape recognition at autopsy. (orig.)
Lange, Charlotte de; Stake, Gunnar [Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Vege, Aashild [Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to present the incidence of fetal anomalies in our region of Hatay, Turkey in order to determine the efficiency of prenatal diagnosis through fetal autopsy, and to compare our statistical data with other national and international studies.Material and Method: This study was conducted on 274 fetuses from terminated pregnancies due to abnormal prenatal findings and intrauterine deaths from 2005 to September 2010. Fetuses were evaluated through postmortem examination, external measurements, X-rays, Magnetic Resonance Images, Multislice Computerized Tomography and photographs. The autopsy was completed by the histological examination of each organ.Results: Autopsy was conducted on 274 fetuses. A fetal anomaly was detected in 160 (58.39% cases. The central nervous system contained the most frequent structural defects (79 cases, 49.38%, followed by malformations in the musculoskeletal system in 36 cases (22.5%. The most frequent multiple system anomalies were central nervous system defect and bilateral adrenal agenesis, musculoskeletal system malformations and urinary system defects. Fetal autopsy provided additional findings in 43 cases (26.88%.Conclusion: Fetal autopsy is a very important procedure and an integral part of the general prenatal management. New findings through this method may suggest invaluable data for parents about potential risks in future pregnancies.
Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\
Antibodies to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen allow identification of proliferating cells in fresh tissue specimens using routine immunocytochemical methods. However, the use of such proliferation markers has not been verified for autopsy-derived tissue specimens, in which there is often a significant delay between the time of death and tissue specimen fixation. To assess the reliability of anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibodies to identify proliferating cells in autopsy tissue specimens, an autopsy simulation was performed using fresh monkey and rat tissue specimens. These tissue specimens were kept at room temperature for predetermined numbers of hours before fixation. The proliferation specific staining was most reliable for tissue specimens obtained within 6 hours of death. There was reliable staining of proliferating regions up to 12 hours, although sensitivity was decreased. The only exception was skin, which was able to withstand much longer periods. Quantitative data from monkey spleen white-pulp regions showed 63% of the cells to stain for proliferating cell nuclear antigen when fixed immediately; this decreased to 29% of the cells after 12 hours and only 19% by 18 hours of postmortem simulation. Representative tissue specimens obtained from human autopsy material revealed similar postmortem staining patterns. Rapid procurement and fixation of tissue specimens and the use of control tissue specimens derived from the same autopsy material (eg, lymph node tissue) are recommended. These studies do suggest that anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibodies can be used to identify proliferating cells in human autopsy tissue specimens obtained within approximately 12 hours of death, with some compromise in overall sensitivity. PMID:1280077
Isik, F F; Ferguson, M; Yamanaka, E; Gordon, D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA study of 48 000 adult (aged ? 25 yrs deaths in the city of Chennai (urban during 1995–97 and 32 000 in rural Villupuram during 1997–98 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death to estimate cause specific mortality. Methods A ten day training on writing verbal autopsy (VA report for adult deaths was given to non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education. They interviewed surviving spouse/close associates of the deceased to write a verbal autopsy report in local language (Tamil on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. Random re-interviewing of 5% of the VA reports was done to check the reliability and reproducibility of the VA report. The validity of VA diagnosis was assessed only for cancer deaths. Results Verbal autopsy reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified and unknown causes from 54% to 23% (p Conclusion A ten day training programme to write verbal autopsy report with adequate feed back sessions and random sampling of 5% of the verbal autopsy reports for re-interview worked very well in Tamilnadu, to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death reliably for deaths in early adult life or middle age (25–69 years and less reliably for older ages (70+. Thus VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age.
Neurolymphomatosis (NL) refers to a lymphomatous infiltration of peripheral nerves associated with central nervous system or systemic lymphoma, or alternatively, neurodiagnostic evidence of nerve enhancement and/or enlargement beyond the dural sleeve in the setting of primary central nervous system lymphoma or systemic lymphoma. NL is a rare complication of systemic cancer with heterogeneous clinical presentations and an elusive diagnosis. Diagnosis usually requires the demonstration of infiltrating malignant lymphocytes in the peripheral nerve. Infiltration of brain parenchyma, meninges or Virchow–Robin spaces is characteristic of systemic disease at autopsy. We describe a patient presenting with biopsy negative NL affecting exclusively the peripheral nervous system at autopsy. PMID:24367352
Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Morales-Vidal, Sarkis; Chawla, Jasvinder; Biller, José
A study was conducted on 102 patients submitted to renal transplant who died and were autopsied at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, from 1968 to 1991. The cause of death, based on a review of medical records and autopsy reports, was assigned to one of the following categories: infectious (69.6%); cardiovascular (12.7%); gastrointestinal (7.8%); graft rejection (6.9%); tumoral (2.0%); and undetermined (1.0%). Among the 71 cases of death caused by infecti...
Reis, M. A.; Costa, R. S.; Ferraz, A. S.
This study developed and evaluated the inter-rater reliability of a semistructured interview for psychological autopsy (SIPA). The SIPA is composed of 69 items that are distributed into four modules (precipitators and stressors, motivation, lethality, intentionality). The interviews of 42 subjects, related to 21 cases of suicide, were audiotaped and then transcribed and evaluated by the interviewer, and also evaluated by a research assistant and two referees who all acted independently. The SIPA was able to provide information that demonstrated a high degree of concordance (kappa) among the raters. The results of this study demonstrate that the SIPA is a very reliable instrument for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide. PMID:14582842
Werlang, Blanca S G; Botega, Neury J
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Investigar o número e a taxa de autópsias acadêmicas, organização geral, ensino e pesquisa em serviços acadêmicos brasileiros. Métodos: Questionários padronizados enviados para escolas médicas brasileiras (n=177) e programas de residência em patologia ativos (n=53) de março a junho d [...] e 2009. Dados coletados referentes ao período de 2003 a 2008. Resultados: Trinta e dois serviços em 11 estados responderam à pesquisa. Vinte e um (65,6%) realizam menos de cem autópsias de causas naturais e menos de cinquenta autópsias fetais ou pediátricas/ano. Vinte e quatro (75%) realizam menos de cem autópsias de adultos/ano. Muitas instituições (46,9%) relataram queda no número de autópsias em seis anos. A contagem total e a taxa de autópsias em 2008 variaram, respectivamente, de 1 a 632 (mediana=80) e de 0 a 66% (média=10,6%). Foi observada uma redução contínua no total de autópsias em um grupo de 19 instituições (p Abstract in english Objective: To investigate the number and rate of academic autopsies, general organization, educational and research in Brazilian academic services. Methods: Standardized questionnaires were sent to Brazilian medical schools (n=177) and active pathology residency programs (n=53) from March to J [...] une 2009. Data were collected for years 2003 to 2008. Results: Thirty-two academic services in 11 Brazilian states answered the survey. Twenty-one (65.6%) perform less than a hundred autopsies for natural causes and less than fifty pediatric or fetal autopsies/year. Twenty-four (75%) perform less than a hundred adult autopsies/year. Many institutions (46.9%) reported a drop in the number of autopsies in a six-year period. The total autopsy count and autopsy rate in 2008 ranged 1-632 (median = 80), and 0-66% (mean = 10.6%), respectively. A steady decrease in the total count of autopsies in a pool of 19 institutions was observed (p
Aloísio, Felipe-Silva; Márcia, Ishigai; Thaís, Mauad.
We report a case of terminal-stage small-cell lung cancer with multiple metastases in which postmortem computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (collectively called "autopsy imaging") were performed and correlated with conventional autopsy findings. In this case, autopsy imaging provided contemporaneous data that supported conventional autopsy findings. Autopsy imaging revealed the process of primary tumor growth, changes in metastatic lesions, and occurrences of new metastases in the terminal stage and made it easier to understand the clinical course of the patient. The usefulness of autopsy imaging after traumatic death, sudden death from natural causes, or congenital anomaly has been reported. Here, we attempted a preliminary study of its use in the detection of death due to tumor. Our results indicated that autopsy imaging provides useful information in cancer-related death and may be an alternative when conventional autopsy cannot be performed. PMID:17541519
Ikeda, Go; Yamamoto, Ryoo; Suzuki, Masatsune; Ishikawa, Hiroichi; Kikuchi, Kazunori; Shiotani, Seiji
This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…
Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees
To evaluate prenatal ultrasonographic findings of limb-body wall complex and to correlate them with autopsy findings. From October 1995 to June 2000, a retrospectively review of prenatal ultrasonography (US) of 11 patients with pathologically proven limb-body wall complex was done. US findings were then compared with autopsy findings. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed thoraco-abdominoschists (n=7.64%), kyphoscoliosis (n=7.64%), cranial defect (n=5.45%), limb defect (n=4.36%), facial defect (n=1.10%), amniotic band (n=5.45%), and umbilical cord anomaly (n=3.27%). Meanwhile, autopsy findings showed thoraco-abdominoschisis (n=8.72%), limb defect (n=7.64%), facial defect (n=7.64%), kyphoscoliosis (n=5.45%), cranial defect (n=5.45%), amniotic band (n=5.45%) and umbilical cord anomaly (n=4.36%). The most common ultrasonography features of limb-body wall complex were thoraco-abdominoschisis and kyphoscoliosis while the thoraco-abdominoschisis and limb defects were the most frequent findings at autopsy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenovirus are the important pathogen of pediatric severe pneumonia. The aim of this study is to analyze the infection, subtype and distribution of adenovirus in autopsied pulmonary tissue of fatal pneumonia in infants and children, and the relationships between adenovirus infection and respiratory illness in South China. Methods Nested PCR was performed on DNA extracted from autopsied lung tissue from patients who died of severe pneumonia, and the positive nested PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The adenovirus in autopsied pulmonary tissue was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry assay in a blind way. Results In the 175 autopsied pulmonary tissues, the positive percentage of adenovirus was 9.14% (16/175 and 2.29% (4/175 detected with nested PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. There are three cases of adenovirus serotype 3, twelve cases of adenovirus serotype 4 and one case of serotype 41 determined by sequencing of the cloned positive nested PCR products. Conclusion Adenovirus is an important cause of severe pneumonia, and these data suggest that adenovirus serotype 4 might be an important pathogen responsible for the fatal pneumonia in Guangzhou, South China.
We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined
We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined.
Landas, S.; Turner, J.W.; Moore, K.C.; Mitros, F.A.
Objective: To investigate the imaging findings with pathologic correlation in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Imaging findings, autopsy and pathological data were retrospectively analyzed in eight patients with AIDS. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their hospitalization. CT scanning was performed from the skull to the pelvis immediately following their death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cadavers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each sections and organs for pathological examinations. Results: The autopsy data showed parasitic infections (5 cases), bacterial infections (3 cases), fungal infections (2 cases), virus infections (2 cases), lymphoma (1 case) and cerebrovascular diseases (1 case)in eight patients with AIDS. The CT scanning demonstrated symmetrical ground glass liked shadows with pulmonary hilus as the center in 5 cases of pulmonary PCP infection; pulmonary patchy shadows, scattering distribution of nodular shadows, extensive military nodular shadows with even distribution and tuberculous pleurisy; cloudy shadows for 2 cases of fungi infection with multiple foci of chronic inflammation; pulmonary net-like parenchymal changes for 2 cases of pulmonary CMV infection; thickened intestinal wall and narrowed intestinal lumen for 1 case of intestinal tumor; low density shadows of brain tissue for 1 case of CMV encephalitis and tissue for 1 case of CMV encephalitis and MRI findings of high T1 and high T2 signals as well as MRA findings of broken vascular channels in liquefied areas of brain tissues; patchy low density areas inside a cyst of brain for one case of brain toxoplasmosis infection; multiple small patchy low density areas in cerebral basal ganglia for one case of brain cryptococcus infection. Conclusions: In AIDS patients, infection and tumor may occur in various organs resulting in complex symptoms, which makes it more complicated and difficult to make accurate diagnosis. A correlative study of imaging findings and pathological manifestation of AIDS patients at autopsy could be helpful for clinical diagnosis. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of a physician shortage in many low-income countries, the use of nonphysicians to classify perinatal mortality (stillbirth and early neonatal death using verbal autopsy could be useful. Objective To determine the extent to which underlying perinatal causes of deaths assigned by nonphysicians in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo using a verbal autopsy method are concordant with underlying perinatal cause of death assigned by physician panels. Methods Using a train-the-trainer model, 13 physicians and 40 nonphysicians were trained to determine cause of death using a standardized verbal autopsy training program. Subsequently, panels of two physicians and individual nonphysicians from this trained cohort independently reviewed verbal autopsy data from a sample of 118 early neonatal deaths and 134 stillbirths. With the cause of death assigned by the physician panel as the reference standard, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and cause-specific mortality fractions were calculated to assess nonphysicians' coding responses. Robustness criteria to assess how well nonphysicians performed were used. Results Causes of early neonatal death and stillbirth assigned by nonphysicians were concordant with physician-assigned causes 47% and 57% of the time, respectively. Tetanus filled robustness criteria for early neonatal death, and cord prolapse filled robustness criteria for stillbirth. Conclusions There are significant differences in underlying cause of death as determined by physicians and nonphysicians even when they receive similar training in cause of death determination. Currently, it does not appear that nonphysicians can be used reliably to assign underlying cause of perinatal death using verbal autopsy.
A multicentre retrospective analysis of 4450 autopsies carried out due to suspicion of medical malpractice in 17 German institutes of forensic medicine from 1990 to 2000 was performed for the German Federal Ministry of Health. During the time period analysed an increase of cases could be mentioned. The main results of the study are: in the cooperating institutes the total number of autopsies due to suspected medical malpractice ranged from 1.4 to 20%. In more than 40% of the cases preliminary proceedings were started because the manner of death was certified as non-natural or not clarified. Hospital doctors were more affected by medical malpractice claims than doctors in private practice. However, the number of confirmed cases of medical malpractice was higher for doctors in private practice than for hospital doctors. Although surgery is still at the top of the disciplines involved in medical malpractice claims the number of confirmed surgical cases was below the average. Mistakes in care were confirmed to be above the average. Medico-legal autopsies are still a very sufficient method to evaluate cases of medical malpractice: 2863 cases could already be clarified by autopsy. Up to now there is no systematic registration of medical malpractice charges in Germany. A systematic registration should be initiated to build up and/or improve error reporting systems and, thus, to improve patient safety. Compared to other sources of medical malpractice claims (arbitration committees of the medical chambers, reference material of health and insurance companies, files of civil courts) the data of the present multicentre study are in so far unique as only lethal cases were evaluated and a complete autopsy report was available as basis of an expert opinion in alleged medical malpractice cases. PMID:19524380
Madea, Burkhard; Preuss, Johanna
Objective To assess performance of the WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of still birth in comparison with reference standard cause of death ascertained by standardized clinical and supportive data. Methods All stillbirths at a tertiary hospital in Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recruited into study from August 2006- February 2008. The reference standard cause of death was established by two senior obstetricians within 48 hours using the ICD coding system. Verbal autopsy interviews using modified WHO tool were conducted by trained health workers within 2- 6 weeks of still birth and the cause of death was assigned by second panel of obstetricians. The performance was assessed in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Kappa. Results There were 204 still births. Of these, 80.8% of antepartum and 50.5% of intrapartum deaths were correctly diagnosed by verbal autopsy. Sensitivity of verbal autopsy was highest 68.4%, (95%CI: 46-84.6) for congenital malformation followed by obstetric complication 57.6%, (95%CI: 25-84.2). The specificity for all major causes was greater than 90%. The level of agreement was high (kappa=0.72) for anomalies and moderate (k=0.4) for all major causes of still birth, except asphyxia. Conclusion Our results suggest that verbal autopsy has reasonable validity in identifying and discriminating between causes of stillbirth in Pakistan. On the basis of these findings, we feel it has a place in resource constrained areas to inform strategic planning and mobilization of resources to attain Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24130814
Nausheen, Sidrah; Soofi, Sajid B.; Sadiq, Kamran; Habib, Atif; Turab, Ali; Memon, Zahid; Khan, M. Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Bhatti, Zaid; Ahmed, Imran; Bahl, Rajiv; Bhutta, Shireen; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
Forensic medicine can provide access to autopsies for students in undergraduate medical education. Previous qualitative studies reported that attending autopsies promotes learning and is helpful in organising information in the context of self-directed learning, covering cognitive, emotional and societal issues. In the present study, learning outcome regarding specific pathophysiological learning objectives of students who attended an autopsy elective (intervention group, n?=?32) was estimated in comparison to peer students who signed up for the course but were not selected (control group A, n?=?47) and students who had not signed up (control group B, n?=?186). Learning outcome (expressed as a percent knowledge gain) was measured by means of comparative self-assessments (CSA). Furthermore, group interviews were conducted to evaluate the attending students' perceptions and experiences of the course. In the intervention group, the percent knowledge gain for learning objectives reflecting pathophysiological mechanisms was about twice as high than that in the control groups, while all three groups showed comparable knowledge gain for learning objectives covered by mandatory courses that were held during the study period. Results of mandatory post-course assessments showed no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups. Therefore, the knowledge gain regarding learning objectives not covered by mandatory courses that was observed in the intervention group reflected the additional benefit of attending the autopsy course. Group interviews with the participants revealed gain of integrated knowledge and understanding of pathophysiological relations as important issues, while negative effects were reported infrequently. Our findings suggest that attendance of a series of autopsies fosters learning and understanding of important issues in medical education and should therefore be part of undergraduate medical curricula wherever possible. PMID:24487723
Anders, Sven; Mueller, Martina; Sperhake, Jan-Peter; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna; Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias
Full Text Available The authors describe the many medico-legal pitfalls related to sudden death occurring at the workstation. One of these difficulties is the almost constant absence of a precise etiological cause of death, thereby eliminating any possibility, for the insurer or the employer, to irrefutably deny that the cause of death was totally unrelated to conditions of work. The only procedure capable of reducing the incertitude that the event was totally unrelated to work is early autopsy. After describing the different procedures possible, the authors report an experience tested in the region of Lyon, France in which the concerned parties – the courts, the institute of legal medicine and the insurer – rapidly and directly cooperated following each new case. A court-ordered autopsy was instituted every time sudden death occurred at the workplace and a copy of the report was addressed to the insurer at his demand.
We herein report an autopsy case of relapsing polychondritis encephalitis coexisting with a Lewy body pathology and also review previous autopsy cases. A 59-year-old man exhibited a tremor of the right hand, small-steppage gait and bradykinesia. Five years later, he presented with relapsing auricular chondritis and scleritis and subsequently showed exacerbation of extrapyramidal symptoms. A histological examination revealed perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and infiltration in the small vessels, as well as loss of nerve cells and gliosis in the basal ganglia, insular gyrus and medial temporal lobe. The present case was characterized by perivasculitic panencephalitis and the coexistence of a Lewy body pathology, which may have augmented the patient's parkinsonism. PMID:24881747
Niwa, Atsushi; Okamoto, Yoko; Kondo, Takayuki; Nabatame, Hidehiko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Tomimoto, Hidekazu
In this pilot study, the authors tested whether photogrammetry can replace or supplement physical measurements made during autopsies and, based on such measurements, whether virtual computer models may be applicable in forensic reconstructions. Photogrammetric and physical measurements of markers denoting wounds on five volunteers were compared. Virtual models of the volunteers were made, and the precision of the markers' locations on the models was tested. Twelve of 13 mean differences between photogrammetric and physical measurements were below 1 cm, which indicates that the photogrammetric method has a high accuracy. The precision of the markers' location on the models was somewhat less, although the method is still promising and potentially superior to the current procedures used for reconstructions. The possibility to measure any distance on a body, even after the autopsy is concluded and the corpse is no longer available, is one of the biggest benefits of photogrammetry.
Slot, Liselott; Larsen, Peter K
In this pilot study, the authors tested whether photogrammetry can replace or supplement physical measurements made during autopsies and, based on such measurements, whether virtual computer models may be applicable in forensic reconstructions. Photogrammetric and physical measurements of markers denoting wounds on five volunteers were compared. Virtual models of the volunteers were made, and the precision of the markers' locations on the models was tested. Twelve of 13 mean differences between photogrammetric and physical measurements were below 1 cm, which indicates that the photogrammetric method has a high accuracy. The precision of the markers' location on the models was somewhat less, although the method is still promising and potentially superior to the current procedures used for reconstructions. The possibility to measure any distance on a body, even after the autopsy is concluded and the corpse is no longer available, is one of the biggest benefits of photogrammetry. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Slot, Liselott Kristina; Larsen, Peter Kastmand
In this paper, a thorough investigation has been done to evaluate the effects of different pollutants on membrane performance by autopsy. Autopsy was performed on fresh and fouled reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements from a distillery spent wash treatment plant by different analyses, such as field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, to identify the cause of poor performance of an RO plant. Results obtained from the analysis of membranes indicate that a mixture of colloids and organic matters (polysaccharides and amines) along with the presence of multivalent ions (Ca, Mg, Fe and SO4) causes membrane fouling, which in turn affects membrane performance. Possible measures to improve treated effluent quality and mitigate fouling have been suggested for this particular case study. PMID:25244132
Sharma, Pinki; Joshi, Himanshu
Full Text Available A primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF, defined as a communication between the native aorta and the gastrointestinal tract, is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. The preoperative diagnosis of PAEF is extremely difficult. Consequently, PAEF may cause sudden and unexpected death. We present an autopsy case of a 68-year-old man who died of massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to a PAEF. Autopsy revealed a pinhole rupture located on the third part of the duodenal mucosa and fistulized into the adjacent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Our case indicates that the aortoenteric fistula can result in fatal gastrointestinal bleeding. Consequently, a PAEF should be included in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding.
Yoko Ihama, Tetsuji Miyazaki, Chiaki Fuke, Yasushi Ihama, Ryoji Matayoshi, Hiroshi Kohatsu, Fukunori Kinjo
Determining the cause of death and differentiating self-inflicted injuries from non-self-inflicted injuries is a primary goal in legal medicine. Especially with unidentified decedents, autopsy findings alone are often not sufficient; there is no knowledge of pre-existing conditions and only circumstantial evidence is available from the scene of death. In our case, radiological, histological, and toxicological examinations provided an explanatory model for extraordinary autopsy findings consistent with pica, a rare eating disorder. In cases of pica, variable and potentially lethal complications emerge, depending on the type and amount of material ingested. Our case is of an apparently uncontrolled intake of wooden objects (xylophagia). The resulting mechanical damage to the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent soft tissue damage supports that this behavioral disorder is not only of medical concern, but also identifies it as a mental disease with medico-legal relevance. PMID:24729065
Klein, Anke; Schröder, Carolin; Heinemann, Axel; Püschel, Klaus
Full Text Available Myocardial abscess is a severe and life-threatening infectious complication thatis commonly but not exclusively associated with infective endocarditis. It mayalso be developed in necrotic myocardial tissue, post trauma, in septic burnpatients, in transplanted heart, in ventricular aneurysm and post angioplasty.Patients on hemodialysis are prone to bacteremia, and infectious complicationsoccur in 48-73% of cases. Myocardial abscess is a rare complication of aninfected arteriovenous fistula. We present an autopsy report of a hemodialysispatient who had an arteriovenous fistula with a polytetrafluoroethylene graftwhere a local infection developed. The patient presented with fever and toxemia.On post-admission day 2, he unexpectedly suffered sudden cardiopulmonaryarrest and died. The autopsy revealed a myocardial abscess, near a branch ofthe left coronary artery, with septic embolism.
Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira
The objective of this review was to summarize and interpret data about adverse life events proximal to adult suicide from major psychological autopsy studies. A PubMed search was conducted. Nearly all suicides have experienced at least 1 (usually more) adverse life event within 1 year of death (concentrated in last few months). Controlled studies have revealed specific life events, notably interpersonal conflict, as risk factors for suicide with some evidence of a dose-response effect. Some of the risk is independent of mental disorder. The suicidogenic impact of adverse life events, especially interpersonal conflict, necessitates specific objectives in suicide prevention strategies. Cultural influences on relative contributions of adversity and mental disorder to suicide warrant further research. Limitations of psychological autopsy studies suggest the need for complementary research into life events prior to serious suicide attempts. PMID:21293996
Factors and stressful life situations associated with suicidal hanging in a sample from India were studied with a view to explore preventability. Information was collected on consecutive suicidal hanging victims in a 2-year period from various sources including family members through psychological autopsy method. Out of 662 autopsies involving suicide during the study period, 104 had used hanging as the method. Age group of 21-30 years, married females, unmarried males, dowry related stress, unemployment, prolonged illness, failure in examinations, relationship and financial problems were associated more frequently with suicidal hanging. Stresses stemming from social practices and perceptions are linked with considerable number of suicidal hanging, which suggest priority areas for intervention. PMID:19123113
Bastia, Binaya K; Kar, Nilamadhab
Full Text Available Background: Renal papillary adenoma is usually an incidental finding at autopsy with an incidence of 7% to 23%. The frequency of small papillary tumours of kidney increases with age to approximately 40% of the population over the age of 65. These tumours occur morefrequently in scarred kidneys, acquired renal cystic disease and in children with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Case history: In this report we describe renal papillary adenoma incidentally detected during autopsies of two elderly males. Gross examination of kidneyshowed two tiny subcapsular yellowish nodules in one case and single nodule with similar morphology in the other. Microscopic examination in both the cases showed a well circumscribed tumour composed of densely packed tubules and papillae lined by small cuboidal to columnar cells with rounded uniform nuclei. However there was no nuclear atypia, mitosis or necrosis.
Bhakti D. Deshmukh
Full Text Available Melanoma metastasizing to the lungs is common, but primary pulmonary or pleural melanoma is extremely rare. We present an autopsy case of malignant melanoma of the pleura without primary skin lesion in a 49-year-old man. A mass found in the right chest was diagnosed as spindle cell sarcoma by antemortem fine-needle aspiration cytology. At autopsy, a yellow-white tumor located primarily in the right visceral pleura (diagnosed as an amelanotic melanoma was found to have invaded into the right lung, right parietal pleura, and right diaphragm, and to have metastasized into the left lung and visceral pleura, thyroid, and left adrenal gland. No primary site was found. The tumor cells were positive for S100 and focally positive for HMB-45, but negative for other markers. Immuno-histochemical examination for S100 and HMB-45 would thus appear to be useful for the diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma.
Autopsy detected no tumor tissues in a patient who died 6.5 years after the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. A 54-year-old male developed left hemiparesis one month prior to admission. Computed tomography demonstrated a cystic lesion in the right frontal region with irregular ring-like enhancement. The tumor was extensively removed together with the surrounding tissues followed by irradiation (whole brain 32.4 Gy, local 28.8 Gy), and intravenous administration of interferon-?. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiform. He died of accidental head trauma 6.5 years after surgery. Autopsy of the brain detected no evidence of glioblastoma multiform. The only findings were cerebral edema and hematoma caused by head trauma, as well as histological changes due to radiation damage. This case apparently confirms the histological disappearance of tumor tissue in a long-term survivor with glioblastoma multiform. (author)
A 70-year-old woman was treated with a simple mastectomy followed by a course of 5000 rad to the breast and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil for breast cancer. About 15 months later, the patient died of widespread metastases. An autopsy revealed no recurrent cancer in the breast. The metastases were seen in bones (sternum, ribs and spine), pleura, spleen, uterus, ovaries, small intestine, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes (hilar, periaortic and mesenteric). Histologically, the resected tumor was a solid-tubular carcinoma with an infiltrative growth pattern. At autopsy, the tumor cells in the metastatic foci contained an abundance of lipids in the cytoplasm, while the tumor cells in the primary tumor contained small amounts of lipids. PMID:2586075
Akagi, Y; Jimi, A; Ohmori, Y; Kojiro, M; Watanabe, J
We examined the relationships of antemortem vascular risk factors to postmortem cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies. Eighty-four AD patients underwent an assessment of vascular risk (blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, transient ischemic attack [TIA], or stroke) and later underwent brain autopsy. Given our aim to examine mild cerebrovascular changes (CVCs), individuals were excluded if autopsy revealed large stroke. The most common forms of CVC were circle of Willis atherosclerosis followed by arteriosclerosis, lacunes, and microinfarcts. Excluding the history of TIA/clinical stroke, individual vascular risk factors were not associated with CVC. However, the presence of multiple vascular risk factors was associated with CVC. Furthermore, the presence of CVC was associated with lower Braak and Braak stage. These findings highlight the importance of aggregate risk in the vascular contribution to dementia. Interventions designed to maintain cerebrovascular health may represent important opportunities for preventing or delaying dementia, even when AD is the dominant pathology. PMID:25022538
Bangen, Katherine J; Nation, Daniel A; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Weissberger, Gali H; Hansen, Lawrence A; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W
We report an autopsy case of a 60-year-old man with Weil's disease who died of fulminant hepatic failure. Ante-mortem blood culture yielded the growth of Leptospira interrogans (serovar icterohaemorrhagiae). At autopsy, the liver weighed 1210 g and showed a typical appearance of "acute yellow liver atrophy". Zone 3 (centrilobular region) showed submassive necrosis of hepatocytes accompanied by marked hemorrhage. Hepatocytes in zones 1 and 2 were well preserved, and the leptospira antigen was immunohistochemically demonstrated in several hepatocytes. Dissociation of liver cell plates was not observed. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that CD31-positive, sinusoidal endothelial cells had almost completely disappeared in zone 3. This finding suggested that severe and selective damage to endothelial cells in zone 3 was the main cause of the submassive hepatocellular necrosis, which led to fulminant hepatic failure in the present case. PMID:24997567
Shintaku, Masayuki; Itoh, Hirotaka; Tsutsumi, Yutaka
The patient was a 61 year old woman who was exposed to a-bomb (38 rad) at the age of 29. She had tongue cancer and received radiotherapy for it, and her thyroid cancer was found by autopsy. Besides Bleomycin, Maruyama vaccine, and so on, 6,000 R of radiation was given over lymph nodes of the neck, but she died 1 year and 8 months after the treatment without any effect. Besides squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, multi-centric papillary adenocarcinoma in the left lobe and papillary adenocarcinoma scattering in the right lobe of the thyroid gland were found by autopsy. The metastases of cancer to lymph nodes of the neck were also detected. Thyroid cancer in this case seemed to be highly related with a-bomb exposure and radiotherapy for tongue cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to decide irradiation field carefully when radiotherapy is performed. (Tsunoda, M.)
Coronary artery anomalous course is rare, reported incidence is approximately 0.3–1.3% of patients undergoing coronary angiography and approximately 1% of routine autopsy examinations. A single coronary artery is an unusual congenital anomaly where only one coronary artery arises from the aortic trunk from a single coronary ostium, supplying the entire heart. We describe here a rare case with an unusual dominant left circumflex artery and absent right coronary artery.
Kalyani, R.; Thej, M. J.; Prabhakar, K.; Kiran, J.
A sensitive method for the determination of plutonium in autopsy samples is described. After a suitable chemical pretreatment of the samples the plutonium is separated by extraction chromatography with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on microporus polyethylene. After electrodeposition of plutonium the activity is counted by alpha spectroscopy. The global yield was 75-80%. The reagent blank activity was such to allow the determination of some femtocuries of plutonium
BACKGROUND: Aorto-arterial thrombosis is very often associated with atherosclerotic and/or aneurysmal changes. Thrombosis, unrelated to these changes is infrequent. AIMS: To evaluate the clinical presentation and aetiopathogenesis of aorto-arterial thrombosis, unrelated to atherosclerosis and aneurysms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 30 autopsied cases of non-atherosclerotic and non-aneurysmal aorto-arterial thrombosis collected over a period of 14 years was carried out. RESUL...
Vaideeswar P; Deshpande J
It has become increasingly cost-effective to produce primary medical records as electronic documents. However, access to these documents by disease-concept is limited by the user's knowledge of the classification system (ICD, SNOMED, MeSH). We have developed a system of algorithmic translation between medical natural language and MeSH titles, by respelling common word roots. Using the list of 17,494 words harvested from all autopsies performed at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between May 28, 188...
Moore, G. William; Hutchins, Grover M.; Boitnott, John K.; Miller, Robert E.; Polacsek, Richard A.
Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings in an unusual case of massive osteolysis are described. Peculiar clinical episodes of a foul body odor with fever and erythematous skin lesions, presence of radiographic findings such as acro-osteolysis and periarticular erosions, and the absence of angiomatous or lymphangiomatous dysplasias at autopsy, indicate that this is a new form of massive osteolysis rather than a variant of Gorham disease. (orig.)
Optimal conditions were defined for DNA isolation from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archived autopsy lung tissue slices. The quality of DNA preparations isolated from the FFPE archived slices was assessed and their suitability for further molecular genetic analysis estimated. DNA isolated from the FFPE slices stored less and more than 10 years was suitable for molecular genetic studies in 100 and 66.7% of cases, respectively. PMID:25051727
Viazovskaia, N S; Rusinova, G G; Azizova, T V; Revina, V S; Glazkova, I V; Generozov, E V; Zakharzhevskaia, N B; Matushkina, D S
The prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis associated with a complex intra-cardiac defect (common atrium, common atrioventricular valve with single ventricle) is illustrated in a 32-week gestation fetus. The fetus showed associated features of amniotic band disruption sequence. The cardiac autopsy findings correlated with the antenatal diagnosis. The association of ectopia cordis with amniotic band disruption is rare and infrequently reported in literature.
Balakumar K; Misha K
Full Text Available The prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis associated with a complex intra-cardiac defect (common atrium, common atrioventricular valve with single ventricle is illustrated in a 32-week gestation fetus. The fetus showed associated features of amniotic band disruption sequence. The cardiac autopsy findings correlated with the antenatal diagnosis. The association of ectopia cordis with amniotic band disruption is rare and infrequently reported in literature.
The Internet provides the opportunity of permitting public access to large databases containing patient information that can be shared and utilized by epidemiologists, health planners, and medical researchers. Until now, large databases containing patient information have been held in strict confidence, with database access available only to approved researchers or to researchers with access limited to only specific portions of the database. The Internet Autopsy Database (IAD) consists of dem...
Berman, J. J.; Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.
While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh De...
Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S. E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; Al Sabir, A.
By reverse transcription-PCR, measles virus (MV) mRNA was detected in the brain, kidney, spleen, liver, and lung tissues obtained from 23 (45.1%) of 51 autopsy subjects, with the detection rates of each tissue ranging from 8 to 20%. Sequence analysis revealed frequent mutations in the corresponding viral protein. These results suggest that MV mutants commonly persist in apparently healthy individuals.
Katayama, Yuko; Kohso, Kiyoyasu; Nishimura, Akiyoshi; Tatsuno, Yoshitsugu; Homma, Morio; Hotta, Hak
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia entre diagnósticos clínicos y patológicos con base en los resultados de necropsias. Material y métodos. Se revisaron 67 protocolos de necropsia y expedientes clínicos de niños y adultos del servicio de patología del Centro de Especialidades Médicas del Estado de Veracruz Doctor Rafael Lucio, durante 1995 y 1996. Se obtuvieron las frecuencias simples de las variables de estudio, y la concordancia se calculó con el estadístico kappa simple. Resultados. En general la cifra de necropsias fue de 10.5%. Correspondió a la población infantil la mayor frecuencia (17.5%. El 59% de diagnósticos clínicos en niños y el 57% en adultos presentaron algún tipo de error La concordancia del diagnóstico principal ante y postmortem fue de 26% (infantes y 41% (adultos. Conclusiones. La alta cifra de errores diagnósticos y la consecuente baja concordancia clínicopatológica apoyan el hecho de que, a pesar del avance tecnológico en los procedimientos diagnósticos, es necesario realizar necropsias con el fin de documentar de manera más definitiva el control de calidad del ejercicio de la medicina.Objective. To determine the degree of concordance between clinical and autopsy diagnosis. Material and methods. The records of 67 autopsies and clinical files of children and adults, comprising the years 1995 to 1996, from a third level hospital in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, were revised. The concordance score was calculated with the statistical kappa. Results. In general, the rate of autopsy was 10.5%, with higher frequency for children (17.5%. In children, 59% of clinical diagnoses revealed mistakes and in adults, 57%. The degree of agreement in the underlying cause ante and postmortem was 6% in children and 41% in adults. Conclusions The high rate of diagnostic error and low concordance score between clinical and autopsy diagnosis strongly suggests that, in spite of increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques, the necessity of postmortem studies to control the level of medical practice is evident.
Abstract Background An autopsy study of aortic dissection (AD) at our institution was previously reported. In the approximately 20 years since then, however, many aspects of diagnosis and treatment of this disease have changed, with a fall in mortality reported in many centers around the world. An impression amongst our pathologists that, there might be an increase in the prevalence of AD in the autopsy service at our hospital, since that earlier report, led to this repeated ...
Cm, Coard Kathleen
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the follo...
Alexandre de Matos Soeiro; Ruppert, Aline D.; Mauro Canzian; Parra, Edwin R.; Cecília Farhat; Capelozzi, Vera L.
To test the hypothesis that Alzheimer disease (AD) is a clinical and pathologic continuum between normal aging and end-stage dementia, we selected a convenience sample of subjects from the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center 2005 to 2012 autopsy cohort (n = 2,083) with the last clinical evaluation within 2 years before autopsy and no other primary neuropathologic diagnosis. Demographic and neuropathologic characteristics were correlated with the Clinical Dementia Rating–Sum of Boxes in t...
Serrano-pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Monsell, Sarah E.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Hyman, Bradley T.
Introduction. Death from coronary artery disease (CAD) has been until recently considered rare in Nigeria. We present a report of a study of CAD with its predisposing cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in South South Nigeria. Methods. We examined the autopsy reports of 747 coroner cases and 41 consecutive clinically diagnosed cases of ischemic heart disease seen in South South Nigeria. Results. CAD was diagnosed in 13 (1.6%) of 747 autopsies. They were predominantly males, urban residents, and...
Okon Ekwere Essien; Joseph Andy; Victor Ansa; Akaninyene Asuquo Otu; Alphonsus Udoh
Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the incidence of benign and malignant lesions of the bladder in forensic autopsy cases for the first time in Turkey.Materials and methods: The bladders of 125 (106 men, 19 women forensic cases who died of trauma or gunshot were obtained at autopsy. For each bladder, 3 samples were taken from the anterior wall, trigon, and posterior wall. The tissues were embedded in Paraffin, cut into 5 µm sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically for the existence of benign and malignant epithelial lesions.Results: The mean and median ages were 57 years and 58 years (range 25-86 years, respectively. None of the cases had any malignant changes, either macro- or microscopicaly. None of the bladders had epithelial dysplasia. Benign bladder lesions were detected in 36.8% of the women and 10.3% of the men. These included mucosal metaplastic changes in 6 (5.5% men and 4 (21% women, and cystitis in 5 (4.1% men and 3 (15.7% women. Of the cystitis cases, 4 were chronic, 2 were follicular, 1 was polypoid, and 1 was hemorrhagic cystitis. Conclusion: As reported in other series, no bladder cancers were detected in this study. Moreover, none of the benign epithelial lesions detected in our autopsy series showed premalignant changes.
Even though there have been previously published reports on firearm injuries in various countries, the incidence and pattern of death from firearm injuries in Thailand have not been studied before. In present study, 149 fatal firearm injuries from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. At total of 7126 autopsies, fatal firearm injuries comprised of 2.09% (n = 149) of total autopsies cases. Among those victims, 136 were male (91.3%), 13 (8.7%) were female. The youngest age of victim was 10 years and the oldest was 79 years. Mean age of the victims was 33.79 years and median age was 30 years. Outdoor incident was the most common scene of crime. Night time incident (18:00 PM-05:59 AM) was higher than day time one. Most of the cases occurred in week ends (n = 52). Homicide (77.2%) was the most frequent manner of death. Head/face and chest were the most common sites of entrance. The autopsy report also study on entrance wound, range and types of projectiles. Blood alcohol concentration was examined in 122 cases and 38 victims showed positive results, 11 cases revealed using of illegal substances in blood and urine analysis. This study also included the association between manner of death and other factors. Age group, time of incidence, place of incidence, number of entrance wound and range showed statistically significant association with manner of death. PMID:25440139
Myint, Sithu; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Peonim, Vichan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn
An autopsy case of myelofibrosis is reported and is literarily discussed. The patient was a 30-year-old man and was exposed to sublethal dose of radiation at 1.1 km from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion in Nagasaki Prefecture, when he was 10 months old. Serious bone marrow disturbances were suspected. About 25 years after the exposure, clinical symptoms like aplastic anemia were shown and this disease developed. Hepatosplenomegaly was not clinically found until the late period. The liver weighed 3180 g and the spleen weighed 1540 g at autopsy. Blood examination revealed low value of neutrophilic alkaline phosphatase only at the late period, and no abnormal chromosome was seen in the peripheral blood. Reticulum-like cells were not histologically found at biopsy, but were found at autopsy. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, always accompanied with bleeding, was observed not only in the spleen, the liver and the lymphnodes, but also in the dura mater, the stomach, the renal pelves and so on. It was the direct cause of death. (Kanao, N.)
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue identificar las discrepancias clínico-patológicas en las autopsias realizadas en la institución. Se revisaron 53 autopsias de casos clínicos en adultos en el período comprendido entre enero de 2005 y junio de 2009, realizadas en el servicio de Anatomía [...] Patológica del Hospital Privado de Córdoba, Argentina. Se excluyeron seis debido a información insuficiente. Se aplicó la clasificación de Goldman y col. para establecer las discrepancias clínico-patológicas entre los diagnósticos pre y post-mortem. Los diagnósticos clínicos más frecuentes fueron las infecciones respiratorias y el tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Los hallazgos de autopsia más frecuentes fueron las infecciones respiratorias y el infarto agudo de miocardio. Se detectaron 17 discrepancias mayores y 30 concordancias, no se detectaron discrepancias menores. Las infecciones respiratorias fueron la principal causa de error, seguidas por el infarto agudo de miocardio. Concluimos que en 17/47 (37%) de los casos se realizó un diagnóstico clínico diferente al post-mortem, y que las infecciones respiratorias constituyen el principal tipo de error. Se sugiere adoptar estrategias informativas y educativas, revalorizar la autopsia y las prácticas clínicas tradicionales. Abstract in english The main objective of this study was to identify the clinical-pathological discrepancies in autopsies performed in the institution. We reviewed autopsies of clinical cases in 53 adults in the period between January 2005 and June 2009, carried out in the Pathology Service at the Hospital Privado de C [...] órdoba, Argentina. Six autopsies were excluded due to insufficient information. The Goldman et al. classification was applied to establish clinico-pathologic discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings. Frequently clinical diagnoses were respiratory infections and acute pulmonary embolism. The most frequently reported postmortem diagnoses were respiratory infections and acute myocardial infarction. There were 17 major discrepancies and 30 coincidences. No any minor discrepancy was detected. Respiratory infections were the main cause of error, followed by myocardial infarction. We conclude that in 17/47 (37%) of cases the pre-mortem and postmortem diagnoses were different, and that respiratory infections were the main cause of error. We suggest to adopt educational and informative strategies, to revalue the importance of autopsy, and traditional clinical practices.
