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Sample records for 99mtc pertechnetate standardization

  1. Altered splenic uptake in the biodistribution of 99MTc-stannous fluoride colloid in rats

    Full text: Radiolabelled white cells have found extensive application in nuclear medicine practice, with use in detecting sites of infection and inflammation. In 99MTc-stannous flu- oride (SnF2) colloid labelled leucocyte scans high liver and spleen activity is visualised, limiting the potential of this technique. This is thought to be due to free or unphagocytosed 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in the preparation. Labelling white cells with 99MTc-SnF2 depends upon phagocytic engulfment of this colloid. Non-phagocy-tosed colloid may be a cause of increased splenic activity. Our aims were to assess if it were possible to reduce liver/spleen uptake of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in a rat model, by administering unlabelled SnF2 colloid before injection of radiocolloid, in a modification of the standard British Pharmacopoeial test. The biodistribution of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid alone gave 85.4% uptake in the liver and 7.6% in the spleen. A pre-injection of 26.5μg cold SnF2 and then 99MTc-SnF2 colloid resulted in decreased spleen uptake by 43%. A higher (52μg) pre-injection dose gave a greater decrease in splenic uptake by 53%. When ex vivo opsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid was administered, both liver and spleen uptake was not reduced. From these results, a pre-injection of unlabelled SnF2 substantially depletes the circulating opsonin concentration, thereby decreasing the opsonisation rate of unopsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid. The limiting factor is likely to be the amount of opsonisation in the plasma rather than phagocytic capacity of the macrophages of liver and spleen. In conclusion these results suggest that a pre-injection of cold stannous fluoride may reduce splenic uptake in 99MTc-SnF2 colloid labelled white cell scans. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  3. 99MTC-labelled autologous erythrocytes for the study of hepatic haemangiomas - Retrospective analysis

    Full text: Introduction: Haemangioma represents 5-7% of all benign tumours. Most hepatic lesions are easily diagnosed by ultrasound or CT scan, but sometimes differential diagnosis between haemangioma and other lesions is an important problem. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 99mTc-labelled autologous erythrocytes imaging for the diagnosis of hepatic haemangiomas. Population and Methods: We have retrospectively analysed, 61 patients (16(26%) males and 45(74%) females, with age> = 53 years) who have been submitted to hepatic study using 99mTc-labelled autologous erythrocytes (99mTc-LAE), between February 1999 and November 2002, for suspicious hepatic haemangioma. The hepatic lesions (diameter>=4,01±3,7cm) were documented by ultrasound and/or CT and/or MRI, none reaching a conclusive diagnosis: 39/61(64%) patients had single lesions, 8/61(13%) had two lesions, 5/61(8%) had three lesions and 9/61(15%) patients had more than 3 lesions. The erythrocytes in vivo labelling was performed with stannous chloride ev administration followed (by 20 minutes) by an 99mTc-Pertechnetate (740 MBq-20 mCi) ev administration. The hepatic images were made 2-3 hours after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical: 3 planar images (anterior, posterior and right lateral projections) and SPET. Results: 99mTc-LAE results were: 29 haemangiomas identified in 28/61(46%) patients, one of them also showing a lesion without elective erythrocytes accumulation; 6/61(10%) patients with lesions without elective erythrocytes accumulation; 27/61(44%) patients without any modification in the erythrocytes distribution parenchymal pattern. Lesion's dimensions (estimated by ultrasound, CT scan or MRI) were: haemangiomas identified by 99mTc-LAE - =5,27±3,3cm, 'cold' lesions in 99mTc-LAE - =2,58±1,47cm and non visualized lesions in 99mTc-LAE - =2,06±1,33cm. The 29 patients with haemangiomas, diagnosed in 99mTc-LAE, had already performed 25 ultrasounds, 20 CT scan, 5 MRI and 1 hepatic biopsy

  4. 99MTc - DMSA renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis in children

    The aim of the present thesis was to define and evaluate a strategy for identification of children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions after acute pyelonephritis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation standards were elaborated to improve the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy. The normal DMSA distribution pattern, the average background uptake, and scintigraphic kidney length according to age were assessed in 95 presumably healthy kidneys. Furthermore, typical DMSA distribution patterns in acute pyelonephritis were assessed on 65 kidneys in 38 children, and typical DMSA distribution patterns of 152 kidneys with VUR in 101 children with and without previous pyelonephritis. Measurement of scintigraphic kidney length, width and volume was validated in piglets and on a kidney phantom. The scintigraphic kidney length was found to be an accurate measure of renal size, whereas kidney width and volume were less reliable, at least on small kidneys. Criteria of kidney swelling in acute pyelonephritis were defined, and found to be beneficial for identifying reinfections in the absence of clinical symptoms. In 34 children with acute pyelonephritis quantitative and qualitative DMSA scintigraphic findings were correlated to clinical symptoms and laboratory data, in the acute stage and at follow up. We found that quantitative DMSA scintigraphy in the acute stage of pyelonephritis and again after one year will identify children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions. Qualitative assessment of DMSA distribution pattern is not reliable enough in this respect. 116 refs., 7 figs

  5. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of 99mTc is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (99mTc) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of 99mTc from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile 99mTc sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai (Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. (author)

  6. Functional imaging of hydatid cysts with Tc-99m pertechnetate

    Aim: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging in the management of hydatid cysts. Material and Methods: A total number of 10 patients with hydatid disease of the lungs were studied. Six had unilateral and four bilateral lung involvement. There were six males and four females (mean age= 31 years). In six patients serial planar images of the chest were obtained following intravenous injection of 2 mCi of Tc-99m pertechnetate using standard gamma camera computer systems. In few patients radioactivity was also introduced directly into the bronchus to detect the communicating channels (if any) between the cysts and respiratory system. Results: In all six patients active uptake of Tc-99m pertechnetate was seen immediately after intravenous injection of the radioactivity, and reaching a plateau by 3-5 minutes. On the other hand the time activity curve on the lungs showed a clear downward trend (clearance curve) from the very beginning. The legion (cyst) to background (lungs) count ratios in all cases were found to be consistently high, ranging from 3:1 to 5:1. In two patients additional lung cysts (undetected by CT or x-rays) were detected. In three patients in addition to the active cysts, several low activity lesions were also detected. These corresponded to dead, inactive or complicated (infected) hydatid cysts. In few patients where radioactivity was introduced directly into the respiratory tracts, communication between the cyst and the main bronchus was demonstrated in one. In one such patient, where the radioactivity was introduced into the respiratory tract, a few minutes later discrete focal lesions were seen in the liver suggestive of multiple active hydatid cysts in the liver (concentrating Tc-99m pertechnetate which has been absorbed from the tracheo-bronchial tree into the vascular compartment). Conclusion: Tc-99m pertechnetate is actively taken up by the hydatid cysts. The differential uptake of radioactivity in the

  7. The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks - Phase 1

    Duncan, James B. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, WA (United States); Catlow, Stanley A. [Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. (United States)

    2014-02-01

    An analytical method is required to distinguish between the pertechnetate and non-pertechnetate forms of technetium; currently, the methods available only report the total technetium present in a sample. The overall objective of this effort is to develop a method for routinely analyzing Hanford tank waste for technetium in the pertechnetate and the non-pertechnetate forms. A phased approach will be deployed to accomplish this objective: Phase I Comparison of existing technetium analysis methods with modification; Phase II Demonstration of modified methods using non-pertechnetate spiked simulants; and, Phase III Demonstration of chosen method on Hanford tank sample containing non-pertechnetate. This report describes the Phase I work, providing a comparison of Aliquat 336 and TEVA(R)1 in the removal of pertechnetate and discussing the subsequent analysis for technetium in both alkaline and acidic environments without oxidation. The effort was executed under LAB-PLN-13-00004, The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks Phase I.

  8. Method and container for reducing pertechnetate

    A method of reducing the pertechnetate in TcO4- comprises mixing together an aqueous solution of pertechnetate, e.g. the eluant from a technetium generator, metallic tin or an alloy thereof as a reducing agent for the pertechnetate, and a soluble salt of a metal below tin in the electrochemical series, e.g. copper, as an activator for the tin metal reducing agent. A complexing agent for the reduced technetium or a colloid stabiliser may also be included. The pH is preferably 3 to 12. Also claimed is a closed container containing the tin reducing agent, the activator, and the complexant or colloid stabiliser if used, preferably in a freeze-dried sterile state, to which the pertechnetate solution may be added. (author)

  9. Pertechnetate diffusion in GMZ bentonite

    99Tc is an important radionuclides related to repository safety assessment. The mobility pertechnetate (TcO4-) can be reduced to immobility technetium(IV) hydrous oxides (TcO2 · nH2O) by Fe(II)-bearing minerals. In China, Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite is regarded as the favorable candidate backfilling material for the HLW repository, which is contained some FeO. The diffusion behavior of 99Tc was investigated in GMZ bentonite by through- and out-diffusion methods. The effective diffusion coefficient (De), the accessible porosity (εacc), apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) and distribution coefficient (Kd) were decreased with the increasing of dry density. The De values were (2.8 ± 0.2) x 10-11 m2/s and (3.5 ± 0.2) x 10-12 m2/s at dry density of 1,600 and 1,800 kg/m3, respectively. It was indicated that the dominating species was TcO4- during the diffusion processing. While, out-diffusion results showed that part of TcO4- may be reduced by Fe(II). The relationship of De and εacc could be described by Archie's law with exponent n = 2.4 for 99Tc diffusion in GMZ bentonite. Furthermore, the relationship between Da and dry density (ρ) was exponential. (author)

  10. Labelling of red blood cells with 99m pertechnetate

    This paper describes a method for labelling red blood cells with 99mTc in vitro, using electrolytically generated stannous ions as the reducing agent for 99mTc-pertechnetate. A labelling of 95% was found. A method for the in vivo labelling of red blood cells is also reported. This involves an injection of a stanno-DTPA-complex followed 20 minutes later by a 99mTc-pertechnetate solution scintillation camera images show more background activity when the in vivo method of labelling is used

  11. The autoreduction of pertechnetate in aqueous, alkaline solutions

    The autoreduction of pertechnetate (99TcO4-) to Tc(IV/V) alkoxide complexes in aqueous, alkaline, solutions is described. Solutions of sodium pertechnetate (0.01M) reacted with nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands (1.0M) in 2M sodium hydroxide. Solutions containing nitrogen donor ligands (e.g., EDTA) showed the initial formation of lightly colored complexes followed by rapid decomposition in air. In contrast, stable, reduced complexes were formed within minutes of mixing pertechnetate with mono- and disaccharides in strong base, as indicated by a persistent color change. Chemical yields of these reactions were determined by thin layer chromatography or paper chromatography and radiochemically assayed with a Bioscan imaging scanner. Analysis by UV-vis spectroscopy suggested that Tc(IV) or Tc(V) complexes were produced, with the oxidation state dependent on the reducing ligand. These experiments may help explain the reduction of pertechnetate to the soluble complexes that have been found in the Hanford nuclear waste tanks. (author)

  12. Selective Extraction of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate by New Macrocyclic Compounds

    The long half-life of technetium-99 and its ability to form an anionic species makes it a major concern when considering long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Furthermore, as its most stable species in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, TcO4- is highly mobile and is considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. There is a need for the development of new extractant systems, such as systems based on crown ethers that may serve to selectively extract and separate this long lived radionuclide from different streams for potential industrial application. In this paper, we are reporting the design and synthesis of new macrocyclic compounds to selectively extract technetium and rhenium from complex mixtures. Preliminary tests performed for the selective extraction of pertechnetate and perrhenate are presented. (authors)

  13. Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy: Congenital hypothyroid screening

    Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Duck, S.C.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scans were performed on 57 infants referred for evaluation of suspected congenital hypothyroidism. Thyroid anatomy may be characterized by four general types, based on the scintigraphic findings: (1) normal size and location. (2) ectopic location. (3) no detectable thyroid activity. (4) normal location with increased size or uptake. There are diverse etiologies of congential hypothyroidism. Correlation of thyroid scintigraphy with blood T4 and TSH levels allows specific etiological diagnosis in the majority of cases of congential hypothyroidism.

  14. Clinical application of quantitative 99Tcm-pertechnetate thyroid imaging

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of quantitative 99Tcm-pertechnetate thyroid imaging for the diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in patients with thyroid disease. Methods: With the Siemens Orbit SPECT, 99Tcm sodium pertechnetate thyroid imaging was performed on a control group and 108 patients with Graves' disease, 58 patients with Hashimoto's disease, 41 patients with subacute thyroiditis. Three functional parameters were calculated as follows: AR=5 min thyroid count/1 min thyroid count; UI=20 min thyroid count/thigh count; Td=imaging interval between carotid and thyroid. Results: 1) Three functional parameters were basically concordant with serological parameters in patients with Graves' disease. While uptake was high in patients who had contracted Graves' disease for ≤0.5 year, for those whose disease relapsed within 2 years the 99Tcm thyroid uptake increased when the antithyroid medication was stopped. 2) Thyroid images of hyperthyroid patients with Hashimoto's disease showed increased perfusion and 99Tcm uptake, a pattern similar to that found in Graves' disease. Differences in Td, AR , UI were not significant among euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's disease, so uptake ratios could indicate the thyroid activity. 3) Delayed thyroid image and diffuse uptake decrease were found in hyperthyroid patients with SAT, however, focal damages were observed in euthyroid patients. Conclusion: Quantitative 99Tcm-pertechnetate thyroid imaging is a significantly helpful technique in the diagnosis and treatment for common thyroid disorders

  15. Non-Pertechnetate Technetium Sensor Research and Development

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Heineman, William R.; Rapko, Brian M.; Branch, Shirmir D.

    2014-10-01

    There remain several significant uncertainties in the understanding and modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford waste tanks, glass, and low-temperature waste forms. A significant (2% to 25%) fraction of the 99Tc in the water-soluble portion of the tank waste may be present as a non-pertechnetate species that has not been identified and, based on experimentation to date, cannot be effectively separated from the wastes. This task will provide a sensor specifically tuned to detect the Tc(I)-carbonyl species believed to constitute the main fraction of the non-pertechnetate form of technetium. By direct measurement of the non-pertechnetate species, such a sensor will help reduce the uncertainties in the modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford tanks and waste forms. This report summarizes work done in FY 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Progress made in FY 2014 was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management and is summarized in this report.

  16. /sup 99m/pertechnetate uptake in the transplanted kidney

    Acute renal failure is a common complication of kidney transplantation. The major causes are acute tubular necrosis (ATN), arterial or venous thrombosis, rejection, ureteral obstruction, and extravasation. Each situation requires a different treatment and demands prompt diagnosis to prevent loss of the graft and patient morbidity or mortality. The clinical problem is further complicated by the possible coincidence of more than one of these pathologies, in particular the development of graft rejection superimposed on ATN in the post-transplant period. The diagnostic studies used in this differential diagnosis may include retrograde ureteral catheterization, renal arteriography, open or closed renal biopsy, isotope studies with 133xenon, 131I-hippuran, 203Hg-chlormerodrin, and more recently /sup 99m/pertechnetate. Only the latter methods with hippuran, chlormerodrin, and pertechnetate avoid direct manipulation of the graft or its artery or ureter with the inherent risks of such procedures. We present results of serial studies of sodium /sup 99m/pertechnetate photoscanning(Tc scan) in 38 renal homografts. In some studies computer determined graphs of renal radioactivity versus time (Tc renogram) were obtained

  17. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of [123I]sodium iodide and subsequently [99mTc]pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both 123I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of [123I]sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid

  18. Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy: Congenital hypothyroid screening

    Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scans were performed on 57 infants referred for evaluation of suspected congenital hypothyroidism. Thyroid anatomy may be characterized by four general types, based on the scintigraphic findings: (1) normal size and location. (2) ectopic location. (3) no detectable thyroid activity. (4) normal location with increased size or uptake. There are diverse etiologies of congential hypothyroidism. Correlation of thyroid scintigraphy with blood T4 and TSH levels allows specific etiological diagnosis in the majority of cases of congential hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  19. Technetium 99m pertechnetate scans in congenital hypothyroidism

    Goiters are rarely palpable in infants with congenital hypothyroidism except in the case of maternal ingestion of iodide. The presence or absence of glandular tissue is, however, important for genetic and prognostic counseling and for acceleration of diagnosis in other affected siblings. The detection of thyroid tissue by /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans in a significant number of our patients heretofore considered athyreotic establishes that physical findings and traditional laboratory data are not adequate to determine whether or not thyroid tissue is present

  20. Aspects of salivary gland scintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate

    An outline of the normal pattern of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion by the major salivary glands is presented, followed by a description of the criteria used in qualitative and semi-quantitative classifications based on a visual interpretation of sequential scintigraphic images. Various aspects of the radioactivity appearing in the region of the oral cavity after intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate were investigated. The feasibility was shown of reducing the scintigraphic examination time from the usually recommended 60 minutes or longer to 30 minutes by administering a salivary stimulant at 10 instead of 20 minutes after pertechnetate injection, and by terminating the scintigraphic study 20 minutes after stimulation. The potentials and limitations of sialography, scintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate, ultrasound, CT and MRI are discussed and a rational approach to their use is recommended. 248 refs.; 37 figs.; 8 tabs

  1. Removal of pertechnetate from simulated nuclear waste streams using supported zerovalent iron

    Darab, John

    2008-01-01

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4-) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy"s Hanford Site: (1) the di...

  2. Oxidation, characterization, and separation of non-pertechnetate species in Hanford wastes

    Under DOE's privatization initiative, Lockheed Martin and British Nuclear Fuels Limited are preparing to stabilize the caustic tank waste generated from plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of Hanford tank waste will separate it into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The scope of the technetium problem is indicated by its inventory in the waste: ∼2000 kg. Technetium would normally exist as the pertechnetate anion, TcO4-, in aqueous solution. However, evidence obtained at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) indicates that the combination of radiolysis, heat, organic complexants, and time may have reduced and complexed a significant fraction of the technetium in the tank waste. These species are in a form that is not amenable to current separation techniques based on pertechnetate removal. Thus, it is crucial that methods be developed to set technetium to pertechnetate so these technologies can meet the required technetium decontamination factor. If this is not possible, then alternative separation processes will need to be developed to remove these non-pertechnetate species from the waste. The simplest, most cost-effective approach to this problem is to convert the non-pertechnetate species to pertechnetate. Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical oxidation methods, as well as hydrothermal treatment, are being applied to Hanford waste samples to ensure that the method works on the unknown technetium species in the waste. The degree of oxidation will be measured by determining the technetium distribution coefficient, TcKd, between the waste and Reillex trademark-HPQ resin, and comparing it to the true pertechnetate Kd value for the waste matrix. Other species in the waste, including all the organic material, could be oxidized by these methods, thus selective oxidation is desirable to minimize the cost, time, and secondary waste generation

  3. Oxidation, characterization, and separation of non-pertechnetate species in Hanford wastes

    Schroeder, N.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under DOE`s privatization initiative, Lockheed Martin and British Nuclear Fuels Limited are preparing to stabilize the caustic tank waste generated from plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of Hanford tank waste will separate it into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The scope of the technetium problem is indicated by its inventory in the waste: {approximately}2000 kg. Technetium would normally exist as the pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, in aqueous solution. However, evidence obtained at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) indicates that the combination of radiolysis, heat, organic complexants, and time may have reduced and complexed a significant fraction of the technetium in the tank waste. These species are in a form that is not amenable to current separation techniques based on pertechnetate removal. Thus, it is crucial that methods be developed to set technetium to pertechnetate so these technologies can meet the required technetium decontamination factor. If this is not possible, then alternative separation processes will need to be developed to remove these non-pertechnetate species from the waste. The simplest, most cost-effective approach to this problem is to convert the non-pertechnetate species to pertechnetate. Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical oxidation methods, as well as hydrothermal treatment, are being applied to Hanford waste samples to ensure that the method works on the unknown technetium species in the waste. The degree of oxidation will be measured by determining the technetium distribution coefficient, {sup Tc}K{sub d}, between the waste and Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin, and comparing it to the true pertechnetate K{sub d} value for the waste matrix. Other species in the waste, including all the organic material, could be oxidized by these methods, thus selective oxidation is desirable to minimize the cost, time, and secondary waste generation.

  4. Pulmonary clearance rate of two chemically different forms of inhaled pertechnetate.

    Walker, P S; Conway, J H; Fleming, J S; Bondesson, E; Borgström, L

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to image the pulmonary deposition site of radiolabeled aerosols delivered by dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been limited by the rapid pulmonary clearance of radiolabel. To determine whether aqueous solubility of the radiolabel is a significant factor, the pulmonary clearance rates of two chemically different forms of 99mTc were calculated. A dry powder formulation of terbutaline sulphate was radiolabeled for inhalation by Turbuhaler (AstraZeneca) using the water-soluble salt sodium pertechnetate and the water-insoluble salt tetraphenylarsonium pertechnetate. A pilot study was conducted during which two control subjects each inhaled the two radiolabeled aerosols on separate days. Intrasubject clearance rates for the two species were very similar. It was therefore concluded that water insolubility of the pertechnetate salt alone was not enough to extend the lung residency time of the radiolabel. PMID:11681652

  5. Functional evaluation of thyroid by dynamic uptake slope index using 99mTc- Pertechnetate

    By using 99mTc-Pertechnetate, we evaluated the thyroid function of 136 persons with uptake slope index (U.S.I.) which was calculated by computerized dynamic flow study. Also, we compared our results of U.S.I. with those established 131I-24 hr uptake % in given materials by comparative analysis of their correlation with the hormonal values of T3, T4, Free T4. The results were as follows: 1. The U.S. I. of euthyroidismal group and hyperthyrodismal group were 4.87 ± 2.26, 27. 67 ± 9.56 respectively. The 1'31I-24 hr uptake % of above groups were 29.22 ± 10.23, and 71.45 ± 15.51. So the differentiation of the two groups could be done more easily by using 99mTc- Pertechnetate U. S. I. than using 131I-24 hr uptake %. 2. The correlation rates between 99mTc- Pertechnetate U. S. I. and other labotory hormon levels, T3, T4, Free T4, are almost parallel with those between 131I-24 hr uptake % and the values of T3, t4, Free T4. Also the direct correlation rate between 99mTc-Pertechnetate U. S. I. and 131I-24 hr uptake % was 0.898. So, the method of thyrodial function evaluation by 99mTc-Pertechnetate U. S. I. is very reliable. 3. The 99mTc-Pertechnetate U.S. I. is very helpful to evaluate the functions of each lobe espectively in case of having obviously different radioactivity between with lobes. 4. 99mTc- Pertechnetat used dynamic thyroid function study and scan can be performed during the short time without preparation and especially helpful in debilitating patient and patients under anti-thyroid drug therapy, who need repetitive follow-up examination.

  6. Synchronous thoracic and abdominal enteric duplication cysts: Accurate detection with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy

    Enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) are uncommon congenital anomalies, which can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract and vary greatly in presentation, size, location and symptoms. Ectopic gastric mucosa is reported to be found in 20-30% of these duplications. 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is a useful modality for preoperative localization of the ectopic functioning gastric mucosa in the EDCs. We report a case where 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy was useful in detecting synchronous thoracic and abdominal duplication cysts with functioning gastric mucosa thus having an impact on the patient management

  7. Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease

    Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed

  8. Subcutaneous injection of 99mTc pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3 and B-60

    The acupuncture points are known to be morphologically related to the nerves and vessels. Yet the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of acupuncture points remains unknown. With subcutaneous injection of 99mTc pertechnetate at the acupuncture points K-3 and B-60 and with intra-acupuncture point injection of 99mTc pertechnetate at K-3 and B-60, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by intravenous injection of 99mTc macroaggregated albumin was demonstrated in the present study. It seems that some acupuncture points do play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins. (author)

  9. Removal of Pertechnetate From Simulated Nuclear Waste Streams Using Supported Zerovalent Iron

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4#sup -#) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site: (1) the direct removal of pertechnetate from highly alkaline solutions, typical of those found in Hanford tank waste, and (2) the removal of dilute pertechnetate from near-neutral solutions, typical of the eluate streams from commercial organic ion-exchange resins that may be used to remediate Hanford tank wastes. It was envisioned that both applications would involve the subsequent encapsulation of the loaded sorbent material into a separate waste form. A high surface area (>200 m2/g) base-stable, nanocrystalline zirconia was used as a support for nanoiron for tests with highly alkaline solutions, while a silica gel support was used for tests with near-neutral solutions. It was shown that after 24 h of contact time, the high surface area zirconia supported nanoiron sorbent removed about 50% (Kd = 370 L/kg) of the pertechnetate from a pH 14 tank waste simulant containing 0.51 mM TcO4#sup -# and large concentrations of Na+, OH-, NO3#sup -#, and CO3#sup 2-# for a phase ratio of 360 L simulant per kg of sorbent. It was also shown that after 18 h of contact time, the silica-supported nanoiron removed >95% pertechnetate from a neutral pH eluate simulant containing 0.076 mM TcO4#sup -# for a phase ratio of 290 L/kg. It was determined that in all cases, nanoiron reduced the Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), or possibly to Tc(V), through a redox reaction. Finally, it was demonstrated that a mixture of 20 mass % of the solid reaction products obtained from contacting zirconia-supported nanoiron with an

  10. Incorporation of pertechnetate and perrhenate into corroded steel surfaces studied by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Batch reaction experiments and solid-phase characterization analyses were completed to examine the uptake of dissolved perrhenate [Re(VII)] or pertechnetate [Tc(VII)] by A-516 steel coupons that corroded in simulated groundwater solutions or dilute water. The goal was to identify the mechanism(s) that control the uptake of 99Tc by corrosion products on carbon steel in the presence of dilute solutions. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to study the oxidation states of Re and Tc incorporated into the corroded steel coupon surfaces. X-ray fluorescence maps showed that the corroded coupons contain localized regions enriched in Re or Tc. The Re L3 near edge XAFS results for the coupons reacted with Re-spiked waters were consistent with nearly all of the sorbed Re being present as perrhenate and not significantly reduced to Re(IV). Linear combination fits of the extended XAFS signals for the perrhenate and ReIVO2 standards indicate that Re sorbed to the steel coupons corroded in simulated J-13 (a relatively dilute Na-HCO3-CO3 groundwater) and even more dilute waters consists of a maximum of 5 and 10% Re(IV), respectively. The fluorescence results also showed that the Re concentrations increased with increasing time of exposure to the X-ray beam, which suggests that the perrhenate ions are only weakly bonded to the matrix of the corrosion product. In contrast to the Re results, the Tc K edge XAFS results for the coupons reacted in 99Tc-spiked waters indicate that most of the sorbed Tc had been reduced to Tc(IV). The shape of the near edge and extended fine structure is similar to the Tc(IV)-hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and not the TcO2 . nH2O standard. Differences were noted in the XAFS results for steel coupons reacted with waters spiked with 0.001 vs. 0.1 mmol/L 99Tc in that much more of the sorbed Tc from 0.001 mmol/L 99Tc experiments was in the form of pertechnetate. Comparison of the XAFS results for coupons reacted with 0.001 mmol/L 99Tc

  11. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate after biliopancreatic bypass with a duodenal switch

    Study with the purpose to examine the effects of duodenal switch (DS), regularly performed in morbidly obese patients, on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in several organs of rats. There was no early or late mortality in either rats groups. The values of percent radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g), showed no significant difference in liver, stomach, small bowel, duodenum, kidney, heart, bladder, bone and brain, when compared the DS rats with sham and controls rats. A postoperative significant increase (p<0.05) in mean %ATI/g levels was observed in spleen, pancreas and muscle in group DS rats, as compared to group S and C rats. In the lung there was an increase and in thyroid a decrease in mean %ATI/g of DS rats, when compared to sham rats (p<0.05). In conclusion, the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch in rats modified the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in thyroid, lung, pancreas, spleen and muscle. (author)

  12. Unilateral parotid concentration of radiogallium: Comparison with bilateral uptake and with pertechnetate imaging

    Unilateral parotid accumulation of radioactivity was noted in 4 elderly (80-95 years) patients after intravenous administration of 67Ga citrate. In 2 of these individuals, it was possible to carry out pertechnetate salivary gland imaging. The involved glands were functional in terms of pertechnetate accumulation, although no drainage was noted after lemon stimulation. A retrospective analysis of 72 radiogallium studies failed to show unilateral parotid uptake in any of them. However, ten cases (14%) had bilateral parotid accumulation of radiogallium. Probable causes of the bilateral parotid concentration of 67Ga were discussed. These were compared with poor oral hygiene and dehydration as possible contributing factors to unilateral parotid radiogallium concentration in the elderly. (orig.)

  13. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.

    2004-03-29

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  14. Subcutaneous injection of sup 99m Tc pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3 and B-60

    Wu Chung-Chieng; Jong Shiang-Bin; Lin Chun-Ching; Chen Min-Fen; Chen Jong-Rern (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China)); Chung Chieng

    1990-06-01

    The acupuncture points are known to be morphologically related to the nerves and vessels. Yet the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of acupuncture points remains unknown. With subcutaneous injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at the acupuncture points K-3 and B-60 and with intra-acupuncture point injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at K-3 and B-60, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin was demonstrated in the present study. It seems that some acupuncture points do play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins. (author).

  15. Detection of ectopic gastric mucosa using 99mTc pertechnetate. Review of the literature

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate scintigraphy in a child with acute gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin suggests ectopic gastric mucosa caused by Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Our objective was to define the patterns of scintigraphic findings likely to be encountered in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa with illustrative cases and to review the literature. Fifty children (age 1 year to 14 years) were evaluated for ectopic gastric mucosa using 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy. Functioning ectopic gastric mucosa was detected in eight patients with Meckel's diverticula and three patients with bowel duplication. Three patients showed atypical findings on scintigraphy which were perforated appendix, calyceal stasis, and regional enteritis. Ectopic functioning gastric mucosa in Meckel's diverticulum is visualized simultaneously with the stomach, whereas in intestinal duplications tracer activity can be visualized in the dynamic sequence or before gastric tracer visualization in an irregular pattern. A variety of scintigraphic patterns can be found in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa undergoing 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy depending on the location and size of the ectopic tissue. Also, acquisition of delayed images is useful when the initial images are equivocal in children. (author)

  16. Simultaneous visualization of the sublingual thyroid and lactating breasts with Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Seong, Young Ok; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    The thyroglossal duct runs from the base of the tongue to the thyroid. Rarely the thyroid completely fails to migrate and results in ectopic thyroid tissue, which can be demonstrated scintigraphically. A 31-year old female patients was referred for thyroid scintigraphy due to protruding mass at the base of the tongue. She was mildly hypothyroid. Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan was performed to rule out ectopic thyroid gland. There showed a focal area of intense tracer uptake in sublingual area, suggesting the sublingual thyroid. In addition there noted diffusely increased tracer uptake in both breasts. The patients delivered a baby 6 months prior to the scan and was on breast-feeding. Free Tc-99m pertechnetate physiologically secrets into the salivary glands, the stomach, the gastrointestinal tract, the genitourinary tract and the mammary glands and sodium-iodide symporter plays a role in the accumulation of free Tc-99m pertechnetate. We report simultaneous visualization of lactating breasts and ectopic thyroid gland in the base of the tongue.