María Virginia, Bürgesser; Diego, Camps; Patricia, Calafat; Ana, Diller.
The 19,094 autopsy examinations carried out between 1976-1990 revealed 698 (3.65%) case of cirrhosis, of which 64.6% were men. During the last 5 years the percentage of coexistance of hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma) with cirrhosis was higher 5-year periods (5.8%; 5.4%). Moreover, the same changing interrelation was observed for other malignancies and cirrhosis-higher (15%) in the last period than in the proceeding years (11.1%; 11.3%). The severity of atherosclerotic changes and coexistance of peptic ulcers, gall bladder disease and productive pulmonary tuberculosis in cirrhotic patients were also assessed. Finally the direct causes of these patients' death were discussed. PMID:9139785
Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Barwijuk, M; Baltaziak, M; Dziecio?, J; Sulkowski, S; Debek, W; Ostapiuk, H
Context: In the South African mining sector, cardiorespiratory-specific autopsies are conducted under the Occupational Diseases in Mines and Works Act (ODMWA) on deceased mineworkers to determine eligibility for compensation. However, low levels of autopsy utilisation undermine the value of the service. Objective: To explore enablers and barriers to consent that impact on ODMWA autopsy utilisation for posthumous monetary compensation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with mineworke...
Banyini, Audrey V.; David Rees; Leah Gilbert
Using the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation series of over 5000 autopsies, we examined death-certificate accuracy for several disease categories and assessed the effect of potential modifying factors on this accuracy. For 12 cause-of-death categories, the overall percent agreement between death-certificate and autopsy diagnoses was only 52.5%. Although neoplasms had the highest detection rate (on the death certificate) in the study, still almost 25% of cancers diagnosed at autopsy were missed on the death certificate. Only for neoplasms and external causes of death were confirmation and detection rates above 70%. Confirmation rates were between 50% and 70% for infectious and parasitic diseases and heart and other vascular diseases. Detection rates reached a similar level for infectious and parasitic, cerebrovascular, and digestive diseases. Specificity rates were above 90% for all but the cerebrovascular disease category. Overall agreement decreased with increasing age of the decedents and was lower for deaths occurring outside of hospital vs those occurring in a hospital. There was some suggestion that agreement rates were higher for more-recent deaths but no indication that radiation dose, sex, city of residence, or inclusion in a biennial clinical-examination program influenced agreement. Because the inaccuracy of death-certificate diagnoses can have major implications for many aspects of health research and planning, it is important to be aware that death-certificate accuracy is low and can vary widely depending on the patient's age at death and the place of death. (J.P.N.)
The cost of cardiac implantable electrophysiologic devices (CIEDs) remains prohibitively high for many patients in low- and middle-income countries. Recent efforts have focused on obtaining CIEDs for donation and reuse in low- and middle-income countries from funeral homes and after device upgrades. Most patients in the United States die in health care facilities, yet few data exist on the acceptability for reuse of devices from hospital morgues. Three hundred thirty-four autopsies were performed at the University of Pennsylvania morgue from February 2009 to July 2011, during which CIEDs were routinely removed and collected. Devices were interrogated to ascertain remaining longevity. When a longevity estimate was not provided by the device, the manufacturer was contacted to obtain an estimate. Date of death was obtained from the electronic medical record. Twenty-seven patients (8% of autopsies performed) had CIEDs, of which 17 (63%) were pacemakers and 10 (37%) were implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Two of the defibrillators were part of cardiac resynchronization therapy systems. CIEDs were interrogated 1.7 ± 0.7 years after death. The mean time between implantation and death was 2.5 ± 2.3 years, but 13 (48%) devices were implanted within 1 year of death. Nine devices (33%) had devices (37%) had an estimated longevity of 1 to 4 years, and 8 devices (30%) had longevity estimates of ?4 years. In conclusion, a significant percentage of patients who underwent autopsy had CIEDs implanted devices in reuse programs, provided patients or their next of kin authorize donation. PMID:22939580
Zamani, Payman; Kirkpatrick, James N; Litzky, Leslie A; Verdino, Ralph J
Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare disease that causes fetal loss and neonatal death in the 1st weeks of life and is one of the most common causes of liver failure in the neonate. The diagnosis is mostly made retrospectively, based on histopathologic features of severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic and extrahepatic siderosis. Several etiologies may underlie this phenotype, including a recently hypothesized gestational alloimmune disease. Fifty-one cases of liver failure with intrahepatic siderosis in fetuses and neonates were analyzed retrospectively. Maternal and infant data were collected from hospitalization and autopsy reports. All available slides were reviewed independently by 3 pathologists. Immunologic studies were performed on maternal sera collected immediately after delivery. The diagnosis of neonatal haemochromatosis was retained in 33 cases, including 1 case with Down syndrome and 1 case with myofibromas. Liver siderosis was inversely proportional to fibrosis progression. In fetuses, iron storage was more frequent in the thyroid than in the pancreas. Perls staining in labial salivary glands was positive in 1 of 5 cases. Abnormal low signal intensity by magnetic resonance imaging was detected in the pancreas in 2 of 7 cases. Renal tubular dysgenesis was observed in 7 of 23 autopsy cases. Chronic villitis was seen in 7 of 15 placentas. Half of the mothers presented with an autoimmune background and/or autoantibodies in their sera. Our work highlights the importance of autopsy in cases of neonatal hemochromatosis and marshals additional data in support of the hypothesis that neonatal hemochromatosis could reflect maternal immune system dysregulation. PMID:22901025
Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Heissat, Sophie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Fabre, Monique; Baruteau, Julien; Broue, Pierre; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Debray, Dominique; Debiec, Hanna; Ronco, Pierre; Guigonis, Vincent
Full Text Available Background: Although cardiovascular disease (CVD is recognized as a leading cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in western countries, there is hardly any data regarding Indian subjects with SLE. Aims: To determine the incidence of cardiac abnormalities and vascular lesions at autopsy and to assess their contribution to the mortality in patients with SLE Settings and Design: Retrospective retrieval of reports of autopsies performed on 35 patients with SLE over a 11 year period and analysis of 27 cases with cardiac and/or vascular lesions. Materials and Methods: Gross and microscopic features in 27 autopsies were analyzed with special attention to the heart and the vasculature of all organs. Findings were correlated with clinical features and ante-mortem investigations. Their contribution towards mortality was assessed. Results: Valvar lesions were the commonest cardiac lesions noted with non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in nine (33.33%, valvar thickening in two (7.41%, Libman-Sacks endocarditis and infective endocarditis in one (3.70% each. Myocarditis and myocardial scarring were seen in 10 (37.03% and seven (25.92% cases, respectively. Fibrinous pericarditis was noted in seven (25.92%. Thromboses/ embolism, vasculitis and severe coronary atherosclerosis were seen in nine (33.33%, five (18.52% and one (3.70% subjects, respectively. Renal disease [13, 48.14%] and cardiovascular manifestations [8, 29.62%] were the leading causes of death in our patient population. Conclusion: CVD contributes significantly to the mortality in patients with SLE in India. It is second only to renal disease in this regard
The clinical significance of the glomerular tip lesion, characterized by podocyte prominence, capsular adhesion, and/or intracapillary foam cells at or adjacent to the urinary pole, remains unclear. It has been postulated that this lesion simply represents a response to heavy proteinuria, and cases of nephrotic syndrome with tip lesions, but no other histological abnormalities, may represent a form of minimal change nephropathy (MCN). However, others have reported that such lesions have a clinical course similar to that of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and the tip lesion often is included among histological variants of FSGS. To determine whether tip lesions may be seen in MCN, we examined histological slides of kidneys from pre-1950 autopsies of patients with a diagnosis of lipoid nephrosis, a term that at that time comprised MCN and FSGS. Before the introduction of antibiotics and corticosteroid therapy, patients with nephrotic syndrome frequently died of sepsis. Eight such cases, with autopsies performed from 1924 to 1943, were identified in which no glomeruli had changes typical of classic FSGS or membranous nephropathy. More than 400 glomeruli were present in each case. Patient ages ranged from 3 to 45 years (six patients <11 years), all had marked edema (duration, 2 weeks to 21 months) and heavy proteinuria, and each died of sepsis and/or pneumonia (pneumococcal in six patients). Glomerular tip lesions were found in five of these eight cases (range, 3 to 26 lesions per case; 0.3% to 4.4% of total glomeruli present), with no predilection for the deep, middle, or superficial cortex. No tip lesions were seen in kidneys from autopsies of age-matched patients without a history of glomerular disease. These findings suggest that the glomerular tip lesion can occur in MCN and most likely represents a response to heavy proteinuria that is not disease specific. PMID:12046027
Haas, Mark; Yousefzadeh, Naghmeh
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on adolescent mortality particularly from developing countries with unreliable death registration systems. This calls for the use of other sources of data to ascertain cause of adolescent mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the causes of death among Ghanaian adolescents 10 to 19 years in Accra, Ghana utilizing data from autopsies conducted in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH. Findings Out of the 14,034 autopsies carried out from 2001 to 2003 in KBTH, 7% were among adolescents. Of the 882 deaths among adolescents analyzed, 402 (45.6% were females. There were 365 (41.4% deaths from communicable disease, pregnancy related conditions and nutritional disorders. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 362 (41% cases and the rest were attributable to injuries and external causes of morbidity and mortality. Intestinal infectious diseases and lower respiratory tract infections were the most common communicable causes of death collectively accounting for 20.5% of total deaths. Death from blood diseases was the largest (8.5% among the non-communicable conditions followed by neoplasms (7%. Males were more susceptible to injuries than females (?2 = 13.45, p = .000. At least five out of ten specific causes of death were as a result of infections with pneumonia and typhoid being the most common. Sickle cell disease was among the top three specific causes of death. Among the females, 27 deaths (6.7% were pregnancy related with most of them being as a result of abortion. Conclusions The autopsy data from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital can serve as a useful source of information on adolescent mortality. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases accounted for most deaths highlighting the need for health care providers to avoid complacency in their management of adolescents presenting with these diseases.
Gastrointestinal causes of sudden and/or unexpected death in the young are uncommon and only rarely involve congenital anomalies of the mesentery. Two cases are reported of unexpected deaths following herniation of intestine through congenital mesenteric defects to illustrate the forensic issues that may arise. Case 1 involves a 2.5-year-old girl who collapsed on arrival to hospital following 18 hours of fever and apparently mildly nonspecific symptoms. Resuscitation was unsuccessful, and at autopsy a segment of gangrenous small intestine was found that had herniated through a congenital mesenteric defect. Case 2 involves a 23-year-old woman with a past history of severe mental and physical disabilities who was found dead in her bed. She had a recent history of mild diarrhea and vomiting, but had not appeared particularly ill. At autopsy the peritoneal cavity was filled with a very dilated and obstructed colon as a result of herniation of a segment of sigmoid colon through a distal small intestinal mesenteric defect. These cases demonstrate that symptoms and signs of intestinal ischemia may not be clearly manifested in early childhood and that developmental delay may also result in older individuals presenting in a nonspecific manner. Although rare, congenital mesenteric abnormalities with compromise of the intestinal vasculature remain a possibility to be considered at autopsy in all cases of unexpected death, despite the lack of a clear history of significant gastrointestinal disturbance. Death may relate to ischemic compromise of either the herniated portion of intestine (as in case 1) or to the stretched intestine bordering the hernial orifice (as in case 2). PMID:18205527
Byard, Roger W; Wick, Regula
More people are keeping pets in their homes but may not be sufficiently aware of the potential danger from infections. We report an autopsy case of a 57-year-old man affected by cirrhosis. Septic shock with Pasteurella multocida pneumonia was the cause of his death. P. multocida was the source of infection via the respiratory tract and caused pneumonia. Cirrhosis is one of the risk factors for P. multocida infection. A detailed patient history about animal exposure should be obtained and a differential diagnosis of P. multocida infection must be kept in mind. PMID:25692055
Yamamoto, Takuma; Umehara, Takahiro; Murase, Takehiko; Ikematsu, Kazuya
It has been repeatedly shown that synaptically released zinc contributes to excitotoxic neuronal injury in ischemia, epilepsy, and mechanical head trauma. Such zinc-induced injury leaves an unmistakable "footprint" in the injured neurons, allowing an easy and unambiguous postmortem diagnosis. This footprint is the presence of weakly bound, histochemically reactive zinc in the cytoplasm of the perikaryon and proximal dendrites. Such staining appears to be a necessary and sufficient marker for zinc-induced neuronal injury. Here we show how to prepare and stain tissue from biopsy, autopsy, or experimental animal sources for maximal contrast and visibility of zinc-injured neurons.
Suh, S W; Listiack, K
This dissertation presents a statistical analysis of all autopsies performed by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Frankfurt/Main for the years 1999-2001. By comparing the post mortem protocols and other documents with the data contained in a computer program called "Obduktio" (MÜLLER and BRATZKE, 1993), it was also possible to perform an analysis of entry errors. From 1999 to 2001, a total number of 3,956 corpses were delivered to the Department of Forensic Medicine, out of which 2,689 ...
The biological effects of different fractionation schemes have been evaluated by the histological examination of bronchial carcinomas removed at operation or autopsy following radiotherapy. Radiation was given in daily, small fractions (200 cGy (rad)), large fractions (600 cGy (rad)) every fifth day, or a single high dose followed by daily low-dose treatment. The highest proportion of tumours free of viable cells was found in patients who had received small daily fractions in both operable and inoperable tumours. A hypothesis is put forward to explain this apparent change in radio-sensitivity with different fractionation schemes. (author)
A correlative study of autopsy findings and retrospective review of gallium scintigrams were performed in 106 older ages cases. Of these cases studied, 57 % demonstrated positive gallium study in the present series. Histological correlation was undertaken in cases of lung cancer. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma showed the highest incidence of positive results (83 %), whereas adenocarcinoma was the lowest (35 %). There is no apparent correlation between subtypes of histological classification of adenocarcinoma and abnormal accumulation of gallium. However, abnormal accumulation of the nuclide seems to be rather related with interstitial reactions, namely fibrotic changes, lymphocyte infiltration and vascularization. (author)
A 57Fe Moessbauer-effect study of autopsied lung tissue from Canadian asbestos mine workers is presented. The spectra typically show large quantities of iron storage protein. This exhibits a quadrupole-split doublet at room temperature and both a doublet and a Zeeman-split sextet at 4.2 K, due to a distribution of particle sizes. A comparison is made with Moessbauer spectra of lung tissue from an individual not occupationally exposed to respirable asbestos, and with spectra of respirable chrysotile asbestos taken from Canadian mines. (author)
Abstract Background Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult (aged ? 25 yrs) deaths in the city of Chennai (urban) during 1995–97 and 32 000 in rural Villupuram during 1997–98 was conducted to arrive at the prob...
Peto Richard; Gajalakshmi Vendhan
Background: Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult (aged ?25 yrs) deaths in the city of Chennai (urban) during 1995-97 and 32 000 in rural Villupuram during 1997-98 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying...
Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Peto, Richard
Full Text Available Dandy Walker Syndrome (DWS is a congenital brain malformation characterized by hypoplasia or absence of cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus. It is frequently associated with other congenital anomalies. Associated central nervous system anomalies such as agenesis of corpus callosum and vermis are associated with poor prognosis. Association of DWS with congenital absence of spleen is life threatening condition and has been reported very rarely. Autopsy findings of DWS with association of congenital absence of corpus callosum, vermis and spleen are reported in a stillborn fetus of 28 weeks gestation and review of relevant literature was done
Surekha U Arakeri
The article deals with two topics: determination of the necessary level of suspicion for an internal post-mortem examination pursuant to Section 87 (German) Code of Criminal Procedure and options of the family to object to the forensic autopsy. The level of suspicion required in this case is to be regarded as very low, even below that of the initial suspicion, because a detailed opinion as to any third-party fault can only be given after completion of the autopsy. The individual concerned does not have a right to oppose a forensic autopsy while still alive. The same applies to the family. Other than in clinical autopsies, the interest in prosecution is to be considered the higher good to be protected, because at the time of deciding a homicide cannot be ruled out and only an internal examination can furnish the necessary evidence. Consequently, it is appropriate. Contrary to the opinion often expressed in the literature, one cannot infer from the provisions of Sections 87 subs. 4, 33 subs. 3 Code of Criminal Procedure and Section 103 subs. 3 Basic Law that the family of the deceased has a right to be informed or heard. This can only be changed by the legislator in an amendment to the autopsy law. PMID:20806673
... of the instructions and legal forms. When the patient dies. This planning process takes a bit of work ahead of time, but it ensures that upon the death of your loved one all of the relevant professionals can be in direct contact with each other and carry out your wishes ...
We describe an autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to severe brainstem compression by an unruptured giant vertebral aneurysm. A 71-year-old male was found dead in his bedroom. The forensic autopsy revealed no severe trauma leading to his death. On internal examination, a giant intracranial aneurysm (3.4 x 2.6 x 2.7 cm) was observed on the trunk of the right vertebral artery. The aneurysm compressed the right side of the lower one-third of the pons and adjacent medulla oblongata. On sectioning, almost all of the aneurysm lumen was filled with a firm, clearly laminated organized thrombus. There was no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Histopathological analyses revealed congestion and hypoxic tissue changes in all organs examined. In microscopic sections of the giant vertebral aneurysm, thick fibrotic walls, intimal hyperplasia and organized thrombi in the lumen were found. Lots of intrathrombotic clefts with fresh erythrocytes were also observed. Moreover, Elastica van Gieson staining revealed fragmentation and disruption of the intimal elastic lamina in the aneurysmal wall. Collectively, we considered that some triggers in his daily life, including head rotation, might have caused the rapid onset of respiratory disturbance due to severe brainstem compression by a giant vertebral aneurysm. PMID:17562378
Hayashi, Takahito; Hirayama, Naho; Ro, Ayako; Kageyama, Norimasa; Ishida, Yuko; Tsuneyama, Kouichi; Kimura, Akihiko; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Kondo, Toshikazu
Rheumatic heart disease causes more than 200,000 deaths worldwide annually, with the vast majority of these deaths occurring in developing countries, yet there are few autopsy studies of rheumatic heart disease in these countries. We performed a retrospective review of 6218 autopsies performed during the period from 1990 through 2006, searching for cases of rheumatic heart disease based upon the macroscopic pathologic examination of the heart. We found 147 cases (2.4%) of rheumatic heart disease. There was an apparent increase in the number of cases in the past 5 years. There were 95 deaths that were directly attributable to rheumatic heart disease, with congestive cardiac failure being the most common cause of death in 75 cases. The mean age at death due to rheumatic heart disease was 38 years. There were more cases of rheumatic heart disease in Indigenous Fijians than Indo-Fijians, with an adjusted relative risk of 1.26 (95% confidence intervals from 0.87 to 1.86). Our findings reflect the high burden and early age of death due to rheumatic heart disease in Fiji and the Pacific region generally, and underline the need for early detection and adequate secondary penicillin prophylaxis in this region. PMID:18093363
Singh, Pritinesh I P K; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Buadromo, Eka M; Samberkar, Prashant N; Steer, Andrew C
We assessed the technical performance and robustness of the point-of-care test for C-reactive protein (CRP) NycoCard CRP for use in forensic autopsy cases. The results of 17 of 39 cadaver blood samples that had CRP in the range effectively measured by the NycoCard (5-120mg/l) correlated well (r=0.99) with those of quantitative latex agglutination immunoassay (turbidimetry), and the out-of-range NycoCard results were fully consistent with those obtained by turbidimetry. For the ten sera whose CRP >120mg/l according to NycoCard, a significant correlation (r=0.98) was observed between values multiplied by the dilution ratio and those of turbidimetry. No significant differences were observed after a freeze-thaw procedure. In addition, CRP results using recombinant human CRP spiked with hemoglobin up to 80g/l were not significantly different from the unspiked results in PBS. The test allows reliable and cost-effective on-site measurement of CRP from a small volume of serum (5?l) with simple equipment. This semi-quantification method of CRP should be useful for diagnosis during autopsy. PMID:24530941
Soejima, Mikiko; Koda, Yoshiro
Lipid accumulation in the cardiac parenchyma has historically been known as fatty heart. Myocardial lipotoxicity and cardiac steatosis have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetic mellitus (DM). Mutated adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key catalytic enzyme of triglyceride, has been found to cause human triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV). Nevertheless, the significance of fatty heart in the disease process is still unclear. Here, we investigated myocardial lipid deposition (LD) in 73 autopsy cases. Nile blue staining revealed seven cases (9.5%) showing LD with elevated tissue triglyceride content, all of which suffered from DM. Immunohistochemically, ATGL expression was preserved in all tested cases. Rates of myocardial infarction and heart failure were higher in LD/DM cases than in non-LD cases. Semi-quantitative histological analysis revealed no significant differences in the degree of myocardial hypertrophy, myofibrillar loss, fibrosis, small vascular disease, inflammation or fat invasion between LD/DM and non-LD cases. However, more severe histological damage was seen in DM cases than in non-DM cases. Our data suggest that DM is a major risk for fatty heart with myocardial LD based on recent autopsy cases. PMID:24836730
Nakanishi, Takaya; Kato, Seiya
The influence of radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer was investigated by autopsy of head and neck patients who had had carotid artery rupture. Twenty-five cases of head and neck cancer revealed carotid artery rupture among the 255 head and neck cases autopsied from 1972 to 1985. The rate of carotid artery rupture in hypopharyngeal cancer was 8/32 (25%); in oral cancer 8/55 (14.5%), and in other cancers 9/165 (5.4%). In localization of ruptured arteries there were 9 cases of common carotid artery, 14 cases of external carotid artery, one case of internal carotid artery, and one unknown. These cases were irradiated using more than 70 Gy. The following reasons for carotid artery rupture were suspected: 1. There was a tumor with deep ulceration and necrosis near the vessel. 2. The wall of the artery had radiation angitis. 3. The artery wall was necrotic because of invasion by the tumor. 4. Thrombosis developed with ensuant rupture of the artery. Radiotherapy for advanced cancer of the head and neck is necessary to control pain and as palliative treatment, but to avoid rupture of the carotid artery, pain clinic techniques and chemotherapy as palliative treatment for this kinds of terminal condition should also be considered. (author)
The authors present 2 cases of fatal cardiac tamponade associated with the insertion of a central venous catheter. The first case occurred soon after the insertion of the catheter (early complication), and the second case, 4 days after (late complication). In both cases, the post-catheter insertion check chest x-ray film showed the tip of the catheter located within the heart silhouette. The diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was made only during the cadaverous examination. In the first case, the catheter was found to be in the right internal jugular vein at autopsy. The postmortem examination showed a clear liquid inside the pericardial cavity and the inferior vena cava injury. In the second case, the catheter had been inserted via the right subclavian vein puncture and there was a perforation of the right atrium at autopsy. The child was using total parenteral nutrition, and the intrapericardial liquid was milky. The incorrect placement of the catheter tip and unrecognized complications led the 2 children to death. PMID:24457580
dos Santos Modelli, Manoel Eugenio; Cavalcanti, Felipe Barbosa
Full Text Available Introduction: In this retrospective study, we decided to determine the death causes and severity of injuries in traffic accidents according to reports of the forensic medical center of Yazd. Methods: A total of 251 fatalities due to traffic accidents that had undergone autopsy examinations at the Yazd forensic medicine center from2006 till 2008 were included in the study by census method. Data regarding gender, road user type, type of vehicle (car, motorcycle, autobus or minibus, consciousness level, and intensive care unit (ICU admission was gathered. For evaluation of injury severity, we used Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results: The population under study consisted of 202 men (80.5% and 49 women (19.5% with an average age of 34.1 years (range: 1-89 years. Motorcycle-pedestrian accidents were the most common type of injury (100, 39.8%. Head (220, 87.6% and face (169, 67.3% were the two most common sites of injuries. Mean (±SD of ISS was 23.2 (±10.4. According to autopsy records, the main cause of death was head trauma (146, 58.1%. Conclusion: Public awareness in terms of primary prevention of road accidents should be considered important. Also, regarding the high prevalence of brain injuries and complications associated with skull fractures, accessibility to neurosurgeons and availability of imaging devices have an important role in decreasing the mortality rate of traffic accidents.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism is an underdiagnosed major cause of death for hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to identify the conditions associated with fatal pulmonary embolism in this population. METHODS: A total of 13,074 autopsy records were evaluated in a case-control st [...] udy. Patients were matched by age, sex, and year of death, and factors potentially associated with fatal pulmonary embolism were analyzed using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was considered fatal in 328 (2.5%) patients. In the multivariate analysis, conditions that were more common in patients who died of pulmonary embolism were atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery. Some conditions were negatively associated with fatal pulmonary embolism, including hemorrhagic stroke, aortic aneurism, cirrhosis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and pneumonia. In the control group, patients with hemorrhagic stroke and aortic aneurism had short hospital stays (8.5 and 8.8 days, respectively), and the hemorrhage itself was the main cause of death in most of them (90.6% and 68.4%, respectively), which may have prevented the development of pulmonary embolism. Cirrhotic patients in the control group also had short hospital stays (7 days), and 50% died from bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this large autopsy study, atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery were diagnoses associated with fatal pulmonary embolism.
Solange Aparecida Petilo, Carvalho Bricola; Edison Ferreira, Paiva; Arnaldo, Lichtenstein; Reinaldo José, Gianini; Jurandir Godoy, Duarte; Samuel Katsuyuki, Shinjo; Jose, Eluf-Neto; Milton, Arruda Martins.
GLUT3 is expressed in rat muscle, but this glucose transporter protein has not been identified previously in adult human skeletal muscle. We quantified the rapidity of disappearance of mRNA and protein from human skeletal muscle at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Fifty percent of the immunologically detectable GLUT3 protein disappeared by 1 hour at 20 degrees C and by 2 hours at 4 degrees C. mRNA for GLUT3 was decreased 50% by 2.2 hours at 20 degrees C and by 24 hours at 4 degrees C. Half of the measurable mRNAs for GLUT4, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha-actin, and beta-myosin disappeared by 0.8 to 2.1 hours at 20 degrees C and by 5.0 to 16.6 hours at 4 degrees C. Previous conclusions that GLUT3 is not expressed in human muscle were likely drawn because of artifacts related to degradation of GLUT3 protein in the specimens prior to study. Because of the rapid degradation of protein and mRNA, autopsy specimens of muscle must be obtained within 6 hours of death, and even then, protein and mRNA data will likely dramatically underestimate their expression in fresh muscle. Some previously published conclusions and recommendations regarding autopsy specimens are not stringent enough to consistently yield useful protein and mRNA.
Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Jiang, J.
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common prion disease. It is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by an infectious protein called prion. The diagnosis can be confirmed only by histological examination of brain tissue. Because of the transmissible nature of the disease, autopsy or brain biopsy cannot be performed at many institutions. Histology shows spongiform changes, neuronal loss, reactive astrocytic proliferation, accumulation of pathologic protein occurring in three general forms: Sporadic, familial, and acquired form, including a variant form of CJD. It clinically presents as predominantly progressive dementia with a rapid onset, myoclonus, cerebellar, pyramidal, extra pyramidal and visual signs. Occurrence of periodical spikes in electro-encephalogram, observation of cortical signal alterations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, and detection of protein 14-3-3 in cerebrospinal fluid substantiate diagnosis. Autopsy case is presented of a 50 year old woman with progressive dementia, typical neurological symptoms, MRI findings and confirmation of CJD on histology and immunostaining. PMID:22499312
Gadgil, Nitin M; Chaudhari, Chetan S; Gohil, Sanjay D; Kalgutkar, Alka D
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to develop a simplified low cost method for the collection and fixation of pediatric autopsy cells and to determine the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of extracted DNA. Touch and scrape preparations of pediatric liver cells were obtained from 15 cadavers [...] at autopsy and fixed in 95% ethanol or 3:1 methanol:acetic acid. Material prepared by each fixation procedure was submitted to DNA extraction with the Wizard® genomic DNA purification kit for DNA quantification and five of the preparations were amplified by multiplex PCR (azoospermia factor genes). The amount of DNA extracted varied from 20 to 8,640 µg, with significant differences between fixation methods. Scrape preparation fixed in 95% ethanol provided larger amount of extracted DNA. However, the mean for all groups was higher than the quantity needed for PCR (50 ng) or Southern blot (500 ng). There were no qualitative differences among the different material and fixatives. The same results were also obtained for glass slides stored at room temperature for 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. We conclude that touch and scrape preparations fixed in 95% ethanol are a good source of DNA and present fewer limitations than cell culture, tissue paraffin embedding or freezing that require sterile material, culture medium, laboratory equipment and trained technicians. In addition, they are more practical and less labor intensive and can be obtained and stored for a long time at low cost.
C.N.M., Ribeiro; L.C., Peres; J.M., Pina-Neto.
Patients with malignant mesothelioma typically present with a pleural effusion or pleural thickening and masses. A rare autopsy case of mesothelioma presenting with multiple bilateral lung nodules without clinically detectable pleural lesions is presented. A definitive diagnosis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen could not be made, though a pattern of fibrosis mimicking organizing pneumonia was identified. Despite corticosteroid therapy, follow-up chest computed tomography showed enlargement of multiple nodules accompanied by the appearance of pleural thickening and effusions. The patient died of respiratory failure 11 months after initial presentation. Autopsy and retrospective analysis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen using a p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed p16 homozygous deletion. The final diagnosis was sarcomatoid mesothelioma, and the lung nodules were intrapulmonary metastases from a clinically undetectable pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma. It is important both to consider the possibility of mesothelioma with unusual clinical, radiological and pathological presentations and to remember that p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis can play an important role in the diagnosis of mesothelioma. PMID:25425731
Hasegawa, Mizue; Sakai, Fumikazu; Sato, Akitoshi; Tsubomizu, Sayuri; Arimura, Ken; Katsura, Hideki; Koh, Eitetsu; Sekine, Yasuo; Wu, Di; Hiroshima, Kenzo
A 23-year-old woman was rescued from an accidental fire in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. Based on the diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, she received hyperbaric oxygen therapy and survived in a vegetative state. After 1 and a half years, she died without recovering from the vegetative state. At autopsy, the brain was observed to be moderately softened with a severely atrophied appearance and ventricular enlargement. In addition, a characteristic damage of hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy was also observed clearly in both the bilateral globus pallidus and cerebral white matter, which are typical findings of past acute CO poisoning. A long-term vegetative state causes the brain to soften and liquefy because of reactive gliosis and autolytic change. The cause of death becomes difficult to diagnose only from the autopsy findings in general. This case is rare in that the past acute CO poisoning could be diagnosed from the remaining typical cerebral findings even after a long-term vegetative state. PMID:23099545
Sato, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kasai, Kentaro; Tanaka, Noriyuki
Tolperisone (Mydocalm) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant with few sedative side effects that is used for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. We describe three cases of suicidal tolperisone poisoning in three healthy young subjects in the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. In all cases, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings did not reveal the cause of death. Systematic toxicological analysis (STA) including immunological tests, screening for volatile substances and blood, urine and gastric content screening by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD demonstrated the presence of tolperisone in all cases. In addition to tolperisone, only the analgesics paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen and naproxen could be detected. The blood ethanol concentrations were all lower than 0.10 g/kg. Tolperisone was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using n-chlorobutane as the extraction solvent. The quantification was performed by GC-NPD analysis of blood, urine and gastric content. Tolperisone concentrations of 7.0 mg/l, 14 mg/l and 19 mg/l were found in the blood of the deceased. In the absence of other autopsy findings, the deaths in these three cases were finally explained as a result of lethal tolperisone ingestion. To the best of our knowledge, these three cases are the first reported cases of suicidal tolperisone poisonings. PMID:21683537
Sporkert, Frank; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc P; Mangin, Patrice
The purpose of this was to study the mechanisms of cancer pain and effects of irradiation in metastatic bone marrow patients, histopathologically. Sixteen autopsy cases including 9 breast tumors, 4 hepatic cell carcinomas, 2 gastric cancers and 1 triple cancer of the renal pelvis, urinary bladder and liver were studied. Symptomatically, the effects of radiotherapy (36?56 Gy) for cancer pain were freedom from pain in 4 (25%), pain relief in 8 (50%), no effect in 3 (18.8%) and undetectable in 1. The sites of irradiation were thoracic in 7, lumbar in 5, thoracolumbar in 3, and cervicothoracic vertebra in 1. At autopsy, no cancer cells were found at the site of irradiation in 5 subjects. The histopathologic appearance of painful metastases to bones was periosteal infiltration in 8, perineural invasion in 3, nervous compression in 4 and compression fracture or collapse in 8. The reaction of metastatic bone marrow to irradiation showed mixed type in 8, intertrabecullar types in 4, osteolytic type in 1, and osteoplastic type in 2. Cancer pain was associated with several histopathologic findings, and the histopathological effects of radiation for such pain were weak. Further histopathologic study of the mechanisms of cancer pain and effects of irradiation may be necessary for better quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)
Holoprosencephaly, a major congenital malformation of the brain, consists in a complete or partial failure of the prosencephalon to divide into separate hemispheres. Alobar holoprosencephaly with cyclopia was analyzed on the basis of autopsy reports performed for hospitals admitting patients from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland in the period of 20 years (1981-2000). The malformation was found in seven newborns - five girls, one boy and one child with sex not established due to agenesia of the genital organs, all autopsied in the years 1990-1999. According to clinical data, none of the mothers (age 24-39 years) was exposed to any prescribed or over-the-counter (OTC) drugs during pregnancy, but one was exposed to paints in early pregnancy. The proboscis was present in four of seven cases. Six of seven children displayed additional congenital malformations. In two cases intrapancreatic accessory spleen suggesting trisomy 13 was found. Alobar holoprosencephaly with cyclopia is a rare lethal congenital anomaly frequently accompanied by other malformations and characterized by large variations in incidence. PMID:23791929
Swatek, Jaros?aw; Szumi?o, Justyna; Burdan, Franciszek
Hydrophilic polymers are commonly applied as surface coatings on vascular devices and have been shown to dissociate during endovascular use, causing hydrophilic polymer embolism (HPE). Adverse effects related to this phenomenon have been recognized and reported. The prevalence of this complication is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prevalence of HPE among hospital autopsies over a 29-month period. Postmortem tissue was histologically evaluated for the presence, location(s) and extent of HPE. HPE findings were correlated with documented clinical and laboratory data and patient outcome. Of 136 hospital autopsies examined, 18 (13%) showed evidence of HPE involving the lungs (n = 18), heart (n = 1) or central nervous system (n = 1). Localized pulmonary HPE was seen in 12 patients (9%). Multifocal pulmonary HPE was found in 6 patients (4%) and was associated with clinical vasculitis (33%; P studies may be needed to clarify risks and to identify preventative strategies for this iatrogenic complication of catheterizations and "minimally invasive" endovascular techniques. PMID:25543660
Mehta, Rupal I; Mehta, Rashi I; Choi, Julia M; Mukherjee, Arnob; Castellani, Rudy J
Full Text Available Introduction: Metopic suture which is placed between frontal bone and usually disappear during infancy and childhood, may persist from nasion to anterior angle of bregma, this is called metopism. Objective: To find the incidence of metopism in western Rajasthan and to compare it with other study in other parts of India and Abroad. Methodology: Present study was autopsy done on 200 dead bodies of all age group who were brought to J L N Medical college, Ajmer for autopsy during the period of 6 months. Vault was observed morphological for presence of metopism on both outer and inner side after removal of periosteum. Results: The incidence of metopism was 6.5% in all observed skull in this study. The incidence of metopism was observed more in child age group i.e. 100% in 0-5 years & 80% in 6-10 years as compare to the adults and old age groups i.e. 3.4% in 41-50 years. Conclusion: The presence of metopic suture simulates the fracture of frontal bone, therefore it should be properly ruled out in x-rays by radiologists and neurosurgeons. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 63-65
William F Masih
Cerebrovascular complications of meningitis have been extensively documented in the literature. It is little known, however, that paroxysmal, devastating, and potentially fatal complications can occur when the early signs of infection are subtle and missed. We describe the clinical course and neuropathological findings of the occurrence of brain infarctions during two atypical clinical courses of meningitis. In one patient, it was due to Serratia marcescens detected only by an autopsy specimen, and in the other, it was due to Aspergillus detected by a surgical biopsy. Death followed multiple, extensive, and progressively multiplicative infarctions in the basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebral cortices. Autopsies revealed that the infarctions were caused by severe inflammatory change in the vascular walls, mainly of the arteries of the skull base, including the basilar and carotid arteries. Thrombus formation was also recognized in the lumen of several arteries. A number of characteristic Aspergillus hyphae were recognized in the arterial wall of one patient. Meningitis, which may be associated with severe vasculitis and lead to cerebral infarction, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. Early diagnosis and initiation of vigorous therapy should be stressed for therapeutic success. PMID:15912768
Yokosuka, Kimihiko; Ishii, Ryoji; Sekihara, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Norihiro; Mohri, Yutaka; Hirano, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yasuo; Irei, Isao; Shirabe, Teruo
Full Text Available Objetivos: mostrar los principales resultados obtenidos de la autopsia y utilizarlos en la mejora continua de la calidad asistencial. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, longitudinal, de la base de datos de autopsias del SARCAP, realizadas en el Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero" entre los años 1991-2011. Se analizaron el sexo, la edad, las especialidades de egreso, la estadía hospitalaria, las principales enfermedades, causas de muerte y evaluación de sus diagnósticos premortem. Resultados: se estudiaron 2 480 autopsias. Predominó el sexo masculino con el 51,7 % y las edades de 75-84 años con el 31 %. El 79,65 % de los casos fallecidos ocurrieron en el área de atención al grave y el 47,8 % de ellos fallecieron con una estadía de hasta 48 horas. La bronconeumonía y el infarto cardíaco fueron las principales causas directas de muerte, mientras en las básicas lo fueron la aterosclerosis coronaria, cerebral y generalizada. La hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus fueron las principales causas contribuyentes. Las discrepancias para las causas directas y básicas de muerte fueron de una cada cuatro autopsias. Conclusiones: el estudio multicausal de la muerte permite caracterizar los principales problemas de salud. La aplicación del SARCAP y el diagnóstico del DMO han sido logros importantes de la especialidad alcanzados en esta institución. La metodología de trabajo obtenida en el estudio de la autopsia y su empleo en la mejora continua de la calidad de la asistencia médica en este centro constituye referencia para otros hospitales.Objectives: to show the main results of autopsy and to use tehm in the continuous improvement of care quality. Methods: a retrospective, longitudinal study was conducted in SARCAP autopsy database at "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Military Hospital from 1991 to 2011. Different items were analyzed such as sex, age, specialties of discharge, the hospital stay, major diseases, causes of death and its premortem diagnostic evaluation. Results: 2 480 autopsies were studied; most of them were male (51.7 % and the mean age rate of 75-84 years (31 %. 79,65 % of the died cases happened in the area of attention to the serious patients and 47,8 % of the cases died with up to 48 hours of hospital stay. Bronchopneumonia and heart attacks were the main direct causes of death, while coronary, cerebral and generalized atherosclerosis were the basic causes of death. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the main contributing causes. Discrepancies for basic and direct causes of death were one in four autopsies. Conclusions: this multicausal-death study allowed characterizing those major health problems. Applying SARCAP and BMD diagnosis have been an important achievement in the specialty of this institution. The gained methodology during this autopsy study and its use in the continuous improvement of medical care quality in this center is a reference to other hospitals.
Ygnacio Ygualada Correa
We report an autopsy case of paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome associated with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Chemotherapy and lung lobectomy resulted in complete tumor remission and disappearance of myoclonus. However, emotional and behavioral disturbances relapsed and remitted associated with exacerbation of truncal ataxia and ocular flutter, which responded favorably to prednisolone. At autopsy, after 2 years and 11 months of illness, there was no recurrence of cancer. Neuropathologically, only the cerebellum was affected, with diffuse loss of Purkinje cells and dentate neurons, suggesting that the paraneoplastic cerebellar involvement may be responsible for the cognitive affective symptoms in our patient. PMID:17534981
Ohara, Shinji; Iijima, Naoko; Hayashida, Kensuke; Oide, Takashi; Katai, Satoshi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and discusses methodological and logistical challenges associated with the implementation of a nation-wide assessment of mortality based on surveys. Verbal autopsy interviews, using the WHO standard questionnaire, were conducted with close relatives of the 6798 deaths identified in the 2007 population change survey in Vietnam. Data collectors were health staff recruited from the commune health station who undertook 3-day intensive training on VA interview. The Preston-Coale method assessed the level of completeness of mortality reporting from the population change survey. The number of deaths in each age-sex grouping is inflated according to the estimate of completeness to produce an adjusted number of deaths. Underlying causes of death were aggregated to the International Classification of Diseases Mortality Tabulation List 1. Leading causes of death were tabulated by sex for three broad age groups: 0-14 years; 15-59 years; and 60 years and above. Findings Completeness of mortality reporting was 69% for males and 54% for females with substantial regional variation. The use of VA has resulted in 10% of deaths being classified to ill-defined among males, and 15% among females. More ill-defined deaths were reported among the 60 year or above age group. Incomplete death reporting, wide geographical dispersal of deaths, extensive travel between households, and substantial variation in local responses to VA interviews challenged the implementation of a national mortality and cause of death assessment based on surveys. Conclusions Verbal autopsy can be a viable tool to identify cause of death in Vietnam. However logistical challenges limit its use in conjunction with the national sample survey. Sentinel population clusters for mortality surveillance should be tested to develop an effective and sustainable option for routine mortality and cause of death data collection in Vietnam.
Full Text Available Isolated right ventricular infarction associated with normal coronary arteries has been described infrequently. Only rarely, pure right ventricular infarction secondary to massive pulmonary embolism, without right ventricular hypertrophy has been described. We describe an autopsy case of a 75 years old man with these pathology findings.
Marcial García Rojo
INTRODUCTION: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians\\' ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. RESULTS: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.
Congenital adrenal agenesis is an extremely rare condition wherein the adrenal glands fail to develop. The absence of adrenal tissue results in the complete absence of hormones produced in the adrenal cortex (cortisol, aldosterone) and medulla (catecholamines), and is not compatible with postnatal life without artificial hormone replacement therapy. To date, 9 cases of adrenal agenesis have been reported, many of which are associated with additional congenital anomalies. Most cases were not detected on antenatal imaging and were detected incidentally at postmortem examination. We present a case of adrenal agenesis, detected incidentally at postmortem examination after termination of pregnancy for suspected fetal hydrops, and review the heterogeneous phenotype of this condition with associated abnormalities and molecular genetics. This case reinforces the role of the perinatal autopsy to investigate cause of perinatal mortality, allowing correlation of pathology with antenatal imaging findings and clinical details. PMID:24875163
D'Arcy, Colleen; Pertile, Mark; Goodwin, Tess; Bittinger, Sophie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Glomerulocystic kidney disease is an uncommon type of cystic renal disease. It is characterized by cortical microsysts, which are represented by cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces. Case presentation We describe a case of glomerulocystic disease in a neonate and another in an abortus associated with tracheo-oesophageal fistula and megacystic-megaureter syndrome. The kidney on autopsy was sponge-like and revealed presence of cysts corresponding to dilatations of Bowman's space microscopically. In these two cases, the Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease in one case corresponded to a sporadic form and, in the other, to a syndromic, non-heritable form of glomerulocystic kidney disease. Conclusion The associated anomalies in Glomerulocystic Kidney disease are well described in the literature. Two more new unrelated associations are described in this article.
A 41-year-old man was admitted with decompensated heart failure. Mechanical ventilation was maintained with a large dose of propofol. On day 4, significant ST elevation with complete atrioventricular block was noted, which subsequently induced cardiopulmonary arrest. Treatment with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and therapeutic hypothermia was initiated. Emergent cardiac angiography showed simultaneous multivessel coronary spasms. Although nitroglycerin and nicorandil were ineffective, the intracoronary administration of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, successfully resolved the vasospasms. However, during rewarming, the coronary vasospasms recurred, and the patient died of cardiogenic shock. In addition to hypertrophy, the autopsied heart demonstrated the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the pericardium and adventitia of the coronary arteries. PMID:24785887
Arakawa, Kentaro; Himeno, Hideo; Gondo, Toshikazu; Kirigaya, Jin; Otomo, Fumie; Matsushita, Kensuke; Nakahashi, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Satoru; Nitta, Manabu; Yano, Hideto; Endo, Mitsuaki; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi
Full Text Available Sudden, violent and otherwise unexplained deaths are investigated in most western jurisdictions through a Coronial or medico-legal process. A crucial element of such an investigation is the legislative requirement to remove the body for autopsy and other medical interventions, processes which can disrupt traditional religious and cultural grieving practices. While recent legislative changes in an increasing number of jurisdictions allow families to raise objections based on religious and cultural grounds, such concerns can be over-ruled, often exacerbating the trauma and grief of families. Based on funded research which interviews a range of Coronial staff in one Australian jurisdiction, this paper explores the disjuncture between medico-legal discourses, which position the body as corpse, and the rise of more ‘therapeutic’ discourses which recognise the family’s wishes to reposition the body as beloved and lamented.
The autopsy findings of a 30-year-old woman who died of cerebral hemorrhage induced by bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma are presented. The cerebral hemorrhage was shown on the left cerebral hemisphere widely. Her both adrenal glands were severe swelling, and their parenchyma was occupied by a dark red-brown tumorous positive for chromogranin A. The serum catecholamine and their metabolite, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) levels were markedly high. Furthermore, cardiac hypertrophy and sclerosis of the arteries of various organs had progressed, suggesting an influence of persistent endocrinal hypertension. The measurement of serum VMA level was thought to be valuable for a postmortem diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma may have excessively secreted catecholamine and subsequently caused secondary hypertension, leading to cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:22981089
Mizukami, Hajime; Hara, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Masamune; Mori, Shinjiro; Kuriiwa, Fumi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige
A 70-year-old woman died of systemic metastasis from anaplastic meningioma and underwent autopsy. The patient underwent twice total removal of the right sphenoid ridge meningioma 2 years ago. The tumor recurred 3 times, and then stereotactic radiotherapy was employed. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed for the fourth local recurrence and an additional new lesion. Proliferative activity of the newly developed meningioma, which had been treated with BNCT only, was significantly lower than that of untreated metastatic liver tumor, as well as that of the meningioma specimen obtained at the second surgery. Our pathological findings demonstrated, for the first time, the therapeutic effect of BNCT on anaplastic meningioma at an early stage (2.5 months). PMID:24807102
Kawaji, Hiroshi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Shinmura, Kazuya; Kawabata, Shinji; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki
A 50-year-old woman visited the hospital because of mid and left epigastric pain in February 1975. She was suspected to be suffering from malignant lymphoma from the cytology of ascites and swelling of retroperitoneal lymph nodes and treated with VEMP therapy. She had been well for 1 year, but after that, she was readmitted to the hospital because of abdominal fullness. She had been suffering from ascites for two months and three years and died. By 99mTc-Sn-Colloid liver scanning, no up-take was observed. She was finally diagnosed as lupoid type chronic hepatitis from the data such as hypergammaglobulinemia, the good efficacy of VEMP therapy, positive antinuclear, antibody at the second admission and pathological findings at autopsy. (author)
A healthy 45-year-old Japanese female developed right pleural effusion, ascites, and a pelvic mass. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy resolved the pleural effusion and ascites. Histopathological examination of the ovaries showed bilateral Krukenberg tumors with signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Extensive testing including upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and whole-body imaging did not detect the primary lesion. Six months after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, the patient developed multiple osteoblastic bone lesions in the spine, pelvis, and femurs. A biopsy of the bone marrow showed SRCC. We administered four cycles of S-1 and cisplatin, resulting in the shrinkage of osteoblastic lesions; she remained stable for a year. Then, she developed disseminated intravascular coagulation with disease progression in the bones. Although she was treated with paclitaxel, the disseminated intravascular coagulation progressed, and she died in a month. During the autopsy, microscopic examination revealed four foci of intramucosal gastric SRCC and healthy macroscopic gastric mucosa. PMID:25386374
Hiramatsu, Ayako; Oyama, Yu; Tanaka, Ayuko; Honma, Koichi
A case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma in a radiation technologist, who had worked in this field for 34 years, is reported. Histopathologically, a biopsy specimen from the retroperitoneal tumor revealed a biphasic type of malignant mesothelioma. Electron microscopy disclosed that the tumor cells contained prominent microvilli, basal laminae adjacent to the stroma, junctional complexes, desmosomes, tonofilaments, clusters of glycogen granules, well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), confronting cisternae showing direct continuity with the RER and membrane-bound granules suggestive of secretory activity. No increased amount of asbestos was detected in autopsied lung material or the peritoneal mesothelioma. The estimated cumulative dose of occupational irradiation was calculated to be about 40 to 50 rad at most. Irradiation was discussed in relation to the etiology of the peritoneal mesothelioma. (author)
A Japanese female in her thirties was found dead in her apartment; the postmortem interval was estimated to be approximately 3 days. Several postmortem changes were evident. Acute gastroenteritis had been diagnosed 3 days earlier. On autopsy, no specific findings other than fatty liver were observed. On hematoxylin eosin staining, mild fibrosis, and invasion of neutrophils in the pancreatic parenchyma, severe fatty liver, and extensive vacuolation of renal tubular cells were observed. Biochemical analyses revealed extremely high ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in body fluids with moderate elevation of hemoglobin A1c. Toxicological analyses of organ and urine samples were negative. We concluded that severe ketoacidosis had occurred in the deceased. Subsequently, selective destruction of pancreatic ?-cells was demonstrated. Considered together, results indicated that the cause of death was fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. This report illustrates the fact that a combination of biochemical and immunohistochemical investigations can be useful for diagnosing this condition in cases with evident postmortem changes. PMID:21821459
Mizutani, Tatsushi; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Kaneko, Rina; Ishii, Akira
The frequency of mesangial IgA deposition was examined in 250 consecutive autopsy cases without known renal disease. Diffuse granular mesangial deposits of IgA were detected in 12 of 250 cases (4.8%). In six patients IgA deposits were associated with liver cirrhosis. Six patients (2.4%) suffered from various other conditions including endocarditis, bronchial asthma, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasia. Two of these patients had completely negative urine analysis on repeated investigations, whereas three patients exhibited microscopic haematuria and/or mild proteinuria. IgA1 was the major constituent in all specimens. C3c deposits in glomeruli were detected in one kidney. Our findings indicate that clinically overt renal disease is present in only a limited proportion of individuals with mesangial IgA deposits. Apparently, it represents the tip of an iceberg. PMID:2516884
Waldherr, R; Rambausek, M; Duncker, W D; Ritz, E
Thallium has been responsible for many intoxications since its discovery; however, toxicological profiles for thallium in human fatalities have not been updated recently. Autopsy, microscopic investigations, and toxicological analyses were performed on a married couple who died from thallium sulfate intended homicidal poisoning. The distribution of thallium was established by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hair samples showing the highest thallium concentration. Electron microscopy revealed a dystrophic condition of hair with disorganized cuticle and atrophy of the hair bulb. Thallium interacts with cells at different levels, with prominent ultrastructural injuries in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and high concentration of electron dense granules observed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of several organs. Alopecia, toxic encephalopathy, and peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed in the victims and suggested to be crucial implications for thallium poisoning. The analytical procedures used in this case are of considerable forensic importance in the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. PMID:25407479
Li, Shangxun; Huang, Wen; Duan, Yijie; Xing, Jingjun; Zhou, Yiwu
Background: Recent clinical and histopathologic data suggests that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery plaque instability and subsequent occlusive thrombosis. The intima has received much attention as a site of inflammation, while the adventitia has remained relatively unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of inflammatory activity in the cap and shoulder region of un ruptured, atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries and to correlate these findings with distribution of inflammatory cells in adventitia. Methods: The study was carried out in Histopathology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from August 2008 to July 2009. Sixty-seven autopsy cases performed at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan were selected. The cases were divided into study group and control group. Case group (n=35) included those where cause of death was ischemic heart disease. Those coronary arteries were taken as control (n=32) where atherosclerotic changes were found by chance (death without history of ischemic heart disease). Plaques in each group were assessed by light microscopy and by immunohistochemistry. Results: The ages of the deceased ranged from 38 to 49 years. Within study group, adventitial lymphocytes exhibited strong correlation with erosion, thrombus formation in culprit plaque (p=0.001). No correlation was found between adventitial T-lymphocytes and erosion oen adventitial T-lymphocytes and erosion of plaque (p=0.700) in control group. In 72% of culprit plaques moderate staining for T-lymphocytes was observed in adventitia as well as intima. In control group, most of the cases contained scattered cells. Few cases of stable plaques revealed lymphocytes as clusters, both in adventitia and in intima. Conclusion: Adventitial inflammation may play a pivotal role for atherosclerotic lesion histology and atheroma instability. With the help of these autopsy findings, we hope to be able to reduce the incidence of culprit plaques related to inflammatory reaction in patients of ischemic heart disease. (author)
As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4?:?1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6?:?1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2?±?11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261
Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N
Human tissues, obtained at autopsy in several geographical locations in the United States exposed primarily to atmospheric fallout from weapons testing and those from individuals who formerly worked with plutonium, have been analyzedquantitatively for plutonium in a continuing study at the Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This article contains additional data accumulated since publication of LASL report LA-4875, 'Plutonium in Autopsy Tissue', in 1973 and includes some reanalyses of the questionable results included in that report. The primary objectives of the present study are to determine the baseline concentrations of plutonium in the general populations and to monitor for changes that may be related to growth of the nuclear industry; obtain data on the long-range time dependence of fallout plutonium incorporation into the body; determine plutonium distribution in the body from various routes of intake; and provide a means for evaluating the validity of in vivo estimates of plutonium body burdens in occupationally exposed workers. The tissues analyzed include lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, bone, kidney, and recently, gonads, thyroid, and spleen. The median concentrations observed in the general population (dis/min per kg of tissue wet weight) are; tracheobronchial lymph node (360), 5.8; liver (701), 1.6; vertebrae (325), 0.6; rib (95); thyroid (184), 0.6; lung (705), 0.4; gonad (264), 0.3; spleen (325), 0.2; and kidney (631), 0.1. The parenthetical numbersdney (631), 0.1. The parenthetical numbers indicate the number of samples analyzed. The results of the analyses of tissues from occupationally exposed workers are reported in a subsequent article. (author)
PURPOSE:: The purpose of this study was to determine the cytokine-related pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus retinopathy in human autopsy eyes. METHODS:: Fresh autopsy eyes were procured from clinically diagnosed patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had died as a result of disease-related complications; eyes were immediately immersed in RNAlater. Clean 2-mm trephines were used to punch individual pathologic retina in areas of cotton-wool spots and control punches. Total RNA was extracted using the TRIzol extraction protocol, and the optimal density of the RNA was measured at an optical density of 260 nm. [Delta]Ct (cytokine) values were calculated using the comparative cytokine analysis method. The results are expressed as a mean fold modulation and as a statistical comparison of Ct values controlling for retinal areas without a lesion in the same eye. RESULTS:: The fold modulations and the statistical comparisons of the cytokines studied in tissues from cotton-wool spots and control retina, respectively, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (5.32x, P = 0.04), and Bcl-2-associated X protein (1.24x, P = 0.05) had a marked elevation of fold modulation and were statistically significant compared with control tissue. Interleukin-8 (1.09x, P = 0.18), interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 (2.7x, P = 0.30) were not significantly expressed in cotton-wool spots. CONCLUSION:: Certain inflammatory human immunodeficiency virus-associated and apoptotic cytokines are expressed in cotton-wool spots in eyes with human immunodeficiency virus retinopathy. PMID:20084053
Kozak, Igor; Cheng, Lingyun; Rought, Steffney; Woelk, Christopher; Barron, Erin C; Schrier, Rachel D; Corbeil, Jacques; Freeman, William R
Introduction Bereaved relatives often refuse to give consent for post-mortem investigation of deceased cancer patients, mainly because of the mutilation due to conventional autopsy (CA). Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) may be a more acceptable alternative and, if implemented in clinical practice, creates an opportunity to more often obtain post-mortem tissue samples of (recurred) primary tumors and metastases for molecular research. As a measure for tissue quality for molecular studies, we hereby present a feasibility study, comparing the RNA quality of MIA and CA samples, and fresh frozen samples as reference. Materials and methods Tissue samples of heart, liver and kidney were prospectively collected from 24 MIAs followed by CA, and compared to corresponding archival fresh frozen tissue. After RNA isolation and RT-qPCR, RNA integrity numbers (RIN) and GAPDH expression (six amplicon sizes ranging from 71 to 530 base pairs) were measured. RIN values and GAPDH Cq values were analyzed and compared between all sample groups and post-mortem intervals (PMI). Results RIN values in MIA samples were significantly higher than those in CA samples. GAPDH was expressed significantly higher in MIA samples than in CA samples and 530 bp PCR products could be measured in all cases. GAPDH expression was significantly lower in samples with PMI >15 hours. As expected, the samples of the fresh frozen reference standard performed best in all analyses. Conclusion MIA samples showed better RNA quality than CA samples, probably due to shorter PMI. Both had lower RNA quality and expression levels than fresh frozen tissue, however, remaining GAPDH RNA was still sufficiently intact. Therefore, other highly expressed genes are most likely also detectable. Gene array analysis should be performed to gain insight into the quality of entire post-mortem genomes. Reducing PMI will further improve the feasibility of demanding molecular research on post-mortem tissues, this is most likely more feasible with MIA than CA. PMID:25531551
Kap, Marcel; Weustink, Annick C.; Riegman, Peter H. J.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with advanced HIV infection at the time of diagnosis and patients not responding to antiretroviral therapy are at risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV disease. Earlier studies of patients with HIV infection have demonstrated that the diagnosis is often first made post-mortem. In recent years new molecular biological tests have become available for diagnosis of CMV disease. Although clinical evaluation of tests for diagnosis of CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals is suboptimal without autopsy, no results from such studies have been published. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic utility of CMV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR in plasma from HIV and CMV seropositive patients who died during the period 1991–2002 and in whom autopsy was performed. Methods Autopsy was performed in all cases, as part of routine evaluation of HIV-infected cases followed at Ullevaal University Hospital. Of 125 patients included, 53 had CMV disease, 37 of whom were first diagnosed at autopsy. CMV disease was diagnosed either by ophthalmoscopic findings typical of CMV retinitis, biopsy or autopsy. One or two plasma samples taken prior to the first diagnosis of CMV disease (alive or at autopsy or death without CMV disease were analysed by CMV quantitative PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for different CMV viral load cut-offs and according to detection of viraemia in one versus two samples. Results Twenty-seven of 53 patients with CMV disease (51% and 10 of 72 patients without CMV disease (14% had detectable viraemia in at least one sample. Sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV of the test, maximised with a cut-off at the test's limit of detection of CMV viraemia (400 copies/mL, were 47% and 70%, respectively. With cut-off at 10 000 copies/mL, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV were 100%. With a requirement for CMV viraemia in two samples, specificity and PPV were 100% in patients with CMV viraemia above the limit of detection. Conclusion Our results indicate that quantitative CMV PCR is best used to rule in, rather than to rule out CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals at high risk.
Goplen Anne K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of data collection and the methods used to assign the cause of death vary significantly among different verbal autopsy protocols, but there are few data to describe the consequences of the choices made. The aim of this study was to objectively define the impact of the format of data presented to physician reviewers on the cause-specific mortality fractions defined by a verbal autopsy-based mortality-surveillance system. Methods Verbal autopsies were done by primary health care workers for all deaths between October 2006 and September 2007 in a community in rural Andhra Pradesh, India (total population about 180,162. Each questionnaire had a structured section, composed of a series of check boxes, and a free-text section, in which a narrative description of the events leading to death was recorded. For each death, a physician coder was presented first with one section and then the other in random order with a 20- to 40-day interval between. A cause of death was recorded for each data format at the level of ICD 10 chapter headings or else the death was documented as unclassified. After another 20- to 40-day interval, both the structured and free-text sections of the questionnaire were presented together and an index cause of death was assigned. Results In all, 1,407 verbal autopsies were available for analysis, representing 94% of all deaths recorded in the population that year. An index cause of death was assigned using the combined data for 1,190 with the other 217 remaining unclassified. The observed cause-specific mortality fractions were the same regardless of whether the structured, free-text or combined data sources were used. At the individual level, the assignments made using the structured format matched the index in 1,012 (72% of cases with a kappa statistic of 0.66. For the free-text format, the corresponding figures were 989 (70% and 0.64. Conclusions The format of the verbal autopsy data used to assign a cause of death did not substantively influence the pattern of mortality estimated. Substantially abbreviated and simplified verbal autopsy questionnaires might provide robust information about high-level mortality patterns.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se actualiza la situación de la autopsia en Cuba y se contrasta con la de otros países. El propósito de este trabajo es argumentar criterios y propuestas en el intento de lograr que la autopsia sea aprovechada al máximo y brinde todos los beneficios que puede y debe aportar. Se destaca que, a pesar [...] de que el índice de autopsias ha descendido al 53,8 %, en fallecidos hospitalizados es mucho mayor que las de otros países. La aplicación de resultados de la investigación científica y de un Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control en Anatomía Patológica, contribuyeron a mejorar la calidad de la autopsia. Se señala el bajo aprovechamiento de los beneficios que brinda la autopsia. Cuba, puede y debe hacer más para confirmar su supremacía en el trabajo con la autopsia, que es una fortaleza de su Sistema Nacional de Salud. Se exponen las perspectivas que permitiría lograr estos propósitos y el papel fundamental que tienen los patólogos en el intento de alcanzar la máxima eficiencia de la autopsia y su mayor aprovechamiento apoyándose en las reuniones sobre fallecidos y en estrecha relación con el resto de los participantes en el proceso. Conseguir estas metas significa contribuir a alargar y hacer más feliz la vida del hombre. Abstract in english This paper presented an update on the situation of autopsy in Cuba and a comparison with that of other countries. The objective was to substantiate criteria and proposals in an attempt to make a full use of autopsy so that it may provide all the benefits that it can and should contribute to medicine [...] . It was underlined that, despite the decrease in the rate of autopsy to 53.8 %, the rate is much higher than that of other nations as far as hospitalized dead people are concerned. It analyzed the quality of autopsy and how some factors -the implementation of the scientific research results and of an automated system of registration and control in pathological anatomy- supported the rise of quality. There was pointed out the low utilization of the benefits of autopsy in the country. Cuba can and should do a lot more to confirm its supremacy in performing autopsy, which is one of the strengths of the Cuban national health care system. The perspectives that would allow attaining these objectives and the fundamental role of pathologists in achieving the highest efficiency and more utilization, supported on the meetings about the dead persons and in close relation with the rest of the participants in this process, were disclosed. Attainment of these goals means to extend the man's life and to make it happier.
José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Ignacio, Ygualada Correa.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se actualiza la situación de la autopsia en Cuba y se contrasta con la de otros países. El propósito de este trabajo es argumentar criterios y propuestas en el intento de lograr que la autopsia sea aprovechada al máximo y brinde todos los beneficios que puede y debe aportar. Se destaca que, a pesar [...] de que el índice de autopsias ha descendido al 53,8 %, en fallecidos hospitalizados es mucho mayor que las de otros países. La aplicación de resultados de la investigación científica y de un Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control en Anatomía Patológica, contribuyeron a mejorar la calidad de la autopsia. Se señala el bajo aprovechamiento de los beneficios que brinda la autopsia. Cuba, puede y debe hacer más para confirmar su supremacía en el trabajo con la autopsia, que es una fortaleza de su Sistema Nacional de Salud. Se exponen las perspectivas que permitiría lograr estos propósitos y el papel fundamental que tienen los patólogos en el intento de alcanzar la máxima eficiencia de la autopsia y su mayor aprovechamiento apoyándose en las reuniones sobre fallecidos y en estrecha relación con el resto de los participantes en el proceso. Conseguir estas metas significa contribuir a alargar y hacer más feliz la vida del hombre. Abstract in english This paper presented an update on the situation of autopsy in Cuba and a comparison with that of other countries. The objective was to substantiate criteria and proposals in an attempt to make a full use of autopsy so that it may provide all the benefits that it can and should contribute to medicine [...] . It was underlined that, despite the decrease in the rate of autopsy to 53.8 %, the rate is much higher than that of other nations as far as hospitalized dead people are concerned. It analyzed the quality of autopsy and how some factors -the implementation of the scientific research results and of an automated system of registration and control in pathological anatomy- supported the rise of quality. There was pointed out the low utilization of the benefits of autopsy in the country. Cuba can and should do a lot more to confirm its supremacy in performing autopsy, which is one of the strengths of the Cuban national health care system. The perspectives that would allow attaining these objectives and the fundamental role of pathologists in achieving the highest efficiency and more utilization, supported on the meetings about the dead persons and in close relation with the rest of the participants in this process, were disclosed. Attainment of these goals means to extend the man's life and to make it happier.
José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Ignacio, Ygualada Correa.
This report summarizes neuropathological, clinical, and general autopsy findings in 105 individuals with nonneoplastic syringomyelia. On the basis of detailed histological findings, three types of cavities were distinguished: 1) dilations of the central canal that communicated directly with the fourth ventricle (47 cases); 2) noncommunicating (isolated) dilations of the central canal that arose below a syrinx-free segment of spinal cord (23 cases); and 3) extracanalicular syrinxes that originated in the spinal cord parenchyma and did not communicate with the central canal (35 cases). The incidence of communicating syrinxes in this study reflects an autopsy bias of morbid conditions such as severe birth defects. Communicating central canal syrinxes were found in association with hydrocephalus. The cavities were lined wholly or partially by ependyma and their overall length was influenced by age-related stenosis of the central canal. Non-communicating central canal syrinxes arose at a variable distance below the fourth ventricle and were associated with disorders that presumably affect cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space, such as the Chiari I malformation, basilar impression, and arachnoiditis. These cavities were usually defined rostrally and caudally by stenosis of the central canal and were much more likely than communicating syrinxes to dissect paracentrally into the parenchymal tissues. The paracentral dissections of the central canal syrinxes occurred preferentially into the posterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord. Extracanalicular (parenchymal) syrinxes were found typically in the watershed area of the spinal cord and were associated with conditions that injure spinal cord tissue (for example, trauma, infarction, and hemorrhage). A distinguishing feature of this type of cavitation was its frequent association with myelomalacia. Extracanalicular syrinxes and the paracentral dissections of central canal syrinxes were lined by glial or fibroglial tissue, ruptured frequently into the spinal subarachnoid space, and were characterized by the presence of central chromatolysis, neuronophagia, and Wallerian degeneration. Some lesions extended rostrally into the medulla or pons (syringobulbia). Although clinical information was incomplete, simple dilations of the central canal tended to produce nonspecific neurological findings such as spastic paraparesis, whereas deficits associated with extracanalicular syrinxes and the paracentral dissections of central canal syrinxes included segmental signs that were referable to affected nuclei and tracts. It is concluded that syringomyelia has several distinct cavitary patterns with different mechanisms of pathogenesis that probably determine the clinical features of the condition. PMID:7714606
Milhorat, T H; Capocelli, A L; Anzil, A P; Kotzen, R M; Milhorat, R H
Full Text Available Background. Patients with implanted aortic coronary grafts have different survival time, which raises the question why the efficacy of graft implants is so poor. The aim of this study was to present the results of the analysis of morphological changes in the vein grafts taken after the death of patients who died after surgery in different time intervals, as well to present the analysis of the grafts obtained after surgical reintervention. Methods. The total number of 656 grafts of 308 dead patients was analyzed, as well as 76 grafts from 40 patients who underwent surgical reintervention. According to the duration of the graft since surgical intervention until death, all the analyzed changes were divided into two groups: a early changes and complications, and b late changes and complications in aorto-coronary vein grafts. Results. After the autopsy, 518 vein grafts from the first group were evaluated histopathologically. Changes were found in the form of small or large areas with peeled endothelium in 266 grafts, with the insudation of fibrin and thrombocytes in such places, subendothelial edema, and occlusive thrombosis of the graft lumen. Significant stenosis, which occurred distally from the anastomoses, was present in 118 grafts without changes in the walls of the graft, and there was significant narrowing of the graft lumen in 134 vein grafts due to intimal hyperplasia. In the second group, 138 grafts were histopathologically analyzed after autopsy. Significant hyperplasia was present in 117 grafts with the migration of smooth muscle cells from media into intima, and in 21 grafts there were atheromatous plaques. In 120 veins analyzed before the graft implantation, the lesion or the lack of endothelium was found, as well as the penetration of fibrin and blood elements and intimal hyperplasia. In 46 veins analyzed before the graft implantation, significant intimal hyperplasia with the elevated number of smooth muscle cells was found. Conclusion. The most frequent lesions in the grafts were the lesions of the endothelium, which caused thrombosis formation and lumen occlusion. Intimal hyperplasia in patients with longer survival time occurred due to the migration of smooth muscle cells from the media, or due to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, which caused graft lumen stenosis or thrombosis.
Clear data on the epidemiology of medical malpractice are missing, at least for Germany. Especially data on the frequency of malpractice claims in penal and civil law are not available. However, from epidemiological and healthcare research some data on the frequency of adverse events (AE), preventable adverse events (PAE) and negligent adverse events (NAE) are available. According to a review of the German Alliance of Patient Safety adverse events can be expected in 5-10%, preventable adverse events in 2-4%, negligent adverse events in about 1% and lethal outcome in about 0.1% of hospitalized patients. However, these data are not compatible with figures from civil and penal law and there seems to be a great "litigation gap". Data on malpractice cases are available from the files of the arbitration committees on medical malpractice, files of liability insurance companies and files of the institutes of forensic medicine. However, these files are not complete and data sources may have some interferences. The arbitration committees are, however, mainly dealing with living patients. Lethal cases are a special subgroup and the best available data source are the files of the institutes of forensic medicine. This subgroup is of special importance since death is the most severe outcome of medical malpractice and the reproach to have caused the death of a patient by medical negligence is the most severe malpractice claim. From a retrospective multicentre study on autopsies performed in cases of medical malpractice claims (altogether 101.358 autopsies, 4450 due to medical malpractice claims) the most important data will be presented (disciplines concerned, cause of accusation, classification of accusation, causes of preliminary proceedings, occupational group and number of approved medical malpractice, outcome of medical malpractice proceedings). However, these data are not only of a descriptive value but have utmost importance also for risk analysis and to increase patient safety. A thorough evaluation of serious incidences, although less sophisticated than a root cause analysis, produces far more information than the usual hospital reporting system. Identification and evaluation of errors as well as reporting of errors may also contribute to the prevention of errors which is among other medical disciplines also a task of forensic medicine. PMID:19289305
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever ocorrência e morfologia da neurocisticercose (NCC) autópsias. Revisou-se 2218 autópsias realizadas no Hospital Escola da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), 1970-2003. Registrou-se idade, gênero e cor dos pacientes, analisou-se macroscopia e micr [...] oscopia da NCC. Encontrou-se 53 (2,4%) casos de NCC. A média das idades foi 50 anos, sendo 34 (64,1%) do sexo masculino e 36 (67,9%) brancos, não havendo diferença significante na comparação da idade, gênero e cor dos pacientes. Analisou-se macroscopicamente 17 cisticercos. A localização mais comum foi a meningo-cortical em 12 (70,6%) casos. Microscopicamente, os cisticercos apresentaram forma oval contendo a larva íntegra em 4 (23,5%) casos ou em grau de destruição em 13 (76,5%) casos. Portanto, na NCC foram verificados vários processos patológicos gerais (necrose, depósitos intersticiais, fibrose, gliose, inflamação) destacando-se: beta-fibrilose em 13 (76,5%) casos associada ao processo inflamatório em 16(94,1%) casos causado pelo parasito, ainda não relatada na NCC, e calcificação presente no parasito viável e em destruição. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to describe the occurrence and morphology of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in autopsies. We revised 2218 autopsies performed at the School Hospital from Federal Unversity of Triangulo Mineiro, 1970-2003. Data referring to age, gender and color of patients were reported and NCC w [...] as microscopically and macroscopically analyzed. We found 53 (2.4%) NCC cases. The mean age was 50 years old, 34 (64.1%) individuals were male and 36 (67.9%) white. Macroscopically, 17 cysticerci were analyzed. The most frequent location was meningocortical in 12 (70.6%) cases. Microscopically, the cysticerci presented an ovoid shape, containing the larvae preserved in 4 (23.5%) cases or in destruction degrees in 13 (76.5%) cases. Therefore, in NCC was found several general pathologic processes (necrosis, interstitial deposits, fibrosis, gliosis, inflammation) amongst which are highlighted beta-fibrillose in 13 (76.5%) cases associated to inflammatory process in 16 (94.1%) cases caused by the parasite, not yet related to NCC, and calcification present in viable and destruction parasites.
Ruy de Souza, Lino-Junior; Ana Carolina Guimarães, Faleiros; Marina Clare, Vinaud; Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Janaína Valadares, Guimarães; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis; Vicente de Paula Antunes, Teixeira.
Morphological and statistical analysis of true porencephaly based on 2793 autopsies of children aged up to 18 years showed 12 cases of porencephaly, accounting for 0.43% of the autopsy material, and 5.2% of all anomalies of the central nervous system in this age group. The greatest number of porencephaly cases (6) was in the age group 3-18 years. The anomaly was twice as frequent in boys (8 cases) than girls (4 cases). Nine cases of porencephaly showed coexistence of other developmental anomalies (75%) mainly with those of central nervous system, especially microecephaly, congenital hydrocephalus, which could indicate a genetic determination of the anomaly. The most frequent associated neurological singn in porencephaly was psychomotor underdevelopment. PMID:3226475
Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Sobaniec, W; Ostapiuk, H
Autopsy findings of gastric cancer were examined in 265 patients consisting of those exposed at ? 2,000 m from the hypocenter (group 1), those exposed at > 2,000 m or those entering the city after the bombing (group 2), and non-exposed controls (group 3). The largest number of patients was in their sixties and seventies, irrespective of exposure status. Overall, the ratio of men to women was 1.6 : 1. The incidence of gastric cancer decreased up to 1975 in all groups. Thereafter, it began to increase, especially in group 1. The most common site of cancer was the pyloric antrum in all groups. Histologically, poorly differentiated type was observed most frequently in group 1; however, this was not statistically significant. Multiple primaries, which were unlikely to be related to exposure, were observed in 22 autopsy cases. (Namekawa, K.)
Although the Japanese Thorotrast study was limited by the number of cases that could be followed or autopsied, (286 and 333) the following conclusions were made:- 1. Shortening of the lifespan occurred in the intravascular Thorotrast follow-up cases as compared with their controls. 2. The incidence of malignant hepatic tumours, liver cirrhosis, blood diseases and carcinoma of the gall-bladder was significantly higher in the intravascular Thorotrast cases than in their controls. 3. A chronological change occurred in the distribution of histological types of Thorotrast-induced malignant hepatic tumours during the 42-year period from 1945 to 1986. 4. A significantly higher rate of malignant peritoneal tumours was proved in the intravascular Thorotrast autopsy series as compared with the control autopsy series. 5. From the relationship between the follow-up study and the autopsy series, the authors estimated that 2000-3000 Japanese lived more than 3 years after intravascular injection of Thorotrast. (author)
Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in younger persons. Specifically, we recorded information on symptoms, comorbidity, medical contact, if this had been required, and subsequent autopsy findings.
Theilade, J; Winkel, B G
The relationship between endothelial reactivity to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) and the permeability of the vascular wall in human autopsied cases ol' cerebral infarction was studied. Sections from the cerebral cortex were reacted with horseradish peroxidase UEA-1 to demonstrate the surface membrane of endothelial cells. Albumin in the neuropil of sections was de~nonstrated for the estimation of increased vascular permeability. The results showed that en...
Eizi Kadota; Kurenai Tanji; Shozo Nishida; Manabu Takahashi; Mitsuyo Maeda; Shingo Hiruma; Yoshiki Enomoto; Shigeo Hashimoto; Fumiharu Akai
Full Text Available Abstract Background Computed Tomography (CT has become a widely used supplement to medico legal autopsies at several forensic institutes. Amongst other things, it has proven to be very valuable in visualising fractures of the cranium. Also CT scan data are being used to create head models for biomechanical trauma analysis by Finite Element Analysis. If CT scan data are to be used for creating individual head models for retrograde trauma analysis in the future we need to ascertain how well cranial fractures are captured by CT scan. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic agreement between CT and autopsy regarding cranial fractures and especially the precision with which cranial fractures are recorded. Methods The autopsy fracture diagnosis was compared to the diagnosis of two CT readings (reconstructed with Multiplanar and Maximum Intensity Projection reconstructions by registering the fractures on schematic drawings. The extent of the fractures was quantified by merging 3-dimensional datasets from both the autopsy as input by 3D digitizer tracing and CT scan. Results The results showed a good diagnostic agreement regarding fractures localised in the posterior fossa, while the fracture diagnosis in the medial and anterior fossa was difficult at the first CT scan reading. The fracture diagnosis improved during the second CT scan reading. Thus using two different CT reconstructions improved diagnosis in the medial fossa and at the impact points in the cranial vault. However, fracture diagnosis in the anterior and medial fossa and of hairline fractures in general still remained difficult. Conclusion The study showed that the forensically important fracture systems to a large extent were diagnosed on CT images using Multiplanar and Maximum Intensity Projection reconstructions. Difficulties remained in the minute diagnosis of hairline fractures. These inconsistencies need to be resolved in order to use CT scan data of victims for individual head modelling and trauma analysis.
The availability of mortality data for any society plays an essential role in health monitoring and evaluation, as well as in the design of health interventions. However, most resource-poor countries such as Ghana have no reliable vital registration system. In these instances, verbal autopsy (VA) may be used as an alternative method to gather mortality data. In rural Ghana, the research team utilized a VA questionnaire to interview caretakers who were present with a child under the age of fiv...
Ty Dickerson; Benjamin Crookston; Joseph Boaheng; Brian Good; Ryan Harvey; Daniel Ansong; Adrienne Carey; Stephen Manortey
The pathomorphological features of 106 autopsy cases of Thorotrast-related malignant tumours of the liver were studied and compared to those of non-Thorotrast-related cases. Among the 106 cases, 44 (41.5%) were cholangiocarcinoma, 42 (39.6%) were angiosarcoma, 17 (16.0%) were hepatocellular carcinoma, and three (2.8%) were double cancers. In contrast, in non-Thorotrast-related cases about 90% of the cases were hepatocellular and angiosarcoma was extremely rare. (author)
Computed tomography (CT) is now the primary diagnostic method for head trauma because of its ability to demonstrate the nature, extent, sites, and multiplicity of brain injuries. Although there have been numerous reports on the CT findings of most types of intracranial injury, the findings in brainstem injury have not been well described. This study aimed at comparing the autopsy findings of brainstem in head trauma in comparison with CT scan results. Two hundred patients with head trauma, wh...
Shakeri Bavil Moslem; Ashrafian Fereydun; Daghighi Mohammad Ali; Samadi Rad Bahram; Zeinali Ali
Abstract Background In 2004, the media repeatedly reported water pollution and "cancer villages" along the Huai River in China. Due to the lack of death records for more than 30 years, a retrospective survey of causes of death using verbal autopsy was carried out to investigate cancer rates in this area. Methods An epidemiologic study was designed to compare numbers of deaths and causes of death between the study areas with water pollution and the control areas ...
Ding Ding; Tao Zhuang; Zhou Maigeng; Wan Xia; Yang Gonghuan
The HIV epidemic in the Asian subcontinent has a significant impact on India. The AIDS associated pathology has not been well evaluated in a representative study hence very little is known about the spectrum of HIV/AIDS associated diseases in Indian subcontinent. To determine the important postmortem findings in HIV infected individuals in Mumbai, autopsy study was carried out. The patient population included patients with AIDS who died at the tertiary care hospital over a 20 year period from...
Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar
A potable water treatment plant, supplied from a low NOM (natural organic matter), low turbidity source with precoagulation and two-stage pressure sand filtration, had a MF (microfiltration) membrane process added to meet UK Water Regulations. An autopsy of the membrane modules showed that despite upstream coagulation/filtration with chlorination, a biofilm of EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) and inorganic particulates had developed. Backwashing under laboratory conditions yielded an almost full recovery. Laboratory-scale modules of fouled fibres from pre-commissioning and post-commissioning were assembled and cleaned. The recovery was modelled and optimized with a response surface experiment using variables of concentration, soak period and temperature. The pre-commissioning fibres were more recovered by longer chemical soak times at higher cleanant concentrations than the post-commissioning fibres. Comparative tests on post-commissioning fibres indicated that full recovery was possible with organic acids. It was concluded that start-up of new membrane plants may involve fouling conditions not necessarily representative of those under routine operating conditions, such that modification to prescribed cleaning operations may be required. PMID:19603708
Porcelli, N; Hillis, P; Judd, S
Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computerized tomography can visualize dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Some studies have suggested that dopamine transporter imaging can distinguish these disorders based on a more diffuse and symmetric striatal dopamine transporter binding loss in multiple system atrophy. The present study compared patterns of striatal dopamine transporter distribution in postmortem-confirmed Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Patients with a postmortem diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (n = 6) or Parkinson's disease (n = 8) who had undergone dopamine transporter imaging were included. Imaging had been performed after a mean disease duration of 3.6 and 4.1 years in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease, respectively. Visual analysis showed bilaterally reduced binding in all patients. Mean overall striatal binding was reduced by 53% in multiple system atrophy and 52% in Parkinson's disease. There was a trend for greater asymmetry of striatal binding in multiple system atrophy compared with Parkinson's disease (23% ± 15% vs 10.5% ± 7%, respectively; P = .071), with 3 multiple system atrophy patients showing more asymmetry of striatal binding than any Parkinson's disease patient. Putamen/caudate binding ratios did not differ between the groups. This is the first study comparing dopamine transporter imaging in autopsy-confirmed multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease. Unexpectedly, we found a tendency for greater asymmetry of striatal binding in multiple system atrophy than in Parkinson's disease. Our findings demonstrate that these conditions cannot be differentiated by subregional analysis of striatal dopamine transporter binding. PMID:22102521
Perju-Dumbrava, Laura D; Kovacs, Gabor G; Pirker, Susanne; Jellinger, Kurt; Hoffmann, Martha; Asenbaum, Susanne; Pirker, Walter
Rubber bullets are one of the less-lethal (nonlethal) weapons, which are increasingly used to incapacitate dangerous individuals, avoiding use of firearms. An autopsy examination of a man who was shot with improved rubber bullets revealed that the bullet caused pulmonary contusion. The bullet was 30 g in weight and consisted of a sponge foam nose with 40-mm diameter and a plastic body. He was not incapacitated and died of suicidal gunshot wound. The case raised a question as to how severe an injury is necessary to deter a person without causing death. A variety of rubber bullets have been used in the world, and they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries. A review of the literature demonstrated that the feature of injuries appeared to be related to the type of missile. It becomes more important for a forensic pathologist to be familiar with rubber bullets and injuries caused by them as the use of less-lethal weapon increases. PMID:19696582
Kobayashi, Masahiko; Mellen, Paul F
The patient was a 70-year-old woman with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma which showed a predominantly diffuse involvement of the bone marrow and kidney. Because atypical lymphocytes appeared in the cerebrospinal fluid, the intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX) and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) was repeated several times. The patient developed flaccid paraplegia 8 months after the beginning of intrathecal administration, and died 4 months later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive transverse necrosis involving the lower thoracic cord and marked vacuolar degeneration of the white matter of the cervical, upper thoracic and lumbo-sacral cord. Focal vacuolar degeneration of the white matter was also noted in the left parietal lobe. Although vacuolar degeneration of the white matter is a common feature in MTX myelopathy, extensive transverse necrosis is rare. In the present case, an overlapping of two mechanisms, that is, injury of vascular endothelial cells and the direct toxic effect of MTX and Ara-C on the white matter, probably played a crucial role in the pathogenesis of severe myelopathy. Because severe myelopathy occurs infrequently, considering the large number of patients receiving the intrathecal administration of MTX, it is possible that a constitutional predisposition or abnormal sensitivity to MTX was involved in the pathogenesis in the present patient. PMID:24985097
Shintaku, Masayuki; Toyooka, Nao; Koyama, Takashi; Teraoka, Shunsuke; Tsudo, Mitsuru
On July 2, 1881, Charles Julius Guiteau shot President James Abram Garfield in the right flank. The President died because of infection produced by the unsterile fingers and probes repeatedly inserted into the wound. The major complaint of the wounded President was intractable pain in his legs and feet. This symptom failed to alert the doctors to the possibility of vertebral and spinal cord injury. Garfield died with sepsis after 80 days of intense national concern, and for the patient there was psychological, physical, and nutritional deprivation. His autopsy revealed the bullet was not in the pelvis as his doctors had expected, but adjacent to the first lumbar vertebra it had shattered. The trial and execution of Guiteau split the medical community into those that considered him insane and those who felt execution was justified. Guiteau was delusional and his brain revealed chronic inflammation and histological features suggestive of syphilis. At the time, and since, the propriety of the execution has been questioned. PMID:16608737
Full Text Available Infecção assintomática por Strongyloides stercoralis pode resultar em doença potencialmente fatal em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Os autores relatam caso de hiperinfecção por Strongyloides stercoralis descoberto à autópsia, enfatizando aspectos clinicopatológicos, em homem de 55 anos, em tratamento para mieloma múltiplo. Apresentava, havia um dia, cefaléia intensa, dor abdominal e oligúria desenvolvendo insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque séptico. Devido à dificuldade no diagnóstico, o tratamento empírico antes do início da terapia imunossupressora pode ser a melhor estratégia para prevenir a hiperinfecção pelo verme.Asymptomatic infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis may result in potentially fatal disease in immunodepressed patients. A case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection discovered at autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had been undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma is reported, emphasizing the clinical and pathological findings. One day earlier, he presented severe headache, abdominal pain and oliguria, from which he developed acute respiratory failure and septic shock. Because of difficulty in reaching this diagnosis, empirical treatment before starting immunosuppressive therapy may be the best strategy for preventing hyperinfection by this worm.