  17. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used

  18. Studies on sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate from the MEK solvent extraction generator

    Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography has revealed organic residues in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate obtained from 99Mo-molybdate by extraction, using the organic solvent methylethylketone (MEK). The organic residues have been identified as either (i) low molecular weight carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone, presumably caused by the effects of γ-radiation on MEK, or (ii) condensation products resulting from the action of strong alkali on MEK during the extraction process. The quantities of organic residues varied from batch to batch of extracted pertechnetate; up to 40 μ mL-1 was found. When these compounds were tested, in rats, by addition to a pyrophosphate bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical, the tissue distribution was not significantly different from that in the control, which contained no added compound. Assay for 99Tc in MEK-derived pertechnetate indicated up to 10 μg mL-1 of 99Tc carrier. An assessment of the biological effect of 99Tc carrier was obtained by (i) red blood cell labelling, where 6 ng mL-1 of 99Tc was sufficient to reduce labelling efficiency; and (ii) pyrophosphate tissue distribution, where a significant effect was obtained in the presence of 10 μ mL-1 of 99Tc carrier

  19. Non-invasive measurement of gastric accommodation by means pertechnetate SPECT: limiting radiation dose and increasing image quality

    Aims: The gastric accommodation response to a meal allows the ingestion of large volumes of food without substantially increasing gastric intraluminal pressure. This reflex is vagally mediated and impaired in conditions such as functional dyspepsia. At present, a barostat study is the gold standard to assess fundic relaxation in response to a meal. However, this method is invasive and possibly inducing artefacts due to positive intraluminal balloon pressure. Recently, a non-invasive scintigraphic test was developed to measure gastric accommodation in humans1. The aim of this study was to refine this method limiting the radiation dose applied and increasing image quality such that repetitive measurement within one subject becomes possible without increasing radiation risk. Materials and Methods: 13 healthy volunteers (9 female, 4 male, age x, range y) were recruited from a student population devoid of gastrointestinal symptoms. All volunteers previously underwent a barostat study. After an overnight fast, volunteers were scanned twice on separate days after injection of 200 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate iv. On one occasion, volunteers were pre-treated with pantoprazol 80 mg for 3 days. 30 minutes after injection SPECT scans were acquired before and up to 2 hours after meal ingestion (standardised test meal Nutridrink, 200ml, 300 kCal; acquisition 72 frames 10 sec 128x128 matrix on a GE Varicam, total acquisition time 6 min). After reconstruction fundus volume was calculated semi-automatically by means of a threshold voxel volume tool. Results: Limiting injection dose from 370-740 MBq to 200 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate results in good quality images, with high target/background ratio up to 180 min after injection. This represents a significant dose reduction. There is no significant difference between fundic volumes or accommodation response with or without proton pump inhibitor pre-treatment. Pre-treatment however results in increased mucosal retention of tracer, resulting in

  20. Biodistribution of technetium-99m pertechnetate after total colectomy in rats

    Meneses Rego, Amalia Cinthia; Alcantara Oliveira Ramalho, Rachel; Tabosa Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates; Araujo-Filho, Irami; Medeiros Azevedo, Italo [Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Ave. Miguel Alcides Araujo 1889, Natal-RN 59078-270 (Brazil); Palestro, Christopher J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Medeiros, Aldo Cunha, E-mail: aldom@uol.com.b [Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Ave. Miguel Alcides Araujo 1889, Natal-RN 59078-270 (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This study evaluated the effects of total colectomy on the biodistribution of technetium-99m pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) on the 28th postoperative day in rats. Samples of several organs were harvested for counting the percent of injected radioactivity/g of tissue (%ATI/g). The %ATI/g in colectomy rats was higher in the stomach and ileum than in sham and controls (p<0.05). Increase in mucosa and muscularis size of ileum was observed. Colectomy was associated with lower biodistribution in bladder and thyroid, T3, and T4, than in controls.

  1. Comparative study of pertechnetate ionic associates extraction with 'onium' cations of arsenic(V), phosphorus(V), tin (IV) and their dissociation in water-insoluble organic solvents

    Solvent extraction of pertechnetate anions from aqueous solutions of some mineral acids like (HCl, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4, salts (NaCl), NaNO3, NaClO4, K2CrO4, Na2CO3) and NaOH, NH4OH by different analytical reagents as tetraphenylarsonium (Ph4As+), tetraphenylphosphonium (Ph4P+), triphenyltin (Ph3Sn+), trioctyltin (Oct3Sn+) into organic solvents (chloroform, nitrobenzene, toluene, benzene) has been carried out at 22 +- 1 grad C. The dissertation contains following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) Aim of the dissertation; (3) Background; (4) Extraction characteristics of pertechnetate with tetraphenylarsonium in the presence of chloride, nitrate and perchlorate anions; (5) Extraction of pertechnetate with tetraphenylphosphonium in the presence of various acids, salts and hydroxides; (6) Extraction of pertechnetate with triphenyltin chloride and trioctyltin chloride; (7) Conductivity of tetraphenylarsonium, tetraphenylphosphonium triphenyltin and trioctyltin chloride and pertechnetate in nonaqueous solutions; (8) Conclusions

  2. Separation of [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate and molybdate using polyethylene glycol coated C18 and C30 resins.

    Andersson, J D; Wilson, J S; Romaniuk, J A; McEwan, A J B; Abrams, D N; McQuarrie, S A; Gagnon, K

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic adsorbents such as C18 and C30 were coated with PEG and subsequently used for the separation of Mo/Tc. The most effective resin for adsorbing PEG was the C18-U resin, which demonstrated a coating capacity of 97.6±2.8mg PEG per g of resin. The ability to adsorb pertechnetate was proportional to the amount of PEG coated on the hydrophobic resin. The [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate recovery during the separation of cyclotron produced (99m)Tc from (100)Mo was 91.8±0.3% (n=2). The resultant product met relevant USP monograph specifications. PMID:26829618

  3. Bone uptake during 99MTc-rTPA imaging studies - who is the trouble maker?

    Full text: Extensive bone uptake was observed in patients administered with 99mTc-labelled rTPA (recombinent tissue plasminogen activator) for detecting deep venous thrombosis. The present study was aimed at identifying the trouble maker. rTPA was prepared in-house by the method described by Butler (JNM, 37 (5), 744-748,1996). The final preparation was stored frozen at -20 deg C for 2-10 weeks. The freshly prepared rTPA samples, when stored for less than 2 weeks seem to give normal biodistribution with unimpressive bone uptake, but when stored for more than 8 weeks showed significant bone uptake. It was hypothesised that free phosphates produced during storage might lead to bone uptake. Since the composition of the preparation contains 114mg of arginine phosphate, we analysed the samples by spectro-photometry. Freshly prepared samples, which were stored for less than 2 weeks or the freeze-dried samples seem to contain intact arginine phosphate and negligible amounts of free phosphates. Samples stored more than 8 weeks and preparations from patients with bone uptake revealed that there was virtually no arginine phosphate present but indicated free phosphates and arginine in the samples. Thus our hypothesis was supported by the available evidence that high levels of phosphates are probably be responsible for elevated bone uptake in these patients. When rTPA is prepared, it is highly recommended to freeze-dry the samples than storing them at -20 deg C, to prevent hydrolysis of the arginine phosphate. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. The role of scintimammography with 99MTC-MIBI in evaluation of the breast lesions

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic value of prone lateral 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in detection of primary breast cancer in patients with breast lesions. Materials and methods: We evaluated 142 patients with breast lesions and/or suspicious mammographic findings. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by pathology. Pattern of abnormal MIBI uptake ( focal or diffuse ) and quantitative measurement of the Ratio of Lesion to normal tissue uptake( T/N Ratio) was recorded. All lesions with abnormal focal uptake with T/N Ratio of more than 1.30 were considered as malignant lesion. Cases with normal homogeneous or abnormal diffusely increased uptake in the breast tissue were interpreted as negative for malignant lesion. Results: Of 142 patients, histopathologic study of 36 cases showed Malignancy which 34 cases of them had Positive MIBI scan. Of 106 cases of negative pathology ,cases had Negative MIBI scintimammography. Analysis of the findings showed high sensitivity, Specificity, accuray and Negative predictive value for 99m-MIBI scintimammography in detection of malignant breast lesion. Conclusion: We concluded that MIBI Scan can be used as complementary or even competitory imaging to the mammography in the evaluation of the breast lesions. (authors)

  5. Synthesis, biodistribution and imaging of 99mtc-7-HYNIC-TAXOL

    Taxol has been used in the treatment of breast, ovary and lung cancers. To evaluate the feasibility of 99mTc-7-HYNIC(hydrazino nicotinamide)-taxol as a tumor imaging agent, it was synthesized, and its biodistribution and gamma camera image were obtained in B16-F10 melanoma bearing C57BL6 mice 7-t-BOC-HYNIC-taxol was synthesized through six steps, and 7-HYNIC-taxol was finally obtained by t-BOC deprotecting from 7-t-BOC-HYNIC-taxol. The product was purified by column chromatography. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol complex from 7-HYNIC-taxol was prepared by labeling with 99mTc in the presence of SnCl2·2H20 and tricine. The biochemical behaviors of the complex such as in vitro stability and lipophilicity, in vitro transchelation were investigated. The biodistribution and in vivo image of 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol were obtained in B16-F10 melanoma bearing C57BL6 mice. After 1, 6 and 24 hr post-injection, the weight and radioactivity of each organ were measured and gamma camera image was obtained. The total synthetic yield of 7-HYNIC-taxol was 42.6%. Radiolabeling yield of 99mTc-HYNIC-taxol was 99.9%. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol was stable at 37? for 24 hrs. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol was slightly more soluble in water than in organic solvent. The binding ability of 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol to serum proteins was 39.9%. In vivo transchelation test, the 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol retained over 86% of radiochemical purity after incubation with DTPA or cysteine. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol was intravenously administered to C57BL6 mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma at footpad. Tumor/blood ratios were 1.17, 26.0, and 2.87, and tumor/muscle ratios were 12.2, 168, and 15.0 at 1 h. 6 h and 24 h post injection, respectively. The gamma camera image was obtained at 6 h post injection showed selectively localized in tumor. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol showed high stability and was selectively localized in B16-F10 melanoma. These results suggest that 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol can be used as tumor imaging agent

  6. Single vial preparation of 99mtc ciprofloxacin for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Full text: Aim: To ascertain the usefulness of single vial formulation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Diagnobact) in detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Introductions: Tuberculosis is one of the major health concerns not only in developing countries but also in the developed nations. Imaging with radiolabelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, being more specific for infection, has the advantage over other nuclear medicine techniques. We are using Diagnobact to detect sites of infection. Methods: 12 patients (age-23 ±11 years, M:F-8:4) of tuberculosis, confirmed by culture/PCR underwent Diagnobact scan. Scanning was done at 1 hour, 4 hour and 24 hours after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of Diagnobact. Rising lesion to background ratio was taken as the criteria for labeling a Diagnobact scan to be positive.Results: Of the 12 patients, two had tibial tuberculous osteomyelitis (TBOM), two vertebral TBOM, one elbow TBOM, four hip joint TBOM, two shaft of femur TBOM and one patient had soft tissue tuberculosis of gluteal region. Diagnobact scan was positive in 10 patients while two patients with vertebral TBOM were negative. Conclusion: Diagnobact, like Infecton, is also useful for the detection of extra pulmonary tuberculosis but for vertebral TBOM. However, more patients need to be studied to reach at statistically significant conclusion. (author)

  7. The integrity of the disulfide bond in a cyclic somatostatin analog during 99mtc complexation reactions

    Recent development of a variety of thiol-free chelating agents has facilitated the design of 99mTc-labeled somatostatin analogs suitable for receptor imaging of somatostatin-positive tumors. However, it remains ambiguous whether the disulfide bonds in cyclic peptides are stable during 99mTc complexation reactions, and contradictory results have been reported regarding the integrity of disulfide bonds in cyclic somatostatin analogs. To estimate the stability of the disulfide bond in a synthetic somatostatin analog at low peptide concentrations, [125I]I-RC-160, in which radioiodine was incorporated into the 3-Tyr residue, was synthesized and the integrity of the disulfide bond of the peptide was investigated in the presence of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, dithionite, and stannous ions. The disulfide bond in [125I]I-RC-160 remained stable in the presence of ascorbic acid in boiling water. The disulfide bond was also stable when treated with stannous ions at concentrations sufficient to reduce 99mTc for complexation with a thiol-free chelating agent, bis(hydroxamamide) analog when the 99mTc complexation reaction was performed at room temperature. However, the disulfide bond of [125I]I-RC-160 was slightly cleaved in the presence of a small amount of stannous ions when the reaction was performed in boiling water. Treatment of [125I]I-RC-160 with dithionite in boiling water markedly reduced the disulfide bond of the parental peptide. These findings indicated that synthetic somatostatin analogs may be labeled with 99mTc with stannous ions as the reducing agent without impairing their structure after conjugation of thiol-free chelating agents that provide 99mTc chelates under mild reaction conditions

  8. Technetium-99m-sestamibi/pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy vs ultrasonography for preoperative localization in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Berczi, C.; Lukacs, G.; Balazs, G. [Department of Surgery, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Mezosi, E.; Bajnok, L. [1. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Galuska, L.; Varga, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen (Hungary)

    2002-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of technetium-99m-sestamibi and technetium-99m-pertechnetate subtraction scanning and US for imaging parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism. Sixty-three patients were surgically treated for primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Preoperative scintigraphy and US were performed in all cases. Bilateral neck exploration was carried out on each patient. Results of radionuclide studies and US were compared with surgical and histological findings. In 57 patients with primary HPT the radionuclide scanning gave true-positive results. Four false-negative and two false-positive scintigrams were obtained. The sensitivity and the positive predictive value (PPV) of scintigraphy were 93 and 97%, respectively. Forty-one cases were correctly localized by the US. Seventeen US results were false negative and five were false positive. The sensitivity and the PPV for US were 71 and 89%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the sensitivity of the scintigraphy compared with the US (p=0.001). Sensitivities of radionuclide scans and US were higher for adenomas (100 and 83%) than for hyperplastic glands (75 and 40%). The sensitivity of technetium-99m-sestamibi and technetium-99m-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy was significantly higher compared with US. This sensitive method could help surgeons in performing a rapid and directed parathyroidectomy. (orig.)

  9. Reduction And Sequestration Of Pertechnetate To Technetium Dioxide And Protection From Reoxidation

    Duncan, J. B. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland , WA (United States); Johnson, J. M. [Center for Laboratory Sciences, Pasco, WA (United States); Moore, R. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hagerty, K. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Richland , WA (United States); Rhodes, R. N. [Center for Laboratory Sciences, Pasco, WA (United States); Huber, H. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland , WA (United States); Moore, W. P. [Center for Laboratory Sciences, Pasco, WA (United States)

    2012-11-07

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(lI)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(ll)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II) apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(lI)apatite exhibited a direct correlation with the pH of the technetium-spiked simulant media.

  10. Reduction And Sequestration Of Pertechnetate To Technetium Dioxide And Protection From Reoxidation

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(lI)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO4). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(ll)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II) apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(lI)apatite exhibited a direct correlation with the pH of the technetium-spiked simulant media

  11. Thyroid uptake of Tc-99m pertechnetate and its relationship with TSH levels in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients

    Full text: Introduction: In an earlier small study, we found that the rate of uptake of Tc-99m pertechnetate by the thyroid could be used to differentiate between euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients. The objective of this study was to expand on this earlier study to a larger patient group and to include two other thyroid uptake parameters that might prove useful in thyroid investigations, i.e., thyroid/salivary gland uptake and the thyroid Patlak constant. Materials and methods: Only those patients whose thyroid function tests showed them to have appeared to have intact hypothalamic and pituitary function were selected for the study. Software was written in VPL to create time/activity curves for thyroid and salivary glands for a three minute dynamic acquisition, immediately post injection of Tc-99m. The software then calculated the thyroid parameters that were plotted using MS Excel. Results: Scattergrams of thyroid uptake, thyroid/salivary gland uptake and Patlak constant for 110 patients were plotted against serum TSH levels. Each scattergram showed a set-point similar to the set-point seen in the well-known free T4 vs TSH scattergram. In other words, when thyroid uptake, thyroid/salivary gland uptake or Patlak constant rose above a certain level, the value of TSH fell from a normal value to near zero, indicating hyperthyroidism. Conclusions: Either of these parameters promise to be simple cost effective methods to differentiate between euthyroid and hyperthyroid conditions in patients with intact hypothalamic and pituitary function. The sensitivity and specificity of the T and P methods seems compatible with TSH measurement. An advantage of the methods is their simplicity; the only protocol change is to add a dynamic study to the existing static imaging protocol. Measurement of a standard is not necessary and there is no extra radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  12. Influence of urinary iodine excretion on thyroid technetium-99m pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression: what happens when iodine supply increases?

    This study examines how thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression changes as a function of increasing iodine supply. This is of special interest in countries at the threshold of sufficient iodine supply, where thyroid scintigraphy plays a key role in thyroid examination, especially for the diagnosis of Plummer's disease. From 1995 to 1997, a total of 1069 patients with euthyroid goitre, Plummer's disease or Graves' disease were included in the study. All patients underwent thyroid examination including sonography, scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate, and determination of free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH and urinary iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in the range from 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine showed an inverse correlation with thyroid pertechnetate uptake, but no correlation with TSH was observed. There was no correlation between thyroid pertechnetate uptake and iodine excretion when TSH stimulation was eliminated, with two exceptions: thyroid pertechnetate uptake was significantly increased for iodine excretion values below 50 and 100 μg iodine/g creatinine in patients with Graves' and Plummer's disease, respectively. When iodine excretion exceeded 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, pertechnetate uptake was reduced to a basal level independent of the TSH. In conclusion, the influence of TSH on the thyroid pertechnetate uptake seems to be secondary compared with the influence of the iodine supply. It can be concluded further that the reference range of thyroid pertechnetate uptake under TSH suppression will not change significantly when the iodine supply increases from conditions of mild iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency. Thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression cannot be reliably interpreted beyond an iodine excretion of 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. (orig.)

  13. Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites

    Heineman, William R.

    2004-12-01

    New film materials for pertechnetate: A new film material comprised of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) cross-linked with 1,10-diiododecane has been developed for use in the spectroelectrochemical sensor. Films were prepared in a one-pot synthesis by stirring poly(4-vinylpyridine), cross-linker and methyl iodide in 1-butanol for 1 h, after which the solution was spin-coating onto ITO-glass. Film thickness was varied either by changing the spin rate or by dilution of the original precursor solution. The thinnest film prepared was 30 nm; the thickest 930 nm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to study the dynamics of film changes on soaking in aqueous salt solution and on preconcentrating model analyte ferrocyanide. The results document that, on hydration, films expanded by almost 90% in 0.1 M KNO3, then contracted slightly when ferrocyanide solution was introduced probably due to electrostatic cross-linking. IR spectroscopy was used to determine the extent of quaternization of the film. For a polymer solution stirred for 1 h, films were about 20% quaternized. This can be increased to {approx}30% by adding more solvent to the precursor solution and stirring for an additional hour. Solubility of the partially cross-linked material was a factor that limited the quaternization process. Use of a more appropriate solvent may enable greater quaternization. A more quaternized film should preconcentrate more pertechnetate by virtue of having a higher density of charged binding sites. Film ruggedness is critical. To investigate this, films on ITO-glass were soaked in methanol and butanol overnight, in 0.1M KNO3, and in 0.1M KNO3 adjusted to pH 12 and pH 2 for 30 days. Each film was then tested as a spectroelectrochemical sensor for model analyte ferrocyanide. The results showed only the pH 2 conditioned sensor behaved abnormally. The film soaked in pH 2 electrolyte delaminated but did not dissolve. Delamination was most likely due to the acid digestion of the ITO layer of

  14. Technetium-99m pertechnetate - a tracer for radiolabelling antibody for inflammation detection

    The polyclonal antibody, Human Immunoglobulin G (HlgG) was reduced by using 2-mercaptoethanol with molar ratio of 1000:1 (i.e. mercaptoethanol:antibody). The reduction of the antibody, was carried out for 30 minutes at room temperature. The reduced antibody was purified by using Sephadex G-25 fine column. The antibody kit for the detection of inflammation was prepared aseptically in Class 1 Laminar Flow cabinet. The kit passed the sterility test. Upon reconstitution of the antibody kit with sodium pertechnetate-99m (99mTc) solution, the labelling efficiency obtained was more than 95%. This preparation was stable up to 24-hour stored at room temperature. Gamma camera scans showed the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled antibody (99mTc-HIgG) at the turpentine-induced inflammation of female Sprague-Dawley rats. This indicated the possibility of using 99mTc-HIgG for inflammation detection. (author)

  15. Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.

    2009-09-28

    During the period of this grant several significant milestones have been passed pursuant to designing a fluorescence sensor for pertechnetate (TcO4-). They are as follows: Fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry and less than picomolar limit of detection for a model non-radioactive analyte have been demonstrated. The spectroelectrochemical sensor and associated instrumentation for fluorescence mode of operation have been made, are portable, and easily transported to and used at DOE sites. The sensor has sufficient selectivity for its application to complex samples, even including tank waste, that exist at DOE sites such as the Hanford Site. Pertechnetate has been preconcentrated in sensor films and electrochemically reduced. This is the first critical step in operation of a spectroelectrochemical sensor for TcO4-. New Tc complexes have been made that fluoresce and these complexes have been preconcentrated and electrochemically modulated in a sensor film leading to fluorescence modulation, which is the second critical step in operation of the spectroelectrochemical sensor for TcO4-. We have determined that fluorescence offers a means of dramatically improving the limit of detection. Based on measurements on our new fluorescent complexes of Tc, we estimate the limit of detection for the sensor to be 5 x 10-12M. In related work, we have shown that the sensitivity of the spectroelectrochemical sensor for some metal cations can be improved by forming a metal complex with better optical and electrochemical properties. In addition, some heavy metals can be detected with the spectroelectrochemical sensor by depositing them directly as metals on the sensor surface.

  16. Leakage assessment in adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding: radiography versus 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy

    The least invasive of all surgical weight-lowering procedures is the adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding (ALGB) technique. A rare complication (0.9%-1.8% of patients) but one that may require surgical revision is leakage of the gastric banding device. This paper reports on the usefulness of technetium-99m scintigraphy for the assessment of gastric band leaks as compared with radiography. Between March 1997 and October 2001, 23 obese patients (20 women and 3 men; mean age 35 years; range 23-60 years; mean body mass index before gastric banding procedure, 39.2 kg/m2; range 29.3-52.1 kg/m2) were referred for exclusion of gastric banding leakage by means of radiography and 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. Both procedures were performed on the same day in all patients. Two patients underwent both procedures, respectively two and three times. A total of 27 radiographic and scintigraphic examinations were performed. Radiographs were judged positive for leakage when escape of contrast agent through a defect in the gastric banding device was visualised or when indirect criteria, e.g. smooth passage of barium suspension through the stoma after injection of contrast agent, were present. Scintigraphic images were judged positive when tracer disappearance out of the banding device and uptake in the thyroid gland as well as enhancement of the gastric mucosa were observed 30 min and/or 3 h post injection. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for radiography and 99mTc scintigraphy were 81.8% vs 81.8%, 75% vs 100% and 77.7% vs 92.6%. Leakage from the reservoir or the connecting tube is a late complication of ALGB. The presented data suggest that 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is more efficient than radiography in determining the presence of such leaks. (orig.)

  17. Leakage assessment in adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding: radiography versus {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy

    Van Den Bossche, B.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R.A.; Van de Wiele, C. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, G. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Pattyn, P. [Department of Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2002-09-01

    The least invasive of all surgical weight-lowering procedures is the adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding (ALGB) technique. A rare complication (0.9%-1.8% of patients) but one that may require surgical revision is leakage of the gastric banding device. This paper reports on the usefulness of technetium-99m scintigraphy for the assessment of gastric band leaks as compared with radiography. Between March 1997 and October 2001, 23 obese patients (20 women and 3 men; mean age 35 years; range 23-60 years; mean body mass index before gastric banding procedure, 39.2 kg/m{sup 2}; range 29.3-52.1 kg/m{sup 2}) were referred for exclusion of gastric banding leakage by means of radiography and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. Both procedures were performed on the same day in all patients. Two patients underwent both procedures, respectively two and three times. A total of 27 radiographic and scintigraphic examinations were performed. Radiographs were judged positive for leakage when escape of contrast agent through a defect in the gastric banding device was visualised or when indirect criteria, e.g. smooth passage of barium suspension through the stoma after injection of contrast agent, were present. Scintigraphic images were judged positive when tracer disappearance out of the banding device and uptake in the thyroid gland as well as enhancement of the gastric mucosa were observed 30 min and/or 3 h post injection. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for radiography and {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy were 81.8% vs 81.8%, 75% vs 100% and 77.7% vs 92.6%. Leakage from the reservoir or the connecting tube is a late complication of ALGB. The presented data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is more efficient than radiography in determining the presence of such leaks. (orig.)

  18. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in hepatoma cells due to tissue-specific human sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Chen Libo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Altman, Annette [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mier, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lu Hankui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Zhu Ruisen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Haberkorn, Uwe [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe_haberkorn@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2006-05-15

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene could be used as an ideal reporter gene as well as a promising therapeutic gene. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate has proven to be more advantageous than {sup 131}I-iodide with respect to image quality, procedure and radiation dose in examination of thyroid uptake and scintigraphy. Herein, we investigated the feasibility of monitoring human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in hepatoma cells (MH3924A) following tissue-specific expression. Methods: MH3924A cells were stably transfected with the recombinant retroviral vector, in which hNIS cDNA was driven by murine albumin enhancer/promoter (mAlb) and coupled to hygromycin resistance gene using an internal ribosomal entry site. Functional NIS expression in hepatoma cells was confirmed by an {sup 125}I{sup -} uptake assay. The dynamic uptake and efflux of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was determined both in vitro and in vivo. Results: The {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was up to 254-fold higher in stably transfected MH3924A cells than in wild-type cells. However, the in vitro efflux of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate out of recombinant cells was rapid with a half-life of less than 2 min. Further, the in vivo studies yielded clear images and quantitative data of mAlbhNIS-infected tumor xenografts using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {gamma} camera. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates enhanced {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo following tissue-specific gene transfer using a recombinant retrovirus with the albumin enhancer/promoter and the hNIS gene. It is feasible to monitor hNIS gene expression noninvasively and quantitatively using conventional {gamma} camera and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate.

  19. Protocol for Identifying the Presence of and Understanding the Nature of Soluble, Non-pertechnetate Technetium in Hanford Tank Supernatants

    Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-02-27

    The objective of this report is to propose a method to evaluate the presence and extent of soluble, non-pertechnetate Tc in Hanford tank supernatants as well as methods that might be used to gain insight as to the nature of the specie(s) that make up this fraction. This study will then provide a recommendation as to the preferred approach for identifying and quantifying the presence of Hanford tank supernatant-soluble, non-pertechnetate, technetium. The recommendation will also describe an approach to address the issue of whether inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, which is useful as a monitoring tool for Tc, may be confounded by the presence of other mass 99 species.

  20. A case of thymoma misdiagnosed ad parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m pertechnetate/Tl-201 subtraction scintigraphy

    Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Wang, Young Pil; Jung, Ji Han; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Byung Kee [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    A large superior mediastinal mass was found incidentally by ultrasonography in a 60-year-old man. There was an abnormal accumulation of 71-201 in the lower pole of left thyroid gland, extending into left superior mediastinum on Tc-99m pertechnetate/Tl-201 subtraction scan. Laboratory findings relating thyroid and parathyroid were all within normal range. We considered the mass as a non-functioning parathyroid adenoma tentatively. However, subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign mixed thymoma. We report a case of patient with thymoma showing unusual Tc-99m pertechnetate/Tl-201 subtraction imaging and laboratory findings, and suggest to consider the possibility of other mediastinal tumors rather than parathyroid adenoma.

  1. An analysis of molybdenum-99 expiry times in sodium pertechnetate, derived from a dry-bed generator

    Fission-based 99Mo/99mTc generators have undergone evolutionary changes since they were first manufactured at the Lucas Heights Laboratories in the late 1960s for the Australian nuclear medicine community. This study is aimed at understanding the chemistries, which influence the behaviour of the heterogeneous molybdenum-alumina system in a chromatographic generator. The quality of sodium pertechnetate, derived from a dry-bed generator is enhanced when compared with the traditional wet-bed technologies. Data is presented which compare the extent of 99Mo desorption from both wet and dry-bed chromatographic generators. The expiration times for sodium pertechnetate, based on 99Mo breakthrough, are significantly greater for the recently developed dry-bed generators

  2. An evaluation of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate scanning for the detection of coeliac disease and Crohn's disease

    To investigate the use of abdominal scintiscanning in the detection of small bowel pathology, the accumulation of pertechnetate sup(99m)Tc, following intravenous injection, has been studied in 21 patients with coeliac disease, 13 patients with Crohn's disease and in 83 control subjects without known small bowel disease. Although a trend for a greater accumulation of sup(99m)Tc was noted in patients with coeliac disease and Crohn's disease compared with controls (P < 0.025) there was a large overlap in individual studies. Under the conditions of this study the accumulation of sup(99m)Tc by the small bowel did not provide a reliable diagnostic test for coeliac disease or Crohn's disease of the small intestine. The accumulation of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate by normal small bowel suggests that scintiscanning with this radiopharmaceutical does not provide a consistently reliable method for the detection of small bowel pathology. (orig.)