Moema Gonçalves Pinheiro Veloso
The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed.
Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.
The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissues for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fallout from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods minimum detection limits, problems with aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed.
Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.L.; McInroy, J.F.
A 43-year-old female presented with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) manifesting as an intraventricular mass lesion and leptomeningeal and cerebral parenchymal infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. She had no history of either malignancy or allergic disorder. She complained of hearing disturbance caused by eosinophilic otitis media. Eosinophilia was detected in the peripheral blood. Hearing disturbance and eosinophilia improved with corticosteroid treatment. Six months later, she was admitted with disturbances of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion in the right lateral ventricle and leptomeningeal involvement around the brain stem. Her symptoms deteriorated rapidly, and she died of brain stem malfunction. Autopsy demonstrated significant infiltration by eosinophils and lymphocytes into the mass lesion in the ventricle, subarachnoid space, perivascular space and parenchyma of the medulla oblongata. Histological examination of the bone marrow and other organs did not detect any evidence of parasites, malignancies, or systemic disorders in any organ. The final diagnosis was idiopathic HES. The present case shows that leptomeningeal dissemination and infiltration by eosinophils into the cerebral ventricles and brain stem should be considered in the course of idiopathic HES. PMID:19537138
Kanamori, M; Suzuki, H; Sato, I; Ohyama, K; Tezuka, F; Katakura, R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The SERPINA1, SERPINA3, and SERPINE2 genes, which encode antiproteases, have been proposed to be susceptible genes for of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and related phenotypes. Whether they are associated with emphysema is not known. Methods Twelve previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SERPINA1 (rs8004738, rs17751769, rs709932, rs11832, rs1303, rs28929474, and rs17580, SERPINA3 (rs4934, rs17473, and rs1800463, and SERPINE2 (rs840088 and rs975278 were genotyped in samples obtained from 1,335 consecutive autopsies of elderly Japanese people. The association between these SNPs and the severity of emphysema, as assessed using macroscopic scores, was determined. Results Emphysema of more than moderate degree was detected in 189 subjects (14.1% and showed a significant gender difference (males, 20.5% and females, 7.0%; p SERPINE2 gene was positively associated with emphysema. Unlike the major alleles, homozygous minor alleles of rs975278 were associated with emphysema (odds ratio (OR = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.02-2.30; p = 0.037 and the association was very prominent in smokers (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.29-3.15; p = 0.002. Conclusions SERPINE2 may be a risk factor for the development of emphysema and its association with emphysema may be stronger in smokers.
Alpha-particle autoradiography and associated quantitative analysis of ?-particle tracks in CR-39 plastic have been used in a continuing study of the microdistribution of ?-active nuclides in autopsy lung tissue. Data from 18 whole lungs are presented and constitute nine cases with a known history of smoking, six cases known to be nonsmokers and three lungs from coal miners. There was no evidence of greater activity in the lungs of smokers compared with nonsmokers. The activity values lay in the range expected from natural background i.e. between 0.1 and 3.0 Bq kg-1. The low-level detection limit was -1. In lymph nodes, activity values were 10-50 times higher, with a higher proportion due to multiple activity from single points. There was evidence of higher activity at the visceral pleura compared to that at points a few millimeters within the parenchyma itself, an observation interpreted as due to transport of particles by macrophages to the lung periphery. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aorto-arterial thrombosis is very often associated with atherosclerotic and/or aneurysmal changes. Thrombosis, unrelated to these changes is infrequent. AIMS: To evaluate the clinical presentation and aetiopathogenesis of aorto-arterial thrombosis, unrelated to atherosclerosis and aneurysms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 30 autopsied cases of non-atherosclerotic and non-aneurysmal aorto-arterial thrombosis collected over a period of 14 years was carried out. RESULTS: There were 23 males and seven females and majority presented in the third to fourth decades of life with clinical features of acute abdomen or lower limb gangrene. Abdominal aorta as the site of thrombosis was observed in 46.5% cases. The causes were attributed to hypercoagulable states and changes in the aortic wall. No aetiology could be identified in 5 patients (16.6%. Associated tuberculosis was seen in six cases. CONCLUSIONS: Non-atherosclerotic aortic thrombosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Young and even elderly patients with symptoms related to abdominal ischaemia or peripheral vascular disease should be investigated thoroughly for hypercoagulable states and aortic pathology.
This study reports the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human blood sera samples (n = 650) obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(a)P was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(k)fluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment. PMID:25547400
Ramesh, Aramandla; Kumar, Anil; Aramandla, Mounika P; Nyanda, Alfred M
Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.
To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)
We report an autopsy case of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) with a five-year clinical course. A 67-year-old man was suffering from a gait disturbance and mental deterioration. Neurological examination at the age of 71 revealed pseudobulbar palsy, horizontal ophthalmoplegia, and truncal dystonia, and a diagnosis of PSP was made. Mental deterioration including forgetfulness and character change was also noted, and the patient sometimes exhibited intermittent stuporous states. Cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed moderate brain atrophy, predominantly in the frontal lobes. The patient died of bronchopneumonia at the age of 71. Neuropathological examination confirmed typical pathological changes of PSP, such as neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangles, and fibrillary gliosis in the subcortical nuclei. Gallyas-Braak silver impregnation revealed neurofibrillary tangles, silver-positive glia and thread-like structures in degenerating subcortical nuclei. In addition to these classical lesions, the argentophilic structures were detected in the cerebral cortex, cortical white matter and cerebellar white matter. In the cerebral cortex, they were abundant mostly in the precentral gyrus and subcortical white matter. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that most silver-positive structures were also tau 2 antibody-positive. Thus, these argentophilic structures seemed to be closely related to abnormal tau protein. Their distribution in this case implies that lesions related to abnormal tau protein may occur more extensively in the brains of PSP than expected. PMID:8060688
Hanihara, T; Kubota, H; Amano, N; Yamaoka, K; Yagishita, S
Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F1) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F2) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F1 and F2. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F1 and F2. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F1 and F2. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecção assintomática por Strongyloides stercoralis pode resultar em doença potencialmente fatal em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Os autores relatam caso de hiperinfecção por Strongyloides stercoralis descoberto à autópsia, enfatizando aspectos clinicopatológicos, em homem de 55 anos, em tratamento pa [...] ra mieloma múltiplo. Apresentava, havia um dia, cefaléia intensa, dor abdominal e oligúria desenvolvendo insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque séptico. Devido à dificuldade no diagnóstico, o tratamento empírico antes do início da terapia imunossupressora pode ser a melhor estratégia para prevenir a hiperinfecção pelo verme. Abstract in english Asymptomatic infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis may result in potentially fatal disease in immunodepressed patients. A case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection discovered at autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had been undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma is reported, emphasizing t [...] he clinical and pathological findings. One day earlier, he presented severe headache, abdominal pain and oliguria, from which he developed acute respiratory failure and septic shock. Because of difficulty in reaching this diagnosis, empirical treatment before starting immunosuppressive therapy may be the best strategy for preventing hyperinfection by this worm.
Moema Gonçalves Pinheiro, Veloso; Anita Sperandio, Porto; Mário, Moraes.
Cardiac disease and cardiac death in AIDS patients is seldom reported. In recent years minor cardiac abnormalities have been demonstrated, especially by echocardiography. Cardiac pathology in AIDS patients is here reported from 60 consecutive autopsies where the heart was investigated either using single samples of ventricular myocardium (the first 21 cases) or by an examination of the whole heart (the last 39 cases). Myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria was seen in 25 of 60 cases (42%), and in seven of these cases a probable pathogen (Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, fungi) was demonstrated. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis was seen in 40 of 60 cases (67%) and is considered to be partly due to repair after myocyte necrosis/myocarditis. A myocardium thus weakened might not be able to meet an increase in functional demand, and in 15 of the 39 cases (38%) where an examination of the whole heart was performed, there was dilation and/or hypertrophy of the right ventricle. This is in agreement with our knowledge that the main diseases and main causes of death in AIDS patients are pulmonary. Survival time in AIDS is increasing due to ever improving symptomatic treatment, and the results of this study indicate that the prevalence of especially right-sided heart failure will increase.
Hansen, B F
The unique case of a 50-year-old known alcoholic whose corpse was exhumed 27 years after death is reported. The man apparently committed suicide by hanging, but many years later the case was questioned and homicide-linked to a long-lasting serial killer case-was suspected. Thus, the corpse was exhumed, and at the autopsy it was found to be naturally mummified. This fact permitted the analysis of body tissues with the aim to investigate the persistence of ethanol conjugates in the biological material 27 years after death. Fragments of liver and kidney, a blood clot, and a hair strand were collected and submitted to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) were identified and quantified in the liver, the kidney, and the blood clot. Hair analysis was found to be severely affected by ion suppression even after solid phase extraction. Consequently, EtG was identified in all hair segments (0-3 cm, 3-6 cm, and 6-10 cm), but no reliable quantification could be carried out. In summary, our findings demonstrate that, notwithstanding the expected conjugate degradation, EtG and EtS can be indicative of ante-mortem use of alcohol even many years after death. PMID:18661140
Politi, Lucia; Morini, Luca; Mari, Francesco; Groppi, Angelo; Bertol, Elisabetta
The aim of this investigation was to identify and characterise pathogenic mutations in a sudden cardiac death (SCD) cohort suspected of cardiomyopathy in persons aged 0-40 years. The study material for the genetic screening of cardiomyopathies consisted of 41 cases and was selected from the case database at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. Mutational screening by DNA sequencing was performed to detect mutations in DNA samples from deceased persons suspected of suffering from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricle cardiomyopathy (ARVC). A total of 9 of the examined 41 cases had a rare sequence variant in the MYBPC3, MYH7, LMNA, PKP2 or TMEM43 genes, of which 4 cases (9.8%) were presumed to be pathogenic mutations. The presumed pathogenic mutations were distributed with one case of suspected HCM and DCM (MYH7; p.R442H), one case of suspected DCM (LMNA; p.R471H), and two cases of suspected ARVC (PKP2; p.R79X and LMNA; p.R644C). The presented data adds important information on the genetic elements of SCD in the young, and calls for expert pathological evaluation and molecular autopsy in the post-mortem examination of SCD victims with structural anomalies of the heart.
Larsen, Maiken Kudahl; Nissen, P H
Sudden death caused by the acute onset of diabetic coma is reported. A 15-year-old female had been suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus for the prior 8 years and had a fever and vomiting for the past few days. On the 4th day, after the onset of fever and vomiting, she died suddenly, and was autopsied to clarify the cause of death. Macroscopic examination revealed that the pancreas was atrophic (40 g) whereas the liver was markedly enlarged (2,740 g). Histological findings were: 1) The islets of Langerhans were decreased in size and number. They were not positive for aldehyde-fuchsin staining, 2) There were severe fatty changes in the liver cells. The retained blood in the left ventricle was analyzed: glucose, 1,016 mg/dl; acetone, 345 mg/l; acetoacetate, 5.91 mmol/l: D-3-hydroxybutyrate, 4.17 mmol/l; hemoglobin A1c, 10.2%; fructosamine, 416 mumol/l; total serum cholesterol, 220 mg/dl; triglycerides, 205 mg/dl; free fatty acid, 8.0 mEq/l; urea nitrogen, 40 mg/dl. Although the biochemical estimation of the glucose and ketone levels in post-mortem body fluids was recognized as being unreliable, many of these values were far elevated in comparison with those of normal individuals. Thus, we concluded that the cause of death was diabetic ketoacidosis. We also discuss the diagnostic problems of postmortem blood chemistry. PMID:9184021
Yamazaki, M; Ogura, Y; Wakasugi, C; Mitsukuni, Y; Yoshimura, M
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A patient with mantle cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented herself with fever, nausea, right upper quadrant pain on the 7th day of R-CHOP chemotherapy. After hospitalization with the suspicion of acute cholecystitis, she received antibiotherapy with G-CSF because of emerging neutropenia at the 10th [...] day of chemotherapy. Abdominal computed tomography revealed small infarcts in the spleen and kidneys. The echymotic lesion which developed on her right lateral malleolus, became bullous in the following days and treated as ecthyma gangrenosum. Altough the patient was afebrile with a normal neutrophil count on the third day of antibiotherapy, she developed acute renal failure and deteriorated rapidly. The patient underwent hemodialysis but expired on the 10th day of hospitalization. Post mortem autopsy findings showed ischemic infarction and necrosis of parenchyma due to mycotic thrombosis of arteries and veins of many organs (heart, lung, diaphgram, kidneys, spleen, gut mucosa) as well as invasion of vessel walls and parenchyma by mucor. We reviewed mucormycosis in the light of this case.
Inci, Alacacioglu; Aydanur, Kargi; Mehmet Ali, Ozcan; Ozden, Piskin; Cilem, Solak; Mustafa, Secil; Mehtat, Unlu; Fatih, Demirkan; Guner Hayri, Ozsan; Bulent, Undar.
We retrospectively analyzed central tegmental tract (CTT) lesions in 120 consecutive autopsy cases of developmental brain disorders to investigate the significance of symmetrical CTT lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CTT lesions have been sporadically reported in various cases of child neurological diseases. In this study, symmetrical CTT lesions were observed in 25 (20.8%) among 120 cases of developmental brain disorders. These 25 cases were classified into three groups (groups I-III) in decreasing order of the severity of the lesion. Compared to five cases of group I in which CTT lesions were accompanied by diffuse tegmental damage, 20 cases of groups II or III developed relatively selective CTT lesions in which the medial longitudinal fasciculus and/or medial or lateral lemniscus were preserved. The causes of brain disorders in all three groups seemed to be different, and lysosomal disorders and congenital brain anomalies were frequently seen in cases in groups II and III, respectively. The dentato-rubro-olivary system is known to be involved in palatal myoclonus, and five out of 13 cases in group II showed myoclonic epilepsy. Compared with 95 cases without the CTT lesion, the changes in the pontine reticular formation were more closely associated with the CTT lesion than those in the inferior olivary nucleus. In conclusion, in cases of developmental brain disorders, the neuropathology of the symmetrical CTT lesion should be investigated. PMID:20970935
Shioda, Mutsuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Osawa, Makiko
Advanced variant detection in genes underlying risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) can uncover extensive epistatic complexity and improve diagnostic accuracy of epilepsy-related mortality. However, the sensitivity and clinical utility of diagnostic panels based solely on established cardiac arrhythmia genes in the molecular autopsy of SUDEP is unknown. We applied the established clinical diagnostic panels, followed by sequencing and a high density copy number variant (CNV) detection array of an additional 253 related ion channel subunit genes to analyze the overall genomic variation in a SUDEP of the 3-year-old proband with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI). We uncovered complex combinations of single nucleotide polymorphisms and CNVs in genes expressed in both neurocardiac and respiratory control pathways, including SCN1A, KCNA1, RYR3, and HTR2C. Our findings demonstrate the importance of comprehensive high-resolution variant analysis in the assessment of personally relevant SUDEP risk. In this case, the combination of de novo single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and CNVs in the SCN1A and KCNA1 genes, respectively, is suspected to be the principal risk factor for both epilepsy and premature death. However, consideration of the overall biologically relevant variant complexity with its extensive functional epistatic interactions reveals potential personal risk more accurately. PMID:24372310
Klassen, Tara L; Bomben, Valerie C; Patel, Ankita; Drabek, Janice; Chen, Tim T; Gu, Wenli; Zhang, Feng; Chapman, Kevin; Lupski, James R; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Goldman, A M
The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissues for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fallout from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods minimum detection limits, problems with aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed
Autopsy-proven causes of death in lungs of patients immunocompromised by secondary interstitial pneumonia Causas de óbito por pneumonia intersticial secundária em autópsias pulmonares de pacientes imunocomprometidos
PURPOSE: To present the more frequent associations found in autopsies of immunocompromised patients who developed secondary interstitial pneumonia as well as the risk of death (odds ratio) in having specific secondary interstitial pneumonia according to the cause of immunocompromise. METHOD: From January 1994 to March 2004, 17,000 autopsies were performed at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. After examining the pathology report review, we selected 558 of these auto...
Alberto Antonio Terrabuio Junior; Edwin Roger Parra; Cecília Farhat; Vera Luiza Capelozzi
Heritable arrhythmia syndromes, including Brugada syndrome (BrS) and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF), may serve as the pathogenic basis for autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death (SUD) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Emerging evidence has linked perturbations in the transient outward current (Ito) conducted by the KCND3-encoded Kv4.3 pore-forming ?-subunit to BrS or IVF. However, the contribution of KCND3 mutations to autopsy-negative SUD/SIDS is unknown. To investigate...
Giudicessi, John R.; Ye, Dan; Kritzberger, Chad J.; Nesterenko, Vladislav V.; Tester, David J.; Antzelevitch, Charles; Ackerman, Michael J.
This 4th edition of Handbook of Autopsy Practice is a thoroughly updated version. Autopsy practice has undergone significant changes in recent time due to technological advancements such as molecular diagnostics, immunohistochemisty and the introduction of post-mortem imaging techniques. In the same period the autopsy rate in teaching hospitals has declined. A comprehensive and updated version is therefore most welcome. Part I have six completely new chapters, and contain an assortment of tools of great practical value for the forensic pathologist. There is for example a next-of-kin letter for the family of the deceased and a quality assurance worksheet. The text is written in a well-formulated language, and is not too long. The illustrations and photos are of a high quality. All photos are black-and-white. The book covers a broad area of relevance to autopsy practice, including specialized techniques used for post-mortem investigation of the cardio-vascular system, the nervous system and eye and adnexa. Autopsy microbiology, chemistry and chromosome analysis and autopsies of bodies containing radioactive material are also among the topics that are addressed in this handbook, as well as post-mortem imaging techniques. Part II begins with a list of special histologic stains, but the bulk is devoted to an alphabetic listing of major diseases with possible or expected findings and recommended procedures. This part has also been updated with new diseases and recent references. Part III provides a series of tables providing organ weights and body measurements for foetuses, children and adults. The Handbook of Autopsy Practice fulfils its purpose, and is a very worthwhile purchase for any autopsy facility.
Leth, Peter Mygind
Hemopericardium is a common finding at autopsy, but it may represent a challenge for the forensic pathologist when the etiopathological relationship in causing death is requested. Hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade can be evaluated in living people using radiological techniques, in particular computer tomography (CT). Only a few studies are reported in literature involving post-mortem (PM) cases, where PMCT imaging has been used in order to investigate acute hemopericardium, and they have shown a good accuracy of this technique. Here we report a case involving a 70-year-old white male found dead on the beach, with a medical history of hepatitis C and chronic hypertension with a poor pharmacological response. A PMCT was performed about 3 h after the discovery of the body. The PMCT examination showed an intrapericardial aortic dissection associated to a periaortic hematoma, a sickle-shaped intramural hematoma, a false lumen, and a hemopericardium consisting in fluid and clotted blood. In this case, the PMCT was able to identify the cause of death, even though a traditional autopsy was required to confirm the radiological findings. PMCT is a reliable technique, which in chosen cases, can be performed without the need for a traditional autopsy to be carried out. PMID:25593587
Gitto, Lorenzo; Serinelli, Serenella; Busardò, Francesco P; Panebianco, Valeria; Bolino, Giorgio; Maiese, Aniello
Full Text Available Context: In the South African mining sector, cardiorespiratory-specific autopsies are conducted under the Occupational Diseases in Mines and Works Act (ODMWA on deceased mineworkers to determine eligibility for compensation. However, low levels of autopsy utilisation undermine the value of the service. Objective: To explore enablers and barriers to consent that impact on ODMWA autopsy utilisation for posthumous monetary compensation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with mineworkers, widows and relatives of deceased mineworkers as well as traditional healers and mine occupational health practitioners. Results: A range of socio-cultural barriers to consent for an autopsy was identified. These barriers were largely related to gendered power relations, traditional and religious beliefs, and communication and trust. Understanding these barriers presents opportunities to intervene so as to increase autopsy utilisation. Conclusions: Effective interventions could include engagement with healthy mine-workers and their families and re-evaluating the permanent removal of organs. The study adds to our understanding of utilisation of the autopsy services.
Audrey V. Banyini
Validity of verbal autopsy for ascertaining the causes of stillbirth / Validité de l'autopsie verbale dans la détermination des causes de mortinaissance / Validez de las investigaciones verbales para determinar las causas de la mortinatalidad
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Validar las entrevistas verbales a parientes y allegados para determinar las causas de la mortinatalidad que utiliza la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), empleando el diagnóstico hospitalario de las causas subyacentes a la mortinatalidad («criterio de referencia») y comparar la propo [...] rción de mortinatos atribuidos a determinadas causas específicas, a través de la valoración del hospital, en comparación con los resultados de las investigaciones verbales. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo de todos los mortinatos que nacieron en un hospital de Chandigarh (India) entre el 15 de abril de 2006 y el 31 de marzo de 2008 y cuya causa de defunción se diagnosticó dentro de un plazo de 2 días. Todas las madres debían encontrarse como mínimo en la semana 24 de gestación y vivir dentro de un radio de 100 km del hospital. Para las entrevistas verbales, los trabajadores en el terreno visitaron a las madres entre las 4 y las 6 semanas posteriores a la mortinatalidad. Dos obstetras independientes revisaron los resultados de las autopsias y, en caso de desacuerdo, se solicitó la participación de un tercer experto. Se comparó la frecuencia de las causas de la mortinatalidad, según lo establecido por la valoración hospitalaria y por las investigaciones verbales. RESULTADOS: Tanto la valoración hospitalaria como la entrevista verbal coincidieron en cuáles eran las cinco causas de mortinatalidad más frecuentes: preeclampsia (30%), hemorragia prenatal (16%), enfermedad subyacente de la madre (12%), malformaciones congénitas (12%) y complicaciones obstétricas (10%). La precisión general del diagnóstico mediante investigación verbal, en comparación con el diagnóstico basado en la información hospitalaria para las cinco causas más frecuentes de mortinatalidad, fue del 64%. Las áreas bajo la curva de eficacia diagnóstica (ROC) fueron: para las malformaciones congénitas, 0,91 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC: 0,83-0,97); enfermedad pre-gestacional de la madre, 0,75 (95%, IC: 0,65-0,84); preeclampsia, 0,76 (95%, IC: 0,69-0,81); hemorragia prenatal, 0,76 (95%, IC: 0,67-0,84) y complicaciones obstétricas, 0,82 (95%, CI: 0,71-0,93). CONCLUSION: La herramienta de investigación verbal de la mortinatalidad que emplea la OMS puede ofrecer unas estimaciones razonablemente aceptables de las causas subyacentes más frecuentes a la mortinatalidad en los ámbitos con recursos limitados, en los que la causa de mortinatalidad pueda no estar certificada por un médico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To validate the verbal autopsy tool for stillbirths of the World Health Organization (WHO) by using hospital diagnosis of the underlying cause of stillbirth (the gold standard) and to compare the fraction of stillbirths attributed to various specific causes through hospital assessment ver [...] sus verbal autopsy. METHODS: In a hospital in Chandigarh, we prospectively studied all stillbirths occurring from 15 April 2006 to 31 March 2008 whose cause was diagnosed within 2 days. All mothers had to be at least 24 weeks pregnant and live within 100 km of the hospital. For verbal autopsy, field workers visited mothers 4 to 6 weeks after the stillbirth. Autopsy results were reviewed by two independent obstetricians and disagreements were resolved by engaging a third expert. Causes of stillbirths as determined by hospital assessment and verbal autopsy were compared in frequency. FINDINGS: Hospital assessment and verbal autopsy yielded the same top five underlying causes of stillbirth: pregnancy-induced hypertension (30%), antepartum haemorrhage (16%), underlying maternal illness (12%), congenital malformations (12%) and obstetric complications (10%). Overall diagnostic accuracy of verbal autopsy diagnosis versus hospital-based diagnosis for all five top causes of stillbirth was 64%. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) were, for congenital malformations, 0.91 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83-0.97)
Arun K, Aggarwal; Vanita, Jain; Rajesh, Kumar.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Methods Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. Results At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. Conclusion While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and appropriate treatment in Dodowa HDSS, there were severe challenges to prompt and adequate case management in the health system in both study sites in Ghana and Uganda. Meanwhile, caretaker awareness of danger signs needs to improve in both countries to promote early care seeking and to reduce the number of children needing referral. Social autopsy methods can improve this understanding, which can assist health planners to prioritize scarce resources appropriately.
Full Text Available A Hanseníase de Lúcio e Alvarado, considerada a forma mais anérgica do espectro imunológico hansênico, caracteriza-se por espessamento e infiltração difusa, com alopecia difusa e total, associado a comprometimento sistêmico importante.Nessepolo da doença, os bacilos são numerosos em todos os tecidos. A alta carga bacilar no endotélio e o desenvolvimento de vasculite leucocitoclástica de pequenos e médiosvasos resultam em extensas áreas necrótico-ulcerativas, denominada fenômeno de Lúcio. Apresentamos a seguir um caso de autópsia de um paciente do sexo feminino que apresentava lesões cutâneas, há 20 anos, sem diagnóstico definido, com piora dos sintomas e aparecimento de novas lesões, há 3 semanas da internação.Devido à gravidade da doença e às conseqüentes complicações infecciosas, a paciente apresentou evolução fatal. A avaliação anátomo patológica mostrou comprometimento sistêmico por lepra e múltiplas úlceras cutâneas. As lesões cutâneas eram secundárias a vasculite leucocitoclástica e oclusão vascular, consistente com Reação de Lucio.The diffuse leprosy of Lucio and Alvarado is considered the most anergic spectrum of leprosy and is characterized by a generalized skin infiltration, with a diffuse and totalalopecia associated with a systemic involvement. When the number of bacilli in the endothelium is high a medium and small vessel’s leukocytoclastic vasculitis develop over a diffuse and generalized cutaneous involvement by leprosy, what leads to large necrotic and ulcerative lesions, named after Lucio’s phenomenon. We present an autopsy case of a female patient who has been presenting ulcerated lesions for the last 20 years without a specific diagnosis. Three weeks before the patient’s admission the lesions got worse and new ones appeared. Due to the extension of cutaneous involvement and consequent infectious complications the patient evolved to a fataloutcome. The pathological evaluation revealed systemic involvement by leprosy and multiple skin ulceration. The cutaneous lesions were due to leukocitoclastic vasculitisand vascular occlusion, compatible with Lucio’s phenomenon .
Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos
A review of the autopsy records of the Department of Pathology of Nagasaki University and the Department of Geneticopathology of Hiroshima University from 1944 through 1982 revealed that during this period there were 11,050 cases of fetuses and newborns, including 432 cases with craniofacial and oral malformations and 22 cases with amniogenous malformations. Among the cranial malformations, there were 202 (46.8%) anencephaly cases, 38 (8.8%) holoprosencephaly, 28 (6.48%) hydrocephaly, 27 (6.25%) meningoencephalocele, and 13 other cranial malformations (seven microcephaly and two each of macrocephaly, dolichocephaly, and iniencephaly). Among the oral malformations, there were 25 (5.78%) cleft lip cases, 23 (5.32%) cleft palate, and 76 (17.6%) cleft lip and palate. Among the facial malformations, there were 12 (2.78%) anomicrophthalmia cases, 37 (8.56%) ear malformations, 15 (3.47%) micrognathia, and 8 (1.85%) nose malformations. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly and holoprosencephaly. Of 307 cranial malformations, 38 (12.4%) were complicated with oral malformations and 4 (4.6%) with facial malformations. Among the 124 cases of oral malformations, 38 (30.6%) were complicated with cranial malformations. The complicating cranial malformations were anencephaly in 16 cases, holoprosencephaly in seven, hydrocephaly in six, meningoencephalocele in seven, other cranial malformations in two, and with facial malformations in 19 cases. Among the 72 cases of facial malformations, 14 were complicated with cranial malformations and 19 with oral malformations. Four cases showed three or more cranial, facial, and/or oral malformations at the same time. Recently, experimental embryological studies have shown that the neural crest cell-derived mesectoderm participates largely in the morphogenesis of the face and the cardiovascular system. It may be said that neural crest cells are deeply involved in the teratogenesis. PMID:3491114
Akimoto, N; Ikeda, T; Satow, Y; Lee, J Y; Okamoto, N
One hundred eighty-nine cases of known dead bodies brought for medicolegal autopsy with alleged history of hanging were studied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, State Medico Legal Institute, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. All the findings noticed during detailed external examination and flap dissection of the neck were analyzed with special emphasis on correlation between the external and internal injuries on neck.There was a preponderance of males in the study group (70.9%), majority of them being middle-aged (64.9%). Among females, the major group was composed of adolescents and young adults (72.8%). Easily available materials were used as ligature materials. Soft materials such as saree, shawl, lungie, and so on were used as ligature by 47% of victims and hard materials such as coir rope, plastic rope, telephone cable, and so on were used by 29% of victims. Oblique ligature mark was noted in 94.2% of cases. The ligature mark was noncontinuous in 78% of cases. Horizontal ligature marks were noted in cases of partial hanging.Rupture of muscle fibers at the lower attachment of sternomastoid was seen in 19.6%, and carotid intimal tear was seen in 1.1% of cases. Fracture of hyoid bone at their greater horns was seen in 2.7% and thyroid cartilage in 5.3% of cases. Vertebral fracture and dislocation were noted between third and fourth cervical vertebrae in 1.6% of cases. Neck skeleton injuries were noted in persons older than 38 years. PMID:22922547
Jayaprakash, Sharija; Sreekumari, Kuttikatti
Full Text Available Objective: Verbal autopsy (VA is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS systems. Methods: A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC. In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10 CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification. Findings: A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach. Conclusions: The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians.
Estimation of sex is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology and requires foremost attention in the analysis of commingled and unidentified remains. In India, there is a paucity of population specific morphometric standards for identifying sex from unknown human remains in different population groups. The present research is an osteometric analysis to study the sexual dimorphism of the sternum of South Indian origin using statistical considerations. The study sample constituted of adult autopsied sternums of known age and sex. Five linear measurements (length of the manubrium, mesosternum, manubrium and mesosternum together, and width at 1st and at 3rd sternebra) were examined during the study. Three indices (manubrio-corpus Index, ratio of the length of the mesosternum and manubrium, and sternubrial-width index) were computed from the length and width measurements of the sternum. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software and Student's t-test was applied to find the sex differences in these variables. While statistically significant sex differences were observed for all the five linear measurements of the sternum, none of the sternal indices showed statistically significant sex differences. Discriminant function and logistic regression analysis were performed to derive the predicting models for estimation of sex from the different variables. The predictability of sternal measurements in sexing using univariate models ranged between 67.5% for the width at 3rd sternebra and 74.4% for the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum. The classification accuracy rates of sternal measurements were observed to be higher when multivariate analysis was performed. Length of manubrium and mesosternum together along with width at 1st sternebra yielded maximum accuracy of 79.5% (discriminant function analysis) and 81.2% (logistic regression analysis) in sexing of male and female sternum. The present research concludes that the application of sternum in sex estimation should be restricted to cases when other more reliable bones for sexing are not available to the investigators. PMID:25127732
Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal
Background Dengue fever is a public health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical world. Dengue cases have grown dramatically in recent years as well as dengue mortality. Colombia has experienced periodic dengue outbreaks with numerous dengue related-deaths, where the Santander department has been particularly affected. Although social determinants of health (SDH) shape health outcomes, including mortality, it is not yet understood how these affect dengue mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and pre-test a social autopsy (SA) tool for dengue mortality. Methods and Findings The tool was developed and pre-tested in three steps. First, dengue fatal cases and ‘near misses’ (those who recovered from dengue complications) definitions were elaborated. Second, a conceptual framework on determinants of dengue mortality was developed to guide the construction of the tool. Lastly, the tool was designed and pre-tested among three relatives of fatal cases and six near misses in 2013 in the metropolitan zone of Bucaramanga. The tool turned out to be practical in the context of dengue mortality in Colombia after some modifications. The tool aims to study the social, individual, and health systems determinants of dengue mortality. The tool is focused on studying the socioeconomic position and the intermediary SDH rather than the socioeconomic and political context. Conclusions The SA tool is based on the scientific literature, a validated conceptual framework, researchers’ and health professionals’ expertise, and a pilot study. It is the first time that a SA tool has been created for the dengue mortality context. Our work furthers the study on SDH and how these are applied to neglected tropical diseases, like dengue. This tool could be integrated in surveillance systems to provide complementary information on the modifiable and avoidable death-related factors and therefore, be able to formulate interventions for dengue mortality reduction. PMID:25658485
Arauz, María José; Ridde, Valéry; Hernández, Libia Milena; Charris, Yaneth; Carabali, Mabel; Villar, Luis Ángel
Morphological changes in the digestive system of 93 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: an autopsy study Alterações morfológicas no sistema digestivo de 93 pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana: um estudo de autopsias
Involvement of the digestive system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is frequent and many changes in these patients are diagnosed only at autopsy. There are few studies of autopsy with detailed analysis of this system and only one was conducted in Brazil. We evaluated each segment of the digestive system in 93 consecutive autopsies of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the importance of these lesions to death. Of these, 90 (96.8%) patients ...
Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães; Ana Cristina Araujo Lemos Silva; Adilha Misson Rua Micheletti; Everton Nunes Melo Moura; Mario Leon de Silva-Vergara; Sheila Jorge Adad
To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ?1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of thdiseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings [...] of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases. The pulmonary histopathology was categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of the concordance between the major associated diseases and specific autopsy findings was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 33.9% of the cases and cancer in 28.1%. The pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 40.7% (1,917) of the cases. A multivariate analysis showed a significant and powerful association between diffuse alveolar damage and bronchopneumonia, HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and septic shock, between liver cirrhosis and pulmonary embolism, between pulmonary edema and acute myocardial infarction, between dilated cardiomyopathy and cancer, between alveolar hemorrhage and bronchopneumonia and pulmonary embolism, and between lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia and HIV/ AIDS and liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis in these cases. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which was associated with different inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complete pathophysiological mechanisms involved with each disease and the development of acute respiratory failure.
Alexandre de Matos, Soeiro; Aline D., Ruppert; Mauro, Canzian; Edwin R., Parra; Cecília, Farhat; Vera L., Capelozzi.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases. The pulmonary histopathology was categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of the concordance between the major associated diseases and specific autopsy findings was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 33.9% of the cases and cancer in 28.1%. The pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 40.7% (1,917 of the cases. A multivariate analysis showed a significant and powerful association between diffuse alveolar damage and bronchopneumonia, HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and septic shock, between liver cirrhosis and pulmonary embolism, between pulmonary edema and acute myocardial infarction, between dilated cardiomyopathy and cancer, between alveolar hemorrhage and bronchopneumonia and pulmonary embolism, and between lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia and HIV/ AIDS and liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis in these cases. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which was associated with different inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complete pathophysiological mechanisms involved with each disease and the development of acute respiratory failure.
Alexandre de Matos Soeiro
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder in which microliths are formed in the alveolar space. PAM is infrequently complicated by pulmonary hypertension, the cause of which is unclear. The author in this paper found that the pulmonary hypertension was caused by a marked decrease in pulmonary vascular beds. Here, an autopsy case of PAM with a marked cor pulmonale is reported. A 14-year-old woman was found to have an abnormal pulmonary shadow, but the cause was unclear. At 24 years, she was diagnosed with a diffuse pulmonary abnormal shadow. At 42 years, she was diagnosed with PAM by imaging techniques. Her condition gradually worsened and she had to be treated with oxygen. She died of respiratory failure at 54 years. An autopsy revealed severe PAM and marked cor pulmonale. The heart weighed 360 g and right ventricular thickness was 10 mm (normal, 2-3 mm). Microscopically, the alveolar space was diffusely filled with microliths, and heart failure cells were recognized. Bone formations were scattered. The alveolar walls showed fibrous thickening, and pulmonary arteries showed atherosclerosis. The right ventricle showed marked cardiac hypertrophy. Chronic severe liver congestion was noted. A morphometric analysis using CD34-stained specimens showed a marked decrease (one tenth) in pulmonary capillary beds (capillary number: 8.6 +/- 3.1 per image), compared with normal lungs obtained from two other autopsies (85.3 +/- 9.4 and 96.2 +/- 10,3). It was concluded that the cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension in the present case were caused by the marked decrease of the pulmonary arterial vascular beds. More research is required regarding the etiology and treatment of PAM. PMID:19523797
The pathomorphological features of 106 autopsy case of Thorotrast (TH)-related malignant tumours of the liver were studied and compared to those of non-Thorotrast-related cases. Among the 106 cases, 44 (41.5%) were cholangiocarcinoma (CHC), 42(39.6%) were angiosarcoma (AGS), 17(16.0%) were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and three (2.8%) were double cancers. In contrast, in non-Thorotrast-related cases about 90% of the cases were hepatocellular and angiosarcoma was extremely rare. (author)
Intracranial teratomas are rare tumors that are usually discovered in infancy due to progressive symptoms. We describe a case of a 38-year-old man who was found dead 9 hours after the last sign of life. The deceased's medical history could not explain the sudden, unexpected death. A forensic autopsy revealed an asymptomatic, mature teratoma in the left frontal and temporal lobes. We concluded that the cause of death must have been a generalized epileptiform seizure originating in the tumor site(s) leading to aspiration of the stomach contents and unfavorable positioning, resulting in asphyxia.
HØyer, Christian Bjerre; UlhØi, Benedicte Parm
Clinical course and autopsy findings of an 80-year-old male, an atomic bomb survivor, with 8 trisomy were reported. The patient's disease was in the category of atypical acute myelogenous leukemia, smoldering acute leukemia, or hemopoietic dysplasis. An abnormal nucleus type of 47, XY, and +8 was found in all bone marrow cells examined. However, there was no evidence that this patient had exposed to high radioactivity due to a-bomb, no that the disease was induced by radiation exposure. Though the activity of glutathione was not high in this case, the relation between the glutathione activity and 8 trisomy should be further investigated. (Nakanishi, T.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascertainment of cause for deaths that occur in the absence of medical attention is a significant problem in many countries, including Thailand, where more than 50% of such deaths are registered with ill-defined causes. Routine implementation of standardized, rigorous verbal autopsy methods is a potential solution. This paper reports findings from field research conducted to develop, test, and validate the use of verbal autopsy (VA methods in Thailand. Methods International verbal autopsy methods were first adapted to the Thai context and then implemented to ascertain causes of death for a nationally representative sample of 11,984 deaths that occurred in Thailand in 2005. Causes of death were derived from completed VA questionnaires by physicians trained in ICD-based cause-of-death certification. VA diagnoses were validated in the sample of hospital deaths for which reference diagnoses were available from medical record review. Validated study findings were used to adjust VA-based causes of death derived for deaths in the study sample that had occurred outside hospitals. Results were used to estimate cause-specific mortality patterns for deaths outside hospitals in Thailand in 2005. Results VA-based causes of death were derived for 6,328 out of 7,340 deaths in the study sample that had occurred outside hospitals, constituting the verification arm of the study. The use of VA resulted in large-scale reassignment of deaths from ill-defined categories to specific causes of death. The validation study identified that VA tends to overdiagnose important causes such as diabetes, liver cancer, and tuberculosis, while undercounting deaths from HIV/AIDS, liver diseases, genitourinary (essential renal, and digestive system disorders. Conclusions The use of standard VA methods adapted to Thailand enabled a plausible assessment of cause-specific mortality patterns and a substantial reduction of ill-defined diagnoses. Validation studies enhance the utility of findings from the application of verbal autopsy. Regular implementation of VA in Thailand could accelerate development of the quality and utility of vital registration data for deaths outside hospitals.
We have examined genomic DNA from 40 cases of autopsy-confirmed early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) (age at onset <=65 years) that were all unselected for family history. We have sequenced the 10 exons and flanking intronic sequences of the presenilin-1 (PS-1) gene for all 40 individuals. A single mutation, a deletion of a G from the intron 4 splice-donor consensus sequence, was detected in two individuals in this study. The mutation was associated with two shortened transcripts, both with s...
Tysoe, C.; Whittaker, J.; Xuereb, J.; Cairns, Nj; Cruts, M.; Broeckhoven, C.; Wilcock, G.; Rubinsztein, DC
Reinhard Heydrich, architect of the "Final solution of the Jewish problem," had a meteoric career in the SS. He organized the Wannsee Conference and created the SS killing squads. Under his leadership as Acting Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, the suppression of the Czech community was brutal. An attempt on his life in Prague was unsuccessful but it left him severely injured and he died eight days later. Reviewing the available information on his hospital treatment and the autopsy report, it is suggested that Heydrich received substandard medical treatment, quite likely a result of political interference from rival members of the SS hierarchy. PMID:24834756
Weisz, George M; Albury, William R
Full Text Available El hemoperitoneo secundario a la rotura de un carcinoma hepatocelular (CH es una complicación poco frecuente en nuestro medio, siendo más infrecuente su hallazgo como causa de muerte en individuos no diagnosticados de CH. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 87 años con antecedentes patológicos de hepatitis C crónica e hipertensión arterial y sin constancia de traumatismo abdominal previo, que debutó con un cuadro inespecífico de malestar general, náuseas y vómitos de varias horas de evolución, motivo por el cual se le prescribió y administró domiciliariamente metoclopramida. Falleció a las pocas horas de la atención médica, motivo por el cual se practicó la autopsia judicial. Durante la misma se evidenció un hemoperitoneo de 3.000 cc secundario a una rotura intratumoral sobre un hígado cirrótico.Hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (CH is a rare complication in our environment. His find, still more, is uncommon cause of death in individuals not diagnosed of CH. We report the case of a woman of 87 years-old with clinical history of chronic hepatitis C, hypertension, and abdominal trauma without evidence of prior, which debuted with a nonspecific malaise, nausea and vomiting several hours of evolution, why was prescribed and administered metoclopramide home. She died a few hours after care, which is why judicial autopsy was performed. The autopsy was shown a 3000 cc hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture intratumoral in a cirrhotic liver.
M. Subirana Domènech
An 89-year-old woman presented to our hospital with hemolytic anemia and a high titer of cold agglutinins. Red cell agglutination was observed on a blood smear. Agglutination visibly decreased after warming the blood; therefore, the patient was diagnosed with cold agglutinin disease (CAD). Bone marrow aspiration revealed no infiltration of malignant cells. Computed tomography indicated moderate splenomegaly. The patient had neither an infection nor autoimmune disease. Initial steroid therapy was ineffective and hemolysis worsened. Meanwhile, thrombocytopenia, delirium, fever, and schistocytes in the blood were observed. The progression of hemolysis was attributed not only to CAD but also to coexisting thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) because of the decreased ADAMTS 13 level. Autopsy revealed mild paraaortic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Microscopic examination revealed lymphoma cell infiltration in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and paraaortic lymph nodes. These observations suggested that TTP and CAD were both secondary complications. This case highlights the importance of an autopsy for the detection of latent lymphoma, which can be difficult to diagnose before the patient's death. Careful examination to exclude lymphomas is important in patients with CAD at the time of diagnosis. PMID:24452150
Shigeoka, Toru; Yamagata, Hiroki; Ishido, Aki; Tominaga, Takayuki; Kamei, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Toru
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is caused by genetic mutations of the gene encoding fibrocystin, and is characterized by the collecting duct cysts and congenital hepatic fibrosis. We report an autopsy-proven case of ARPKD in a 77-year-old male who presented with rapidly progressive renal and liver dysfunction. He had refused hemodialysis, and died 4 months later. At autopsy, both kidneys were enlarged with numerous small cysts throughout the cortex, which were revealed immunohistochemically to be the collecting ducts. Liver involvement was characterized by ductal plate malformation accompanied with portal fibrosis. The morphological appearances were compatible with ARPKD and the negative immunostaining for fibrocystin in the collecting ducts and bile ducts confirmed the diagnosis. ARPKD is known to occur in the neonatal period or in infancy with a high mortality rate. Although some patients who survive infancy are expected to live longer into young adulthood, most patients with ARPKD die of renal and hepatic failure in their childhood. The present case is extremely exceptional, in that no clinical symptoms suggestive of ARPKD were noticed until old age, and suggests that the disease spectrum of ARPKD is variable, and that a slowly progressive form of ARPKD may not be diagnosed until old age. PMID:23252870
Taneda, Sekiko; Honda, Kazuho; Aoki, Asuka; Nitta, Kosaku; Tamura, Takashi; Yoshioka, Yoko; Oda, Hideaki
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El hemoperitoneo secundario a la rotura de un carcinoma hepatocelular (CH) es una complicación poco frecuente en nuestro medio, siendo más infrecuente su hallazgo como causa de muerte en individuos no diagnosticados de CH. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 87 años con antecedentes patológicos de h [...] epatitis C crónica e hipertensión arterial y sin constancia de traumatismo abdominal previo, que debutó con un cuadro inespecífico de malestar general, náuseas y vómitos de varias horas de evolución, motivo por el cual se le prescribió y administró domiciliariamente metoclopramida. Falleció a las pocas horas de la atención médica, motivo por el cual se practicó la autopsia judicial. Durante la misma se evidenció un hemoperitoneo de 3.000 cc secundario a una rotura intratumoral sobre un hígado cirrótico. Abstract in english Hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (CH) is a rare complication in our environment. His find, still more, is uncommon cause of death in individuals not diagnosed of CH. We report the case of a woman of 87 years-old with clinical history of chronic hepatitis C, hypertensio [...] n, and abdominal trauma without evidence of prior, which debuted with a nonspecific malaise, nausea and vomiting several hours of evolution, why was prescribed and administered metoclopramide home. She died a few hours after care, which is why judicial autopsy was performed. The autopsy was shown a 3000 cc hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture intratumoral in a cirrhotic liver.
M., Subirana Domènech; M., Ortega Sánchez; G., Font Valsecchi; J.I., Galtés Vicente; J., Castellà García.
To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)
Purpose: To investigate the interrelationships between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations including the existence of precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses. Material and Methods: CT of bronchial arteriography (BAG-CT) was performed in 10 patients and BAG-CT during a pulmonary artery block test (PA-block) in 5 patients with lung cancer. Bronchial and pulmonary circulations were evaluated in 5 autopsied normal lungs by injecting silicone rubber with different colors into the bronchial and pulmonary arteries. Results: BAG-CT correlated well with the findings at silicone rubber injection into lung autopsy samples. BAG-CT demonstrated inflow of contrast medium into the pulmonary artery during PA-block in all cases, while no inflow was observed before and following reversal of PA-block. Mixed silicone rubber was observed in the lobar to subsubsegmental bronchial arteries in all cases and in the subsubsegmental pulmonary artery in one case. Conclusion: Precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses may exist at the level of the lobar bronchi to the periphery. If either the pulmonary or bronchial circulation is disturbed, flow occurs inside the anastomoses to supplement the other flow, especially flow from the bronchial to the pulmonary arteries via the anastomoses, which occurs within 30 min. (orig.)
Hasegawa, I.; Kohda, E.; Hiramatsu, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, K. [Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
To investigate hematological and serum protein profiles of cadaveric heart blood with regard to the cause of death, serial forensic autopsy cases (n=308, >18 years of age, within 48 h postmortem) were examined. Red blood cells (Rbc), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (Plt), white blood cells (Wbc), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) were examined in bilateral cardiac blood. Blood cell counts, collected after turning the bodies at autopsy, approximated to the clinical values. Postmortem changes were not significant for these markers. In non-head blunt injury cases, Rbc counts, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were lower in subacute deaths (survival time, 1-12 h) than in acute deaths (survival time <1 h). Wbc counts of left cardiac blood were significantly higher for non-head injury than for head injury in subacute deaths. In fire fatality cases, Plt count was markedly higher with an automated hematology analyzer than by using a blood smear test, suggesting Rbc fragmentation caused by deep burns, while increases in Wbc count and decreases in Alb levels were seen for subacute deaths. For asphyxiation, Rbc count, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were higher than other groups, and TP and Alb levels in the right cardiac blood were higher for hanging than for strangulation. These findings suggest that analyses of blood cells and proteins are useful for investigating the cause of death. PMID:19261512
Quan, Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Yoshida, Chiemi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Komatsu, Ayumi; Azuma, Yoko; Sakoda, Shigeki; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi
Introduction. Death from coronary artery disease (CAD) has been until recently considered rare in Nigeria. We present a report of a study of CAD with its predisposing cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in South South Nigeria. Methods. We examined the autopsy reports of 747 coroner cases and 41 consecutive clinically diagnosed cases of ischemic heart disease seen in South South Nigeria. Results. CAD was diagnosed in 13 (1.6%) of 747 autopsies. They were predominantly males, urban residents, and of high social class with combination of CVD risk factors of hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activities, and obesity. The mean serum cholesterol of the clinical subjects was 4.7 ± 1.57?mmol/L and 5.07 ± 1.94?mmol/L for angina and myocardial infarction, respectively, which was higher than the mean total cholesterol for locality of 3.1?mmol/L. Conclusion. CAD and its risk factors are contributing to mortality and morbidity in South South Nigeria. These risk factors include hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activity, and obesity. Nigerians in this locality with CAD have raised serum lipids. PMID:24707437
Essien, Okon Ekwere; Andy, Joseph; Ansa, Victor; Otu, Akaninyene Asuquo; Udoh, Alphonsus
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el daño múltiple de órganos es el conjunto de alteraciones morfológicas, frecuentes en pacientes críticos, diagnosticadas en las autopsias como respuesta a la inflamación sistémica. En estudios realizados, las personas con edades jóvenes de la vida se han visto particularmente afectada [...] s por esta entidad. Objetivo: analizar el comportamiento del diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos en autopsias pediátricas procedentes de dos unidades de terapia intensiva e identificar las manifestaciones histopatológicas, la edad y el sexo de los niños fallecidos. Métodos: se revisaron 13 autopsias de niños fallecidos en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" en 5 años (2003-2007) y 42 correspondientes al Hospital Pediátrico Docente de San Miguel del Padrón en un periodo de 7 años (2000-2006), y se extrajeron las que cumplieron los criterios diagnósticos del daño múltiple de órganos. Resultados: se destacó la elevada frecuencia del daño múltiple de órganos en las autopsias de la terapia pediátrica en ambos centros estudiados. Los primeros periodos de vida fueron los más afectados, mientras el sexo mostró variaciones entre ambos centros estudiados. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos es expresión de la calidad del trabajo que se realiza con las autopsias y la preparación del personal médico, lo cual se muestra en las elevadas cifras de coincidencias diagnósticas. Modular la respuesta inflamatoria incontrolada, es prevenir que se establezca el referido daño y, por lo tanto, es salvar la vida de un niño. Abstract in english Introduction: multiple organ damage is a group of morphological alterations, frequent in critical patients, which are diagnosed in autopsies as a response to systemic inflammation. Different studies report that the youngest people have been particularly affected by this disease. Objective: to analyz [...] e the behaviour of the diagnosis of multiple organ damage in paediatric autopsies from two Intensive Care Units and identify the histopathological manifestations, the age, and the sex in dead children. Methods: 13 autopsies of dead children were checked in "Dr. Luis Diaz Soto" Central Military Hospital during 5 years (2003-2007). Other 42 corresponding to the Paediatric Teaching Hospital of San Miguel del Padrón were also checked over a period of 7 years (2000-2006). The ones that reported diagnostic criteria of multiple organ damage were selected. Results: a high frequency of multiple organ damage in autopsies of paediatric therapies in both cases under study was emphasized. The first periods of life were the most affected ones and the sex showed some variations in the two centres under study. Conclusions: the diagnosis of multiple organ damage is the reflection of both the quality of work carried out with autopsies and the training of the medical staff. It is shown in the high levels of diagnostic coincidences. To regulate the uncontrolled inflammatory response means preventing the referred damage, thus saving a child's life.
Teresita, Montero González; Yanira Noalis, Díaz Valdés; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Cecilia, Toledo Veja; Arturo, Delgado Delgado; Sonia, Pujol Olivares.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: evaluar la relación de la medida del panículo adiposo abdominal con la edad y el sexo, los parámetros hospitalarios, las causas de muerte y otras enfermedades diagnosticadas. Métodos: se procesaron por el Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica 591 autopsias, en l [...] as que se midió el panículo adiposo abdominal a nivel del ombligo. Se crearon tres grupos de estudio según el grosor, con un número similar de casos: 0,1-1,6 cm; 1,7-2,6 cm y 2,7-9,2 cm. Resultados: en el grupo de mayor grosor el promedio de edad fue de 65 años; el 33,3 % correspondió al sexo masculino y el 62,6 % al femenino. Entre las causas de muerte aumentó el infarto agudo del miocardio y disminuyó la enfermedad cerebrovascular. Los tumores malignos se incrementaron en correspondencia con el aumento del grosor del panículo adiposo. Como causas contribuyentes se encontraron la elevación de la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus. En los trastornos relacionados con el síndrome metabólico, los órganos más afectados fueron las arterias, el páncreas, el hígado, el corazón y la vesícula biliar. Conclusiones: el grosor del panículo adiposo abdominal resulta un indicador apropiado para precisar la grasa abdominal y su importancia; así como su relación con la edad y el sexo, parámetros hospitalarios, causas de muerte y otras enfermedades diagnosticadas, principalmente aquellas que forman parte del síndrome metabólico. Abstract in english Objective: to evaluate the relationship among the size of panniculus adiposus abdominis , age, sex, hospital parameters, causes of death and other diagnosed diseases Methods: using the automated system of registry and control of pathological anatomy, 591 autopsies were processed in which the abdomin [...] al fatty panniculus adiposus abdominis around the navel. Three study groups were created according to thickness, with a similar number of cases: 0.1-1.6 cm: 1.7-2.6 cm and 2.7-9.2 cm. Results: the average age in the group with the thickest panniculus adiposus abdominis was 65 years: 33.3 % in males and 62.6 % in females. Acute myocardial infarction increased whereas the cerebrovascular disease decreased. The number of malignant tumors increased as the panniculus adiposus thickness increases too. The contributing causes were high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. Regarding the metabolic syndrome related disorders, the most affected organs were arteries, pancreas, liver, heart and gallbladder. Conclusions: the panniculus adiposus abdominis thickness is an adequate indicator to measure abdominal adiposity and its importance, as well as its relationship with age and sex, hospital parameters, causes of death and other diagnosed diseases, mainly those related to the metabolic syndrome.
José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Teresita de J, Montero González; Justo, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from VA studies is an analysis technique that estimates CSMFs in a population without predicting individual-level cause of death as an intermediate step. In previous studies, KL has shown promise as an alternative to physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA. However, it has previously been impossible to validate KL with a large dataset of VAs for which the underlying cause of death is known to meet rigorous clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods We applied the KL method to adult, child, and neonatal VA datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study, a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs where gold standard cause of death was established using strict clinical diagnostic criteria. To emulate real-world populations with varying CSMFs, we evaluated the KL estimations for 500 different test datasets of varying cause distribution. We assessed the quality of these estimates in terms of CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression and compared this with the results of PCVA. Results KL performance is similar to PCVA in terms of CSMF accuracy, attaining values of 0.669, 0.698, and 0.795 for adult, child, and neonatal age groups, respectively, when health care experience (HCE items were included. We found that the length of the cause list has a dramatic effect on KL estimation quality, with CSMF accuracy decreasing substantially as the length of the cause list increases. We found that KL is not reliant on HCE the way PCVA is, and without HCE, KL outperforms PCVA for all age groups. Conclusions Like all computer methods for VA analysis, KL is faster and cheaper than PCVA. Since it is a direct estimation technique, though, it does not produce individual-level predictions. KL estimates are of similar quality to PCVA and slightly better in most cases. Compared to other recently developed methods, however, KL would only be the preferred technique when the cause list is short and individual-level predictions are not needed.
Birnbaum Jeanette K
A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.
HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov
Postmortem CT (PM-CT) is useful to investigate the viscera in situ before opening the body cavities at autopsy. The present study involved a virtual morphometric analysis of thoracic and abdominal great vessels with regard to the cause of death as a possible index of terminal circulatory status in forensic autopsy cases, using PM-CT data of forensic autopsy cases within 3 days postmortem (n?=?93). Perimeters and cross-sectional areas of the aorta and vena cava depended on the age and/or gender of subjects; however, when the vessel flattening index (vFI) was calculated as the ratio of the cross-sectional area (a) to the estimated circle area having the same perimeter (l), using the formula vFI?=?4?a/l(2), the vFI showed distinct differences among the causes of death without significant postmortem time dependence. The index was low for each vessel in fatal bleeding, while the vFI of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava was low in hyperthermia (heatstroke), but higher in drowning, hypothermia (cold exposure) and sudden cardiac death. These CT findings provide quantitative data as supplementary indicators to reinforce autopsy findings for interpreting terminal circulatory status. PMID:25194711
Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi
The present study investigated the interobserver variation between a radiologist and a forensic pathologist in 994 injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography (CT) of 67 traffic fatality victims, and the results were compared with diagnoses obtained by autopsy. The injuries were coded according to the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). We found a low interobserver variability for postmortem CT injury diagnoses, and the variability was the lowest for injuries with a high AIS severity score. The radiologist diagnosed more injuries than the pathologist, especially in the skeletal system, but the pathologist diagnosed more organ injuries. We recommend the use of a radiologist as a consultant for the evaluation of postmortem CT images. Training in radiology should be included in forensic medicine postgraduate training. CT was superior to autopsy in detecting abnormal air accumulations, but autopsy was superior to CT in the detection of organ injuries and aortic ruptures. We recommend a combination of CT and autopsy for the postmortem investigation of traffic fatality victims.
Leth, Peter Mygind; Struckmann, Henrik
The importance of autopsy procedures leading to the establishment of the cause of death is well-known. A recent addition to the autopsy work flow is the possibility of conducting postmortem imaging, in its 3D version also called virtual autopsy (VA), using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) or magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) data from scans of cadavers displayed with direct volume rendering (DVR) 3D techniques. The use of the data and their workflow are presented. Data acquisition was performed and high quality data-sets with submillimeter precision were acquired. New data acquisition techniques such as dual-energy CT (DECT) and quantitative MRI, then were implemented and provided additional information. Particular findings hardly visualized in conventional autopsy can rather easy be seen at the full body CT, such as air distribution, e.g. pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, air embolism, and wound channels. MRI shows natural deaths such as myocardial infarctions. Interactive visualization of these 3D data-sets can provide valuable insight into the corpses and enables non-invasive diagnostic procedures. In postmortem CT imaging, not being limited by a patient depending radiation dose limit the data-sets can, however, be generated with such a high resolution that they become difficult to handle in today's archive retrieval and interactive visualization systems, specifically in the case of full body scans. To take full advantage of these new technologies the postmantage of these new technologies the postmortem workflow needs to be tailored to the demands and opportunities that the new technologies allow
A multielemental assay (i.e., of 23 elements) in kidney, liver, and lung tissue of autopsy specimens from deceased workers in a smeltery and refinery in North Sweden, as well as from a control group, is discussed in the light of possible health effects. The following topics have been surveyed: Brief history of the occupational exposure conditions; nuclear and other techniques used as tools in the multielemental assay; accumulation of the various elements in kidney, liver, and lung; estimation of retention times-long retention times were observed for antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lanthanum, lead, or selenium in certain tissues, especially pronounced in the lung tissue; elevated levels of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and lanthanum in lung tissue of exposed workers-a contribution to a multifactorial cause behind the excess mortality from lung cancer of the smeltery and refinery workers; and the protective effect of selenium on lung cancer of exposed workers. PMID:24254596
Brune, D; Gerhardsson, L; Nordberg, G; Wester, P O
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare genetic disorder, the most common complication of which influencing the prognosis is pulmonary fibrosis. In the present report, we describe an autopsy case of a Japanese woman with HPS. The patient was diagnosed at 50 years of age based on the presence of oculocutaneous albinism, hemorrhagic diathesis, ceroid-lipofuscin accumulation and pulmonary fibrosis. Although systemic steroids, immunosuppressants and pirfenidone were administered for pulmonary involvement, she died from respiratory failure two years later. Obtaining an early diagnosis and taking into consideration the need for lung transplantation is necessary in order to improve the prognosis of HPS. We herein report this very rare Japanese case of HPS with a review of the treatment approaches for HPS complicated with pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25447654
Harada, Tatsuhiko; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Nakashima, Shota; Miura, Shiro; Tomonaga, Masaomi; Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Hara, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Noriho; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Kohno, Shigeru
To establish a method for the routine analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in autopsy materials including those which have undergone postmortem changes, e.g. thermo-coagulation, putrifaction and contamination, an automated head-space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was utilized. The procedure consisted of preparation of the sample in a vial and a carbon monoxide (CO) saturated sample, for estimation of hemoglobin content, in another vial, the addition of n-octanol, potassium ferricyanide and an internal standard (t-butanol), GC separation and determination of CO using a GC/MS system equipped with an automated head-space gas sampler. The method was practical not only with the blood and bone marrow aspirates to confirm the findings on the CO-oximeter system, but also with the thermo-coagulated and putrified blood. PMID:10978651
Oritani, S; Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Shimotouge, K; Quan, L; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial nas autópsias em um hospital público universitário; identificar os fatores de risco relacionados à pneumonia nosocomial e os potenciais fatores prognósticos relacionados à ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial fatal; e correlacionar os achados [...] anatomopatológicos com a ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial e/ou pneumonia aspirativa. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 199 pacientes autopsiados, maiores de 1 ano de idade, internados no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista entre 1999 e 2006, cuja causa de morte (causa básica ou associada) foi pneumonia nosocomial. Testou-se a associação dos dados demográficos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos com os desfechos pneumonia nosocomial fatal e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. As variáveis significativas entraram na análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 59 ± 19 anos. A prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial em autópsias foi 29%, e essa foi a causa mortis de 22,6% dos pacientes autopsiados. A pneumonia nosocomial fatal correlacionou-se com os achados anatomopatológicos de alterações estruturais tabágicas (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-2,95; p = 0,02) e acometimento pulmonar bilateral (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-8,30; p = 0,01). Não houve associações significativas entre as variáveis e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. CONCLUSÕES: Em nossa amostra, a pneumonia nosocomial teve prevalência elevada e foi responsável por quase 25% das mortes. A mortalidade é favorecida por alterações estruturais tabágicas e pneumonia bilateral. Esses achados corroboram os resultados de diversos estudos clínicos sobre pneumonia nosocomial. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies at a public university hospital; to identify the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia and the potential prognostic factors associated with fatal nosocomial pneumonia and with fatal aspiration pneumonia; and to determine whe [...] ther anatomopathological findings correlate with nosocomial pneumonia or aspiration pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 199 autopsied patients, older than 1 year of age, who had been admitted to the São Paulo State University Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas and died of nosocomial pneumonia (underlying or contributing cause), between 1999 and 2006. Demographic, clinical and anatomopathological variables were tested regarding their association with the outcomes (fatal nosocomial pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia). The significant variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 59 ± 19 years. The prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies was 29%, and the disease was the cause of death in 22.6% of the autopsied patients. Fatal nosocomial pneumonia correlated with the following anatomopathological findings: tobacco-associated structural lesions (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-2.95; p = 0.02) and bilateral pneumonia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-8.30; p = 0.01). None of the variables were found to be significantly associated with fatal aspiration pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, there was a high prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia, which was responsible for almost 25% of all of the deaths. Smoking-related structural lesions and bilateral pneumonia all favored mortality. These findings corroborate the results of various clinical studies on nosocomial pneumonia.
Luiz Mário Baptista, Martinelli; Paulo José Fortes Villas, Boas; Thais Thomaz, Queluz; Hugo Hyung Bok, Yoo.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial nas autópsias em um hospital público universitário; identificar os fatores de risco relacionados à pneumonia nosocomial e os potenciais fatores prognósticos relacionados à ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial fatal; e correlacionar os achados anatomopatológicos com a ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial e/ou pneumonia aspirativa. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 199 pacientes autopsiados, maiores de 1 ano de idade, internados no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista entre 1999 e 2006, cuja causa de morte (causa básica ou associada foi pneumonia nosocomial. Testou-se a associação dos dados demográficos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos com os desfechos pneumonia nosocomial fatal e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. As variáveis significativas entraram na análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 59 ± 19 anos. A prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial em autópsias foi 29%, e essa foi a causa mortis de 22,6% dos pacientes autopsiados. A pneumonia nosocomial fatal correlacionou-se com os achados anatomopatológicos de alterações estruturais tabágicas (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-2,95; p = 0,02 e acometimento pulmonar bilateral (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-8,30; p = 0,01. Não houve associações significativas entre as variáveis e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. CONCLUSÕES: Em nossa amostra, a pneumonia nosocomial teve prevalência elevada e foi responsável por quase 25% das mortes. A mortalidade é favorecida por alterações estruturais tabágicas e pneumonia bilateral. Esses achados corroboram os resultados de diversos estudos clínicos sobre pneumonia nosocomial.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies at a public university hospital; to identify the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia and the potential prognostic factors associated with fatal nosocomial pneumonia and with fatal aspiration pneumonia; and to determine whether anatomopathological findings correlate with nosocomial pneumonia or aspiration pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 199 autopsied patients, older than 1 year of age, who had been admitted to the São Paulo State University Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas and died of nosocomial pneumonia (underlying or contributing cause, between 1999 and 2006. Demographic, clinical and anatomopathological variables were tested regarding their association with the outcomes (fatal nosocomial pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia. The significant variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 59 ± 19 years. The prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies was 29%, and the disease was the cause of death in 22.6% of the autopsied patients. Fatal nosocomial pneumonia correlated with the following anatomopathological findings: tobacco-associated structural lesions (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-2.95; p = 0.02 and bilateral pneumonia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-8.30; p = 0.01. None of the variables were found to be significantly associated with fatal aspiration pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, there was a high prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia, which was responsible for almost 25% of all of the deaths. Smoking-related structural lesions and bilateral pneumonia all favored mortality. These findings corroborate the results of various clinical studies on nosocomial pneumonia.
Luiz Mário Baptista Martinelli
We report a curious double-suicide autopsy case of both male and female who died of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated potassium aspartate solution. The plasma concentrations of potassium of the male and female subjects were as high as 49.7 and 62.8 mEq/L, respectively. In addition to the high concentrations of potassium, toxic levels of phenobarbital, promethazine and chlorpromazine, and relatively low levels of etizolam and brotizolam were also detected from whole blood and urine specimens of both cadavers. Twenty empty plastic bottles (10-mL capacity) labeled 'ASPARA® Potassium Injection 10 mEq' were found at the suicide spot. To our knowledge, this is the first description for suicidal death by potassium aspartate; in all of the previous literature, they used potassium chloride intravenously or per os. PMID:20670988
Watanabe, K; Hasegawa, K; Suzuki, O
Evidence of cerebrovascular disease at autopsy was compared in two groups of men, 186 long time residents of Hiroshima, Japan and 253 men of Japanese ancestry long resident in Honolulu, Hawaii. They were from 45 to 71 years of age at death. Atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis and its major branches, sclerosis of the intraparenchymal arteries and the frequency of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarct were compared in the two populations. The Honolulu subjects had significantly more atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis, but less intraparenchymal artery sclerosis and less cerebral infarction. Cerebral hemorrhage was equally frequent in the two cities. It was concluded that cerebral infarction is more frequent in Japanese men in Hiroshima than Honolulu, and that men of Japanese ancestry in Honolulu are spared an appreciable risk of cerebral infarction through decreased frequency of intraparenchymal arterial sclerosis despite higher levels of atherosclerosis of large intracranial arteries. (author)
Full Text Available Alek Nacev1, Skye H Kim2, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales2, Michael A Tangrea2, Benjamin Shapiro1, Michael R Emmert-Buck21Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD; 2Pathogenetics Unit, Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: A nanoparticle delivery system termed dynamic magnetic shift (DMS has the potential to more effectively treat metastatic cancer by equilibrating therapeutic magnetic nanoparticles throughout tumors. To evaluate the feasibility of DMS, histological liver sections from autopsy cases of women who died from breast neoplasms were studied to measure vessel number, size, and spatial distribution in both metastatic tumors and normal tissue. Consistent with prior studies, normal tissue had a higher vascular density with a vessel-to-nuclei ratio of 0.48 ± 0.14 (n = 1000, whereas tumor tissue had a ratio of 0.13 ± 0.07 (n = 1000. For tumors, distances from cells to their nearest blood vessel were larger (average 43.8 µm, maximum 287 µm, n ? 5500 than normal cells (average 5.3 µm, maximum 67.8 µm, n ? 5500, implying that systemically delivered nanoparticles diffusing from vessels into surrounding tissue would preferentially dose healthy instead of cancerous cells. Numerical simulations of magnetically driven particle transport based on the autopsy data indicate that DMS would correct the problem by increasing nanoparticle levels in hypovascular regions of metastases to that of normal tissue, elevating the time-averaged concentration delivered to the tumor for magnetic actuation versus diffusion alone by 1.86-fold, and increasing the maximum concentration over time by 1.89-fold. Thus, DMS may prove useful in facilitating therapeutic nanoparticles to reach poorly vascularized regions of metastatic tumors that are not accessed by diffusion alone.Keywords: cancer, metastases, vasculature, drug delivery, magnetic, nanoparticles
BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic disorder of patients with severe renal insufficiency who have received gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance contrast agents (GBCAs). The causative association with Gd exposure was strengthened by the demonstration of Gd in various tissues of NSF patients, predominantly at the bulk chemical level. The distribution of Gd at the histologic level of organs other than skin has not been reported previously. METHODS: We analysed tissues from an autopsy case with verified advanced NSF by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, we reviewed published literature to compare the histological and histochemical findings in NSF patients and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients without NSF. RESULTS: Insoluble Gd-phosphate deposits were detected in the skin, liver, lungs, intestinal wall (ileum), kidney, lymph node, skeletal muscle, dura mater and cerebellum of the NSF autopsy case, primarily in vascular walls. Some, but not all, Gd deposits were seen in fibrotic areas. Literature review highlighted that non-specific tissue fibrosis and calcification are frequent findings in tissues of patients with CRF with and without NSF. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular and extracellular Gd deposits are found in multiple organs of NSF patients, associated with calcification, and often in fibrotic areas. Gd deposits are not seen in patients with CRF unexposed to GBCAs but rarely may be seen in GBCA-exposed patients without clinical signs of NSF. Apart from diagnostic findings in skin, fibrosis of muscle and dura may be more prominent in NSF patients. Our findings should stimulate further investigation of mechanisms of fibrosis and pathologic calcification.
Sanyal, Soma; Marckmann, Peter
The concentrations of zolpidem and zopiclone were determined in peripheral blood samples in two forensic materials collected over a 10-year period (2001-2010). The z-hypnotics were determined in venous blood from living subjects (impaired drivers) and in femoral blood from deceased persons (forensic autopsies), with the latter classified as intoxication or other causes of death. The z-hypnotics were determined in blood by capillary column gas chromatography (GC) with a nitrogen-phosphorous (N-P) detector after solvent extraction with n-butyl acetate. The analytical limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.02 mg/L for zopiclone and 0.05 mg/L for zolpidem and these have remained unchanged throughout the study. When death was attributed to drug intoxication (N=918), the median concentration of zopiclone in blood was 0.20 mg/L compared with 0.06 mg/L for other causes of death (N=1215) and 0.07 mg/L in traffic offenders (N=691) (p<0.001). Likewise, a higher median concentration (0.30 mg/L) was found in intoxication deaths involving zolpidem (N=357) compared with 0.13 mg/L for other causes of death (N=397) or 0.19 mg/L in impaired drivers (N=837) (p<0.001). Median concentration in blood of both z-hypnotics were appreciably higher in intoxication deaths when no other substances were identified; 0 70 mg/L (N=12) for zopiclone and 1.35 mg/L (N=12) for zolpidem. The median concentrations of z-hypnotics in blood decreased as the number of co-ingested substances increased for intoxication deaths but not other causes of death. The most prevalent co-ingested substances were ethanol in autopsy cases and diazepam in the motorists. This large compilation of forensic cases should prove useful when toxicologists are required to interpret concentrations of z-hypnotics in blood samples in relation to cause of death. PMID:22673707
Jones, Alan Wayne; Holmgren, Anita
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Medir a espessura ventricular direita e esquerda em falecidos com história de hipertensão arterial, submetidos a necropsias clínicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 90 casos do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos de Recife -PE, de ambos os sexos, com história de hipertensão arterial essencial, c [...] om relação à espessura das paredes cardíacas, além da correlação com outros achados de necropsia e informes clínicos. RESULTADOS: Observouse associação significativa entre a presença de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) e direita (HVD), e de cardiopatia hipertensiva grave e HVD. Houve predomínio da HVD e HVE em homens, na faixa etária dos 60-79 anos, com maior prevalência nas etnias parda e negra, e naqueles com estado nutricional adequado ou com sobrepeso e em obesos. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que a presença de HVD relaciona-se com HVE, sugerindo que há fatores patogênicos semelhantes envolvidos no desenvolvimento da hipertrofia bilateral. A HVD parece associar-se à doença cardíaca mais grave, podendo, a partir de outros estudos, ser considerada novo fator prognóstico na avaliação dos pacientes hipertensos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To measure the right and left ventricular thickness in deceased individuals with a history of hypertension submitted to clinical autopsies. METHODS: We selected 90 cases from the Death Verification Service of the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, of both sexes, with a history o [...] f essential arterial hypertension related to heart wall thickness, in addition to correlation with autopsy findings and other clinical reports. RESULTS: There was a significant association between the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and between severe hypertensive cardiomyopathy and RVH. There was a predominance of RVH and LVH in men aged 60-79 years and a higher prevalence in the Brazilian mulatto and Black ethnic groups and in those with adequate nutritional status or overweight and obese individuals. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the presence of RVH was related to LVH, suggesting that there are similar pathogenic factors involved in the development of bilateral hypertrophy. The RVH seems to be associated with more severe heart disease and may, based on other studies, be considered as a new prognostic factor in the evaluation of hypertensive patients.
Mirella Pessoa, Sant' Anna; Roberto José Vieira de, Mello; Luciano Tavares, Montenegro; Mônica Modesto, Araújo.
Verbal autopsy coding: are multiple coders better than one? / Codage des autopsies verbales: est-il préférable qu'il soit effectué par plusieurs codeurs au lieu d'un ? / Codificación de las autopsias verbales: ¿varios codificadores mejor que uno?
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto en los perfiles de causas de defunción notificadas de una estrategia de codificación de las autopsias verbales basada en el uso de uno o varios agentes codificadores para examinar cada caso de defunción. MÉTODOS: A lo largo de 12 meses durante 2003-2004 se documentaron l [...] as defunciones registradas en 45 aldeas (población total: 180 162 habitantes) del sur de la India, rellenándose para cada fallecimiento un cuestionario de autopsia verbal estándar. Dos codificadores médicos, sin conocer cada uno las decisiones del otro, asignaron las causas de defunción basándose en las causas enumeradas en los títulos de los capítulos de la décima revisión de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades y Problemas de Salud Conexos (CIE-10). Para los tres títulos de capítulos que se aplicaron a más de 100 defunciones, se analizó también el grado de coincidencia para subconjuntos de causas de defunción dentro del capítulo. En caso de discrepancia, un tercer codificador intervenía para dirimirla. La medición del grado de acuerdo entre los dos codificadores médicos se realizó mediante el estadístico kappa de Cohen (K). RESULTADOS: En total se documentaron 1354 defunciones, realizándose una autopsia verbal en 1329 (98%) de ellas. En lo que respecta a los títulos de los capítulos de la CIE-10, los codificadores médicos asignaron la misma causa a 1255 defunciones (94%) (K = 0,93; intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,92-0,94). Los perfiles de mortalidad derivados de las causas asignadas por cada médico fueron muy similares a los perfiles obtenidos mediante el proceso de consenso, hasta el punto de que el orden de importancia de las 10 causas principales de defunción fue el mismo con los tres métodos de codificación. CONCLUSIÓNS: La duplicación de la codificación de los resultados de las autopsias verbales no ofrece grandes ventajas respecto al sistema de codificador único en el contexto de la vigilancia de la mortalidad o la identificación de perfiles demográficos de la mortalidad. Se podrían desviar recursos hacia otros aspectos del proceso de vigilancia de la mortalidad, como por ejemplo la validación. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on the reported cause-of-death patterns of a verbal autopsy coding strategy based on a review of every death by multiple coders versus a single coder. METHODS: Deaths in 45 villages (total population 180 162) in southern India were documented during 12 months in 2003- [...] 2004, and a standard verbal autopsy questionnaire was completed for each death. Two physician coders, each unaware of the other's decisions, assigned an underlying cause of death in accordance with the causes listed in the chapter headings of the International classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). For the three chapter headings that applied to more than 100 of the deaths, agreement for subsets of causes of death within the chapter was also analysed. In the event of discrepancies, a third coder was used to finalize a cause of death. Cohen's kappa statistic (K) was used to measure levels of agreement between the two physician coders. FINDINGS: In total, 1354 deaths were documented, and a verbal autopsy was completed for 1329 (98%) of them. At the chapter heading level of the ICD-10, physician coders assigned the same cause to 1255 deaths (94%) (K = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.94). The patterns of death derived from the causes assigned by each physician were all very similar to the patterns obtained through the consensus process, with the rank order of the 10 leading causes of death being the same for all three coding methods. CONCLUSION: Duplicate coding of verbal autopsy results has little advantage over a single-coder system for mortality surveillance or for identifying population patterns of death. Resources could be better diverted to other parts of the mortality surveillance process, such as validation.
Rohina, Joshi; Alan D, Lopez; Stephen, MacMahon; Srinath, Reddy; Rakhi, Dandona; Lalit, Dandona; Bruce, Neal.
Late-onset chylothorax is a relatively rare and essentially benign postoperative complication. We describe an autopsy case of undiagnosed hemi-chylothorax accompanied by fatal acute pulmonary thromboembolism after pulmonary resection and lymph node dissection for lung cancer, reviewing the literature. The patient was a 60-year-old woman. She complained of dyspnea on the 20th postoperative day, which gradually increased. The patient suddenly died 2 days later. Autopsy demonstrated right chylothorax (1000 ml), and fatal acute pulmonary thromboembolism, mainly on the left side, originating from the lower extremities. Postoperative chylothorax, causing respiratory and pulmonary circulatory disturbance, may provide an important predisposition to ward fatality due to pulmonary thromboembolism even among those showing a milder type; thus careful management is necessary. PMID:20004127
Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhao, Dong; Quan, Li; Li, Dong-Ri; Maeda, Hitoshi
In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids. PMID:21981407
Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W
With the development and routine use of real-time ultrasound scanning, it has been possible to collect 20 autopsy cases of infants in whom the ultrasound scan was first normal and then showed evidence of subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhage (SEH/IVH). Analysis of these cases with known postnatal origin of the hemorrhage permitted the development for the first time of a time scale to characterize the temporal evolution of the histopathologic reactions to hemorrhage in the premature human b...
Darrow, V. C.; Alvord, E. C.; Mack, L. A.; Hodson, W. A.
Abstract Background Developing countries generally lack complete vital registration systems that can produce cause of death information for health planning in their populations. As an alternative, verbal autopsy (VA) - the process of interviewing family members or caregivers on the circumstances leading to death - is often used by Demographic Surveillance Systems to generate cause of death data. Physician review (PR) is the most common method of interpreting VA, but this meth...
Kyobutungi Catherine; Oti Samuel O
Background Through application of the verbal autopsy (VA) approach, trained fieldworkers collect information about the probable cause of death (COD) by using a standardized questionnaire to interview family members who were present at the time of death. The physician-certified VA (PCVA), an independent review of this questionnaire data by up to three physicians trained in VA coding, is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and is widely used in the INDEPT...
Bagagnan Cheik; Coulibaly Boubacar; Sié Ali; Niamba Louis; Diboulo Eric; Yé Maurice; Dembélé Jonas; Ramroth Heribert
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el estudio sistemático de las autopsias ha permitido caracterizar el daño múltiple de órganos. El sistema de puntuación, comprobado primero en un modelo experimental y adaptado posteriormente a la morfología humana, permite modificar los criterios diagnósticos sobre dicho daño, y por e [...] nde, una interpretación más objetiva del estudio. Objetivo: caracterizar el empleo del referido sistema de puntuación en la práctica del trabajo asistencial para estudiar las autopsias. Métodos: se revisaron las autopsias contenidas en la base de datos del Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica para identificar el diagnóstico del daño y reevaluarlos con los criterios actuales. Resultados: la reevaluación de los casos mostró la presencia del daño múltiple de órganos en el 87 % de los casos estudiados, excluyendo al 13 % de este criterio diagnóstico. Conclusiones: el sistema de puntuación para el diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos aplicado en la reevaluación de autopsias, permite caracterizar con mayor precisión y objetividad este diagnóstico. Abstract in english Introduction: the systematic study of autopsies has allowed the characterization of multiple organ failure. The scoring system, first tested in experimental and subsequently adapted to human morphology, allows modifying the diagnostic criteria for such damage, and therefore a more objective interpre [...] tation of the study. Objective: To describe the use of this scoring system in practice care to study the autopsies. Methods: The autopsies, contained in the database of the Automated System of Registration and Control of Pathology, were reviewed to identify the diagnosis of the damage and reassess current criteria. Results: Re-assessment of cases showed the presence of multiple organ failure in 87 % of the cases studied, excluding 13 % from this diagnostic criterion. Conclusions: The scoring system for the diagnosis of multiple organ failure, applied for reassessing autopsies allows characterizing this diagnosis much precisely and objectively.
Idalmis, Rodríguez Rivera; Teresita, Montero González; José Hurtado, de Mendoza Amat; Pablo Luis, Cabrera Rosell.
Full Text Available Introducción: el estudio sistemático de las autopsias ha permitido caracterizar el daño múltiple de órganos. El sistema de puntuación, comprobado primero en un modelo experimental y adaptado posteriormente a la morfología humana, permite modificar los criterios diagnósticos sobre dicho daño, y por ende, una interpretación más objetiva del estudio. Objetivo: caracterizar el empleo del referido sistema de puntuación en la práctica del trabajo asistencial para estudiar las autopsias. Métodos: se revisaron las autopsias contenidas en la base de datos del Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica para identificar el diagnóstico del daño y reevaluarlos con los criterios actuales. Resultados: la reevaluación de los casos mostró la presencia del daño múltiple de órganos en el 87 % de los casos estudiados, excluyendo al 13 % de este criterio diagnóstico. Conclusiones: el sistema de puntuación para el diagnóstico del daño múltiple de órganos aplicado en la reevaluación de autopsias, permite caracterizar con mayor precisión y objetividad este diagnóstico.Introduction: the systematic study of autopsies has allowed the characterization of multiple organ failure. The scoring system, first tested in experimental and subsequently adapted to human morphology, allows modifying the diagnostic criteria for such damage, and therefore a more objective interpretation of the study. Objective: To describe the use of this scoring system in practice care to study the autopsies. Methods: The autopsies, contained in the database of the Automated System of Registration and Control of Pathology, were reviewed to identify the diagnosis of the damage and reassess current criteria. Results: Re-assessment of cases showed the presence of multiple organ failure in 87 % of the cases studied, excluding 13 % from this diagnostic criterion. Conclusions: The scoring system for the diagnosis of multiple organ failure, applied for reassessing autopsies allows characterizing this diagnosis much precisely and objectively.