  3. Effect of vincristine on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate and 99 m Tc-phytate radiopharmaceuticals in mice balb/c

    Vincristine is a drug used in chemotherapy for cancer treatment. The radiopharmaceuticals biodistribution or pharmacokinetics can be modify by drugs effect, diseases, surgery and radiotherapy. The absence of knowledge of these factors may result in an unexpected behavior of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this work was studied the effect of vincristine on biodistribution of pertechnetate used for thyroid and brain scintigraphy and 99 mTc-phytate used for hepatic scintigraphy. 5 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Influence of surface charge of an Fe-oxide and an organic matter dominated soil on iodide and pertechnetate sorption

    Iodine-129 and technecium-99 are commonly the largest contributors to the calculated health risk associated with long-term nuclear-waste burial. The high proportion of risk from these radionuclides is due to their large inventories in many types of waste, long half-lives, and the perception that they are highly mobile in sediments. In most aquifer systems, these radionuclides exist as anions, iodide (I-) and pertechnetate (TcO4-), and sorb poorly to soils that possess a net negative charge. A series of iodide and pertechnetate sorption experiments were conducted over a pH range of 3 to 9. The two soils used in this study possessed a pH-dependent charge; one soil was collected from a wetland and derived most of its charge from organic matter, whereas the second soil was collected from an upland site and derived most of its charge from Fe/Al-oxide coatings. Although both soils had nearly identical particle size distributions, pH values, and mineral compositions, they had dissimilar surface charge and I- and TcO4- sorption behavior. The pH where the wetland soil did not have any net charge (more specifically, the Point-of-Zero-Salt Effect) was 4.4. The pH where the upland soil did not have any net charge was 4.1. Under ambient conditions, the wetland soil had a pH of 4.2 and a slight positive net charge of +0.1 meq/100g. The upland soil had a natural pH of 5.0 and a net charge of -0.25 meq/100g. Both iodide and pertechnetate sorbed appreciably more to the wetland soil than to the upland soil, likely the result of more anion sorption sites derived from the organic matter in the wetland soil. In both soils, iodide sorption was greater and exhibited a greater pH-dependency than pertechnetate sorption. Pertechnetate exhibited anion exclusion (negative Kd values) or no sorption at pH values above the Point-of-Zero-Salt Effect. Iodide sorption decreased markedly as the pH increased to the zero-point-of-charge, and remained largely unchanged at pH values above the zero-point-of-charge

  5. Sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) biodistribution in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    The biological effects of cigarette smoke are not fully known. To improve our understanding of the action of various chemical agents, we investigated the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Fifteen BALB/c male mice were exposed to the smoke of nine whole commercial cigarettes per day, 3 times/day, for up to 10 days to whole body exposure in a chamber. A control group of 5 BALB/c male mice was sham-smoked. One day later, the exposed and control groups of mice received (7.4 MBq/0.3 ml) of Na99mTcO4 before being killed at 30 min. Bones, brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lungs, muscle, pancreas, spleen, stomach, testis and thyroid were weighed and these organs and blood radioactivity recorded with a gamma counter. The percentage per gram of tissue of injected dose (%ID/g) was determined for each organ. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the %ID/g in red blood cells, bone, kidney, lung, spleen, stomach, testis and thyroid of the exposed mice. The toxic effects of cigarette smoke reduced the Na99mTcO4 biodistribution

  6. Usefulness of per-rectal portal scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate for galactosemia in infants

    Shiomi, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Ikeoka, Naoko; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Okano, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Joji; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    1998-12-01

    Galactosemia discovered by newborn screening is rarely caused by enzyme deficiency. It has recently been reported that among patients without enzyme deficiency portosystemic shunting may be a cause of galactosemia in some patients. We did per-rectal portal scintigraphy in patients with such galactosemia detected during screening of newborns to examine the usefulness of this method for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts via the inferior mesenteric vein. The subjects were eight neonates with galactosemia without enzyme deficiency detected during screening. A solution containing technetium-99m pertechnetate was instilled into the rectum, and serial scintigrams were taken while radioactivity curves for the liver and heart were recorded sequentially. The per-rectal portal shunt index was determined by calculating the ratio for counts of the liver to counts for the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. A portosystemic shunt was detected in both of the patients with a shunt index of 30% or more, but not in the six patients with a shunt index less than 30%. The blood galactose levels of these six patients later entered the reference range. This method is noninvasive and there is little exposure to the radionuclide. It seemed to be useful for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunt in newborns with galactosemia without enzyme deficiency. (author)

  7. Electrochemistry of technetium radiopharmaceuticals coulometric reduction of pertechnetate in the presence of HEDP

    Recently, the authors have developed an anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the separation of the component complexes in Tc-diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals for skeletal imaging. This methodology has enabled them to explore the complicated chemistry involved in the formulation of skeletal imaging agents, i.e. reduction of Tc(VII) to some lower oxidation state in the presence of excess diphosphonate ligand. Separation of /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH/sub 4/)-HEDP reaction mixtures prepared by NaBH/sub 4/ reduction of pertechnetate has shown the presence of at least seven Tc-containing species in carrier-added preparations and three components in no-carrier added preparations. As a part of their systematic study of variables that affect the generation of Tc-diphosphonate complexes, the authors have investigated NaBH/sub 4/, Sn/sup 2+/ and inert electrodes as reductants. Preliminary results on the production of Tc-HEDP complexes by electrochemical techniques are presented in this paper

  8. Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans

    Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

  9. Interaction between green tea extract and 99mTc-pertechnetate on in vivo distribution

    People drink various types of tea without knowing the side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions. In current study, it is aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract in different extraction solvents on the radiolabeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in male Wistar Albino rats. The extraction of green tea was performed in different solvents. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with green tea extract in different extraction solvents or saline (0.9 % NaCl) as a control group for 7 days. The radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with SnCl2 and 99mTc. According to experimental results, radiolabeling blood components with 99mTc were not modified in the usage of the different extraction solvents for green tea extraction, but a significant alteration (P 99mTcO4 was observed after treatment with green tea extract in distilled water. Although there is no considerable effect on radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially with green tea extract in distilled water. The identified change monitored in this study may cause to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or avoid the repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine. (author)

  10. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na). The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received 99mTcO4Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na (P99mTcO4Na and on the morphology of organs at ultrastructural level. (author)

  11. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechnetate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    99Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO4-). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (Kd) varying from 9.5 x 105 to 3.2 x 103 mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with Kd remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 103 - 1.8 x 103 mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO4- can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing

  12. Studies on the porphine labeled with 99mTc-pertechnetate

    The aim of this research is to use acetylacetonate as a 99mTc chelating agent label with porphyrin and evaluate its radiochemical and biological characteristics. Stannous chloride was used as a reductant to determine the chemical and biological characterization of 99mTc-complexes from labeling porphine (4',4'',4'''-(2lH,23H-Porphine-5,10,15,20-terayl)tetrakis-(benzoic acid), TPPB) with 99mTc-pertechnetate. Instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), paper electrophoresis, and UV/Vis spectrophotometry were used to evaluate chemical characterization. Finally, biodistribution and liver function tests were applied to evaluate biological characteristics. The results of this study show that the labeling efficiency of 99mTc(acac)-TPPB was nearly 100% when using acetylacetone (acac) as a conjugator. Three major 99mTc(acac)-TPPB complexes were separated by SEC, and all of them were hydrophilic. The UV-Vis spectra of 99mTc(acac)-TPPB complexes closely resembled those of the TPPB, but the wave lengths of their peaks changed 430, 521, 556, 591 and 647 nm after complexation. The biodistribution study selected the liver as the target organ. The 99mTc(acac)-TPPB complex may cause short-term liver injury. However, this injury can be repaired, and the reagent is quickly metabolized. Hence, the toxicity of the 99mTc(acac)-TPPB complex is within an acceptable range, and making it a promising liver imaging agent. (author)

  13. Radioiodine therapy for Plummer's disease based on the thyroid uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    The aim of this retrospective study was the evaluation of a TcTUs (global technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression)-based approach in 370 patients with thyroid autonomy (Plummer's disease) treated by radioiodine therapy (RIT) under standardised conditions. The analysis included 370 patients (309 females, 61 males; mean age 64±11.6 years) treated for thyroid autonomy [unifocal (UFA), 36.8%; multifocal (MFA), 55.7%; disseminated (DISA), 7.6%]. During RIT all patients were under thyroid suppression (TSH0.5 μU/l and/or TcTUs4 μU/ml). A dose of 350-450 Gy to the autonomous tissue resulted in a success rate of 97% in the UFA group and 81% in the MFA/DISA group. Decrease in total thyroid volume and TcTUs did not differ significantly between successfully treated patients and patients with persistent autonomy. Multivariate analysis of all 370 patients identified four independent factors that negatively influenced the therapeutic success: high pretherapeutic thyroid volume (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.017), high pretherapeutic TcTUs values (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.378), multifocal/disseminated autonomy (P=0.0056; odds ratio: 3.245) and low target dose (P=0.017; odds ratio: 0.997). It is concluded that the high success rate in the treatment of UFA indicates the concept of TcTUs-based RIT to be valid, but that in the therapy of MFA/DISA the target se has to be corrected if the total thyroid volume exceeds a critical threshold. (orig.)

  14. Effect of tripanossomicide benznidazole (Rochagan) on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO4) in Wistar rats

    Barbosa, Vanessa Santos de Arruda; Holanda, Cecilia Maria de Carvalho Xavier; Silva, Roseane Pereira da; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: vambio@oi.com.br; Oliveira, Daniel Pereira de; Silva Junior, Mauricio Ferreira da; Oliveira, Elias Herculano de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2008-12-15

    Benznidazole, a drug with specific anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity, is used in the treatment of Chagas' disease. The radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) is used to obtain diagnostic images of the stomach, thyroid, parathyroids, salivary glands, brain and in the study of esophageal reflux and blood flow. This study aimed at evaluating in vivo the influence of benznidazole treatment on the sodium pertechnetate biodistribution in Wistar rats. The percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) of various organs (brain, heart, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, muscle and blood) was determined. Comparing the treated rats with the controls, we observed that sodium pertechnetate biodistribution did not change when administered to rats treated for thirty days with benznidazole. (author)

  15. 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake in parotid acinar cells by the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transport system.

    Helman, J; Turner, R J; Fox, P C; Baum, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    99mTc-Pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) has widespread clinical use in the diagnosis and evaluation of dysfunctions in many different tissues. However, despite the broad clinical application of this radionuclide, very little is known about the mechanism by which 99mTcO4- enters a cell. We report evidence here that 99mTcO4- shares the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transport system localized to the basolateral membrane of rat parotid acinar cells. 99mTcO4- uptake by these cells was quite rapid (t1/2 approximately 30 s)...

  16. Reduction And Stabilization (Immobilization) Of Pertechnetate To An Immobile Reduced Technetium Species Using Tin(II) Apatite

    Duncan, J. B.

    2012-11-02

    Synthetic tin(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 to a non-mobile oxidation state and sequesters the technetium, preventing re-oxidization to mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions. Previous work indicated technetium reacted Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index of 12.8 in Cast Stone. An effect by pH is observed on the distribution coefficient, the highest distribution coefficient being l70,900 observed at pH levels of 2.5 to 10.2. The tin apatite was resistant to releasing technetium under test conditions.

  17. Reduction And Stabilization (Immobilization) Of Pertechnetate To An Immobile Reduced Technetium Species Using Tin(II) Apatite

    Synthetic tin(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 to a non-mobile oxidation state and sequesters the technetium, preventing re-oxidization to mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions. Previous work indicated technetium reacted Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index of 12.8 in Cast Stone. An effect by pH is observed on the distribution coefficient, the highest distribution coefficient being l70,900 observed at pH levels of 2.5 to 10.2. The tin apatite was resistant to releasing technetium under test conditions

  18. Bowel activity caused by free Tc-99m pertechnetate mimicking urine leaks during Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy

    A 43-year-old woman with diabetic nephropathy underwent a Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy for the evaluation of renal function. Posterior images at 60 minutes demonstrated a migration of radiotracer activity beyond the lower pole of the left kidney, which might be incorrectly interpreted as urine leaks. However, the increased activities were moving along the bowel lumens over time. Another ring-like radioactivity was also seen in the suprasplenic region, and increased with time. These radioactivities were in the gastric fundus and gastrointestinal tract and caused by free Tc-99m pertechnetate

  19. Efficacy of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and {sup 131}I radioisotope therapy in sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-expressing neuroendocrine tumors in vivo

    Schipper, Meike L. [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS) and Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Riese, Christoph G.U.; Seitz, Stephan; Weber, Alexander; Behe, Martin; Schurrat, Tino; Behr, Thomas M. [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Schramm, Nils [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Department of Electronics, Juelich (Germany); Keil, Boris; Alfke, Heiko [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Radiology, Marburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    There is growing interest in the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene both as a molecular imaging reporter gene and as a therapeutic gene. Here, we show the feasibility of radioisotope therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. As a separate application of NIS gene transfer, we image NIS-expressing tumors with pinhole SPECT in living subjects. Biodistribution studies and in vivo therapy experiments were performed in nude mice carrying stably NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumor xenografts following i.v. injection of {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate. To show the usefulness of NIS as an imaging reporter gene, {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate uptake was imaged in vivo using a clinical gamma camera in combination with a custom-made single pinhole collimator, followed by SPECT/small animal MRI data coregistration. NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors strongly accumulated {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, as did thyroid, stomach, and salivary gland. The volume of NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors decreased significantly after therapeutic administration of {sup 131}I or {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, whereas control tumors continued to grow. NIS-mediated uptake of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate could be imaged in vivo at high resolution with a clinical gamma camera equipped with a custom-made single pinhole collimator. High-resolution functional and morphologic information could be combined in a single three-dimensional data set by coregistration of SPECT and small animal MRI data. Lastly, we demonstrated a therapeutic effect of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate on NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors in cell culture and, for the first time, in vivo, thought to be due to emitted Auger and conversion electrons. NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors efficiently concentrate radioisotopes, allowing for in vivo high-resolution small animal SPECT imaging as well as rendering possible successful radioisotope therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. (orig.)

  20. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ; MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

    2012-06-29

    This effort falls under the technetium management initiative and will provide data for those who will make decisions regarding the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort is to challenge Purolite{reg_sign} A530E against a double-shell tank simulant from tank 241-AN-105 spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is commercially available and is currently being used at the 200 West Pump and Treat Groundwater Treatment Plant to remove pertechnetate. It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix. Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin. Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine).

  1. Diagnosis, characterisation and evaluation of treatment response of frostbite using pertechnetate scintigraphy: a prospective study

    In the present study, we performed early blood pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate in 20 patients (10-180 days after frostbite injury; 71 clinical lesions) referred for a topical treatment protocol for mild to moderately severe frostbite, and in 22 asymptomatic controls. The aims of the study were to define the ''normal'' microcirculation of the hands and feet, to characterise the appearances of frostbite lesions on scintigraphy and correlate these with the clinical presentation, and to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy for assessing the treatment response. Six patients were ''fresh'', 12 had been undergoing conservative treatment (topical homeopathic) for several weeks and two had permanent fibrotic hand phalanges. Nine patients on treatment underwent serial scintigraphy a total of 22 times. Eleven patients were imaged only once, including the two with permanent fixed defects. Three distinct physiological microcirculation patterns were evident in control hands or feet: right- or left-handedness (seven subjects), subclinical inflammatory foci correlating with callosity or pressure points (36 lesions) and distinctly increased pooling of radiotracer at the thenar or hypothenar region (eight subjects). In frostbite patients, 128 lesions (48 inflammatory, 80 ischaemic) were seen on the scan. This number included all 71 lesions identified clinically, the rest being subclinical. Subclinical frostbite lesion as an entity has not been described previously. Microvasculature of normal muscle groups (in the hands, elbow or feet) was shown on scintigraphy to improve after topical treatment. The treatment resulted in improved or normalised perfusion scan in 25 of 45 ischaemic segments with matching clinical improvement, and reduction or normalisation of uptake in inflammatory lesions (n=30). The data confirm the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory action of the topical preparation, and the sensitivity of the radionuclide method in monitoring treatment

  2. Aeration conditions modify the immobilization of Se (selenite) and Tc (pertechnetate) on various soils

    Full text: Isotopes of both selenium and technetium are important components of radioactive waste destined for long-term storage and so it is important to understand their behaviour in the environment. In addition, selenium is an essential micro-nutrient, deficient in some soils but potentially toxic at only slightly larger concentrations found naturally or as a result of human activity. Both elements are redox sensitive, having oxidation states from +7 to 0 for Tc and from +6 to -2 for Se. They are often considered to behave very similarly in the environment, with the oxy-anions dominating in well-aerated soils. We have studied the sorption of both elements in contrasting soils and compared the consequences of prolonged incubation under well-aerated, water-saturated, or strictly anaerobic conditions. We used sequential or parallel chemical extractions to assess the chemical nature of the immobilized fractions. Pertechnetate remained easily water-extractable throughout prolonged incubation of the soils under aerated conditions. However flooded, hence reducing conditions decreased the water-extractability of Tc. There was no difference between the fraction extracted by water or by simple salt solution (exchangeable fraction). However, as Tc became progressively immobilized, 1M NaOH (to solubilize humic substances) or H2O2 (to solubilize soil organic matter and reoxidize reduced forms of Tc) increased more Tc, indicating the strong association of Tc with organic matter and differing extents of chemical reduction. Selenite sorbed to differing extents on the various soils studied however the fraction extracted by water was systematically very low. There was a large difference between the water-extractable and the exchangeable fractions. Incubation of the soils under well aerated conditions led to different changes in Se extractability. Freshly added Se was more easily extracted than native Se. Addition of fresh organic matter or strictly anaerobic conditions enhanced

  3. Comparison of Tc-99m pertechnetate images with dual-phase Tc 99m MIBI and SPECT images in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Sait Sager

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of Tc-99m pertechnetate planar, dual-phase MIBI and MIBI-SPECT images in the determination and localization of parathyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this study, 38 patients who underwent operation for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole imaging of the neck and then MIBI planar and SPECT images in supine position was performed. Late SPECT images were acquired 120 minutes after the injection. Early and late MIBI images were quantitatively evaluated. Results: Of the 38 patients, 30 of them had adenoma, 2 patients had hyperplasia and 6 of them were normal on planar images. Thirty-four of 38 patients were positive on SPECT images. SPECT images of the patients with positive results were matched with pathology results. Conclusion: As a result, Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole, Tc-99m MIBI planar and SPECT images are useful for localization of parathyroid lesions especially in multinodular thyroid gland. However, US or CT images are necessary for more accurate localization and Tc-99m pertechnetate images are useful for interpreting and comparing with the early and late MIBI images.

  4. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ, MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

    2012-04-17

    This report documents the laboratory testing and analyses as directed under the test plan, LAB-PLN-11-00010, Evaluation of Technetium Ion Exchange Material against Hanford Double Shell Tank Supernate Simulate with Pertechnetate. Technetium (Tc-99) is a major fission product from nuclear reactors, and because it has few applications outside of scientific research, most of the technetium will ultimately be disposed of as nuclear waste. The radioactive decay of Tc-99 to ruthenium 99 (Ru-99) produces a low energy {beta}{sup -} particle (0.1 MeV max). However, due to its fairly long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 2.13E05 years), Tc-99 is a major source of radiation in low-level waste (UCRL-JRNL-212334, Current Status of the Thermodynamic Data for Technetium and its Compounds and Aqueous Species). Technetium forms the soluble oxy anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup -} under aerobic conditions. This anion is very mobile in groundwater and poses a health risk (ANL, Radiological and Chemical Fact Sheets to Support Health Risk Analyses for Contaminated Areas). It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix (RPP-RPT-23199, The Removal of Technetium-99 from the Effluent Treatment Facility Basin 44 Waste Using Purolite A-530E, Reillex HPQ, and Sybron IONAC SR-7 Ion Exchange Resins). Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin (Gu, B. et. ai, Development of Novel Bifunctional Anion-Exchange Resins with Improved Selectivity for Pertechnetate Sorption from Contaminated Groundwater). Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (ANSI/ASN-16.1-2003, Measurement of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short-term Test Procedure) as reported in RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This effort falls

  5. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REDUCTION AND STABILIZATION (IMMOBILIZATION) OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE USING TIN(II)APATITE

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY K; MOORE WP; RHODES RN; JOHNSON JM; MOORE RC

    2012-06-01

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mo bile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period oftime (6 weeks). Previous work (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine) indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table A shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit. The loaded sample (200 mg of Sn(II)apatite loaded with O.311 mg of Tc-99) was subjected to different molarities of nitric acid to determine if the Sn(II)apatite would release the sequestered technetium. The acid was allowed to contact for 1 minute with gentle shaking ('1st wash'); the aqueous solution was then filtered, and the filtrate was analyzed for Tc-99. Table B shows the results ofthe nitric acid exposure. Another portion of acid was added, shaken for a minute, and filtered ('2nd wash'). The

  6. Minimizing Molybdenum 99 contamination in Technetium 99m Pertechnetate from the elution of 99Mo/ 99m Tc Generator

    Radioisotope Tc-99m is widely used for variety of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. For many commercial applications, it is prepared in a portable type generator. Nuclear Malaysia has been producing a dry type alumina chromatographic column generator utilizing fission Mo-99. This injectable Tc-99m must meet the British Pharmacopeia [1] product specification prior to be apply on patient. This paper provides a method to minimize the up to acceptable level Mo-99 in the final product. Purposely made pertechnetate contaminated with Mo-99 and re-eluate by using old generator. Excellent removal of Mo-99 impurity was achieved and more than 80 % of Tc-99m total activity was recovered. (author)

  7. Effects of dexamethasone on distributions of water and pertechnetate in brains of cats after middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Large parenteral doses of dexamethasone were given to five of ten cats after transorbital occlusion of one middle cerebral artery and to two of four cats after sham operations. Two days later the water content and brain/blood ratios of pertechnetate were measured in samples of cerebral tissue that were categorized as nonischemic, ischemic, or infarcted. Values for infarcted tissue were greater than those for ischemic tissue in untreated cats, but not in cats that received dexamethasone. The drug had no apparent effect in ischemic tissue that was not necrotic. These results help explain inconsistencies in previous studies and help define the potential usefulness of dexamethasone for treatment of cerebrovascular disease. (U.S.)

  8. Early 99mtc Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (Dmsa Scan In Children With Acute Pyelonephritis Tehran University Of Medical Sciences (2000-2001

    Ataei N

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis, treatment, investigation and follow up of children with urinary tract infection (UTI are needed to minimize renal scarring. The aims of this study were 1 to evaluate the ability of DMSA scintigraphy, ultrasound and biological parameters in detecting renal parenchymal involvement in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN 2 to assess the relation between renal parenchymal changes and creatinine clearance 3 to determine the incidence of renal scarring after APN."nMaterials and Methods: We prospectively studied 54 children (median age 4.02± 3.41 range 1 month to 12 years with first time symptomaticUTI. All patients had DMSA scan and ultrasonography within 5 days of admission. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood cell (WBC, was measured at the time of infection, and voiding cystourethrography was performed in all children within 10 days. When scintigraphy showed renal parenchymal changes, repeat DMSA scan was done at least 3 months after initial infection."nResults: Changes on the DMSA scan were found in 93/108 (85.5 percent renal units in 54 children during acute pyelonephritis. Among 42 children who had underwent repeat scintigraphy , renal scars were found in 9 of 16 (56.25 percent renal units in 8 infants under 1 year ,23 of 32 (71.87 percent in 16 children aged 1-5 years, and 33 of 36(91 percent in 18 patients older than 5 years. Ultrasonography showed renal changes in 20 of 108 (18.5 percent kidneys. Reflux was seen in 21 of 108 (19.44 percent renal units. The sensitivity of ESR, CRP, WBC, and ultrasonography was 78.5 percent , 64.5 percent , 69.9 percent , 18.5 percent respectively, and the specificity of them was 40 percent, 33.3 percent, 13.3 percent,"n80 percent respectively. There was a positive correlation between renal parenchymal involvement and creatinine clearance level (p<0.001."nWe found no difference between groups with or without scars with respect to levels of ESR, CRP, and WBC."nConclusion: The present study suggest that DMSA scan may be a more reliable method of investigation than ultrasonography and biological parameters for identifying children at risk of permanent renal lesion. Additionally we found positive correlation between renal parenchymal change and creatinine clearance level. In order to detect persistent changes, it is suggested that DMSA scintigraphy should be performed at least three months after UTI."n"n"n 

  9. Differential diagnosis of MRI detected intra cranial space occupying lesions (ICSOLS)-role of 99MTC tetrofosmin cerebral spect

    Discriminating the correct etiology of Intra Cranial Space Occupying Lesions (ICSOLs) detected by MRI is of paramount importance in deciding the right therapeutic approach. Functional imaging like 99m Tc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT (C SPECT) can be used to differentiate malignant from other benign cerebral pathologies. Objective: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of C SPECT in differentiating various etiologies (i.e. Infective / Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Post Radiotherapy changes) of MRI detected ICSOLs. We also aimed to assess the incremental value of quantitative uptake ratios in identifying the exact nature of ICSOLs. Method: 26 Patients (M:F=20:6), age range 28-76 yrs, mean 42±7 yrs were evaluated by 99mTc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT. 14/26 patients were HIV positive cases while remaining 12 were treated patients of intracerebral malignancies. All these patients had one or more discrete MRI detected ICSOLs. 6/4 patients with HIV and 4/12 patients in the non HIV group showed more than 1 discrete ICSOLs. 20 mci of 99mTc Tetrofosmin was injected IV .15 min (early) and 2 hrs (delayed) post injection C SPECT images were acquired on a dual head variable angle Gamma camera. After reconstruction, transverse, coronal and sagittal images were co- registered with DICOM online available MRI images using aco- registration software. Focal Tetrofosmin uptake in MRI detected ICSOL was interpreted as abnormal. Tetrofosmin uptake index (Ix) was calculated in early and delayed images as ratio of counts in lesion to that of contra lateral region. A value of more than 1.3 was considered to be abnormal. Persistent Ix of more than 1.3 in initial and delayed images were considered to be malignant while Ix of more or less than 1.3 in initial but less than 1.3 in delayed images was considered to be benign in both groups. Results: In HIV group (14 pts), 4 patients showed an Ix of less than 1.3 in both early and delayed images and 7 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but

  10. Relationship between Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Interictal 99mtc-Hmpao Spect Findings in Epilepsy Patients with Focal EEG Abnormalities

    Karaman, Handan Işın Özışık; Kabay, Sibel Canbaz; Kamışlı, Özden

    2011-01-01

    We studied the relationship between single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and focal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in 25 epileptic patients. Our results showed SPECT was more consistent than MRI on detection of localized abnormalities corresponding to epileptic EEG foci. Key words: Epilepsy; Electroencephalography; Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Magnetic Resonance İmaging.

  11. 99mtc-Ubiquicidin [29–41], a Promising Radiopharmaceutical to Differentiate Orthopedic Implant Infections from Sterile Inflammation

    Beiki, Davood; Yousefi, Gholamali; Fallahi, Babak; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Erfani, Mostafa; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquicidin (UBI) [29-41] is a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide that preferentially binds to bacterial cell membrane at the site of infection. We aimed to assess diagnostic value of 99mTc-UBI [29-41] as a radiopharmaceutical in differentiation of bacterial infection from sterile inflammation in suspected orthopedic implants. Nine patients suspected for orthopedic implant infection, all males with the mean age of 41.6 ± 20.9 years, were studied. A dose of 10 MBq/Kg (range : 555-740 MBq...

  12. Direct labelling of octreotide with 99mTc: effect of different concentration of reducing agents and amount of sodium pertechnetate on radiolabelling efficiency

    Octreotide, a synthetic analog of natural hormone somatostatin, was labelled with 99mTc. Labelling was accomplished by reduction of the cysteine bridge, which provided sulfhydryl groups for chelating with 99mTc. Sodium ascorbate and sodium dithionite in different concentrations were used as reducing agents. Different amounts of sodium pertechnetate were used for labelling of peptide. When the mass ratio of peptide and sodium ascorbate was 1:100 and the final concentration of dithionite in the labelling vial was 0.2-0.4 μg/μl with 0.18-1.48 GBq sodium pertechnetate more than 80% radiolabelling efficiency was confirmed by RP-HPLC, ITLC-SG and C18 Cartridge analysis. The stability of the 99mTc-peptide bond was evaluated by human serum challenge and that showed the stability was 90% after 4 h

  13. Direct labelling of octreotide with {sup 99m}Tc: effect of different concentration of reducing agents and amount of sodium pertechnetate on radiolabelling efficiency

    Gandomkar, M. E-mail: rnajafi@seai.neda.net.ir; Najafi, R.; Sadat Ebrahimi, S.E.; Shafiee, A.; Babaei, M.H.; Rabbani, M.; Shabani, G.A

    2003-03-01

    Octreotide, a synthetic analog of natural hormone somatostatin, was labelled with {sup 99m}Tc. Labelling was accomplished by reduction of the cysteine bridge, which provided sulfhydryl groups for chelating with {sup 99m}Tc. Sodium ascorbate and sodium dithionite in different concentrations were used as reducing agents. Different amounts of sodium pertechnetate were used for labelling of peptide. When the mass ratio of peptide and sodium ascorbate was 1:100 and the final concentration of dithionite in the labelling vial was 0.2-0.4 {mu}g/{mu}l with 0.18-1.48 GBq sodium pertechnetate more than 80% radiolabelling efficiency was confirmed by RP-HPLC, ITLC-SG and C18 Cartridge analysis. The stability of the {sup 99m}Tc-peptide bond was evaluated by human serum challenge and that showed the stability was 90% after 4 h.

  14. A rapid chemical method of labelling human plasma proteins with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate at pH 7.4

    A successful method for labelling human plasma proteins with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate by chemical means is described. The labelling methodology involves the production of Sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)citrate complex species with high protein binding capacity at pH 7.4 condition following initial chemical reduction of sodium sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate by stannous chloride. A combined labelling efficiency range of 95-99% for sup(99m)Tc-labelled fibrinogen, immune gamma globulin and serum albumin is achieved. The actual amount of labelled protein content in the product is found to be 85-95% when assayed by ITLC and 74-85% by TCAA protein precipitation. In vitro experimental data indicate that sup(99m)Tc-fibrinogen contains an average of 85% clottable protein with an average clottability of 95%. This strongly suggests that the radioactive proteins retain much of their biological and physiological activities after the labelling process. (author)

  15. Modified biological behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in man as a result of a preceding administration of tin (tin effect)

    An increased image of blood-filled spaces (Plexus chorioideus, Sinus transversus) was observed in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy when it had been preceded by the administration of tin (e.g. of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate). We have called this behaviour the 'tin-effect'. In vitro studies demonstrated binding of about 80% of the administered activity in the blood with a biological half-life of about 44 hr and an effective half-life of about 5.3 hr. 95% of the blood activity was bound to red cells and 5% to plasma. This resulted in an increased radiation dose to the bone marrow of about 530 mrad/mCi sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (following tin). The extent of the tin effect decreased with the length of the interval between tin and sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate administration. Because of the tin effect, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA or sup(99m)Tc-citrate should be used for brain scintigraphy if this has to be performed within the first 5 or 7 days following a bone scintigraphy with a tin-containing radiopharmaceutical. The 'tin effect' might be taken advantage of when labelling red cells and imaging vascular spaces. (orig.)

  16. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tumours of posterior fossa

    The present work concerns 38 posterior cranial fossa tumour cases subjected to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy between May 1974 and June 1976. 33 of these patients have undergone an anatomical check while for the remaining 5, the existence of a posterior fossa tumour is established from the conjunction of clinical signs and other paraclinical examinations. The procedure was the same for all these 38 patients: after a 300 μC/kg injection of tracer, an immediate angioscintigraphic period, an early set of pictures (half an hour after the tracer injection) then delayed set (4 to 5 hours later) taken from 4 angles: front, back and two profiles. The examination was performed with an OHIO NUCLEAR SIEMENS gamma camera and sometimes a conventional scanner as well (the latter giving no better a diagnosis than the former). In 75% of the cases a hyperfixation of the injected tracer was observed and its site located quite accurately in the posterior fossa tumour. The etiology of the lesion could be diagnosed in 'most probable' or 'least probable' terms. Examination of work by other authors, who obtained similar results, leads to the conclusion that this method is very helpful in the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumours when used as a means of early detection, before the undertaking of more complex neuroradiological explorations

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Olej, Beni; Timoteo, Margareth de Oliveira; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na). The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na (P<0.05). It is speculated that the substances present in the EGb could act directly or generate metabolites capable to promote changes on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na and on the morphology of organs at ultrastructural level. (author)

  18. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    S.R.F. Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g, were treated (1 mL with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5 or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5 for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05 alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i from 0.57 ± 0.008 to 0.39 ± 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05 and from 0.57 ± 0.17 to 0.39 ± 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05 was observed in the heart, ii from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05 in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.

  19. Recovery of ammonium 99Tc-pertechnetate from its reaction waste

    A method is described for the recovery of NH499TcO4 from its reaction waste. From the collected waste solution 99Tc was precipitated as 99Tc2S7 which on digestion with ammoniacal hydrogen peroxide produced a mixture of NH499TcO4 and (NH4)2 SO4 from which the latter was removed by treatment with Ba(OH)2. The solution furnished NH499TcO4 as a crystalline material in 54% overall yield and with 96-98% purity after chromatographic purification over Dowex 50W column. Recrystallization of this material from aqueous ammoniacal ethanol gave the analytical material which compared well with a standard sample and with literature data in terms of its Β-counts/mg and its molar extinction co-efficient (ε) at 244 and 286 nm. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs

  20. Clinical usefulness of Tc-99M pertechnetate per-rectal portal scintigraphy in evaluation the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients

    Objectives: Variceal hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening complication in cirrhotic patients. Identification of patients at high risk for bleeding is particularly important. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical usefulness of per-rectal portal scintigraphy in evaluation the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients in terms of correlation between cirrhosis and classic indicators of hepatic functional reserve and identifying the difference of the portal shunt index (PSI) of the bleeding esophageal varices group and non-bleeding esophageal varices group. Material and methods: Portal circulations in 15 healthy volunteer's and in 67 patients with cirrhosis were evaluated by Tc-99m pertechnetate per-rectal p. ortal scintigraphy. Tc-99m pertechnetate (550 MBq) was instilled into the upper rectum, and dynamic images were taken. Radioactivity curves of the liver and the heart were generated sequentially. Through the analysis of these curves, the PSI was determined by calculating the ratio of counts of the liver to counts of the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. Results: The results, expressed as PSI were: 13.63 +/- 6.28 % in healthy subjects and 66.32+/-22.80 % in cirrhotic patients. Of these, the PSIs were 56036 +/- 27.14 % in 31 cirrhotic patients without esophageal varices, and 74.89 +/- 13.62 % in 36 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. The PSI was significantly lower in cirrhotic patients without bleeding esophageal vances (BEV) than those with BEV (p=0.001). The PSI calculated with this method was correlated with the serum albumin, the serum bilirubin and the Child-Pugh's score. Conclusion: The Tc-99m pertechnetate per-rectal portal scintigraphy has clinical usefulness as a relatively non-invasive method of choice for quantitative evaluating the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. (authors)

  1. Model-based comparison of maternal and foetal organ doses from 99mTc pertechnetate, DMSA, DTPA, HDP, MAA and MAG3 diagnostic intakes during pregnancy

    Organ residence times were calculated for diagnostic intakes of 99mTc pertechnetate, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA), hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP), macroaggregated albumin (MAA) and mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG3) during the 1st and 3rd stages of pregnancy and used with the MIRDOSE3 pregnant female phantoms for generation of dose estimates. At stage 3 individual foetal organ doses were estimated via a surrogate phantom based on that for the new-born but with mean dose/cumulated activity (S) values scaled for compatibility with foetal whole body S. Stage 1 or 3 whole foetus doses ranged from 5.2 to 0.77 μGy MBq-1 respectively, analogous to current ICRP estimates for these agents using similar in vivo biodistribution model databases. Most stage 3 maternal and foetal organ doses were similar within a factor of 3, being higher in the foetus than the mother with pertechnetate, DTPA and MAG3, and lower with DMSA, HDP and MAA. Doses were more uniformly distributed among foetal organs than in the mother. Placental transfer was greatest with pertechnetate, where dose to the stage 3 foetal thyroid was 60-140 μGy MBq-1. With each agent there was more placental transfer in stage 3 than in stage 1, but doses to stage 1 whole foetus were always higher, with the contribution from the mother dominant. For DMSA, HDP and MAG3 the maternal contribution to total foetal body dose exceeded 93% for both stages. (orig.)

  2. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99m TcO4) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99m TcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99m TcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P99m TcO4. (author)

  3. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    Gabrielle de Souza Rocha; Marcia de Oliveira Pereira; Mônica Oliveira Benarroz; Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman; Angélica Beatriz Garcia-Pinto; Mário José Pereira; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Mario Bernardo-Filho

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc), on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insol...

  4. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia de Oliveira; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Garcia-Pinto, Angelica Beatriz; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Pereira, Mario Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2008-12-15

    This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m ({sup 99m}Tc), on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insoluble fractions separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the RBC was evaluated under optical microscopy. In biodistribution experiments, sodium pertechnetate was administrated, organs and tissues isolated, radioactivity was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) determined. The data showed no significant alterations in %ATI, morphology of RBC and in %ATI/g in the studied organs. (author)

  5. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m (99mTc), on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insoluble fractions separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the RBC was evaluated under optical microscopy. In biodistribution experiments, sodium pertechnetate was administrated, organs and tissues isolated, radioactivity was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) determined. The data showed no significant alterations in %ATI, morphology of RBC and in %ATI/g in the studied organs. (author)

  6. Radioiodine therapy for Plummer's disease based on the thyroid uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    Meller, J.; Wisheu, S.; Behe, M.; Gratz, S.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Munzel, U. [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Georg August Univ., Goettingen (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was the evaluation of a TcTUs (global technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression)-based approach in 370 patients with thyroid autonomy (Plummer's disease) treated by radioiodine therapy (RIT) under standardised conditions. The analysis included 370 patients (309 females, 61 males; mean age 64{+-}11.6 years) treated for thyroid autonomy [unifocal (UFA), 36.8%; multifocal (MFA), 55.7%; disseminated (DISA), 7.6%]. During RIT all patients were under thyroid suppression (TSH<0.1 {mu}U/ml) and without thionamide treatment. Of the 370 patients, 73% (n=271) were manifestly hyperthyroid and 27% (n=99) subclinically hyperthyroid. A dosimetric study included uptake measurements 24, 48, and 96 h p.i. For dose estimation the Marinelli algorithm was used. For retrospective definition of the target volume we used the equation: autonomous volume = TcTUs x 5. The spectrum of doses given in our patients ranged from 81 to 1933 Gy. After 18 months of follow-up, RIT was successful (TSH>0.5 {mu}U/l and/or TcTUs<1.6%) in 310 patients (84%). Of these patients, 291 (94%) were euthyroid (with or without L-thyroxine) and 19 (6%) subclinically hypothyroid (TSH>4 {mu}U/ml). A dose of 350-450 Gy to the autonomous tissue resulted in a success rate of 97% in the UFA group and 81% in the MFA/DISA group. Decrease in total thyroid volume and TcTUs did not differ significantly between successfully treated patients and patients with persistent autonomy. Multivariate analysis of all 370 patients identified four independent factors that negatively influenced the therapeutic success: high pretherapeutic thyroid volume (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.017), high pretherapeutic TcTUs values (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.378), multifocal/disseminated autonomy (P=0.0056; odds ratio: 3.245) and low target dose (P=0.017; odds ratio: 0.997). It is concluded that the high success rate in the treatment of UFA indicates the concept of TcTUs-based RIT to be valid, but

  7. Validity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Dugonjić Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT is an endocrine disease with the third highest incidence of all endocrine disorders after diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. pHPT is typically caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, less frequently by multiple parathyroid gland disease (MGD and rarely by parathyroid carcinoma. Secondary hyperparatyroidism (sHPT is a common complication in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to estimate sensitivity of dual tracer 99mTctetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy in detection of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and sHPT confirmed by histopathology. Methods. In 46 patients, (77 abnormal parathyroid glands, 30 with pHPT and 16 with sHPT parathyroid scintigraphy was done preoperatively. All the patients had histopathological confirmation of diagnosis. Abnormal parathyroid glands weighted from 0.1 to 7 g. After iv injection dynamic scintigraphy during 25 minutes (one frame-one minute using 555 MBq of 99mTc-tetrofosmin, and three hours latter using 111 MBq of 99mTc /pertechnetate was performed. 99mTc-tetrofosmin dynamic study was followed by static scintigraphy of the neck and chest 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 3 hours after iv injection. Results. An abnormal scintigraphic finding was found in 44 of 46 patients with sensitivity of 96%. In pHPT sensitivity was 93% (28 of 30 patients, and 28 of 30 glands. In sHPT scintigraphy was abnormal in all the patients (sensitivity 100%. In the patients with sHPT scintigraphy detected 30 of 47 abnormal parathyroid glands (sensitivity 64%. An overall sensitivity of scintigraphy per gland, for pHPT and sHPT in detecting 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands was 75%. Conclusion. An abnormal scintigrafic result per patient was found in 44 patients (sensitivity 96% and 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands were detected (sensitivity 75%. A high sensitivity of dual tracer subtraction 99mTc-tetrofosmin/99mTc-pertechnetate

  8. Warthin's tumor of parotid gland on Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation: Tc-99m uptake, size, and pathologic correlation

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pertechnetate scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation in the diagnosis of Warthin's tumor and its correlation with Tc-99m uptake, tumor size, and histologic subtype. Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy before and after lemon juice stimulation and pathologic specimens of 34 Warthin's tumors and 47 non-Warthin's lesions were retrospectively evaluated. Tc-99m uptake of Warthin's tumors before and after stimulation was visually graded as follows: absent; indeterminate; low grade; definite; and strong. Tumor size was defined as maximum diameter of the tumor measured from the surgical specimen. Warthin's tumors were classified into three histologic subtypes according to the ratio of epithelial and lymphoid stromal components: predominant epithelial; intermediate; and low-grade epithelial types. Eighteen of 34 (53%) Warthin's tumors and one benign lymphoepithelial cyst showed higher uptake than that of the normal parotid gland on Tc-99m scintigraphy before lemon juice stimulation. Thirty-two of the 34 (94%) Warthin's tumors, one benign lymphoepithelial cyst, one pleomorphic adenoma, and one oncocytoma revealed higher uptake than that of the normal parotid gland on Tc-99m scintigraphy after lemon juice stimulation. The mean size was 37 mm in strong uptake Warthin's tumors, 24 mm in definite uptake tumors, 19 mm in low-grade uptake tumors, and 12 mm in low-grade uptake tumors excluding those tumors with large cystic component. There was a significant correlation between tumor size and degree of Tc-99m uptake after lemon juice stimulation. However, there was no correlation between histologic subtype and Tc-99m uptake, and histologic subtype and tumor size in Warthin's tumors. Our study concludes that Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation is useful for the detection and diagnosis of Warthin's tumor. The degree of uptake in Warthin's tumor on Tc-99m scintigraphy with lemon

  9. Effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa (P. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, on the morphology of red blood cells, and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (sodium 99mTc). Male Wistar rats were treated with either P. flavicarpa extract or 0.9% NaCl. After that, radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphological analysis of red blood cells and biodistribution of sodium 99mTc was evaluated. Radiolabeling of blood constituents and shape of red blood cells were not modified, but a significant (p99mTc was observed after treatment with P. flavicarpa extract. Although our results were obtained with animals, they could contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine

  10. Development of a Chemistry-Based, Predictive Method for Determining the Amount of Non-Pertechnetate Technetium in the Hanford Tanks: FY 2012 Progress Report

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Bryant, Janet L.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Houchin, Joy Y.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Smith, Frances N.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-01-30

    This report describes investigations directed toward understanding the extent of the presence of highly alkaline soluble, non-pertechnetate technetium (n-Tc) in the Hanford Tank supernatants. The goals of this report are to: a) present a review of the available literature relevant to the speciation of technetium in the Hanford tank supernatants, b) attempt to establish a chemically logical correlation between available Hanford tank measurements and the presence of supernatant soluble n-Tc, c) use existing measurement data to estimate the amount of n-Tc in the Hanford tank supernatants, and d) report on any likely, process-friendly methods to eventually sequester soluble n-Tc from Hanford tank supernatants.

  11. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Medicas]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Rocha, Emely Kazan [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica

    2005-10-15

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P<0.05), probably caused by metabolites generated by EGb and capable of altering the bioavailability of the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}. (author)

  12. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the padiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na. The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received 99mTcO4Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na (PO extrato de Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb tem sido usado para tratar dificuldades de concentração, memória, age como antagonista do fator de ativação de plaquetas e previne contra danos causados por radicais livres. EGb é um extrato padronizado com 24% de flavonóides e 6% de lactonas terpênicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de um EGb na ultraestrutura de alguns órgãos isolados de ratos e na biodistribuição do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO4Na. Os animais foram tratados com EGb e após 6 dias receberam 99mTcO4Na. Os órgãos foram isolados e a radioatividade determinada. Os tecidos foram fixados para microscopia eletrônica. Os resultados mostraram que EGb alterou a ultraestrutura do rim, figado e duodeno e modificou a biodistribuição do 99mTcO4Na. Sugerimos que substâncias presentes no EGb poderiam agir diretamente ou gerar metabólitos capazes de promover alterações na biodistribuição e na morfologia de órgãos em nível ultraestrutural.

  13. Evaluation of myocardial preconditioning and adenosine effects in cardioprotection in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion injury using 99MTc-glucarate imaging

    Significant tolerance to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, as assessed by biochemical assay and noninvasive infarct-avid imaging, was induced with an IPC protocol in the rat model. The cardioprotection of IPC could be simulated by adenosine receptor A1 agonist CCPA, or blocked by antagonist SPT. Thus, adenosine mediates protection by ischemic preconditioning in this specific rat heart model. 99mTc-glucarate imaging is not only useful in detecting early ischemia-reperfusion injury, but also invaluable in evaluating the effects of cardioprotective treatments. uantitative anal ses on dynamic images with 99mTc-glucarate would make it possible to identify myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury more accurate, and provide a unique tool for evaluation of cardioprotection. The FASTSPECT imaging with the ischenuc-reperfused rat heart model provides a solution-specific approach with high-resolution and fast dynamic acquisition for kinetic studies of new myocardial imaging agents as the evidence of its major role in the present study. (authors)

  14. 99MTc labeled antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin (29-41) accumulates less in E-coli infection as compared with staph. aureus infection

    99mTc labeled antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin, UBI (29-41) in freeze-dried kit was evaluated as bacterial infection seeking agent in Staph. aureus and E-coli induced infections. Methods: 33 rabbits were categorized in three groups. Biodistribution of 99mTc UBI (29-41) was studied in three animals (group I). The uptake of peptide was determined by counting radioactivity in anatomically fitted regions drawn over the liver, kidneys, urinary bladder and whole body and expressed as percent uptake per organ. Experimental thigh muscle infection was induced by injecting 2 x 108 CFU of live Staph. aureus or E- coli bacteria into fight thigh muscle in 20 rabbits (group II). Turpentine oil and formalin killed Staph. aureus were utilized for inducing sterile thigh muscle inflammation in 10 rabbits (group III). On scintigrams, anatomically adjusted regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over infected/inflamed (target) and non-infected/non-inflamed (non-target) thigh and accumulation of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) at sites of infection/inflammation was expressed as the target to non-target (T/NT) ratio. Results: Biodistribution study of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) revealed rapid removal of tracer from the circulation via the kidneys (10.6 ± 2.1% at 5 minutes and 5.9 ± 0.8% at 60 minutes) with accumulation of major part in urinary bladder within first hour after injection (66.6 ± 7.2%). Significantly higher (p < 0.05) accumulation of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) was seen at sites of Staph. aureus infected subjects (T/NT ratio 2.2 ± 0.5) as compared to E-coli (T/NT ratio 1.7 ± 0.4). Maximum tracer accumulation was observed at 60 minutes post-injection followed by gradual decline. No significant accumulation was noticed in thighs of rabbits injected with either turpentine oil or killed Staph. aureus with markedly lower T/NT ratios (p < 0.05) compared with Staph. aureus and E-coli infected thighs. Conclusion: 99mTc UBI (29-41) freeze-dried kit can be used for differentiating infections with Staph. aureus

  15. Biodistribution and synthesis of 99mtc-Iabeled chitosan-transferrin derivative at CT26 colon carcinoma-induced BALB/c mouse

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycoprotein, which transports ferric ion in the body. It is well known that Tf receptor concentration in tumor cells is much higher than that in normal cells. Chitosan is known as a bioactive agents for carriers of DNA anticancer agents, and radio-labeled molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of Tf-conjugated thiolated glycine chitosan (CGGT) for Tc-99m labeled cancer imaging agent. Tf was coupled to the thiol group of thiolated glycine chitosan via maleimidobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS). Tf-CGGT (0.5 mg) or CGGT (0.5 mg) in water (0.5 ml) was added to Tc-99m solution (50 mCi/0.5 ml) reduced by Sn2Cl. This solution incubated for 30 m, and then determined the radiochemical purity (>93%) by RadioTLC scan. In plasma, Tc-99m CGGT or Tc-99m CGGT-Tf showed the stability of above 90% for 6h. CT26 colon carcinoma cells (1x107 cells) were subcutaneously injected into the back of the BALB/c mouse and left for 2 weeks. The biodistribution study with sacrificed mouse at 30, 60, 180 m was performed. 97.7% and 93.5% of Tc-99m were labeled to the CGGT and CGGT-Tf at 30 m, respectively. After 60 m, Tc-99m labeling efficiency was 99.4% of CGGT and 95.0% of CGGT-Tf. In the biodistribution study, Tc-99m labeled CGGT was primarily accumulated in the liver(33.3%ID/g), spleen(13.4%ID/g), kidney(17.0%ID/g) and tumor (0.7%ID/g) at 30 m. Tc-99m labeled CGGT-Tf was distributed in the liver (27.9%ID/g), spleen (6.3%ID/g), kidney (12.8%ID/g) and tumor (1.2%ID/g) at 30 m. CGGT-Tf was synthesized as a novel Tc-99m labeling agent. The labeling efficiency was high from 30 m after labeling, indicating that CGGT - Tf has a potential of radio-labeled agent. Most of the Tc-99m labeled CGGT - Tf was accumulated in reticuloendothelial systems. Tumor accumulation of Tc-99m labeled CGGT - Tf at CT26 colon carcinoma bearing mouse was twice higher than that of CGGT, indicating that CGGT - Tf has a potential to target and visualize tumor

  16. Experimental study on 13N-NH3 and 99MTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in rabbits with subacute myocardial infarction of ischemic reperfusion

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between 13N-NH3 and 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in rabbits with subacute myocardial infarction of ischemic reperfusion. Methods: Eight male New Zealand White rabbits of which left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries were completely occluded for 45 min followed by 7-10 d reperfusion. One week later, the rabbits after an overnight fast were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg), and LAD arteries were religated for 45 min followed by 2 h reperfusion. Then the animals were positioned on the LS-PET/CT (4 row spirals CT, Discovery GE. US) table. Myocardial blood flows were obtained with 148 MBq 13N-NH3 administered via a marginal ear vein over 20 s. According to PET imaging procedure, PET/CT acquisition of dynamic scans began 5 min after injection and was accomplished within 10 min. Two hours after PET imaging the rabbits were injected with 148 MBq 99mTc-MIBI via a marginal ear vein, 30 min later myocardial perfusion imaging was performed under a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). PET imaging ZOOM value was generally amplified 6 times while that of SPECT was 3 times. Tomographic images along the vertical long, horizontal long and short axes were created. Tomographic reconstruction was then performed by dividing the PET and SPECT image of the LV on a polar map into 9 segments for semi- quantitative analysis. The changes of infarct size were determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The ultra-structural damage of myocardial cells in infarct and periphery areas were observed under transmission electron microscope. Results: Infarct size (24.2±1.9)% of LV mass by TTC staining, while (23.7±2.3)% vs. (20.5± 2.5)% (P < 0.001) by 99mTc-MIBI Hawkeye-SPECT and 13N-NH3 PET/CT respectively. Serious myocardial cell damages including myocardial cell denaturalization, texture, and karyolysis in infracted area and myocardial cells swelling in the periphery of infracted area was observed under the transmission electron microscope. Conclusion: Compared with 99mTc-MIBI Hawkeye SPECT, 13N-NH3 perfusion under Discovery LS-PET/CT imaging could more accurately assess infarct size. (authors)

  17. Diagnostic value of 99mTc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in Sjoegren's syndrome (SS). Comparative study with symptomatic non Sjoegren patients and healthy controls

    The aim of this study was to describe SGS findings in patients with SS, and to compare them with non Sjoegren symptomatic and healthy control individual, estimating performance of SGS in SS diagnosis. Materials and Method: Fifty three control individual (average age: 53.7 yr, range: 27-83 yr) and 169 patients with subjective xerostomia underwent 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. The symptomatic group consisted of: 112 patients with Sjoegren's syndrome (average age: 53.7 yr, range:16-81 yr) according to modifying European Classification Criteria, 42 patients with fibromyalgia (FM)(average age:48.2 yr, range:19-76 yr) who presented non-specific chronic sialadenitis or normal labial biopsy, and 15 patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KS) (average age: 40.9 yr, range:23-57 yr). SGS was performed following i.v. injection of 10 mCi 99mTc-pertechnetate, in dynamic acquisition of 60 15-sec frames, and giving lemon juice orally at 20 min. Irregular regions of interest (ROI) over salivary glands and brain for background assessment were drawn, building time-activity curves. SGS was classified according to visual intensity of gland tracer uptake and excretion before and after lemon and curve evaluation, in: normal (intensity of gland uptake fourfold background activity, ascending curve with fast and profound fall after lemon) , mild alteration (light decrease in gland uptake or excretion, with a normal curve shape), moderate alteration (evident uptake and excretion decrease with a median Mita curve) and severe alteration (very low or absent uptake, flat or slope curve). Scintigraphic findings were compared with diagnosis, calculating positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for SS. Results: The results of SGS according to diagnosis are presented. SS group had higher incidence of severe alterations (p<0.001) than each of other clinics groups and lower proportion of mild alterations (p:0.008) and normal scans (p:0.005) than both control and KS patients. The KS

  18. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    Gabrielle de Souza Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc, on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Blood cells (BC and plasma (P were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insoluble fractions separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the RBC was evaluated under optical microscopy. In biodistribution experiments, sodium pertechnetate was administrated, organs and tissues isolated, radioactivity was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g determined. The data showed no significant alterations in %ATI, morphology of RBC and in %ATI/g in the studied organs.Neste estudo foram avaliados efeitos do adoçante com sucralose na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc, na morfologia de hemácias e na biodistribuição do pertecnetato de sódio em ratos Wistar. Animais foram tratados com adoçante durante 8 dias. Amostras de sangue foram retiradas e a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc foi realizada. Células sangüíneas (CS e plasma (P foram isolados. Alíquotas de CS e P foram precipitadas, frações insolúvel e solúvel foram separadas. A radioatividade em cada fração foi contada e o percentual de radioatividade incorporada (%ATI, determinado. Distensões sangüíneas foram preparadas, fixadas, coradas e análise morfológica, qualitativa e quantitativa, de hemácias foi avaliada sob microscopia óptica. Nos experimentos de biodistribuição, pertecnetato de sódio foi administrado, órgãos e tecidos isolados, a

  19. Reduction of Pertechnetate By Acetohydroxamic Acid: Formation of [tc**II(NO)(AHA)(2)(H(2)O)]**+ And Implications for the UREX Process

    Gong, C.-M.S.; Lukens, W.W.; Poineau, F.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    2009-05-18

    Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry and the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but it may be augmented by some products of the reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}, 1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent: potentiometric-spectrophotometric titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The potential formation of 1 during reprocessing may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  20. A classical force field for tetrahedral oxyanions developed using hydration properties: The examples of pertechnetate (TcO4-) and sulfate (SO42-)

    Williams, Christopher D.; Carbone, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive pertechnetate, 99TcO4-, is one of the most problematic ionic species in the context of the clean up and storage of nuclear waste. Molecular simulations can be used to understand the behavior of TcO4- in dilute aqueous solutions, providing reliable potentials are available. This work outlines the development of a new potential model for TcO 4- and competing SO42-, optimized using their hydration properties, such as the Gibbs hydration free energy (calculated using Bennett's acceptance ratio method). The findings show that the TcO4- oxyanion has a very low hydration free energy (-202 kJ mol-1) compared to other anions (Cl-, I-, SO42-) leading to fast water exchange dynamics and explaining its observed high mobility in the aqueous environment. Its hydrated structure, investigated using ion-water radial distribution functions, shows that it is unique amongst the other anions in that it does not possess well-defined hydration shells. Since contaminants and ubiquitous species in the aqueous environment are often present as tetrahedral oxyanions, it is proposed that the approach could easily be extended to a whole host of other species.

  1. A classical force field for tetrahedral oxyanions developed using hydration properties: The examples of pertechnetate (TcO4(-)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)).

    Williams, Christopher D; Carbone, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive pertechnetate, (99)TcO4(-), is one of the most problematic ionic species in the context of the clean up and storage of nuclear waste. Molecular simulations can be used to understand the behavior of TcO4(-) in dilute aqueous solutions, providing reliable potentials are available. This work outlines the development of a new potential model for TcO4(-) and competing SO4(2-), optimized using their hydration properties, such as the Gibbs hydration free energy (calculated using Bennett's acceptance ratio method). The findings show that the TcO4(-) oxyanion has a very low hydration free energy (-202 kJ mol(-1)) compared to other anions (Cl(-), I(-), SO4(2-)) leading to fast water exchange dynamics and explaining its observed high mobility in the aqueous environment. Its hydrated structure, investigated using ion-water radial distribution functions, shows that it is unique amongst the other anions in that it does not possess well-defined hydration shells. Since contaminants and ubiquitous species in the aqueous environment are often present as tetrahedral oxyanions, it is proposed that the approach could easily be extended to a whole host of other species. PMID:26547171

  2. The ventricular function after operative correction of chronic mitral insufficiency. Non-invasive study with technetium-99m pertechnetate. First passage technique

    14 patients (age 49.6 ± 13.3 years) with pure mitral insufficiency of the second to fourth degree underwent an operative intervention on the mitral valve, whereby in 12 cases the valve was replaced and two times the insufficiency could be cleared up with a plastic reconstruction. On the average of 21.6 ± 11 months after the operation a non-invasive study was done with the help of heart scintigraphy 'first passage technique' with Tc 99m pertechnetate at rest and at maximum ergometeric stress. With this method pre- and postoperative end-diastolic volumes (227/ 114 ml), end-systolic volumes (69/ 46 ml), heart minute volumes (4.5/ 5.7 l/min), total output fraction of the left ventricle (61/ 69%), diastolic filling speed and emptying speed of the ventricle were determined as well as the measuring of the lung flow time. The speed of the rapid filling phase gave no indication of a hindrance as a result of an implanted valve or a plastic reconstruction. The changes under stress indicate a normal reaction of the ventricle. This ability to react corresponds clinically to the improvement of the patients on the average of 1.1 degrees according to the NYHA classification. (orig./TRV)

  3. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

  4. Salivary gland scintigraphy using technetium-99m-pertechnetate after autotransplantation of the submandibular salivary gland in the correction of dry eye

    The aim of the study was to determine whether salivary gland scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate is suitable for checking the vitality and function after autotransplantation of the submandibular salivary gland in patients with dry eye syndrome. To this end, 56 scintigraphic studies in 20 patients have so far been performed. In addition, these scans were evaluated by a region of interest (ROI) technique in order to examine tracer uptake in the early and late stages after surgery. We have been able to prove that in this special respect, too, the salivary gland scintigraphy is suitable for assessing reliably the vitality and function of the transplanted gland. The secretion into the eye and thus the patency of the efferent duct can also be displayed. This proved to be particularly valuable in those cases in which at first no secretion could be seen in the clinical examination. In patients with uncertain excretory function, we were able to distinguish between non-vitality and lack of patency of the secretory duct. Using ROI evaluation, no significant decrease in the salivary function has been detected in long-term follow-up, now extending to 1 year after surgery. (orig.)

  5. Early behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in the head after intravenous bolus injection: Its relevance to the cerebral blood circulation

    The relative differences between the behavior of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (Tc) and both, non-diffusible and diffusible reference tracers in the head were evaluated by a statistical comparison of their time-activity curves in blood, brain and some tissues underlying the brain, after IV injection in the rat. This study showed that the particular cephalic behaviour of Tc was neither similar to that of diffusible tracers (even with restricted diffusion) nor equivalent to that of a non-diffusible tracer in the whole head. Although Tc is not an intravascular tracer in the entire cephalic volume, it was demonstrated that the initial peak characterizing the dilution of this tracer in the head is exclusively generated by its first passage in the cerebral circulation, even if the blood flow rate is changed. To extract from this initial peak a first dilution curve relevant to the cerebral circulation, Tc kinetics in the head were considered a two compartmental model. Assuming that the maximum uptake of tracer was reached at the same time in both compartments of this model, the disappearance of Tc from the fast compartment approximates the first dilution curve of Tc in the fast cerebral circulation, if the slope of the Tc disappearance curve from the slow compartment is assimilated to a plateau. (orig.)

  6. Sialoscintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate in the evaluation of salivary gland function in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy

    The aim of this study was an evaluation of salivary gland function after radioiodine therapy (RIT) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) using sialoscintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate. We investigated 97 patients with thyroid cancer aged from 35 to 65 years. The patients were divided into two groups. First group consisted of 30 patients after total or subtotal thyroidectomy without RIT and symptoms of functional activity changes of salivary glands. Second group included 67 patients after thyroidectomy and following RIT. Administered therapeutic activities varied ranging from 1100 to 4720 MBq. We performed sialoscintigraphy in dynamic mode over a period of 30 minutes (1 frame per 20 sec) with stimulation of gland function at 20 min of study using lemon juice. For evaluation of salivary gland function we used wide spectrum of indices and activity-time curves obtained from zones of interest 'salivary glands'. From among the large number of indices determined in the study we could identify three most informative indices. These are 1. Coefficient of concentration (Cc), coefficient of excretion (Ce) and T-max. The mean values of all of these indices were significantly decreased in the patients belonging to the second group in comparison with first group. These are presented. Overall significant decrease in salivary gland function was detected (P < 0.05) following radioiodine therapy as compared to the control group

  7. Reduction of pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid: Formation of [TcNO(AHA)2(H2O)]+ and implications for the UREX process.

    1Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Nuclear Science and Technology Division, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, 89154-4006; Gong, Cynthia-May S; Poineau, Frederic; Lukens, Wayne W; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2008-02-26

    Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry with the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a the d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but may be augmented by products of reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex (1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent; titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4.5 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The formation of 1 may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99mTcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99mTcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (PSubstâncias podem interferir na biodisponibilidade de radiobiocomplexos, como os radiofármacos. O extrato de Ginkgo Biloba (EGb apresenta efeitos. Avaliou-se a influência de um EGb na biodisponibilidade do pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO-4Na e na morfometria de órgãos de ratos que foram tratados com EGb. 99mTcO-4Na foi injetado, os animais sacrificados e a radioatividade nos órgãos contada. Os resultados mostraram que o EGb alterou a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na em rins, fígado e duodeno e alterações morfométricas significativas (p<0.05 foram encontradas. Sugere-se que o EGb poderia gerar metabólitos capazes de alterar morfometricamente os órgãos citados e alterar a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na.

  9. Dose selection for radioiodine therapy of borderline hyperthyroid patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy on the basis of 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake

    The aim of this study was to optimise radioiodine therapy of diffuse and nodular toxic goitre by calculation of the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid on the basis of the pretreatment technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under thyrotropin suppression (TcTUs). The TcTUs value serves as a substitute for the non-suppressible iodine turnover and the functional autonomous mass. Marinelli's formula was used to calculate tissue absorbed doses of 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy and 300 Gy to the thyroids of 438 patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy. The mean age of patients was 70±9 years, and the mean thyroid volume was 54±26 ml. Two hundred and sixty-one of the patients had at least one documented previous episode of overt hyperthyroidism. Tissue absorbed doses were adapted to the pretreatment TcTUs: 150 Gy for a TcTUs of 1.5%-2.49%, 200 Gy for a TcTUs of 2.5%-3.49%, 250 Gy for a TcTUs of 3.5%-4.49% and 300 Gy for a TcTUs of ≥4.5%. Normalisation of TcTUs and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid volume reduction and frequency of hypothyroidism and recurrent hyperthyroidism were evaluated 1 year after a single radioiodine therapy. The presented dose strategy resulted in normalisation of TcTUs in 96% and an increase in TSH to the normal range in 92%. Recurrent hyperthyroidism was observed in only five patients. Thyroid volume decreased from 54±26 before treatment to 34±20 ml, a mean reduction of 37%. The frequency of hypothyroidism, at 0.9%, was encouragingly low. Dose selection in accordance with pretreatment TcTUs can be recommended for elimination of functional autonomous tissue with a single radioiodine therapy in patients of advanced age with enlarged thyroid glands and relevant autonomous masses who are at risk of developing iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. (orig.)

  10. The removal of the pertechnetate ion and actinides from radioactive waste streams at Hanford, Washington, USA and Sellafield, Cumbria, UK: the role of ron-sulfide-containing adsorbent materials

    In previous work the adsorption of a number of radioactive ions from solution by a strongly-magnetic iron sulfide material has been studied. The material was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a novel bioreactor. The uptake is rapid and the loading on the adsorbent is high due to the high surface area of the adsorbent and because many of the ions are chemisorbed. The structural properties have been examined using high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetisation versus field and temperature, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and neutron diffraction have been reported previously. The surface area is of the order of 400-500 m2 g-1, as determined by the adsorption of heavy metals, the magnetic properties, neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Following the success of the biologically-generated material, Lidzey at Bio Separation Ltd. was able to produce an iron sulfide material with the tochilinite structure which has similar adsorption properties for cations, but not anions, as the biologically-generated material but the Lidzey material is considerably cheaper to produce. One of the radionuclides of particular interest is the pertechnetate ion TcO4-. 99Tc is a radionuclide determining the long-term environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle because of its long half-life and because it occurs normally in the form of the highly soluble pertechnetate ion which can enter the food chain. This paper examines methods by which adsorbent materials containing iron sulfide can play a part in the extraction and the safe long-term storage of many radionuclides and in particular the pertechnetate ion occuring at the Hanford Plant, Washington, USA and the Sellafield Plant, Cumbria, UK

  11. Portal streamlining as a cause of nonuniform hepatic distribution of sodium pertechnetate during per-rectal portal scintigraphy in the dog.