Idalmis Rodríguez Rivera
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil está associado às alterações na morbimortalidade da população. Nesse estudo, foi verificado as causas de morte e outros processos patológicos em idosos autopsiados. Os idosos com idade maior ou igual a 60 anos, no período de 1976 a 1998 representaram 394 casos [...] (24,4%). A mediana da idade foi 69 (60 a 120) anos, sendo maior nas mulheres (70,5 versus 68 anos; p Abstract in english The population aging in Brazil was associated with the alterations in the morbimortality of the population. The aim of this study was to verify the causes of death and other pathological processes in autopsied elderly. The elderly with 60 years or more in the period from 1976 to 1998 represented 394 [...] cases (24.4%). The age median was 69 years ranged from 60 to 120 years, being higher in the women (70.5 versus 68yrs;p
Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis; Eumênia Costa da Cunha, Castro; Selma Freire de Carvalho da, Cunha; Vicente de Paula Antunes, Teixeira.
Full Text Available Abstract A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell’s palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1?month after the symptom onset. At autopsy, an ill-defined large and soft tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver with direct invasion into the right adrenal gland was observed. The left adrenal gland or right iliopsoas muscle was also involved. Microscopic findings showed a monotonous proliferation of medium-sized to large atypical lymphoid cells, which were diffusely positive for CD20 in immunohistochemistry, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL. Furthermore, the lymphoma cells aggressively infiltrated endoneurial and subperineurial spaces not only in the peripheral nerves and plexuses, but partly in the spinal nerve roots, and intravascular spaces in various tissues. Therefore, systemic lymphoma (DLBL complicated with neurolymphomatosis (NL and intravascular lymphoma (IVL was diagnosed. Very early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the NL patients with poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5862472377020448.
Fifteen patients with malignant glioblastoma (MGB) were treated with radiation and chemoimmunotherapy, consisting of ACNU + FT 207 + PSK, (RAFP therapy). Autopsy findings of the brain were examined pathomorphologically in these patients, and were compared with those in the other 15 MGB patients not treated with RAFP therapy. Viable tumor tissues massively remained in the primary tumor site in only three patients in the FAFP group; however, this finding was common in the control group (10/15). Tumor infiltration into the other cerebral lobes, contralateral cerebral hemisphere, and tumor tissues below the tentorium was infrequent and slight in the RAFP group, as compared with that in the control group. Radiation necrosis in the brain tissues surrounding the tumor was more noticeable in the FAFP group than in the control group. Widespread edema, which was considered due to radiation, was seen in association with damage in the brain parenchyma. Major causes of increased intracranial pressure were tumor necrotic lesions, their surrounding radiation-induced necrosis, and edema in the RAFP group, and an increase and infiltration of residual tumor tissues in the control group. The results suggest that radiation, as well as tumor size and infiltration, may have been responsible for severe failure of central nervous system function. (Namekawa, K.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF is rapidly fatal and liver transplant is the treatment of choice. The condition is known for its heterogeneity of defining criteria, clinical presentation, histologic spectrum and etiologic factors. The etiology of FHF varies widely, some of which includes viral hepatitis, drug overdose and idiosyncratic drug reactions. The identification of the etiology of FHF is critically important, because it influences the management. A histopathological classification of FHF has not been reported earlier in the literature. Methods The current study was conducted retrospectively on 224 autopsies at a tertiary care hospital in India. In all of these cases the liver was examined grossly and microscopically. Clinical findings, serological data and immunohistochemical findings were correlated with the morphological subtypes and a consensus morphological classification was formulated. Results Young females, especially those in the reproductive age group were most susceptible to the disease. Hepatotropic viruses and drugs were the likely causes in most of the patients. Clinical presentation is important, as delayed onset of encephalopathy or the subacute FHFs lead to maximum mortality. After careful gross and microscopic examination the morphological findings of FHF were divided into four distinct categories. Histologic typing can sometimes be misleading if solely made on H & E slides without application of special stains. Conclusion Fulminant hepatic failure is a medical emergency, proper histological categorization can help in deciding the treatment modalities.
We report an autopsy case of segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) of various phases occurring in both the intracranial vertebral artery (IVA) and intra-abdominal arteries. The patient was a 70-year-old male found dead in his house. The cause of death was massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage owing to a ruptured right gastroepiploic artery. Histopathological examination revealed that there was a broad arterial dissection as long as 20 cm in the right gastroepiploic artery associated with SAM in the injurious phase. In addition, SAM in the reparative phase was observed as organized arterial dissections in the left gastric artery. Furthermore, SAM in the reparative phase was detected as an arterial dissection in the right IVA undergoing an organizing process. These three lesions were considered to have developed at different times. SAM occurring in both the intra-abdominal and intracranial vertebral arteries is extremely rare. This coincidence may provide a clue to the relationship between SAM and spontaneous IVA dissection. PMID:19375356
Ro, Ayako; Kageyama, Norimasa; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukunaga, Tatsushige
Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare diffuse glioma that is neither mass-forming nor necrotic, and does not disrupt existing structures. Gliomatosis occurring in the cerebellum is known as gliomatosis cerebelli, and only three such cases examined by biopsy have been reported. Here we describe the first autopsy findings of a patient who was diagnosed as having gliomatosis in the cerebellum. Neuropathological examination identified the tumor cells as being positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and nestin, with atypical nuclei that were cashew-nut- or dishcloth-gourd-shaped. These tumor cells were dense in the right cerebellum, but also spread broadly throughout the brain including the left cerebrum and optic nerve. Mitotic figures were frequently seen in the cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. Scherer's secondary structures were evident not only in the cerebellum but also the cerebrum. No necrosis, microvascular proliferation or destruction of anatomical structures was detected in the whole brain. Differences in the origin of the tumors of the gliomatoses cerbri and cerebelli suggests these tumors are different types of brain tumors. Thus the findings support that the gliomatosis cerebelli is a novel type of brain tumor classification. Furthermore, by the similarities of the histological features among the tumors, it appears appropriate to establish a novel category of "gliomatosis encephali" which includes both gliomatosis cerebri and gliomatosis cerebelli. PMID:24354431
Nakahara, Asa; Yoshida, Toshikazu; Yazawa, Masanobu; Ehara, Takashi; Nakayama, Jun; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Ogura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Mika; Suzuki-Kouyama, Emi; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu
Myocardial bridging is a segment of coronary artery that runs intramurally through the myocardium. Though it is commonly seen in the anterior interventricular artery and less commonly in right coronary artery, it can cause limitation in the blood flow, which leads to myocardial ischaemia. Left dominance increases cardiac mortality because of association with the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and myocardial infarction. An earlier study has shown the correlation of myocardial bridging with left coronary circulation and it is rare in relation with right coronary and left dominance. Manifestations of high takeoff of the coronary ostia are highly debatable, with varied opinions given by various authors. It has been believed that myocardial bridging is congenital and that it also causes limitation of blood flow to the myocardium. Cardiac muscles have a unique capability to adapt in response to decreased blood supply, which is in the form of coronary collateral circulation. So, is their any correlation between myocardial bridging and dominance? Herein, we are reporting an unusual autopsy case of myocardial bridging on its right main coronary artery, left coronary dominance and high take off of left main coronary artery in the same heart. PMID:24701509
Haswani, Lokesh; M L, Harendra Kumar; Kiran, J
The presence of the so-called Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) like cells may occur in T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Reported herein is the autopsy case of Hodgkin-like peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) in a 77-year-old male with gradual submandibular lymph node enlargement. The first biopsy showed Hodgkin-like PTCL, initially misdiagnosed as classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Although he was treated with a regimen of ABVD, his disease recurred with cervical lymph node enlargement. A second biopsy showed angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and H-RS like cells became obscure. Despite treatment with the CHOP regimen, he died. An autopsy confirmed that only Hodgkin-like lesions preserved while the AITL component had disappeared. This clinical course is very interesting in that only the Hodgkin-like lesions were systematically exacerbated and became the main cause of death. There are no reports of Hodgkin-like PTCL following AITL and finally preserved Hodgkin-like lesions in autopsy. PMID:25434605
Mori, Daisuke; Matsuishi, Eijo; Akashi, Michiaki; Shibaki, Masami; Hirano, Takayuki; Ide, Mikiko; Tsutsumi, Yoko; Tsukiji, Hidenori; Gondo, Hisashi
In India, it is estimated that about 13 million people are homeless. As these individuals have no close acquaintances, in the event of death, their bodies remain unclaimed. These unclaimed corpses pose a major challenge for the local law enforcement agencies in identification and thus become an obstacle in solving the cases of missing persons. We sought to review the autopsy characteristics and causes of death in the unclaimed/unidentified bodies autopsied at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) from 2006 to 2012. Among the total of 11,786 cases autopsied during the year 2006 to 2012, 1335 (11%) were unclaimed. Most of the cases were males (91%) with a male-to-female ratio of 9:1. Mean age of the cohort was 43 years (range, 1-85 years). Natural events were the foremost cause of death and were more commonly seen in males. While accidental, suicidal and homicidal modes were common in younger age groups; natural manner of death predominated in the elderly. Most of the cases were found dead on the roadside. This paper also compares with the previous study in the same set-up during the time period 2001 to 2005. The authors believe that knowledge about the existing healthcare facilities need to be reinforced and their utilisation promoted. PMID:24871325
Saurav, Chopra; Aayushi, Garg; Behera, C; Karthik, Krishna; Millo, T; Gupta, Sk
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Amyloidosis in elderly individuals can be an independent alteration and a characteristic of aging. However, the clinical, pathophysiologic, and biochemical characteristics of amyloidosis related to age remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the heart and/or the brain of individuals aged 60 years or over exhibits amyloid deposits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The autopsy findings of individuals who were at least 60 years old were studied. The autopsies took place between the years of 1976 and 2000. A total of 10 cases were selected that had hearts without cardiopathies, had negative serology for Chagas' disease, and had brains without morphological changes related to encephalopathies. Slides with fragments of heart and brain were processed and analyzed using polarized and common light microscopy. RESULTS: Of the 10 cases, 4 were positive for amyloidosis. All had positive findings in the brain, and 1 case also had positive findings in the heart. Among the positive cases, 50% were of people aged 60 to 69 years. There appeared to be a relationship between the presence of amyloid deposits and the ratio of brain and body weight, with the ratio in the positive cases being smaller than in the negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of amyloid deposits in the brains and hearts of elderly individuals shows that such deposits may lead to a systemic attack of senility, common to natural aging. It is not certain that beta-amyloid deposits would alone bring such drastic repercussions to the individual. Some additional disorders of the organism could cause the breakdown of the natural balance related to the accumulation of these proteins, leading the way to the pathological contexts of amyloidosis.RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A amiloidose em idosos pode ser uma alteração independente e própria do envelhecimento. Entretanto, as características clínicas, fisiopatológicas e bioquímicas da Amiloidose relacionada à idade ainda permanecem incertas. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o coração e o encéfalo de indivíduos acima de 60 anos apresentavam depósito amilóide. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados laudos consecutivos de autópsias de indivíduos acima de 60 anos realizadas entre 1976 e 2000, que apresentavam corações sem cardiopatias, com sorologia negativa para Doença de Chagas e encéfalos sem alterações morfológicas de encefalopatias, chegando a um n de 10 casos. Lâminas de fragmentos do coração e de encéfalo foram processadas e analisadas em microscopia de luz comum e polarizada. RESULTADOS: Dos 10 casos, 3 apresentaram depósito amilóide no encéfalo e 1 no encéfalo e no coração. Em 50% dos casos, os indivíduos tinham entre 60 e 69 anos. A relação entre o peso encefálico e o peso corporal mostrou ter uma associação significativa com os casos positivos, sendo esta menor em relação aos negativos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise conjunta de depósitos amilóides em encéfalo e coração de indivíduos idosos talvez direcione para um acometimento sistêmico comum ao envelhecimento natural. Alguma alteração adicional do organismo poderia determinar a quebra de um equilíbrio natural sobre o acúmulo dessas proteínas, levando dessa forma aos contextos patológicos da amiloidose.
Lucas Martins de Exel Nunes
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A amiloidose em idosos pode ser uma alteração independente e própria do envelhecimento. Entretanto, as características clínicas, fisiopatológicas e bioquímicas da Amiloidose relacionada à idade ainda permanecem incertas. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o coração e o encéfalo de indivíduos [...] acima de 60 anos apresentavam depósito amilóide. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados laudos consecutivos de autópsias de indivíduos acima de 60 anos realizadas entre 1976 e 2000, que apresentavam corações sem cardiopatias, com sorologia negativa para Doença de Chagas e encéfalos sem alterações morfológicas de encefalopatias, chegando a um n de 10 casos. Lâminas de fragmentos do coração e de encéfalo foram processadas e analisadas em microscopia de luz comum e polarizada. RESULTADOS: Dos 10 casos, 3 apresentaram depósito amilóide no encéfalo e 1 no encéfalo e no coração. Em 50% dos casos, os indivíduos tinham entre 60 e 69 anos. A relação entre o peso encefálico e o peso corporal mostrou ter uma associação significativa com os casos positivos, sendo esta menor em relação aos negativos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise conjunta de depósitos amilóides em encéfalo e coração de indivíduos idosos talvez direcione para um acometimento sistêmico comum ao envelhecimento natural. Alguma alteração adicional do organismo poderia determinar a quebra de um equilíbrio natural sobre o acúmulo dessas proteínas, levando dessa forma aos contextos patológicos da amiloidose. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Amyloidosis in elderly individuals can be an independent alteration and a characteristic of aging. However, the clinical, pathophysiologic, and biochemical characteristics of amyloidosis related to age remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent t [...] o which the heart and/or the brain of individuals aged 60 years or over exhibits amyloid deposits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The autopsy findings of individuals who were at least 60 years old were studied. The autopsies took place between the years of 1976 and 2000. A total of 10 cases were selected that had hearts without cardiopathies, had negative serology for Chagas' disease, and had brains without morphological changes related to encephalopathies. Slides with fragments of heart and brain were processed and analyzed using polarized and common light microscopy. RESULTS: Of the 10 cases, 4 were positive for amyloidosis. All had positive findings in the brain, and 1 case also had positive findings in the heart. Among the positive cases, 50% were of people aged 60 to 69 years. There appeared to be a relationship between the presence of amyloid deposits and the ratio of brain and body weight, with the ratio in the positive cases being smaller than in the negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of amyloid deposits in the brains and hearts of elderly individuals shows that such deposits may lead to a systemic attack of senility, common to natural aging. It is not certain that beta-amyloid deposits would alone bring such drastic repercussions to the individual. Some additional disorders of the organism could cause the breakdown of the natural balance related to the accumulation of these proteins, leading the way to the pathological contexts of amyloidosis.
Lucas Martins de Exel, Nunes; Ana Karina Marques, Salge; Flávia Aparecida de, Oliveira; Vicente de Paula A., Teixeira; Marlene Antônia dos, Reis.
We report a case of intracranial chondrosarcoma of the skull base with fatal intra- and peritumoral hemorrhage. A 75-year-old woman complained of right blepharoptosis and diplopia in 1989. An initial diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome was made, and the patient was treated with steroid hormone therapy at a local hospital. Because the symptoms had not been relieved, she was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a large mass extending from the right side of the clivus to the parasellar region and petrous apex. The mass was partially calcified and had destroyed the base of the middle cranial fossa. The lesion had homogeneous enhancement with contrast medium. Preoperative diagnosis was chordoma or chondroma. A biopsy of the tumor was made. The pathological diagnosis of biopsy specimen was chondroid chordoma. The patient was followed up but no palliative treatment such as radiotherapy was given. On June 25, 1991, she suffered from cerebral infarction. On June 29, 1993, she died of sudden respiratory failure. Autopsy was performed. It revealed intra- and peritumoral hematoma compressing the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. Histologically immature chondroid cells proliferated in a myxoid-rich extracellular matrix. The tumor cells were composed of hyperchromatic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, but there was no evidence of notochordal differentiation. Compared with biopsy findings, the tumor showed high cellular density. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells reacted positively for S - 100 protein, vimentin and cytokeratin, but negatively for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In view of these histopathological findings, the diagnosis of low-grade myxoid chondrosarcoma was established. Intratumoral hemorrhage often occurs in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and metastatic brain tumor, but chondroid tumors rarely develop a fatal type of intratumoral hemorrhage. Only 8 cases have been reported in detail to date. We discuss the immunohistochemical features and spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage of chondrosarcoma. PMID:8849479
Fukuchi, M; Fushimi, S; Yoneya, M; Hirayama, A; Mineura, K; Kowada, M; Saito, M
Full Text Available The availability of mortality data for any society plays an essential role in health monitoring and evaluation, as well as in the design of health interventions. However, most resource-poor countries such as Ghana have no reliable vital registration system. In these instances, verbal autopsy (VA may be used as an alternative method to gather mortality data. In rural Ghana, the research team utilized a VA questionnaire to interview caretakers who were present with a child under the age of five prior to death. The data was given to two physicians who independently assigned the most probable cause of death for the child. A third, blinded physician analyzed the data in the cases where the first two physicians disagreed. When there was agreement between physicians, this was assigned as the cause of death for the individual child. During the study period, we recorded 118 deaths from 92 households. Twenty-nine (24.6% were neonatal deaths with the leading causes of death being neonatal sepsis, birth asphyxia and pneumonia. The remaining 89 (75.4% were post-neonatal deaths with the most common causes of death being pneumonia, malaria and malnutrition. While 63/118 (53.4% deaths occurred in the home, there is no statistically significant relationship between the location of the home and the time of travel to the nearest health facility (P=0.132. VA is an important epidemiological tool for obtaining mortality data in communities that lack reliable vital registration systems. Improvement in health care is necessary to address the large number of deaths occurring in the home.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Identificar diferencias en las características sociodemográficas y clínicas entre hombres y mujeres suicidas en una muestra de Antioquia (Colombia). Método: Se estudiaron mediante autopsia psicológica 144 sujetos que se habían suicidado entre 2006 y 2007. Se determinaron las diferencias en [...] tre suicidas por sexos y las características que se asociaron de manera independiente con ser hombre o mujer. Resultados: Se identificaron diferencias significativas independientes del sexo. La manera de muerte con arma de fuego, vivir solo y suicidio bajo efectos del alcohol se asociaron con el sexo masculino; mientras, el suicidio en casa y dejar una nota previa se asociaron con el sexo femenino. Conclusiones: El presente estudio, realizado en población antioqueña, identificó diferencias en variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y características del acto suicida entre hombres y mujeres. A Zesar de las limitaciones, los presentes hallazgos apuntan hacia la posibilidad de realizar intervenciones de salud mental de prevención del suicidio de mayor especificidad teniendo en cuenta el sexo de la población. Abstract in english Objective: To identify differences in the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics between suicidal men and women in a sample from Antioquia (Colombia). Method: 144 subjects who committed suicide between 2006 and 2007 were studied by means of a psychological autopsy. Gender differences and cha [...] racteristics associated independently to being a man or a woman were determined. Results: Significant differences independent of sex were identified. Death by firearm, living alone and suicide under the effects of alcohol intoxication were associated with the male gender, whereas suicide at home and leaving a note were associated with the female gender. Conclusions: The present study identified differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and characteristics of the suicide act, between men and women. In spite of its limitations, the present findings point towards the possibility of carrying out more specific actions in suicide prevention by taking gender into account.
Andrea, González; Ángela, Rodríguez Betancur; Alejandro, Aristizábal; Jenny, García Valencia; Carlos, Palacio; Carlos, López Jaramillo.
The hemophagocytic syndrome(HPS) after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(SHCT) may be triggered by the reactivation of virus such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) under immunosuppressive state. The present case was a 17-year old man who was diagnosed as B lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow aspiration showed 96.4% of lymphoblasts with positive for CD19 and CD20, negative for CD66 and POX, and dot staining for PAS. E2A/PBX1 chimeric mRNA was positive as assessed by RT-PCR method. He received three courses of induction chemotherapy followed by allo-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from his sister, but had a relapse three months after allo-BMT. He received allo peripheral blood-SCT (PBSCT) from his mother. The hematopoietic cells successfully engrafted, but the mixed chimerism of 2 donors persisted. On day 149, he had a fever, and hemophagocytosis was found by bone marrow aspiration. EBV genomic DNA was detected for 1.62 x 10(3) copies. CMV and fungus were negative in blood. On day 165, the patient had been observed disturbance of consciousness, neck stiffness, and died on day 170 due to multiple organ failure. Autopsy examination showed infiltration of CD20+ leukemic cells into the perivascular space of cerebrum, brainstem and spinal cord, with hemophagocytosis by CD6+ macrophages. In situ hybridization of EB-virus encoded small RNA (EBER) confirmed EBV infection of B-lymphoblastic cells infiltrated in the cerebrum. HPS was considered to be triggered by the reactivation of EBV, due to hematopoietic dysfunction based on long-term immunosuppressive treatment and mixed chimerism derived from a HSCT from 2 donors. PMID:24218764
Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji; Tanaka, Shizu; Tanaka, Haruyuki; Amano, Itsuto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Konishi, Noboru
Several investigators have observed less-than-desirable agreement between death certificate diagnoses and autopsy diagnoses for most specific causes of death, and even for some causes grouped by major disease category. Our results from data on 5130 autopsies of members of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki conducted prior to September 1987 were equally discouraging. Among diseases with more than 10 cases observed, confirmation rates ranged from 13 % to 97 % and detection rates from 6 % to 90 %. Both rates were greater than 70 % for only 6 of 60 disease categories studied and for only 1 of 16 categories defined by major International Classification of Disease categories (neoplasms). This deficiency suggests cautious interpretation of results from studies based on death certificate diagnoses. To determine whether any groupings of diagnoses might meet acceptable accuracy requirements, we applied a hierarchical clustering method to data from these 5130 cohort members. The resulting classification system had 10 categories: breast cancer; other female cancers; cancers of the digestive organs; cancer of the larynx; leukemia; nasal, ear, or sinus cancer; tongue cancer; external causes; vascular disease; and all other causes. Confirmation and detection rates for each of these categories were at least 66 %. Although the categories are broad, particularly for nonneoplastic diseases, further divisions led to unacceptable accuracy rates for some of the resulting diagnostic groups. Using the derived classification system, there was 72 % agreement overall between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses compared to 53 % agreement for a second system obtained by grouping strictly by major disease category. Eighty-seven percent agreement was observed for a similar classification system with vascular disease grouped with all other nonneoplastic diseases. Further agglomeration achieved very little additional improvement. (J.P.N.)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding, low molecular weight proteins and are involved in pathophysiological processes like metabolism of essential metals, metal ion homeostasis and detoxification of heavy metals. Metallothionein expression is induced by various heavy metals especially cadmium, mercury and zinc; MTs suppress toxicity of heavy metals by binding themselves to these metals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the - 5 A/G metallothionein 2A (MT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex from autopsy cases. MT2A core promoter region - 5 A/G SNP was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method using 114 autopsy kidney tissues and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were found as 87.7% homozygote typical (AA), 11.4% heterozygote (AG) and 0.9% homozygote atypical (GG). In order to assess the Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the same autopsy kidney tissues, a dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system was used and the average levels of Cd, Zn and Cu were measured as 95.54 ± 65.58 ?g/g, 181.20 ± 87.72 ?g/g and 17.14 ± 16.28 ?g/g, respectively. As a result, no statistical association was found between the - 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene and the Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex (p > 0.05), but considerably high accumulation of Cd was monitored for individuals having AG (151.24 ± 60.21 ?g/g) and GG genotypes (153.09 ?g/g) compared with individuals having AA genotype (87.72 ± 62.98 ?g/g) (p < otype (87.72 ± 62.98 ?g/g) (p < 0.05). These results show that the core promoter region polymorphism of metallothionein 2A increases the accumulation of Cd in human renal cortex.
A pilot-plant study was designed to compare the effectiveness of microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) as pretreatment for high-pressure membranes in reclamation of biologically treated wastewater effluent. Granular media, filtered secondary effluent from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant, was fed to MF and UF units that operated in parallel. Each of these filtrates served as the feedwater to two reverse osmosis (RO) units and one nanofiltration (NF) unit that operated in parallel. The decline in specific flux was substantially lower for high-pressure membranes receiving UF than MF pretreatment over the course of each of four pilot plant runs that lasted from 1 to 7 weeks. The removal of organic matter as measured by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was somewhat higher by UF than MF pretreatment (about 15% by UF compared with 11% by MF). Addition of ferric chloride ahead of the UF unit, but not ahead of the MF unit, may account for this additional removal of organic matter. However, the additional DOC removal appeared insufficient to explain the differential in foulant accumulation between high-pressure membranes receiving UF and MF pretreatment. Extensive autopsy analyses of these high-pressure membranes showed from 35% to 56% less organic carbon on those receiving UF rather than MF pretreatment. A more specific indicator of a differential in organic fouling was the accumulation of polysaccharides and this showed from 27% to 38% less on UF- than on MF-pretreated membranes. Yet another possible source of foulants is inorganic material given that the inorganic and organic weight percentages were nearly equal (56% vs. 44%) on the membrane surface. One specific source was aluminum added for phosphorus removal. Less fouling of high-pressure membranes pretreated by UF than MF could be due to the following: (1) a small, but very important, colloidal fouling fraction may have passed through MF but was rejected by UF pretreatment; (2) organic fouling was not related to organics in either the MF or UF filtrates but rather to organics that are generated in situ by microbial activity on the membrane surface; and/or (3) less passage of colloidal Al-P that carried over from secondary wastewater treatment. PMID:17961627
Kim, Jeonghwan; DiGiano, Francis A; Reardon, Roderick D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA has often been used for point estimates of cause-specific mortality, but seldom to characterize long-term changes in epidemic patterns. Monitoring emerging causes of death involves practitioners' developing perceptions of diseases and demands consistent methods and practices. Here we retrospectively analyze HIV-related mortality in South Africa, using physician and modeled interpretation. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 94% of 6,153 deaths which occurred in the Agincourt subdistrict had VAs completed, and coded by two physicians and the InterVA model. The physician causes of death were consolidated into a single consensus underlying cause per case, with an additional physician arbitrating where different diagnoses persisted. HIV-related mortality rates and proportions of deaths coded as HIV-related by individual physicians, physician consensus, and the InterVA model were compared over time. Results Approximately 20% of deaths were HIV-related, ranging from early low levels to tenfold-higher later population rates (2.5 per 1,000 person-years. Rates were higher among children under 5 years and adults 20 to 64 years. Adult mortality shifted to older ages as the epidemic progressed, with a noticeable number of HIV-related deaths in the over-65 year age group latterly. Early InterVA results suggested slightly higher initial HIV-related mortality than physician consensus found. Overall, physician consensus and InterVA results characterized the epidemic very similarly. Individual physicians showed marked interobserver variation, with consensus findings generally reflecting slightly lower proportions of HIV-related deaths. Aggregated findings for first versus second physician did not differ appreciably. Conclusions VA effectively detected a very significant epidemic of HIV-related mortality. Using either physicians or InterVA gave closely comparable findings regarding the epidemic. The consistency between two physician coders per case (from a pool of 14 suggests that double coding may be unnecessary, although the consensus rate of HIV-related mortality was approximately 8% lower than by individual physicians. Consistency within and between individual physicians, individual perceptions of epidemic dynamics, and the inherent consistency of models are important considerations here. The ability of the InterVA model to track a more than tenfold increase in HIV-related mortality over time suggests that finely tuned "local" versions of models for VA interpretation are not necessary.
Full Text Available Eleven out of 36 autopsied cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy had developed coma. None of these patients had the diagnosis during life. There were six men and five women with ages ranging from 36 to 50 years (mean 36.6. Seven of these patients were heavy drinkers, three exhibited signs of severe malnutrition, whereas one was being evaluated for a disseminated gastric cancer and one was in treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Two patients were brought to the hospital after found unconscious at home. Neuropatholo-gical examination disclosed gross changes in the mammillary bodies in eight cases and microscopic changes in all cases. In one case there was atrophy of the anterior superior part of the vermis. Petechial hemorrhages were observed particularly in the walls of the third ventricle. Microscopically there were in addition to hemorrhages, glial proliferation, endothelial hypertrophy and necrosis of nerve cells and myelin. Central pontine myelmolysis was observed in one case. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a clinically underdiagnosed condition. Coma may mask its classical clinical picture or even be the sole manifestation. Although coma points to a poor outlook it may be reversed by thiamine administration. Any patient with Coma of unknown etiology should be given parenteral thiamine.Numa série de 36 casos de encefalopatia de Wernicke autopsiados, 11 haviam desenvolvido coma. Em nenhum desses pacientes comatosos o diagnóstico foi estabelecido durante a vida. Seis desses pacientes eram homens e 5 mulheres, com idades entre 26 a 50 anos (média de 36,6. História de alcoolismo crônico foi positiva em 7 casos, sinais de desnutrição grave ocorreram em 3; uma paciente (apresentava câncer gástrico e uma, hiper emese gravídica. Dois pacientes foram admitidos ao hospital após terem sido encontrados em coma em suas residências. O exame neuropatológieo revelou alterações macroscópicas nos corpos mamilares em 8 casos - atrofia, descoloração e espongiose. Atrofia da porção anterior e superior do vermis do cerebelo foi observada em um caso. Era 5 casos havia hemorragias petequiais no diencéfalo, principalmente próximas às paredes do terceiro ventrículo. A microscopia revelou além das hemorragias, proliferação glial, hipertrofia do endotélio vascular e necrose de neurônios e mielina. Mielinólise pontina central ocorreu em um paciente. A encefalopatia de Wernicke é pouco diagnosticada clinicamente. O coma pode mascarar as outras manifestações clínicas da doença ou pode constituir sua única manifestação. Embora seja um sinal de mau prognóstico, o coma pode ser revertido pela administração de tiamina. É enfatizado que todo paciente em coma de causa não estabelecida deve receber altas doses de tiamina.
Marco Aurélio Lana-peixoto
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Numa série de 36 casos de encefalopatia de Wernicke autopsiados, 11 haviam desenvolvido coma. Em nenhum desses pacientes comatosos o diagnóstico foi estabelecido durante a vida. Seis desses pacientes eram homens e 5 mulheres, com idades entre 26 a 50 anos (média de 36,6). História de alcoolismo crôn [...] ico foi positiva em 7 casos, sinais de desnutrição grave ocorreram em 3; uma paciente (apresentava câncer gástrico e uma, hiper emese gravídica. Dois pacientes foram admitidos ao hospital após terem sido encontrados em coma em suas residências. O exame neuropatológieo revelou alterações macroscópicas nos corpos mamilares em 8 casos - atrofia, descoloração e espongiose. Atrofia da porção anterior e superior do vermis do cerebelo foi observada em um caso. Era 5 casos havia hemorragias petequiais no diencéfalo, principalmente próximas às paredes do terceiro ventrículo. A microscopia revelou além das hemorragias, proliferação glial, hipertrofia do endotélio vascular e necrose de neurônios e mielina. Mielinólise pontina central ocorreu em um paciente. A encefalopatia de Wernicke é pouco diagnosticada clinicamente. O coma pode mascarar as outras manifestações clínicas da doença ou pode constituir sua única manifestação. Embora seja um sinal de mau prognóstico, o coma pode ser revertido pela administração de tiamina. É enfatizado que todo paciente em coma de causa não estabelecida deve receber altas doses de tiamina. Abstract in english Eleven out of 36 autopsied cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy had developed coma. None of these patients had the diagnosis during life. There were six men and five women with ages ranging from 36 to 50 years (mean 36.6). Seven of these patients were heavy drinkers, three exhibited signs of severe ma [...] lnutrition, whereas one was being evaluated for a disseminated gastric cancer and one was in treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Two patients were brought to the hospital after found unconscious at home. Neuropatholo-gical examination disclosed gross changes in the mammillary bodies in eight cases and microscopic changes in all cases. In one case there was atrophy of the anterior superior part of the vermis. Petechial hemorrhages were observed particularly in the walls of the third ventricle. Microscopically there were in addition to hemorrhages, glial proliferation, endothelial hypertrophy and necrosis of nerve cells and myelin. Central pontine myelmolysis was observed in one case. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a clinically underdiagnosed condition. Coma may mask its classical clinical picture or even be the sole manifestation. Although coma points to a poor outlook it may be reversed by thiamine administration. Any patient with Coma of unknown etiology should be given parenteral thiamine.
Marco Aurélio, Lana-peixoto; Eustáquio Claret Dos, Santos; José Eymard H., Pittella.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common genetic disorders and is characterized by the development and progressive enlargement of cysts in the kidneys. ADPKD is caused by mutations of either PKD1 or PKD2. The prevalence of brain aneurysm in patients with ADPKD is increased, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is one of the frequent complications. We describe an autopsy case of death of a 31-year-old woman by aneurysmal SAH. ADPKD as an underlining disease was suggested by the autopsy findings. Sequence analysis of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes revealed deletion of a guanine at position 8019 in PKD1 (8019delG) in a heterozygous state resulting in a shift in the reading frame and generation of a premature termination codon at amino acid 2684 (G2673fs12X). This mutation is novel and highly suspected as the causal mutation of ADPKD of this case. PMID:25022697
Soejima, Mikiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Koda, Yoshiro
An autopsy case of a 42 year old man with the anerythremic form of acute erythremic myelosis (Di Guglielmo's syndrome) is reported. The patient was admitted because of a 1 month history of fatigue and fever. Physical examination showed hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory data showed leukopenia, mild normocytic anemia, and high levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and vitamin B12. Bone marrow aspirate revealed an elevated number of erythroblasts, with dyserythropoiesis (E/M = 3.7). After admission, thrombocytopenia progressed rapidly, but blast cells were not seen in the peripheral blood throughout the clinical course. On the 56th hospital day, the patient died of pneumonia. At autopsy, the spleen weighed 550 g and the liver 1800 g. Histologically, the white and red pulps of the spleen and the portal region and sinusoid of the liver were diffusely infiltrated by blast cells that were positive for anti-hemoglobin (Hb) antibody on immunoperoxidase staining. The bone marrow, the lymph nodes, the adrenal glands, the pancreas, and the heart were also infiltrated by the blast cells. This was thus considered to be a rare case of the anerythremic form of acute erythremic myelosis (Di Guglielmo's syndrome), the findings showing that Hb immunoperoxidase staining is useful for the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:7551002
Tsuji, M; Tamai, M; Terada, N; Tako, H
Full Text Available South Gujarat is endemic zone for leptospirosis in paddy workers but recently we have post flood plenty of urban patients who were presented with high grade fever, dyspnea & haemoptysis with rapid deterioration. Clinicians were suspecting an outbreak of Hantavirus or leptospirosis. Both our patients were serologically negative for leptospirosis ante mortem, but alveolar hemorrhage & raised urea was the only finding. Both our patient rapidly deteriorated. We performed autopsy & took post mortem samples for serologically & HP Examination of tissue. Serological finding showed one patient positive for PCR and second was positive for Leptocheck and IgM ELISA. On HP examination we observed massive intra-alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial nephritis, vasculitis in spleen and kidney, myocarditis & hemorrhage in various organs like heart, suprarenal gland, and subarachnoid space in both our patient. Levaditi’s stain was also performed but results were not conclusive. IHC for kidney tissue was not possible due to lack of facility. Extensive hemorrhage in lung was the cause of death in both patients. Follow up autopsy studies of 30 patients were showing same histopathological findings.
Mandakini M Patel, Bhavna Gamit, R D Patel, Rahul Modi
A study was made on the autopsy of a subject who had been exposed at the age of 10 months old to the atomic bomb at a distance of 1,112 m from a bombed area, and who found to have myelofibrosis which followed aplastic anemia-like symptoms. The autopsy findings showed 400 ml of bloody ascites, hyperplastic bone marrow in which no fatty cells were observed but many reticular cell-like cells and granular hematopoiesis were observed, and diffuse proliferation of reticular fibers without remarkable new bone findings in the trabecula. The liver was enlarged to the weight of 3.18 g, and showed extramedullary hematopoiesis. Infiltration of lymphocytes, slight fibrosis, and marked accumulation of hemosiderin (caused by the transfusion of the blood) were seen in the Glisson's sheath. The spleen, which was enlarged to the weight of 1.54 g, was brown, and showed fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis and many plasma cells. Lymphatic glands were swollen in the mesentery, in the retroperitoneum, around the gastro-pancreatic area, and at the bifurcation of the trachea, where marked extramedullary hematopoiesis and many giant globuli were observed. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was also seen in other sites such as the subdura, both of the renal pelvises, and in a hyperplastic polyp in the gastric pit. Therefore, this patient was diagnosed as having myelofibrosis and hematopoietic dysplasia caused by radiation. (Kanao, N.)
Full Text Available Foram realizadas 3937 necropsias no período de 1971 a 1993 no Serviço de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital de Clínicas da Fundação de Assistência, Estudo e Pesquisa de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, local para onde convergem todos os casos de autópsias do município. A análise de 2862 registros cujos laudos estavam completos e com idade acima de um ano revelou 39 casos (1,4% de cisticercose. A idade variou de 16 a 83 anos, sendo 66,6% do sexo masculino. A análise da procedência demonstrou que 82,1% dos indivíduos eram do Estado de Minas Gerais e 15,4% de Goiás; 1 caso (2,5% não tinha procedência anotada. Dos 39 indivíduos parasitados, 35 (89,7% apresentaram comprometimento do sistema nervoso central, isolado ou associado a outras formas clínicas da doença; em 9 ocorreu a forma cardíaca (isolada ou associada, em 4 a forma muscular (isolada ou associada e em 4 a forma visceral (isolada ou associada. Em somente 7 casos (17,9% a cisticercose foi a causa básica do óbito.3937 autopsies were performed between 1971 and 1993 in the Serviço de Anatomia Patológica of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Fundação de Assistência, Estudo e Pesquisa de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. At this Service of Pathology are realized all the autopsies of the municipal district of Uberlândia. The analysis of 2862 concluded autopsy reports, of death above the age of one year, disclosed 39 cases (1.4% of cysticercosis. The age range was 16 to 83 years and 66.6% were males; 82.1 % of the patients were from Minas Gerais State, 15.4% were from Goiás State, and in one case (2.5% the origin was not registered. From these 39 cases, 35 (89.7% showed central nervous system involvement, isolated or in association to other clinical forms of the disease; in 9 occurred the isolated or associated cardiac form; in 4 the muscular form, isolated or associated, was found; 4 presented the isolated or associated visceral form. In only 7 (17.9% cases, the cysticercosis was assumed to be the direct cause of the death.
Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
Autopsy samples from 17 Greenlanders and 12 Danes were analysed for total and organic mercury by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and for cellular localisation by autometallography. The concentration of total mercury in the Greenlanders (median: 174 micrograms Hg/kg wet weight brain tissue, range 59-4782, highest in cerebellum: 492) was found to be significantly higher than in the Danish group (3.7 micrograms Hg/kg w.w., range 1.2-11.8). Furthermore, the total concentration of mercury was positively correlated to age (rho = 0.56, p <0.05), and the fraction of methyl mercury was negatively correlated to age (rho = -0.66, p <0.01) among the Greenlanders. This suggests an age dependent accumulation of total mercury and a slow transformation of methyl mercury to inorganic mercury in the brain. The autometallographically demonstrable mercury was primarily located in glia cells.
Pedersen, M B; Hansen, J C
Gastric dissecting aneurysm is a very rare lesion with a potential risk of fatal rupture. Differentiating this from a traumatic lesion may be important in forensic casework. We report an autopsy case of sudden death due to a clinically overlooked spontaneous rupture of gastric dissecting aneurysm. A 91-year-old Japanese male visited a hospital with complaints of back pain and general fatigue, and then died at his home about 4 h later. Postmortem examination revealed massive hemoperitoneum and a subserosal hematoma originating from a vascular lesion at the lesser gastric curvature with a serosal tear. The histological findings were compatible with segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). The pathological findings and clinical course suggested the possible 'double-rupture phenomenon' (delayed fatal rupture). This case suggested the importance of careful investigation such a vascular lesion in medico-legal practice, not only to differentiate from traumatic injury but also to investigate the process of dying. PMID:15489181
Nishiyama, Sayaka; Zhu, Bao-Li; Quan, Li; Tsuda, Kohei; Kamikodai, Yasunobu; Maeda, Hitoshi
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP é ainda uma afecção enigmática em diversos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos e frequentemente erroneamente diagnosticada. OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e os achados anatomopatológicos de TEP em uma série de 5261 autópsias realizadas em um hospital universitário de nível terciário, correlacionar estes achados com as doenças de base e verificar a freqüência de suspeita clínica antemortem de TEP. MÉTODO: Revisão dos registros das autópsias consecutivas realizadas de 1979 a 2002 para um estudo retrospectivo. Dos prontuários e dos relatórios de autópsias dos pacientes que tiveram TEP documentada, macro e/ou microscopicamente, foram extraídos dados demográficos, doenças de base, suspeita antemortem de TEP, localização dos trombos nos pulmões e provável local de origem da TEP. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de autópsias foi de 42,0% e TEP foi encontrada em 544 pacientes, sendo a principal causa da morte (TEP fatal em 225 casos. Doenças infecciosas (p=0,0003 foram associadas com TEP não fatal e trauma (p=0,007 com TEP fatal. A taxa de não suspeita antemortem de TEP foi 84,6% e 40,0% destes pacientes apresentaram TEP fatal. Doenças do sistema circulatório (p=0,0001, infecções (pBACKGROUND: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is still an enigmatic disorder in many epidemiological and clinical features, remaining one of the most commonly misdiagnosed disorders. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and pathological findings of PTE in a series of autopsies, to correlate these findings with underlying diseases, and to verify the frequency of PTE clinically suspected before death. METHOD: The reports on 5261 consecutive autopsies performed from 1979 to 2002 in a Brazilian tertiary referral medical school were reviewed for a retrospective study. From the medical records and autopsy reports of the patients found with macroscopically and/or microscopically documented PTE, were gathered data on demographics, underlying diseases, antemortem suspicion of PTE, and probable PTE site of origin. RESULTS: The autopsy rate was 42.0% and PTE was found in 544 patients. In 225 cases, PTE was the main cause of death (fatal PTE. Infections (p=0.0003 were associated with nonfatal PTE and trauma (p=0.007 with fatal PTE. The rate of antemortem unsuspected PTE was 84.6% and 40.0% of these patients presented fatal PTE. Diseases of the circulatory system (p=0.0001, infections (p<0.0001, diseases of the digestive system (p=0.0001, neoplasia (p=0.024 and trauma (p=0.005 were associated with unsuspected PTE. The most frequent PTE site of origin was the lower limbs (48.9%. Probable PTE sites of origin such as right-sided cardiac chambers (p=0.012 and pelvic veins (p=0.015 were associated with fatal PTE. CONCLUSION: A large number of cases do not have antemortem suspicion of PTE. Special attention should be paid to the possibility of PTE in patients with diseases of the circulatory system, infections, diseases of the digestive system, neoplasia, and trauma.
Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo
Ultrafiltration (UF) is widely used for water purification, but membrane fouling remains an important issue. In this study, the role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs), recently put forward as possible major foulants, was investigated in the fouling process of a full-scale UF installation. Algae, TEPs and other parameters in the UF feed were monitored and correlated during an 8 months long full-scale operation. Results revealed a complex fouling mechanism involving interactions mainly between algae, Fe (flocculant) and TEPs. Algae related parameters rather that TEP concentrations correlated stronger with irreversible fouling rates, suggesting that the overall role of TEPs in membrane fouling seems limited for this application. Finally, membrane autopsy showed the formation of a thick Fe-rich fouling layer on top of the fouled membranes, which could mostly be removed via cleaning-in-place. It remained partly irremovable in the form of some Fe-organic complexes. PMID:25285761
Discart, V; Bilad, M R; Van Nevel, S; Boon, N; Cromphout, J; Vankelecom, I F J
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se cuenta con poca información acerca de los pacientes fallecidos por asma certificada por autopsia en São Paulo, Brasil. Se caracterizaron 73 pacientes de asma sometidos a autopsia en el Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos da Universidade de São Paulo entre 1996 y 2004. Mediante entrevistas con sus pa [...] rientes se estableció el nivel socioeconómico, los antecedentes de asma y el tratamiento seguido. Del los 73 pacientes (42 mujeres y 31 hombres), 56 (76,7%) eran mayores de 34 años; 63,0% eran caucásicos y 77,3% tenían menos de 8 años de escolaridad. La mediana de los ingresos era de 1,6 veces el salario mínimo. De los pacientes, 22 (30,1%) eran fumadores y 14 (19,2%) lo habían sido. Solamente 25 (34,2%) pacientes tenían seguimiento médico regular y solo 12,3% usaba inhaladores de esteroides; 35 (47,9%) presentaban asma moderada o intensa; 55 (75,3%) de las muertes ocurrieron fuera de los hospitales. Se concluye que esta población se caracterizaba por padecer de asma intensa o poco controlada, bajo nivel educacional y socioeconómico, carecía de atención médica y no usaba inhaladores de esteroides. Abstract in english Few data are available on autopsy-proven fatal asthma patients in São Paulo, Brazil. We characterized 73 asthma patients who were autopsied at the Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos da Universidade de São Paulo between 1996 and 2004. An interview with the next of kin assessed socioeconomic status, his [...] tory, and treatment of asthma. There were 42 women and 31 men. Fifty-six (76.7%) of them were older than 34 years. Sixty-three percent were Caucasians, 77.3% had
Thais, Mauad; Diogenes S., Ferreira; Maria Beatriz G., Costa; Bianca B., Araujo; Luiz Fernando F., Silva; Milton A., Martins; Sally E., Wenzel; Marisa, Dolhnikoff.
Verbal autopsy used at community level is an accepted method to identify cause of death and factors contributing to death. Maternal deaths occurring in four districts in Bangladesh over a period of 24 months were identified and community health workers were trained to conduct a verbal autopsy. Of 571 maternal deaths identified almost half (273, 47.8%) occurred at facility level, 97 (17.0%) died en route to a healthcare facility and 201 (35.2%) maternal deaths occurred at home. The majority of maternal deaths occurred in the postpartum period (78.8%) in the first 6 hours after giving birth (41.6% of all postpartum deaths). Women who had accessed care at a healthcare facility were less likely to die in the first 6 hours when compared with women who died at home (relative risk 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.88) 70.4% (402) of deaths were classified as direct maternal deaths, 12.4% (71) as indirect and 13.8% (79) as unspecified. The most common cause of death was haemorrhage (38%), followed by eclampsia (20%) and sepsis (8.1%). Almost three out of four women who died had sought care for complications during the index pregnancy. Most mothers who died in Bangladesh had accessed care. It is now crucial that the quality of care received at health facility level is improved. This includes a refocus on strengthening healthcare providers' knowledge and skills to recognise and manage complications and provide emergency obstetric care. The enabling environment must be in place as well as ensuring a fully functional referral pathway between healthcare facilities. PMID:25236640
Halim, A; Utz, B; Biswas, A; Rahman, F; van den Broek, N
In East Germany, uranium mining was undertaken on a large scale for the Soviet nuclear industry from 1946 to 1989. Poor working conditions especially in the early years led to a high level of occupational diseases, in particular lung cancer. For WISMUT miners, comprehensive data is available on working histories and exposure to radiation and quartz dust. After German reunification, the autopsy archive of the Institute of Pathology in Stollberg was opened for research as part of the WISMUT Health Data Archive of the Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin. It contains protocols of about 30,000 persons (including 17,000 miners), 400,000 slides, 66,000 tissue blocks, and 200 whole lungs. Now, the tissue repository is held in trust at BGFA and Institute of Pathology in Bochum, Germany. The source population of the cases is not defined. The archive contains tissues from many - but not from all - former WISMUT miners as well as from local people. For 12,923 miners, median radon exposure was 621 WLM, including about 800 workers with exposure above 1800 WLM. Smoking information is poor, but prevalence of smoking was high. A leading diagnosis was lung cancer in about 5,300 persons, mainly underground miners. A database has been developed at Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum to document relevant autopsy information on the cases. Histopathological classification of 5,270 lung cancer cases has been re-assessed by three pathologists. U.S. NIOSH conducted a study on the ists. U.S. NIOSH conducted a study on the feasibility of research on pathologic types of lung cancer. Laboratory studies on the quality of the material for molecular-biological investigations are under way. A project is ongoing to investigate the interaction of radiation and crystalline silica on lung cancer development. A workshop was scheduled December 10, 2004 to discuss the resources, the findings, the pitfalls and challenges presented by the material and the future use of that archive in research. (orig.)
Birth attendants as perinatal verbal autopsy respondents in low-and middle-income countries: a viable alternative? / Les sages-femmes pour répondre aux questions de l'autopsie verbale périnatale dans les pays à revenu faible et moyen: une alternative viable? / Las matronas como encuestadas en autopsias verbales perinatales en países de ingresos bajos y medios: ¿una alternativa viable?
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar la viabilidad de utilizar matronas como encuestadas en autopsias verbales perinatales en lugar de madres que han perdido un hijo/a. MÉTODOS: Las entrevistas para las autopsias verbales de muertes neonatales prematuras y alumbramientos mortinatos se realizaron por separado entre mad [...] res (estándar de referencia) y matronas en 38 comunidades de cuatro países en desarrollo. Se calculó la concordancia entre las respuestas maternas y las respuestas de las matronas para todas las preguntas, tanto para las categorías de preguntas como para las preguntas individuales. Se evaluaron la sensibilidad y especificidad de las preguntas individuales con la matrona como encuestada. RESULTADOS: En las muertes neonatales prematuras, la concordancia en todas las preguntas fue del 94%. La concordancia fue de al menos el 95% para más de la mitad de las preguntas sobre el historial médico materno, atención en el parto y características neonatales. La concordancia de cualquier pregunta determinada no fue en ningún caso inferior al 80%. La sensibilidad y la especificidad variaron en las preguntas individuales. En este caso, más del 80% de las preguntas presentaron una sensibilidad de al menos el 80% y una especificidad de al menos el 90%. En cuanto a los alumbramientos mortinatos, la concordancia en todas las preguntas fue del 93%. La concordancia fue del 95% o más durante más de la mitad del tiempo para preguntas relacionadas con la atención en el parto, el centro de parto y las características de la mortinatalidad. La sensibilidad y especificidad variaron en las preguntas individuales. Más del 60% de las preguntas presentaron una sensibilidad de al menos el 80%. En este caso, más del 80% de las preguntas presentaron una especificidad de al menos el 90%. Globalmente, las causas de muerte establecidas mediante autopsia verbal fueron similares, independientemente de la persona encuestada. CONCLUSIÓN: Las matronas pueden sustituir a las madres que han perdido un hijo/a como encuestadas en autopsias verbales. Es necesario perfeccionar las preguntas de los cuestionarios de autopsia verbal armonizados existentes, ya que su sensibilidad y especificidad difieren ampliamente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using birth attendants instead of bereaved mothers as perinatal verbal autopsy respondents. METHODS: Verbal autopsy interviews for early neonatal deaths and stillbirths were conducted separately among mothers (reference standard) and birth attendants in 38 com [...] munities in four developing countries. Concordance between maternal and attendant responses was calculated for all questions, for categories of questions and for individual questions. The sensitivity and specificity of individual questions with the birth attendant as respondent were assessed. FINDINGS: For early neonatal deaths, concordance across all questions was 94%. Concordance was at least 95% for more than half the questions on maternal medical history, birth attendance and neonate characteristics. Concordance on any given question was never less than 80%. Sensitivity and specificity varied across individual questions, more than 80% of which had a sensitivity of at least 80% and a specificity of at least 90%. For stillbirths, concordance across all questions was 93%. Concordance was 95% or greater more than half the time for questions on birth attendance, site of delivery and stillborn characteristics. Sensitivity and specificity varied across individual questions. Over 60% of the questions had a sensitivity of at least 80% and over 80% of them had a specificity of at least 90%. Overall, the causes of death established through verbal autopsy were similar, regardless of respondent. CONCLUSION: Birth attendants can substitute for bereaved mothers as verbal autopsy respondents. The questions in existing harmonized verbal autopsy questionnaires need further refinement, as their sensitivity and specificity differ widely.
C, Engmann; A, Garces; I, Jehan; J, Ditekemena; M, Phiri; V, Thorsten; M, Mazariegos; E, Chomba; O, Pasha; A, Tshefu; D, Wallace; EM, McClure; RL, Goldenberg; WA, Carlo; LL, Wright; C, Bose.
Autopsy-proven causes of death in lungs of patients immunocompromised by secondary interstitial pneumonia / Causas de óbito por pneumonia intersticial secundária em autópsias pulmonares de pacientes imunocomprometidos
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Apresentar as associações mais freqüentes encontradas em autópsias de pacientes imunossuprimidos que desenvolveram pneumonia intersticial secundária bem como o risco de óbito (Odds Ratio) de desenvolver PIS associada à causa da imunossupressão. MÉTODO: De janeiro de 1994 a março de 2004, 1 [...] 7000 autópsias foram realizadas no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. A partir da revisão dos laudos patológicos foram selecionados 558 destas autópsias (3,28%) de pacientes com 15 anos de idade ou mais, com alguma doença de base que desenvolveu um infiltrado pulmonar radiologicamente difuso durante o curso da hospitalização e que depois foi para óbito com pneumonia intersticial secundária (broncopneumonia, pneumonia lobar, pneumonia intersticial, dano alveolar difuso, doença pulmonar recorrente, doença pulmonar induzida por drogas, edema pulmonar cardiogênico e embolismo pulmonar). As lâminas histológicas foram revisadas por patologistas experientes para confirmar ou não a presença de pneumonia intersticial secundária. A análise estatística incluiu o "Teste exato de Fisher" para verificar associação entre a histolopatologia e causa de imunocomprometimento; e regressão logística para predizer o risco de óbito por achados histológicos específicos para cada variável independente do modelo. RESULTADOS: A pneumonia intersticial secundária foi representada histológicamente por pneumonite intersticial difusa variando de características não especificas leves (n=213) ao padrão histológico de dano alveolar difuso (n=273). A principal causa de imunossupressão nos pacientes com dano alveolar difuso foi sepse (136 casos), neoplasia (113 casos), diabetes melito (37 casos) e transplantados (37 casos). O maior risco de morte por edema pulmonar foi encontrado nos pacientes com carcinoma de cólon. Da mesma forma, nos pacientes com câncer pulmonar ou cachexia ocorreu um alto risco de morte (OR=3.6; OR=2.6, respectivamente) por broncopneumonia. O tromboembolismo pulmonar ofereceu um importante risco de morte (OR=2.4) nos pacientes com hipertensão arterial. Observou-se também risco de morte por câncer hepático (OR=2.5) ou terapia esteroidea (OR=2.4) nos pacientes que desenvolveram hemorragia pulmonar com padrão histológico de pneumonia intersticial secundária. Da mesma forma houve alto risco de morte por metástase pulmonar (OR= 1.6) nos pacientes imunossuprimidos após radioterapia. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com imunossupressão secundária que desenvolveram pneumonia intersticial secundária durante o tratamento dentro do hospital podem ser avaliados para evitar como evento final o dano alveolar difuso, o edema pulmonar, a broncopneumonia, a hemorragia pulmonar, o tromboembolismo pulmonar e a metástase pulmonar. Os pacientes com aumento de risco são aqueles imunossuprimidos por doença hematológica, sob tratamento com esteroides, carcimona hepático, cachexia e hipertensão. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To present the more frequent associations found in autopsies of immunocompromised patients who developed secondary interstitial pneumonia as well as the risk of death (odds ratio) in having specific secondary interstitial pneumonia according to the cause of immunocompromise. METHOD: From Ja [...] nuary 1994 to March 2004, 17,000 autopsies were performed at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. After examining the pathology report review, we selected 558 of these autopsies (3.28%) from patients aged 15 years or more with primary underlying diseases who developed radiologically diffuse infiltrates of the lung during their hospital course and died after secondary interstitial pneumonia (bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary recurrence of underlying disease, drug-induced lung disease, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, or pulmonary embolism). Histology slides were reviewed by experienced pathologists
Alberto Antonio, Terrabuio Junior; Edwin Roger, Parra; Cecília, Farhat; Vera Luiza, Capelozzi.
Autopsy-proven causes of death in lungs of patients immunocompromised by secondary interstitial pneumonia Causas de óbito por pneumonia intersticial secundária em autópsias pulmonares de pacientes imunocomprometidos
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present the more frequent associations found in autopsies of immunocompromised patients who developed secondary interstitial pneumonia as well as the risk of death (odds ratio in having specific secondary interstitial pneumonia according to the cause of immunocompromise. METHOD: From January 1994 to March 2004, 17,000 autopsies were performed at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. After examining the pathology report review, we selected 558 of these autopsies (3.28% from patients aged 15 years or more with primary underlying diseases who developed radiologically diffuse infiltrates of the lung during their hospital course and died after secondary interstitial pneumonia (bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary recurrence of underlying disease, drug-induced lung disease, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, or pulmonary embolism. Histology slides were reviewed by experienced pathologists to confirm or not the presence of secondary interstitial pneumonia. Statistical analysis included the Fisher exact test to verify any association between histopathology and the cause of immunocompromise; a logistic regression was used to predict the risk of death for specific histological findings for each of the independent variables in the model. RESULTS: Secondary interstitial pneumonia was histologically represented by diffuse interstitial pneumonitis ranging from mild nonspecific findings (n = 213 to a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage (n = 273. The principal causes of immunocompromise in patients with diffuse alveolar damage were sepsis (136 cases, neoplasia (113 cases, diabetes mellitus (37 cases, and transplantation (48 cases. A high risk of death by pulmonary edema was found for patients with carcinoma of colon. Similarly, in patients with lung cancer or cachexia, A high risk of death by bronchopneumonia (OR = 3.6; OR = 2.6, respectively was found. Pulmonary thromboembolism was associated with an appreciable risk of death (OR = 2.4 in patients with arterial hypertension. The risk of death was also high in patients presenting hepatic cancer (OR = 2.5 or steroid therapy (OR = 2.4 who developed pulmonary hemorrhage as the histological pattern of secondary interstitial pneumonia . The risk of death by lung metastasis was also elevated (OR = 1.6 for patients that were immunosuppressed after radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with secondary immunosuppression who developed secondary interstitial pneumonia during treatment in hospital should be evaluated to avoid death by diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, bronchopneumonia, lung hemorrhage, pulmonary thromboembolism, or lung metastasis. The high-risk patients are those immunosuppressed by hematologic disease; those under steroid treatment; or those with colon or hepatic carcinoma, cachexia, or arterial hypertension.OBJETIVO: Apresentar as associações mais freqüentes encontradas em autópsias de pacientes imunossuprimidos que desenvolveram pneumonia intersticial secundária bem como o risco de óbito (Odds Ratio de desenvolver PIS associada à causa da imunossupressão. MÉTODO: De janeiro de 1994 a março de 2004, 17000 autópsias foram realizadas no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. A partir da revisão dos laudos patológicos foram selecionados 558 destas autópsias (3,28% de pacientes com 15 anos de idade ou mais, com alguma doença de base que desenvolveu um infiltrado pulmonar radiologicamente difuso durante o curso da hospitalização e que depois foi para óbito com pneumonia intersticial secundária (broncopneumonia, pneumonia lobar, pneumonia intersticial, dano alveolar difuso, doença pulmonar recorrente, doença pulmonar induzida por drogas, edema pulmonar cardiogênico e embolismo pulmonar. As lâminas histológicas foram revisadas por patologistas experientes para confirmar ou não a presença de pneumonia intersticial secundária. A análise estatística incluiu o "Teste exato de Fisher" para verificar associação en
Alberto Antonio Terrabuio Junior
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability and the interrater reliability of a Semi-Structured Interview for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide. METHOD: The Semi-Structured Interview for Psychological Autopsy (SSIPA proposed in this paper consists of four modules which evaluate key-topics associated to suicide. In order to evaluate the instrument's applicability, a sample formed by 42 subjects related to 21 suicide cases was used. The interviews were tape-recorded first and then transcribed. The related material as well as the police inquiry data were presented to four judges. Evaluation of information has been performed with the help of a four-module formulary for decision making: precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, lethality, and intentionality. Data processing, whenever possible, has been accomplished using kappa statistics. When kappa statistic was not applicable, concordance percentage has been used. RESULTS: The SSIPA is applicable because it provides information containing a significant degree of agreement between evaluators, found in one hundred and twenty measurements of judgements made by four judges. There has been significant statistical agreement between the judges in three modules (precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, and intentionality of the model for decision, except in one step of each module, which did not interfere in the final agreement on the present evaluation. In the lethality evaluation module, there has been a 100% agreement between judges. The judgement made by the raters on the four modules have allowed to reach a final agreement regarding the death mode as suicide. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that it is possible to use a semi-structured instrument for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide, when the interviewees are relatives who accepted to provide information.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma entrevista semi-estruturada para autópsia psicológica de casos de suicídio e avaliar a confiabilidade entre avaliadores desse instrumento. MÉTODO: A Entrevista Semi-estruturada para Autópsia Psicológica (ESAP é constituída por 69 itens distribuídos em quatro módulos para avaliação dos temas-chave associados ao suicídio: precipitadores e/ou estressores, motivação, letalidade e intencionalidade. Para avaliar a sua aplicabilidade foi utilizada uma amostra de 42 sujeitos, relacionados a 21 casos de suicídio. As entrevistas realizadas foram gravadas em áudio e posteriormente transcritas. O material correspondente e os dados do inquérito policial foram avaliados pela entrevistadora, por uma auxiliar de pesquisa e dois juízes, sempre de modo independente. A avaliação das informações foi realizada com o auxílio de um formulário para a tomada de decisão. A análise dos dados foi feita através da estatística kappa. RESULTADOS: A ESAP é aplicável, porque fornece informações que permitem um grau marcante de concordância entre avaliadores, verificado nos quatro módulos do instrumento. Em três módulos, houve concordância entre os avaliadores, em grau estatisticamente significante em todos os passos, exceto em um em cada módulo. Isso, entretanto, não comprometeu a concordância final sobre a avaliação de precipitadores e/ou estressores, motivação e intencionalidade. No módulo relativo à avaliação da letalidade, houve 100% de concordância. Os julgamentos dos quatro avaliadores, nos quatro módulos, permitiu chegar à concordância final quanto ao modo de morte sendo suicídio. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram que é possível usar, com boa fidedignidade, um instrumento semi-estruturado para autópsia psicológica, em casos de suicídio, quando os informantes são familiares dispostos a prestar informações.
Blanca Guevara Werlang
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma entrevista semi-estruturada para autópsia psicológica de casos de suicídio e avaliar a confiabilidade entre avaliadores desse instrumento. MÉTODO: A Entrevista Semi-estruturada para Autópsia Psicológica (ESAP) é constituída por 69 itens distribuídos em quatro módulos para a [...] valiação dos temas-chave associados ao suicídio: precipitadores e/ou estressores, motivação, letalidade e intencionalidade. Para avaliar a sua aplicabilidade foi utilizada uma amostra de 42 sujeitos, relacionados a 21 casos de suicídio. As entrevistas realizadas foram gravadas em áudio e posteriormente transcritas. O material correspondente e os dados do inquérito policial foram avaliados pela entrevistadora, por uma auxiliar de pesquisa e dois juízes, sempre de modo independente. A avaliação das informações foi realizada com o auxílio de um formulário para a tomada de decisão. A análise dos dados foi feita através da estatística kappa. RESULTADOS: A ESAP é aplicável, porque fornece informações que permitem um grau marcante de concordância entre avaliadores, verificado nos quatro módulos do instrumento. Em três módulos, houve concordância entre os avaliadores, em grau estatisticamente significante em todos os passos, exceto em um em cada módulo. Isso, entretanto, não comprometeu a concordância final sobre a avaliação de precipitadores e/ou estressores, motivação e intencionalidade. No módulo relativo à avaliação da letalidade, houve 100% de concordância. Os julgamentos dos quatro avaliadores, nos quatro módulos, permitiu chegar à concordância final quanto ao modo de morte sendo suicídio. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram que é possível usar, com boa fidedignidade, um instrumento semi-estruturado para autópsia psicológica, em casos de suicídio, quando os informantes são familiares dispostos a prestar informações. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability and the interrater reliability of a Semi-Structured Interview for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide. METHOD: The Semi-Structured Interview for Psychological Autopsy (SSIPA) proposed in this paper consists of four modules which evaluate key-topics a [...] ssociated to suicide. In order to evaluate the instrument's applicability, a sample formed by 42 subjects related to 21 suicide cases was used. The interviews were tape-recorded first and then transcribed. The related material as well as the police inquiry data were presented to four judges. Evaluation of information has been performed with the help of a four-module formulary for decision making: precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, lethality, and intentionality. Data processing, whenever possible, has been accomplished using kappa statistics. When kappa statistic was not applicable, concordance percentage has been used. RESULTS: The SSIPA is applicable because it provides information containing a significant degree of agreement between evaluators, found in one hundred and twenty measurements of judgements made by four judges. There has been significant statistical agreement between the judges in three modules (precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, and intentionality) of the model for decision, except in one step of each module, which did not interfere in the final agreement on the present evaluation. In the lethality evaluation module, there has been a 100% agreement between judges. The judgement made by the raters on the four modules have allowed to reach a final agreement regarding the death mode as suicide. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that it is possible to use a semi-structured instrument for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide, when the interviewees are relatives who accepted to provide information.
Blanca Guevara, Werlang; Neury José, Botega.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are clinical manifestations of the same entity, venous thromboembolic disease (VTD). In approximately 25% of patients, the first manifestation of PE is sudden-unexpected death. We carried out a prospective study at the forensic pathology service of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Seville with the aim to know the incidence of PE as well as to describe the epidemiological, pathological and clinical characteristics of these deaths and associated risk factors. In the study period (32 months) 32 cases of PE were registered from a total of 2447 completed autopsies. Three cases were considered accidental deaths and the remaining 29 cases were sudden natural deaths, which represents 1.3% of the total autopsies, 2.6% of natural deaths and 4.3% of sudden deaths. Nineteen cases (59%) were men (mean age 50.3+/-13.8, range 22-74 years) and 13 cases (41%) were women (mean age 50.3+/-13.8, range 18-87 years). In 78% of cases death occurred at home or during transfer to a health care centre, mainly during the fall or winter (69%) and between 8a.m. and 4p.m. (47%). Pulmonary infarction was associated only in two cases (6%). Nine cases (28%) had been immobilized but only three (9%) received anticoagulant therapy. Surgical interventions had occurred in seven cases (22%). A history of psychiatric pathology was found in 31%. Overweight or obesity was found in 75%. The most frequent symptoms prior to death were dyspnea (31%) and chest pain (19%), and 19% of patients were examined in an Emergencies Department for symptoms compatible with deep vein thrombosis and/or PE, but this diagnosis was not suspected in any case. PE frequently makes its first appearance as sudden death. In addition to the classic risk factors, this study highlights that 75% of the cases were overweight/obese as well as 31% having had a history of psychiatric disorders and treatment as to support that this association should be considered as a risk factor. PE continues to be under diagnosed in Emergencies Department patients, which hinders the application of adequate therapeutic measures to prevent these deaths. PMID:19329075
Lucena, Joaquín; Rico, Antonio; Vázquez, Rafael; Marín, Rocío; Martínez, Carmen; Salguero, Manuel; Miguel, Luciana
Full Text Available El hematoma disecante de aorta (HDA se define como la disección de la pared aórtica por la sangre, con formación de una nueva luz. Es la patología letal de la aorta más frecuentemente diagnosticada y ocurre con una frecuencia tres veces mayor que la rotura del aneurisma de la aorta abdominal. Nuestro objetivo es presentar siete casos de HDA observados en autopsias, describir los hallazgos anatomopatológicos y comentar la literatura. Los casos estudiados corresponden al Servicio de Patología del Instituto de Medicina Forense de Córdoba, Argentina. Los tejidos fueron fijados en formol al 10%, incluidos en parafina y coloreados con hematoxilina-eosina, tricrómico de Masson y PAS (Peryodic Acid Schiff. De los siete casos presentados cuatro correspondieron a mujeres (57,1% y tres a hombres (42,8%. Todos los casos estudiados tenían antecedentes de hipertensión arterial. La evolución posible de la disección aórtica incluye: rotura de la adventicia con hemorragia masiva y muerte, comunicación nuevamente con la luz aórtica, propagación al ostium coronario, isquemia de órganos y la formación de un aneurisma.Dissecting aortic hematoma (DAH is defined as the dissection of the aortic wall by the blood, with formation of a new light. It is the deadliest disease of the aorta and occurs more frequently diagnosed at a rate three times greater than the ruptured aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Our goal is to present seven cases of DAH observed in autopsies, describe the autopsy findings and comment on the literature. All cases studied belong to the Department of Pathology, Institute of Forensic Medicine of Cordoba, Argentina. The tissues were fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome and PAS (Peryodic Acid Schiff. Of all the cases studied, four were women (57.1% and three men (42.8%. All had a history of hypertension. Evolution of aortic dissection may include: failure of the adventitia with massive hemorrhage and death, again communication with the aortic lumen, spread the coronary ostium, organ ischemia and aneurysm formation.
Julio César Guerini
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used method for analyzing cause of death in absence of vital registration systems. We adapted the InterVA method to extrapolate causes of death for stillbirths and neonatal deaths from verbal autopsy questionnaires, using data from Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Nepal. Methods We obtained 734 stillbirth and neonatal VAs from recent community studies in rural areas: 169 from Malawi, 385 from Nepal, and 180 from Zimbabwe. Initial refinement of the InterVA model was based on 100 physician-reviewed VAs from Malawi. InterVA indicators and matrix probabilities for cause of death were reviewed for clinical and epidemiological coherence by a pediatrician-researcher and an epidemiologist involved in the development of InterVA. The modified InterVA model was evaluated by comparing population-level cause-specific mortality fractions and individual agreement from two methods of interpretation (physician review and InterVA for a further 69 VAs from Malawi, 385 from Nepal, and 180 from Zimbabwe. Results Case-by-case agreement between InterVA and reviewing physician diagnoses for 69 cases from Malawi, 180 cases from Zimbabwe, and 385 cases from Nepal were 83% (kappa 0.76 (0.75 - 0.80, 71% (kappa 0.41(0.32-0.51, and 74% (kappa 0.63 (0.60-0.63, respectively. The proportion of stillbirths identified as fresh or macerated by the different methods of VA interpretation was similar in all three settings. Comparing across countries, the modified InterVA method found that proportions of preterm births and deaths due to infection were higher in Zimbabwe (44% than in Malawi (28% or Nepal (20%. Conclusion The modified InterVA method provides plausible results for stillbirths and newborn deaths, broadly comparable to physician review but with the advantage of internal consistency. The method allows standardized cross-country comparisons and eliminates the inconsistencies of physician review in such comparisons.
Munjanja Stephan P
[How calcification in the atherosclerotic aorta can be associated with both a lower risk of recurrent stroke in clinical studies and an increased number of strokes in an autopsy study: interpretation based on selection bias].
Studies evaluating the role ofcalcification in the relationship between aortic atherosclerosis and stroke have led to contradictory conclusions: clinical studies show that aortic calcification is linked to a reduced risk of recurrence in stroke patients, while an autopsy series found a positive association between aortic calcification and stroke. The controversy can be explained by assuming that the risk associated with aortic atherosclerosis varies among individuals. Low-risk patients would live longer and have more time to develop calcification. Consequently, calcification would be a sign of low risk. This explains the apparent recurrence-reducing effect of calcification in stroke patients. The association between aortic calcification and stroke found in an autopsy series does not contradict this hypothesis but supports it: application of Berkson's fallacy shows that calcification is linked to lower mortality. PMID:18320944
Van der Linden, J; Van der Linden, W
Hepatobiliary alterations in massive biliary ascariasis: histopathological aspects of an autopsy case / Lesões hepatobiliares em ascaridíase biliar maciça: aspectos histopatológicos em um caso de autópsia
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os autores apresentam os aspectos histopatológicos encontrados no fígado de um caso de autópsia de Ascaridíase Biliar maciça. A intensa colangite foi o aspecto predominante, mas outras lesões também foram encontradas, tais como metaplasia pilórica e intestinal, hiperplasia epitelial com papilomas in [...] traductais, e por vezes padrão adenomatoso. Restos do helminto foram encontrados fortemente aderidos ao epitélio, sendo intensa a positividade de mucopolissacárides, principalmente ácidos, na borda luminal do epitélio ductal e em glândulas proliferadas ao redor dos ductos. Os autores discutem a semelhança da Ascaridíase Biliar com a Colangio Hepatite Oriental, e sugerem que o processo inflamatório e a presença de restos do verme são responsáveis pelas alterações hiperplásicas e metaplásicas, analogamente ao que ocorre na clonorquíase, fasciolíase e esquistossomose. Abstract in english Hepatobiliary alterations found in an autopsy case of massive Biliary Ascariasis, are reported on histological grounds. Severe cholangitis was the main finding, but other changes were also detected, such as pyloric and intestinal metaplasia, hyperplasia of the epithelial lining, with intraductal pap [...] illomas and adenomatous proliferation. Remnants of the worm were observed tightly adhered to the epithelium, forming microscopic intrahepatic calculi. Mucopolysaccharides, especially acid, showed to be strongly positive on the luminal border, and in proliferated glands around the ducts. The authors discuss the similarity between such findings and Oriental Cholangiohepatitis, and suggest that inflammation and the presence of the parasitic remnants are responsible for the hyperplastic and metaplastic changes, similarly with what occurs in chlonorchiasis, fascioliasis and schistosomiasis.
Luiz Carlos da Costa, Gayotto; Regina Maria Leitão, Muszkat; Irene Vieira, Souza.
Hepatobiliary alterations in massive biliary ascariasis: histopathological aspects of an autopsy case Lesões hepatobiliares em ascaridíase biliar maciça: aspectos histopatológicos em um caso de autópsia
Full Text Available Hepatobiliary alterations found in an autopsy case of massive Biliary Ascariasis, are reported on histological grounds. Severe cholangitis was the main finding, but other changes were also detected, such as pyloric and intestinal metaplasia, hyperplasia of the epithelial lining, with intraductal papillomas and adenomatous proliferation. Remnants of the worm were observed tightly adhered to the epithelium, forming microscopic intrahepatic calculi. Mucopolysaccharides, especially acid, showed to be strongly positive on the luminal border, and in proliferated glands around the ducts. The authors discuss the similarity between such findings and Oriental Cholangiohepatitis, and suggest that inflammation and the presence of the parasitic remnants are responsible for the hyperplastic and metaplastic changes, similarly with what occurs in chlonorchiasis, fascioliasis and schistosomiasis.Os autores apresentam os aspectos histopatológicos encontrados no fígado de um caso de autópsia de Ascaridíase Biliar maciça. A intensa colangite foi o aspecto predominante, mas outras lesões também foram encontradas, tais como metaplasia pilórica e intestinal, hiperplasia epitelial com papilomas intraductais, e por vezes padrão adenomatoso. Restos do helminto foram encontrados fortemente aderidos ao epitélio, sendo intensa a positividade de mucopolissacárides, principalmente ácidos, na borda luminal do epitélio ductal e em glândulas proliferadas ao redor dos ductos. Os autores discutem a semelhança da Ascaridíase Biliar com a Colangio Hepatite Oriental, e sugerem que o processo inflamatório e a presença de restos do verme são responsáveis pelas alterações hiperplásicas e metaplásicas, analogamente ao que ocorre na clonorquíase, fasciolíase e esquistossomose.
Luiz Carlos da Costa Gayotto
Using diffusion tubes, the degree of penetration of tetrabutyl lead, lead napthanate, lead nuolate, lead acetate and lead oxide through guinea pig skin and human skin from autopsy was measured. Tetrabutyl lead demonstrated the greatest absorption in both the guinea pig and man. Lead nuolate, lead napthanate and lead acetate followed in descending order with the human tissue. The same leads, applied to guinea pig skin, followed a similar pattern of absorption in most cases. There were no measureable amounts of lead oxide absorbed in either species. Tetrabutyl lead, lead nuolate, lead napthanate, lead acetate and lead oxide were applied to the shaved backs of guinea pigs at 300mg/kg, under an occluded wrapping, daily, for seven days. Tissue concentrations of lead were highest when tetrabutyl lead was applied. The application of lead nuolate caused higher concentrations of lead in liver and kidney, than the corresponding applicaiton of lead napthanate. Lead acetate was poorly absorbed. No absorption was evidenced in the case of the lead oxide application. Light microscopic examination of integument, treated with tetrabutyl lead, revealed marked inflammation within the dermis. Inflammation was less marked in the integument of animals treated with lead napthanate and lead nuolate. Staining with sodium rhodizonate proved unsuccessful, but treatment of tissues exposed to lead nuolate and lead napthanate with ammonium sulfide showed evidence of lead on the stratum corneum and hair shafts. Correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data, as well as the comparison of human and guinea pig results, are discussed.
Balamuthia mandrillaris is an amoeba found in fresh water and soil that causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. We report herein an autopsy case of B. mandrillaris amoebic encephalitis, which was definitely diagnosed by PCR. An 81-year-old man, who had Sjögren's syndrome, manifested drowsiness 2 months before his death with progressive deterioration. Neuroimaging demonstrated foci of T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery high and T1 low-intensity with irregular post-contrast ring enhancement in the cerebral hemisphere, thalamus and midbrain. Pathologically, multiple hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions were found in the cerebrum, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla and cerebellum, which were characterized by liquefactive necrosis, marked edema, hemorrhage and necrotizing vasculitis associated with the perivascular accumulation of amoebic trophozoites, a few cysts, and the infiltration of numerous neutrophils and microglia/macrophages. The trophozoites were ovoid or round, 10-60??m in diameter, and they showed foamy cytoplasm and a round nucleus with small karyosome in the center. The PCR and immunohistochemistry from paraffin-embedded brain specimens revealed angioinvasive encephalitis due to B. mandrillaris. Human cases of B. mandrillaris brain infection are rare in Japan, with only a few brief reports in the literature. PMID:25186798
Itoh, Kyoko; Yagita, Kenji; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Katano, Harutaka; Hasegawa, Hideki; Matsuo, Koushun; Hosokawa, Youhei; Tando, So; Fushiki, Shinji
A 67-year-old man with a more than 15-year-old history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance presented at our hospital with exertional angina. Coronary angiography showed considerable stenosis of 3 vessels. A diffuse calcified lesion in the left anterior descending coronary artery was pre-treated using rotational atherectomy followed by sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation. A lesion in the proximal right coronary artery was treated by bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation, and the tandem lesion in the left circumflex artery was treated using paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) implantation. All the procedures were performed within 1 month of the initial presentation and yielded good angiographic results. 3 months after the final stenting, the patient was re-admitted because of congestive heart failure (CHF). While recovering from CHF, he suddenly developed cardiopulmonary arrest and died during hospitalization. Autopsy examination of the coronary arteries showed that both drug-eluting stents (DESs: SES and PES) and the BMS had characteristic histopathological features. Inflammatory responses in the neointima were greater in both the DESs than in the BMS. SES and PES showed different inflammatory infiltration pattern or fibrin deposition status; these histopathological differences observed in the DES environments have implication to cause adverse clinical events such as late stent thrombosis or late catch-up phenomena. PMID:24323405
Miwa, Kenji; Inoue, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takao; Yasuda, Toshihiko; Inoue, Masaru; Kanaya, Honin
Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16?years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15?years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n?=?84. We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling.
We investigated whether polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes influence the metabolic ratios and enantiomeric S/R ratios of venlafaxine (VEN) and its metabolites O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV), N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) and N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine (DDV) in blood from forensic autopsy cases. In all, 94 postmortem cases found positive for VEN during toxicological screening were included. The CYP2D6 genotype was shown to significantly influence the ODV/VEN (P=0.003), DDV/NDV (P=0.010) and DDV/ODV (P=0.034) ratios. The DDV/ODV (P=0.013) and DDV/VEN (P=0.021) ratios were significantly influenced by the CYP2C19 genotype. The S/R ratios of VEN were significantly influenced by both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes. CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) had lower S/R VEN ratios and CYP2C19 PMs had high S/R ratios of VEN in comparison. Our results show that the CYP2D6 genotype influences the O-demethylation whereas CYP2C19 influences the N-demethylation of VEN and its metabolites. In addition, we show a stereoselective metabolism where CYP2D6 favours the R-enantiomer whereas CYP2C19 favours the S-enantiomer.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 23 September 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.50. PMID:25245581
Karlsson, L; Zackrisson, A-L; Josefsson, M; Carlsson, B; Green, H; Kugelberg, F C
A fire is an important cause of mass disasters, involving various forensic issues. Before dawn on an early morning, 16 male visitors in their twenties to sixties were killed in a possibly incendiary fire at a 'private video parlor' consisting of small compartments in a building. The main causes of death as determined by forensic autopsy were acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication for all of the 15 found-dead victims, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following acute CO intoxication for a victim who died in hospital. Burns were mild (fire-outbreak site; thus, identification was completed without difficulty, supported by DNA analysis. Blood carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb) was higher for victims found dead in the inner area. Blood cyanide levels were sublethal, moderately correlated to COHb, but were higher in victims found around the estimated fire-outbreak site. There was no evidence of thinner, alcohol or drug abuse, or an attack of disease as a possible cause of an accidental fire outbreak. These observations contribute to evidence-based reconstruction of the fire disaster, and suggest how deaths could have been prevented by appropriate disaster measures. PMID:25311374
Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi
Experience in the nuclear industry has shown that the most FR-equent route for significant plutonium deposition in man is by inhalation. After an accidental inhalation exposure to plutonium oxide has occurred, an attempt is usually made to determine the lung burden using in-vivo measurement techniques. However, this will not be possible if the amount deposited is less than the detection capability of the counter. Likewise, it may not be possible for even larger intakes if they are first discovered as a results of a routine examination after much of the plutonium has transferred out of the lungs. Under these conditions, the initial lung burden and dose assessment may, of necessity, be based entirely on excretion date. This paper discusses three plutonium inhalation cases for which autopsy data are available to demonstrate the difficulties and uncertainties of such assessments and to emphasize the need for enhanced routine surveillance of the worker and work place to assure that intakes are detected at the time they occur. An in-depth review of the findings for these three cases suggests that the use of urine excretion data applied to ICRP lung model assumption will result in large uncertainties in estimates of the pulmonary burden and lung dose. These estimates will be improved if the material inhaled can be better characterized and by using clearance half times developed for the individual rather than the default values for Class Y material recommended by the ICRP
Full Text Available O trabalho consta do estudo anatomopatológico de 4 casos de calcificação de núcleos da base do cérebro, entidade que está mais relacionada a distúrbio metabólico endócrino do tipo hipoparatireoidismo e pseudohipoparatireoidismo. O estudo mostra a associação da deposição cálcica nos núcleos da base com lesão calcificada do cerebelo (cortex e núcleo denteado em 2 casos. Demonstra também a presença não só de cálcio mas também de ferro nas lesões e a distribuição de manguito perivascular, característica dos depósitos. A ausência de uma doença básica comum e a falta de qualquer distúrbio metabólico associado, permite caracterizar estes casos como sendo de natureza idiopática ou pelo menos de causa não determinada.The paper reports the pathological study of 4 autopsied cases of massive basal ganglia calcifications, an entity that although related to hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism, some times can be considered as idiopathic. In our cases no metabolic disturb or any common related disease could be found in association. Interesting is to point out that the lesion is confined to the central nervous system, with no foci of calcification outside the brain. There is a characteristic perivascular distribuition of the deposits that, as demonstrated by histochemical study are composed by ron besides calcium.
Aristides Cheto de Queiroz
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho consta do estudo anatomopatológico de 4 casos de calcificação de núcleos da base do cérebro, entidade que está mais relacionada a distúrbio metabólico endócrino do tipo hipoparatireoidismo e pseudohipoparatireoidismo. O estudo mostra a associação da deposição cálcica nos núcleos da base c [...] om lesão calcificada do cerebelo (cortex e núcleo denteado) em 2 casos. Demonstra também a presença não só de cálcio mas também de ferro nas lesões e a distribuição de manguito perivascular, característica dos depósitos. A ausência de uma doença básica comum e a falta de qualquer distúrbio metabólico associado, permite caracterizar estes casos como sendo de natureza idiopática ou pelo menos de causa não determinada. Abstract in english The paper reports the pathological study of 4 autopsied cases of massive basal ganglia calcifications, an entity that although related to hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism, some times can be considered as idiopathic. In our cases no metabolic disturb or any common related disease could [...] be found in association. Interesting is to point out that the lesion is confined to the central nervous system, with no foci of calcification outside the brain. There is a characteristic perivascular distribuition of the deposits that, as demonstrated by histochemical study are composed by ron besides calcium.
Aristides Cheto de, Queiroz; Ana Maria Blanco, Malbouisson.
During autopsy of a 38-year-old man the forensic pathologist noted an atypical purple discoloration of the colon membrane. Hypothesis was that the discoloration could have been caused by ingestion of red beetroot. In order to exclude other toxicological causes for this finding and to analytically verify this hypothesis, colon membrane, blood and urine were screened not only for the typical forensically relevant substances but also for the main chromophoric beetroot compounds employing liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Betanin (m/z 551.1495) and its aglycone betanidin (m/z 389.0973) were found in the extracts of colon membrane and urine. Betanin was detected in whole blood, and urinary analysis additionally revealed two metabolites: betanidin glucuronide (m/z 565.1294) and betanidin sulfate (m/z 469.0541) - showing the same fragmentation pattern as betanidin after the characteristic neutral loss of m/z 176.0315 and m/z 79.9554 for glucuronic acid and sulfate, respectively. This is the first time that betacyanins could be analytically confirmed as cause for a purple discoloration of the colon. Urine analysis further revealed that besides betanin itself betanidin phase II metabolites could be detected in human urine. PMID:24787029
Roemmelt, Andreas T; Franckenberg, Sabine; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas
Methodological trends in studies based on verbal autopsies before and after published guidelines / Tendances méthodologiques des études reposant sur des autopsies verbales avant et après la publication de directives / Tendencias metodológicas de los estudios basados en autopsias verbales antes y después de la publicación de directrices al respecto
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Informar sobre el seguimiento de las directrices publicadas a comienzos de los años noventa con recomendaciones específicas para el diseño de los futuros estudios de vigilancia de la mortalidad basados en autopsias verbales. MÉTODOS: Llevamos a cabo una búsqueda sistemática de la bibliogra [...] fía para localizar todos los estudios basados en autopsias verbales publicados antes de enero de 2006 y extraer de ellos un conjunto estándar de datos. Para comparar los estudios diseñados antes y después de que se formularan las recomendaciones se emplearon siete indicadores metodológicos clave. RESULTADOS: Hallamos 102 estudios realizados en 39 países; 60 se habían diseñado antes de que se publicaran las directrices, y 42 después de su publicación. Se observaron diferencias considerables en los métodos utilizados por esos 102 estudios. Aunque se detectaron algunas tendencias alentadoras, no hay indicios de que se hayan aplicado sistemáticamente las recomendaciones en materia de diseño. Más concretamente, no aumentó claramente la proporción de estudios con un cuestionario combinado (63% antes de las recomendaciones frente a 74% después de las mismas; p = 0,3), un encuestador adiestrado (70% frente a 70%; p = 1,0), un encuestado idóneo (98% frente a 100%; p = 1,0), un periodo de rememoración óptimo (84% frente a 97%; p = 0,2), algoritmos predefinidos (28% frente a 38%; p = 0,4), una opción para asignar varias causas de defunción (30% frente a 38%; p = 0,3), o un estudio de validación de seguimiento (83% frente a 72%; p = 0,7). CONCLUSIÓN: Las recomendaciones formuladas por los expertos para optimizar el diseño de los estudios basados en autopsias verbales se han aplicado solo parcialmente hasta la fecha. Un mayor cumplimiento de ese tipo de recomendaciones gracias a una colaboración más idónea entre los equipos de investigación permitiría probablemente obtener mejores estadísticas de mortalidad a partir del creciente número de estudios basados en autopsias verbales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report on the uptake of guidelines published in the early 1990s with specific recommendations about the design of future studies based on verbal autopsy conducted for mortality surveillance. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of all verbal autopsy studies published be [...] fore January 2006 and extracted from the studies a standard set of data. We then compared studies designed before and after the recommendations were issued in terms of seven key methodological indicators. FINDINGS: We found 102 studies conducted in 39 countries; 60 were designed before and 42 after the guidelines were issued. The methods used in these 102 studies varied considerably. While some encouraging trends were noted, there is no evidence that the design recommendations have been systematically implemented. Specifically, there was no clear increase in the proportion of studies with a combined questionnaire (63% before recommendations versus 74% after; P = 0.3), a trained interviewer (70% versus 70%; P = 1.0), a suitable respondent (98% versus 100%; P = 1.0), an optimal recall period (84% versus 97%; P = 0.2), predefined algorithms (28% versus 38%; P = 0.4), an option for assigning multiple causes of death (30% versus 38%; P = 0.3), or a follow-up validation study (83% versus 72%; P = 0.7). CONCLUSION: Expert recommendations for optimal design of verbal autopsy studies have been incompletely implemented to date. Better uptake of design recommendations through enhanced collaboration between research teams is likely to produce better mortality statistics from an increasing number of verbal autopsy studies.
Rohina, Joshi; Andre Pascal, Kengne; Bruce, Neal.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O declínio no número de autópsias em hospitais e instituições universitárias é evento amplamente reportado, inicialmente em países do primeiro mundo e posteriormente em muitos países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil. As causas para essa tendência são múltiplas e complexas, incluindo asp [...] ectos religiosos, familiares e médicos. Entre estes últimos, salientam-se razões diagnósticas, caracterizadas pelo significativo avanço tecnológico na imagenologia, com a suposição de que todos os diagnósticos agora podem ser feitos em vida, e a crescente ansiedade de processos judiciais contra médicos por má prática. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar o decréscimo vertiginoso e drástico do número de autópsias em um hospital universitário no Brasil. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Avaliou-se o número de registros nos livros de autópsias consecutivas realizadas no Departamento de Patologia do Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro da Universidade Federal Fluminense (HUAP/UFF), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, criando um banco dados em tabela do programa Microsoft Excel. RESULTADOS: Durante os anos 1966 a 2009, foram realizadas 23.813 necrópsias, sendo 12.702 de adultos e 11.111 de fetos. Entre os anos 1966 e 1998, foram realizadas mais necrópsias, no total de 23.321, sendo 12.482 de adultos e 10.839 de fetos. Já entre os anos 1999 e 2009, foi observado o declínio acentuado e drástico das mesmas, totalizando apenas 492 necrópsias, sendo 220 de adultos e 272 de fetos. CONCLUSÃO: Acreditamos que a principal causa para esse declínio é a pouca informação da população, que desconhece que o saber é fruto de estudo, pesquisa, prática e aprimoramento. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The decline in the number of autopsies at hospitals and university hospitals has been widely reported, initially in developed countries and afterwards in several developing countries including Brazil. The causes for this trend are multiple and complex, encompassing religious, family an [...] d medical aspects. Among the latter, we highlight diagnostic reasons, which are characterized by major technological advances in clinical imaging associated with the underlying assumption that all diagnoses can currently be made before death. Furthermore, there is a growing concern about malpractice lawsuits. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the sharp decrease in the number of autopsies at a university hospital in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the number of autopsies conducted at the Pathology Department of Antonio Pedro University Hospital (HUAP), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, and a database spreadsheet was created at Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: From 1966 to 2009, 23,813 autopsies were performed, comprising 12,702 adults and 11,111 fetuses. The highest number of autopsies occurred from 1966 to 1998, when 23,321 autopsies were performed, comprising 12,482 adults and 10,839 fetuses. Whereas, there was a dramatic decline from 1999 to 2009, when 492 autopsies were performed, including 220 adults and 272 fetuses. CONCLUSION: We believe that the main cause of this reduction is the lack of information among laypeople and medical professionals, who have neglected the fact that knowledge is ultimately acquired through study, investigation and practice.
Fabiana Resende, Rodrigues; Vânia Glória Silami, Lopes; Consuelo Lozoya, Lopez; Porphírio José, Soares Filho; Rita de Cássia Lauria Gonçalves da, Silva; Licínio Esmeraldo da, Silva; Graça Helena M. de Canto, Teixeira.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) ha sido durante muchos años una causa muy importante de morbi-mortalidad en los pacientes hospitalizados. El empleo de forma profiláctica de Heparinas de Bajo Peso Molecular (HBPM) en pacientes ingresados en la última década del siglo XX parece haber d [...] isminuido de forma significativa su incidencia clínica. Pretendemos ver si el empleo de HBPM como medida de tromboprofilaxis ha modificado el hallazgo de esta patología en autopsias. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de todas las autopsias realizadas en adultos en el Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid) en un periodo de 6 años (Enero 1994-Diciembre 1999). Se incluyeron en el estudio todas aquellas que presentaron hallazgos anatomopatológicos (AP) de TEP y se rellenó un protocolo en el que se incluyeron datos AP, datos epidemiológicos, clínicos y terapéuticos. Resultados: En el periodo estudiado se realizaron 483 necropsias, de las cuales 40 (8,3%) tenían datos de TEP. La mayor parte de ellos tenían más de 50 años (85%) y entre los factores de riesgo destacaron el reposo-encamamiento, la enfermedad crónica médica y la presencia de tumores malignos (adenocarcinomas). Sólo se sospechó el diagnóstico pre-mortem en 5 (12,5 %) y 15 (37,5 %) desarrollaron la ETE a pesar de haber recibido tratamiento profiláctico con HBPM. Conclusiones: El TEP continúa siendo una causa muy importante de mortalidad de los pacientes ingresados en el hospital. El aumento de la esperanza de vida, de la supervivencia de enfermedades crónicas médicas y tumorales determina que hay que tener muy en cuenta esta patología. El empleo de una HBPM como profilaxis no excluye la posibilidad de esta entidad. Abstract in english Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has been for a long time a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The utility of Low-Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWH) in these patients in the last decade of the XX century has decreased the incidence of this disease. We try [...] to know if the massive useful of LMWH as thromboprophylasis is diminishing its incidence in autopsies. Material y methods: Retrospective study of all the autopsies in adults in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid) in a period of 6 years (from January 1994 to December 1999). There were reviewed those necropsies which had pathological data of pulmonary thromboembolism and several items were studied: anatomopathological, epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical. Results: 483 necropsies were performed in this period; 40 (8.3%) had PE. Most of them were older than 50 years (85%) and the most important risk factors associated were bedridden, chronic cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasias. Only Pre-mortem diagnosis was only suspected in 5 patients (12.5%) and 15 of them (37.5%) had a fatal pulmonary embolism despite receipt of thromboprophylasis with LMWH. Conclusions: PTE is still an important cause of mortality in hospitalized patients. The increased of life expect, survival of chronic cardiovascular and malignant disease made PTE a frequent possibility situation in hospitalized patients. Receipt of LMWH as thromboprophylaxis is not always effective to avoid PTE.
M. R., Burón Fernández; E., Pintor Holguín; P., Mínguez García; J. A., Nuevo González; J. J., Puche Paniagua; C., Gómez Sánchez-Biezma; P., Aragoncillo Ballesteros.
Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine anxiolytic widely prescribed for treatment of panic-disorder and social phobias, although this medication is also subject to abuse. In this paper, the concentrations of alprazolam in venous blood samples from impaired drivers were compared with femoral blood samples from forensic autopsies classified as intoxication or other causes of death (e.g. natural, trauma). After liquid-liquid extraction (n-butyl acetate) alprazolam was determined in blood by capillary gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorous detector. The mean (median) and range of alprazolam concentrations in blood from impaired drivers (n = 773) were 0.08 mg/L (0.05 mg/L) and 0.02-3.9 mg/L, respectively. Many traffic offenders had co-ingested ethanol (13%), amphetamine (46%), cannabis (32%), or heroin (14%), as well as other drugs. In deaths attributed to drug intoxication, the mean (median) and range of alprazolam concentrations in blood (n = 438) were 0.10 mg/L (0.06 mg/L) and 0.02-1.6 mg/L, respectively, which were not much different from other causes of death (n = 278); 0.08 mg/L (0.05 mg/L) and 0.02-0.9 mg/L. Median concentrations of alprazolam in blood from living and deceased persons did not seem to depend on the number of co-ingested substances. The result of this pharmacoepidemiological study suggests that alprazolam is a fairly innocent drug when used as monotherapy, but toxicity problems arise when co-ingested with illicit drugs and/or psychoactive medication. PMID:23257168
Jones, Alan Wayne; Holmgren, Anita
Background/Objectives: The content of C-13 and N-15 isotopes is higher in marine than in terrestrial food. C-13 and N-15 in human tissue therefore reflects the relative proportions of marine and terrestrial food consumed by the individual. The objective of this study was to measure C-13 and N-15 in liver tissue from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes. Subjects/Methods: Normal liver tissue was obtained at autopsy in 1992-1994 from 60 Inuit with a median age of 61 years (range 25-83) and in 1986 from 15 ethnic Danes with a median age of 84 years (range 66-93). By sieving, liver tissue was separated in a 'cellular fraction' and a 'connective tissue fraction'. C-13 and N-15 in dry liver tissue was measured on a mass spectrometer. delta C-13 indicates the C-13 content relative to the IAEA-CH-6 reference standard. delta N-15 indicates N-15 content relative to the atmospheric nitrogen reference standard. Results: Inuit: median delta C-13 was -21.2 parts per thousand in cellular and -20.0 parts per thousand in connective tissue fractions (P = 001). Median delta N-15 was 10.6 parts per thousand in both cellular and connective tissue fractions. Body mass index was negatively correlated with delta C-13 in the connective tissue fraction (r(s) = -0.42, P = 0.057). Danes: median delta C-13 was -27.0% in cellular and -24.3% in connective tissue fractions (P = 0.11). Median delta N-15 was 9.5 parts per thousand in cellular and 8.9 parts per thousand in connective tissue fractions (P = 0.5). Inuit had higher delta C-13 than Danes in both cellular and connective tissue fractions (P
Milman, N.; Laursen, J.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se um caso autopsiado de encefalite herpética disseminada em criança de um ano e três meses. O paciente era sadio até a moléstia atual quando apresentou febre, crises convulsivas repetidas e alterações de consciência que progrediram para o coma, evoluindo ao óbito em oito dias. O quadro neuro [...] patológico era caracterizado por necrose e inflamação em focos múltiplos disseminados nos hemisférios cerebrais, tronco encefálico e cerebelo. A técnica da Avidina-Biotina-Peroxidase revelou, em neurônios do tálamo, imunor-reatividade intra-citoplasmática e muito raramente intranuclear para antígeno do herpes-vírus tipo 1. Este caso difere dos demais de encefalite herpética descritos na literatura em dois aspectos: (1) pela disseminação das lesões, em contraste com as formas limitadas topograficamente ao sistema límbico e, menos comumente, ao tronco encefálico; (2) pela presença de necrose, inflamação e hemorragias focais, alterações estas praticamente ausentes nos casos de encefalite disseminada tipicamente descritos em indivíduos imunodeprimidos. Abstract in english An autopsied case of disseminated herpetic encephalitis in a previously healthy one-year-and-three-month-olu child is reported. He had fever, repeated convulsive crises and alterations of consciousness which progressed into a coma, leading to death in eight days. The neuropathological picture was ch [...] aracterized by necrosis and inflammation in multiple foci disseminated in the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum. The Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase Complex technique showed, in neurons of the thalamus, intra-cytoplasmatic immunoreactivity, and, very rarely, intranuclear for the Herpes simplex virus type 1 antigens. This case differs from the other herpetic encephalitis ones described in the literature in two aspects: (1) by the dissemination of the lesions, in contrast with the forms topographically limited to the limbic system and, less commonly, to the brainstem; (2) by the presence of necrosis, inflammation and focal hemorrhage, which are alterations that practically do not exist in cases of disseminated encephalitis tipically described in immuno-depressed individuals.
José Eymard Homem, Pittella; Carlos Eduardo, Bacchi; James, Robb.
Full Text Available Relata-se um caso autopsiado de encefalite herpética disseminada em criança de um ano e três meses. O paciente era sadio até a moléstia atual quando apresentou febre, crises convulsivas repetidas e alterações de consciência que progrediram para o coma, evoluindo ao óbito em oito dias. O quadro neuropatológico era caracterizado por necrose e inflamação em focos múltiplos disseminados nos hemisférios cerebrais, tronco encefálico e cerebelo. A técnica da Avidina-Biotina-Peroxidase revelou, em neurônios do tálamo, imunor-reatividade intra-citoplasmática e muito raramente intranuclear para antígeno do herpes-vírus tipo 1. Este caso difere dos demais de encefalite herpética descritos na literatura em dois aspectos: (1 pela disseminação das lesões, em contraste com as formas limitadas topograficamente ao sistema límbico e, menos comumente, ao tronco encefálico; (2 pela presença de necrose, inflamação e hemorragias focais, alterações estas praticamente ausentes nos casos de encefalite disseminada tipicamente descritos em indivíduos imunodeprimidos.An autopsied case of disseminated herpetic encephalitis in a previously healthy one-year-and-three-month-olu child is reported. He had fever, repeated convulsive crises and alterations of consciousness which progressed into a coma, leading to death in eight days. The neuropathological picture was characterized by necrosis and inflammation in multiple foci disseminated in the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum. The Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase Complex technique showed, in neurons of the thalamus, intra-cytoplasmatic immunoreactivity, and, very rarely, intranuclear for the Herpes simplex virus type 1 antigens. This case differs from the other herpetic encephalitis ones described in the literature in two aspects: (1 by the dissemination of the lesions, in contrast with the forms topographically limited to the limbic system and, less commonly, to the brainstem; (2 by the presence of necrosis, inflammation and focal hemorrhage, which are alterations that practically do not exist in cases of disseminated encephalitis tipically described in immuno-depressed individuals.
José Eymard Homem Pittella
Autopsia bucal post-exhumación en víctimas de un desastre masivo: Masacre de la Cárcel de Sabaneta, Maracaibo, Venezuela / Post-exhumation buccal autopsy in victims of a massive disaster: the Sabaneta Jail Massacre, Maracaibo, Venezuela
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante la solicitud presentada por los parientes de víctimas no identificadas de la Masacre de la Cárcel de Sabaneta, Maracaibo, Venezuela, un tribunal ordenó la exhumación de cuatro cadáveres, quince días después de haber sido sepultados. Se observó una buena conservación de los restos con apreciable [...] mantenimiento de las estructuras y contornos faciales. Se evidenció que el método de acceso a la cavidad oral empleado en la autopsia bucal pre-inhumación facilitó el abordaje para la autopsia post-exhumación, sin provocar mayor destrucción de los tejidos blandos y permitiendo la correcta manipulación tanto de las estructuras orales como de los dispositivos protésicos aportados como evidencias. En todos los casos se verificó la coincidencia de los datos obtenidos durante la autopsia pre-sepultura. Se concluye que cuando el proceso de inhumación se lleva a cabo siguiendo una adecuada planificación, se facilita una futura recuperación del cadáver cuando esta es requerida para completar el procedimiento de identificación. Abstract in english In view of the petition presented by the relatives of the unidentified victims of the Sabaneta Jail Massacre, Maracaibo, Venezuela, a court ordered the exhumation of four corpses, fifteen days after they were buried. The remains were well preserved, the structure and facial outline were well conserv [...] ed. It was evidenced that the method of access to the oral cavity employed in the pre-inhumation buccal autopsy facilitated the approach to the post-inhumation autopsy, without causing major destruction of the soft tissues and allowing for the correct manipulation of the oral structures as well as of the prosthetic appliances presented as evidence. In all cases, the coincidence of the data obtained during the pre-burial autopsy was verified. It was concluded that adequate planning of the inhumation process facilitates future recuperation of the bodies when this is required to complete the identification procedure.
J.L., Fereira Paz; A., Espina de Fereira; F., Barrios Ferrer; O., Espina Rojas.
The presence of enterovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus B19 in myocardial tissue samples from autopsies : an evaluation of their frequencies in deceased individuals with myocarditis and in non-inflamed control hearts
PURPOSE: Multiple viruses have been detected in cardiac tissue, but their role in causing myocarditis remains controversial. Viral diagnostics are increasingly used in forensic medicine, but the interpretation of the results can sometimes be challenging. In this study, we examined the prevalence of adenovirus, enterovirus, and parvovirus B19 (PVB) in myocardial autopsy samples from myocarditis related deaths and in non-inflamed control hearts in an effort to clarify their significance as the causes of myocarditis in a forensic material. METHODS: We collected all autopsy cases diagnosed with myocarditis from 1992 to 2010. Eighty-four suicidal deaths with morphologically normal hearts served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the viral genomes (adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB) in myocardial tissue specimens. The distinction between acute and persistent PVB infection was made by the serological determination of PVB-specific immunoglobulins M and G. RESULTS: PVB was detected in 33 of 112 (29 %) myocarditis cases and 37 of 84 (44 %) control cases. All of the samples were negative for the presence of adenovirus and enterovirus. Serological evidence of an acute PVB infection, determined by the presence of immunoglobulin M, was only present in one case. In the remaining cases, PVB was considered to be a bystander with no or limited association to myocardial inflammation. CONCLUSION: In this study, adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB were found to be rare causes of myocarditis. The detection of PVB in myocardial autopsy samples most likely represents a persistent infection with no or limited association with myocardial inflammation. The forensic investigation of myocardial inflammation demands a thorough examination, including special attention to non-viral causes and requires a multidisciplinary approach.
Nielsen, Trine Skov; Hansen, Jakob
Autopsy and postmortem examination case study on genetic risk factors for cardiac death: Polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene Glu298asp variant and T-786c mutation, human paraoxonas
Background/Aim. The Glu298Asp variant in exon 7 and T-786C mutation in the 5'-flanking region of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, paraoxonase I gene (PON1), and ?2?- adrenergic receptor gene (?2?-AR) have been reported to be genetic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these four genetic polymorphisms on the probability of death due to CHD, using data obtained from medico-legal autopsies. Methods. Blood sa...
Ameno Kiyoshi; Ameno Setsuko; Kinoshita Hiroshi; Jamal Mostofa; Wang Weihuan; Kumihashi Mitsuru; Uekita Ikuo; Ijiri Iwao
Hallazgos morfológicos en casos fatales de síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus: Estudio de 7 autopsias / Morphological findings in fatal cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: Report of 7 autopsies
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus (SCPH) es una enfermedad infecciosa aguda, caracterizada por insuficiencia cardio-respiratoria súbita y alta mortalidad, causada por un virus ARN del género Hantavirus, familia Bunyaviridae. Un 15% de los casos chilenos ha sido pesquisado en la [...] Araucanía. Objetivo: Conocer en casos fatales de SCPH, sus características clínicas y morfológicas. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo de siete casos fatales con examen postmortem, de SCPH, atendidos entre 1997 y 2009 en el Hospital Regional de Temuco. Resultados: Los casos fueron principalmente pacientes jóvenes, rurales, con un cuadro de compromiso respiratorio progresivo, con leucocitosis, trombopenia e infiltrado pulmonar intersticial bilateral. Los principales hallazgos histopatológicos fueron un acentuado edema pulmonar intra-alveolar e intersticial, con escaso daño epitelial e infiltrado mono-nuclear y leve edema miocárdico con infiltrado mononu-clear. Conclusiones: Los antecedentes epidemiológicos, clínicos y laboratorio permiten sospechar SCPH. En los casos fatales la autopsia permite diferenciar el SCPH de otras patologías similares y aporta tejidos para confirmar el diagnóstico. Abstract in english Introduction: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an acute infectious disease characterized by sudden cardiorespiratory failure and high mortality, caused by a RNA virus of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae, 15% of Chilean cases have been detected in the Araucania Region. Objective [...] : To determine in fatal cases of HCPS, clinical and morphological characteristics. Materials and Methods: Descriptive-retrospective analysis of seven fatal cases with postmortem study of HCPS, attended between 1997 and 2009 at the Hospital of Temuco, Chile. Results: Cases were young patients from rural areas, and presented as an illness of progressive respiratory failure, with leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. Main morphological findings were marked intersticial and intraalveolar pulmonary edema, with minimal epithelial injury and mononuclear cell intersticial infiltrate and mild edematous intersticial inflamatory process. Conclusions: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory background allow to suspect HCPS. In fatal cases, the autopsy makes possible to discard other similar pathologies and provide tissue for confirmation of the disease.
Pablo, Guzmán G; Oscar, Tapia E; Miguel, Villaseca H; Juan, Araya O; Lilia, Antonio P; Bolívar, Lee O; Juan, Roa S.
Full Text Available Objective: Population-based information on causes of death (CoD by age, sex, and area is critical for countries with limited resources to identify and address key public health issues. This study analysed the demographic surveillance and verbal autopsy (VA data to estimate age- and sex-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions in two well-defined rural populations within the demographic surveillance system in Abhoynagar and Mirsarai subdistricts, located in different climatic zones. Design: During 2004–2010, the sample demographic surveillance system registered 1,384 deaths in Abhoynagar and 1,847 deaths in Mirsarai. Trained interviewers interviewed the main caretaker of the deceased with standard VA questionnaires to record signs and symptoms of diseases or conditions that led to death and health care experiences before death. The computer-automated InterVA-4 method was used to analyse VAs to determine probable CoD. Results: Age- and sex-specific death rates revealed a higher neonatal mortality rate in Abhoynagar than Mirsarai, and death rates and sex ratios of male to female death rates were higher in the ages after infancy. Communicable diseases (CDs accounted for 16.7% of all deaths in Abhoynagar and 21.2% in Mirsarai – the difference was due mostly to more deaths from acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, and tuberculosis in Mirsarai. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs accounted for 56.2 and 55.3% of deaths in each subdistrict, respectively, with leading causes being stroke (16.5–19.3%, neoplasms (13.2% each, cardiac diseases (8.9–11.6%, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (5.1–6.3%, diseases of the digestive system (3.1–4.1%, and diabetes (2.8–3.5%, together accounting for 49.2–51.2% points of the NCD deaths in the two subdistricts. Injury and other external causes accounted for another 7.5–7.7% deaths, with self-harm being higher among females in Abhoynagar. Conclusions: The computer-automated coding of VA to determine CoD reconfirmed that NCDs were the leading CoD with some differences between the sites. Incorporating VA into the national sample vital registration system can help policy makers to identify the leading CoDs for public health planning.
Aterosclerosis coronaria y daño miocárdico. Estudio de autopsias utilizando el Sistema Aterométrico Coronary aterosclerosis and myocardial damage. An autopsy material study applying the Atherometric System
Full Text Available Introducción: se estudió el corazón y las arterias coronarias epicárdicas derecha (CD, descendente anterior (DA y circunfleja izquierda (CI de 472 fallecidos, cuyas necropsias se practicaron en el Hospital Universitario "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". Objetivos: describir la asociación entre las lesiones ateroscleróticas de las arterias coronarias y las lesiones de fibrosis y necrosis del corazón. Caracterizar las lesiones coronarias y miocárdicas, según la existencia o no de antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica. Material y Métodos: se realizó análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la lesión aterosclerótica utilizando el Sistema Aterométrico (SA. Se practicó un análisis de correlaciones canónicas para evaluar la asociación de la lesión miocárdica con la lesión de las coronarias. Para caracterizar la lesión se emplearon los cosenos del vector lesional que describen la importancia relativa de cada modalidad de lesión. Resultados: hay correlaciones moderadas pero significativas entre las lesiones coronarias y las lesiones miocárdicas. Las placas fibrosas son la lesión predominante, pero las estrías adiposas y las placas graves diferencian mejor a los fallecidos con y sin antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica. Conclusiones: las estrías adiposas y las placas graves se asocian con las áreas de fibrosis y necrosis en el corazón. En los fallecidos con antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica hay más placas graves y menos estrías adiposas que en los que no tienen antecedentes.Introduction: the heart and the main epicardiac coronary arteries from 472 autopsies done at the University Hospital Dr. Carlos J. Finlay were analyzed and studied. Objectives: to describe the association between coronary and cardiac lesions. 2.- To characterize coronary and myocardial lesions related to history of ischemic heart disease. Materials and Methods: we performed the quantitative and qualitative analyses as part of the Atherometic System (AS. A canonical correlation analysis was done to assess the association between coronary and myocardial lesion. Cosines of the lesion vector were used to describe and assess the relative importance of each type of lesion. Results: there are moderate but statistically significant correlations between myocardial fibrosis and necrosis, and coronary lesion. Fibrous plaques are the predominant lesion, but fatty streaks and severe plaques are more discriminant between cases with and without history of ischemic heart disease. Conclusions: fatty streaks and severe plaques are associated with the areas of fibrosis and necrosis of the heart. Cases with history of ischemic heart disease have more severe plaques and less fatty streaks than cases without history of ischemic heart disease.
Yanira Noalis Díaz Valdés
A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of gross hematuria due to radiation cystitis that occurred 13 years after radiation therapy of the cervic cancer. Despite of conservative therapy to cease bladder hemorrhage, gross hematuria continued and was further complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding and pyelonephritis. As a consequence of blood loss the patient died. Histopathological examination revealed that the bladder lesion was composed of hemorrhagic, gangrenous cystitis with candida infection and ulcer formation. We would like to make a special note on microembolizations were found in the kidney, the liver, the heart, the lung, the gastrointestinal tract and other organs. It was considered to be the lesion of diseminated intravascular coagulation. (author)
Full Text Available Una de las tareas más difíciles en patología forense puede ser determinar, después de la autopsia, el origen y la causa de la muerte cuando dichos extremos no están claros o son discutibles. Una autopsia técnicamente perfecta es condición necesaria pero no suficiente para cumplir adecuadamente esta decisión. En el presente trabajo se delimitan claramente los conceptos de causa y mecanismo de muerte, muerte natural y muerte violenta. Se revisan muchos de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico del origen y la causa de la muerte; especialmente el enfoque actual del valor de la autopsia en el diagnóstico, la interacción entre traumatismo y enfermedad, la doctrina de la causalidad, la utilización de la CIE-10, la llamada etiología médico-legal, la autopsia psicológica, la "autopsia blanca" o negativa y el origen de la muerte por complicaciones de la terapéutica, etc., todos ellos se ilustran con ejemplos de casos representativos. Se discute el limitado papel del patólogo forense en España en la determinación de la denominada etiología médico-legal. Las conclusiones constituyen un conjunto de recomendaciones para el mejor cumplimiento de este trabajo, entre ellas el abandono de las denominadas causas de muerte inaceptables como parada cardiaca, parada cardiorrespiratoria o muerte cerebral, etc., la utilización siempre que sea posible de los diagnósticos de la CIE-10 y del formato del apartado de la causa de la muerte (parte I y II del modelo internacional de certificado médico de causa de defunción de la OMS. Todo ello como guía breve que facilite un resultado judicial adecuado y aumente la credibilidad del patólogo forense.One of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology is deciding the origin and the cause of death after the autopsy when those issues are unclear or debatable. A technically perfect autopsy is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to adequately fulfil this decision. The present paper clearly defines the concepts of cause and mechanism of death, natural and violent death. We review many aspects related to the diagnosis of the origin and cause of death, especially the current approach of the value of autopsy in the diagnosis, the interaction between trauma and disease, the doctrine of causation, the use of ICD- 10, the so-called manner of death, the psychological autopsy, the negative autopsy and the origin of death from therapeutic complication, and so on., all of which are illustrated with relevant examples. We also discuss the limited role of the forensic pathologist in Spain in determining the so-called manner of death. The conclusions include(s a list of recommendations for the best performance of this work, including the abandonment of the so-called unacceptable causes of death -as cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or brain death, and so on- and whenever possible the adoption of the classification of ICD-10 and the standard paragraph in which the cause of death is informed (part I and II, as proposed by the WHO international certificate of death. These conclusions intend to be a brief guide to provide a fair judicial outcome and enhance the forensic pathologist's credibility.
J.L. Palomo Rando
Full Text Available Una de las tareas más difíciles en patología forense puede ser determinar, después de la autopsia, el origen y la causa de la muerte cuando dichos extremos no están claros o son discutibles. Una autopsia técnicamente perfecta es condición necesaria pero no suficiente para cumplir adecuadamente esta decisión. En el presente trabajo se delimitan claramente los conceptos de causa y mecanismo de muerte, muerte natural y muerte violenta. Se revisan muchos de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico del origen y la causa de la muerte; especialmente el enfoque actual del valor de la autopsia en el diagnóstico, la interacción entre traumatismo y enfermedad, la doctrina de la causalidad, la utilización de la CIE-10, la llamada etiología médico-legal, la autopsia psicológica, la "autopsia blanca" o negativa y el origen de la muerte por complicaciones de la terapéutica, etc., todos ellos se ilustran con ejemplos de casos representativos. Se discute el limitado papel del patólogo forense en España en la determinación de la denominada etiología médico-legal. Las conclusiones constituyen un conjunto de recomendaciones para el mejor cumplimiento de este trabajo, entre ellas el abandono de las denominadas causas de muerte inaceptables como parada cardiaca, parada cardiorrespiratoria o muerte cerebral, etc., la utilización siempre que sea posible de los diagnósticos de la CIE-10 y del formato del apartado de la causa de la muerte (parte I y II del modelo internacional de certificado médico de causa de defunción de la OMS. Todo ello como guía breve que facilite un resultado judicial adecuado y aumente la credibilidad del patólogo forense.One of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology is deciding the origin and the cause of death after the autopsy when those issues are unclear or debatable. A technically perfect autopsy is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to adequately fulfil this decision. The present paper clearly defines the concepts of cause and mechanism of death, natural and violent death. We review many aspects related to the diagnosis of the origin and cause of death, especially the current approach of the value of autopsy in the diagnosis, the interaction between trauma and disease, the doctrine of causation, the use of ICD- 10, the so-called manner of death, the psychological autopsy, the negative autopsy and the origin of death from therapeutic complication, and so on., all of which are illustrated with relevant examples. We also discuss the limited role of the forensic pathologist in Spain in determining the so-called manner of death. The conclusions include(s a list of recommendations for the best performance of this work, including the abandonment of the so-called unacceptable causes of death -as cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or brain death, and so on- and whenever possible the adoption of the classification of ICD-10 and the standard paragraph in which the cause of death is informed (part I and II, as proposed by the WHO international certificate of death. These conclusions intend to be a brief guide to provide a fair judicial outcome and enhance the forensic pathologist´s credibility.
J.L. Palomo Rando
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una de las tareas más difíciles en patología forense puede ser determinar, después de la autopsia, el origen y la causa de la muerte cuando dichos extremos no están claros o son discutibles. Una autopsia técnicamente perfecta es condición necesaria pero no suficiente para cumplir adecuadamente esta [...] decisión. En el presente trabajo se delimitan claramente los conceptos de causa y mecanismo de muerte, muerte natural y muerte violenta. Se revisan muchos de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico del origen y la causa de la muerte; especialmente el enfoque actual del valor de la autopsia en el diagnóstico, la interacción entre traumatismo y enfermedad, la doctrina de la causalidad, la utilización de la CIE-10, la llamada etiología médico-legal, la autopsia psicológica, la "autopsia blanca" o negativa y el origen de la muerte por complicaciones de la terapéutica, etc., todos ellos se ilustran con ejemplos de casos representativos. Se discute el limitado papel del patólogo forense en España en la determinación de la denominada etiología médico-legal. Las conclusiones constituyen un conjunto de recomendaciones para el mejor cumplimiento de este trabajo, entre ellas el abandono de las denominadas causas de muerte inaceptables como parada cardiaca, parada cardiorrespiratoria o muerte cerebral, etc., la utilización siempre que sea posible de los diagnósticos de la CIE-10 y del formato del apartado de la causa de la muerte (parte I y II) del modelo internacional de certificado médico de causa de defunción de la OMS. Todo ello como guía breve que facilite un resultado judicial adecuado y aumente la credibilidad del patólogo forense. Abstract in english One of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology is deciding the origin and the cause of death after the autopsy when those issues are unclear or debatable. A technically perfect autopsy is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to adequately fulfil this decision. The present paper clearly [...] defines the concepts of cause and mechanism of death, natural and violent death. We review many aspects related to the diagnosis of the origin and cause of death, especially the current approach of the value of autopsy in the diagnosis, the interaction between trauma and disease, the doctrine of causation, the use of ICD- 10, the so-called manner of death, the psychological autopsy, the negative autopsy and the origin of death from therapeutic complication, and so on., all of which are illustrated with relevant examples. We also discuss the limited role of the forensic pathologist in Spain in determining the so-called manner of death. The conclusions include(s) a list of recommendations for the best performance of this work, including the abandonment of the so-called unacceptable causes of death -as cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or brain death, and so on- and whenever possible the adoption of the classification of ICD-10 and the standard paragraph in which the cause of death is informed (part I and II), as proposed by the WHO international certificate of death. These conclusions intend to be a brief guide to provide a fair judicial outcome and enhance the forensic pathologist's credibility.
J.L., Palomo Rando; V., Ramos Medina; E. de la, Cruz Mera; A.M., López Calvo.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una de las tareas más difíciles en patología forense puede ser determinar, después de la autopsia, el origen y la causa de la muerte cuando dichos extremos no están claros o son discutibles. Una autopsia técnicamente perfecta es condición necesaria pero no suficiente para cumplir adecuadamente esta [...] decisión. En el presente trabajo se delimitan claramente los conceptos de causa y mecanismo de muerte, muerte natural y muerte violenta. Se revisan muchos de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico del origen y la causa de la muerte; especialmente el enfoque actual del valor de la autopsia en el diagnóstico, la interacción entre traumatismo y enfermedad, la doctrina de la causalidad, la utilización de la CIE-10, la llamada etiología médico-legal, la autopsia psicológica, la "autopsia blanca" o negativa y el origen de la muerte por complicaciones de la terapéutica, etc., todos ellos se ilustran con ejemplos de casos representativos. Se discute el limitado papel del patólogo forense en España en la determinación de la denominada etiología médico-legal. Las conclusiones constituyen un conjunto de recomendaciones para el mejor cumplimiento de este trabajo, entre ellas el abandono de las denominadas causas de muerte inaceptables como parada cardiaca, parada cardiorrespiratoria o muerte cerebral, etc., la utilización siempre que sea posible de los diagnósticos de la CIE-10 y del formato del apartado de la causa de la muerte (parte I y II) del modelo internacional de certificado médico de causa de defunción de la OMS. Todo ello como guía breve que facilite un resultado judicial adecuado y aumente la credibilidad del patólogo forense. Abstract in english One of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology is deciding the origin and the cause of death after the autopsy when those issues are unclear or debatable. A technically perfect autopsy is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to adequately fulfil this decision. The present paper clearly [...] defines the concepts of cause and mechanism of death, natural and violent death. We review many aspects related to the diagnosis of the origin and cause of death, especially the current approach of the value of autopsy in the diagnosis, the interaction between trauma and disease, the doctrine of causation, the use of ICD- 10, the so-called manner of death, the psychological autopsy, the negative autopsy and the origin of death from therapeutic complication, and so on., all of which are illustrated with relevant examples. We also discuss the limited role of the forensic pathologist in Spain in determining the so-called manner of death. The conclusions include(s) a list of recommendations for the best performance of this work, including the abandonment of the so-called unacceptable causes of death -as cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or brain death, and so on- and whenever possible the adoption of the classification of ICD-10 and the standard paragraph in which the cause of death is informed (part I and II), as proposed by the WHO international certificate of death. These conclusions intend to be a brief guide to provide a fair judicial outcome and enhance the forensic pathologist´s credibility.
J.L., Palomo Rando; V., Ramos Medina; E. de la, Cruz Mera; A.M., López Calvo.
Full Text Available A study was conducted on the medical records of 353 patients who died of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and who were submitted to autopsy over the last 10 years. SAH was associated with arterial hypertension in 180 (51% cases, with ruptured aneurysms in 102 (28.9%, and with other pathologies in 71 (20.1%. The patients with hemorrhage associated with arterial hypertension were mostly males, and those with hemorrhage due to aneurysms were mostly females. Of the patients with aneurysms, 36 (35.3% had aneurysms in the anterior communicating artery, 30 (29.4% in the internal carotid artery, and 23 (22.6% in the middle cerebral artery. Among the patients with aneurysms who suffered rebleeding and vasospasm, 59.1% and 61.5%, respectively, were classified as grade I and II upon admission, and all evolved toward grade IV after these complications, Vasospasm predominated from the 3rd to the 10th day after hemorrhage, and rebleedine from the 9 to 16th day and both were most frequent among patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicant artery. Sixty eight percent of the patients with aneurysms died during the first 9 days after hemorrhage. Because of our conduct was to operate systematically late, a considerable number of patients lost the oportunity to be treated surgically with possible favorable evolution due to vasospasm or rebleeding.Foram analisados 353 pacientes que faleceram por hemorragia subaracnóidea autopsiados nos últimos 10 anos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto. A hemorragia subaracnóidea estava associada a hipertensão arterial em 180 casos, a ruptura de aneurismas em 102 e a outras patologias em 71 casos. O sexo masculino predominou nos pacientes com hemorragia associada a hipertensão arterial e o feminino nas hemorragias por ruptura de aneurismas. As hemorragias associadas a hipertensão arterial predominaram em faixas etárias mais altas em relação às hemorragias por aneurismas. Dos pacientes com aneurismas, 36 (35,3% apresentaram aneurismas no complexo cerebral anterior/comunicante anterior, 30 (29,4% na carótida interna e 23 (22,5% na cerebral média. Nos casos de aneurismas, o vasoespasmo predominou no período do 3º ao 10º dia e o ressangramento predominou no período do 9º ao 16º e respectivamente 59,1% e. 61,5% desses pacientes apresentaram-se nos graus I e II na admissão e evoluíram para o grau IV após estas intercorrências. Ambas as intercorrências foram mais freqüentes entre os pacientes com aneurismas do complexo cerebral anterior/comunicante anterior. Sessenta e oito por cento dos óbitos por aneurismas ocorreram nos 9 primeiros dias após a hemorragia. Os pacientes admitidos em grau I e II e que sofreram vasoespasmo ou ressangramento e que poderiam beneficiar-se do tratamento cirúrgico precoce não tiveram esta oportunidade porque a nossa conduta naquela época era de operar sistematicamente no final da segunda ou no início da terceira semana após a hemorragia subaracnóidea.
Expresión Morfológica de la Arteria Basilar: Un Estudio con Material de Autopsia de Individuos Colombianos / Morphological Expression of the Basilar Artery: A Study with Colombian Population's Autopsy Material
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La arteria basilar (AB) presenta una expresión variable, la cual es determinante en la etiología de eventos clínicos que comprometen el tallo cerebral. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar la expresión morfológica de la AB en una muestra de población colombiana. Fueron estudiados 100 tallos c [...] erebrales