    Daniel, Gregory B; DeNovo, Robert C; Sharp, Dorothy S; Tobias, Karen; Berry, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate nonuniform patterns of vascular distribution of pertechnetate in the dog during per-rectal portal scintigraphy. Ninety-two studies were reviewed retrospectively to document the patterns of radionuclide distribution. Forty-five studies were classified as normal and 47 were classified as diagnostic for a macrovascular portosystemic shunt. In these dogs, shunt fractions were calculated and compared using a t-test. In dogs with sufficient liver radioactivity for evaluation, the study was classified as having uniform, dorsal, central, or ventral radiopharmaceutical distributions. There were 51 animals (45 normal and six dogs with low-magnitude portosystemic shunts) with sufficient liver activity to assess the radionuclide distribution within the liver. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare shunt fractions between each of the distribution patterns. Two dogs were anesthetized and selective portovenograms were performed. Portovenograms were compared with the scintigraphic images to correlate the vascular distribution of the right, central, and left divisional branches of the portal vein. The shunt fraction in the 45 normal dogs was significantly lower than in the dogs with portosystemic shunts (5.7% +/- 4.8% vs. 78.6% +/- 20.0% (mean +/- SD), P < 0.001). Of the 51 dogs with sufficient liver activity to classify the pattern of distribution, there were 15/51 (31.4%) with uniform radionuclide distribution, 10/51 (19.6%) with focal dorsal distribution, 15/51 (29.4%) with focal ventral distribution, and 10/51 (19.6%) with focal central distribution. There was no significant difference in the shunt fractions between the groups. There were six dogs diagnosed with low-magnitude portosystemic shunt with sufficient liver radioactivity to categorize the vascular distribution of the radionuclide within the liver. Of these six dogs, two had focal dorsal distribution, one had focal central, one had focal ventral and two had uniform distribution

  12. Photoreduction of 99Tc Pertechnetate by Nanometer-Sized Metal Oxides: New Strategies for Formation and Sequestration of Low-Valent Technetium

    Burton-Pye, Benjamin P. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Radivojevic, Ivana [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); McGregor, Donna [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center; Mbomekalle, Israel M. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Francesconi, Lynn C. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center

    2011-11-23

    Technetium-99 (99Tc)(β-max: 293.7 keV; t1/2: 2.1 x 105 years) is a byproduct of uranium-235 fission and comprises a large component of radioactive waste. Under aerobic conditions and in a neutral- basic environment, the pertechnetate anion (99TcO4-) is stable. 99TcO4- is very soluble, migrates easily through the environment and does not sorb well onto mineral surfaces, soils or sediments. This study moves forward a new strategy for the reduction of TcO4- and chemical incorporation of the reduced 99Tc into a metal oxide material. This strategy employs a single material, a polyoxometalate (POM), α2-[P2W17O61]10-, that can be photoactivated in the presence of 2-propanol to transfer electrons to TcO4- and incorporate the reduced 99Tc covalently into the α2- framework to form the TcVO species, TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. This occurs via the formation of an intermediate species that slowly converts to TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. EXAFS and XANES analysis and preliminary EPR analysis, suggests that the intermediate consists of a Tc(IV) α2- species where the 99Tc is likely bound to only 2 of the 4 W-O oxygen atoms in the α2-[P2W17O61]10- defect. This intermediate then oxidizes and converts to the 99TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7- product. The reduction and incorporation of 99TcO4- was accomplished in a ''one pot'' reaction using both sunlight and UV irradiation, and monitored as a function of time

  13. The efficacy of Per-rectal portal scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate for evaluation of prognosis in the early phase of cirrhosis caused by hepatitis virus

    Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the commonest cause of chronic liver diseases in several countries, including Japan, and is becoming a topic of worldwide interest. Chronic hepatitis due to HCV (CH-C) is common, but its clinical course has not been fully defined. Despite treatments including injection of interferon plus peroral ribavirin, many patients with CH-C develop cirrhosis of the liver (LC). Thus we tried to establish a non-invasive and effective means of evaluating the prognosis of patients with LC-C as an alternative to classic indicators such as serum biochemical tests, The portal shunt index (SI) obtained by per-rectal portal scintigraphy is a non-invasive test for evaluating the portal circulation and hepatic functional reserve in cirrhosis. Methods: Scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate was performed in 122 patients (group A; 37 of SI≤10%, group B; 46 of 10%< SI<30%, group C; 39 of 30% ≤ SI) with LC-C of Child's grade A who attended our hospital over a period 24 years. 370 MBq of Tc-99m pertechnetate was given into the upper rectum and summed color images were recorded. The portal SI was calculated from the rate of counts for the heart to counts for the heart and liver integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. Statistical analyses were done using Student's t test or the Wilcoxon rank sum test where appropriate for continuous variables, Regression analyses with Cox's proportional hazards model were done using Statistical Analysis System version 8,2. We evaluated the following factors in predicting the outcomes of interest (progression to HCC, Child's grade B, or esophagogastric varices): sex, age, albumin, total bilirubin (T-bil), prothrombin time (PT), ICG test, cholinesterase, total cholesterol (T-chol), and platelets. Results: The cumulative incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was not significantly higher in group B than in group A, in group C than in group A, or in group C than

  14. Effect of vincristine on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate and 99 m Tc-phytate radiopharmaceuticals in mice balb/c; Efeito da vincristina na biodistribuicao dos radiofarmacos pertecnetato de sodio e fitato marcados com Tecnecio-99m em camundongos balb/c

    Britto, Deise M.M.; Souza Freitas, Rosemeire de; Paula, Emilio F. de; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Vincristine is a drug used in chemotherapy for cancer treatment. The radiopharmaceuticals biodistribution or pharmacokinetics can be modify by drugs effect, diseases, surgery and radiotherapy. The absence of knowledge of these factors may result in an unexpected behavior of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this work was studied the effect of vincristine on biodistribution of pertechnetate used for thyroid and brain scintigraphy and 99 mTc-phytate used for hepatic scintigraphy. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  16. Decommissioning standards

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  17. Accounting standards

    B. Stellinga

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  18. International Standards.

    Havard-Williams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Discussion of standardization on an international scale for resource sharing--cooperation, coordination, interlibrary loans, cooperative acquisition and cataloging--focuses on a definition of standards; the development of standards for cataloging; public, school, and university libraries; and library education. A 60-item bibliography is included.…

  19. Communications standards

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  20. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  1. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  2. Training Standardization

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  3. EOS standards

    Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  4. An in vivo/in vitro evaluation of Ginkgo Biloba extract on the biodistribution of sodium 99mTc- Pertechnetate and on the morphology of organs isolated from the rats

    The use of radionuclides for a multitude of basic research applications has continued to grow at a very rapid pace.Technetium-99m(99mTc) is the most widely used radionuclide in clinical nuclear medicine. Although serendipity played a significant role in its choice, 99mTc does possess both chemical and physical characteristics which make it the workhorse of radionuclide imaging and it has been used for labeling of various radiopharmaceuticals. Many substances have been reported to affect the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) is a phytoterapic used in the treatment of hypoxic conditions. This medicinal plant has several biological effects, specially, vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. It has antioxidant characteristics.We evaluated the influence of an EGb on the biodistribution of the sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na) and on the morphology of the organs from WISTAR rats. The animals were treated (6 days, intragastric via) with EGb (40 and 400 mg/mL). After that, 99mTcO4 Na was injected and the animals were sacrificed (after 10 minutes). The organs were isolated and counted in a well counter. The percentages of radioactivity per organ (%ATI/organ) and radioactivity per gram (%ATI/gram) of each organ were calculated. Histological preparations were carried out with the pieces of organs withdrawn from the treated animals (400mg/mL EGb). The results showed that EGb altered (not significant, n=5, p>0.05) the biodistribution of the 99mTcO4 Na in the kidneys and liver. A significant (n=5, P99mTcO4 Na in the treated animals

  5. Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy in newborns with neonatal TSH levels > 20uUI/ml, detected in the national program of newborn screening of congenital hypothyroidism (CH)

    The aim of this study was to analyse the thyroid scintigraphy (TS) findings in 279 newborn with neonatal TSH (TSHnn) levels above 20 uUI/ml, detected in the national program of newborn screening of CH and phenylketonuria, and to compare them with: 1) final diagnosis, estimating its positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and 2) TSHnn levels. Materials and Method: Thyroid scintigraphy of 279 newborn (57.3% girls) who presented TSHnn levels > 20 uUI/ml were revised, classifying them in eutopic gland (EuG), ectopic gland (EcG) and absence of contrast (AC). EuG was classified by visual and quantitative criteria in: normal contrast and size, goiter, and decreased contrast (DC). Tc99m-pertechnetate TS was performed average at 19th life's day (SD:11 days) with a gammacamera- computer system. The patients were separated according to hormonal confirmatory levels in: CH, hyperthyrotropinaemia (HT) and euthyroid. We compared TS results with final diagnosis and also with TSHnn levels (>= or 50 uUI/ml group (p<0.001). Moreover, the former group presented bigger proportion of CH newborns and of EcG scans than < 50uUI/ml patients (p<0.001). EcG and goiter condition had a PPV for CH of 100% and 79.6%, respectively. The NPV of normal TS was 86.7%. Conclusion: 1) Newborns with TSHnn levels larger than 20 uUI/ml show a high frequency of abnormal TS. 2) The EcG is highly predictive of CH. 3) Goiter and AC associated to TSHnn levels above 50 uUI/ml support strongly CH diagnosis. 4) Normal TS correspond very likely to euthyroid newborn, specially when TSHnn is lower than 50 uUI/ml

  6. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially

  7. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Fae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially.

  8. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  9. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  10. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Angélica B Garcia-Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC. The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE. Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na 99m TcO 4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na 99m TcO 4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences.

  11. Dosimetry standards

    The following leaflets are contained in this folder concerning the National Physical Laboratory's measurement services available in relation to dosimetry standards: Primary standards of X-ray exposure and X-ray irradiation facilities, X-ray dosimetry at therapy levels, Protection-level X-ray calibrations, Therapy-level gamma-ray facility, Fricke dosemeter reference service, Low-dose-rate gamma-ray facility, Penetrameter and kV meter calibration, Measurement services for radiation processing, Dichromate dosemeter reference service, Electron linear accelerator. (U.K.)

  12. Frequency standards

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  13. Determination of the volume of circulating blood by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells with 99mTc pertechnetate and use of a Bulgarian kit

    A method was proposed for determination of the circulating blood volume (CBV) by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells, which was compared to the routine method with 51Cr-sodium chromate. To the patients concecutively was given 1 g of potassium perchlorate (for blocking of the organs, which actively absorbed the perchnetate ion) and 500 mkg of tin pyrophosphate (Bulgarian kit) with subsequent labelling of the red blood cells with 99mTc-pertechnate (1,8 - 3,7 MBq). The volume of the red blood cells, and hence also CBV, was measured with the use of a modified by the authors formula, in which correction for the individual effectiveness of the cell labelling was done. In comparison with the standard method for in vitro labelling of the red blood cells with 51Cr sodium chromate, the method proposed gave an insignificant difference of 4,16%, but when compared to the commercial tin pyrophosphate (of the firm Mallinckrot - Holland), the Bulgarian kit displayed equivalent qualities. It was concluded that the method has a high accuracy and was easy for execution, cause a low radiation burden of the patient and is suitable for application in nuclear cardiology and radionuclide angiography

  14. Results and evaluation of non-invasive brain perfusion characteristics with 99m Tc pertechnetate in clinically neurologically healthy persons as well as in patients with intracranial growths

    For an estimation of regional brain perfusion after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-pertechneate, the author followed the registration of the initial perfusion input in ventrosagittal or lateral setting of the scintillation camera in 74 patients. The time-activity characteristics were obtained across standardized regions, the mode of evaluation was applied as mentioned. A mean value of 49.1 for the perfusion of the right hemisphere was determined, for the left one it was 49.7 ml/100g/min. The regional mean values lay between 44.4 (parietal region) and 39.6 (temporal region) ml/100g for the lateral position. Thirtyone patients with intracronical growths were examined either directly before surgery or one year before it. In 22 of the patients examined before surgery a significantly lower regional perfusion could be computet for the ventral position; whereas the lateral perfusion values corresponded to values of healthy persons. The orienting calculation of regional brain perfusion at longer intervals after tumor extirpation did not show a significant difference to the clinically-neurologically inconspicuous patient collective in lateral exposure position normal patients. In 12 cases the calculation of the regional perfusion followed directly via the tumour. On an average, the values were about 8.2 ml/100g/min lower than in normal cases. (orig./MG)

  15. Laser standards

    The history of the development of international, American and British standards for the use of lasers is briefly discussed. Other topics briefly discussed include the biological effects of laser radiation, hazard classification systems for laser systems, maximum permissible exposures and radiation protection measures in practical considerations. (UK)

  16. Standard deviations

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  17. Handover standards.

    2016-05-01

    An important part of discharge communication is the timely handover of information about diagnostic tests, as breakdown in this aspect of communication can contribute to unsafe patient care. NHS England has produced a set of standards to underpin the development of robust systems of care, policies and practice for the safe and high quality transfer of information about diagnostic tests and test results at discharge. The standards are governed by three overarching principles that have implications for nurses. They are that: ■ Clinicians who order tests are responsible for reviewing, acting on and communicating results and actions taken to GPs and patients, even if patients have been discharged. ■ Results received by GP practices should be reviewed and acted on by a responsible clinician even if they did not order the tests. ■ Reasonable adjustments should be made for people with learning disabilities and mental health problems and, where appropriate, families, carers, care co-ordinators and key workers should be invited to participate in handover processes and decisions about patients at discharge. PMID:27138516

  18. The beryllium "double standard" standard.

    Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2003-01-01

    Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large. PMID:14758859

  19. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    Folmer, Erwin; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the development time is reduced by over 50% while maintaining an appropriate quality level for achieving interoperability in practice. The Instant Standard concept for development of data standards is des...

  20. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  1. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  2. Proposed Josephson voltage standard

    Chang, C. C.; Holderman, L. B.; Toots, J.

    1980-01-01

    Relatively-simple microwave integrated circuit comprising two resonators linked by Josephson junction could be set up to generate standard Josephson volt in any industrial laboratory. Standard cells and electronic equipment could be readily compared and calibrated to this standard.

  3. Standards help enterprises

    2007-01-01

    @@ Standardization in modern times began from the Industrial Revolution. Various industrial sectors, for which about 300 standardization technical commissions have been established, make up the key fields of China's standardization.

  4. Standardization in Causal Analysis

    Jae-On Kim; G. Donald Ferree Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In comparative study, it is argued that (1) the standardization of variables and scales should be separated from the habitual use of standardized coefficients; (2) the use of standardized coefficients implies standardizing every variable using group specific standards, and, therefore, it is not appropriate even if some variables have group specific metrics or some variables do not possess commonly accepted metrics; and (3) the explicit standardization of some or all variables can be fruitfull...

  5. Standards in education

    Darko Zupanc

    2005-01-01

    Modern educational systems are based on standards. Systems in countries all over the world differ and have different tradition, so different terms are used for similar concepts. In education, standards should have a similar role as in physics, where they are empirical and measurable. Two types of standards can be defined: content or curriculum standards and performance standards, with the latter being essential. Setting educational goals or content standards is the first step in the construct...

  6. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    This paper explores the relationship between written standards and the phenomena under standardisation. In this paper written standards are looked upon as representations of practice phenomena, and the paper argues that standards can represent these to a smaller or larger extent. Therefore, some...... written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...... case of organic agricultural standards....

  7. What is "Standard" About the Standard Deviation

    Newberger, Florence; Safer, Alan M.; Watson, Saleem

    2010-01-01

    The choice of the formula for standard deviation is explained in elementary statistics textbooks in various ways. We give an explanation for this formula by representing the data as a vector in $\\mathbb R^n$ and considering its distance from a central tendency vector. In this setting the "standard" formula represents a shortest distance in the standard metric. We also show that different metrics lead to different measures of central tendency.

  8. Standardization and the European Standards Organisations

    Marta Orviska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardization is a relatively neglected aspect of the EU regulatory process and yet it is fundamental to that process and arguably has recently been the key vehicle in making the single market an economic reality. Yet the key standardization bodies in the EU, the ESOs, are scarcely known to the public and seldom discussed in the literature. In this article we redress this imbalance, arguing that standardization and integration are closely related concepts. We also argue that the ESOs have developed a degree of autonomy in expanding the boundaries of standardization and even in developing their own links with the rest of the world. Recent proposals put forward by the European Commission can be seen as an attempt to reduce that autonomy. These proposals emphasize the speed of, and stakeholder involvement in, standards production, which we further suggest are somewhat conflicting aims.

  9. Photometric Standards for Non-Standard Filters

    Hoot, John E.

    2015-05-01

    The AAVSO, professional collaborators, and research consortiums are increasingly requesting that photometric observations be submitted after they have been transformed onto 'standard' photometric systems. This greatly reduces the burden on the principal investigators in managing and merging data from many disparate contributors, but discourages many potential contributors who are unaware that their present equipment can make a valuable contribution. Many potential observers, amateurs, students and instructors are confused over what filters are required and what standards are best. This paper focuses on the best standards and observation methods for observers with one shot color cameras and those possessing monochrome CCD cameras with LRGB filter sets, the two most common configurations used in amateur and educational observatories. This paper examines which current standards best match common equipment and present effective ways for amateurs and students to reduce data to standard systems with common tools and a minimum of mathematical rigor.

  10. The Dynamics of Standardization

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a...... comprehensive overview of existing research in these three areas, we argue that the dynamic aspects of standardization are under-represented in the scholarly discourse. Furthermore, we identify the main types of tension associated with standardization and the dynamics they generate in each of those three areas......, and show that, while standards and standardization are typically associated with stability and sameness, they are essentially a dynamic phenomenon. The paper highlights the contributions of this special issue to the topic of standards as a dynamic phenomenon in organization studies and makes...

  11. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    Blaeser, Susan B; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27036268

  12. Standard-Essential Patents

    Lerner, Josh; Tirole, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A major policy issue in standard setting is that patents that are ex-ante not that important may, by being included into the standard, become standard-essential patents (SEPs). In an attempt to curb the monopoly power that they create, most standard-setting organizations require the owners of patents covered by the standard to make a loose commitment to grant licenses on reasonable terms. Such commitments unsurprisingly are conducive to intense litigation activity. This paper builds a framewo...

  13. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards, and...

  14. Standardisation in standards

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)

  15. Standards in education

    Darko Zupanc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational systems are based on standards. Systems in countries all over the world differ and have different tradition, so different terms are used for similar concepts. In education, standards should have a similar role as in physics, where they are empirical and measurable. Two types of standards can be defined: content or curriculum standards and performance standards, with the latter being essential. Setting educational goals or content standards is the first step in the construction of knowledge measurement procedures. In Slovenia, the traditional term 'performance objective' or 'instructional objective' can be used instead of the term 'content standards'. For each school subject on different levels in Slovenian educational system, performance standards have to be set in the future, if educational system is to be based on standards.

  16. Nuclear standardization development study

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  17. Agent Standards Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  18. Standards and standpoints

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization....... The argument takes off from two different conceptualizations of standards in the literature. On the one hand, standards as immanent to practices (the “Neo-Aristotelian” approach), and on the other hand, standards as imposed to regulate practices (the “neo-pragmatist” and “governmentality” approaches......). It is suggested that this opposition can be superseded by articulating the former alternative, not as an essentialism of “practice,” but as the reflexive assumption of standpoint. Some intricacies of the articulation of standpoint are then discussed, concluding in a proposed dialectics of standard...

  19. Masonry Program Standards.

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the masonry program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program structure…

  20. The proposed Sticks Standard

    Trimberger, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the Sticks Standard. Software has been written to interface this standard to plotters, a graphic Sticks editor, a Stick compactor and several simulators. The Standard appears adequate to describe cells for chip assemblers as well as Stick diagram editing and compaction systems. However, this version of the Sticks Standard cannot efficiently describe large chips because it lacks an array facility. This deficiency will be corrected in the next release of the Sticks ...

  1. Questioning the Standard

    2011-01-01

    Dairy quality standards trigger further controversy China’s dairy industry is once again being scrutinized as suspicions abound that major dairy enterprises played a hand in manipulating and lowering quality standards to save costs.The new standards released in March 2010 set the maximum safety limit for bacteria in raw milk at 2 million cells per milliliter, four times

  2. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  3. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  4. Standardization in Beijing Opera

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Opera is the treasure of Chinese traditional dramatic arts.More than 200 years of artistic practice is the process that makes it mature and standardized.Although it is not described by standardized academic terminologies,all the performances of 'Chang (Singing)','Nian(Speaking)','Zuo (Acting)' and 'Da (Fighting)' have been following standardization requirement which is called "Chengshi (pattem)" in professional language or "Fan'er" in jargou,literally meaning a standard pattern.The pattern is the an technology format which is refined and summarized in accordance with the beautify principles from natural forms of things in life and then standardized to be the commonly adhered.

  5. Information Security Standards

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security standards demonstrate in a methodical and certifiable manner that an organization conforms to industry best practices and procedures. This article offers a review of the world’s most used information security standards.

  6. Business Standardization & Market Economy

    Li Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the market economy in China requires a renewed understanding of the theory and practice of business standardization. Built on the basic principles of standardization and the market economics, this paper seeks to define the role and status of standardization in the market economy, its aims and priorities. It then describes the deployment of standardization in market competition. Lastly, it explores into the possible transformations of concepts, functions and associated personnel of enterprise standardization in order to keep abreast of the evolving market economy.

  7. 117 Standards Admitted in Civil Administration Standardization Plan

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Civil Administration has finalized its Standardization Plan 2007. According to this plan, the Ministry will see that 117 standards, including 8 compulsory national standards, 83 recommended national standards, and 26 professional standards, are prepared by June 2008.

  8. CSNI LOCA standard problems

    In the 3. meeting of the CSNI Working Group on ECCS (August 1976), several countries expressed views on the scope of the Standard Problem programme and how often Standard Problems should be performed. Based on discussions expressed during the meeting and on some opinions, several recommendations have been made. They are presented here, divided into five sections: Objectives of CSNI Standard Problems; Proposals for New CSNI Standard Problems; Specifications for Standard Problem Analysis; Reporting of Results from CSNI Standard Problem Exercises; Calculated Results and Experimental Data Comparison Report. Section I discusses the purpose for doing Standard Problems, and the other four sections discuss the different documents that should be prepared in support of the programme. Each of these four sections attempts to outline specifications for the content of the documents

  9. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    aspect of the legal system: the evidence standard. We recast the conventional rent-seeking model to consider how alternative evidence standards affect litigation choices. We analyze the interrelation between different evidence standards, the effectiveness of the parties’ efforts, and the merits of the...... case. We study how these factors jointly affect the parties’ litigation expenditures and the selection of cases brought to the courts. The evidence standard has different effects on different types of cases, reducing litigation for high-merit cases when standards are set low and increasing litigation...... for low-merit cases when standards are set high. This provides a valuable key for understanding the sorting effect of evidence standards and their role as a policy instrument in civil litigation....

  10. Standards der Globalisierung

    Botzem, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Accounting standards are frequently understood to be little more than formalized rules for the preparation of financial statements. However, despite the apparent a-political nature standards are contested and show relevant distributional effects. In times of economic globalization, setting accounting standards is increasingly organized beyond the nation state. A private not-for-profit organization has emerged over 35 years which dominates accounting regulation today. This dissertation analyze...

  11. Information Security Standards

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-01-01

    The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security stand...

  12. A case of standardization?

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines are increasingly used in an effort to standardize and systematize health practices at the local level and to promote evidence-based practice. The implementation of guidelines frequently faces problems, however, and standardization processes may in general have other outcomes than...... describe this process as a case of epistemic standardization....... the ones envisioned by the makers of standards. In 2012, the Danish National Health Authorities introduced a set of health promotion guidelines that were meant to guide the decision making and priority setting of Denmark's 98 local governments. The guidelines provided recommendations for health promotion...

  13. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  14. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  15. Towards common technical standards

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  16. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  17. International hearing protector standardization

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance in...

  18. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  19. Rewriting the Standards

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, aggressive leadership from the National Association for Music Education resulted in the adoption of the nine National Standards for Music Education. Now, almost two decades later, much has changed. Standards have been studied and critiqued, and scholars have undertaken a great deal of research to identify best practices not only for…

  20. How many standards?

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school. This...

  1. Why Standards Matter

    Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

    2012-01-01

    When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

  2. Academic Standards in Alabama

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  3. [CAS General Standards 2012

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  4. Standards Supporters Firing Back

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Supporters of the Common Core State Standards are moving to confront increasingly high-profile opposition to the standards at the state and national levels by rallying the private sector and initiating coordinated public relations and advertising campaigns as schools continue implementation. In states such as Michigan and Tennessee, where…

  5. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  6. Neutron standard data

    The neutron standards are reviewed with emphasis on the evaluation for ENDFB-VI. Also discussed are the neutron spectrum of 252Cf spontaneous fission, activation cross sections for neutron flux measurement, and standards for neutron energies greater than 20 MeV. Recommendations are made for future work. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Standards for Language Resources

    Ide, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is two-fold: to present an abstract data model for linguistic annotations and its implementation using XML, RDF and related standards; and to outline the work of a newly formed committee of the International Standards Organization (ISO), ISO/TC 37/SC 4 Language Resource Management, which will use this work as its starting point.

  8. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  9. Standardization of engineering documentation

    Many interrelated activities involving a number of organizational units comprise the process for the design and construction of a nuclear steam supply steam (NSSS). In the application of a standard NSSS design, many activities are duplicated from project to project and form a standard process for the engineering. This standard process in turn lends itself to a system for standardizing the engineering documentation associated with a particular design application. For these varied activities to be carried out successfully, a strong network of communication is required not only within each design organization but also externally among the various participants: the owner, the NSSS supplier, the architect-engineer, the construction agency, equipment suppliers, and others. This paper discusses, from the viewpoint of a NSSS supplier's engineering organization, the role of standard engineering documents in the design process and communication network

  10. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  11. 76 FR 75840 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    2011-12-05

    ... language from outdated standards published by standards developing organizations (``SDO standards'') (69 FR... Association standard, CGA G-1-2003, in the Acetylene Standard. See 74 FR 40442 and 74 FR 40450, respectively... outdated standard; and impose no significant new compliance costs on employers (69 FR 68283, 68285).......

  12. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    2011-12-05

    ... organizations (``SDO standards'') (69 FR 68283). A SDO standard referenced in OSHA's Acetylene Standard (29 CFR... of the Compressed Gas Association standard, CGA G-1-2003, in the Acetylene Standard. See 74 FR 40442... appropriate, revoke references to outdated national SDO standards in OSHA rules (see, e.g., 69 FR 68283, 70......

  13. Standard dilution analysis.

    Jones, Willis B; Donati, George L; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2015-02-17

    Standard dilution analysis (SDA) is a novel calibration method that may be applied to most instrumental techniques that will accept liquid samples and are capable of monitoring two wavelengths simultaneously. It combines the traditional methods of standard additions and internal standards. Therefore, it simultaneously corrects for matrix effects and for fluctuations due to changes in sample size, orientation, or instrumental parameters. SDA requires only 200 s per sample with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Neither the preparation of a series of standard solutions nor the construction of a universal calibration graph is required. The analysis is performed by combining two solutions in a single container: the first containing 50% sample and 50% standard mixture; the second containing 50% sample and 50% solvent. Data are collected in real time as the first solution is diluted by the second one. The results are used to prepare a plot of the analyte-to-internal standard signal ratio on the y-axis versus the inverse of the internal standard concentration on the x-axis. The analyte concentration in the sample is determined from the ratio of the slope and intercept of that plot. The method has been applied to the determination of FD&C dye Blue No. 1 in mouthwash by molecular absorption spectrometry and to the determination of eight metals in mouthwash, wine, cola, nitric acid, and water by ICP OES. Both the accuracy and precision for SDA are better than those observed for the external calibration, standard additions, and internal standard methods using ICP OES. PMID:25599250

  14. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  15. Wireless installation standard

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  16. Operator licensing examiner standards

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  17. Technical standards in nuclear area

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author)

  18. Testing the standard model

    Ways in which various facilities may be used to test the standard model were discussed. Topics addressed include: intermediate vector bosons, neutral current couplings, Higgs Bosons, toponium, naked quarks, glueballs, mixing angles and heavy ions

  19. Speech processing standards

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    Speech processing standards are given for 64, 32, 16 kb/s and lower rate speech and more generally, speech-band signals which are or will be promulgated by CCITT and NATO. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) of the International body which deals, among other things, with speech processing within the context of ISDN. Within NATO there are also bodies promulgating standards which make interoperability, possible without complex and expensive interfaces. Some of the applications for low-bit rate voice and the related work undertaken by CCITT Study Groups which are responsible for developing standards in terms of encoding algorithms, codec design objectives as well as standards on the assessment of speech quality, are highlighted.

  20. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  1. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  2. Striving for "Standard Economy"

    Li Huailin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promotion of the "standard economy" itself is an integral part of upgrading the quality of China's economic development, transforming economic growth mode and responding to foreign trade barriers as well as a key strategy for improving foreign trade level.

  3. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  4. 3G Standards

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which are...... the most decisive factors in the battle between the different standards – which roles do respectively technology path-dependence, network effects and strategic concerns play? Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken in the paper is to examine the different kinds of stakeholders – in this field....... Originality/value – The paper is based on the understanding that a vast array of different factors in a complex dynamic environment goes into the determination of the outcome of such standardization games. However, the battle between 3G standards has already reached a level, where relatively certain...

  5. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  6. Standards Implementation of MSW

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the development of society and economy, the living standard of people is raised, the issue on disposal of refuse is becoming more and more serious, and urban garbage has caused wide public concerns.

  7. Campaigning on radiation standards

    The author outlines the controversy surrounding ICRP recommendations of dose limits for workers and members of the public and the ALARA concept and sketches suggestions for campaigning for radiation standards. (U.K.)

  8. AKRO: Standard Prices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  9. International standards in metallurgy

    Fomina; O.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  10. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  11. Non_standard Wood

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  12. Food Safety & Standards

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  13. The environmental standard

    This article gives details of the environmental management system standard ISO 14001 which is being taken up by the hydroelectric industry. The five stages to the implementation of ISO 14001 are explained, and the reasons behind the interest of the hydroelectric industry in ISO 14001 are outlined. The uptake of ISO 14001 worldwide is noted, and the choice of ISO standards, the benefits for organisations from being certified to ISO 14001, and the ultimate cost for a participating company are considered.(UK)

  14. The Gold Standard Programme

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  15. Standard Model Theory

    Hollik, W.

    2015-01-01

    In this conference report a summary is given on the theoretical work that has contributed to provide accurate theoretical predictions for testing the standard model in present and future experiments. Precision calculations for the vector boson masses, for the Z resonance, W pair production, and for the g-2 of the muon are reviewed and the theoretical situation for the Higgs sector is summarized. The status of the standard model is discussed in the light of the recent high and low energy data....

  16. Standardization Study of Ghritas

    D. Shaila; M. K. Santosh; Chandrakumar, T.; I. Sanjeeva Rao

    2004-01-01

    The standardization of ghritas such as amritaprasa ghrita, brahmi ghrita, chagalyadi ghrita and phala ghrita has been studied. These ghritas are the important Ayurvedic formulations used for peri-natal care of mother and child health. Standardization of ghritas were achieved by organoleptic study, physico-chemical analysis, qualitative analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), UV - visible spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint studies. Qualitative a...

  17. Standards for Language Resources

    Ide, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an abstract data model for linguistic annotations and its implementation using XML, RDF and related standards; and to outline the work of a newly formed committee of the International Standards Organization (ISO), ISO/TC 37/SC 4 Language Resource Management, which will use this work as its starting point. The primary motive for presenting the latter is to solicit the participation of members of the research community to contribute to the work of the committee.

  18. Standard software for CAMAC

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  19. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  20. Standardization Practices of Gree

    2011-01-01

    1.The great importance attached by the company's executives is a strong guarantee for leap-forward development of standardization.To give play to the strategic role of standards in supporting the long-term and sustainable development of the enterprise,the company's management has attached great importance to the standardization work and provided strong capital support and guarantee of resources in standardization.Continuously improve the requirements of corporate technical standards and reliability quality control means,develop core technologies with independent intellectual property rights,continuously achieve major breakthroughs in key technologies and successfully apply to the company's products to help the enterprises maintain rapid and steady development in the market of household electrical appliances with extremely intense competition,achieve remarkable economic and social benefits for the company,and provide strong support for leap-forward development of standardization work.The company has successively and independently developed a series of highend products and technologies which are intemationally advanced.So far,the company has 10 innovations included in the national science and technology programs.

  1. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  2. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  3. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) after massive small bowel resection in rats; Biodistribuicao do radiofarmaco pertecnetato de sodio (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) em ratos submetidos a resseccao extensa de intestino delgado

    Chacon, Damaso de Araujo; Araujo-Filho, Irami; Villarim-Neto, Arthur; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: damasochacon@uol.com.br; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Iniciacao Cientifica; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) in organs and tissues, the morphometry of remnant intestinal mucosa and ponderal evolution in rats subjected to massive resection of the small intestine. Methods:Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 7 animals each. The short bowel (SB) group was subjected to massive resection of the small intestine; the control group (C) rats were not operated on, and soft intestinal handling was performed in sham rats. The animals were weighed weekly. On the 30th postoperative day, 0.1 mL of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, with mean activity of 0.66 MBq was injected intravenously into the orbital plexus. After 30 minutes, the rats were killed with an overdose of anesthetic, and fragments of the liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, thyroid, lung, heart, kidney, bladder, muscle, femur and brain were harvested. The biopsies were washed with 0.9% NaCl.,The radioactivity was counted using Gamma Counter Wizard{sup TM} 1470, Perkin-Elmer. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated. Biopsies of the remaining jejunum were analysed by HE staining to obtain mucosal thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used, considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: There were no significant differences in %ATI/g of the Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} in the organs of the groups studied (p>0.05). An increase in the weight of the SB rats was observed after the second postoperative week. The jejunal mucosal thickness of the SB rats was significantly greater than that of C and sham rats (p<0.05). Conclusion: In rats with experimentally-produced short bowel syndrome, an adaptive response by the intestinal mucosa reduced weight loss. The biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} was not affected by massive intestinal resection, suggesting that short bowel syndrome is not the cause of misleading interpretation

  4. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  5. Consequences of Accounting Standards

    Cai Mingyue

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this article consists in attempting to highlight the importance of concerning about the economic consequences and introducing the foundation of economic consequence theory, proposing that the accounting standard is not only a kind of technical standard, it also has the economic consequences, so it becomes the object which all quarters special interest group gambles to get latent profit. After general characterization of the economic consequences in the second part, the article gives a description of the influences the change of accounting standards bring to the government, the ordinary investors and creditors, the auditors, and the enterprise, establishing a framework that how those groups react as the economic consequences in the third part. The fourth section compare technical theory and accounting standards theory, links the basic norms of accounting such as conservatism, relevance and reliability to the methods of escaping the harm of economic consequences, then proposes some specific methods in the formuhtion of accounting standard. Finally, the article utilizes the methods to settle the problems appearing in Chinese market.

  6. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  7. Standards and quality

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  8. Fasteners 5 basic standards

    2011-01-01

    This 3rd edition of DIN Handbook 193 contains 38 fundamental standards on fasteners, covering such areas as countersinks and counterbores, widths across flats, thread run-outs and thread undercuts, bolt and screw ends, stud ends and tapped holes for compression couplings, driving features, tolerances for screw threads and nomenclature. New to this compilation are DIN 34824 dealing with 12 point sockets for bolts and screws and DIN EN ISO 15065 which reflects current practice in Europe with regard to countersinks for countersunk head screws. Also included for the first time is DIN EN ISO 225 "Fasteners - Bolts, screws, studs and nuts - Symbols and descriptions of dimensions" which, together with DIN ISO 1891, now also incorporates terminology in Chinese, Japanese and Swedish. Four standards have been revised for this edition, among them DIN 918 Supplement 3 which provides information on the current status of European standardization relating to fasteners. DIN Handbook 193 is one of a series of six handbooks on...

  9. Operator licensing examiner standards

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  10. Standardization of depression measurement

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household...... surveys. RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  11. Beyond the standard model

    The standard model of particle interactions is a complete and relatively simple theoretical framework which describes all the observed fundamental forces. It consists of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of the electro-weak theory of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. The former is the theory of colored quarks and gluons, which underlies the observed phenomena of strong interactions, the latter leads to a unified description of electromagnetism and of weak interactions. The inclusion of the classical Einstein theory of gravity completes the set of established basic knowledge. The standard model is in agreement with essentially all of the experimental information which is very rich by now. The recent discovery of the charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons of weak interactions at the expected masses has closed a really important chapter of particle physics. Never before the prediction of new particles was so neat and quantitatively precise. Yet the experimental proof of the standard model is not completed. For example, the hints of experimental evidence for the top quark at a mass ∼ 40 GeV have not yet been firmly established. The Higgs sector of the theory has not been tested at all. Beyond the realm of pure QED, even remaining within the electro-weak sector, the level of quantitative precision in testing the standard model does not exceed 5% or so. Furthermore, the standard model does not look as the ultimate theory. To a closer inspection a large class of fundamental questions emerges and one finds that a host of crucial problems are left open by the standard model

  12. Standardization of 192Ir

    Two 192Ir solutions were standardized by NPL and CBNM within the framework of EUROMET project no. 219. The 4 πβ-γ-coincidence method was used for these measurements, a 4πCsI(Tl) detector for gamma-ray spectrometry, and a NaI(Tl) well counter for 4π-gamma integral counting. The uncertainty of the result was 0.3%, corresponding to one standard deviation. Traceability was established to BIPM for the 192Ir activity measurements. (orig.)

  13. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  14. Operator licensing examiner standards

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  15. Standardization Historical Overview

    Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1. Indroduction Standardization germinated in ancient times, and began to develop from the beginning of the in-dustrial revolution, and took off in the later years of the 19th Century. It has been closely connected with the development of science and technology, as well as industry and trade throughout human histo-ry. Standardization now plays an important role in nearly every aspect of human life, in different sec-tors of industry and society. It has had a great im-pact on our lives.

  16. Standardized endoscopic reporting.

    Aabakken, Lars; Barkun, Alan N; Cotton, Peter B; Fedorov, Evgeny; Fujino, Masayuki A; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Kudo, Shin-Ei; Kuznetzov, Konstantin; de Lange, Thomas; Matsuda, Koji; Moine, Olivier; Rembacken, Björn; Rey, Jean-Francois; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Rösch, Thomas; Sawhney, Mandeep; Yao, Kenshi; Waye, Jerome D

    2014-02-01

    The need for standardized language is increasingly obvious, also within gastrointestinal endoscopy. A systematic approach to the description of endoscopic findings is vital for the development of a universal language, but systematic also means structured, and structure is inherently a challenge when presented as an alternative to the normal spoken word. The efforts leading to the "Minimal Standard Terminology" (MST) of gastrointestinal endoscopy offer a standardized model for description of endoscopic findings. With a combination of lesion descriptors and descriptor attributes, this system gives guidance to appropriate descriptions of lesions and also has a normative effect on endoscopists in training. The endoscopic report includes a number of items not related to findings per se, but to other aspects of the procedure, formal, technical, and medical. While the MST sought to formulate minimal lists for some of these aspects (e.g. indications), they are not all well suited for the inherent structure of the MST, and many are missing. Thus, the present paper offers a recommended standardization also of the administrative, technical, and other "peri-endoscopic" elements of the endoscopic report; important also are the numerous quality assurance initiatives presently emerging. Finally, the image documentation of endoscopic findings is becoming more obvious-and accessible. Thus, recommendations for normal procedures as well as for focal and diffuse pathology are presented. The recommendations are "minimal," meaning that expansions and subcategories will likely be needed in most centers. Still, with a stronger common grounds, communication within endoscopy will still benefit. PMID:24329727

  17. International Financial Reporting Standards

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  18. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  19. Setting the Standard

    2008-01-01

    The country’s self-developed document format standard faces a difficult decision and possible extinction as it goes up against mighty Microsoft Since Microsoft’s Office Open Extensible Markup Language (OOXML)document format was accepted as an international stan- dard by the International Organization for

  20. Standardized Curriculum for Electrician.

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: electrician I and II. The 11 units in electrician I are as follows: orientation; safety; tools, equipment, materials/supplies; basic principles and theory; DC circuits; AC circuits; blueprints and load calculations; load centers and…

  1. Beyond the standard model

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  2. Globalization of HVDC Standards

    Gu Chen

    2011-01-01

    China has made outstanding achievements in the fields of Ultra-High Voltage Direct Current (UHV DC) power transmission and security of large-scale power grid till now,and the smart grid construction has been under way,all of which put forward much higher strategic requirements of standards globalization.

  3. Standard hakkab tootma Mercedesele

    2005-01-01

    AS Standard sõlmis ühe maailma suurema autotootjaga DaimlerChrysler AG koostöölepingu, mille kohaselt hakkab ettevõte tootma ning müüma kontori- ja teenindussaalide mööblit kontserni kuuluva Mercedes-Benzi Euroopa diileritele

  4. On Standard Ideals

    Zhi De YU

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, we study a class of standard ideals which are more general than the m-primarystandard ideals discussed in [2]. We will prove an important equality concerning I-weak sequences; thusa generalization of the equality of [2] is established.

  5. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  6. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  7. DOE standard: Radiological control

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  8. DOE standard: Radiological control

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ''Occupational Radiation Protection''. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835

  9. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    None

    2013-08-12

    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  10. NASA Software Safety Standard

    Rosenberg, Linda

    1997-01-01

    If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

  11. Beyond standard quantum chromodynamics

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Despite the many empirical successes of QCD, there are a number of intriguing experimental anomalies that have been observed in heavy flavor hadroproduction, in measurements of azimuthal correlations in deep inelastic processes, and in measurements of spin correlations in hadronic reactions. Such phenomena point to color coherence and multiparton correlations in the hadron wavefunctions and physics beyond standard leading twist factorization. Two new high precision tests of QCD and the Standard Model are discussed: classical polarized photoabsorption sum rules, which are sensitive to anomalous couplings and composite structure, and commensurate scale relations, which relate physical observables to each other without scale or scheme ambiguity. The relationship of anomalous couplings to composite structure is also discussed.

  12. Standarder for god undervisning

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie;

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab for...

  13. Standardized molecular typing.

    Müller, F M; Lischewski, A; Harmsen, D; Hacker, J

    1999-01-01

    Molecular typing methods are useful tools in molecular mycology. The results of these biotyping procedures may help to identify pathogenic strains in order to detect sources of nosocomial infection and for the investigation of epidemiological relationships. With respect to the facultative pathogen, Candida albicans, various methods such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), DNA fingerprinting methods and hybridization with repetitive DNA elements have been described as useful tools in molecular epidemiology. The previously described hybridization method with the Candida albicans specific CARE-2 probe and subsequent rehybridization with a molecular size marker is a standardized reproducible typing method for comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In a larger epidemiological study conducted at the University Hospital of Würzburg analysing clinical C. albicans isolates, we were able to describe relationships between sequential patient isolates. These findings demonstrate that standardized molecular typing methods are a powerful tool in molecular mycology studies. PMID:10865907

  14. Beyond the Standard Model

    These lectures constitute a short course in ''Beyond the Standard Model'' for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e+e- colliders

  15. Secondary standards dosimetry laboratories

    The Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is part of an international network of dosimetry laboratories established by the IAEA and WHO. The network services maintain the consistency and accuracy of the therapeutic dose by exercising a national and international intercomparison program as well as providing calibration services to the end users, mainly radiotherapy departments in hospitals. The SSDL's are designated by national laboratories (such as Primary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories, PSDL's) to provide national and international absorbed dose traceability for users in that country. The advantage of the SSDL is that the absorbed dose measurements are consistent among the stakeholder countries.The Physics and Safety divisions have recently re-established an SSDL at ANSTO. The SSDL utilises a collimated cobalt-60 source of activity 170 TBq and dose rate of SmGy/sec at 1 metre (within ±2%), and provides a service to calibrate therapy level thimble ionisation chambers and electrometers

  16. Beyond the Standard Model

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  17. New standard environmental management

    The ISO 14001:2004 standard, like ISO 9001:2000 on quality management, transcends the preventive approach (based on a rigid and more or less adequate process-management model still mainly inspired by traditional production methods) and introduces in its stead a highly flexible approach applicable to any socio-economic activity. It is structured by processes rather than system elements, and is based on the quest for efficacy and ongoing improvement

  18. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  19. Standard model and beyond

    The SU(3)/sub c/ circle crossSU(2)/sub L/circle crossU(1)/sub Y/ gauge theory of ineractions among quarks and leptons is briefly described, and some recent notable successes of the theory are mentioned. Some shortcomings in our ability to apply the theory are noted, and the incompleteness of the standard model is exhibited. Experimental hints that Nature may be richer in structure than the minimal theory are discussed. 23 references

  20. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  1. WAPI Standard Left Hanging

    ISABELDING

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of June, advertise-ments for Intel's notebook computer Centrino were in full view at several Dig computer markets in Belling. Meanwhile ,in-store sales for the company's products were strong as usual. Onthe day scheduled as the launch date for the Chinese Wireless LAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure {WAPI) security standard, international companies such as Intel were in a decidedly celebratory mood, while domestic manufacturers kepta quiet counsel.

  2. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  3. Forestry Standardization & Forestry Insurance

    2006-01-01

    @@ Forestry insurance of our country has developed slowly,of which the main difficulty lies in predicting and determining forestry risk,confirming the sum insured,raising the premiums, indemnity for property loss,coordinating forestry insurance and forestry protection,and lack of insurance legal system etc.With the implementation of forestry's standardized project,and overcoming effectively the technological obstacle existing in forestry's insurance,the development speed of forestry's insurance will be accelerated too.

  4. Standard interface file handbook

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  5. Beyond The Standard Model

    Kazakov, D. I.

    2004-01-01

    The present lectures contain an introduction to possible new physics beyond the Standard Model. Having in mind first of all accelerator experiments of the nearest future we concentrate on supersymmetry, a new symmetry that relates bosons and fermions, as the first target of experimental search. Since supersymmetry is widely covered in the literature, we mostly consider novel developments and applications to hadron colliders. We describe then the so-called extra dimensional models in less deta...

  6. Standard integrated head package

    An integrated head package for a standard-type nuclear reactor is described which consolidates many components and subassemblies of the upper reactor structure into a single unit which may be removed from the reactor vessel in a single lift. Included among the consolidated elements are a pressure vessel head, a cooling shroud, control rod drive mechanisms, a missile shield, a lifting rig, a hoist assembly, and a cable tray assembly. (author)

  7. Standard interface file handbook

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided

  8. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  9. The Conformal Standard Model

    Latosinski, Adam; Meissner, Krzysztof A; Nicolai, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    We present an extended version of the Conformal Standard Model (characterized by the absence of any new intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale) with an enlarged scalar sector coupling to right-chiral neutrinos in such a way that the scalar potential and the Yukawa couplings involving only right-chiral neutrinos are invariant under a new global symmetry SU(3)$_N$ which is broken explicitly only by the Yukawa interaction coupling right-chiral neutrinos and the electroweak lepton doublets. We point out four main advantages of such an enlargement, namely: (1) the economy of the (non-supersymmetric) Standard Model, and thus its observational success, is preserved; (2) thanks to the enlarged scalar sector the RG improved one-loop effective potential is everywhere positive with a stable global minimum, thereby avoiding the notorious instability of the Standard Model vacuum; (3) the pseudo-Goldstone bosons resulting from spontaneous breaking of the SU(3)$_N$ symmetry are natural Dark M...

  10. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products: in these n......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......: in these nations state bodies certify halal products as well as spaces (shops, factories, and restaurants) and work processes, and so consumers can find state halal-certified products from Malaysia and Singapore in shops around the world. Building on ethnographic material from Malaysia, Singapore, and Europe......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture...

  11. Why the Standard Model

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The Standard Model is based on the gauge invariance principle with gauge group U(1)×SU(2)×SU(3) and suitable representations for fermions and bosons, which are begging for a conceptual understanding. We propose a purely gravitational explanation: space-time has a fine structure given as a product of a four-dimensional continuum by a finite noncommutative geometry F. The raison d'être for F is to correct the K-theoretic dimension from four to ten (modulo eight). We classify the irreducible finite noncommutative geometries of K-theoretic dimension six and show that the dimension (per generation) is a square of an integer k. Under an additional hypothesis of quaternion linearity, the geometry which reproduces the Standard Model is singled out (and one gets k=4) with the correct quantum numbers for all fields. The spectral action applied to the product M×F delivers the full Standard Model, with neutrino mixing, coupled to gravity, and makes predictions (the number of generations is still an input).

  12. Why the Standard Model

    Chamseddine, Ali H

    2007-01-01

    The Standard Model is based on the gauge invariance principle with gauge group U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3) and suitable representations for fermions and bosons, which are begging for a conceptual understanding. We propose a purely gravitational explanation: space-time has a fine structure given as a product of a four dimensional continuum by a finite noncommutative geometry F. The raison d'etre for F is to correct the K-theoretic dimension from four to ten (modulo eight). We classify the irreducible finite noncommutative geometries of K-theoretic dimension six and show that the dimension (per generation) is a square of an integer k. Under an additional hypothesis of quaternion linearity, the geometry which reproduces the Standard Model is singled out (and one gets k=4)with the correct quantum numbers for all fields. The spectral action applied to the product MxF delivers the full Standard Model,with neutrino mixing, coupled to gravity, and makes predictions(the number of generations is still an input).

  13. Operator licensing examiner standards

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  14. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  15. Effect of nitrate on uptake of pertechnetate by tomato plants

    Krijger, G.C.; Kolloeffel, C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2000-06-01

    Nitrate has been shown to affect the acquisition of the nuclear waste product technetium (Tc) by plants. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is unknown. The uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}},[{sup 35}S] SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and H{sub 2}[{sup 32P}]PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} was studied in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Tiny Tim) with different growth rates due to culture at 0.5, 4.0, or 30 mM NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. In experiments lasting 24 h, net TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} uptake decreased at higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} supplies. The inhibitory effect of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} on TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} uptake also was shown in TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx experiments (K{sub i} = 3.3 mM), although about 30% of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx is suggested to be insensitive to NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. In contrast, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} (30 mM) did not inhibit TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx, whereas SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} (30 mM) tended to increase TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx, probably due to the ionic strength of the uptake solution. Significant effects of the NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} supply on Tc efflux were not found. Overall, this leads to the conclusion that TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} share at least one transporter.

  16. Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate

    Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: mushtaqa@pinstech.org.pk; Haider, I. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-08-15

    Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate ({sup 99m}Tc) becomes {<=}17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD for brain imaging and {sup 99m}Tc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides >80% of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% {sup 99m}Tc in first 2 ml solution.

  17. [Diagnosis of achalasia using 99m-Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy].

    Mikosch, P; Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Lind, P

    1997-06-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a 99mTc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal 99mTc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for 99mTc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of 99mTc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. PMID:9395425

  18. Achalasia diagnosed by 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy

    A 73-year-old patient presented a 99mTc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal 99mTc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for 99mTc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of 99mTc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. (orig.)

  19. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  20. Emergency Management Standards and Schools

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). Schools are encouraged to review these standards carefully and to adopt, where applicable, those that meet their needs. The lists of standards, resources, and references contained herein…

  1. Viewpoints on Grid Standards

    Andrew A. Chien; Xian-He Sun; Zhi-Wei Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ At GCC 2003 in Shanghai in December 2003, a panel discussion was held on the future of grid computing and on the role of the Globus Toolkit in future grid standards. Panelists include Andrew Chien (UCSD, USA), Wolfgang Gentzsch (Sun),Francis Lau (HKU, China), Carl Kesselman (USC, USA), Satoshi Matsuoka (TIT, Japan), Xian-He Sun (IIT, USA), Richard Wirt (Intel), Liang-Jie Zhang (IBM Research), Song-Nian Zhou (Platform Computing), and Zhi-Wei Xu (ICT, China), with Hai Jin (HUST, China) served as the coordinator. The panel talks were stimulating and well received. Three of the panel talk notes are selected and included in this viewpoint.

  2. Standardized Referente Evapotranspiration Equation

    M.D. Mundo–Molina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper is presented a discussion on the necessity to standardize the Penman–Monteith equations in order to estimate ETo. The proposal is to define an accuracy and standarize equation based in Penman–Monteith. The automated weather station named CIANO (27° 22 ' 144 North latitude and 109" 55' west longitude) it was selected tomake comparisons. The compared equations we re: a) CIANO weat her station, b) Penman–Monteith ASCE (PMA), Penman–Monteith FAO 56 (PM FAO 56), Penman–Monteith estan...

  3. Hazard Communication Standard

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  4. Shaking hands on standards

    The buzz on the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act grows louder as Phase 2, a 500-ppm valve-emissions limit, looms to within a few years. One question surrounding the legislation centers not so much on compliance as on the agreement between valve users and manufacturers on such topics as leak testing methods, measurement and documentation during valve manufacture. For chemical or oil companies, CAAA compliance can be facilitated with the assurance that equipment has been tested with industry-wide, uniform procedures. Under this premise, end users and manufacturers, as well as several industry organizations, are starting to devote effort to the problem of establishing a single standard

  5. Standard Model Fits

    Krueger, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The status of the electroweak precision measurements as of winter 2004 and the global test of the Standard Model are discussed. Important input data are the precision variables measured on the Z resonance at LEP and SLC and the measurements of the W mass at LEP~2 and Tevatron. A new combination of Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 on the top mass allows to set constraints on the radiative corrections and therefore to put improved limits on the mass of the Higgs boson. Additionally the impact of...

  6. Non-standard antennas

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  7. Standards for bullets and casings

    J.F Song; T.V Vorburger; Clary, R.; E Whitenton; Ma, L.; S Ballou

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing reference standards through its Office of Law Enforcement Standards with funding provided by the National Institute of Justice. The standard reference materials are used by crime laboratories to verify that results obtained when using their protocols and methodologies meet legal requirements and that equipment is operating properly. The NIST Reference Materials 8240/8250 standard bullets and casings is an example of materials th...

  8. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, van, R.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards is designed to contribute to the knowledge domain, standards developers and might ultimo lead to improved interoperability. This instrument is iteratively designed with multiple...

  9. Handset Television Standard(CDMB)

    2007-01-01

    @@ While different parties have been rivaling for a national handset television standard, the China Association for Standardization (CAS) recently became a powerful rival in the national competition by issuing its official handset television standard (CDMB), for which it owns intellectual property rights. Last October, the broadcast and TV system had issued its own professional standard. Now, there is some concern about the launch of a national handset television standard, since the CAS has such a special status.

  10. Standardized Referente Evapotranspiration Equation

    M.D. Mundo–Molina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a discussion on the necessity to standardize the Penman–Monteith equations in order to estimate ETo. The proposal is to define an accuracy and standarize equation based in Penman–Monteith. The automated weather station named CIANO (27° 22 ' 144 North latitude and 109" 55' west longitude it was selected tomake comparisons. The compared equations we re: a CIANO weat her station, b Penman–Monteith ASCE (PMA, Penman–Monteith FAO 56 (PM FAO 56, Penman–Monteith estandarizado ASCE (PM Std. ASCE. The results were: a There are important differences between PMA and CIANO weather station. The differences are attributed to the nonstandardization of the equation CIANO weather station, b The coefficient of correlation between both methods was of 0,92, with a standard deviation of 1,63 mm, an average quadratic error of 0,60 mm and one efficiency in the estimation of ETo with respect to the method pattern of 87%.

  11. The standard model

    In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ''new physics''. The effect of Z' bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future

  12. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  13. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  14. Standardization of 238Pu

    An ion-implanted Si-detector and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector were employed for the standardization of 238Pu using the coincidence method. The low-energy discrimination method was applied to the degraded alpha spectrum for the efficiency variation, and an energy gate was provided for the X-rays between 7 and 35 keV. Two signals were compared to check their coincidence and counted if they were coincident. Three counts of alphas, X-rays and their coincidences were corrected for their dead times and/or the accidental coincidences between them before being extrapolated to the zero discrimination level of alphas. The resultant specific radioactivity is compared with that of the liquid scintillation counting method, and its evaluated uncertainty is given item by item. The impurity checks of the original solution source were described in brief too

  15. Second order Standard Model

    Johnny Espin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU(2×SU(4⊂SO(9 unified theory.

  16. Working with standards

    Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2014-01-01

    Taking recent developments in the financial sector as its point of departure, this article examines how bank advisors are positioned. Increased complexity in banking products and the risk orientation that has followed the financial crisis make demands on the quality of advice. Drawing on qualitat......Taking recent developments in the financial sector as its point of departure, this article examines how bank advisors are positioned. Increased complexity in banking products and the risk orientation that has followed the financial crisis make demands on the quality of advice. Drawing on...... imposition of new standard procedures; while one points to a positioning as professional advisors, the other tends to undermine it and makes the positioning ambiguous....

  17. Government by standards

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff.......Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be...

  18. Standard model baryogenesis

    Simply on CP arguments, we argue against a Standard Model explanation of baryogenesis via the charge transport mechanism. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the electroweak phase boundary created during a first order phase transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. At finite temperature, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-quarks in a hot plasma, which induces loss of spatial coherence and suppresses reflection on the boundary even at tree-level. The resulting baryon asymmetry is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires. We comment as well on related works. (authors)

  19. Standard model baryogenesis

    Simply on CP arguments, a standard model explanation of baryogenesis via the charge transport mechanism is shown to be wrong. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the electroweak phase boundary created during a first order phase transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. At finite temperature, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-quarks in a hot plasma, which induces loss of spatial coherence and suppresses reflection on the boundary even at tree-level. The resulting baryon asymmetry is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs

  20. Spatial Standard Observer

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image, or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image. Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer, SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions, window functions, special treatment for images lying on or near borders and pre-processing of test images.

  1. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  2. Gamma spectroscopy vials standardization

    Three types of plastic vials were defined by GTR 5 (Radioprotection Instrumentation Committee) according to the needs of laboratories of measuring by gamma spectrometry. A transparent (SG 50 T) or opaque (SG 50 N) vial of 50 cm3 for the range of activities more than 2,5.10-3 Bq/cm3. A transparent (SG 500 T) or opaque (SG 500 N) vial of 500 cm3 for low activities (at least 5.10-4 Bq/cm3), but with the possibility of using theses samples in existing automatic runs. A transparent (SG 3000 T) vial of 3000 cm3 allowing to obtain the minimum level of activity (at least 10-4 Bq/cm3), owing to the shape which envelopes the detector. The LMRI can supply straight standards in SG 50 N and SG 500 N vials. The moulds of these vials are the property of the CEA which insures the continuity of production

  3. Standard environmental test methods

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  4. Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies

    T.R. Neelakantan; K. Sasireka

    2013-01-01

    Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

  5. Standards and (self)implosion

    Brøgger, Katja; Staunæs, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    of standards often tends to conceptualize the travelling of standards as contagious processes resulting in epidemic spreads. In this article, the abstract metaphor of epidemic spread is replaced by an analytical configuration of a new mode of educational governance in which orchestrating webs of incentives......Standards is an interesting phenomenon in discussions on emotional circulation and subjectivities. Because standards do travel. And they are usually on a mission: to standardize policies or products and consequently also those who are administered by them or consume them. Literature on the spread...... and anticipations is a major driver. New international standards is propelled by material-affective infrastructures and the embodied interpretations that, educational agents and organizations make of them. The article displays how standards makes organizations and selves implode and how the impact of standardizing...

  6. The illusory nature of standards

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2011-01-01

    creation is innate in the practice of standardisation and therefore the risk of creating untrustworthy standards is prevalent for standard setters. Originality/value – The paper provides a new understanding of standards and demonstrates the need to research standardization processes in depth and bring......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of the paradoxical situation in which standard setters are placed when standardising human practice. Contrary to standards, human practices are ambiguous, heterogeneous, and highly context dependent; in contrast, standards...... are unambiguous and apply across cases. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is primarily theoretical and its analysis is based on conceptual content and extent analysis. For the purpose of illustration, the paper draws on the example of organic agricultural standards. Findings – The author shows how illusion...

  7. Avionics Maintenance Technology Program Standards.

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the avionics maintenance technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into the following categories: foundations, diploma/degree (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions, diploma/degree (admission requirements, provisional admission…

  8. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    ... Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Click ... the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 3 Page ...

  9. Civil Engineering Technology Program Standards.

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the civil engineering program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  10. Nuclear standards index, January 1981

    1981-01-01

    This issue covers October through December 1980. An order form is included for making requests. Listings of discontinued or superseded NE(RDT) standards and of inactive standards are given as appendices. (DLC)

  11. Minimum quality standards and exports

    Birg, Laura; Voßwinkel, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If exante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A Minimum qualit...

  12. Lexicon management and standard formats

    Laporte, Eric

    2005-01-01

    International standards for lexicon formats are in preparation. To a certain extent, the proposed formats converge with prior results of standardization projects. However, their adequacy for (i) lexicon management and (ii) lexicon-driven applications have been little debated in the past, nor are they as a part of the present standardization effort. We examine these issues. IGM has developed XML formats compatible with the emerging international standards, and we report experimental results on large-coverage lexica.

  13. Labour Standards and International Trade

    Krisztina Kis-Katos; Günther G. Schulze

    2002-01-01

    Can a case be made for the imposition of international minimum labour standards? And if so, on what grounds? The authors systematically present the existing theoretical and empirical arguments for and against introducing minimum labour standards on the international level, and discuss whether trade sanctions are the instrument of choice to improve labour standards around the world.

  14. Rising Standards for Data Mining

    Kalyankar, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of data mining, then discusses standards of existing and proposed that are relevant to data mining. This includes standards that affect several stages of a data mining project. Summaries of several emerging standards are given, as well as proposals that have the potential to change the way data mining tools are built.

  15. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  16. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of

  17. State Standards: Authenticity vs. Diversity.

    Davidson, Marcia R.; Howell, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews problems with the current movement to use national standards and performance assessment to reform education and the impact of the standards on students with disabilities. The characteristics of standards, as they are currently being employed, are discussed, along with issues related to measurement, reliability, and validity. (Author/CR)

  18. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  19. A standard graphite block

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm3; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  20. Standards and measurement units

    Today, the measurement is a permanent component of our environment, of our training and of the life of our companies. However, any decision taken from a measurement requires a proper interpretation of this measurement. In particular, it is necessary to know the reference system used and the uncertainty linked with the measurement. This book, published by the French national office of metrology (BNM), the official organization in charge of the implementation of the national metrology policy, must be considered as the basic document for any people from the industry, the teaching and the research world concerned by measurement problems. This book is devoted to the definition of the basic measurement units, to the units derived from the international unit system, and to the realization of the specific instrumentation necessary for the materialization of these units. This instrumentation of very high technical quality is based on multiple physical principles. It presents also the national reference standards. Beside the basic units of time and frequencies, of mechanics, of electricity and magnetism, of temperature, of radiometry and photometry and of mass quantity, one chapter is devoted to ionizing radiations and to their derived units: the Becquerel (Bq), the Gray (Gy) and the Sievert (Sv). (J.S.)

  1. Negotiation Mechanism of AVS Standardization

    Su Junbin

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction The mission of the Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) Working Group of China is to develop AVS standards drafts and deliver them to the national standardization administration authorities. Since its establishment in 2002, the AVS Working Group has developed rapidly, growing from 33 members in 2003 to 153 in 2006. By the end of 2006, it had put forward for approval nine standards drafts (Table 1) with Part 2 of the AVS 1.0 draft approved as a national standard in February 2006.

  2. Activities of Radiation Standard Section

    A brief account of the various facilities and services provided by the Radiation Standards Section (RSS) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is given. RSS maintains the primary and secondary standards of various parameters of radiation measurements. It ensures accurate radiological measurements as per international requirements, through periodic international intercomparisons of national standards. It also provides calibration services to various users of radiation sources and instruments. The activities of RSS are described under the headings: (1) Radiological Metrology Standards, (2) Radionuclide Standards, Neutron Metrology, (4) Instruments Calibration, (5) Non-ionizing Radiations, and (6) Instrumentation. (author). figs., tabs

  3. Standardization Bossts SGGCC Fast Development

    2011-01-01

    OverviewDuring the development of State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC),standardization work is always highlighted,adhering to standardization planning as a focus in standardization work,centered on technology R&D,grid construction,production & operation,industrial development,etc.,SGCC set up a technology standards system with production process as a main line and featured by "Vertical in the end,lateral to the edge",and launched STATE GRID Corporation of China of Technical Standards System.

  4. Comparison of CRBRP standards to DOE prescribed standards

    The tables list standards committed to by CRBRP in its design documents, its Environmental Report, and its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The compilation of these standards has been placed in column form beside the column of prescribed standards listed under the various headings of Chapter 1 of DOE's Order 5480.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations. (The DOE standards listed, however, include all those in the other applicable chapters of 5480.1A as mandated in Chapter 1.) There are some CRBRP systems which are impacted very little, if any, by the safety requirements of 5480.1A's prescribed standards. The standards committed to in those systems are, consequently, not included in this comparison. The comparison is made in detail, however, for standards committed to in those systems of CRBRP having areas of safety corresponding to DOE's jurisdiction/requirements as opposed to areas covered only by the USNRC's jurisdiction/regulations. Included in this document are: (1) a table listing titles of the standards not already listed in the comparison table, and (2) a list of acronyms. It seems apparent by the comparison that CRBRP meets the DOE requirement that the Project standards be equal or better (more conservative) than DOE's own prescribed standards

  5. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  6. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    Wuppertal, Germany (Chaotic and Complex Systems); F W Nijhoff, University of Leeds, UK (Mathematical Physics); G Ghirardi, Universita di Trieste, Italy (Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information Theory); G Dunne, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Classical and Quantum Field Theory); and L Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA (Fluid and Plasma Theory). It will be an honour and a pleasure to work together with all these talented people towards the high-minded goal of running a world-class scientific journal. As Editor-in-Chief of J. Phys. A, my principal objective will be to raise the standards of this first-rate journal to even higher levels by raising the quality of accepted papers. I believe that this goal will be possible to accomplish. Despite an already high rejection rate, paper submissions are rising rapidly and I anticipate that we will need to be even more stringent in our assessment of quality next year. A letter has already been sent to referees urging them to raise their standards for acceptance. I believe we will make rapid progress in this direction. (I have heard a few people criticize the journal for being a `write-only' journal. My goal is for the worldwide community of mathematical physicists to view J. Phys. A as essential reading.) I am extremely optimistic about the future of J. Phys. A. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers published in this already first-class journal. I look forward to working with the journal's excellent staff, the Board of Editors, and the Advisory Panel.

  7. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    2012-07-25

    ... Harmonization Rule. The final rule was published at 76 FR 81296 on December 27, 2011. Generally, the technical... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost...

  8. Library Standards : why, how and who?

    Filatov, Nataša

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues in standardization in libraries answering basic set of questions raised in Bosnia & Herzegovina library community such as: Why we need standards?, What kind of standards we want? What have to be included in standards? What are the preconditions for standardization? What types of standards we need? Levels of standards? and Who will define standards?

  9. Standards and Standard Setting and the Post School Curriculum

    Young, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of standards and standard setting in shaping the expansion of post school education in highly unequal society. It draws on an account of the debates and policies on standards in the UK from the 1980's to today and the wider lessons that can be learned from them. It argues that relying on any type of…

  10. Fire-resistant materials: European standards and American standards

    The use of American standards in the Fire protection Systems in Spanish nuclear power plants implies the use of materials with American certification which leads to difficulties in supply and to cost overruns. The current development of Fire protection standards in Europe opens the possibility of using products with European certification. following is a general comparison between tests on fire-resistant materials, in which it can be seen that the similarities in both standards are more notable than the differences. (Author)

  11. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  12. Standards for air monitoring calibration

    The US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated a joint program to test the applicability of a performance-type testing standard. Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N42.17a was, because of difficulty in application, divided into three parts: (a) portable instruments, (b) air monitors, and (c) extended range. This new testing program used the criteria listed in parts a, b, and c to determine whether they could be used as the basis of an instrument qualification testing program. The results of the test were then provided to the standards committee, and appropriate changes were made in the standard. The detailed results of this testing program will be documented in the future. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the current draft of the air monitoring standard, general test procedures, results of some of the tests, and the means by which the testing program could be implemented in the United States

  13. Standards for bullets and casings

    J.F Song

    2002-11-01

    The Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST manages research in many different disciplines of forensic science. One of these projects supports the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN. NIST digitized six bullet signatures from samples provided by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI. Using these signatures as a virtual standard, NIST’s Instrument Shop manufactured 20 reference materials (RM 8240 standard bullets using a numerically-controlled diamond turning machine. Test results show high reproducibility of the bullet signatures on standard bullets. NIST has also developed a new parameter for bullet signature comparisons, using autocorrelation functions, and proposed a diagram for tracing local ballistics measurements to the National Laboratory Center of the ATF and to the FBI. Using an electro-forming process, NIST has manufactured prototype standard casings and test results show high reproducibility for the casing signatures.

  14. Czech-Russian Cultural Standards

    Vaňátková, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The thesis describes the theory of culture, national culture, prejudice, our perception of other cultures and measurement of cultural differences through cultural dimensions. The work focuses mainly on cultural standards method. There are detected the czech-russian cultural standards and in the theses is provided comparison of these standards with the prejudices of the Czechs against the Russians. The main objective of this work was to develop recommendations for Czech students going for stud...

  15. Standards for reactor accident cases

    The Committee on Standards for reactor accident cases in the Netherlands published its recommendations to the Minister of Health. Maximum permissible quantities of radiation and radionuclide intake are presented for adults and children as well as pregnant women. Exposure limit standards for the whole body as well as specific organs and other parts are given. Also considered is the contamination of cattle and cows' milk. The standards are compared with those of the ICRP and the English Medical Research Council

  16. On Regression Standardization for Moments

    CLIFFORD C. CLOGG; SCOTT R. ELIASON

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial regression models can be used to standardize means of endogenous variables for moments of exogenous variables. In other words, standardized means obtained from polynomial models adjust for group differences in location and shape parameters that characterize distributions of exogenous variables. The suggested approach is a natural extension of the conventional method of regression standardization for means (or first moments) of exogenous variables, and it is a more direct analogue t...

  17. Should standardized tests be cancelled?

    石青

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing is a common way of determining the intelligence of test-takers and has been existed for centuries. Due to its unique characteristics, people feel stressful to take these tests. Therefore, whether the standardized testing should be cancelled has become a heated issue in recent years. This paper will first give a brief introduction about the definition of standardized tests and then analyzes their pros and cons, to discuss the necessity of its existence.

  18. Core labour standards and exports

    Jean-Marc Siroën

    2012-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  19. Patent Disclosure in Standard Setting

    Bernhard Ganglmair; Emanuele Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    In a model of industry standard setting with private information about firms' intellectual property, we analyze (a) firms' incentives to contribute to the development and improvement of a standard, and (b) firms' decision to disclose the existence of relevant intellectual property to other participants of the standard-setting process. If participants can disclose after the end of the process and fully exploit their bargaining leverage, then patent holders aspire to disclose always after the e...

  20. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  1. Towards Standardization: A Participatory Framework for Scientific Standard-Making

    Lynn Yarmey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary scientific research, standard-making and standardization are key processes for the sharing and reuse of data. The goals of this paper are twofold: 1 to stress that collaboration is crucial to standard-making, and 2 to urge recognition of metadata standardization as part of the scientific process. To achieve these goals, a participatory framework for developing and implementing scientific metadata standards is presented. We highlight the need for ongoing, open dialogue within and among research communities at multiple levels. Using the Long Term Ecological Research network adoption of the Ecological Metadata Language as a case example in the natural sciences, we illustrate how a participatory framework addresses the need for active coordination of the evolution of scientific metadata standards. The participatory framework is contrasted with a hierarchical framework to underscore how the development of scientific standards is a dynamic and continuing process. The roles played by ‘best practices’ and ‘working standards’ are identified in relation to the process of standardization.

  2. The Management of the Standards: Standards for Accreditation, 199X.

    Robbins, Jane B.

    1992-01-01

    This report on the development of the American Library Association's revised standards for master's level programs in library and information studies describes the principal activities preceding the current revision process and details key changes to and retentions from the 1972 Standards. A timetable of remaining steps is included. (NRP)

  3. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    2012-07-24

    ... their comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rules published June 1, 2012, at 77 FR 32444 and 77 FR 32465, is extended. Comments on the proposed rules must be received on or before August 15... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards...

  4. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test report

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication

  5. Data converters for wireless standards

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  6. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.;

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions the...... number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 20, which correspond to about 5% of the total and can statistically be expected. In addition to the material standards, two softgauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results...

  7. IMPLEMENTING A RISK MANAGEMENT STANDARD

    Preda, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    After risk management “conquered” more and more project managers’ minds and showed its benefits for business and programs, the need to have a global risk management standard has become a crucial issue in the world of risk management. But having a global risk management standard has been a big challenge, starting from the decision of developing the standard (March-June 2005), to the moment of publishing it, November 2009. So, developing the ISO 31000:2009 standard has been more or less like a ...

  8. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern......, economic and social impact. Civilization is a term widely used within modern political discourse its meaning, yet it is poorly understood and misused. part I explores the idea of a ‘standard of civilization', its implications for governance, and the use of such standards in political theory and economic...

  9. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  10. IMPLEMENTING A RISK MANAGEMENT STANDARD

    Constantin PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After risk management “conquered” more and more project managers’ minds and showed its benefits for business and programs, the need to have a global risk management standard has become a crucial issue in the world of risk management. But having a global risk management standard has been a big challenge, starting from the decision of developing the standard (March-June 2005, to the moment of publishing it, November 2009. So, developing the ISO 31000:2009 standard has been more or less like a bumpy ride. Apparently, the people involved in developing the global risk management standard understood from the very beginning that no challenges are too big, nor any tasks too small and that the task of having a new, comprehensive global risk management standard should be completed with excellence: defining the principles and the framework guiding the risk management process applicable for all type of organizations and for a wide range of activities. Coming up with a global standard should always be based on the real organizations’ needs and should fulfill real risk management requirements. The article is trying to present the pros and cons of risk management standard implementation, challenging the implementation process itself and the added value of implementing the standard due to the lack of implementation enablers, like risk culture, a real problem especially in an international environment.

  11. Standard model without Higgs particles

    A modification of the standard model of electroweak interactions with the nonlocal Higgs sector is proposed. Proper form of nonlocality makes Higgs particles unobservable after the electroweak symmetry breaking. They appear only as a virtual state because their propagator is an entire function. We discuss some specific consequences of this approach comparing it with the conventional standard model. 12 refs

  12. Standard model without Higgs particles

    A modification of the standard model of electroweak interactions with the nonlocal Higgs sector is proposed. Proper form of nonlocality makes Higgs particles unobservable after the electroweak symmetry breaking. They appear only as a virtual state because their propagator is an entire function. We discuss some specific consequences of this approach comparing it with the conventional standard model. (author). 12 refs

  13. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L;

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known...

  14. The New Standards for Learning

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Current education standards focus narrowly on reading, math, and science learning. As fundamentally important as those standards are, they do not incorporate the essential social, emotional, ethical, and civic dimensions of student learning. School climate does. A growing number of districts and state departments of education are in the process of…

  15. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  16. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs

  17. Electrical Safety Standards in focus

    2006-01-01

    @@ A forum, the IEC/ACOS Workshop Ⅷ-IEC safety standards in support of regulatory requirements, was held on May 22nd-23rd 2006 in Beijing to cerate an environment for technical exchange between the regulators and the standard developers with its theme on the following regards :

  18. Mapping standards for home networking

    Kaa, G. van de; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Vries, H.J. de

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we apply a step-by-step approach for the identification of standards for home networking. We develop a classification and we use this classification to categorize sixty-four (sets of) standards. By developing this categorization, we have brought order to the chaos of home networking s

  19. The radiation safety standards programme

    In this lecture the development of radiation safety standards by the IAEA which is a statutory function of the IAEA is presented. The latest editions of the basic safety standards published by the IAEA in cooperation with ICRP, FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO and WHO are reviewed

  20. GAIA Service and Standard Assessment

    Dormann, Claire; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks.......A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks....

  1. TDLB Standards in Further Education.

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    Great Britain's Further Education Unit (FEU) completed field trials of the Training and Development Lead Body (TDLB) standards to explore the relevance of these national standards to staff in further education (FE). Seventeen colleges and four local education agencies that participated in field trials represented a cross-section of further…

  2. Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.

    Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…

  3. Standards development status. Summary report

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  4. National Standards or Economic Imperialism?

    Conrad, Cecilia A.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, although most K-12 social standards are deficient in their coverage of economic concepts, the National Council on Economic Education standards are equally deficient in addressing history and social studies subjects. Maintains that both disciplines must cooperate and coordinate their efforts for any meaningful educational reform to…

  5. SAT Future: Alignment to Standards

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief architects of the Common Core State Standards was named the next president of the College Board and said one of his top priorities is to reshape the organization's influential college-admissions test, the SAT, to better reflect the new standards. David Coleman will assume his new duties on Oct. 15, replacing Gaston Caperton, who…

  6. Digital Standards for NCI Websites

    The Digital Standards for NCI Websites and Social Media provide developers and content managers guidance on the visual and content standards, as well as policies and procedures, in effect for National Cancer Institute (NCI) digital media – including traditional and mobile websites, as well as social and new media channels.

  7. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    Full text: The most important tasks of the Section in 1996 were: preparation of national standards and program of future work on standards for nuclear instrumentation and electronic equipment in nuclear engineering; organization of activities and participation in the meetings of the Commissions for Standardization No 173 Microprocessor Systems, No 266 Nuclear Instrumentation; giving opinions and expertises on national and international standards for equipment in nuclear engineering; cooperation with the Commission for Standardization No 246 Radiological Protection; control of inventiveness activity; The quality of the technical products is being improved by: a) selection of the proper types of interface systems, technical coordination and quality control; b) creation of standards at a high technical level; The Section works mainly for the Polish Committee for Standardization, the National Atomic Energy Agency, Association of Polish Electrical Engineers and Research Institutes in Poland. The activity of the Section is useful for all national institutions where backplane busses and nuclear electronic equipment is produced or used. The Section participates in the following international organizations: IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) TC 45 (Nuclear Instrumentation); ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTCl SC26 (Microprocessor systems); ESONE (European Studies on Norms for Electronics); The section takes part in popularization of nuclear technology and instrumentation in the following ways: distribution of standards and technical documentation to national institutions dealing with nuclear apparatus; collecting and distributing technical information from international organizations (e.g. ESONE); organization of technical and scientific, national and international conferences (New Generation Nuclear Power Plants - September 96, QNX in Real World - January 96); participation in the technical conference organized by the Polish Committee for

  8. The Emerging JBIG2 Standard

    Howard, P.; Kossentini, F.; Martins, Bo;

    1998-01-01

    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG), an international study group affiliated with ISO/IEC and ITU-T, is in the process of drafting a new standard for lossy and lossless compression of bi-level images. The new standard, informally referred to as JBIG2, will support model-based coding...... for text and halftones to permit compression ratios up to three times those of existing standards for lossless compression. JBIG2 will also permit lossy preprocessing without specifying how it is to be done. In this case compression ratios up to eight times those of existing standards may be obtained...... with imperceptible loss of quality. It is expected that JBIG2 will become an International Standard by 2000....

  9. PWR standardization: The French experience

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  10. The Emerging JBIG2 Standard

    Howard, P.; Kossentini, F.; Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren; Rucklidge, W.; Ono, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG), an international study group affiliated with ISO/IEC and ITU-T, is in the process of drafting a new standard for lossy and lossless compression of bi-level images. The new standard, informally referred to as JBIG2, will support model-based coding for...... text and halftones to permit compression ratios up to three times those of existing standards for lossless compression. JBIG2 will also permit lossy preprocessing without specifying how it is to be done. In this case compression ratios up to eight times those of existing standards may be obtained with...... imperceptible loss of quality. It is expected that JBIG2 will become an International Standard by 2000....

  11. APS beamline standard components handbook

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  12. Standardized development of computer software. Part 2: Standards

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    This monograph contains standards for software development and engineering. The book sets forth rules for design, specification, coding, testing, documentation, and quality assurance audits of software; it also contains detailed outlines for the documentation to be produced.

  13. State Standard-Setting Processes in Brief. State Academic Standards: Standard-Setting Processes

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about academic standards, whether created by states from scratch or adopted by states under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) banner, have drawn widespread media attention and are at the top of many state policymakers' priority lists. Recently, a number of legislatures have required additional steps, such as waiting periods for…

  14. "There's Nothing Standard about Standards": Exploring Tensions between Two Standards Documents in Higher Education

    Bourke, Terri; Carter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Quality in education at the tertiary level is constantly questioned, and increasingly "professional standards" are offered as the solution to the perceived decline in quality. Foucauldian archaeological analysis of teacher graduate and geography graduate standards in Australia is conducted, revealing tensions between the different…

  15. Nuclear reaction uncertainties in standard and non-standard cosmologies

    Malaney, R.A.

    1989-10-06

    We discuss here the uncertainties in the nuclear input data relevant for calculations of standard and non-standard primordial nucleosynthesis. We show how these uncertainties can affect the predictive power of such calculations, and we identify those key nuclear reactions for which improved experimental data on the associated reaction rates is most needed. Such experimental data can lead to more accurate discriminatory tests between the differing primordial nucleosynthesis scenarios. 34 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Graphic arts standards update: 1996

    McDowell, David Q.

    1996-03-01

    Color definition and data exchange continue to be dominant themes in both the US and international graphic arts standards activity. However, there is a growing understanding of the role that metrology and printing process definition play in helping define stable process conditions to which color characterization data can be related. Standards have already been published that define the requirements for color measurement and computation, scanner input characterization targets, four-color output characterization data sets, and graphic arts applications of densitometry. Work continues on standards relating to ink testing and ink color specifications. The numerical specifications of SWOP proof printing have been captured in ANSI standard CGATS.6-1995. Work has been completed, and Technical Report ANSI CGATS TR 001-1995 has been published, that relates the colorimetry of the printed sheet to the CMYK input for press proofing meeting SWOP and CGATS.6 specifications. Work is ongoing to provide similar data for other printing processes. Such color characterization data is key to the development of color profiles for standard printing conditions. Specifications for color profiles, to allow color definitions to be moved between color management systems, are being developed by the International Color Consortium. The existing graphic arts data exchange, process control, and color related standards are summarized and the current status of work in progress is reviewed. In addition, the interaction of the formal standards programs and other industry-driven specification activity is discussed.

  17. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  18. Darkness beyond the Standard Model

    With the discovery of the Higgs Boson all particles of the Standard Model of Particle Physics are experimentally identified. However, we know that the Standard Model can not explain all measurements. In particular several astrophysical measurements can not be explained within the Standard Model. A famous shortcoming is the existence of the so-called Dark Matter. A very well motivated candidate for the Dark Matter are WIMPs, weakly interactive massive particles. The current status of WIMP searches and the plans of the new experimental group at the Institute of High Energy Physics are presented. (author)

  19. Can Environmental Law be standardized

    The author makes basic considerations on standardizability both in Constitutional Law and in simple Legislative Law. He discusses in detail a key issue of Environmental Law, namely the standardization of the right of third parties affected to file suit. In painstaking detail work one has to differentiate between standards having and not having an effect which protects third parties, and how far the protection of third parties goes. The limits to standardizability are reached with the use of undetermined legal terms. The shortcomings of standardizability for the legislator could and should be made up for by the statutory power which has to reify standards in a way which could guarantee efficient execution. (HSCH)

  20. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  1. Organizations Contributing to Development of Library Standards.

    Avram, Henriette D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a variety of institutions and groups that affect promulgation of library standards, including standards organizations (American National Standards Institute, International Organization for Standardization); library associations (American Library Association); national and international committees, government agencies (National Bureau of…

  2. National Library of Standards of CNIS

    Pan Wei; Lu Lili; Li Jing

    2012-01-01

    The National Library of Standards (NLS) of CNIS is a nationallevel standards information research and service institution.The main responsibility of NLS is not only to store standards,but also to provide standards information service for the public.

  3. On Internationalization of Accounting Standards

    Liu Shuyun; Yuncheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ World economy globalization highlighted with deregulation of trade, capital movement and financing has been the dominant trend under the push of rapid growing of modern information technology,creating a urgent demand for internationalized accounting standards.

  4. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  5. Standard exercise report format (SERF)

    This talk summarizes the reasons for the development of draft SERF the Standard Exercise Report Format used for reporting the results of emergency preparedness exercises, and gives a summary of the format and rational behind it

  6. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author)

  7. Physics beyond the Standard Model

    Valle, José W F

    1991-01-01

    We discuss some of the signatures associated with extensions of the Standard Model related to the neutrino and electroweak symmetry breaking sectors, with and without supersymmetry. The topics include a basic discussion of the theory of neutrino mass and the corresponding extensions of the Standard Model that incorporate massive neutrinos; an overview of the present observational status of neutrino mass searches, with emphasis on solar neutrinos, as well the as cosmological data on the amplitude of primordial density fluctuations; the implications of neutrino mass in cosmological nucleosynthesis, non-accelerator, as well as in high energy particle collider experiments. Turning to the electroweak breaking sector, we discuss the physics potential for Higgs boson searches at LEP200, including Majoron extensions of the Standard Model, and the physics of invisibly decaying Higgs bosons. We discuss the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model phenomenology, as well as some of the laboratory signatures that would be as...

  8. Radiation control standards and procedures

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  9. Standard Model Higgs at LEP

    Ferrer-Ribas, E

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the LEP experiments collected data at centre of mass energies between 192 and 202 GeV for about 900 pb-1 integrated luminosity. Combined results are presented for the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. No statistically significant excess has been observed when compared to Standard Model background expectation which can be translated into a lower bound on the mass of the Higgs boson at 107.9 GeV/c^2 at 95 % confidence level.

  10. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

  11. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

  12. PROTEST. Suggestions for improved standards

    Holierhoek, J.G. (ed.); Lekou, D.J.; Hecquet, T.; Soeker, H.

    2010-10-15

    The pre-normative PROTEST (PROcedures for TESTing and measuring wind energy systems) project looked at possibilities to improve the current standards by using wind turbine prototype measurements to validate the drive train, pith system and yaw system models. The main conclusions from this project that could be valuable for the standards committees are summarised in this report. These recommendations include new Design Load Cases, measurement procedures for model validation and load measurements at specific interconnection points.

  13. Development of Managers’ Leadership Standards

    Kara, Nurat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this article is manager of leadership and development of conceptual frameworks defining standards for leadership standards. He qualitative research methods applied in this study are in line with these objectives. Determination of sampling methods for sampling and exception the handling chain, respectively, of participants and sampling techniques was used accordingly. The research data were collected through semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Data ...

  14. Development of Managers’ Leadership Standards

    Kara, Nurat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this article is manager of leadership and development of conceptual frameworks defiing standards for leadership standards. He qualitative research methods applied in this study are in line with these objectives. Determination of sampling methods for sampling and exception the handling chain, respectively, of participants and sampling techniques was used accordingly. The research data were collected through semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Data obtained i...

  15. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  16. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  17. Standards

    Gabriel Jacobs

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of ALT is to promote good practice in the use of learning technology within higher education. Few would not subscribe to this aim, but proclaiming it without a full awareness of the problems it entails is of the same order as proclaiming one's commitment to Peace without further comment. Except for the absolute pacifist, being against war does not mean being against it at any price, but rather being committed to ensuring circumstances in which war will not occur. So it is with good practice in educational technology, which can be achieved only if circumstances are propitious. Such circumstances include sufficient funds, and a willingness in both teacher and learner to accept in whole or in part a technological route – good practice is unlikely to be achieved if technology has been incorporated into the curriculum merely in order to ensure that funds already spent do not appear to have been wasted. Above all, in my view, good practice assumes that users of learning technology are able to concentrate on learning without (necessarily thinking about the technology, since if the technology cannot be made to work transparently, actual practice will at best lag behind ideal practice, and at worst be abandoned altogether. Impatience is a barrier to learning, and particularly if it is the result of struggling with the learning tools themselves. If the teacher or learner is constantly having to tweak the technology, or ending up with a half-baked implementation because the setting-up process has proven too difficult, the learning tool may well be left to gather dust.

  18. National safety standards: KTA - safety standards as an example

    The question, which is often asked, namely how many standards and how much time is needed to prepare a complete system of nuclear safety standards, has no answer in terms of numbers or years. The number of standards necessarily depends not only on the contents of an individual average standard. It also depends on the need to go increasingly into details and, to a large extent, on the problems which are identified and resolved during the continuous development of a technology. This is also means, that there is not time limit for the development of such standards, except the time when a technology becomes obsolete. In the same way, as safety in a technology never becomes an issue which is resolved once and for all, but is and must be a continuous and coordinated effort, the codification of safety requirements will always be a continuing task, lasting as long as experiences are made and can be used to improve the safety of the technology. (orig.)

  19. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ''standard model''. The ''standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ''standard model'' to determine if the requirements of ''non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ''standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature

  20. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple

  1. Standardization in digital pathology: Supplement 145 of the DICOM standards

    Rajendra Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As digital slides need a lot of storage space, lack of a singular method to acquire and store these large, two-dimensional images has been a major stumbling block in the universal acceptance of this technology. The DICOMS Standard Committee Working Group 26 has put in a tremendous effort to standardize storage methods so that they are more in line with currently available PACS in most hospitals for storage of radiology images. A recent press release (Supplement 145 of these standards was hailed by one and all involved in the field of digital pathology as it will make it easier for hospitals to integrate digital pathology into their already established systems without adding too much overhead costs. Besides, it will enable different vendors developing the scanners to upgrade their products to storage systems that are common across all systems.

  2. New brachytherapy standards paradigm shift

    Full text: The absorbed dose rate to water at short distances (1 cm typically) in water, is the quantity of interest for dosimetry in radiotherapy treatments. Moreover, the dose imparted to cancer patients must be known within a narrow band of uncertainty to avoid either damage to the healthy tissue resulting from exceeding international accepted tolerance levels or lack of tumor control due to a low dose delivered to the target volume. The goal for the uncertainty of the dose delivered to the target volume would be around 5% (at the level of one standard deviation), to assure the effectiveness of the radiotherapy treatment. This also takes into account the uncertainties in dose calculation algorithms. In current brachytherapy (BT) treatments, the procedures to determine the absorbed dose imparted to the patient are not based on absorbed dose standards, but are based on measurements traceable to air kerma standards. In fact, the recommended quantity for the calibration of BT gamma ray sources is the reference air kerma rate, KR, defined as the kerma rate to air, in air, at the reference distance of 1 m from the radioactive source, corrected for air attenuation and scattering. The absorbed dose around a BT source is currently calculated by applying the formalism of the international AAPM Task Group 43 protocol and its update. This protocol is based on the air kerma strength, SK, a quantity that is numerically equivalent to KR, at a distance of 1 m from the source. The dose rate constant Λ converts the air-kerma strength SK to the absorbed dose rate to water, D.(r0,θ0), in water at the reference position: D.(r0,θ0) = SK·A (1). Recently, a lower limit of 2,50 % was obtained for the estimated overall uncertainty (at the level of one standard deviation) on measurements of D.(r0,θ0) due to a HDR 192I BT source based on equation (1). However, in most cases the determination of 5K is typically affected by an uncertainty within 0,8 % (at the level of one standard

  3. New Brachytherapy Standards Paradigm Shift

    The absorbed dose to water rate at short distances in water is the quantity of interest for dosimetry in radiotherapy, but no absorbed dose to water primary standards have been available to date for dosimetry of brachytherapy sources. Currently, the procedures to determine the absorbed dose imparted to the patient in brachytherapy treatments are based on measurements traceable to air kerma standards. These procedures are affected by an uncertainty that is larger than the limit recommended by the IAEA dosimetry protocol (IAEA TRS 398 (2000)). Based on this protocol, the goal for the uncertainty of the dose delivered to the target volume should be within 5% (at the level of one standard deviation) to assure the effectiveness of a radiotherapy treatment. The international protocols for the calibration of brachytherapy gamma ray sources are based on the reference air kerma rate or the air kerma strength. The absorbed dose to water, in water at the reference position around a brachytherapy source is then calculated by applying the formalism of the protocols based on a conversion constant, the dose rate constant Λ, specific for the characteristics and geometry of the brachytherapy source. The determination of this constant relies on Monte Carlo simulations and relative measurements performed with passive dosimeters, and therefore it is typically affected by large uncertainties, larger than 5% (at the level of one standard deviation). The conversion procedure needed for brachytherapy dosimetry is a source of additional uncertainty on the final value of the absorbed dose imparted to the patient. It is due to a lack of metrology standards that makes dosimetry of brachytherapy sources less accurate than dosimetry of external radiation beams produced by 60Co sources and accelerators currently used in external beam radiotherapy. This paper reviews the current developments of absorbed dose to water primary standards for brachytherapy and the rationale for the choice of the

  4. FAINT UBVRI STANDARD STAR FIELDS

    Clem, James L.; Landolt, Arlo U., E-mail: jclem@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: landolt@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    High-quality CCD-based UBVRI photometry is presented for ∼45, 000 stars distributed among 60 different fields centered on the celestial equator and at δ ≈ –50°. This photometry has been calibrated to the standard Johnson UBV and Kron-Cousins RI systems via observations of the UBVRI standard stars presented in the works of Landolt. The majority of the stars in our photometric catalog fall in the magnitude range 12 ∼< V ∼< 22 and in the color range –0.3 ∼< (B – V) ∼< 1.8. Each star averages 67 measures in each UBVRI filter from data taken on 250 different photometric nights over a period of ∼6.5 yr from two different telescopes. Our final photometric database effectively extends the UBVRI standard star network defined by Landolt to much fainter magnitudes and increases the number density of stars within pre-existing standard fields. Hence, these new, fainter standards serve as suitable calibrators for investigators who employ either small or large-aperture telescopes for their observational projects.

  5. Diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology

    Establishing the accurate diagnosis and the adequate treatment of choice in ischemic heart disease (IHD) has become an emergency issue, with increasing the number of IHD patients in Japan. It is therefore important to determine myocardial viability and its related pathophysiology such as stunning and hibernation, which is a prerequisite for widely performed coronary revascularization. From these points of view, cardiovascular nuclear medicine, involving thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and cardiac radionuclide angiography, has become a well-established method for diagnosing IHD. However, no diagnostic standards are available in the routine practice. The Japanese Circulation Society has started a committee for preparing 'diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology' in April 1989. Out of 8,947 facilities nationwide, 1,126 (12.5%) possess gamma cameras. Of these facilities, 799(70.9%) perform nuclear cardiologic examination. A questinnaire was sent to the 799 facilities, and 410 (51.3%) responded. Based on the 1989's questionnaire results, 'diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology' was discussed through one year in 1990, and was completed in 1991. This is a report dealing with the present 'diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology', focusing on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, cardiac radionuclide angiography, Tc-99m acute infarct imaging, and new radionuclides and PET. Items are included as follows: (1) equipment and techniques, (2) diagnostic standards, (3) stress test, (4) candidates for the examination, and (5) diagnostic cautions. (N.K.) 71 refs

  6. Projected Standard on neutron skyshine

    Current interest in neutron skyshine arises from the application of dry fuel handling and storage techniques at reactor sites, at the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility and at other facilities being considered as part of the civilian radioactive waste management programs. The chairman of Standards Subcommittee ANS-6, Radiation Protection and Shielding, has requested that a work group be formed to characterize the neutron skyshine problem and, if necessary, prepare a draft Standard. The work group is comprised of representatives of storage cask vendors, architect engineering firms, nuclear utilities, the academic community and staff members of national laboratories and government agencies. The purpose of this presentation summary is to describe the activities of the work group and the scope and contents of the projected Standard, ANS-6.6.2, ''Calculation and Measurement of Direct and Scattered Neutron Radiation from Nuclear Power Operations.'' The specific source under consideration by the work group is an array of dry fuel casks located at a reactor site. However, it is recognized that the scope of the standard should be broad enough to encompass other neutron sources. The Standard will define appropriate methodology for properly characterizing the neutron dose due to skyshine. This dose characterization is necessary, for example, in demonstrating compliance with pertinent regulatory criteria

  7. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  8. 77 FR 13969 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    2012-03-08

    ... Association (GGA) acetylene standard (see 76 FR 75782). In the DFR, OSHA deleted reference to CGA G-1-2003 and... final rule published on December 5, 2011 (76 FR 75782), is effective on March 5, 2012. For the purposes....C. 553, Secretary of Labor's Order 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), and 29 CFR part 1911. Signed at...

  9. Beyond the standard model; Au-dela du modele standard

    Cuypers, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs.

  10. Status of European appliance standards

    Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de L`Environnement et de la Maitrise de L`Energie, Valbonne (France)

    1992-05-01

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  11. Standard Model Double Field Theory

    Choi, Kang-Sin

    2015-01-01

    We show that, without any extra physical degree introduced, the Standard Model can be readily reformulated as a Double Field Theory. Consequently, the Standard Model can couple to an arbitrary stringy gravitational background in an $\\mathbf{O}(4,4)$ T-duality covariant manner and manifests two independent local Lorentz symmetries, $\\mathbf{Spin}(1,3)\\times\\mathbf{Spin}(3,1)$. While the diagonal gauge fixing of the twofold spin groups leads to the conventional formulation on the flat Minkowskian background, the enhanced symmetry makes the Standard Model more rigid, and also stringy, than it appeared. The CP violating $\\theta$-term is no longer allowed by the symmetry, and hence the strong CP problem is solved. There are now stronger constraints imposed on the possible higher order corrections. We urge experimentalists to test if the quarks and the leptons belong to the same spin class or not.

  12. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    Carpi, Federico; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Frediani, Gabriele; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Lassen, Benny; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing; Pelrine, Ron; Rechenbach, Björn; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation.

  13. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

    Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  14. Standard of care in dentistry

    Gokul Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as applicable to medicine. Dental practitioners constitute a group of health professionals who deal with human health care on a regular basis. Various ethical principles govern their conduct and their approach toward the patients. Ethical code of conduct prescribes a minimum standard of care which is applicable to all dental professionals. Substandard dental care is unacceptable and mounts to negligence on the part of the professional. Knowledge on what constitutes standard of care is a pre-requisite for dental professionals in providing quality health care. This paper presents a brief overview on standard of care as applicable to dentist and its practical implications with a note on the legal issues pertaining to medical negligence as applicable in India.

  15. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Neutrino and The Standard Model

    Bilenky, S M

    2014-01-01

    After discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN the Standard Model acquired a status of the full, correct theory of the elementary particles in the electroweak range. What general conclusions can be inferred from the SM? I am suggesting here that in the framework of such general principles as local gauge symmetry, unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and Brout-Englert-Higgs spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry nature chooses the simplest possibilities. It is very plausible that massless left-handed neutrinos (simplest, most economical possibility) play crucial role in the determination of the charged current structure of the Standard Model and that neutrino properties (masses and nature) are determined by a beyond the Standard Model physics. The discovery of the neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay and proof that neutrinos with definite masses are Majorana particles would be an important evidence in favor of the considered scenario.

  17. High-redshift standard candles

    King, Anthea L.; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Vestergaard, M.; Watson, D.

    2014-01-01

    dark energy equation of state, $w(z)$, and assess the optimal redshift distribution a high-redshift standard-candle survey could take to constrain these models. The more general the form of the dark energy equation of state $w(z)$ being tested, the more useful high-redshift standard candles become. For......We investigate whether future measurements of high redshift standard candles (HzSCs) will be a powerful probe of dark energy, when compared to other types of planned dark energy measurements. Active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts have both been proposed as potential HzSC candidates. Due to...... a linear parameterization of $w(z)$, HzSCs give only small improvements over planned supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements; a wide redshift range with many low redshift points is optimal to constrain this linear model. However to constrain a general, and thus potentially more...

  18. Calibration of working standard ionization chambers and dose standardization

    Measurements were performed for the calibration of two working standard ionization chambers in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Sudan. 600 cc cylindrical former type and 1800 cc cylindrical radical radiation protection level ionization chambers were calibrated against 1000 cc spherical reference standard ionization chamber. The chamber were calibrated at X-ray narrow spectrum series with beam energies ranged from (33-116 KeV) in addition to 1''3''7''Cs beam with 662 KeV energy. The chambers 0.6 cc and 0.3 cc therapy level ionization were used for dose standardization and beam output calibrations of cobalt-60 radiotherapy machine located at the National Cancer Institute, University of Gazira. Concerning beam output measurements for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine, dosimetric measurements were performed in accordance with the relevant per IAEA dosimetry protocols TRS-277 and TRS-398. The kinetic energy released per unit mass in air (air kerma) were obtained by multiplying the corrected electrometer reading (nC/min) by the calibration factors (Gy/n C) of the chambers from given in the calibration certificate. The uncertainty of measurements of air kerma were calculated for the all ionization chambers (combined uncertainty) the calibration factors of these ionization chambers then were calculated by comparing the reading of air kerma of secondary standard ionization chambers to than from radical and farmer chambers. The result of calibration working standard ionization chambers showed different calibration factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.52 for different radiation energies and these differences were due to chambers response and specification. The absorbed dose to to water calculated for therapy ionization chamber using two code of practice TRS-277 and TRS-398 as beam output for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine and it can be used as a reference for future beam output calibration in radiotherapy dosimetry. The measurement of absorbed dose to water showed that the

  19. Institutional model for supporting standardization

    Restoring the nuclear option for utilities requires standardized designs. This premise is widely accepted by all parties involved in ALWR development activities. Achieving and maintaining standardization, however, demands new perspectives on the roles and responsibilities for the various commercial organizations involved in nuclear power. Some efforts are needed to define a workable model for a long-term support structure that will allow the benefits of standardization to be realized. The Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC) has developed a strategic plan that lays out the steps necessary to enable the nuclear industry to be in a position to order a new nuclear power plant by the mid 1990's. One of the key elements of the plan is the, ''industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants.'' This commitment is a result of the recognition by utilities of the substantial advantages to standardization. Among these are economic benefits, licensing benefits from being treated as one of a family, sharing risks across a broader ownership group, sharing operating experiences, enhancing public safety, and a more coherent market force. Utilities controlled the construction of the past generation of nuclear units in a largely autonomous fashion procuring equipment and designs from a vendor, engineering services from an architect/engineer, and construction from a construction management firm. This, in addition to forcing the utility to assume virtually all of the risks associated with the project, typically resulted in highly customized designs based on preferences of the individual utility. However, the benefits of standardization can be realized only through cooperative choices and decision making by the utilities and through working as partners with reactor vendors, architect/engineers, and construction firms

  20. Thermodynamic properties of standard seawater

    J. Safarov; Millero, F.; R. Feistel1; Heintz, A.; Hassel, E. van

    2009-01-01

    (p, ρ, T) data of standard seawater with practical salinity S≈35 (corresponding to an absolute salinity SA≈35.16504 g/kg) measured at T=(273.14 to 468.06) K and pressures up to p=140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of 0.006% in density. The measurements were made with a newly constr...

  1. Are RCTs the gold standard?

    Cartwright, N.

    2007-01-01

    The claims of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to be the gold standard rest on the fact that the ideal RCT is a deductive method: if the assumptions of the test are met, a positive result implies the appropriate causal conclusion. This is a feature that RCTs share with a variety of other methods, which thus have equal claim to being a gold standard. This article describes some of these other deductive methods and also some useful non-deductive methods, including the hypothetico-deductive m...

  2. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  3. Standardization of sup 192 Ir

    Reher, D.F.G.; Roost, E. de; Sibbens, G.; Denecke, B.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Ballaux, C. (CEC-JRC Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)); Woods, M.J. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom)); Funck, E. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany))

    1992-02-01

    Two {sup 192}Ir solutions were standardized by NPL and CBNM within the framework of EUROMET project no. 219. The 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma}-coincidence method was used for these measurements, a 4{pi}CsI(Tl) detector for gamma-ray spectrometry, and a NaI(Tl) well counter for 4{pi}-gamma integral counting. The uncertainty of the result was 0.3%, corresponding to one standard deviation. Traceability was established to BIPM for the {sup 192}Ir activity measurements. (orig.).

  4. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  5. 48 CFR 53.301 - Standard forms.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard forms. 53.301... AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301 Standard forms. This section illustrates the standard... order. The subsection numbers correspond with the standard form numbers (e.g., Standard Form 18...

  6. 29 CFR 1911.12 - Emergency standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency standards. 1911.12 Section 1911.12 Labor... STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.12 Emergency standards. (a)(1) Whenever an emergency standard is... section 6(b) of the Act, and the standard as published must serve as a proposed rule. Any notice...

  7. Quality and standards in electronics

    Tricker, Ray

    1997-01-01

    A manufacturer or supplier of electronic equipment or components needs to know the precise requirements for component certification and quality conformance to meet the demands of the customer. This book ensures that the professional is aware of all the UK, European and International necessities, knows the current status of these regulations and standards, and where to obtain them.

  8. 77 FR 32465 - Technical Standards

    2012-06-01

    ... order: Hardware, Software, System Components, Installation/ Downloading, and, finally, Grandfathering... components? 547.7 What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems... gaming system for such purposes as changing the component software. DVD. Digital Video Disk or...

  9. Good standards for smart meters

    R.A. Hoenkamp; G.B. Huitema

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental co

  10. Inexpensive Eddy-Current Standard

    Berry, Robert F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radial crack replicas serve as evaluation standards. Technique entails intimately joining two pieces of appropriate aluminum alloy stock and centering drilled hole through and along interface. Bore surface of hole presents two vertical stock interface lines 180 degrees apart. These lines serve as radial crack defect replicas during eddy-current technique setup and verification.

  11. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  12. A Standard Fit for Neoliberalism

    Gibbon, Peter; Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists and historians writing on techniques of contemporary rule, particularly those influenced by post-Marxist paradigms such as governmentality, have become increasingly preoccupied by the expanding role of standardization and the subjection of an ever-expanding array of spheres of a...

  13. Encoding Standards for Linguistic Corpora.

    Ide, Nancy

    The demand for extensive reusability of large language text collections for natural languages processing research requires development of standardized encoding formats. Such formats must be capable of representing different kinds of information across the spectrum of text types and languages, capable of representing different levels of…

  14. The standard model and beyond

    In these lectures, my aim is to present a status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows. I survey the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also commented on. In addition, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple example which employs that technique. I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, extra Z' bosons, and compositeness are discussed. An overview of the physics of tau decays is also included. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin2θW from experiment. The results presented there are based on a global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, implications for grand unified theories (GUTS), extra Z' gauge bosons, and atomic parity violation. The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. Finally, I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses, mixings, and electromagnetic moments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Standardized Testing and School Accountability

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of standardized tests to hold schools accountable. The history of testing for accountability is reviewed, and it is shown that currently between-school differences account for less than 10% of the variance in student scores, in part because the progress of individuals is small compared to the spread of achievement…

  16. [Transsexuality--standards of care].

    Eicher, W

    1995-01-01

    After the description of transsexualism as a nosological entity by Harry Benjamin standards of care emerged which are useful and protective for patients and doctors involved in treatment. The diagnosis is established by the finding of an irreversibly transposed gender identity. This has to be confirmed by an expert who is competent in counselling gender identity problems. He will give his written opinion which is the indication for the hormonal treatment to be done at least for half a year prior to operation and which leads to virilization or effeminization and which is the preparation for genital surgery. Standards of female-to-male surgery are: 1. Breast-transformation 2. Colpohysterectomy with adnexectomy, possibly by the vaginal route. Surrogates for testes and phalloplasties are only in the experimental stage and not standard. Standards of male-to-female surgery are: 1. Castration by extirpation of testes. 2. Resection of penis shaft with total resection of the spongy bodies. 3. Neovagina by inverted penis-skin technique. 4. Plasty of labia majora and minora and a clitoris. 5. In case of insufficient gynecomastia breast-augmentation. After the operation, follow-up examinations are necessary by the surgeon until complete healing. A supportive psychological care by the expert who has evaluated the transposition of gender identity would be useful. It could be done also by the gynecologist who makes the follow-up examinations in male to female transsexuals. He is also competent for the life-long hormonal substitution. PMID:7709674

  17. EASIER ACCESS TO STANDARDS DOCUMENTATION

    2001-01-01

    Many organizations issuing standards offer reduced prices for publications to their members. Paying a membership fee, even a site membership fee, can therefore be worthwhile - even if relatively few standards are needed. The Library is now exploring the possibility, in collaboration with the rest of the CERN community, of joining standards-issuing organizations. So why not share your costs with the rest of the organization wherever this can be done without violating copyright or access regulations? The Library now provides documentation and other member services from IPC, the Association Connecting Electronics Industries (http://www.ipc.org/html/fsabout.htm) at favourable prices for the entire CERN population. For more information, or if you are a member of any other organization which provides services which could be shared CERN-wide, please contact library.desk@cern.ch . We remind all users of international standards, that CERN has special agreements with ISO and IEC (see Bulletin 50/2000). You can order st...

  18. Educational Standards for Chiropractic Colleges.

    Council on Chiropractic Education, Des Moines, IA.

    The policy of accreditation for the chiropractic profession and educational standards for chiropractic colleges are presented. The following types are historical development of chiropractic accreditation; the structure and function of the Council on Chiropractic Education; and eligibility, procedures, and classifications for status as an…

  19. Characterising agrammatism in Standard Indonesian

    Anjarningsih, Harwintha Yuhria; Haryadi-Soebadi, Ratna D.; Gofir, Abdul; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    Background: The spontaneous speech of speakers of Standard Indonesian (SI) with agrammatic Broca's aphasia has not yet been characterised, although there are features of SI that are relevant for the discussion of agrammatic speech. Aims: The purpose of this study was to find the characteristic featu

  20. The Problem of National Standards.

    Brannon, Lil

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the development of national standards is another way in which the literacy crisis is being managed and maintained, a crisis arising from the tension between America's promise to the individual that he or she will have full access to intellectual resources and the needs of capitalism to have a differentiated, stratified workforce. (TB)

  1. Challenges to 5G standardization

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...... for the successful deployment of 5G enabling technologies....

  2. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    Quirk, Randolph

    It is argued that viewing learners' errors as evidence for the emergence of new varieties of the English language is dangerously mistaken, particularly where it leads to the abandonment of Standard English as a model for learners. It is shown how this view is mistaken by: (1) citing recent British thinking on the relationship of varieties of…

  3. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  4. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  5. Future of Software Engineering Standards

    Poon, Peter T.

    1997-01-01

    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  6. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.; Picotto, G. B.; Matus, M.; Carcedo, L.; Hemming, B.; Ganioglu, O.; De Chiffre, L.; Saraiva, F.; Bergstrand, S.; Zelenika, S.; Tonmueanwai, A.; Tsai, C.-L.; Shihua, W.; Kruger, O.; de Souza, M. M.; Salgado, J. A.; Ramotowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions the number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 20, which correspond to about 5% of the total and can statistically be expected. In addition to the material standards, two softgauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results help to support the calibraton and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the laboratories involved in the CIPM MRA. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    Quirk, Randolph

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Kingsman Report (Department of Education and Science, London) on teaching English in Britain, and considers its relevance for teaching English in other countries. The many kinds of English, the labels given to them, and the centrality of the standard language are briefly reviewed. (JL)

  8. Phenomenology Beyond the Standard Model

    Lykken, Joseph D.

    2005-01-01

    My talk described the conformality approach to extending the standard model of particle phenomenology using an assumption of no conformal anomaly at high energy. Topics included quiver gauge theory, the conformality approach to phenomenology, strong-electroweak unification at 4 TeV, cancellation of quadratic divergences, cancellation of U(1) anomalies, and a dark matter candidate.

  9. Hospitalwide medication policies and standards.

    Laine, G A; Galt, M A; Langford, J A; Prout, D L; Puckett, W H

    1994-12-01

    The development and composition of a hospitalwide medication policies and standards manual are described. Medication policies and procedures developed independently by individual hospital departments and services at a 789-bed private teaching institution created problems related to consistency, the approval process, accreditation standards, and retrievability. Therefore, a joint nursing-pharmacy task force was formed to create a master document containing medication policies and standards for the entire institution. The manual also contains departmental medication-related procedures, the formulary of approved drugs, and key drug information. Its format allows for periodic updating and ease of use by nurses, pharmacists, physicians, and other health care professionals. It meets the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requirement of a collaborative framework to ensure optimal medication-use outcomes. All medication-related procedures in individual departments must comply with the new policies and standards. A hospitalwide medication policy manual, created through multidisciplinary collaboration, made the policies and procedures consistent and more accessible and met JCAHO and other regulatory requirements. PMID:7879805

  10. The Economics of Standards and Standardization in Information and Communication Technologies

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens; Fomin, Vladislav V.

    2006-01-01

    Standards have proven themselves indispensable to the industrial revolution. How are standards developed today? What does the economics of standards tell about the impact of standards upon economic growth and productivity? Do standards influence industry innovation? How are the standardization processes in the field of ICT taking place? How and why do open standards differ from other types of standards? How may open standards influence ICT government policy and the reverse: How will governmen...

  11. Application of Fields for Adopted Standards in Catalogues of Chinese Standards

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Catalogues of Chinese Standards in electronic format are available from many national websites in the area of standardization, such as Standardization Administration of China (www.sac.gov.cn),China Standard Service Network (www.cssn.net.cn)and so on. It brings convenience to the worldwide users in retrieving Chinese standards. The retrievable Fields of Catalogues of Chinese Standards in electronic format applied in the above websites are roughly same, usually including Standard Number,Chinese Title, English Title, China Classification for Standard, International Classification for Standard,Adopted Standard, Replaced Standard, etc. Users can find the standards by known information.

  12. DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS

    L. Kovalev; I. Kovalev

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

  13. WCDMA and CDMA2000 Communication Industry Standards

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the Ministry of Information Industry promulgated the Third Generation (3G) mobile communication "China Standard" TD-SCDMA as the standard for China's communication industry, the ministry has also promulgated WCDMA and CDMA2000 as industrial standards.

  14. Introduction to China Association for Standardization

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Association for Standardization (CAS), consisting of organizations and individuals engaged in standardization in China based on the voluntary participation, is a public society of standardization erjoying a 1egal status approved by the Ministry of Civil Affairs.

  15. Fulfilling a Promise: Standards for Technological Literacy.

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of standards in U.S. education, the development of the Standards for Technological Literacy, and the recent publication of "Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards." (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  16. Comparison of Wireless Standards-Setting

    Romanchuk, Sergiy; Vasyuk, Volodymyr

    2010-01-01

    In this paper wireless communication standards are described. Problems of standardization of wireless telecommunication networks of Europe have been considered. Also comparison of wireless networks and the table of comparison of telecommunication networks of different standards are resulted.

  17. M&S Standards Activities in NATO

    Huiskamp, W.

    2013-01-01

    The general standardization policy of NA TO is to use civil standards whenever possible and cooperate with Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) in developing standards that meet its needs. The NMSG closely cooperates with SISO under a formal Technical Cooperation Agreement to develop standards that promote and improve simulation interoperability between the partner nations. This presentation will discuss the NMSGs activities related to M&S Standardization.

  18. Integrated Standardization and Systems Engineering Management

    2002-01-01

    Integrated standardization is one of the fundamenta l forms of modern standardization. It is the combination of system science and the content of standardization. The development of system science has provided theo retic foundation and precondition for integrated standardization. The relevant r esearch on integrated standardization and system engineering illustrate that int egrated standardization is a advanced method which presented with the developmen t of modern science and technology . Integrated st...

  19. Neutrinophilic Non-Standard Interactions

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    We construct UV-complete models for non-standard neutrino interactions mediated by a sub-GeV gauge boson Z' coupled to baryon number $B$ or $B-L$. A flavor-dependent Z' coupling to neutrinos is induced by mixing a U(1)'-charged Dirac fermion with the active neutrinos, naturally suppressing flavor violation or non-universality of the charged leptons to the loop level. We show that these models can give rise to large flavor-conserving as well as flavor-violating non-standard neutral-current neutrino interactions potentially observable in current or future oscillation experiments such as DUNE without being in conflict with other constraints such as neutrino scattering or lepton-flavor-violating decays. In particular, the LMA-Dark solution to the solar-neutrino anomaly can be obtained for $U(1)_B$, but not for $U(1)_{B-L}$.

  20. School-based Standard Testing

    Craig Bolon

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available School-based standard testing continues to evolve, yet in some ways it remains surprisingly close to its roots in the first two decades of the twentieth century. After use for many years as a diagnostic and as a filter for access to education, in the closing years of the century it has been pressed into service for state-run political accountability programs. In this role, it is generating vehement controversy that recalls protests over intelligence testing in the early 1920s. This background article explores primary characteristics and issues in the development of school-based standard testing, reviews its typical lack of qualification for political accountability programs, and suggests remedies to address major problems. In general, the attitude toward new techniques of assessment is skeptical, in light of the side-effects and unexpected problems that developed during the evolution of current techniques.

  1. Beyond the Standard Model II

    Milton, Kimball A.; Kantowski, Ronald; Samuel, Mark A.

    1991-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Electroweak Symmetry-Breaking Effects at Colliders * Precision Tests of the Electroweak Theory * Hadron Colliders: B Factories for Now and the Future * The MSW Effect as the Solution to the Solar Neutrino Problem * New Physics Effects from String Models * Strings and Large N QCD * Searching for Millicharged Particles * Recent Results from CLEO * Standard Model Investigations at ALEPH * Z0 Couplings to Hadrons and Charged Leptons * Is Chiral Symmetry Restored at High Temperatures? * Fermion Masses out of Radiative Corrections * Extra Z and Atomic Parity Violation * Lepton Number and Supersymmetry * The Mass Generation in the Standard Electroweak Theory * GRANDE: A Neutrino Telescope for Arkansas * Neutrino and Gravitational Radiation Observations from Supernovae * Supersymmetric Contributions to the Neutrino Magnetic Moment * Observables from p overline {p} rightarrow {W^+X} rightarrow {e^+vX} Beyond Leading Order * Random Walks on p-adic Numbers * Solar Neutrino Puzzle and Physics Beyond the Standard Model * The SFT: A Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility at the SSC * Non-Standard Stellar Evolution * Analogous Behavior in the Quantum Hall Effect, Anyon Superconductivity, and the Standard Model * Gauge Boson Dynamics * Rare Decays and CP Asymmetries in Charged B Decays * Total Hadronic Cross-section in e+e- Annihilation at the Four-loop Level of Perturbative QCD * Neutrino Oscillations and Solar Neutrinos * Canonical Quantization of Axial Gauges: Perturbative and Non-perturbative Implications * Large Technicolor Effect at Z0 * Finite Size Scaling for Heavy Mesons in the Continuum * Are There Electroweak Skyrmions? * Testing the Flipped String * Virasoro Constructions from Twisted Kac-Moody Algebras * Electroweak Symmetry Breaking by Fourth Generation Quark and Lepton Condensates * Novel Extension of the Standard Model * O * Interpreting Precision Measurements * Rare K Decays: Present Status and

  2. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  3. Standard of care in dentistry

    Gokul Sridharan; Prithviraj Kallahalla Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as applicable to medicine. Dental practitioners constitute a group of health professionals who deal with human health care on a regular basis. Various ethical principles govern their conduct and their approach toward the patients. Ethical code of conduct prescribes a minimum standard of care which is applicable to all dental professionals. Substandard dental care is unacceptable and mounts to neglig...

  4. STANDARD ODVZEMA KRVI NA DOMU

    Ciglar, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    V sklopu negovalnih intervencij patronažnega varstva, ki jih izvaja patronažna medicinska sestra, smo obravnavali negovalno intervencijo odvzem krvi na domu ter napisali standard. Odvzem krvi na domu sodi k zahtevnejšim negovalnim intervencijam patronažne medicinske sestre, saj zahteva visoko stopnjo profesionalnosti in strokovnosti pri celotnem postopku negovalne intervencije. Odvzem krvi patronažna medicinska sestra izvede po procesu zdravstvene nege po točno določenih korakih, opredeljenih...

  5. Standardization of detector control systems

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  6. The Road of Haier Standardization

    2012-01-01

    Brand Strategy Stage (1984 -1991)High Standard and High Quality Build up the brand by improving quality and highlighting the distinctive features of the enterprise.There are about 300 refrigerator manufacturers in China when Haier was just established.By the superior quality of its products,Haier has been maintaining a leading positionin the competition.Haier always sticks to the concept that "quality is everything",rising its competitive strength and building up a famous brand by high quality.

  7. Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    Baer, Howard

    2009-01-01

    I present a brief overview of some exciting possibilities for physics Beyond the Standard Model. I include short discussions of neutrino physics, the strong CP problem and axions, GUTs, large and warped extra dimensions, Little Higgs models and supersymmetry. The chances appear excellent that in the next few years-- as the LHC era gets underway-- data from a bevy of experiments will point the way to a new paradigm for the laws of physics as we know them.

  8. Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    I present a brief overview of some exciting possibilities for physics Beyond the Standard Model. I include short discussions of neutrino physics, the strong CP problem and axions, GUTs, large and warped extra dimensions, Little Higgs models and supersymmetry. The chances appear excellent that in the next few years - as the LHC era gets underway - data from a bevy of experiments will point the way to a new paradigm for the laws of physics as we know them.

  9. Accounting Management by International Standards

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for s...

  10. Standards for hospital libraries 2002

    Gluck, Jeannine Cyr; Hassig, Robin Ackley; Balogh, Leeni; Bandy, Margaret; Doyle, Jacqueline Donaldson; Kronenfeld, Michael R.; Lindner, Katherine Lois; Murray, Kathleen; Petersen, JoAn; Rand, Debra C.

    2002-01-01

    The Medical Library Association's “Standards for Hospital Libraries 2002” have been developed as a guide for hospital administrators, librarians, and accrediting bodies to ensure that hospitals have the resources and services to effectively meet their needs for knowledge-based information. Specific requirements for knowledge-based information include that the library be a separate department with its own budget. Knowledge-based information in the library should be directed by a qualified libr...

  11. Law and technology security standard

    Kitahara, Munenori

    2012-01-01

    The author will deal with the relationship between law and technology from the viewpoint of technology security standard. One of the relationships can be found in that law has been providing a security level of technology. They have been saying that law would often follow technology. Law is too slow to adapt the changing technology through the advancement of technology. Above all, information technology has an electronic rapidity and a legislation technology has a paper one. There might be a ...

  12. STANDARDIZING SOURCE CODE SECURITY AUDITS

    Suzanna Schmeelk; Bill Mills; Leif Hedstrom

    2012-01-01

    A source code security audit is a powerful methodology for locating and removing security vulnerabilities.An audit can be used to (1) pass potentially prioritized list of vulnerabilities to developers (2) exploitvulnerabilities or (3) provide proof-of-concepts for potential vulnerabilities. The security audit researchcurrently remains disjoint with minor discussion of methodologies utilized in the field. This paperassembles a broad array of literature to promote standardizing source code secu...

  13. Banking Regulatory Standards Basel III

    Costicã Vlad; Maria-Alexandra Spau

    2012-01-01

    Basel Committee issued on December 16, 2010 text Basel III standards framework, which reports on worldwide regulations for capital adequacy and bank liquidity. It is estimated that the rules will help achieve financial stability and promoting economic growth. Combined with a framework of global liquidity, will significantly reduce the likelihood and severity of banking crises in the future by covering the area of micro elements and macroprudentiality. The Framework sets out measures to improv...

  14. The Importance of Standard Definitions

    Francisco Jose Morera-Ocon

    2009-01-01

    Dear Sir: Sanjay et al. [1] assessed compliance with the revised guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis published by the work group of the British Society of Gastroenterology in 2005 [2]. This article is valuable in reminding us of the standards of care in this disease but there are some points which may require comments and questions. First, a distinction between severe acute pancreatitis, defined by the presence of complications, and predicted severe acute pancreatitis as...

  15. Explanatory Notes to Standard Compilation

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Basis for Standard Compilation The economic globalization and China's rapid expansion of foreign exchanges have drastically boosted the demand for translation services. As a result, enterprises offering translation services mushroomed and formed a new industry unlike any other service industry. Though the output value of translation services is not high at the moment, their level and quality have a great impact on the clients because they cover the foreign intercourses in various fields and the construction of major foreign-invested projects.

  16. Latest Developments in LED Standards

    Yurtseven, M. Berker; Onaygil, Sermin

    2015-01-01

    The LED light sources can be stated as the most promising technology for the last decade from the lighting technology point of view. In order to compare LED chips and LED products from different manufacturers and achieve reproducible results, all of the manufacturers shall measure their LEDs or LED based products using same methodology. In this study, it is aimed to explain measurement and performance standards for LED chips and LED based Solid State Lighting products.

  17. Siting envelope for standardized plants

    A number of independent studies are being made to define the range of values to be associated with specific site parameters in different regions of the United States. A number of these studies have been published, are established as Atomic Energy Commission Regulatory Guides, or are in the process of being developed as industry standards. Similarly, the methods of defining design acceptability are in the process of being established. 16 references. (U.S.)

  18. Roots of Quaternion Standard Polynomials

    Chapman, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a reduction of any quaternion standard polynomial equation into an equation with two central variables and quaternion coefficients. If only pure imaginary roots are in demand, then the equation is with one central variable. As a result of this reduction we obtain formulas for the solutions of quadratic equations. Another result is a routine for analytically solving cubic quaternion equations assuming they have at least one pure imaginary root.

  19. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  20. The Publication and Distribution of Chinese Standards and Other Standards-related Products

    Bai Demei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Standards Press of China (SPC), founded in October 1963, is the only publication center in China licensed to publish national standards, trade standards, and books concerned with standardization, quality, and other science and technology. The main publications are as following: