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Sample records for 99mtc direct labeling

  1. 99MTC-labelled autologous erythrocytes for the study of hepatic haemangiomas - Retrospective analysis

    Full text: Introduction: Haemangioma represents 5-7% of all benign tumours. Most hepatic lesions are easily diagnosed by ultrasound or CT scan, but sometimes differential diagnosis between haemangioma and other lesions is an important problem. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 99mTc-labelled autologous erythrocytes imaging for the diagnosis of hepatic haemangiomas. Population and Methods: We have retrospectively analysed, 61 patients (16(26%) males and 45(74%) females, with age> = 53 years) who have been submitted to hepatic study using 99mTc-labelled autologous erythrocytes (99mTc-LAE), between February 1999 and November 2002, for suspicious hepatic haemangioma. The hepatic lesions (diameter>=4,01±3,7cm) were documented by ultrasound and/or CT and/or MRI, none reaching a conclusive diagnosis: 39/61(64%) patients had single lesions, 8/61(13%) had two lesions, 5/61(8%) had three lesions and 9/61(15%) patients had more than 3 lesions. The erythrocytes in vivo labelling was performed with stannous chloride ev administration followed (by 20 minutes) by an 99mTc-Pertechnetate (740 MBq-20 mCi) ev administration. The hepatic images were made 2-3 hours after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical: 3 planar images (anterior, posterior and right lateral projections) and SPET. Results: 99mTc-LAE results were: 29 haemangiomas identified in 28/61(46%) patients, one of them also showing a lesion without elective erythrocytes accumulation; 6/61(10%) patients with lesions without elective erythrocytes accumulation; 27/61(44%) patients without any modification in the erythrocytes distribution parenchymal pattern. Lesion's dimensions (estimated by ultrasound, CT scan or MRI) were: haemangiomas identified by 99mTc-LAE - =5,27±3,3cm, 'cold' lesions in 99mTc-LAE - =2,58±1,47cm and non visualized lesions in 99mTc-LAE - =2,06±1,33cm. The 29 patients with haemangiomas, diagnosed in 99mTc-LAE, had already performed 25 ultrasounds, 20 CT scan, 5 MRI and 1 hepatic biopsy

  2. Altered splenic uptake in the biodistribution of 99MTc-stannous fluoride colloid in rats

    Full text: Radiolabelled white cells have found extensive application in nuclear medicine practice, with use in detecting sites of infection and inflammation. In 99MTc-stannous flu- oride (SnF2) colloid labelled leucocyte scans high liver and spleen activity is visualised, limiting the potential of this technique. This is thought to be due to free or unphagocytosed 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in the preparation. Labelling white cells with 99MTc-SnF2 depends upon phagocytic engulfment of this colloid. Non-phagocy-tosed colloid may be a cause of increased splenic activity. Our aims were to assess if it were possible to reduce liver/spleen uptake of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in a rat model, by administering unlabelled SnF2 colloid before injection of radiocolloid, in a modification of the standard British Pharmacopoeial test. The biodistribution of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid alone gave 85.4% uptake in the liver and 7.6% in the spleen. A pre-injection of 26.5μg cold SnF2 and then 99MTc-SnF2 colloid resulted in decreased spleen uptake by 43%. A higher (52μg) pre-injection dose gave a greater decrease in splenic uptake by 53%. When ex vivo opsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid was administered, both liver and spleen uptake was not reduced. From these results, a pre-injection of unlabelled SnF2 substantially depletes the circulating opsonin concentration, thereby decreasing the opsonisation rate of unopsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid. The limiting factor is likely to be the amount of opsonisation in the plasma rather than phagocytic capacity of the macrophages of liver and spleen. In conclusion these results suggest that a pre-injection of cold stannous fluoride may reduce splenic uptake in 99MTc-SnF2 colloid labelled white cell scans. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. 99MTc labeled antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin (29-41) accumulates less in E-coli infection as compared with staph. aureus infection

    99mTc labeled antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin, UBI (29-41) in freeze-dried kit was evaluated as bacterial infection seeking agent in Staph. aureus and E-coli induced infections. Methods: 33 rabbits were categorized in three groups. Biodistribution of 99mTc UBI (29-41) was studied in three animals (group I). The uptake of peptide was determined by counting radioactivity in anatomically fitted regions drawn over the liver, kidneys, urinary bladder and whole body and expressed as percent uptake per organ. Experimental thigh muscle infection was induced by injecting 2 x 108 CFU of live Staph. aureus or E- coli bacteria into fight thigh muscle in 20 rabbits (group II). Turpentine oil and formalin killed Staph. aureus were utilized for inducing sterile thigh muscle inflammation in 10 rabbits (group III). On scintigrams, anatomically adjusted regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over infected/inflamed (target) and non-infected/non-inflamed (non-target) thigh and accumulation of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) at sites of infection/inflammation was expressed as the target to non-target (T/NT) ratio. Results: Biodistribution study of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) revealed rapid removal of tracer from the circulation via the kidneys (10.6 ± 2.1% at 5 minutes and 5.9 ± 0.8% at 60 minutes) with accumulation of major part in urinary bladder within first hour after injection (66.6 ± 7.2%). Significantly higher (p < 0.05) accumulation of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) was seen at sites of Staph. aureus infected subjects (T/NT ratio 2.2 ± 0.5) as compared to E-coli (T/NT ratio 1.7 ± 0.4). Maximum tracer accumulation was observed at 60 minutes post-injection followed by gradual decline. No significant accumulation was noticed in thighs of rabbits injected with either turpentine oil or killed Staph. aureus with markedly lower T/NT ratios (p < 0.05) compared with Staph. aureus and E-coli infected thighs. Conclusion: 99mTc UBI (29-41) freeze-dried kit can be used for differentiating infections with Staph. aureus

  4. The integrity of the disulfide bond in a cyclic somatostatin analog during 99mtc complexation reactions

    Recent development of a variety of thiol-free chelating agents has facilitated the design of 99mTc-labeled somatostatin analogs suitable for receptor imaging of somatostatin-positive tumors. However, it remains ambiguous whether the disulfide bonds in cyclic peptides are stable during 99mTc complexation reactions, and contradictory results have been reported regarding the integrity of disulfide bonds in cyclic somatostatin analogs. To estimate the stability of the disulfide bond in a synthetic somatostatin analog at low peptide concentrations, [125I]I-RC-160, in which radioiodine was incorporated into the 3-Tyr residue, was synthesized and the integrity of the disulfide bond of the peptide was investigated in the presence of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, dithionite, and stannous ions. The disulfide bond in [125I]I-RC-160 remained stable in the presence of ascorbic acid in boiling water. The disulfide bond was also stable when treated with stannous ions at concentrations sufficient to reduce 99mTc for complexation with a thiol-free chelating agent, bis(hydroxamamide) analog when the 99mTc complexation reaction was performed at room temperature. However, the disulfide bond of [125I]I-RC-160 was slightly cleaved in the presence of a small amount of stannous ions when the reaction was performed in boiling water. Treatment of [125I]I-RC-160 with dithionite in boiling water markedly reduced the disulfide bond of the parental peptide. These findings indicated that synthetic somatostatin analogs may be labeled with 99mTc with stannous ions as the reducing agent without impairing their structure after conjugation of thiol-free chelating agents that provide 99mTc chelates under mild reaction conditions

  5. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  6. Single vial preparation of 99mtc ciprofloxacin for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Full text: Aim: To ascertain the usefulness of single vial formulation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Diagnobact) in detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Introductions: Tuberculosis is one of the major health concerns not only in developing countries but also in the developed nations. Imaging with radiolabelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, being more specific for infection, has the advantage over other nuclear medicine techniques. We are using Diagnobact to detect sites of infection. Methods: 12 patients (age-23 ±11 years, M:F-8:4) of tuberculosis, confirmed by culture/PCR underwent Diagnobact scan. Scanning was done at 1 hour, 4 hour and 24 hours after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of Diagnobact. Rising lesion to background ratio was taken as the criteria for labeling a Diagnobact scan to be positive.Results: Of the 12 patients, two had tibial tuberculous osteomyelitis (TBOM), two vertebral TBOM, one elbow TBOM, four hip joint TBOM, two shaft of femur TBOM and one patient had soft tissue tuberculosis of gluteal region. Diagnobact scan was positive in 10 patients while two patients with vertebral TBOM were negative. Conclusion: Diagnobact, like Infecton, is also useful for the detection of extra pulmonary tuberculosis but for vertebral TBOM. However, more patients need to be studied to reach at statistically significant conclusion. (author)

  7. Bone uptake during 99MTc-rTPA imaging studies - who is the trouble maker?

    Full text: Extensive bone uptake was observed in patients administered with 99mTc-labelled rTPA (recombinent tissue plasminogen activator) for detecting deep venous thrombosis. The present study was aimed at identifying the trouble maker. rTPA was prepared in-house by the method described by Butler (JNM, 37 (5), 744-748,1996). The final preparation was stored frozen at -20 deg C for 2-10 weeks. The freshly prepared rTPA samples, when stored for less than 2 weeks seem to give normal biodistribution with unimpressive bone uptake, but when stored for more than 8 weeks showed significant bone uptake. It was hypothesised that free phosphates produced during storage might lead to bone uptake. Since the composition of the preparation contains 114mg of arginine phosphate, we analysed the samples by spectro-photometry. Freshly prepared samples, which were stored for less than 2 weeks or the freeze-dried samples seem to contain intact arginine phosphate and negligible amounts of free phosphates. Samples stored more than 8 weeks and preparations from patients with bone uptake revealed that there was virtually no arginine phosphate present but indicated free phosphates and arginine in the samples. Thus our hypothesis was supported by the available evidence that high levels of phosphates are probably be responsible for elevated bone uptake in these patients. When rTPA is prepared, it is highly recommended to freeze-dry the samples than storing them at -20 deg C, to prevent hydrolysis of the arginine phosphate. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  8. Synthesis, biodistribution and imaging of 99mtc-7-HYNIC-TAXOL

    Taxol has been used in the treatment of breast, ovary and lung cancers. To evaluate the feasibility of 99mTc-7-HYNIC(hydrazino nicotinamide)-taxol as a tumor imaging agent, it was synthesized, and its biodistribution and gamma camera image were obtained in B16-F10 melanoma bearing C57BL6 mice 7-t-BOC-HYNIC-taxol was synthesized through six steps, and 7-HYNIC-taxol was finally obtained by t-BOC deprotecting from 7-t-BOC-HYNIC-taxol. The product was purified by column chromatography. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol complex from 7-HYNIC-taxol was prepared by labeling with 99mTc in the presence of SnCl2·2H20 and tricine. The biochemical behaviors of the complex such as in vitro stability and lipophilicity, in vitro transchelation were investigated. The biodistribution and in vivo image of 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol were obtained in B16-F10 melanoma bearing C57BL6 mice. After 1, 6 and 24 hr post-injection, the weight and radioactivity of each organ were measured and gamma camera image was obtained. The total synthetic yield of 7-HYNIC-taxol was 42.6%. Radiolabeling yield of 99mTc-HYNIC-taxol was 99.9%. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol was stable at 37? for 24 hrs. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol was slightly more soluble in water than in organic solvent. The binding ability of 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol to serum proteins was 39.9%. In vivo transchelation test, the 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol retained over 86% of radiochemical purity after incubation with DTPA or cysteine. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol was intravenously administered to C57BL6 mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma at footpad. Tumor/blood ratios were 1.17, 26.0, and 2.87, and tumor/muscle ratios were 12.2, 168, and 15.0 at 1 h. 6 h and 24 h post injection, respectively. The gamma camera image was obtained at 6 h post injection showed selectively localized in tumor. 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol showed high stability and was selectively localized in B16-F10 melanoma. These results suggest that 99mTc-7-HYNIC-taxol can be used as tumor imaging agent

  9. 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin

    张金赫; 徐海峰; 邵秋菊; 袁梦晖; 周润锁; 周亮飞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin (AS) and investigate the stability and bioactivity of the 99Tcm-labeled AS in vitro. Methods: AS was extracted, validated, and then labeled with 99Tcm after having been reduced by 2-ME or SnCl2. The best labeling condition was screened by cross design. The labeling efficiency was measured by TLC and column chromatography. The stability of 99Tcm-AS was observed and compared when BSA, saline and different molar ratios of Cys∶AS were separately added. The bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (CEV304). Results: The labeling efficiency can reach (97±1.5)% for the 2-ME-reducing approach. Its best experimental condition was as follows: AS 100 μg,PB(0.5 mol/L, pH 7.3)1 ml, 2-ME 100 μg, MDP (dissolved in 1 ml saline) 10 μl, and 99TcmO4- 185 MBq. The labeling efficiency using SnCl2-reducing method can reach (90±3.0)%. The best experimental procedure was as follows: AS 100 μg,boric acid buffer(0.1 mol/L, pH 9.0)1 ml, 2%SnCl2 (dissolved in 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid) 20 μl, was added into MDP, which was diluted with 1 ml deoxygenized water, and then 20 μl, 99TcmO4- 185 MBq was added. The product of 99Tcm labeled AS was stable in vitro and had the same bioactivity as AS. Conclusion: 99Tcm direct labeling of AS is simple and efficient. And the bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS has no significant change compared with AS.

  10. Direct photoaffinity labeling of tubulin with colchicine

    Wolff, J.; Knipling, L.; Cahnmann, H.J.; Palumbo, G. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of the ({sup 3}H)colchicine-tubulin complex leads to direct photolabeling of tubulin with low but practicable efficiency. The bulk (70% to greater than 90%) of the labeling occurs on beta-tubulin and appears early after irradiation, whereas {alpha}-tubulin is labeled later. The labeling ratio of {beta}-tubulin to {alpha}-tubulin ({beta}/{alpha} ratio) is reduced by prolonged incubation, prolonged irradiation, urea, high ionic strength, the use of aged tubulin, dilution of tubulin, or large concentrations of colchicine or podophyllotoxin. Glycerol increases the {beta}/{alpha} ratio. Limited data with ({sup 3}H)podophyllotoxin show that it covalently bound with a similar {beta}/{alpha} distribution. Vinblastine, on the other hand, exhibits preferential attachment to {alpha}-tubulin. The possibilities that colchicine binds at the interface between {alpha}-tubulin and {beta}-tubulin, that the drug spans this interface, and that both subunits may contribute to the binding site are suggested.

  11. Rhenium-186 direct labelling HIgG

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re for achievement of potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. There were selected methods and techniques for the direct labelling of intact HIgG by studding chemical and radiochemical processes of -S-S- bridges prereduction, reduction of 186ReO4- and coupling reaction of rhenium with HIgG. The -S-S- bridges prereduction of HIgG to sulfhydryls was effected using different reducing agents: ascorbic acid, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol, cysteine, active hydrogen. The prereduction reactions are controlled by masic ratios of HIgG/reduction agent, pH, temperature and time of incubation. A pH=4.5 and a 24 hours incubation time are in the advantage of the prereduction yield. The labelling with 186Re of prereduced HIgG with ascorbic acid or active hydrogen and 37 deg. C incubation in 22 hours releases 92% radiochemical purity. (author)

  12. Directly labeled fluorescent DNA probes for chromosome mapping

    Marrone, B.L.; Deaven, L.L.; Chen, D.J.; Park, Min S.; MacInnes, M.A.; Salzman, G.C.; Yoshida, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    A new strategy is briefly described for employing nucleic acid probes that are directly labeled with fluorochromes in fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. These probes will permit the detection, quantitation, and high-precision spatial analysis of multiple DNA sequences along a single chromosome using video-enhanced fluorescence microscopy and digital image processing and analysis. Potential advantages of direct labeled DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization far surpass currently available, indirect DNA probe labeling techniques in ease of use, versatility, and increased signal- to-noise ratio.

  13. Biodistribution and synthesis of 99mtc-Iabeled chitosan-transferrin derivative at CT26 colon carcinoma-induced BALB/c mouse

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycoprotein, which transports ferric ion in the body. It is well known that Tf receptor concentration in tumor cells is much higher than that in normal cells. Chitosan is known as a bioactive agents for carriers of DNA anticancer agents, and radio-labeled molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of Tf-conjugated thiolated glycine chitosan (CGGT) for Tc-99m labeled cancer imaging agent. Tf was coupled to the thiol group of thiolated glycine chitosan via maleimidobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS). Tf-CGGT (0.5 mg) or CGGT (0.5 mg) in water (0.5 ml) was added to Tc-99m solution (50 mCi/0.5 ml) reduced by Sn2Cl. This solution incubated for 30 m, and then determined the radiochemical purity (>93%) by RadioTLC scan. In plasma, Tc-99m CGGT or Tc-99m CGGT-Tf showed the stability of above 90% for 6h. CT26 colon carcinoma cells (1x107 cells) were subcutaneously injected into the back of the BALB/c mouse and left for 2 weeks. The biodistribution study with sacrificed mouse at 30, 60, 180 m was performed. 97.7% and 93.5% of Tc-99m were labeled to the CGGT and CGGT-Tf at 30 m, respectively. After 60 m, Tc-99m labeling efficiency was 99.4% of CGGT and 95.0% of CGGT-Tf. In the biodistribution study, Tc-99m labeled CGGT was primarily accumulated in the liver(33.3%ID/g), spleen(13.4%ID/g), kidney(17.0%ID/g) and tumor (0.7%ID/g) at 30 m. Tc-99m labeled CGGT-Tf was distributed in the liver (27.9%ID/g), spleen (6.3%ID/g), kidney (12.8%ID/g) and tumor (1.2%ID/g) at 30 m. CGGT-Tf was synthesized as a novel Tc-99m labeling agent. The labeling efficiency was high from 30 m after labeling, indicating that CGGT - Tf has a potential of radio-labeled agent. Most of the Tc-99m labeled CGGT - Tf was accumulated in reticuloendothelial systems. Tumor accumulation of Tc-99m labeled CGGT - Tf at CT26 colon carcinoma bearing mouse was twice higher than that of CGGT, indicating that CGGT - Tf has a potential to target and visualize tumor

  14. Peptide labeling with Rhenium-188 by direct method. Brazil

    The aim was to study the labeling of Lanreotide with 188Re by direct method and the optimization of this method by varying some parameters: mass of the ligand, reductor and peptide ratio, incubation time and stability of the labeling. The same study was done using another peptide (Octreotide), provided by Novartis, in two different buffer solutions. The experiments that we did during this time are consecutively numbered: Labeling of Lanreotide with 18Re in Phtalate/Tartrate buffer solution; Labeling of Octreotide with 188Re in Acetic Acid/Acetate buffer solution (Hac/Ac); and in Phtalate/Tartrate buffer solution. The activity of 188Re was so low that it became impossible to start biodistribution studies in animals, therefore only technetium was utilized for biodistribution, because this radioisotope is easily available for us, as indicated below: Labeling of Octreotide and Lanreotide with technetium-99m; Challenge of cysteine; Biodistribution of radiolabeled peptides with technetium-99m

  15. Peptide labeling with rhenium-188 by direct method

    The aim was to study the labeling of lanreotide with 188Re by direct method and the optimization of this method by varying some parameters: mass of the ligand, reductor and peptide ratio, incubation time and stability of the labeling. The same study was done using another peptide (Octreotide), provided by Novartis, in two different buffer solutions. The experiments that we did during this time are: Labeling of Lanreotide with 188Re in Phtalate/Tartrate buffer solution; Labeling of Octreotide with 188Re in Acetic Acid/Acetate buffer solution (Hac/Ac) and in Phtalate/Tartrate buffer solution. The activity of 188Re was so low that it became impossible to start biodistribution studies in animals, therefore only technetium was utilized for biodistribution, because this radioisotope is easily available for us, as indicated below: Labeling of Octreotide and Lanreotide with technetium-99m; Challenge of cysteine; Biodistribution of radiolabeled peptides with technetium-99m

  16. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins

    Hubbell, Wayne L.; López, Carlos J.; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of pr...

  17. Robust 3D DNA FISH Using Directly Labeled Probes

    Bolland, Daniel J; King, Michelle R.; Reik, Wolf; Corcoran, Anne E.; Krueger, Christel

    2013-01-01

    3D DNA FISH has become a major tool for analyzing three-dimensional organization of the nucleus, and several variations of the technique have been published. In this article we describe a protocol which has been optimized for robustness, reproducibility, and ease of use. Brightly fluorescent directly labeled probes are generated by nick-translation with amino-allyldUTP followed by chemical coupling of the dye. 3D DNA FISH is performed using a freeze-thaw step for cell permeabilization and a h...

  18. Robust 3D DNA FISH using directly labeled probes.

    Bolland, Daniel J; King, Michelle R; Reik, Wolf; Corcoran, Anne E; Krueger, Christel

    2013-01-01

    3D DNA FISH has become a major tool for analyzing three-dimensional organization of the nucleus, and several variations of the technique have been published. In this article we describe a protocol which has been optimized for robustness, reproducibility, and ease of use. Brightly fluorescent directly labeled probes are generated by nick-translation with amino-allyldUTP followed by chemical coupling of the dye. 3D DNA FISH is performed using a freeze-thaw step for cell permeabilization and a heating step for simultaneous denaturation of probe and nuclear DNA. The protocol is applicable to a range of cell types and a variety of probes (BACs, plasmids, fosmids, or Whole Chromosome Paints) and allows for high-throughput automated imaging. With this method we routinely investigate nuclear localization of up to three chromosomal regions. PMID:23978815

  19. Labels Direct Infants’ Attention to Commonalities during Novel Category Learning

    Nadja Althaus; Denis Mareschal

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that labeling can influence the outcome of infants’ visual categorization. However, what exactly happens during learning remains unclear. Using eye-tracking, we examined infants’ attention to object parts during learning. Our analysis of looking behaviors during learning provide insights going beyond merely observing the learning outcome. Both labeling and non-labeling phrases facilitated category formation in 12-month-olds but not 8-month-olds (Experimen...

  20. Labeled leukocyte imaging: current status and future directions

    The ability to radiolabel inflammatory cells that migrate to foci of infection was a significant milestone in the evolution of infection imaging. More than 20 years after being approved for clinical use in the United States, labeled leukocyte imaging using cells labeled with 99m Tc exametazime or 111 Inoxine remains the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing most infections in the immunocompetent population. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging is useful for differentiating infection from tumor; in the postoperative setting, this test facilitates the differentiation of infection from normal postoperative changes. Labeled leukocyte imaging accurately diagnoses mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. In patients with fever of unknown origin, a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, infection as the source of fever. Labeled leukocyte imaging accurately diagnoses pedal osteomyelitis and is useful for distinguishing infection from the neuropathic joint in this population. Together with bone marrow imaging, the labeled leukocyte study is the imaging procedure of choice for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection. There are limitations to the test. Most of the leukocytes labeled are neutrophils, and the procedure is most useful for detecting neutrophil-mediated inflammatory processes, i.e., bacterial infections. It is less useful for illnesses in which the predominant cellular response is other than neutrophilic, such as most opportunistic infections and spinal osteomyelitis. The in vitro labeling procedure is time consuming and is not routinely available. Results of in vivo leukocyte labeling methods have been variable; none are available in the United States. Labeled leukocyte imaging suffers from inherently poor quality images. Single photon emission compute tomography/computed tomography improves lesion localization, and will undoubtedly improve the accuracy of the test. Efforts to develop methods of

  1. Direct labelling of monoclonal antibodies with 99Tcm. Assessment of labelling, stability, immunoreactivity and biodistribution

    Reduction of disulfide bonds to sulfhydryl groups for direct radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies for immunoscintigraphic application continues to be of significant interest. Reducing agents that have been used are the following: stannous ion, 2-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, dithioerythriol, and ascorbic acid. The radiolabelling of the reduced and purified antibody is performed via Sn2+ reduction of pertechnetate in the presence of an excess of a low-affinity chelating ligand. In a recent work the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) reduction based method was studied by using different analytical and biological techniques. Human IgG (Sandoglobulin), anti-CEA MoAb (ior-1), and anti-granulocyte MoAb (MAK 47), were reduced with 2-ME at two different molar ratios. To determine the amount of contaminating mercaptoethanol which may have survived the gel-filtration step 14C-ME was used. The number of the free endogenous sulfhydryl groups generated by reduction was determined by Ellman's reagent; absorbance was measured at 412 nm. Within the quality assurance procedure of the 3 freeze dried kits the labelling efficiency, stability, pH, sterility, apyrogenicity, vial yield, syringe retention, filterable activity, free SH determination and animal distribution were studied again. After receiving permission from local ethics committee pilot human studies were initiated. Study protocols were also approved

  2. Gastric ulcer localization by direct in vivo labeling of sucralfate: work in progress

    The authors developed and evaluated a new procedure for imaging gastric ulcer disease with technetium 99m - labeled sucralfate. The new method employs direct in vivo labeling of sucralfate instead of in vitro labeling using human serum albumin, as previously reported in the literature. In 26 studies using humans with sucralfate labeled directly in vivo, 15 gave true-negative results. Of 14 studies using humans with in vitro labeled sucralfate, three gave true-negative results, three gave true-positive results, and the results of eight were either false-negative or could not be interpreted because of high levels of activity remaining in the stomach. They suggest that the direct in vivo labeling method significantly improves the sucralfate gastric ulcer imaging technique

  3. The generation of rhenium-188-labeled antibodies by direct labeling methods

    Rhenium-188 having similar chemistry to Tc-99m and favorable decay properties, is an attractive agent for radioimmunotherapy, despite the greater difficulties in antibody labeling with this element. The authors have succeeded in generating a reproducible process for the production of 188Re-IgC conjugates in near quantitative yield with highly preserved immunoreactivity. Incubation of perrhenate with a thiol-containing antibody in the presence of a reductant gives rise to radiolabeled antibody in yields approaching > 95% at 1-3 hr time periods, with unreduced perrhenate as the only other species. 188Re from a 188W/188Re generator system has been used to label antibody with a specific activity up to 15 mCi/mg. Animal biodistribution in LS174T tumor bearing nude mice out to 96 hours verified its stability with good tumor/non-tumor ratios being seen, while the strong uptake and retention in the tumor further reinforced this conclusion. Use of this approach, with the readily available 188Re source from the generator, gives a clinically viable procedure for the generation of 188Re antibody conjugates ready for immediate therapeutic use in as simple a manner as the corresponding technetium conjugates are now used for radioimmunodetection

  4. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for direct labeling of stem cells and in vivo MRI tracking.

    Kim, Saejeong J; Lewis, Bobbi; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Bissa, Ursula V; Dose, Christian; Frank, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    To develop effective stem cell therapies, it is important to track therapeutic cells non-invasively and monitor homing to areas of pathology. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the labeling efficiency of commercially available dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, FeraTrack Direct (FTD), in various stem and immune cells; assess the cytotoxicity and tolerability of the FTD in stem cells; and monitor stem cell homing using FTD-labeled bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) in a tumor model by in vivo MRI. BMSCs, NSCs, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), T-lymphocytes, and monocytes were labeled effectively with FTD without the need for transfection agents, and Prussian blue (PB) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed intracellular uptake of the agent. The viability, proliferation, and functionality of the labeled cells were minimally or not affected after labeling. When 10(6) FTD-labeled BMSCs or NSCs were injected into C6 glioma bearing nude mice, the cells homing to the tumors were detected as hypointense regions within the tumor using 3 T clinical MRI up to 10 days post injection. Histological analysis confirmed the homing of injected cells to the tumor by the presence of PB positive cells that are not macrophages. Labeling of stem cells or immune cells with FTD was non-toxic, and should facilitate the translation of this agent to clinical trials for evaluation of trafficking of cells by MRI. PMID:26234504

  5. Genetically-directed, cell type-specific sparse labeling for the analysis of neuronal morphology.

    Thomas Rotolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals, genetically-directed cell labeling technologies have not yet been applied to the morphologic analysis of neurons with very large and complex arbors, an application that requires extremely sparse labeling and that is only rendered practical by limiting the labeled population to one or a few predetermined neuronal subtypes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study we have addressed this application by using CreER technology to non-invasively label very small numbers of neurons so that their morphologies can be fully visualized. Four lines of IRES-CreER knock-in mice were constructed to permit labeling selectively in cholinergic or catecholaminergic neurons [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-IRES-CreER or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IRES-CreER], predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light chain (NFL-IRES-CreER], or broadly in neurons and some glia [vesicle-associated membrane protein2 (VAMP2-IRES-CreER]. When crossed to the Z/AP reporter and exposed to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in the early postnatal period, the number of neurons expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter can be reproducibly lowered to fewer than 50 per brain. Sparse Cre-mediated recombination in ChAT-IRES-CreER;Z/AP mice shows the full axonal and dendritic arbors of individual forebrain cholinergic neurons, the first time that the complete morphologies of these very large neurons have been revealed in any species. CONCLUSIONS: Sparse genetically-directed, cell type-specific neuronal labeling with IRES-creER lines should prove useful for studying a wide variety of questions in neuronal development and disease.

  6. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[123l/131l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies of the

  7. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  8. Directing gaze: the effect of disclaimer labels on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements.

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels. PMID:24997284

  9. Direct synthesis and application of 11C and 13N labelled organic compounds by accelerator

    In the nuclear medicine, the compounds labelled by 11C and 13N, short-lived nuclide, have been used as a diagnostic reagent for PET. We found 80% yield of 11C labelled organic compounds were synthesized by direct irradiation of high energy γ ray to carbon cluster( a kind of fullerene) and other organic reagents. The Electron Linac (Tohoku University) and SF Cyclotron (Tokyo University) were used. By the Electron Linac, the samples were irradiated by Bremsstrahlung generated from platinum plate irradiated with 30 MeV beam using 12C(γ,n)11C. On the SF cyclotron, the mixture between sample and boron was irradiated by 12 MeV proton using 11B(p,n)11C. Many reagents were isolated and refined by a preparative HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography). Oxine was used as a model compound and experimental results are shown. 54% 11C labeled compounds isolated by sublimation were oxine. This method is very simple and easy. Accordingly, we can use the method to the very complex compound. (S.Y.)

  10. Pharmacokinetics of radioimmunotherapeutic agent of direct labeling mAb 188Re-HAb18

    Chao Lou; Zhi-Nan Chen; Hui-Jie Bian; Jie Li; Shou-Bo Zhou

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To labed Anti-hepatoma monoclonal antibody (mAb)fragment HAb18 F (ab')2 was labeled with 188 Re for thepharmacokinetic model of 188 Re-HAb18 F (ab')2 and toevaluate its pharmacokinetic parameters in hepatoma-bearing nude mice.METHODS: HAb18 F(ab')2 was directly labeled with 188Reusing 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as reducing agents.Labeling efficiency and immunoreactivity of 188 Re-HAb18 F( ab')2 were evaluated by Whatman 3MM paperchromatography and live cell assay, respectively.Biodiatribution analysis was also conducted in nude micebearing human hepatoma in which animals were sacrificed atdifferent time points(1, 4, 18, 24 and 24h) after 188Re-HAb18F(ab' )2 was injected through tail-vein into hepatoma-bearingnude mice. The blood and radioactivity of organs and masswere measured. The concentrations of 188 Re-HAb18 F(ab')2were evaluated with a pharmacokinetic 3P97 software.RESULTS: The optimum labeling efficiency andimmunoreactive fraction were 91.7% and 0.78%,respectively. The parameters of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab')2 were:T1/2, 2.29h; Vd, 1.49 × 10-9L@ Bq- 1; AUC, 20.49 × 109Bq@ h@L-1 ;CL, 0.45 × 10-3L@ h- 1. 188Re- HAb18 F(ab')2 could locatespecially in hepatoma with high selective reactivity of HAb18F(ab')2. 188 Re-HAb18 F(ab')2 was mainly eliminated bykidney. The maximal tumor to blood ratio was at 48h, andmaximal tumor to liver ratio was at 18h.CONCLUTION: The pharmacokinetics of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab')2fit a I-compartment model. 188 Re-HAb18 F(ab')2 can beuptaken selectively at the hepatoma site.

  11. Direct labeling of isoniazid with technetium-99m for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid) is one of the most effective agents in tuberculosis therapy. Hence it was chosen as ligand for 99mTc labeling and imaging in the developed animal model with a gamma camera. Direct labeling of isoniazid with technetium-99m was studied. Factors affecting the radiolabeling efficiency such as amount of reducing agent, pH and time of the reaction were studied. Biodistribution of the labeled compound was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. The localization kinetics of the radiolabeled complex was also studied in the developed animal model by injecting 100-125 MBq 99mTc-isoniazid intravenously in the ear of rabbit and the images were taken with a gamma camera. Optimum conditions gave > 98% labeling efficiency of 99mTc-isoniazid. Biodistribution studies in rats revealed that the maximum uptake was in kidneys (15%, 8% and 2.5% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively), indicating renal excretion of the 99mTc-isoniazid. High accumulation was obtained in liver (10%, 11% and 4% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively) and significant radioactivity was also seen in the intestines (8%, 6% and 1% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively), indicating hepatobiliary excretion of the complex. Less than 2% uptake in stomach until 24 hours confirmed good in vivo stability of the complex. 99mTc-isoniazid initially accumulated in infective lesions of S. aureus in rabbits due to hyper-vascularity, but because of its non specificity for S. aureus the residency of 99mTc-isoniazid was low and it showed rapid wash out from the lesion, whereas residency of tubercular lesion was high and it remained in the tubercular lesion in the delayed images also. The results suggest that 99mTc-isoniazid is a specific agent for localization of tubercular lesions. (orig.)

  12. Directional Trans-Synaptic Labeling of Specific Neuronal Connections in Live Animals.

    Desbois, Muriel; Cook, Steven J; Emmons, Scott W; Bülow, Hannes E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding animal behavior and development requires visualization and analysis of their synaptic connectivity, but existing methods are laborious or may not depend on trans-synaptic interactions. Here we describe a transgenic approach for in vivo labeling of specific connections in Caenorhabditis elegans, which we term iBLINC. The method is based on BLINC (Biotin Labeling of INtercellular Contacts) and involves trans-synaptic enzymatic transfer of biotin by the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA onto an acceptor peptide. A BirA fusion with the presynaptic cell adhesion molecule NRX-1/neurexin is expressed presynaptically, whereas a fusion between the acceptor peptide and the postsynaptic protein NLG-1/neuroligin is expressed postsynaptically. The biotinylated acceptor peptide::NLG-1/neuroligin fusion is detected by a monomeric streptavidin::fluorescent protein fusion transgenically secreted into the extracellular space. Physical contact between neurons is insufficient to create a fluorescent signal, suggesting that synapse formation is required. The labeling approach appears to capture the directionality of synaptic connections, and quantitative analyses of synapse patterns display excellent concordance with electron micrograph reconstructions. Experiments using photoconvertible fluorescent proteins suggest that the method can be utilized for studies of protein dynamics at the synapse. Applying this technique, we find connectivity patterns of defined connections to vary across a population of wild-type animals. In aging animals, specific segments of synaptic connections are more susceptible to decline than others, consistent with dedicated mechanisms of synaptic maintenance. Collectively, we have developed an enzyme-based, trans-synaptic labeling method that allows high-resolution analyses of synaptic connectivity as well as protein dynamics at specific synapses of live animals. PMID:25917682

  13. Direct labeling of isoniazid with technetium-99m for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Jehangir, M. [Isotope Production Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Malik, S.A. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-07-01

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid) is one of the most effective agents in tuberculosis therapy. Hence it was chosen as ligand for {sup 99m}Tc labeling and imaging in the developed animal model with a gamma camera. Direct labeling of isoniazid with technetium-99m was studied. Factors affecting the radiolabeling efficiency such as amount of reducing agent, pH and time of the reaction were studied. Biodistribution of the labeled compound was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. The localization kinetics of the radiolabeled complex was also studied in the developed animal model by injecting 100-125 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid intravenously in the ear of rabbit and the images were taken with a gamma camera. Optimum conditions gave > 98% labeling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid. Biodistribution studies in rats revealed that the maximum uptake was in kidneys (15%, 8% and 2.5% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively), indicating renal excretion of the {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid. High accumulation was obtained in liver (10%, 11% and 4% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively) and significant radioactivity was also seen in the intestines (8%, 6% and 1% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively), indicating hepatobiliary excretion of the complex. Less than 2% uptake in stomach until 24 hours confirmed good in vivo stability of the complex. {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid initially accumulated in infective lesions of S. aureus in rabbits due to hyper-vascularity, but because of its non specificity for S. aureus the residency of {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid was low and it showed rapid wash out from the lesion, whereas residency of tubercular lesion was high and it remained in the tubercular lesion in the delayed images also. The results suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid is a specific agent for localization of tubercular lesions. (orig.)

  14. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms

    Ford, Nicole R.; Hecht, Karen A.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas; Rorrer, Gregory L.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-01-08

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins incorporating a tetracysteine tag for site-directed labeling with biarsenical affinity probes and either EGFP or single chain antibody to test colocalization of probes with the EGFP-tagged recombinant protein or binding of biosilica-immobilized antibodies to large and small molecule antigens, respectively. Site-directed labeling with the biarsenical probes demonstrated colocalization with EGFP-encoded proteins in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting their use in studying biosilica maturation. Isolated biosilica transformed with a single chain antibody against either the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) effectively bound the respective antigens. A marked increase in fluorescence lifetime of the TNT surrogate Alexa Fluor 555-trinitrobenzene reflected the high binding specificity of the transformed isolated biosilica. These results demonstrated the potential use of biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies as binders for large and small molecule antigens in sensing and therapeutics.

  15. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when emerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  16. Improving dwellings by enchancing action on labelling for the EPBD directive

    Klobut, K., Email: krzysztof.klobut@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Improving energy efficiency is regarded by the European Commission as a key element in energy policy. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) stipulates that residential buildings must have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when they are sold, rented out or constructed. The EPC includes a label rating of the energy efficiency of the dwelling and recommendations of costeffective energy-saving measures. The project reported here aims to investigate why EPCs seem to hardly motivate dwelling owners to take measures to improve the energy performance of their dwelling and the reason why a large part of dwelling owners apparently do not use the recommendations from the EPC. Electronic questionnaires and in-depth interviews techniques were used. The results of these interviews and questionnaires will be used to provide policy recommendations for further actions in the fi eld of energy savings in the residential sector. (orig.)

  17. Preparation of a pure [sup 99m]Tc-F(ab')[sub 2] radioimmunoconjugate by direct labeling methods

    Griffiths, G.L.; Jones, A.L.; Hansen, H.J. (Immunomedics Inc., Morris Plains, NJ (United States)); Goldenberg, D.M. (Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Newark, NJ (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Intact IgG and Fab' can be labeled directly with [sup 99m]Tc to give quantitative incorporation of radioactivity into the protein. With F(ab')[sub 2] the reductive conditions yield a mixture of [sup 99m]Tc-F(ab')[sub 2] and [sup 99m]Tc-Fab'. We now report a direct labeling method to produce only [sup 99m]Tc-F(ab')[sub 2] in quantitative yield and contaminated with [sup 99m]Tc-Fab'. The properties, stability and biodistribution of the [sup 99m]Tc-F(ab')[sub 2] have been compared to [sup 99m]Tc-Fab'. This new technology will allow us to compare technetium direct-labeled IgG, F(ab')[sub 2] and Fab' derivatives of the same antibody for radioimmunodetection. (author).

  18. Label-free direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    Guerrini, Luca; Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Xie, Hainan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic-based biosensing has experienced an unprecedented level of attention, with a particular focus on the nucleic acid detection, offering efficient solutions to engineer simple, fast, highly sensitive sensing platforms while overcoming important limitations of PCR and microarray techniques. In the broad field of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has arisen as a powerful analytical tool for detection and structural characterization of biomolecules. Today applications of SERS to nucleic acid analysis largely rely on indirect strategies, which have been demonstrated very effective for pure sensing purposes but completely dismiss the exquisite structural information provided by the direct acquisition of the biomolecular vibrational fingerprint. Contrarily, direct label-free SERS of nucleic acid shows an outstanding potential in terms of chemical-specific information which, however, remained largely unexpressed mainly because of the inherent poor spectral reproducibility and/or limited sensitivity. To address these limitations, we developed a fast and affordable high-throughput screening direct SERS method for gaining detailed genomic information on nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and for the characterization and quantitative recognition of DNA interactions with exogenous agents. The simple strategy relies on the electrostatic adhesion of DNA/RNA onto positively-charged silver colloids that promotes the nanoparticle aggregation into stable clusters yielding intense and reproducible SERS spectra at picogram level (i.e. the analysis can be performed without the necessity of amplification steps thus providing realistic direct information of the nucleic acid in its native state). We anticipate this method to gain a vast impact and set of applications in different fields, including medical diagnostics, genomic screening, drug discovery, forensic science and even molecular electronics.

  19. Site Directed Spin Labeling and EPR Spectroscopic Studies of Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels.

    Basak, Sandip; Chatterjee, Soumili; Chakrapani, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel gating is a stimulus-driven orchestration of protein motions that leads to transitions between closed, open, and desensitized states. Fundamental to these transitions is the intrinsic flexibility of the protein, which is critically modulated by membrane lipid-composition. To better understand the structural basis of channel function, it is necessary to study protein dynamics in a physiological membrane environment. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is an important tool to characterize conformational transitions between functional states. In comparison to NMR and X-ray crystallography, the information obtained from EPR is intrinsically of lower resolution. However, unlike in other techniques, in EPR there is no upper-limit to the molecular weight of the protein, the sample requirements are significantly lower, and more importantly the protein is not constrained by the crystal lattice forces. Therefore, EPR is uniquely suited for studying large protein complexes and proteins in reconstituted systems. In this article, we will discuss general protocols for site-directed spin labeling and membrane reconstitution using a prokaryotic proton-gated pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel (pLGIC) from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) as an example. A combination of steady-state Continuous Wave (CW) and Pulsed (Double Electron Electron Resonance-DEER) EPR approaches will be described that will enable a complete quantitative characterization of channel dynamics. PMID:27403967

  20. 21 CFR 250.12 - Stramonium preparations labeled with directions for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded.

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. 250.12 Section 250.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. (a) Stramonium products for inhalation have been... ingredients, will be regarded as misbranded if they are labeled with directions for use in self-medication....

  1. Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin

    The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans

  2. In vivo stability and inertness of various direct labelled and chelate-tagged protein

    There were looking for methods giving precise information about composition and activity distribution of protein components, both in the initial samples and serum samples after intravenous administration. It was tested the applicability of electroimmunoassay, polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for the assessment of in vivo stability and labelled proteins. The model compound was human serum albumin (HSA) labelled with 99mTc and 125I, respectively. Bifunctional chelate labelling was done with desferrioxamine, in this case protein was labelled with 67Ga. Biodistribution of the labelled compounds and their elimination from the blood were studied in rabbits. Experience with various labelling proteins, especially with Tc-Sn-HSA system indicate that in vivo stability of this compounds are generally low. Following intravenous injection of proteins labelled with metal isotopes, due to dilution and to the presence of considerable amount of compatitive protein in the serum, part of the label is being detached from the carrier protein. Distribution of the detached metal is different from the original distribution of the protein. This problem arises also with radiopharmaceuticals based on monoclonal antibodies. (M.E.L.)

  3. Conformational change in full-length mouse prion: A site-directed spin-labeling study

    The structure of the mouse prion (moPrP) was studied using site-directed spin-labeling electron spin resonance (SDSL-ESR). Since a previous NMR study by Hornemanna et al., [Hornemanna, Korthb, Oeschb, Rieka, Widera, Wuethricha, Glockshubera, Recombinant full-length murine prion protein, mPrP (23-231): purification and spectroscopic characterization, FEBS Lett. 413 (1997) 277-281] has indicated that N96, D143, and T189 in moPrP are localized in a Cu2+ binding region, Helix1 and Helix2, respectively, three recombinant moPrP mutations (N96C, D143C, and T189C) were expressed in an Escherichia coli system, and then refolded by dialysis under low pH and purified by reverse-phase HPLC. By using the preparation, we succeeded in preserving a target cystein residue without alteration of the α-helix structure of moPrP and were able to apply SDSL-ESR with a methane thiosulfonate spin label to the full-length prion protein. The rotational correlation times (τ) of 1.1, 3.3, and 4.8 ns were evaluated from the X-band ESR spectra at pH 7.4 and 20 deg C for N96R1, D143R1, and T189R1, respectively. τ reflects the fact that the Cu2+ binding region is more flexible than Helix1 or Helix2. ESR spectra recorded at various temperatures revealed two phases together with a transition point at around 20 deg C in D143R1 and T189R1, but not in N96R1. With the variation of pH from 4.0 to 7.8, ESR spectra of T189R1 at 20 deg C showed a gradual increase of τ from 2.9 to 4.8 ns. On the other hand, the pH-dependent conformational changes in N96R1 and D143R1 were negligible. These results indicated that T189 located in Helix2 possessed a structure sensitive to physiological pH changes; simultaneously, N96 in the Cu2+ binding region and D143 in Helix1 were conserved

  4. Topology of OxlT, the Oxalate Transporter of Oxalobacter formigenes, Determined by Site-Directed Fluorescence Labeling

    Ye, Liwen; Jia, Zhenzhen; Jung, Thomas; Maloney, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    The topology of OxlT, the oxalate:formate exchange protein of Oxalobacter formigenes, was established by site-directed fluorescence labeling, a simple strategy that generates topological information in the context of the intact protein. Accessibility of cysteine to the fluorescent thiol-directed probe Oregon green maleimide (OGM) was examined for a panel of 34 single-cysteine variants, each generated in a His9-tagged cysteine-less host. The reaction with OGM was readily scored by examining th...

  5. Scintigraphic images of bacterial infection using aptamers directly labeled with {sup 99m}Tc

    Santos, S.R.; Correa, C.R.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: sararoberta7@hotmail.com, E-mail: crisrcorrea@gmail.com, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, A.L.B.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N., E-mail: brancodebarros@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: simoneodilia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance and is the most commonly agent found in infections of soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled by the direct method with {sup 99m}Tc and used for bacterial infection identification by scintigraphy. The radiolabeled aptamers radiochemical purity and stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice (n=6) were used for the scintigraphic imaging studies. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus, the second group with C. albicans and the third group received zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (18 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 1 h and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling yield with {sup 99m}Tc was over 90%. The radiolabeled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The scintigraphic image profiles showed high uptake in the kidneys and bladder in all groups, indicating a main renal excretion consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the molecule. No accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the thyroid, stomach, liver and spleen, indicating acceptable levels of radiochemical impurities. The group infected with S. aureus showed a visible uptake in the infected right thigh at 1 h post-injection. For the control groups (C. albicans and zymosan) visible differences between the right and left thighs were not observed. The radiolabeled aptamers were able to distinguish aseptic inflammation from bacterial infection and bacterial from fungal infection. (author)

  6. Scintigraphic images of bacterial infection using aptamers directly labeled with 99mTc

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance and is the most commonly agent found in infections of soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled by the direct method with 99mTc and used for bacterial infection identification by scintigraphy. The radiolabeled aptamers radiochemical purity and stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice (n=6) were used for the scintigraphic imaging studies. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus, the second group with C. albicans and the third group received zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (18 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 1 h and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling yield with 99mTc was over 90%. The radiolabeled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The scintigraphic image profiles showed high uptake in the kidneys and bladder in all groups, indicating a main renal excretion consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the molecule. No accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the thyroid, stomach, liver and spleen, indicating acceptable levels of radiochemical impurities. The group infected with S. aureus showed a visible uptake in the infected right thigh at 1 h post-injection. For the control groups (C. albicans and zymosan) visible differences between the right and left thighs were not observed. The radiolabeled aptamers were able to distinguish aseptic inflammation from bacterial infection and bacterial from fungal infection. (author)

  7. Site directed spin labeling studies of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase N-terminal extension

    Couto, Sheila G. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Biofisica e Fisica Aplicada a Medicina, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, C.P. 131, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Cristina Nonato, M. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia de Proteinas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe S/N, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Costa-Filho, Antonio J., E-mail: ajcosta@ffclrp.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EcDHODH is a membrane-associated enzyme and a promising target for drug design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme's N-terminal extension is responsible for membrane association. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal works as a molecular lid regulating access to the protein interior. -- Abstract: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are enzymes that catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In this reaction, DHODH converts dihydroorotate to orotate, using a flavine mononucleotide as a cofactor. Since the synthesis of nucleotides has different pathways in mammals as compared to parasites, DHODH has gained much attention as a promising target for drug design. Escherichia coli DHODH (EcDHODH) is a family 2 DHODH that interacts with cell membranes in order to promote catalysis. The membrane association is supposedly made via an extension found in the enzyme's N-terminal. In the present work, we used site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to specifically place a magnetic probe at positions 2, 5, 19, and 21 within the N-terminal and thus monitor, by using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), dynamics and structural changes in this region in the presence of a membrane model system. Overall, our ESR spectra show that the N-terminal indeed binds to membranes and that it experiences a somewhat high flexibility that could be related to the role of this region as a molecular lid controlling the entrance of the enzyme's active site and thus allowing the enzyme to give access to quinones that are dispersed in the membrane and that are necessary for the catalysis.

  8. Biosynthetically directed fractional 13C labeling facilitates identification of Phe and Tyr aromatic signals in proteins

    Analysis of 2D [13C,1H]-HSQC spectra of biosynthetic fractionally 13C labeled proteins is a reliable, straightforward means to obtain stereospecific assignments of Val and Leu methyl sites in proteins. Herein we show that the same fractionally labeled protein sample facilitates observation and identification of Phe and Tyr aromatic signals. This is the case, in part, because the fractional 13C labeling yields aromatic rings in which some of the 13C-13C J-couplings, present in uniformly labeled samples, are absent. Also, the number of homonuclear J-coupling partners differs for the δ-, ε- and ζ-carbons. This enabled us to vary their signal intensities in distinctly different ways by appropriately setting the 13C constant-time period in 2D [13C,1H]-HSQC spectra. We illustrate the application of this approach to an 18 kDa protein, c-VIAF, a modulator of apoptosis. In addition, we show that cancellation of the aromatic 13C CSA and 13C-1H dipolar interactions can be fruitfully utilized in the case of the fractionally labeled sample to obtain high resolution 13C constant-time spectra with good sensitivity

  9. Sensitive and direct electrochemical detection of double-stranded DNA utilizing alkaline phosphatase-labelled zinc finger proteins.

    Noh, Soodong; Ha, Dat Thinh; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Moon-Soo

    2015-06-21

    Direct detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) is of great importance in biomedical applications such as identifying pathogens and circulating DNAs. However, its sensitivity is still not sufficiently high because limited signalling labels can be conjugated or fused. Herein, we report sensitive and direct detection of dsDNA using (i) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a fast catalytic label conjugated to ZFPs along with (ii) electrochemical measurement of an ALP product (l-ascorbic acid) at the indium-tin oxide electrode with a high signal-to-background ratio. ALP is simply conjugated to a ZFP through lysine residues in a ZFP purification tag, a maltose binding protein (MBP). Sandwich-type electrochemical detection of dsDNA allows a detection limit of ca. 100 fM without using DNA amplification. PMID:25969923

  10. Label-Free Direct Electronic Detection of Biomolecules with Amorphous Silicon Nanostructures

    Lund, John; Mehta, Ranjana; Parviz, Babak A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of a nano-scale sensor made of amorphous silicon for the label-free, electronic detection of three classes of biologically important molecules: ions, oligonucleotides, and proteins. The sensor structure has an active element which is a 50 nm wide amorphous silicon semicircle and has a total footprint of less than 4 μm2. We demonstrate the functionalization of the sensor with receptor molecules and the electronic detection of three targets: H+ io...

  11. Direct detection of digestive enzymes in planktonic rotifers using enzyme-labelled fluorescence (ELF)

    Štrojsová, M.; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2005), s. 189-195. ISSN 1323-1650. [Symposium for European Freshwater Sciences /4./. Krakow, 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : rotifers * digestive enzymes * enzyme-labelled-fluorescence method Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2005

  12. Direct visualization of fluorescein-labeled microtubules in vitro and in microinjected fibroblasts

    1981-01-01

    Microtubule proteins and tubulin have been purified from brain and labeled with dichlorotriazinyl fluorescein (DTAF). This procedure compromises neither the polymerizability of the proteins nor their affinities for unlabeled proteins. Within 15 min after microinjection of either DTAF-microtubule proteins or DTAF-tubulin into cultured gerbil fibroma cells, there was an evolution of a fluorescent fibrillar pattern with a distribution similar to that of the microtubular network seen after staini...

  13. 99mTc direct labeling of anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies: Quality control and preclinical studies

    The anti-carcinoembryonic B2C114 monoclonal antibody was radiolabeled with 99mTc by a direct method and quality control tested in vitro by instant thin layer chromatography, gel column scanning and cellulose acetate electrophoresis and assessed in vivo for radioimmunodetection on a murine spontaneous mammary carcinoma. The optimal results of percent 99mTc bound to protein were obtained at a dithiothreitol: antibody molar ratio ranging from 800:1 to 1000:1 and at a methylene diphosphonate: stannous fluoride weight ratio of 4.3:1. Although cysteine removed up to 18% of the label during the first 4 h, the stability of the tracer appeared to be excellent in human serum at 37 deg. C and when challenged with DTPA. 99mTc-labeled B2C114 demonstrated good and specific in vivo tumor targeting

  14. Direct in vivo cell lineage analysis in the retrorsine and 2AAF models of liver injury after genetic labeling in adult and newborn rats.

    Virginie Pichard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: When hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver regeneration proceeds from the division of non parenchymal hepatocyte progenitors. Oval cells and Small Hepatocyte-like Progenitor Cells (SHPCs represent the two most studied examples of such epithelial cells with putative stem cell capacity. In the present study we wished to compare the origin of SHPCs proliferating after retrorsine administration to the one of oval cells observed after 2-Acetyl-Amino fluorene (2-AAF treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used retroviral-mediated nlslacZ genetic labeling of dividing cells to study the fate of cells in the liver. Labeling was performed either in adult rats before treatment or in newborn animals. Labeled cells were identified and characterised by immunohistochemistry. In adult-labeled animals, labeling was restricted to mature hepatocytes. Retrorsine treatment did not modify the overall number of labeled cells in the liver whereas after 2-AAF administration unlabeled oval cells were recorded and the total number of labeled cells decreased significantly. When labeling was performed in newborn rats, results after retrorsine administration were identical to those obtained in adult-labeled rats. In contrast, in the 2-AAF regimen numerous labeled oval cells were present and were able to generate new labeled hepatocytes. Furthermore, we also observed labeled biliary tracts in 2-AAF treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that SHPCs are derived from hepatocytes and we confirm that SHPCs and oval cells do not share the same origin. We also show that hepatic progenitors are labeled in newborn rats suggesting future directions for in vivo lineage studies.

  15. A Multiple-Labeling Strategy for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Using Active-Site-Directed Proteomic Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    Genetic approaches have greatly contributed to our understanding of nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic machinery; however, proteomic investigations are limited. Here, we developed a highly sensitive detection strategy for multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) by using a multiple-labeling technique with active-site-directed probes for adenylation domains. When applied to gramicidin S-producing and -nonproducing strains of Aneurinibacillus migulanus (DSM 5759 and DSM 2895, respectively), the multiple technique sensitively detected an active multidomain NRPS (GrsB) in lysates obtained from the organisms. This functional proteomics method revealed an unknown inactive precursor (or other inactive form) of GrsB in the nonproducing strain. This method provides a new option for the direct detection, functional analysis, and high-resolution identification of low-abundance active NRPS enzymes in native proteomic environments. PMID:26467472

  16. Comparison of doubly labeled water, intake-balance, and direct- and indirect-calorimetry methods for measuring energy expenditure in adult men

    Energy expenditure (EE) of four adult men on a weight-maintenance diet was estimated by use of doubly labeled water, intake balance, and direct and indirect calorimetry. The doubly labeled water (2H218O) method was used to estimate free-living EE for 13 d. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was used to estimate free-living EE for 1 wk. The subjects' 24-h EE was measured in a dual direct-indirect room calorimeter on 3 alternate days. Estimates of free-living EE as measured by ME intake and doubly labeled water indicate agreement between the two methods (mean difference +/- SEM, -1.04 +/- 0.63%). Measurements of EE with indirect and direct calorimetry are equivalent (mean difference 0.63 +/- 0.44%). The daily EE measured by doubly labeled water in these free-living adults over a 13-d period was 15.01% greater than the 24-h EE measured within the calorimeter

  17. A label-free impedimetric immunosensor for direct determination of the textile dye Disperse Orange 1.

    Yang, Jing; da Rocha, Carolina Gomes; Wang, Shengfu; Ferreira, Antonio Aparecido Pupim; Yamanaka, Hideko

    2015-09-01

    A strategy for a label-free impedimetric immunosensor is described for detection of the textile dye Disperse Orange 1 (DO1). The compounds 1,12-diaminododecane (DADD) and then 1,7-diaminoheptane (DAH) were firstly successively grafted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface by electro-oxidation of one amino group, while the other terminal amino group was modified with the antibody anti-DO1. The construction process of the immunosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance measurements. The electron transfer resistance (Rct) exhibited an effective response to the affinity between the immobilized antibody and the antigen in solution. The linear range for the target compound was from 5.0 nmol L(-1) to 0.5 μmol L(-1) (R=0.9980), and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.56 nmol L(-1). The proposed impedimetric immunosensor has the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and sensitivity. PMID:26003710

  18. Use of labelled cisplatin obtained by direct irradiation in a preliminary biodistribution study

    Álvaro Dutra de Carvalho Júnior; Fabiana Moreira Abrantes; Maria Ângela Menezes; Alexandre Soares Leal; Valbert Nascimento Cardoso; Mônica Cristina de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the preparation of radiolabelled cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II), CDDP*, from its direct irradiation into a cadmium capsule, using the TRIGA MARK I IPR R-1 research reactor of the CDTN. The ability to detect CDDP* in Ehrlich tumour-bearing mice after administration via an intravenous route was evaluated. After 24 hours, blood and some organs were collected to determine the incorporated activity. The CDDP* showed a great chemical purity and high specific activity that resu...

  19. Elucidating the design principles of photosynthetic electron-transfer proteins by site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    Ishara Silva, K; Jagannathan, Bharat; Golbeck, John H; Lakshmi, K V

    2016-05-01

    Site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine solvent accessibility, side-chain dynamics, and inter-spin distances at specific sites in biological macromolecules. This information provides important insights into the structure and dynamics of both natural and designed proteins and protein complexes. Here, we discuss the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy in probing the charge-transfer cofactors in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) such as photosystem I (PSI) and the bacterial reaction center (bRC). Photosynthetic RCs are large multi-subunit proteins (molecular weight≥300kDa) that perform light-driven charge transfer reactions in photosynthesis. These reactions are carried out by cofactors that are paramagnetic in one of their oxidation states. This renders the RCs unsuitable for conventional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations. However, the presence of native paramagnetic centers and the ability to covalently attach site-directed spin labels in RCs makes them ideally suited for the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy. The paramagnetic centers serve as probes of conformational changes, dynamics of subunit assembly, and the relative motion of cofactors and peptide subunits. In this review, we describe novel applications of SDSL EPR spectroscopy for elucidating the effects of local structure and dynamics on the electron-transfer cofactors of photosynthetic RCs. Because SDSL EPR Spectroscopy is uniquely suited to provide dynamic information on protein motion, it is a particularly useful method in the engineering and analysis of designed electron transfer proteins and protein networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics - the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26334844

  20. A HER2-binding Affibody molecule labelled with {sup 68}Ga for PET imaging: direct in vivo comparison with the {sup 111}In-labelled analogue

    Tolmachev, Vladimir [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Velikyan, Irina [Uppsala University, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala (Sweden); GEMS PET Systems, GE Healthcare, Uppsala Applied Science Lab, Uppsala (Sweden); Sandstroem, Mattias [Uppsala University Hospital, Hospital Physics, Department of Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden); Orlova, Anna [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    Overexpression of HER2 receptors is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies. Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 overexpression may influence patient management making treatment more personalized. Earlier, {sup 111}In-DOTA-Z{sub HER2:342-pep2} (ABY-002) Affibody molecule demonstrated excellent imaging of HER2-expressing xenografts in mice shortly after injection. The use of the positron-emitting nuclide {sup 68}Ga instead of {sup 111}In might increase both the sensitivity of HER2 imaging and accuracy of expression quantification. The goal of this study was to prepare and characterize {sup 68}Ga-labelled ABY-002. {sup 68}Ga labelling of ABY-002 was optimized. In vitro cell binding and procession of {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 was evaluated. Biodistribution and tumour targeting of {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 and {sup 111}In-ABY-002 was compared in vivo by paired-label experiments. ABY-002 was incubated with {sup 68}Ga at 90 C for 10 min resulting in a radiochemical labelling yield of over 95%. Capacity for specific binding to HER2-expressing cells was retained. In vivo, both {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 and {sup 111}In-ABY-002 demonstrated specific targeting of SKOV-3 xenografts and high-contrast imaging. Background radioactivity in blood, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and muscle fell more rapidly for {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 compared with {sup 111}In-ABY-002 favouring imaging shortly after injection. For {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002, a tumour uptake of 12.4 {+-} 3.8%ID/g and a tumour to blood ratio of 31 {+-} 13 were achieved at 2 h post-injection. {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 is easy to label and provides high-contrast imaging within 2 h after injection. This makes it a promising candidate for clinical molecular imaging of HER2 expression in malignant tumours. (orig.)

  1. Use of labelled cisplatin obtained by direct irradiation in a preliminary biodistribution study

    Álvaro Dutra de Carvalho Júnior

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preparation of radiolabelled cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II, CDDP*, from its direct irradiation into a cadmium capsule, using the TRIGA MARK I IPR R-1 research reactor of the CDTN. The ability to detect CDDP* in Ehrlich tumour-bearing mice after administration via an intravenous route was evaluated. After 24 hours, blood and some organs were collected to determine the incorporated activity. The CDDP* showed a great chemical purity and high specific activity that resulted in an optimum in vivo detection. The CDDP* was taken up principally by liver, spleen and kidney. The CDDP* obtained from this condition was shown to be a good tool for biodistribution studies.O presente trabalho refere-se à obtenção de cis-diclorodiaminoplatina (II radiomarcada, CDDP*, a partir de sua irradiação direta numa cápsula de cádmio. A irradiação foi realizada no reator de pesquisa TRIGA MARK I IPR R-1. Em seguida, foi avaliada a capacidade de detecção da radioatividade emitida por CDDP* após sua administração intravenosa em camundongos acometidos por tumor de Ehrlich. Após 24 horas, fez-se a coleta de amostras de sangue e de alguns órgãos, a fim de se avaliar o nível de radioatividade presente nos mesmos. A CDDP* obtida apresentou uma ótima pureza química e elevada atividade específica que permitiu um excelente nível de detecção. A CDDP* foi captada principalmente pelo fígado, baço e rins. Portanto, a CDDP* obtida na condição de bombardeamento supracitada mostrou ser uma ferramenta útil para a realização de estudos de biodistribuição.

  2. Label free colorimetric and fluorimetric direct detection of methylated DNA based on silver nanoclusters for cancer early diagnosis.

    Dadmehr, Mehdi; Hosseini, Morteza; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Sheikhnejad, Reza

    2015-11-15

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation of CpG islands located in the promoter region of some tumor suppressor genes are very common in human diseases such as cancer. Detection of aberrant methylation pattern could serve as an excellent diagnostic approach. Recently, the direct detection of methylated DNA sequences without using chemical and enzymatic treatments or antibodies has received great deal of attentions. In this study, we report a colorimetric and fluorimetric technique for direct detection of DNA methylation. Here, the DNA is being used as an effective template for fluorescent silver nanoclusters formation without any chemical modification or DNA labeling. The sensitivity test showed that upon the addition of target methylated DNA, the fluorescence intensity is decreased in a linear range when the concentration of methylated DNA has increased from 2.0×10(-9) to 6.3 ×10(-7) M with the detection limit of 9.4×10(-10) M. The optical and fluorescence spectral behaviors were highly reproducible and clearly discriminated between unmethylated, methylated and even partially methylated DNA in CpG rich sequences. The results were also reproducible when the human plasma was present in our assay system. PMID:26056954

  3. Direct incorporation of fatty acids into microbial phospholipids in soils: Position-specific labeling tells the story

    Dippold, Michaela A.; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acids have been used as plant and microbial biomarkers, and knowledge about their transformation pathways in soils and sediments is crucial for interpreting fatty acid signatures, especially because the formation, recycling and decomposition processes are concurrent. We analyzed the incorporation of free fatty acids into microbial fatty acids in soil by coupling position-specific 13C labeling with compound-specific 13C analysis. Position-specifically and uniformly 13C labeled palmitate were applied in an agricultural Luvisol. Pathways of fatty acids were traced by analyzing microbial utilization of 13C from individual molecule positions of palmitate and their incorporation into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). The fate of palmitate 13C in the soil was characterized by the main pathways of microbial fatty acid metabolism: Odd positions (C-1) were preferentially oxidized to CO2 in the citric acid cycle, whereas even positions (C-2) were preferentially incorporated into microbial biomass. This pattern is a result of palmitate cleavage to acetyl-CoA and its further use in the main pathways of C metabolism. We observed a direct, intact incorporation of more than 4% of the added palmitate into the PLFA of microbial cell membranes, indicating the important role of palmitate as direct precursor for microbial fatty acids. Palmitate 13C was incorporated into PLFA as intact alkyl chain, i.e. the C backbone of palmitate was not cleaved, but palmitate was incorporated either intact or modified (e.g. desaturated, elongated or branched) according to the fatty acid demand of the microbial community. These modifications of the incorporated palmitate increased with time. Future PLFA studies must therefore consider the recycling of existing plant and microbial-derived fatty acids. This study demonstrates the intact uptake and recycling of free fatty acids such as palmitate in soils, as well as the high turnover and transformation of cellular PLFA. Knowledge about the intact

  4. Site directed spin labelling and pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (double electron-electron resonance) of force activation in muscle

    The recent development of site specific spin labelling and advances in pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) have established spin labelling as a viable structural biology technique. Specific protein sites or whole domains can be selectively targeted for spin labelling by cysteine mutagenesis. The secondary structure of the proteins is determined from the trends in EPR signals of labels attached to consecutive residues. Solvent accessibility or label mobility display periodicities along the labelled polypeptide chain that are characteristic of β-strands (periodicity of 2 residues) or α-helices (3.6 residues). Low-resolution 3D structure of proteins is determined from the distance restraints. Two spin labels placed within 60-70 A of each other create a local dipolar field experienced by the other spin labels. The strength of this field is related to the interspin distance, ∝ r-3. The dipolar field can be measured by the broadening of the EPR lines for the short distances (8-20 A) or for the longer distances (17-70 A) by the pulsed EPR methods, double electron-electron resonance(DEER) and double quantum coherence (DQC). A brief review of the methodology and its applications to the multisubunit muscle protein troponin is presented below

  5. Direct {sup 99m}Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    Chen, W.-J.; Yen, C.-L.; Lo, S.-T.; Chen, K.-T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, J.-M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jmlo@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +} ion in saline, a significant yield of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical {sup 99m}Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, {alpha}-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +}. Retention of bioactivity of the {sup 99m}Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  6. Direct 99mTc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by 99mTc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [99mTc(CO)3(OH2)3]+ ion in saline, a significant yield of 99mTc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which 99mTc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical 99mTc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, α-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [99mTc(CO)3(OH2)3]+. Retention of bioactivity of the 99mTc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test

  7. Direct measurement of intratumor dose-rate distributions in experimental xenografts treated with 90Y-labeled radioimmunotherapy

    Purpose: To measure, quantify, and evaluate the planar dose-rate distribution for human tumor xenografts implanted into mice that are treated with 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies or bispecific antibodies and 90Y-labeled haptens. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five LS174T human colon carcinoma tumors grown subcutaneously in nude mice were treated with 90Y by either directly labeled ZCE025 or bispecific ECA001-DBX antibody systems. A simple, quick technique using GAFTM radiochromic medium determined the dose-rate distribution in a plane passing through the tumor center. The dose-rate distribution is generated from exposure to activity situated in one-half of the tumor (0.045 to 0.83 g). Results: Planar dose-rate distributions were obtained from the tumor xenografts. Planar dose-rate histograms were computed along with the coefficients of variance and skewness of the distributions. The observed dose-rate distributions were quantitatively compared to those calculated for a uniformly distributed activity in a half-ellipsoid of the same volume and approximate shape as the tumor half. The observed dose-rate distributions were usually broader with a more positive coefficient of skewness than the dose-rate distributions calculated from the uniformly active half-ellipsoids. For 90Y, tumor shape plays an important role in determining the minimum tumor dose. For these tumors, the tumor minimum dose-rate is always observed along the edge, usually where the edge curvature is most convex. Larger tumors tended to have broader dose-rate distributions and more positive coefficients of skewness. Exceptions to this trend were associated with dose-rate maxima displaced from the central regions due to activity heterogeneity or tumor size greatly exceeding the range of emission. Calculations for dose rate from the conventional Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) formulation exceeded the average and minimum dose rate derived from radiochromic media. The coefficient of skewness became

  8. Direct no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling of arenes via nucleophilic substitution on aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts

    Ross, T.L.

    2006-01-15

    For in vivo imaging of molecular processes via positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers of high specific activity are demanded. In case of the most commonly used positron emitter fluorine-18, this is only achievable with no-carrier-added [{sup 18}F]fluoride, which implies nucleophilic methods of {sup 18}F-substitution. Whereas electron deficient aromatic groups can be labelled in one step using no-carrier-added [{sup 18}F]fluoride, electron rich {sup 18}F-labelled aromatic molecules are only available by multi-step radiosyntheses or carrier-added electrophilic reactions. Here, diaryliodonium salts represent an alternative, since they have been proven as potent precursor for a direct nucleophilic {sup 18}F-introduction into aromatic molecules. Furthermore, as known from non-radioactive studies, the highly electron rich 2-thienyliodonium leaving group leads to a high regioselectivity in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Consequently, a direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling of electron rich arenes via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium precursors was developed in this work. The applicability of direct nucleophilic {sup 18}F-labelling was examined in a systematic study on eighteen aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts. As electron rich precursors the ortho-, meta- and para-methoxyphenyl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides, iodides, tosylates and triflates were synthesised. In addition, para-substituted (R=BnO, CH{sub 3}, H, Cl, Br, I) aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides were prepared as precursors with a systematically varying electron density. As first approach, the general reaction conditions of the nucleophilic {sup 18}F-substitution procedure were optimised. The best conditions for direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts were found with dimethylformamide as solvent, a reaction temperature of 130{+-}3 C and 25 mmol/l as concentration of the precursor. (orig.)

  9. Direct no-carrier-added 18F-labelling of arenes via nucleophilic substitution on aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts

    For in vivo imaging of molecular processes via positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers of high specific activity are demanded. In case of the most commonly used positron emitter fluorine-18, this is only achievable with no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride, which implies nucleophilic methods of 18F-substitution. Whereas electron deficient aromatic groups can be labelled in one step using no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride, electron rich 18F-labelled aromatic molecules are only available by multi-step radiosyntheses or carrier-added electrophilic reactions. Here, diaryliodonium salts represent an alternative, since they have been proven as potent precursor for a direct nucleophilic 18F-introduction into aromatic molecules. Furthermore, as known from non-radioactive studies, the highly electron rich 2-thienyliodonium leaving group leads to a high regioselectivity in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Consequently, a direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added 18F-labelling of electron rich arenes via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium precursors was developed in this work. The applicability of direct nucleophilic 18F-labelling was examined in a systematic study on eighteen aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts. As electron rich precursors the ortho-, meta- and para-methoxyphenyl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides, iodides, tosylates and triflates were synthesised. In addition, para-substituted (R=BnO, CH3, H, Cl, Br, I) aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides were prepared as precursors with a systematically varying electron density. As first approach, the general reaction conditions of the nucleophilic 18F-substitution procedure were optimised. The best conditions for direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added 18F-labelling via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts were found with dimethylformamide as solvent, a reaction temperature of 130±3 C and 25 mmol/l as concentration of the precursor. (orig.)

  10. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 00C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain

  11. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  12. Evaluation of direct rhenium-188-labeled NGR-VEGI for radiotherapy of murine breast tumor 4T1

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: NGR-VEGI (asparagine-glycine-arginine-Vascular Endothelial Growth Inhibitor) is a humanized fusion protein directed targeting the CD13 receptor expressed on neurovascular endothelial cell surface, found on some tumor cell lines too. It is being developed for the treatment of tumor and other diseases with angio-genesis. This study focused on synthesis, quality control, in vitro evaluation and imaging of 188Re-NGR-VEGI for radiotherapy of murine breast tumor 4T1. Materials and methods: 188Re-NGR-VEGI was synthesized using a direct radiolabeling method using sodium gluconate as weak chelator and SnCl2 as reducing agent. Quality control was done using instant thin-layer chromatography. Female BALB/c mice with 4T1 breast cancer were imaged at different time points after intravenously injection of 7.4 MBq 188Re-NGR-VEGI. The inhibitory effects of 188Re-NGR-VEGI(18.5 MBq), NGR-VEGI(10 μg), NGR(10 μg) and saline control(200 μl) were evaluated by measurement of tumor growth, hematoxylin and eosin and TdT mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. All data were analyzed Software and P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 188Re-NGR-VEGI was prepared achieving high radiochemical yields of more than 90% under optimal reaction conditions and showed good stability in vitro, remaining intact at 24 hours after radiolabeling. 188Re-NGR-VEGI showed tumor visualized at 4 hours p.i. and the highest uptake was at 12 hours p.i. The main excretion organ was kidney. 188Re-NGR-VEGI group showed significantly longer half life (48 days) than other groups (p<0.05) and higher tumor growth inhibitory (p<0.05). Conclusion: 188Re-NGR-VEGI can be prepared with high radiochemical yield and purity and would be a promising candidate for tumor radiotherapy. (authors)

  13. A new monoclonal antibody radiopharmaceutical for radioimmunoscintigraphy of breast cancer: direct labeling of antibody and its quality control

    Mojtaba Salouti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS has found widespread clinical application in tumor diagnosis. The antibody (Ab PR81 is a new murine anti-MUC1 monoclonal antibody (MAb against human breast carcinoma. In this study a very simple, rapid and efficient method for labeling of this MAb with 99mTc, particularly suitable for development of a ‘kit’is described. The reduction of Ab was performed with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME at a molar ratio of 2000:1 (2-ME:MAb and the reduced Ab was labeled with 99mTc via methylene diphosphonate (MDP as a transchelator. The labeling efficiency which was determined by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC was 94.2%±2.3. Radiocolloides measured by cellulose nitrate electrophoresis were 2.5%±1.7. In vitro stability of the labeled product in human serum which was measured by gel filtration chromatography (FPLC was 70%±5.7 over 24 hr. The integrity of labeled MAb was checked by means of SDS-PAGE and no significant fragmentation was observed. The results of the cell-binding studies showed that both labeled and unlabeled PR81 were able to compete for binding to MCF 7 cells. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal BALB/c mice at 4 and 24 hrs post-injection and no important accumulation was observed in vital organs. These results show that the new radiopharmaceutical may be considered as a promising candidate for imaging of breast cancer.

  14. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling; Radioiodacao de proteina por via direta e indireta: estudo comparativo da marcacao de peptideo quimiotatico

    Lavinas, Tatiana

    2004-07-01

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[{sup 123}l/{sup 131}l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies

  15. The role of scintimammography with 99MTC-MIBI in evaluation of the breast lesions

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic value of prone lateral 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in detection of primary breast cancer in patients with breast lesions. Materials and methods: We evaluated 142 patients with breast lesions and/or suspicious mammographic findings. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by pathology. Pattern of abnormal MIBI uptake ( focal or diffuse ) and quantitative measurement of the Ratio of Lesion to normal tissue uptake( T/N Ratio) was recorded. All lesions with abnormal focal uptake with T/N Ratio of more than 1.30 were considered as malignant lesion. Cases with normal homogeneous or abnormal diffusely increased uptake in the breast tissue were interpreted as negative for malignant lesion. Results: Of 142 patients, histopathologic study of 36 cases showed Malignancy which 34 cases of them had Positive MIBI scan. Of 106 cases of negative pathology ,cases had Negative MIBI scintimammography. Analysis of the findings showed high sensitivity, Specificity, accuray and Negative predictive value for 99m-MIBI scintimammography in detection of malignant breast lesion. Conclusion: We concluded that MIBI Scan can be used as complementary or even competitory imaging to the mammography in the evaluation of the breast lesions. (authors)

  16. Environmental Labeling

    Andrea Podhorsky

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies how information disclosed by voluntary environmental labels creates incentives for firms to invest in environmentally-friendly production technologies. I develop a model with differentiated products and imperfectly-informed consumers. Consumers care about the environmental characteristics of goods (for example, how they were produced), but cannot directly observe these product characteristics. Firms differ in their abilities to develop "clean" technologies, but have no ince...

  17. A label-free electrochemical sensor for detection of mercury(II) ions based on the direct growth of guanine nanowire.

    Huang, Yan Li; Gao, Zhong Feng; Jia, Jing; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-05-01

    A simple, sensitive and label-free electrochemical sensor is developed for detection of Hg(2+) based on the strong and stable T-Hg(2+)-T mismatches. In the presence of Mg(2+), the parallel G-quadruplex structures could be specifically recognized and precipitated in parallel conformation. Therefore, the guanine nanowire was generated on the electrode surface, triggering the electrochemical H2O2-mediated oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). In this research, a new method of signal amplification for the quantitative detection of Hg(2+) was described based on the direct growth of guanine nanowire via guanine nanowire. Under optimum conditions, Hg(2+) was detected in the range of 100pM-100nM, and the detection limit is 33pM. Compared to the traditional single G-quadruplex label unit, this electrochemical sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Hg(2+). PMID:26835893

  18. Tissue-targeting lead generation and optimization from random and directed screening of technetium-99m labeled tripeptide complex libraries in vivo

    ZENG Jun; LIU Ci-yi; XIE Wen-hui; HU Si-long; JIN Mu-xiu

    2006-01-01

    Background Screening libraries against a molecular target in vitro are idealized models that cannot reflect the real state in vivo where biomolecules coexist and interact. C-terminal amide tripeptides labelled with Technetium-99m can provide a unique noninvasive approach to trace a large number of compounds in vivo.Methods The C-terminal amide tripeptide libraries were synthesized on Rink Amide-MBHA resin using iterative and pooling protocol. Technetium (Ⅴ) oxo core [TcO3+] was bound to each tripeptide via 4 deprotonated nitrogen atoms to form a library of 8000 99mTc tripeptoid complexes. The radiocombinatorial screening (RCS) in vivo was carried out on SD rats and A549 tumour bearing mice.Results Signals of tissue distribution and metabolism of libraries were recorded by counting or imaging and tissue targeting leads identified by both random and directed RCS. Among them, 99mTc RPA, 99mTc VIG and 99mTc RES had specific tissue targeting in kidney, liver and tumour respectively. The percent injected dose per gram tissue of 99mTc labelled leads in their target tissue was highly structure dependent. Because the nontarget tissue binding and the metabolism of 99mTc tripeptoid sublibraries were simultaneously monitored successfully by RCS, the interference of background activity was limited to the lowest level. Optimization of renal function agent from the labelled libraries was carried out by directed screening. 99mTc DSG was finally identified the most promising agent for renal function studies.Conclusions RCS in vivo is a powerful tool for the discovery of tissue targeting drugs. The potential screening bias is probably the major limitation of labelled libraries.

  19. Direct uptake of organic carbon by grass roots and allocation in leaves and phytoliths: 13C labeling evidence

    Alexandre, A.; Balesdent, J.; Cazevieille, P.; Chevassus-Rosset, C.; Signoret, P.; Mazur, J.-C.; Harutyunyan, A.; Doelsch, E.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Miche, H.; Santos, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the rhizosphere, the uptake of low molecular weight carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) by plant roots has been well documented. While organic N uptake relatively to total uptake is important, organic C uptake is supposed to be low relatively to the plant's C budget. Recently, radiocarbon analyses demonstrated that a fraction of C from the soil was occluded in amorphous silica micrometric particles that precipitate in plant cells (phytoliths). Here, we investigated whether and in which extent organic C absorbed by grass roots, under the form of either intact amino acids (AAs) or microbial metabolites, can feed the organic C occluded in phytoliths. For this purpose we added 13C- and 15N-labeled AAs to the silicon-rich hydroponic solution of the grass Festuca arundinacea. The experiment was designed to prevent C leakage from the labeled nutritive solution to the chamber atmosphere. After 14 days of growth, the 13C and 15N enrichments (13C-excess and 15N-excess) in the roots, stems and leaves, and phytoliths, as well as the 13C-excess in AAs extracted from roots and stems and leaves, were quantified relatively to a control experiment in which no labelled AAs were added. The net uptake of 13C derived from the labeled AAs supplied to the nutritive solution (AA-13C) by Festuca arundinacea represented 4.5 % of the total AA-13C supply. AA-13C fixed in the plant represented only 0.13 % of total C. However, the experimental conditions may have underestimated the extent of the process under natural and field conditions. Previous studies showed that 15N and 13C can be absorbed by the roots in several organic and inorganic forms. In the present experiment, the fact that phenylalanine and methionine, that were supplied in high amount to the nutritive solution, were more 13C-enriched than other AAs in the roots and stems and leaves strongly suggested that part of AA-13C was absorbed and translocated in its original AA form. The concentration of AA-13C represented only 0.15 % of the

  20. Direct uptake of organically derived carbon by grass roots and allocation in leaves and phytoliths: 13C labeling evidence

    Alexandre, Anne; Balesdent, Jérôme; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Signoret, Patrick; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Harutyunyan, Araks; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Miche, Hélène; Santos, Guaciara M.

    2016-03-01

    In the rhizosphere, the uptake of low-molecular-weight carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) by plant roots has been well documented. While organic N uptake relative to total uptake is important, organic C uptake is supposed to be low relative to the plant's C budget. Recently, radiocarbon analyses demonstrated that a fraction of C from the soil was occluded in amorphous silica micrometric particles that precipitate in plant cells (phytoliths). Here, we investigated whether and to what extent organically derived C absorbed by grass roots can feed the C occluded in phytoliths. For this purpose we added 13C- and 15N-labeled amino acids (AAs) to the silicon-rich hydroponic solution of the grass Festuca arundinacea. The experiment was designed to prevent C leakage from the labeled nutritive solution to the chamber atmosphere. After 14 days of growth, the 13C and 15N enrichments (13C excess and 15N excess) in the roots, stems and leaves as well as phytoliths were measured relative to a control experiment in which no labeled AAs were added. Additionally, the 13C excess was measured at the molecular level, in AAs extracted from roots and stems and leaves. The net uptake of labeled AA-derived 13C reached 4.5 % of the total AA 13C supply. The amount of AA-derived 13C fixed in the plant was minor but not nil (0.28 and 0.10 % of total C in roots and stems/leaves, respectively). Phenylalanine and methionine that were supplied in high amounts to the nutritive solution were more 13C-enriched than other AAs in the plant. This strongly suggested that part of AA-derived 13C was absorbed and translocated into the plant in its original AA form. In phytoliths, AA-derived 13C was detected. Its concentration was on the same order of magnitude as in bulk stems and leaves (0.15 % of the phytolith C). This finding strengthens the body of evidences showing that part of organic compounds occluded in phytoliths can be fed by C entering the plant through the roots. Although this experiment was done in

  1. Alternative labelling of the cocaine analogue isomers α-CIT and β-CIT by direct iodination with no-carrier-added Na125I

    An alternative labelling of the cocaine analogue isomers α-CIT and β-CIT with no-carrier-added 125I by direct iodination of 2α- and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane with Na125I/sulfuric acid/nitric acid/acetic acid and peracetic acid under different reaction conditions, is described. The maximum radiolabelling yield obtained with the two isomers was 48% for [125I]α-CIT and 28% for [125I]β-CIT. (author)

  2. Proximity-Directed Labeling Reveals a New Rapamycin-Induced Heterodimer of FKBP25 and FRB in Live Cells.

    Lee, Song-Yi; Lee, Hakbong; Lee, Hye-Kyeong; Lee, Seung-Won; Ha, Sung Chul; Kwon, Taejoon; Seo, Jeong Kon; Lee, Changwook; Rhee, Hyun-Woo

    2016-08-24

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a core pathway in cellular metabolism, and control of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin shows potential for the treatment of metabolic diseases. In this study, we employed a new proximity biotin-labeling method using promiscuous biotin ligase (pBirA) to identify unknown elements in the rapamycin-induced interactome on the FK506-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain in living cells. FKBP25 showed the strongest biotin labeling by FRB-pBirA in the presence of rapamycin. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that endogenous FKBP25 has a rapamycin-induced physical interaction with the FRB domain. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the ternary complex of FRB-rapamycin-FKBP25 was determined at 1.67-Å resolution. In this crystal structure we found that the conformational changes of FRB generate a hole where there is a methionine-rich space, and covalent metalloid coordination was observed at C2085 of FRB located at the bottom of the hole. Our results imply that FKBP25 might have a unique physiological role related to metallomics in mTOR signaling. PMID:27610411

  3. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  4. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    Leng, Jiapeng, E-mail: jpleng@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuanqi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Haoyang [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Cui, Jianlan; Liu, Qinghao [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Manyu [Agilent Technologies China Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200080 (China); Guo, Yinlong, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-08-05

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  5. Transient structure formation in unfolded acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein observed by site-directed spin labelling

    Teilum, Kaare; Kragelund, Birthe B; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2002-01-01

    Paramagnetic relaxation has been used to monitor the formation of structure in the folding peptide chain of guanidinium chloride-denatured acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein. The spin label (1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-methyl)methanesulfonate (MTSL) was covalently bound to a single...... affected in the native folded structure. It is suggested that the experiment is recording the formation of many discrete and transient structures in the polypeptide chain in the preface of protein folding. Analysis of secondary chemical shifts shows a high propensity for alpha-helix formation in the C...... state, and that these may be of importance to the initiation of protein folding....

  6. Food Labels

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  7. Inhibition of human prostate cancer xenograft growth by 125I labeled triple-helin forming oligonucleotide directed against androgen receptor

    ZHANG Yong; MA Yi; LU Han-ping; GAO Jin-hui; LIANG Chang-sheng; LIU Chang-zheng; ZOU Jun-tao; WANG Hua-qiao

    2008-01-01

    Background The failure of hormone treatment for advanced prostate cancer might be related to aberrant activation of the androgen receptor.We have shown that 125I labeled triple-helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) against the androgen receptor gene inhibits androgen receptor expression and cell proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro.This study aimed at exploring the effects of the 125I-TFO on prostate tumor growth in vivo using a nude mouse xenograft model.Methods TFO was labeled with 125I by the iodogen method.Thirty-two nude mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors were randomized into 4 groups and were intratumorally injected with 125I-TFO,unlabeled TFO,Na125I and normal saline.Tumor size was measured weekly.The tumor growth inhibition rate (RI) was calculated by measurement of tumor weight.The expression of the androgen receptor gene was performed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical study.The prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The tumor cell apoptosis index (Al) was detected by TUNEL assay.Results Tumor measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by either 125I-TFO or TFO,with tumor RIs of 50.79% and 32.80% respectively.125I-TFO caused greater inhibition of androgen receptor expression and higher Als in tumor tissue than TFO.Both the tumor weight and the PSA serum levels in 125I-TFO treated mice ((0.93±0.15) g and (17.43±1.85) ng/ml,respectively) were significantly lower than those ((1.27±0.21) g and (28.25±3.41)ng/ml,respectively) in TFO treated mice (all P<0.05).Na125I did not significantly affect tumor growth and androgen receptor expression in tumor tissue.Conclusions The 125I-TFO can effectively inhibit androgen receptor expression and tumor growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.The inhibitory efficacy of 125I-TFO is more potent than that of TFO,providing a reference for future studies of antigen radiotherapy.

  8. A highly sensitive, direct and label-free technique for Hg(2+) detection using Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Park, Chanho; Jang, Kuewhan; Lee, Sangmyung; You, Juneseok; Lee, Soyoung; Ha, Hyunsoo; Yun, Kyungtak; Kim, Junseop; Lee, Howon; Park, Jinsung; Na, Sungsoo

    2015-07-31

    For several decades, various nanomaterials have been used in a wide range of industrial fields, research areas, and commercial products. Among many nanomaterials, nano-sized mercury materials are one of the most widely used nanomaterials in real life. However, due to the high toxicity of Hg(2+), it is imperative to develop an effective and practical detection method for Hg(2+) to protect human health and environment. In this study, a highly sensitive, label-free method of detecting Hg(2+) that requires only a single drop of solution was developed. The detection mechanism is based on the different surface potential arising from Hg(2+) binding to mismatched thymine-thymine sequences, creating a very stable base pair. The surface potential is measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to a molecular resolution. The developed method is capable of detecting 2 fmol of Hg(2+), which is 500 times more sensitive than previously reported techniques. Moreover, our method can selectively detect Hg(2+) and can also be applied to tap water and river water. This KPFM-based Hg(2+) detection method can be used as an early detection technique for practical applications. PMID:26152847

  9. Bromine-80m-labeled estrogens: Auger-electron emitting, estrogen receptor-directed ligands with potential for therapy of estrogen receptor positive cancers

    A triphenylbromoethylene, 1,1-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-bromo-2-phenylethylene, Br-BHPE, and a bromosteroidal estrogen, 17α- bromovinylestradiol, BrVE2, were labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide bromine-80m, prepared by the [p,n] reaction with 80Se. To assess their potential as estrogen receptor (ER) directed therapeutic substrates the bromine-80m labeled estrogens were injected into immature female rats and the tissue distribution studied at 0.5 and 2 hours. Both radiobromoestrogens showed substantial diethylstilbesterol (DES)-inhibitable localization in the ER rich tissues, uterus, pituitary, ovary and vagina at both time points. While the percent dose per gram tissue was higher for the Br-BHPE, the BrVE2 showed higher tissue to blood ratios, especially at 2 hr, reflecting the lower blood concentrations of radiobromine following administration of the steroidal bromoestrogen. Comparing intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous routes of administration for the radiobromine labeled Br-BHPE, the intraperitoneal route was particularly advantageous to provide maximum, DES-inhibitable concentrations in the peritoneal, ER-rich target organs, the uterus, ovary and vagina. While uterine concentrations after BrBHPE were from 10--48% dose/g and after BrVE2 were 15--25% dose/g, similar treatment with /sup 80m/Br as sodium bromide showed uniform low concentrations in all tissues at about the levels seen in blood. The effective specific activity of [/sup 80m/Br]BrBHPE, assayed by specific binding to ER in rat uterine cytosol, was 8700 Ci/mmole. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.

    2007-04-01

    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  11. Topology of AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, determined by site-directed fluorescence labeling.

    Nanatani, Kei; Fujiki, Takashi; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Umeyama, Hideaki; Ye, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Nakajima, Tasuku; Uchida, Takafumi; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-10-01

    The gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate (Asp) with release of L-alanine (Ala) and CO(2). The decarboxylation reaction consists of two steps: electrogenic exchange of Asp for Ala catalyzed by an aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) and intracellular decarboxylation of the transported Asp catalyzed by an L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (AspD). AspT belongs to the newly classified aspartate:alanine exchanger family (transporter classification no. 2.A.81) of transporters. In this study, we were interested in the relationship between the structure and function of AspT and thus analyzed the topology by means of the substituted-cysteine accessibility method using the impermeant, fluorescent, thiol-specific probe Oregon Green 488 maleimide (OGM) and the impermeant, nonfluorescent, thiol-specific probe [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate bromide. We generated 23 single-cysteine variants from a six-histidine-tagged cysteineless AspT template. A cysteine position was assigned an external location if the corresponding single-cysteine variant reacted with OGM added to intact cells, and a position was assigned an internal location if OGM labeling required cell lysis. The topology analyses revealed that AspT has a unique topology; the protein has 10 transmembrane helices (TMs), a large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop (about 180 amino acids) between TM5 and TM6, N and C termini that face the periplasm, and a positively charged residue (arginine 76) within TM3. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure constructed by means of the full automatic modeling system indicates that the large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop of AspT possesses a TrkA_C domain and a TrkA_C-like domain and that the three-dimensional structures of these domains are similar to each other even though their amino acid sequences show low similarity. PMID:17660287

  12. Freeze-dried formulation for direct 99mTc-labeling ior-egf/r3 MAb: additives, biodistribution, and stability

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been useful for immunoscintigraphic applications in clinical diagnosis since they were introduced in nuclear medicine practice. The MAb ior egf/r3 developed at the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba) is a murine antibody that recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and has been used widely in the radioimmunodiagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. Based on the direct Schwarz method, the present report describes the preparation of a freeze-dried formulation for radiolabeling the MAb ior egf/r3 with 99mTc for immunoscintigraphic applications. Radiolabeling efficiency, effects on immunoreactivity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and stability of the formulation are reported. The study demonstrated that the freeze-dried formulation can be labeled with 99mTc at high yield. The resulting 99mTc-labeled ior egf/r3 MAb can be used to visualize in vivo human tumors of epithelial origin by immunoscintigraphy studies. The kit does not need any other addition or purification at the time of tagging other than the requisite amount of pertechnetate (40-50 mCi). Because the contents of the kit are lyophilized, no special storage or transportation is required

  13. OR Specimen Labeling.

    Zervakis Brent, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Mislabeled surgical specimens jeopardize patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this project was to determine whether labeling surgical specimens with two patient identifiers would result in an 80% reduction in specimen labeling errors within six months and a 100% reduction in errors within 12 months. Our failure mode effects analysis found that the lack of two patient identifiers per label was the most unsafe step in our specimen handling process. We piloted and implemented a new process in the OR using the Plan-Do-Check-Act conceptual framework. The audit process included collecting data and making direct observations to determine the sustainability of the process change; however, the leadership team halted the direct observation audit after four months. The total number of surgical specimen labeling errors was reduced by only 60% within six months and 62% within 12 months; therefore, the goal of the project was not met. However, OR specimen labeling errors were reduced. PMID:26849982

  14. Wasteful Labeling

    Mahenc, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The role of labeling is to solve the adverse selection problem caused by unsubstantiated claims from firms. The problem however is likely to remain unsolved if the labeling agency is not trustworthy.The agency can be suspected to divert the fees charged for labeling from their primary purpose of collecting information in order to raise excessive revenue. This paper addresses this issue and shows that labeling may be wasteful if the agency is likely to be untrustworthy. To award firms green la...

  15. Site-Directed Spin-Labeling of Nucleic Acids by Click Chemistry. Detection of Abasic Sites in Duplex DNA by EPR Spectroscopy

    Sigurdsson, Snorri; Vogel, Stefan; Shelke, Sandip;

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a spin label that can detect and identify local structural deformations in duplex DNA, in particular abasic sites. The spin label was incorporated into DNA by a new postsynthetic approach using click-chemistry on a solid support, which simplified both the synthesis and...

  16. Nutrition Labeling

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  17. Nutrition Labeling

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of direct rhenium-188-labeled anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab for radioimmunotherapy of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Decker, Mario de [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: mario.dedecker@health.wa.gov.au; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Slegers, Guido [Department of Medical Imaging of Domestic Animals, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Dierckx, Rudi A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vos, Filip de [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    Alemtuzumab (Campath, Berlex) is a humanized IgG1 rat monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface CD52 antigen, found on lymphocytes and monocytes. It is being developed for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), autoimmune disease and for the prevention of transplant rejection. This study focused on synthesis, quality control, in vitro evaluation and biodistrubution of {sup 188}Re-labeled alemtuzumab for radioimmunotherapy of B-cell CLL. {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab was synthesized using a direct radiolabeling method. Reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bonds of the antibody was performed with tris-(carboxyethyl)-phosphine (Pierce), using a 1:60 molar excess. Reaction took place at room temperature for 20 min. A PD-10 desalting column was used to purify the reduced antibody from excess phospine. Complexation and transchelation of {sup 188}ReO{sub 4}{sup -} was achieved using sodium gluconate as weak chelator and SnCl{sub 2} as reducing agent. Quality control was done using instant thin-layer chromatography. Binding assays were performed on a CD52-positive cell line (HuT-78). Female NMRI mice were injected intravenously with 20 {mu}g radiolabeled alemtuzumab and killed at preset time intervals for biodistribution studies. Tissues were dissected, weighed and counted for determination of radioactivity. Data were expressed as percentage injected activity per gram of tissue (% IA/g tissue) or as percentage injected activity (% IA). {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab was prepared achieving high radiochemical yields. Labeling efficiency of more than 95% can be obtained using optimal reaction conditions. {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab showed good in vitro stability, remaining intact at 24 h after radiolabeling. In mice, {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab showed high uptake in the blood (25.10{+-}1.36% IA at 1 h p.i.), followed by a biexponential clearance (t{sub 1/2{alpha}}=4.790 h and t{sub 1/2{beta}}=55.45 h). Increased uptake was observed in kidneys and heart (9

  19. Direct labelling of octreotide with 99mTc: effect of different concentration of reducing agents and amount of sodium pertechnetate on radiolabelling efficiency

    Octreotide, a synthetic analog of natural hormone somatostatin, was labelled with 99mTc. Labelling was accomplished by reduction of the cysteine bridge, which provided sulfhydryl groups for chelating with 99mTc. Sodium ascorbate and sodium dithionite in different concentrations were used as reducing agents. Different amounts of sodium pertechnetate were used for labelling of peptide. When the mass ratio of peptide and sodium ascorbate was 1:100 and the final concentration of dithionite in the labelling vial was 0.2-0.4 μg/μl with 0.18-1.48 GBq sodium pertechnetate more than 80% radiolabelling efficiency was confirmed by RP-HPLC, ITLC-SG and C18 Cartridge analysis. The stability of the 99mTc-peptide bond was evaluated by human serum challenge and that showed the stability was 90% after 4 h

  20. Direct labelling of octreotide with {sup 99m}Tc: effect of different concentration of reducing agents and amount of sodium pertechnetate on radiolabelling efficiency

    Gandomkar, M. E-mail: rnajafi@seai.neda.net.ir; Najafi, R.; Sadat Ebrahimi, S.E.; Shafiee, A.; Babaei, M.H.; Rabbani, M.; Shabani, G.A

    2003-03-01

    Octreotide, a synthetic analog of natural hormone somatostatin, was labelled with {sup 99m}Tc. Labelling was accomplished by reduction of the cysteine bridge, which provided sulfhydryl groups for chelating with {sup 99m}Tc. Sodium ascorbate and sodium dithionite in different concentrations were used as reducing agents. Different amounts of sodium pertechnetate were used for labelling of peptide. When the mass ratio of peptide and sodium ascorbate was 1:100 and the final concentration of dithionite in the labelling vial was 0.2-0.4 {mu}g/{mu}l with 0.18-1.48 GBq sodium pertechnetate more than 80% radiolabelling efficiency was confirmed by RP-HPLC, ITLC-SG and C18 Cartridge analysis. The stability of the {sup 99m}Tc-peptide bond was evaluated by human serum challenge and that showed the stability was 90% after 4 h.

  1. Direct comparison of {sup 111}In-labelled two-helix and three-helix Affibody molecules for in vivo molecular imaging

    Rosik, Daniel; Karlstroem, Amelie Eriksson [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Molecular Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Stockholm (Sweden); Orlova, Anna; Malmberg, Jennie; Varasteh, Zohreh [Uppsala University, Preclinical PET Platform, Uppsala (Sweden); Altai, Mohamed; Tolmachev, Vladimir [Uppsala University, Unit of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Sandstroem, Mattias [Uppsala University Hospital, Section of Medical Physics, Department of Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Radiolabelled Affibody molecules have demonstrated a potential for visualization of tumour-associated molecular targets. Affibody molecules (7 kDa) are composed of three alpha-helices. Recently, a smaller two-helix variant of Affibody molecules (5.1 kDa) was developed. The aim of this study was to compare two- and three-helix HER2-targeting Affibody molecules directly in vivo. The three-helix Affibody molecule ABY-002 and the two-helix Affibody molecule PEP09239 were labelled with {sup 111}In at the N-termini via DOTA chelator. Tumour-targeting properties were directly compared at 1 and 4 h after injection in mice bearing SKOV-3 xenografts with high HER2 expression and LS174T xenografts with low HER2 expression. The dissociation constants (K{sub D}) for HER2 binding were 78 pM for the three-helix Affibody molecule and 2.1 nM for the two-helix Affibody molecule. {sup 111}In-PEP09239 cleared more rapidly from the blood. In xenografts with high HER2 expression, the uptake of {sup 111}In-ABY-002 was significantly higher than that of {sup 111}In-PEP09239. The tumour-to-blood ratio was higher for {sup 111}In-PEP09239 at 4 h after injection, while there was no significant difference in other tumour-to-organ ratios. The tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-ABY-002 was eightfold higher than that of {sup 111}In-PEP09239 in xenografts with low expression. Tumour-to-blood ratios were equal in this case, but other tumour-to-organ ratios were appreciably higher for the three-helix variant. For tumours with high HER2 expression, two-helix HER2-targeting Affibody molecules can provide higher tumour-to-blood ratio at the cost of lower tumour uptake. In the case of low expression, both tumour uptake and tumour-to-organ ratios are appreciably higher for three-helix than for two-helix HER2-targeting Affibody molecules. (orig.)

  2. PROSA. Compact HiFi equipments. Development of procurement directives for an eco-label related to climate protection; PROSA. Kompakte Hi-Fi-Anlagen. Entwicklung der Vergabekriterien fuer ein klimaschutzbezogenes Umweltzeichen

    Prakash, Siddharth; Brommer, Eva; Groeger, Jens

    2010-03-24

    The study under consideration on compact HIFI equipments is a part of the project 'TOP 100 - Ecolabel for climate-related products'. From the perspective of climate protection, the most important hundred products are identified, and criteria were developed in order to describe the most efficient and environmental friendly products within selected product groups. Energy efficiency, resource conservation issues, questions on the toxicity of the products and on the usability play a role. The focus of this study is the derivation of procurement directives for an eco-label. It is intended to implement these procurement directives in the process of developing the national eco-label 'The Blue Angel'.

  3. Screening for epitope specificity directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production by an ELISA with biotin-labeled antigen

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gregersen, Annemette; Brandt, Jette; Kliem, Anette; Skjødt, Karsten; Koch, Claus; Teisner, Børge

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an assay for comparison of epitope specificity in groups of monoclonal antibodies against a given antigen. The only prerequisite is the biotin-labeled antigen. One of the monoclonal antibodies is captured onto a plastic surface via a rabbit anti-mouse Ig, and the other...... preincubated with biotinylated antigen. When the two antibodies react with the same epitope subsequent binding of the biotin-labeled antigen is abolished (inhibition). In the cases where no inhibition was observed, the two antibodies were considered to react with distinct, independent epitopes. The obvious...

  4. 99MTc - DMSA renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis in children

    The aim of the present thesis was to define and evaluate a strategy for identification of children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions after acute pyelonephritis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation standards were elaborated to improve the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy. The normal DMSA distribution pattern, the average background uptake, and scintigraphic kidney length according to age were assessed in 95 presumably healthy kidneys. Furthermore, typical DMSA distribution patterns in acute pyelonephritis were assessed on 65 kidneys in 38 children, and typical DMSA distribution patterns of 152 kidneys with VUR in 101 children with and without previous pyelonephritis. Measurement of scintigraphic kidney length, width and volume was validated in piglets and on a kidney phantom. The scintigraphic kidney length was found to be an accurate measure of renal size, whereas kidney width and volume were less reliable, at least on small kidneys. Criteria of kidney swelling in acute pyelonephritis were defined, and found to be beneficial for identifying reinfections in the absence of clinical symptoms. In 34 children with acute pyelonephritis quantitative and qualitative DMSA scintigraphic findings were correlated to clinical symptoms and laboratory data, in the acute stage and at follow up. We found that quantitative DMSA scintigraphy in the acute stage of pyelonephritis and again after one year will identify children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions. Qualitative assessment of DMSA distribution pattern is not reliable enough in this respect. 116 refs., 7 figs

  5. Early 99mtc Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (Dmsa Scan In Children With Acute Pyelonephritis Tehran University Of Medical Sciences (2000-2001

    Ataei N

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis, treatment, investigation and follow up of children with urinary tract infection (UTI are needed to minimize renal scarring. The aims of this study were 1 to evaluate the ability of DMSA scintigraphy, ultrasound and biological parameters in detecting renal parenchymal involvement in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN 2 to assess the relation between renal parenchymal changes and creatinine clearance 3 to determine the incidence of renal scarring after APN."nMaterials and Methods: We prospectively studied 54 children (median age 4.02± 3.41 range 1 month to 12 years with first time symptomaticUTI. All patients had DMSA scan and ultrasonography within 5 days of admission. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood cell (WBC, was measured at the time of infection, and voiding cystourethrography was performed in all children within 10 days. When scintigraphy showed renal parenchymal changes, repeat DMSA scan was done at least 3 months after initial infection."nResults: Changes on the DMSA scan were found in 93/108 (85.5 percent renal units in 54 children during acute pyelonephritis. Among 42 children who had underwent repeat scintigraphy , renal scars were found in 9 of 16 (56.25 percent renal units in 8 infants under 1 year ,23 of 32 (71.87 percent in 16 children aged 1-5 years, and 33 of 36(91 percent in 18 patients older than 5 years. Ultrasonography showed renal changes in 20 of 108 (18.5 percent kidneys. Reflux was seen in 21 of 108 (19.44 percent renal units. The sensitivity of ESR, CRP, WBC, and ultrasonography was 78.5 percent , 64.5 percent , 69.9 percent , 18.5 percent respectively, and the specificity of them was 40 percent, 33.3 percent, 13.3 percent,"n80 percent respectively. There was a positive correlation between renal parenchymal involvement and creatinine clearance level (p<0.001."nWe found no difference between groups with or without scars with respect to levels of ESR, CRP, and WBC."nConclusion: The present study suggest that DMSA scan may be a more reliable method of investigation than ultrasonography and biological parameters for identifying children at risk of permanent renal lesion. Additionally we found positive correlation between renal parenchymal change and creatinine clearance level. In order to detect persistent changes, it is suggested that DMSA scintigraphy should be performed at least three months after UTI."n"n"n 

  6. Differential diagnosis of MRI detected intra cranial space occupying lesions (ICSOLS)-role of 99MTC tetrofosmin cerebral spect

    Discriminating the correct etiology of Intra Cranial Space Occupying Lesions (ICSOLs) detected by MRI is of paramount importance in deciding the right therapeutic approach. Functional imaging like 99m Tc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT (C SPECT) can be used to differentiate malignant from other benign cerebral pathologies. Objective: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of C SPECT in differentiating various etiologies (i.e. Infective / Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Post Radiotherapy changes) of MRI detected ICSOLs. We also aimed to assess the incremental value of quantitative uptake ratios in identifying the exact nature of ICSOLs. Method: 26 Patients (M:F=20:6), age range 28-76 yrs, mean 42±7 yrs were evaluated by 99mTc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT. 14/26 patients were HIV positive cases while remaining 12 were treated patients of intracerebral malignancies. All these patients had one or more discrete MRI detected ICSOLs. 6/4 patients with HIV and 4/12 patients in the non HIV group showed more than 1 discrete ICSOLs. 20 mci of 99mTc Tetrofosmin was injected IV .15 min (early) and 2 hrs (delayed) post injection C SPECT images were acquired on a dual head variable angle Gamma camera. After reconstruction, transverse, coronal and sagittal images were co- registered with DICOM online available MRI images using aco- registration software. Focal Tetrofosmin uptake in MRI detected ICSOL was interpreted as abnormal. Tetrofosmin uptake index (Ix) was calculated in early and delayed images as ratio of counts in lesion to that of contra lateral region. A value of more than 1.3 was considered to be abnormal. Persistent Ix of more than 1.3 in initial and delayed images were considered to be malignant while Ix of more or less than 1.3 in initial but less than 1.3 in delayed images was considered to be benign in both groups. Results: In HIV group (14 pts), 4 patients showed an Ix of less than 1.3 in both early and delayed images and 7 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but

  7. Relationship between Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Interictal 99mtc-Hmpao Spect Findings in Epilepsy Patients with Focal EEG Abnormalities

    Karaman, Handan Işın Özışık; Kabay, Sibel Canbaz; Kamışlı, Özden

    2011-01-01

    We studied the relationship between single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and focal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in 25 epileptic patients. Our results showed SPECT was more consistent than MRI on detection of localized abnormalities corresponding to epileptic EEG foci. Key words: Epilepsy; Electroencephalography; Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Magnetic Resonance İmaging.

  8. 99mtc-Ubiquicidin [29–41], a Promising Radiopharmaceutical to Differentiate Orthopedic Implant Infections from Sterile Inflammation

    Beiki, Davood; Yousefi, Gholamali; Fallahi, Babak; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Erfani, Mostafa; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquicidin (UBI) [29-41] is a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide that preferentially binds to bacterial cell membrane at the site of infection. We aimed to assess diagnostic value of 99mTc-UBI [29-41] as a radiopharmaceutical in differentiation of bacterial infection from sterile inflammation in suspected orthopedic implants. Nine patients suspected for orthopedic implant infection, all males with the mean age of 41.6 ± 20.9 years, were studied. A dose of 10 MBq/Kg (range : 555-740 MBq...

  9. Food labels

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention for the...... two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted with...

  10. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry as a tool for identification of volatile migrants from autoadhesive labels used for direct food contact.

    Canellas, Elena; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA) are used to manufacture labels that are applied directly on the food. These adhesives could contain not only intentionally added compounds (IAS) to the adhesive formula but also non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), due to the impurities from the raw materials used, decomposition of the initial components or from chemical interactions between them. These compounds could migrate to the food and contaminate it. In this study, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS/Q) and atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole hyphenated to a time of flight mass spectrometer (APGC-MS/Q-TOF) have been used for identification of unknown compounds and NIAS coming from a PSA. Seven compounds were identified by GC-MS/Q, and other eight compounds remained initially unknown. The structure of these eight new compounds was elucidated by working with the spectra obtained by APGC-MS/Q-TOF. Finally, two different migration studies were carried out. The first one with Tenax as solid food simulant in contact with the paper label containing the adhesive and the second one with isooctane filled in a natural pork intestine where the label containing the adhesive was applied on the external side. The results are shown and discussed. PMID:25395134

  11. Targeting of chemical mutagens to differentiating B-lymphocytes in vivo: detection by direct DNA labeling and sister chromatid exchange induction

    Bloom, S.E.; Nanna, U.C.; Dietert, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo systems for analyzing mutagen interactions with a specific differentiating cell population are rare. Taking advantage of the unique anatomical features of the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken, the authors explored the possibility of targeting chemical mutagens to a defined differentiating cell population in the animal, namely, the B-lymphocytes series. Such cells are known to be the targets for the oncogene-activating avian leukosis virus. Targeting of chemicals to cells of the bursa was demonstrated by application of the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to the anal lips of neonatal chicks. Bright nuclear fluorescence of cells in the bursa demonstrated to occur within minutes after the application of 500..mu..l of DAPI. DAPI labeling of nuclei was detected up to several days after a single application. No nuclear labeling was exhibited in cells of neighboring tissues. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)(10..mu..l) was applied to the anal lips of day-old chicks to study dose-response kinetics for mutagen targeting to DNA of dividing B-lymphocytes in the bursa. Since the mitotic index was found to be quite high (25-30%) in the bursa, chromosome analysis was used to assay for genome damage. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies of 3.9, 7.3, and 9.0 (baseline 2.5) per cell were obtained at MMS dosages per animal of 50 ..mu..g, 100..mu..g, and 200..mu..g, respectively. These results indicate the rapid and quantitative localization of DNA-binding chemicals to cells of the bursa, particularly the resident B-lymphocytes. The bursa should be a useful system for studying mutagen-DNA interactions in the differentiating B-lymphocyte and subsequent influences on the development of immunity and lymphoproliferative disease.

  12. Targeting of chemical mutagens to differentiating B-lymphocytes in vivo: detection by direct DNA labeling and sister chromatid exchange induction

    In vivo systems for analyzing mutagen interactions with a specific differentiating cell population are rare. Taking advantage of the unique anatomical features of the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken, the authors explored the possibility of targeting chemical mutagens to a defined differentiating cell population in the animal, namely, the B-lymphocytes series. Such cells are known to be the targets for the oncogene-activating avian leukosis virus. Targeting of chemicals to cells of the bursa was demonstrated by application of the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to the anal lips of neonatal chicks. Bright nuclear fluorescence of cells in the bursa demonstrated to occur within minutes after the application of 500μl of DAPI. DAPI labeling of nuclei was detected up to several days after a single application. No nuclear labeling was exhibited in cells of neighboring tissues. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)(10μl) was applied to the anal lips of day-old chicks to study dose-response kinetics for mutagen targeting to DNA of dividing B-lymphocytes in the bursa. Since the mitotic index was found to be quite high (25-30%) in the bursa, chromosome analysis was used to assay for genome damage. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies of 3.9, 7.3, and 9.0 (baseline 2.5) per cell were obtained at MMS dosages per animal of 50 μg, 100μg, and 200μg, respectively. These results indicate the rapid and quantitative localization of DNA-binding chemicals to cells of the bursa, particularly the resident B-lymphocytes. The bursa should be a useful system for studying mutagen-DNA interactions in the differentiating B-lymphocyte and subsequent influences on the development of immunity and lymphoproliferative disease

  13. Labeling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP 10-28 fragment with radioiodine by direct method. Comparative study of the kinetics biodistribution and affinity for neuroendocrine tumor cells

    In the progress of the Nuclear Medicine, many protein based radiopharmaceuticals have been developed in the last years using antibodies and, more recently, biologically active natural peptides or similar synthetic peptides. In the search for agents with specificity for the target tissue in tumors detection, it was verified that small sequences of amino acids may interact with selective sites, with homogenous distribution, fast accumulation in tissues and fast blood clearance when compared to the antibodies. Among the peptides used in the diagnosis of tumors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) has been studied. VIP labeled with iodine-123 is applied in the images of intestinal adenocarcinoma and endocrine tumors. The molecule of VIP contains two tyrosine residues, in the positions 10 and 22 that are, theoretically, equally susceptible to radioiodination for direct method. The objective of this work was to produce VIP labeled with radioiodine (iodine-123), in order to introduce to the brazilian medical class this radiopharmaceutical of interest for the diagnosis and recurrence of tumors that express specific receptors. In an unpublished way, the work studied the labeling and the kinetic distribution of the VIP fragment (VIP 10-28) and verified its potential as radiopharmaceutical applied in the identification of tumors that express VIP receptors. After the choice of the appropriated technique for labeling VIP and VIP 10-28 with radioiodine, using Ceremonial T as oxidant agent and sodium metabisulfite as reducing agent, the quality control procedures were accomplished (electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) for radiochemical purity determination as well as the separation of the radiochemical species obtained. Labeling and quality control procedures applied were efficient and accurate. [131I]VIP and [131l]VIP 10-28 were obtained with high radiochemical purity (> 95%). The purification studies to remove free radioiodine in the labeling

  14. Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives

    Radioactive labelling of guanidine bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy-texaphyrin with 166Ho and 90Y is described. UV-VIS absorption spectrometry was used to describe porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour over a wide pH range. This technique also provided preliminary information about the complexation of holmium and yttrium with porphyrin and texaphyrin. The labelling yield of the macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal-to-ligand ratio and time of incubation. The optimum reaction conditions for the formation of radioactive complexes of porphyrin and texaphyrin were determined by thin layer chromatography combined with beta activity measurement. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was also examined. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4-) because radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 186Re and 188Re play an important role in the therapy of many tumorous diseases. The possibility of using the ReO4- anion directly for labeling without reduction to a lower oxidation state can simplify considerably the preparation of the radiotherapeutic pharmaceuticals. Neither UV-Vis spectrometry nor TLC gave evidence of any incorporation of the ReO4- anion into the porphyrin ring

  15. A critical quantum chemical and experimental study of the potentiality of direct labeling of the CN group with [99mTc(CO)3]+ or [186/188Re(CO)3]+ in CN containing biomolecules

    Introduction: It was determined recently that [99mTc(OH2)2(X-)(CO3)3] could strongly bind to the CN group, allowing direct labeling of CN in vitamin B12 despite the presence of a benzimidazole group. The aim of this paper was to perform a critical study of this potentiality, coupling quantum chemical calculations to experimental evidence. Methods: Computational methods: Within the density functional theory calculations, the 6-31+G** basis set (C, H, O, N atoms) and the LANL2DZ basis set (Tc,Re) were used. Stability calculations of the [RCNM(CO)3]+) (M=Tc,Re) complexes were performed with the Gaussian 03 suite of programs, while for the evaluation of relative stability substitution reactions were used. Radiochemistry: Vitamin B12, 4-hydroxy-benzylcyanide and 4-methoxy-benzonitrile were labeled at 100 deg. C during 30 min. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed using radioactive and UV detection. Results: Computational methods: The influence of different ligands on the stability yielded a sequence: imidazole>tBuCN>NH3∼CH3CN>HCN (mimicking the best CoCN)>H2O. The transmetalation reaction indicates that all ligands prefer Re to Tc. The preference for the nitrogen atom of imidazole to the cyanide nitrogen atom for complex formation with [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ is interpreted in terms of the hard and soft acid and base properties principle. Radiochemistry: 4-Hydroxy-benzylcyanide and 4-methoxy-benzonitrile did not show any labeling. An excess of acetonitrile did not inhibit the labeling of vitamin B12 as expected if the CN group should be involved, indicating that the labeling occurs on a stronger complexing group present like benzimidazole. Conclusion: Both theory and experiments prove that [CN-Tc(CO)3(H2O)(2-x)Lx]+ complexes are weak and that in vitamin B12 most probably the benzimidazole group is involved

  16. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  17. Results of direct measures of the utilization coefficient of fertilizers by isotopic labelling with 32P, 15N and 40K

    Several informations are needed for a rational utilization of fertilizers: 1. Percentage of the fertilizer transferred to the first harvest following the application; 2. Percentage of the element in the harwest which is derived from the fertilizer; 3. Fate of the part of the fertilizer which is not taken up by the first crop and remains in the plough-layer of soil. These data can, on various degrees, be obtained by the use of labelled compounds and only with them. After a recall of the technical requirements associated to isotopic measurements such as counting by liquid scintillation or Cerenkov effect for 32P, mass or optical spectrometry for nitrogen 15, low back-ground counting for 40K, the results obtained in field experiments are presented. The utilization coefficient of mineral nitrogen varies from 4% to 80%, that of phosphorus, as soluble forms, from 0,5% to 10%. The most interesting results concerns the use of 40K, the natural radioisotope of potassium whose half-live is 1,3.109 years. During year 1982, in the calcareous soil of Cadarache, with three different crops grown in lysimeters, the utilization coefficient of potassium fertilizer added as K Cl was 10%. All these results are interpreted as in relation to the soil fixing capacity for the different nutrients

  18. Food labeling

    ... of their products to help us make healthier food choices. The consistent format helps you directly compare the ... CONTENT CLAIMS A nutrient content claim is a word or phrase on a food package that makes a comment about the nutritional ...

  19. 99mTc direct labeling of a new anti-MUC1 monoclonal antibody, PR81, as a potential agent for imaging of human breast cancer in nuclear medicine

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) is a technique which uses radiolabeled antibodies to visualize tumors, taking advantage of antigens preferentially expressed by malignant tissues. Human epithelial mucin, MUC1, is commonly over expressed in adenocarcinomas including 80% of breast cancers and represents a useful target for RIS. The PR81 is a new murine anti-MUC1 monoclonal antibody that was found to react with the membrane extracts of several human breast cancer tissues and the cell surface of MUC1 positive cell lines. In this study we have developed a direct method for labeling of this MAb with 99mTc which is simple, rapid, efficient and particularly suitable for development of a 'kit'. The quality control of new radiopharmaceutical and immunoscintigraphy studies in BALB/c mice bearing breast tumor xenografts were also performed. (author)

  20. Direct Growth Graphene on Cu Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Deposition as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Label-Free Detection of Adenosine

    Xu, Shicai; Man, Baoyuan; Jiang, Shouzhen; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Jie; Xu, Shida; Liu, Hanping

    2015-01-01

    We present a graphene/Cu nanoparticle hybrids (G/CuNPs) system as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for adenosine detection. The Cu nanoparticles wrapped around a monolayer graphene shell were directly synthesized on flat quartz by chemical vapor deposition in a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The G/CuNPs showed an excellent SERS enhancement activity for adenosine. The minimum detected concentration of the adenosine in serum was demonstrated as low as 5 nM, and the calibra...

  1. Direct Growth Graphene on Cu Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Deposition as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Label-Free Detection of Adenosine

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Jie; Xu, Shida; Liu, Hanping

    2015-01-01

    We present a graphene/Cu nanoparticle hybrids (G/CuNPs) system as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for adenosine detection. The Cu nanoparticles wrapped around a monolayer graphene shell were directly synthesized on flat quartz by chemical vapor deposition in a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The G/CuNPs showed an excellent SERS enhancement activity for adenosine. The minimum detected concentration of the adenosine in serum was demonstrated as low as 5 nM, and the calibration curve showed a good linear response from 5 to 500 nM. The capability of SERS detection of adenosine in real normal human urine samples based on G/CuNPs was also investigated and the characteristic peaks of adenosine were still recognizable. The reproducible and the ultrasensitive enhanced Raman signals could be due to the presence of an ultrathin graphene layer. The graphene shell was able to enrich and fix the adenosine molecules, which could also efficiently maintain chemical and optical stability of G/CuNPs. Based...

  2. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strength...

  3. Issues in Data Labelling

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  4. Direct and Auger Electron-Induced, Single- and Double-Strand Breaks on Plasmid DNA Caused by 99mTc-Labeled Pyrene Derivatives and the Effect of Bonding Distance.

    Reissig, Falco; Mamat, Constantin; Steinbach, Joerg; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Freudenberg, Robert; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wunderlich, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that 99mTc causes radical-mediated DNA damage due to Auger electrons, which were emitted simultaneously with the known γ-emission of 99mTc. We have synthesized a series of new 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives with varied distances between the pyrene moiety and the radionuclide. The pyrene motif is a common DNA intercalator and allowed us to test the influence of the radionuclide distance on damages of the DNA helix. In general, pUC 19 plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between the radiotracers and DNA that results in single-strand breaks (SSB) or double-strand breaks (DSB). The resulting DNA fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. Direct DNA damage and radical-induced indirect DNA damage by radiolysis products of water were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. We demonstrated that Auger electrons directly induced both SSB and DSB in high efficiency when 99mTc was tightly bound to the plasmid DNA and this damage could not be completely prevented by DMSO, a free radical scavenger. For the first time, we were able to minimize this effect by increasing the carbon chain lengths between the pyrene moiety and the 99mTc nuclide. However, a critical distance between the 99mTc atom and the DNA helix could not be determined due to the significantly lowered DSB generation resulting from the interaction which is dependent on the type of the 99mTc binding motif. The effect of variable DNA damage caused by the different chain length between the pyrene residue and the Tc-core as well as the possible conformations of the applied Tc-complexes was supplemented with molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The effectiveness of the DNA-binding 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives was demonstrated by comparison to non-DNA-binding 99mTcO4-, since nearly all DNA damage caused by 99mTcO4- was prevented by incubating with DMSO. PMID:27583677

  5. Succesful labelling schemes

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the...... spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire....... 664 households returned a completed questionnaire. There were five answering categories for each label in the questionnaire: * have not seen the label before. * I have seen the label before but I do not know the precise contents of the labelling scheme. * I have seen the label before, I do not know...

  6. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  7. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  8. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  9. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír; Koucky, Michal; Saks, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the online labeling problem with parameters n and m we are presented with a sequence of nkeys from a totally ordered universe U and must assign each arriving key a label from the label set {1,2,…,m} so that the order of labels (strictly) respects the ordering on U. As new keys arrive it may be...... necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order in...... are known that use O(n logn) relabelings. A matching lower bound was claimed in [7]. That proof involved two distinct steps: a lower bound for a problem they call prefix bucketing and a reduction from prefix bucketing to online labeling. The reduction seems to be incorrect, leaving a (seemingly...

  10. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  14. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  15. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  16. Labelling Fashion Markets

    Aspers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article discusses how an ethical and environmental labelling system can be implemented in fashion garment markets. Consumers act in markets that provide them with more information than their limited cognitive capacity allows them to handle. Ethical and environmental labelling in markets characterized by change, such as the fashion garment market, makes decision-making even more complicated. The ethical and environmental labelling system proposed here is designed to alleviate firms...

  17. Blood cell labelling

    The labelling of blood cells in vitro for subsequent in vivo studies was one of the earliest applications of radioactive tracers in clinical medicine and laid the foundations for many important contributions to the advancement of knowledge of human blood cell pathophysiology. The characteristics required for satisfactory clinical studies, the mechanisms of cell labelling, the problems of radiation or chemical damage to the labelled cells and some examples of modern clinical applications are described and discussed. (Author)

  18. On labelled compounds nomenclature

    Different approaches of major labelled compounds producers to their nomenclature in technical and commercial documentation are discussed. Some draft options of a standard technical guide document for labelled compounds nomenclature rules are suggested. Such a document after due discussion by the experts will serve to unification of the labelled compounds nomenclature within the frame of the CMEA member-countries co-operation in this field. The suggested options are based on the general recommendations by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and incorporate some more accurate definitions originating from the labelled compounds production and application experience

  19. Enhancing product label effectiveness by increasing attention and choice

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    increase purchase likelihood of labeled products, attention must be guided to the label. We conducted a combined eye tracking and choice experiment manipulating the surface size and visual saliency of product labels. Results show a strong and significant increase in attention towards product labels which...... are larger and more visually salient. The effect on attention also carries over into increased purchase likelihood. Both marketers and policy makers can benefit from the methodology and findings which provide directions for designing product labels that enhance attention capture and purchase decisions....

  20. Evaluation of myocardial preconditioning and adenosine effects in cardioprotection in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion injury using 99MTc-glucarate imaging

    Significant tolerance to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, as assessed by biochemical assay and noninvasive infarct-avid imaging, was induced with an IPC protocol in the rat model. The cardioprotection of IPC could be simulated by adenosine receptor A1 agonist CCPA, or blocked by antagonist SPT. Thus, adenosine mediates protection by ischemic preconditioning in this specific rat heart model. 99mTc-glucarate imaging is not only useful in detecting early ischemia-reperfusion injury, but also invaluable in evaluating the effects of cardioprotective treatments. uantitative anal ses on dynamic images with 99mTc-glucarate would make it possible to identify myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury more accurate, and provide a unique tool for evaluation of cardioprotection. The FASTSPECT imaging with the ischenuc-reperfused rat heart model provides a solution-specific approach with high-resolution and fast dynamic acquisition for kinetic studies of new myocardial imaging agents as the evidence of its major role in the present study. (authors)

  1. Experimental study on 13N-NH3 and 99MTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in rabbits with subacute myocardial infarction of ischemic reperfusion

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between 13N-NH3 and 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in rabbits with subacute myocardial infarction of ischemic reperfusion. Methods: Eight male New Zealand White rabbits of which left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries were completely occluded for 45 min followed by 7-10 d reperfusion. One week later, the rabbits after an overnight fast were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg), and LAD arteries were religated for 45 min followed by 2 h reperfusion. Then the animals were positioned on the LS-PET/CT (4 row spirals CT, Discovery GE. US) table. Myocardial blood flows were obtained with 148 MBq 13N-NH3 administered via a marginal ear vein over 20 s. According to PET imaging procedure, PET/CT acquisition of dynamic scans began 5 min after injection and was accomplished within 10 min. Two hours after PET imaging the rabbits were injected with 148 MBq 99mTc-MIBI via a marginal ear vein, 30 min later myocardial perfusion imaging was performed under a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). PET imaging ZOOM value was generally amplified 6 times while that of SPECT was 3 times. Tomographic images along the vertical long, horizontal long and short axes were created. Tomographic reconstruction was then performed by dividing the PET and SPECT image of the LV on a polar map into 9 segments for semi- quantitative analysis. The changes of infarct size were determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The ultra-structural damage of myocardial cells in infarct and periphery areas were observed under transmission electron microscope. Results: Infarct size (24.2±1.9)% of LV mass by TTC staining, while (23.7±2.3)% vs. (20.5± 2.5)% (P < 0.001) by 99mTc-MIBI Hawkeye-SPECT and 13N-NH3 PET/CT respectively. Serious myocardial cell damages including myocardial cell denaturalization, texture, and karyolysis in infracted area and myocardial cells swelling in the periphery of infracted area was observed under the transmission electron microscope. Conclusion: Compared with 99mTc-MIBI Hawkeye SPECT, 13N-NH3 perfusion under Discovery LS-PET/CT imaging could more accurately assess infarct size. (authors)

  2. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  3. Labeling and Delinquency.

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  4. Label Fusion Strategy Selection

    Nicolas Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques—STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA—and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall.

  5. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  6. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O4- stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  7. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60Co, 125I or 131I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  8. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  9. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  10. FDA Online Label Repository

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and...

  11. Like your labels?

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off. PMID:21539053

  12. Certified Rule Labeling

    Nagele, Julian; Zankl, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The rule labeling heuristic aims to establish confluence of (left-)linear term rewrite systems via decreasing diagrams. We present a formalization of a confluence criterion based on the interplay of relative termination and the rule labeling in the theorem prover Isabelle. Moreover, we report on the integration of this result into the certifier CeTA, facilitating the checking of confluence certificates based on decreasing diagrams for the first time. The power of the method is illustrated by ...

  13. Labelling of Vincamine derivatives

    Tritium labelled Vincamine and ethyl apovincaminate (Cavinton) have been prepared on the bases of known stereospecific synthesis. High specific activity compounds were obtained by the catalytic tritiation of appropriate unsaturated starting compounds. When the structure of the unsaturated starting compounds was changed (even rather for from the reaction centre) instead of the catalytic addition of tritium a specific hydrogen-tritium exchange reaction was found to be the main labelling process

  14. Labelling of electricity

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  15. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  16. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    has a focus on coordination and labeling chemistry, but biological results are briefly summarized as well. The last (and shortest) section finally intends to give a (subjective) outlook for the future role of 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. Critical comments are spread over the whole article but are concentrated in this section. Despite the increasing competition of diagnostic radiopharmacy by other commonly applied methods in medicine such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound, the authors are convinced that 99mTc will play a key role also in future if novel approaches are added and the requirements from chemistry biology and the market considered in research to a stronger extent.

  17. Streaming Label Learning for Modeling Labels on the Fly

    You, Shan; Xu, Chang; Wang, Yunhe; Xu, Chao; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to handle a large volume of labels in multi-label learning. However, existing approaches explicitly or implicitly assume that all the labels in the learning process are given, which could be easily violated in changing environments. In this paper, we define and study streaming label learning (SLL), i.e., labels are arrived on the fly, to model newly arrived labels with the help of the knowledge learned from past labels. The core of SLL is to explore and exploit the relations...

  18. Eco-labelling, competition and environment: Endogenization of labelling criteria

    Ben Youssef, Adel; Lahmandi-Ayed, Rim

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggests a modelling of the labelling procedure consistent with empirical observations, that allows the endogenous calculation of labelling criteria. The authority in charge of the labelling program chooses the level of labelling criteria so as to maximise the social surplus, anticipating competition between firms in environmental qualities and prices. While accounting simply for the informational role of labels, this model allows to understand observed behavior such as firms' igno...

  19. On online labeling with polynomially many labels

    Babka, M.; Bulánek, Jan; Čunát, V.; Koucký, Michal; Saks, M.

    Berlin : Springer, 2012 - (Epstein, L.; Ferragina, P.), s. 121-132 ISBN 978-3-642-33089-6. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7501). [20th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2012). Ljubljana (SI), 10.09.2012-12.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0854; GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online labeling * file maintenance problem * lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-33090-2_12

  20. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  1. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constr

  2. Off-Label Drug Use

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  3. Radio labeling with preassigned frequencies.

    2004-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least $2$. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so-called span of the labeling). RL is a well-studied problem, mainly motivated by frequency assignment problems in which transmitters are not allowed to operate on the same frequency channel. We c...

  4. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  5. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1-13C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose-13C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13CO2 and galactose-13C from galactosylglycerol-13C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate-13C

  6. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride-18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  7. Semantic Role Labeling

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  8. Development of labelled biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy

    The scope of the co-ordinated research project (Dec 15 1997) included the following activities: 1) develop coupling techniques using bifunctional chelating agents for monoclonal antibodies and peptides, 2) optimised radiolabelling procedures and reaction parameters using Sm-153 and Re-188, 3) investigate direct methods of labelling monoclonal antibodies and peptides with Re-188. 4) initiate animal distribution studies. The modifications specified for the period 1999/02/15 to 2000/02/14 are as follows: a) continue with the optimisation of Re-188-peptide labelling, b) continue with the work to prepare a kit, c) in-vivo and in-vitro studies, d) lanreotide labelling. The group formed by researchers from several Mexican Institutions have worked together and in different aspects of the CRP in order to fulfil the proposed aims (our published work listed)

  9. Labeling of herbicide femesafen

    5-[2-chroo-4-(trifluoromethyl ) phenoxy]-N-(methyl sulphonyl )-2-niorobenzamide [femesafen] was labeled by six steps. Radio-chemical yield was 19.15%. TLC analysis of the final product showed that the radiochemical purity is not less than 99%. (authors)

  10. Waisda?: video labeling game

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  11. Understanding Food Labels

    ... girls Eating healthy at restaurants Special food issues Vegetarian eating Eating for strong bones Quiz: Food Facts Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding ...

  12. Stabilization of labelled compounds

    This invention concerns a composition including a labelled compound, and the vitamin B 12. This vitamin gives a red colour to the solution and stabilize it radiochemically, allowing to transport the solution at ambient temperature and a storage at 4 degrees celsius. (N.C.). 5 refs

  13. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constraints, which pose more demands on how the labels should be placed in relation to their surroundings. For example, a label is preferably placed above and to the right of a city. These two aspects (comb...

  14. European energy labelling scheme for windows

    Belling Skou, Mette (VELUX A/S (Denmark)); Kragh, Jesper (DTU Byg, Denmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    In their proposals for revision of the energy labelling directive the European Commission has suggested to include windows. The paper introduces a proposal for an European energy labelling scheme of windows for replacement of windows in the existing building stock taking into consideration the energy performance of windows in both the heating and cooling seasons. The labelling scheme evaluates a methodology where the energy performance in the heating period is established with focus on heat loss and utilization of passive solar energy, whereas the energy performance in the summer (cooling) season will focus on reduction of solar radiation into the building. The methodology is developed with focus on CEN and ISO standardization. With inspiration from the American Energy Star programme for windows, Europe is divided into climate zones where the methodology for each zone is developed on basis of a reference building and climate data. A proposal for labelling will be presented for both heating and cooling seasons in order to enable the user to choose the right product for a specific performance. Based on data from the building stock in the individual climate zones, an energy saving potential for replacement of old windows with new low energy windows will be presented. The possibility for using energy labelling of windows as reference and requirement in the building legislation as an alternative to U-values, will be presented with among others examples from legislation in UK and Denmark.

  15. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  16. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  17. Labeling lake water with tritium

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  18. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  19. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  20. Nomenclature for labelled compounds

    This paper report on isotopically labelled compounds. The first indexing system for isotopically labelled organic compounds is generally credited to Boughton and named after him. An extension of his principles for designating compounds containing hydrogen isotopes has been part of the Chemical Abstracts Service index nomenclature system for many years. After close on five years labor the IUPAC sponsored Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry presented in 1979 their findings on Isotopically Modified Compounds. The system codified in their rules provides for recognition of various types of isotopic modification and is therefore of more general applicability. Concurrently the rules for the nomenclature of isotopically modified inorganic compounds are developed. These are to be seen as supplementing and extending the guidelines laid down in the IUPAC Inorganic Nomenclature Rules already published

  1. Labelling, Deviance and Media

    Greer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Labelling theory is a perspective that emerged as a distinctive approach to criminology during the 1960s, and was a major seedbed of the radical and critical perspectives that became prominent in the 1970s. It represented the highpoint of an epistemological shift within the social sciences away from positivism – which had dominated criminological enquiry since the late-1800s – and toward an altogether more relativistic stance on the categories and concepts of crime and control. It inspired a ...

  2. Eco-labelling

    Kuna-Marszałek, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    Considering environmental protection requirements in business operations may, in the long run, determine if a lasting comparative advantage can be achieved. That is why our textbook, rich in case studies, identifies not only the threats a business may pose to the environment but stresses the ways of reducing its negative impact. It discusses, among other things, the concept of corporate social responsibility, environmental management systems, methods and the importance of eco-labelling goods ...

  3. Myocardial arterial spin labeling

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, c...

  4. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels

    Haga SB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanne B Haga, Rachel Mills, Jivan Moaddeb Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug's package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration's Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21% of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, US Food and Drug Administration, drug safety, patient education

  5. Linerless label device and method

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  6. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Lodwig, S.N. [Centralia College, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the {alpha}-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids.

  7. Label-Guided Graph Exploration with Adjustable Ratio of Labels

    Zhang, Meng; Tang, Jijun

    2012-01-01

    The graph exploration problem is to visit all the nodes of a connected graph by a mobile entity, e.g., a robot. The robot has no a priori knowledge of the topology of the graph or of its size. Cohen et al. \\cite{Ilcinkas08} introduced label guided graph exploration which allows the system designer to add short labels to the graph nodes in a preprocessing stage; these labels can guide the robot in the exploration of the graph. In this paper, we address the problem of adjustable 1-bit label guided graph exploration. We focus on the labeling schemes that not only enable a robot to explore the graph but also allow the system designer to adjust the ratio of the number of different labels. This flexibility is necessary when maintaining different labels may have different costs or when the ratio is pre-specified. We present 1-bit labeling (two colors, namely black and white) schemes for this problem along with a labeling algorithm for generating the required labels. Given an $n$-node graph and a rational number $\\rh...

  8. Principles of food product labelling

    Krystyna Krysztofiak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the label of the food product is to provide information on ingredients and additionally on its origin, production method, storage conditions, date tagging, as well as to enable to identify the producer or distributor of this product. Legal regulations precisely give instructions on the range and the way of the presentation of these data, so they could be clear and understandable for the average consumer. Since 25th of November 2005, the information about allergens’ presence must be placed on the label, regardless of their content in the product (Directive 2003/89/WE... 2003 – Off. J. L 308: 15-18. The Regulation (WE No 1924/2006 about placing the nutritional information and medicinal claims concerning foods (Regulation (WE No 1924/2006... 2006 a is valid in all countries of European Union since 1st of July 2007 (Off. J. L 404: 9-25. It coordinates the legislative, executive and administrative regulations connected with this labelling. According to these regulations, “nutritional information” states, suggests or gives to understand that the food product has special properties concerning its ingredients. Those statements are of type: “the source of...”, “no... content”, “high content of...”, “low content of...”, “reduced content of...” with reference to calorie or selected ingredients’ content. “Medicinal claims” state, suggest or give to understand, that there is a connection between the food product or one of its ingredients and the health condition of the consumer. First type of these medicinal claims refers to the influence of the ingredient on the physiology. Such a statement is based on generally accepted scientific conclusions and could be properly understood by the average consumer, e.g. “calcium takes part in the process of building of strong bones”. “Statements about decreasing the risk of a disease” give information, that food product or one of its ingredients efficiently

  9. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  10. Waisda?: video labeling game

    Hildebrand, Michiel; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, Van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the same tags as one of the other players. As a result each video that is played in the game is annotated with tags that are anchored to a time point in the video. Waisda? has been deployed in two projec...

  11. From Label to Practice

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use of...

  12. Labeled bile acids

    A general short procedure for the introduction of 13C to the side chain of bile acids is described. Suitable (Z)-pregn-17(20)-enes are key intermediates, while the isotope is introduced by an ene reaction with [1,2,3-13C3]-methyl propiolate. For the labeling with tritium, the unlabeled product of the ene synthesis, a Δsup(5,16,22)-triene was saturated selectively at 16,17 and 22,23 with tritium gas. (author)

  13. A Food Labeling

    ... " ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎت واﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ " [ Nutrition Labeling and Education Act ... ﻟﻠﻌﺼﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻜﻮن ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء إﻟﻰ ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻣﺮآﺰة : ﻳﺠﺮى اﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪول Brix ﻓﻲ 21 CFR 101.30(h)(1) ...

  14. Towards Multi Label Text Classification through Label Propagation

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Classifying text data has been an active area of research for a long time. Text document is multifaceted object and often inherently ambiguous by nature. Multi-label learning deals with such ambiguous object. Classification of such ambiguous text objects often makes task of classifier difficult while assigning relevant classes to input document. Traditional single label and multi class text classification paradigms cannot efficiently classify such multifaceted text corpus. Through our paper we are proposing a novel label propagation approach based on semi supervised learning for Multi Label Text Classification. Our proposed approach models the relationship between class labels and also effectively represents input text documents. We are using semi supervised learning technique for effective utilization of labeled and unlabeled data for classification. Our proposed approach promises better classification accuracy and handling of complexity and elaborated on the basis of standard datasets such as Enron, Slashdot and Bibtex.

  15. CNN: Single-label to Multi-label

    Wei, Yunchao; Xia, Wei; Huang, Junshi; Ni, Bingbing; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Shuicheng

    2014-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has demonstrated promising performance in single-label image classification tasks. However, how CNN best copes with multi-label images still remains an open problem, mainly due to the complex underlying object layouts and insufficient multi-label training images. In this work, we propose a flexible deep CNN infrastructure, called Hypotheses-CNN-Pooling (HCP), where an arbitrary number of object segment hypotheses are taken as the inputs, then a shared CNN is...

  16. SIGNALLING GREEN TECHNOLOGY THROUGH PRICE AND ECO-LABEL

    SLAĐANA PAVLINOVIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We apply signalling games to investigate the effect of environmental friendly technology on the adoption of eco-labels. The framework is information asymmetric because the consumers do not observe a firm type directly, but may infer it indirectly through the market price and eco-label. Also, we assume that eco-labels are unreliable since they imperfectly reveal the actual firm technology. A monopoly signalling game is studied, where a firm is a sender, and a consumer is a receiver of two signals, price and eco-label. Since the purpose of eco-labels is to distinguish environmentally friendly producer type, we elaborate the factors which affect the existence of the separating equilibria. We find necessary condition for the existence of the separating equilibrium in which both types extract the whole consumer surplus. Furthermore, if the labelling costs exceed the quality difference between the green and the brown type, then the separating equilibrium does not exist. While the pooling equilibrium without eco-labelling exists for any set of parameters, we identify the parameters’ values under which the pooling equilibrium with eco-labelling does not exist

  17. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  18. An Interactive User Interface for Drug Labeling to Improve Readability and Decision-Making.

    Abedtash, Hamed; Duke, Jon D

    2015-01-01

    FDA-approved prescribing information (also known as product labeling or labels) contain critical safety information for health care professionals. Drug labels have often been criticized, however, for being overly complex, difficult to read, and rife with overwarning, leading to high cognitive load. In this project, we aimed to improve the usability of drug labels by increasing the 'signal-to-noise ratio' and providing meaningful information to care providers based on patient-specific comorbidities and concomitant medications. In the current paper, we describe the design process and resulting web application, known as myDrugLabel. Using the Structured Product Label documents as a base, we describe the process of label personalization, readability improvements, and integration of diverse evidence sources, including the medical literature from PubMed, pharmacovigilance reports from FDA adverse event reporting system (FAERS), and social media signals directly into the label. PMID:26958158

  19. Modeling the effects of labeling

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents partic...... participated in an in home test. The results indicate that catch time alone is not enough to work as an efficient predictor of actual perceived quality.......A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  20. Edge colouring by total labellings

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.;

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  1. Aggregating Labels in Crowdsourcing Data

    Priisalu, Maria; Grey, Francois; Segal, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Project Specification Crowdsourcing is gaining popularity in academia with the launch of crowdsourcing platforms such as Crowdcrafting [Lombraña, 2015] and GeoTagX [UNOSAT, 2015]. There have been a number of proposed algorithms for the aggregation of true labels and a confusion matrix from crowdsourced labels for ordinal, nominal and binary labels. The work here consists of an implementation of the Dawid Skene [Dawid 1979] adaptation of the Expectation Maximization algorithm [D...

  2. Classification and Labelling for Biocides

    Rubbiani, Maristella

    2015-01-01

    CLP and biocides The EU Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures, the CLP-Regulation, entered into force on 20th January, 2009. Since 1st December, 2010 the classification, labelling and packaging of substances has to comply with this Regulation. For mixtures, the rules of this Regulation are mandatory from 1st June, 2015; this means that until this date classification, labelling and packaging could either be carried out according to D...

  3. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  4. Accumulation of amplified target DNAs using thiol/biotin labeling, S1 nuclease, and ferrocene–streptavidin–magnetic system and a direct detection of specific DNA signals with screen printed gold electrode

    Piyasak Chaumpluk et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of PCR-based amplification platform using 5' thiolated and biotinylated specific primers, S1 nuclease–PCR products treatment, ferrocene–streptavidin (Fc–Stv–magnetic binding for DNA accumulation, and screen printed gold electrode for the DNA allocation, were applied to Hoechst 33258-induced DNA aggregation and signals induction system for direct signals detection and DNA quantification in food samples. Thiolated and biotinylated at each 5' terminus enabled DNA purification through S1 nuclease treatment for primers and non-specific DNA elimination and enabled DNA trapping with a ferrocene–streptavidin–magnetic system. This facilitated the accumulation of target DNAs at higher concentration, resulting in enhanced signals. After allocation of DNA on the surface of gold electrode via thiol binding, intensity of DNA signals through these treatments could be measured directly after being induced by Hoechst 33258. Wider amplitude changes in anodic current peaks between negative and positive samples (increasing from 3.70 to 10.10 μA compared with those applied with no treatment combinations (decreasing from 3.92 to 1.23 μA were observed. This enhancement of the signals allowed a greater efficiency of DNA quantification. When this combination was used for GMOs content estimation in reference samples, results revealed an improved accuracy from 66% to 96%. The combined biosensor system, although more costly than the standard Hoechst 33258/carbon electrode system, provided an alternative choice for DNA quantification, offering labor-free immobilization of probe onto electrode surface, easy test administration, and efficient semi-quantitative test without expensive instruments.

  5. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14CO2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed

  6. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  7. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    2011-12-05

    ... the type of packaging material on which the label is printed; n. Brand name changes, provided that... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features..., location, and indication of final color. To obtain sketch label approval, domestic meat and...

  8. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  9. Somatostatin analogues labelled with 99mTc

    The aim of the present work was to study the biological and radiochemical behaviour of two somatostatin analogues, the RC-160 and Tyr3Octreotide(TOC) peptides when labelling with 99mTc by two methods: direct and indirect using S-benzoyl- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) as chelating agents. RC-160 was labelled with 125I (30% labelling yield) in order to examine its receptor specificity and to study the biodistribution in normal animals. A total binding of 30% and a non specific binding lower than 10% was obtained. On the other hand, the RC-160 was labelled with 99mTc by a direct method (70% labelling yield), using sodium ascorbate and dithionite in order to reduce the peptide and 99mTc, respectively. The synthesis of RC-160 with S-benzoyl MAG-3 and TOC with HYNIC, for labelling with 99mTc are also described. The conjugates were prepared on a small scale and labelled with the radionuclide using tricine as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. Chromatographic studies were performed using HPLC system and radiochemical purities higher than 75% and 95% were obtained respectively. Biodistributions studies in normal Wistar rats were performed and results were correlated with chromatographic and protein binding properties. Lower lipophilicity of the labelled conjugates resulted in a higher renal excretion. HYNIC-TOC complex showed promising results when labelling with 99mTc using tricine as co-ligand although higher stability should be found for ternary co-ligands compared to tricine. (author)

  10. Oxygen labelled CO2

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C16O18O and 2.8 percent C18O2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s-1 and 0.12s-1 for C18O2 and 2.5s-1 and 0.87s-1 for C16O18O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C18O2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C16O18O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C16O18O as well as by C18O2. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    ... Food Standards and Labels: The Facts Labeling and Marketing Information [ Top of Page ] OVEN PREPARED: Product is fully cooked and ready to eat. [ Top of Page ] YOUNG TURKEY: Turkeys of either sex that are less than 8 months of age according to present regulations. [ Top of Page ] Last ...

  12. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  13. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors to...... indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product's relative performance.......Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label on...

  14. Sublinear distance labeling for sparse graphs

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Porat, Ely

    A distance labeling scheme labels the $n$ nodes of a graph with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine the distance in the graph between the two nodes by looking only at the labels. A $D$-preserving distance labeling scheme only returns precise distances be...

  15. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  16. Potential application of labeled antibodies for thrombus detection

    Labeling platelets with monoclonal antibodies in whole blood for imaging thrombi is less cumbersome than the established 111In-oxine method. 7E3, a murine monoclonal antibody directed against glycoprotein IIb and/or IIIa on both human and dog platelets was used to label canine platelets. Thrombi were induced by transcatheter placement of a copper coil followed by electrocoagulation. 7E3 was iodinated with 131I and labelled with 111In using 7E3-DTPA conjugate. Whole blood was incubated with 0.5 - 1.0 μg labeled 7E3/mL blood. In 4/4 dogs, experimental deep vein thrombi were identified using both 131I-and 111In-labeled 7E3 within 5-30 min after injection. For both isotopes, 1 h blood clearance was 54 + - 9%. In 1/3 dogs, experimental coronary thrombus could be identified ex vivo at 4 h. Clot to blood ratios ranged between 7 to 13:1. Using the 111In-oxine method, 0/3 coronary thrombi were seen. Thus, 131I-and 111In-labeled 7E3 may be used to readily identify peripheral venous thrombi. For reliable and prompt identification of coronary thrombi, more rapid clearance of the labeled platelets is required. (author)

  17. Labeling Lanreotide with 125I and 188Re

    Lanreotide is a new somatostatin analogue. It can bind to human somatostatin receptor (hSSTR) subtype 2 through 5 with high affinity and to hSSTR subtype I with low affinity. We investigate labeling condition, quality control and stability in vitro of 125I-Lanreotide and 188Re-lanreotide respectively. (A) Lanreotide is labeled with 125I using Chloramine T. The effect of reaction condition (such as reaction time, pH value, Lanreotide amount, quantity of Chloramine T and reaction volume) on labeling yield is investigated in detail. (B) The labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RP) is measured with paper chromatography (PC) and Sep-Pak C18 Cartridge. (C) The stability of 125I-Lanreotide in vitro is investigated by labeling compound incubating for 48 hours at 37 deg C in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and RP is tested by PC at specific time intervals. (D) Lanreotide is labeled directly with 188Re via the mixture of citrate and tartate using stannous chloride as reduced agent. The influence of reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, amount of stannous chloride, amount of Lanreotide and reaction time on labeling yield is investigated in detail. At the time, the stability in vitro quality control and animal test are evaluated

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact ...

  19. Aptamer-mediated indirect quantum dot labeling and fluorescent imaging of target proteins in living cells

    Protein labeling for dynamic living cell imaging plays a significant role in basic biological research, as well as in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed a novel strategy in which the dynamic visualization of proteins within living cells is achieved by using aptamers as mediators for indirect protein labeling of quantum dots (QDs). With this strategy, the target protein angiogenin was successfully labeled with fluorescent QDs in a minor intactness model, which was mediated by the aptamer AL6-B. Subsequent living cell imaging analyses indicated that the QDs nanoprobes were selectively bound to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, gradually internalized into the cytoplasm, and mostly localized in the lysosome organelle, indicating that the labeled protein retained high activity. Compared with traditional direct protein labeling methods, the proposed aptamer-mediated strategy is simple, inexpensive, and provides a highly selective, stable, and intact labeling platform that has shown great promise for future biomedical labeling and intracellular protein dynamic analyses. (paper)

  20. Labelling GM-free Products

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to...... limited. The results indicate that for switching to ‘GM-free’ production, long-term effects such as the creation of a positive image or differentiation from competitors are more important for dairy companies than short-term effects such as higher sales or profit....

  1. Sustainability labels on food products

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK...... types of information available on food labels or as use inferred from the results of a choice-based conjoint analysis. Hierarchical regression indicated that use is related to both motivation and understanding, and that both motivation, understanding and use are affected by demographic characteristics...

  2. New labels for radiation therapy

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  3. New labels for radiation therapy

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  4. Labelling and quality control of 99mTc labelled somatostatin analogues

    To standardize interlaboratory reproducibility, iodination of RC-160 with 125I and direct labelling of RC-160 with 99mTc, quality control and binding assay were performed. Two conjugated peptides, HYNIC-RC-160 and MAG-3-RC-160, were synthesized. The conjugated peptides were radiolabelled with 99mTc via co-ligands; 99mTc-MAG-3-RC-160 via glucoheptonate, 99mTc-HYNIC-RC-160 via EDDA and tricine. Conditions for labelling were optimized. Analytical and purification methods for the labelled products were developed. Radiochemical purity test of 99mTc labelled peptides was performed by HPLC with gradient elution of 0.1%TFA/water and acetonitrile, or by ITLC-SG in saline and in 50% acetonitrile. The contaminants in 99mTc radiolabelled product were separated by elution from SEPPAK C-18 cartridge by 0.1% acetic acid and the pure product was eluted out of SEPPAK column by 50% acetonitrile with about 68% recovery. Stability of the purified 99mTc-MAG3-RC-160 stored at -20 deg. C was more than 72 h. 99mTc-MAG-3-RC-160 showed a high equilibrium dissociation constant with KD of 26 pmole/mg protein and Bmax of 7.9 mM. (author)

  5. A fluorescence-labeling method for sequencing small RNA on polyacrylamide gel.

    Wu, T P; Ruan, K C; W.Y. Liu

    1996-01-01

    A practical fluorescence-labeling method for sequencing small RNAs by the traditional 'direct read out' on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was established. The 3' terminus of RNA was oxidized into dialdehyde by sodium periodate and then labeled with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide through the condensation reaction between carbazide and aldehyde. The fluorescence-labeled RNA was partially degraded enzymatically and fractionated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fluorescent bands we...

  6. Peer Group Effects on Moslem Consumer’s Decision To Purchase Halal Labeled Cosmetics.

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to analyze peer group effects on Moslem consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics directly and indirectly which is mediated by consumers’ religious behavior. This research applies Structural Equation Model and convenience random sampling with 215 samples who have bought halal-labeled cosmeticsand live in Southern Tangerang. The findings show that: first, peer groupdirectly affect consumers’ decisionto purchase halal-labeled cosmetics; second, hab...

  7. Quality control of labelled compounds

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (131I, 14C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  8. Consumers’ Awareness and Attitudinal Determinants of European Union Quality Label Use on Traditional Foods

    Wim Verbeke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses European consumers’ awareness and determinants of use of PDO, PGI and TSG labels in six European countries (Italy, Spain, France, Bel- gium, Norway and Poland using data from a cross-sectional survey with 4,828 participants. The study confirms a higher awareness of PDO (68.1% as compared to PGI (36.4% and TSG (25.2%. Awareness is higher among men and people aged above 50 years. Consumers’ use of a PDO, PGI or TSG label is triggered by the belief that the label signals better product quality. Quality beliefs are shaped by an interest in getting information about product quality through the quality label. Interest in the origin of foods is a stronger direct and indirect driver of label use than interest in support for the local economy, but both motivations are not directly related to TSG-label use. Differences in the role of determinants are small between the three labelling schemes and between countries with versus without a strong tradition of quality labels in their agri- cultural and food quality policies. Apart from building general awareness and favourable quality perceptions of the quality schemes and their respective labels, efforts to stimulate consumers’ interest in origin and getting information about product quality through EU quality labels are recommended.

  9. Somatostatin analogues labelled with 99mTc

    Biological and radiochemical studies have been carried out on two labelled somatostatin analogues, the peptide RC-150 and the Tyr3-Octreotide. Both analogues have been labelled with 99mTc using the direct and the indirect method and MAG-3 and HYNIC as chelating agents. By the direct method RC-150 was labelled using sodium ascorbate and dithionite as reducing agents. The radiochemical purity was 70%. By the indirect method, in the case of RC-160 with MAG-3 a radiochemical purity higher than 70% was attained while a purity of 100% was reached in the case of Tyr3-Octreotide with HYNIC. The biological distribution of HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been studied in rats. (author)

  10. LabeledIn: cataloging labeled indications for human drugs.

    Khare, Ritu; Li, Jiao; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Drug-disease treatment relationships, i.e., which drug(s) are indicated to treat which disease(s), are among the most frequently sought information in PubMed®. Such information is useful for feeding the Google Knowledge Graph, designing computational methods to predict novel drug indications, and validating clinical information in EMRs. Given the importance and utility of this information, there have been several efforts to create repositories of drugs and their indications. However, existing resources are incomplete. Furthermore, they neither label indications in a structured way nor differentiate them by drug-specific properties such as dosage form, and thus do not support computer processing or semantic interoperability. More recently, several studies have proposed automatic methods to extract structured indications from drug descriptions; however, their performance is limited by natural language challenges in disease named entity recognition and indication selection. In response, we report LabeledIn: a human-reviewed, machine-readable and source-linked catalog of labeled indications for human drugs. More specifically, we describe our semi-automatic approach to derive LabeledIn from drug descriptions through human annotations with aids from automatic methods. As the data source, we use the drug labels (or package inserts) submitted to the FDA by drug manufacturers and made available in DailyMed. Our machine-assisted human annotation workflow comprises: (i) a grouping method to remove redundancy and identify representative drug labels to be used for human annotation, (ii) an automatic method to recognize and normalize mentions of diseases in drug labels as candidate indications, and (iii) a two-round annotation workflow for human experts to judge the pre-computed candidates and deliver the final gold standard. In this study, we focused on 250 highly accessed drugs in PubMed Health, a newly developed public web resource for consumers and clinicians on prevention

  11. A study on rhenium labelling for several small molecule ligands

    Objective: Several chemical reactions were studied with the theory of complex chemistry for finding out the objective law of rhenium labelling. Methods: Some kinds of ligands were complexed to rhenium, and the effects were observed in different reactive conditions. The results were analysed with the theories of chemical thermodynamics, chemical dynamics and structure chemistry. Results: 188Re-glucoheptonate (GH): in the condition of pH 2, SnCl2 1 mg, 30 min at room temperature, the labelling ratio was 85.9%. 188Re-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP): in the condition of pH 2, SnCl2 1mg, 30 min at room temperature, the labelling ratio was 85%. 188Re-MIBI: in the condition of pH 2, SnCl2 1 mg, 30 min at 100 degree C, the labelling ratio was 58%. 188Re-citric acid: in the condition of pH 2, SnCl2 1 mg, 30 min at room temperature, the labelling ratio was 92.1%. Conclusion: The theory generated from chemical experiments can be used to direct rhenium labelling and develop the application of rhenium in basic research and clinical diagnosis and therapy

  12. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  13. Label Switching in Mixtures

    Biernacki, Christophe; Vandewalle, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    We propose a posterior distribution for which the latent partition is restricted to a special numbering leading to the largest separation with its permutations. Two different measures of separation are proposed, the first one being global but intractable even from very small sample sizes (Kullback divergence), the second one being local and thus very easy to compute (difference of distributions at the MAP). A Gibbs algorithm allows to sample easily according to this new distribution. This procedure is general enough to apply directly with any distribution and some experiments in Gaussian and multinomial settings show particularly encouraging results.

  14. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    2010-10-01

    ... line outer border to meet the requirements of § 172.406(d) of this subpart. (c) Size. (1) Each diamond..., numbers, and border must be shown in black on a label except that— (i) White may be used on a label with a... the CORROSIVE label. (iii) White may be used for the symbol for the ORGANIC PEROXIDE label. (3)...

  15. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so-called span of the labeling). RL is a well-studied problem, mainly motivated by frequency assignment problems in which transmitters are not allowed to operate on the same frequency channel. We con...

  16. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginger, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of $G$ such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least $2$. The radio labeling problem (\\mbox{\\sc RL}) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so-called span of the labeling). \\mbox{\\sc RL} is a well-studied problem, mainly motivated by frequency assignment problems in which transmitters are not allowed to operate on the sa...

  17. Adherence of radiopharmaceuticals and labeled cells to intravenous tubing

    A survey of 67 nuclear medicine departments revealed no agreement on which radiolabeled agents could be injected through intravenous lines (IVs) and which required direct venipuncture. Labeled cells and several common radiopharmaceuticals were tested for adherence to intravenous tubing. Residual activity remaining in the tubing after an adequate flush was less than 1% of the injected dose in each case. Administration of radiolabeled agents through existing IVs is an acceptable alternative to direct venipuncture in many cases

  18. Photoaffinity Labeling of Plasma Proteins

    Masaki Otagiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique for identifying a target protein. A high degree of labeling specificity can be achieved with this method in comparison to chemical labeling. Human serum albumin (HSA and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP are two plasma proteins that bind a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances. The ligand binding mechanism of these two proteins is complex. Fatty acids, which are known to be transported in plasma by HSA, cause conformational changes and participate in allosteric ligand binding to HSA. HSA undergoes an N-B transition, a conformational change at alkaline pH, that has been reported to result in increased ligand binding. Attempts have been made to investigate the impact of fatty acids and the N-B transition on ligand binding in HSA using ketoprofen and flunitrazepam as photolabeling agents. Meanwhile, plasma AGP is a mixture of genetic variants of the protein. The photolabeling of AGP with flunitrazepam has been utilized to shed light on the topology of the protein ligand binding site. Furthermore, a review of photoaffinity labeling performed on other major plasma proteins will also be discussed. Using a photoreactive natural ligand as a photolabeling agent to identify target protein in the plasma would reduce non-specific labeling.

  19. Radioisotope method for leucocyte labelling

    Whole blood leukocytes were labelled with 99mTc-sulphocolloid, which was selectively deposited in phagocytizing polymorphonuclear cells. To achieve optimal phagocytosis, the authors prepared 99mTc sulphocoloid from a Bulgarian kit. The required size of the colloid particles (1,2 μm) was achieved after 90-120 min storage at room temperature without rotation. Leucocytes were labelled by a proposed by the authors original method: to 10 ml heparinized blood 0,26-0,30 GB 99mTc sulphocolloid was added, incubated for 60 min; the free sulphocolloid was centrifuged in the syringe. The labelled cell sediment was suspended in physiological saline and re-injected. In a study of 16 patients on gamma camera, suspected of having inflammatory processes, the mean labelling effectiveness was 59%, similar to the one reported by other authors, who used similar technique and ready-made kits. Eight patients had positive finding, the inflammatory process in 7 being visualized as early as on hour 2 or 3 and in 1 on hour 24. The new method developed for specific leucocyte labelling with the use of Bulgarian kit may gain acceptance in the visualization of vague inflammatory processes. 3 figs., 4 refs

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  1. Nutrition Labeling Using a Computer Program

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    The 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated nutritional labeling of most foods. As a result, a large portion of food analysis is performed for nutritional labeling purposes. A food labeling guide and links to the complete nutritional labeling regulations are available online at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/˜dms/flg-toc.html. However, interpretation of these regulations and the appropriate usage of rounding rules, available nutrient content claims, reference amounts, and serving size can be difficult.

  2. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  3. Synthesis of 3H and 14C labelled changrolin

    3 kinds of [14C] and [3H] changrolin labelled at different positions (I, II, III) were prepared. The synthesis of I is as follows: (Scheme 1): Heating 5-bromoanthranilic acid with formamide yielded IV, which on heating with POCl3 gave V. Condensation of V with 4-aminophenol and Mannich reaction produced 6-bromochangrolin (VI). Catalytic dehalogenation of VI with tritium gas gave I. The synthesis of II was started from (14C) formamide and anthranilic acid. Labelled 4-chloroquine obtained was condensed with Mannich base (VII) directly (Scheme 2). III was prepared by 1 step with (14C) formaldehyde (Scheme 1)

  4. Application of quantitative proteomics expression analysis using stable isotope labeling

    Quantitative protein expression profiling is a crucial part of proteomics and requires technique that are able to efficiently provide accurate, high-throughput and reproducible differential expression values for proteins in two or more biological samples. At present, stable isotope labeling is probably considered as one of the most accurate ways to relatively quantify protein expression levels and additionally stable isotope labeling may be directly combined to LC MS/MS approaches. In summary, this technique has its advantages in quantitative proteomics. The application and the latest progresses about this technique are discussed. (authors)

  5. Study on preparation of labelled leptin antigen with indirect iodination

    Objective: To develop method of RIA of leptin for clinical use with 125I-leptin prepared with indirect iodination. Methods: BH reagent was iodinated by ch-T, then conjugated with leptin in ice bath. Results: The specific radioactivity of 125I-leptin obtained was 1.43 MBq/μg, the total labelling rate of 125I was 37.8%, and the technical specifications of leptin RIA could meet the requirement for clinical use. Conclusion: 125I-leptin with higher total labelling rate and specific radioactivity was prepared, lessening the possible harm of direct iodination and other chemicals to the leptin antigen. (authors)

  6. Photoinduced electron transfer in singly labeled thiouredopyrenetrisulfonate azurin derivatives

    Borovok, N; Kotlyar, A B; Pecht, I; Skov, L K; Farver, O

    1999-01-01

    (II) and the back reaction from Cu(I) to the oxidized dye. For all singly labeled derivatives, the rate constants of copper ion reduction were one or two orders of magnitude larger than for its reoxidation, consistent with the larger thermodynamic driving force for the former process. Using 3-D coordinates...... efficiency. TUPS derivatives of azurin, singly labeled at specific lysine residues, were prepared and purified to homogeneity by ion exchange HPLC. Transient absorption spectroscopy was used to directly monitor the rates of the electron transfer reaction from the photoexcited triplet state of TUPS to Cu...

  7. Legislation--Impact and Trends in Nutrition Labeling: A Global Overview.

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2016-01-01

    The need for accurate nutrition labeling on food products has never been greater. Obesity has assumed near-epidemic levels in both industrialized and emerging nations in recent years, and governments and consumer groups around the world are looking for ways to improve the nutritional choices for their citizenry while simultaneously balancing their freedom of choice through the use of nutrition labeling. Despite increasingly aggressive efforts by government and industry organizations to raise consumer awareness, though, many consumers either do not consult nutrition labels or they are not in a position to interpret the information on these labels accurately. To gain some fresh insights into nutrition labeling practices worldwide, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly, and government literature to describe regulations enacted to date, evolving and future trends, and the likely impact of food product labels. In this regard, the paper highlights similarities and discrepancies that exist, identifies gaps, and gives directions for the future. PMID:24987986

  8. Configuration spaces with summable labels

    Salvatore, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Let M be an n-manifold, and let A be a space with a partial sum behaving as an n-fold loop sum. We define the space C(M;A) of configurations in M with summable labels in A via operad theory. Some examples are symmetric products, labelled configuration spaces, and spaces of rational curves. We show that C(I^n,dI^n;A) is an n-fold delooping of C(I^n;A), and for n=1 it is the classifying space by Stasheff. If M is compact, parallelizable, and A is path connected, then C(M;A) is homotopic to the ...

  9. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  10. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Akmal Rakhmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  11. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed. PMID:25393768

  12. Radio-labelled humic materials in migration studies

    Humic- and fulvic acids are able to complex polyvalent metal ions, e.g. radionuclides, leading to soluble complexes of significant strength, thereby decreasing the sorption of these compounds to soils and sediments. The interaction of humic materials with radionuclides may significantly influence the availability and transport of the latter in the environment. Typically, studies along these lines have focussed almost exclusively on the radionuclides, whereas the actual role of the humic material has been elucidated only indirectly. In order directly to study the behavior of the naturally occurring organic macro-molecules in relation to the environmental fate of radionuclides, radio-labelled humic- and fulvic acids can advantageously be applied. Radio-labels such as 14C and 125I have successfully been covalently incorporated in humic- and fulvic-acids. Labelling of humic substances as well as preliminary migration studies are discussed

  13. Development of labelled biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy. Mexico

    The scope of the co-ordinated research project (Dec 15 1997) included the following activities: 1) develop coupling techniques using bifunctional chelating agents for monoclonal antibodies and peptides; 2) optimise radiolabelling procedures and reaction parameters using Sm-153 and Re-188; 3) investigate direct methods of labelling monoclonal antibodies and peptides with Re-188; 4) initiate animal distribution studies. The modifications specified for the period 1999/02/15 to 2000/02/14 are as follows: a) continue with the optimisation of Re-188-peptide labelling; b) continue with the work to prepare a kit; c) in-vivo and in-vitro studies; d) Lanreotide labelling. The group formed by researchers from several Mexican institutions have worked together and in different aspects of the CRP in order to fulfil the proposed aims

  14. Development of 211At Chemistry for Labelling Biomolecules

    Our studies have demonstrated that high recovery of 211At can be obtained using a “wet chemistry” approach to isolation from the bismuth target. We have also demonstrated that direct labelling of antibody-B10 conjugates with 211At can be performed in high yields, and that the astatinated antibodies are stable to in vivo deastatination. While these results will allow us to enter clinical studies with 211At-labelled antibodies, the chemistry associated with 211At is not fully understood. Therefore, it is important that many more basic studies to be conducted with 211At, so the optimal labelling reagent for each type of disease-targeting agent becomes apparent

  15. Stable isotope labeling of oligosaccharide cell surface antigens

    Unkefer, C.J.; Silks, L.A. III; Martinez, R.A. [and others

    1998-12-31

    The overall goal of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to develop new methods for synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled oligosaccharides that are required for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of their solution conformation. Oligosaccharides are components of the cell`s outer surface and are involved in important processes such as cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Recently, Danishefsky and coworkers at Slone-Kettering Cancer Center developed a method for the solid-phase chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides. The specific goal of this LDRD project was to prepare uniform {sup 13}C-labeled aldohexose precursors required for the solid-phase synthesis of the Lewis blood-group antigenic determinants. We report the synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled D-glucal, D-galactal and Fucosyl precursors. We have been collaborating with the Danishefsky group on the synthesis of the Lewis oligosaccharides and the NMR analysis of their solution conformation.

  16. Third party labeling and the consumer decision process: the case of the PGI European label

    Larceneux, Fabrice; Carpenter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the decision-making process of consumers when faced with food products that have values-based labels. An experimental methodology was used to test the impact of a label of origin guaranteed by the European Union, the Protected Geographic Indications (PGI) label. Consumers' reactions to two different products were investigated with four different presentations: without a specific label, with a simple regional label, with both a regional label and th...

  17. 99mTc labelled peptides for imaging of peripheral receptors

    The first trials of 99mTc labelling by direct method using dithionite as a reducing agent (prepared in the freeze-dried form) gave the yields of around 30%. RC-160 labelling with 125I by chloramine-T method resulted in 40-80% labelling yield. Our efforts were focused on BFC approach. HYNIC-TOC and HYNIC-RC-160 conjugates obtained in our laboratory were successfully labelled with 99mTc with the yields over 90%. HPLC and TLC methods were applied for quality control (QC) of the labelled preparation. Methods of in vitro (stability and protein binding) testing of the labelled preparations were adopted to our laboratory conditions. First attempts on dry kit formulation based on HYNIC-TOC conjugates with tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and EDDA were described. Various amounts of tin (II) (as SnCl2) were added to the kits. Incubation conditions (time, temperature) were investigated. The kits were tested for labelling yield and radiochemical purity. It was shown that the results are at the same level or better than obtained in liquid phase but the procedure of labelling is significantly easier. Kit produced with tricine as co-ligand was labelled with 97% labelling yield after 30 min of incubation at room temperature, which is considered acceptable for diagnostic radiopharmaceutical preparation. Tricine/nicotinic acid kit requires heating to get labelling of around 95%. Similarly EDDA kit gives around 70% labelling after 30 min incubation at 80 deg. C. Further experiments on optimal kit composition and stability are required. Results of DOTA-RC-160 labelling with 90Y show that this isotope, manufactured by Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, can be successfully used for medical applications. (author)

  18. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  19. Tc 99m - scorpion venom: labelling, biodistribution and scintiimaging

    Labelling of scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock) venom was successfully achieved with Tc 99m using direct tin reduction procedure. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Wistar rats at different time intervals after i.v. administration of the labelled venom. Scintiimages were obtained after scorpion envenoming using a large field of view gamma camera to ascertain the pharmacological action of venom in the body. Within 5 min of administration, labelled venom was found in the blood (27.7%), muscle (30.11%), bone (13.3%), kidneys (11.5%), liver (10.4%) and other organs. The level of venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. The labelled venom was excreted through renal and hepatobiliary pathways. An immunoreactivity study was carried out in rabbits after i.v. injection of labelled scorpion venom followed by the injection of the species specific antivenom. A threefold increase in uptake by the kidneys ss was observed compared with that seen with scorpion venom alone. the neutralisation of the venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. (author)

  20. Tc 99m - scorpion venom: labelling, biodistribution and scintiimaging

    Murugesan, S.; Noronha, O.P.D.; Samuel, A.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Tata Hospital Annexe. Radiation Medicine Center; Murthy, K. Radha Krishna [Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Physiology

    1999-07-01

    Labelling of scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock) venom was successfully achieved with Tc 99m using direct tin reduction procedure. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Wistar rats at different time intervals after i.v. administration of the labelled venom. Scintiimages were obtained after scorpion envenoming using a large field of view gamma camera to ascertain the pharmacological action of venom in the body. Within 5 min of administration, labelled venom was found in the blood (27.7%), muscle (30.11%), bone (13.3%), kidneys (11.5%), liver (10.4%) and other organs. The level of venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. The labelled venom was excreted through renal and hepatobiliary pathways. An immunoreactivity study was carried out in rabbits after i.v. injection of labelled scorpion venom followed by the injection of the species specific antivenom. A threefold increase in uptake by the kidneys ss was observed compared with that seen with scorpion venom alone. the neutralisation of the venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. (author)

  1. Directed Polymer -- Directed Percolation Transition

    Perlsman, Ehud; Havlin, Shlomo

    1999-01-01

    We study the relation between the directed polymer and the directed percolation models, for the case of a disordered energy landscape where the energies are taken from bimodal distribution. We find that at the critical concentration of the directed percolation, the directed polymer undergoes a transition from the directed polymer universality class to the directed percolation universality class. We also find that directed percolation clusters affect the characterisrics of the directed polymer...

  2. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements. PMID:23982076

  3. ECTS & DS Labels Keys for Academic Excellence

    Radu Stoika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an assessment of the importance of how and what are the actualresults after the higher education institutions have had designed the credits system in direct relations withtheir own characteristics. Also is important to identify and analyze how are the effects after the ultimatedesign of students guides and if those effects are bringing with them better feedback in terms of increasingnumber of cohorts of students. With this research paper we intend to make an overview of the results afterthis changes (re-design the curriculum, ECTS credit system, new learning modules, better, flexible andcomprehensive students guides making the institutions more close to excellence in education and get readyfor the ECTS & DS Labels – awarded by the European Commission. All of those institutional changes can bemeasured in the final stage by an very actual indicator like the attainment and completion rates as well as bythe labor market prospects of graduates.

  4. A Multi-Label Classification Approach Based on Correlations Among Labels

    Raed Alazaidah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi label classification is concerned with learning from a set of instances that are associated with a set of labels, that is, an instance could be associated with multiple labels at the same time. This task occurs frequently in application areas like text categorization, multimedia classification, bioinformatics, protein function classification and semantic scene classification. Current multi-label classification methods could be divided into two categories. The first is called problem transformation methods, which transform multi-label classification problem into single label classification problem, and then apply any single label classifier to solve the problem. The second category is called algorithm adaptation methods, which adapt an existing single label classification algorithm to handle multi-label data. In this paper, we propose a multi-label classification approach based on correlations among labels that use both problem transformation methods and algorithm adaptation methods. The approach begins with transforming multi-label dataset into a single label dataset using least frequent label criteria, and then applies the PART algorithm on the transformed dataset. The output of the approach is multi-labels rules. The approach also tries to get benefit from positive correlations among labels using predictive Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been evaluated using two multi-label datasets named (Emotions and Yeast and three evaluation measures (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, and Harmonic Mean. The experiments showed that the proposed approach has a fair accuracy in comparison to other related methods.

  5. The preparation of Tc-99m labeled liposomes by a cationic SP/DOPE formulation for tumor imaging

    Aim: Liposomes can provide a gene delivery system to be used in the cancer gene therapy. Radiolabeled liposomes can be used in tumor imaging and tumor therapy. A new cationic liposome formulation of sphingosin e (SP) and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) was developed and showed very efficient transfection in a wide variety of mammalian cancer cells, including SKOV-3 (human ovarian carcinoma cells), NPC076 (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells), and A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) (Kao et al., Oncol Reports. 5:625-629, 1998). The present study is designed and evaluated the labeling and stability of Tc-99m liposomes by SP/DOPE formulation. Material and Methods: A mixture of 8 mg of SP (Sigma Chemical) and 8 mg of DOPE (Sigma Chemical) dissolved in 4 ml absolute ethanol and used as a lipid stock solution (4 mg/ml). In the direct labeling method, taking 0.25 ml (1 mg) stock solution dried under nitrogen gas and then added 1 ml 20 mM HEPES buffer for hydration 8 hours. The remaining stock solution was dried, hydrated 8 hours, and sonicated 10 min to form liposomes for after-loading labeling method (preformed liposomes). The labeling studies included Tc-99m direct labeling (1), Tc-99m HMPAO direct labeling (2), Tc-99m stannous chloride after-loading labeling (3), Tc-99m HMPAO after-loading labeling (4), and Tc-99m pCMVβ DNA inclusion labeling (5). The labeling efficiency (LE) was determined by thin layer chromatography. The labeled liposomes were incubated with fetal bovine serum (FBS) 30 min to evaluate their stability. Results: It is shown that LE (48%) of Tc-99m direct labeling was the highest in the five methods; however, the LE was reduced to 9% (corrected to original LE) after incubating with serum. Tc-99m may be loosely conjugated to the outer surface of the liposomes. The LE (32%) of Tc-99m HMPAO direct labeling was the second; however, LE was most stable when incubating with serum. The LE of the after-loading labeling was not better than that of

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label ( ... THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  7. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  8. Preparation of methyl-3H labelled dimethylnitrosamine

    Tritium labelled dimethylamine was prepared from benzalmethylimine in reaction with methyl-3H iodide followed by hydrolysis. The product was converted with sodium nitrite in glacial acetic acid into labelled dimethylnitrosamine. The radiochemical yield was 85%. (author)

  9. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    , their size etc. are studied before setting up a label scheme. A new labelling study was launched in 2000, the purpose of which is to: * improve the foundation for evaluating the value and effect of labelling schemes * improve the possibilities for pursuing an active consumer policy within the area * give......Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes...

  10. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses.

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K

    2016-10-01

    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data. PMID:27405864

  11. 77 FR 12313 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    2012-02-29

    ..., (3) nutrition labeling requirements, (4) health and nutrition claims, and (5) special labeling issues... with labeling requirements, especially in light of growing concerns about obesity and food...

  12. Do Consumers Really Use Food Labels?

    Ward, Ronald W.; Jauregui, Carlos E.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered Probit models are used to estimate the probabilities of consumers reading food labels for harmful ingredients and for using labels to assist with food purchasing decisions. Demographics, health concerns, attitudes, and eating habits are shown to influence the likelihood of using food labels. Effects from over 25 variables are ranked in terms of their relative impacts on the use of food labels. Dieting, concerns about calories, foreign foods, and many other variable effects on the use ...

  13. Efficient label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks

    Zongpeng Du; Yueming Lu; Yuefeng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Transport network paths are typically bidirectional and symmetrical. In multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) mechanisms, independent labels are distributed for bidirectional paths. Thus, the requirement of the MPLS transport profile (MPLS-TP), which is a new transport technology, could not be satisfied efficiently. A novel label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks is proposed. Labels distributed by the mechanism are symmetrical and can reflect the pairing relationship of the forward and backward directions of the transport path.%Transport network paths are typically bidirectional and symmetrical.In multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) mechanisms,independent labels are distributed for bidirectional paths.Thus,the requirement of the MPLS transport profile (MPLS-TP),which is a new transport technology,could not be satisfied efficiently.A novel label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks is proposed.Labels distributed by the mechanism are symmetrical and can reflect the pairing relationship of the forward and backward directions of the transport path.

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A Text Size ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  15. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  16. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling. 701.11 Section 701.11 Food and... COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity....

  17. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit

  18. 21 CFR 225.80 - Labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Packaging and Labeling § 225.80 Labeling. (a... adhered to, will assure that the article is safe and effective for its intended purposes. (b)(1) Labels... medicated feed and includes adequate information for the safe and effective use of the medicated feed....

  19. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    2010-04-01

    ...) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design these procedures to ensure proper HCT/P identification and to prevent mix-ups. (b) Verification.... Procedures must ensure that each HCT/P is labeled in accordance with all applicable labeling...

  20. 201Tl labelled myocardium tomoscanning

    A new device, the J and P Tomoscanner, enables us to obtain the transverse scintigraphic section of any organ labelled by a single photon emitting radionuclide. For the time being, this technique has been used mainly for brain and liver studies. This work explores the ability of this tomograph to furnish sections of the 201Tl labelled myocardium by comparing them with the scintillation gamma-camera images. Towards this aim, witnesses and patients with documented anterior or lateral infarctus have been studied. Our actual results show a high correlation between the two explorations. But, by means of the section, both the site and size of the necrosis are visualized. However, only a single tomographic image was obtained in each patient because of the time necessary for its retranscription on paper. In the near future, when it will be possible to perform routinely several sections, a better size estimation will be possible

  1. SIB-DOTA: A trifunctional prosthetic group potentially amenable for multi-modal labeling that enhances tumor uptake of internalizing monoclonal antibodies

    Vaidyanathan, G.; White, B. J.; Affleck, D.J.; Zhao, X. G.; Welsh, P. C.; McDougald, D; Choi, J.; Zalutsky, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    A major drawback of internalizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) radioiodinated with direct electrophilic approaches is that tumor retention of radioactivity is compromised by the rapid washout of iodo-tyrosine, the primary labeled catabolite for mAbs labeled via this strategy. In our continuing efforts to develop more versatile residualizing labels that could overcome this problem, we have designed SIB-DOTA, a prosthetic labeling template that combines the features of the prototypical, dehalog...

  2. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13C, 15N, and 2H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2H, 13C, and 15N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  3. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  4. The ISS dangerous substances classification and labelling database

    The database contains information about the substances marketed in the European Union at present. About 8000 out of 100000 substances on the market are listed in Annex I (Directive 67/548/EC), the published list of substances with a harmonised classification and labelling. For each entry the database gives the following details: name, CAS number, EC number, classification, labelling, specific concentration limits, reference to the last amended EU and national law. There is also a section where the legislative frame is reported together with the EU Directives and the corresponding national implementation decrees. In addition to searching a substance by name/part of the name or identifying numbers the query can be done by symbols, R and S phrases, substance categories

  5. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  6. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have......Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...

  7. Advances in 99mTc-labeling of antibodies

    Several methods have been developed to label antibodies with 99mTc. Direct labeling results in 99mTc binding to multiple sites of various affinities that are often weaker than the binding to strong chelating agents. Attempts to overcome this disadvantage involve conjugation of strong chelating agents to the antibodies. While stability is usually enhanced, this approach suffers from alteration of antibody properties as well as non-specific binding of 99mTc to the antibody instead of to the conjugation chelating agent. This has been of concern for studies with DTPA as the chelating agent. In this study the loss of 99mTc by N2S2 challenge shows that a fraction to the 99mTc is nonspecifically bound to the antibody. An advantage of the approach of labeling antibodies containing a bifunctional chelating agent is the simplicity of the labeling procedure and the apparent high yields that in reality are the sum of chelating agent and non-specifically bound radioactivity. The last approach described in our work of conjugation of a preformed chelate has advantages of characterizable 99mTc complex chemistry and conjugation by standard protein derivatization chemistry. Slow chelation kinetics can be overcome in the small molecule stage and then conjugation performed under mild conditions with respect to the antibody of fragments. This approach, however, suffers from greater complexity of the labeling process including multiple steps, purifications and non-quantitative yields. The use of ligands for 99mTc in which the complexes are of high stability and predictable chemistry is likely to result in eventual optimal labeling technologies. Processes which are non-specific may work in some cases, but are likely to present difficulties in optimization and general applicability from antibody to antibody. (orig.)

  8. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    Prieto Luis

    2010-01-01

    Abstract "Labelled drug-related public expenditure" is the direct expenditure explicitly labelled as related to illicit drugs by the general government of the state. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to 2005, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction's network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labelled drug-related public expenditure, at the cou...

  9. The economics of GM food labels: An evaluation of mandatory labeling proposals in India

    Bansal, Sangeeta; Ramaswami, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    "Labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods is a contentious issue and internationally, there is sharp division whether such labeling ought to be mandatory. This debate has reached India where the government has proposed mandatory labeling. In this context, this paper evaluates the optimal regulatory approach to GM food labels. Mandatory labeling aims to provide greater information and correspondingly more informed consumer choice. However, even without such laws, markets have incentives to ...

  10. Fluorescent labeling and tracking of nanoclay

    Diaz, Carlos A.; Xia, Yining; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael; Jayaraman, Krishnamurthy; Hotchkiss, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems.We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information regarding production of nanocomposites, the silylation procedure, labeling of the nanoclays, characterization of the labels, thermal stability of the labels, and the migration test. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32978f

  11. 75 FR 29775 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    2010-05-27

    ... be discussed at the workshop include: (1) Mandatory label elements, (2) nutrition labeling... labeling and nutrition. FDA expects that participation in this public workshop will provide regulated... with labeling requirements, especially in light of growing concerns about obesity and food...

  12. Fluorine-18 Radiochemistry, Labeling Strategies and Synthetic Routes

    Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine-18 is the most frequently used radioisotope in positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals in both clinical and preclinical research. Its physical and nuclear characteristics (97% β+ decay, 109.7 min half-life, 635 keV positron energy), along with high specific activity and ease of large scale production, make it an attractive nuclide for radiochemical labeling and molecular imaging. Versatile chemistry including nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions allows direct ...

  13. Radioactive iodine (125I) labeling of latex particles

    The invention disclosed in this application is directed towards developing a radioiodination method which is applicable to the labeling of 2.02 micrometer (μm) and 0.37 micrometer (μm) diameter polyvinyltoluene latex particles that have been used as an immunoadsorbent. More particularly the overall method includes using an oxidation-reduction chemical reaction for tagging latex particles. Two methods are described. One, the hydrochloric acid method; and two, the nitric acid method

  14. Kinugasa Reactions in Water: From Green Chemistry to Bioorthogonal Labelling

    Mariya Chigrinova; Douglas A. MacKenzie; Allison R. Sherratt; Lawrence L. W. Cheung; John Paul Pezacki

    2015-01-01

    The Kinugasa reaction has become an efficient method for the direct synthesis of β-lactams from substituted nitrones and copper(I) acetylides. In recent years, the reaction scope has been expanded to include the use of water as the solvent, and with micelle-promoted [3+2] cycloadditions followed by rearrangement furnishing high yields of β-lactams. The high yields of stable products under aqueous conditions render the modified Kinugasa reaction amenable to metabolic labelling and bioorthogona...

  15. Dengue virus growth, purification, and fluorescent labeling.

    Zhang, Summer; Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2014-01-01

    The early events of the dengue virus life cycle involve virus binding, internalization, trafficking, and fusion. Fluorescently labeled viruses can be used to visualize these early processes. As dengue virus has 180 identical copies of the envelope protein attached to the membrane surface and is surrounded by a lipid membrane, amine-reactive (Alexa Fluor) or lipophilic (DiD) dyes can be used for virus labeling. These dyes are highly photostable and are ideal for studies involving cellular uptake and endosomal transport. To improve virus labeling efficiency and minimize the nonspecific labeling of nonviral proteins, virus concentration and purification precede fluorescent labeling of dengue viruses. Besides using these viruses for single-particle tracking, DiD-labeled viruses can also be used to distinguish serotype-specific from cross-neutralizing antibodies. Here the details of virus concentration, purification, virus labeling, applications, and hints of troubleshooting are described. PMID:24696327

  16. On randomized online labeling with polynomially many labels

    Bulánek, Jan; Koucký, Michal; Saks, M.

    Berlin: Springer, 2013 - (Fomin, F.; Freivalds, R.; Kwiatkowska, M.; Peleg, D.), s. 291-302. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7965). ISBN 978-3-642-39205-4. [International Colloquium, ICALP 2013 /40./. Riga (LT), 08.07.2013-12.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online labeling * complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-39206-1_25

  17. Labeling of scorpion venom with 99mTc and its biodistribution

    Labeling of scorpion venom (SV) was successfully achieved with 99mTc using direct chelating method. Venom was labeled with 99mTc using stannous chloride as reducing agent. Preliminary studies were done to establish the optimum conditions for obtaining the highest yield of the labeled venom. The labeling technique is effective, as a maximum labeling yield (97 %) was obtained after 30-min reaction time by using 80 μg SV in phosphate buffer of pH 7 and 25 μg Sncl2·2H2O at room temperature. Venom was injected into normal mice to determine the excretion pathway. Biodistribution studies in normal mice with SV shows rapid clearance of the venom from blood and tissue except for kidneys. The improvement of the immunotherapeutic treatment of envenomation requires a better knowledge of the biological actions of the SV since tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical purpose. (author)

  18. Chapter 4.1: Isotope labelling methods for evaluating contributions of organic sources to plant nutrition

    Production in the field and glasshouse of plant material labelled with 15N - for investigation of organic sources of crop nutrition - is described in detail, including that from trees. Also discussed are approaches for labelling animal manure with 15N, and for dual labelling of plant material with isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. The indirect technique for measuring nitrogen derived from organic sources is discussed with special reference to pool substitution; where 15N label and residues are applied simultaneously, the isotope dilution and A-value techniques are inappropriate for determination of plant N uptake from organic sources. Crop residue and green manure studies using the direct method are relatively simple. Labelled green manure can be easily obtained by fertilizing with 15N and the above or below ground material then added to unlabelled soil. The percentage N in the next crop derived from added residue (Ndfr) is calculated using the equations given

  19. 188Re-labelled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody: Labelling and quality control studies

    Immunotherapy with human chimeric antibody rituximab (Rituxan, IDEC pharmaceuticals) has been a major advance in treatments of patients with CD20-positive B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses the targeting features of monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation from an attached readionuclide and it is an appeling concept that has received widespread attention. Here, we report our experience using rhenium-188 (188Re)- radiolabeled chimeric anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab). A stable antibody-labeling technique had been developed for 188Re. The 188Re-direct labeling of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, the methods for quality control: paper chromatography, instant thin layer chromatographysilica gel (ITLC-SG) and HPLC technique, the immunoreactivity and biological recognition of the target antigen assessment of the radiolabeled molecule, in vitro stability and the assessment of in vivo stability through biodistribution studies in normal WISTAR rats are described. For the direct radiolabeling, the reduction of monoclonal antibody (mAb) was performed with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), based on Schwarz's method at a molar ratio 2000:1 (2- ME:mAb). By means of this method some of the disulfide bonds of the antibody are reduced to sulfhydryl groups (we obtained 4-5 groups) and these groups provide sites for the formation of very strong bond between the reduced rhenium and the antibody. The methodology used in this work has been tested in a phase I radioimmunotherapy clinical trial using the humanized mAb hR3 for loco-regional treatment of brain tumours. The labeling efficiency (> 95 %) of this method showed that the final product needs no further purification for clinical purposes (low level formation of colloidal species). In vitro stability studies of the labeled anti-CD20 were performed at room temperature at 4 h, 24 h and 48 h in cysteine, human serum and saline. In the presence of normal human serum, during the first 4h, transchelation of about 15

  20. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for...

  1. The use of redox polymers in labelling procedures of proteins and peptides with 99mTc. I. Properties of redox polymers and technique of labelling

    Background: Using a polymer-analogue reaction, redox polymers with a dextran matrix to anchor the end a(b)-alanine-N,N'-diacetate group converted into the Sn2+ cycle have been developed for the labelling of proteins, peptides, and labile compounds with 99mTc. The reaction kinetics and the labelling efficiency of 99mTc depend primarily on the degree of dextran matrix cross-linking and the qualitative nature of the redox polymer end groups. METHODS: Preparation for labelling takes place directly in basic protein and peptide solutions without adjusting pH or adding other adjuvants. Prior to the final modification into kit form, the redox polymers are removed by ultrafiltration. RESULTS: The results of labelling of model compounds (aspartic acid, cysteine) with 99mTc at various solution pH values clearly show that, at pH values over 6.0, it will be primarily the free end SH groups that will serve as binding sites for the proteins and peptides. To label proteins and peptides, we selected a redox polymer with G-25 cross-linking, which allows the achievement of a radiochemical purity over 95% and high stability of the labelled compounds. CONCLUSION: The method of radiolabelling compounds with 99mTc based on redox polymers was developed mainly to overcome the problems faced when using other conventional methods in the labelling of sensitive compounds. (author)

  2. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  3. 21 CFR 801.128 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for medical devices held by the Strategic...

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for medical devices held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 801.128 Section 801.128 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions...

  4. A new method for the labelling of proteins with radioactive arsenic isotopes

    Jennewein, M.; Hermanne, A.; Mason, R. P.; Thorpe, P. E.; Rösch, F.

    2006-12-01

    Radioarsenic labelled radiopharmaceuticals could be a valuable asset to positron emission tomography. In particular, the long half-lives of 72As ( T=26 h) and 74As ( T=17.8 d) allow to investigate slow physiological or metabolical processes, like the enrichment and distribution of monoclonal antibodies (mab) in tumour tissue. In this work, a new method for the labelling of proteins with various radioactive arsenic isotopes was developed. For this purpose, two proteins, namely a chimeric IgG 3 monoclonal antibody, ch3G4, directed against anionic phospholipids, and Rituxan (Rituximab), were labelled as a proof of principle with no-carrier-added radioarsenic isotopes ( 74As and 77As). The developed labelling chemistry gives high yields (>99.9%), is reliable and could easily be transferred to automated labelling systems in a clinical environment. At least for the mab used in this work, this route of radioarsenic labelling does not affect the immunoreactivity of the product. The arsenic label stays stable for up to 72 h at the molecular mass of the monoclonal antibody, which is in particular relevant to follow the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of the labelled mab for several days.

  5. NMR spectroscopic studies of 15N labelled geminally disubstituted cyclotriphosphazenes

    It is demonstrated by means of some selected 15N labelled geminally disubstituted cyclotriphosphazenes, 15N3P3X4Y2 (X = Cl; Y = F, NH2, or SEt), as an example, that the coupling constants 1Jsub(PN) may be of different signs. The absolute value of 1Jsub(PN) is significantly influenced only by those substituents, which are bonded to the phosphorus nucleus directly concerned in the coupling. Also the 15N chemical shifts are only changed by substituents on directly bonded phosphorus atoms. (author)

  6. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of 3H-GABA and 3H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs

  7. An air-tolerant approach to the carbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura coupling: applications in isotope labeling.

    Ahlburg, Andreas; Lindhardt, Anders T; Taaning, Rolf H; Modvig, Amalie E; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2013-10-18

    Carbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions have been developed that proceed without the exclusion of oxygen and in the presence of nondegassed and nondried solvents. By adapting the method to a two-chamber setup, the direct handling of carbon monoxide, produced from stable CO precursors, is avoided. The protocol afforded the desired benzophenones with excellent functional group tolerance and in good yields. Substituting the CO precursor, in the CO-producing chamber, with its carbon-13 labeled version generated the corresponding carbon-13 labeled benzophenones. Finally, the developed system was applied in the synthesis and isotope labeling of two pharmaceuticals, nordazepam and Tricor. PMID:24004340

  8. Directed homology

    Fahrenberg, Uli

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata.......We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata....

  9. Label transfer by measuring compactness.

    Varga, Robert; Nedevschi, Sergiu

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a new automatic image annotation algorithm. First, we introduce a new similarity measure between images: compactness. This uses low level visual descriptors for determining the similarity between two images. Compactness shows how close test image features lie to training image feature cluster centers. The measure provides the core for a k-nearest neighbor type image annotation method. Afterward, a formalism for defining different transfer techniques is devised and several label transfer techniques are provided. The method as whole is evaluated on four image annotation benchmarks. The results on these sets validate the accuracy of the approach, which outperforms many state-of-the-art annotation methods. The method presented here requires a simple training process, efficiently combines different feature types and performs better than complex learning algorithms, even in this incipient form. The main contributions of this paper are the usage of compactness as a similarity measure that enables efficient low level feature comparison and an annotation algorithm based on label transfer. PMID:23955754

  10. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon;

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  11. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  12. 21 CFR 510.105 - Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing animals.

    2010-04-01

    ... directions for use to avoid adulteration of milk under section 402(a)(2)(c)(ii) of the act. (c) It is the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing... Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.105 Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing animals. (a) Part...

  13. Towards kit formulation of 99mTc labelled somatostatin receptor binding peptides of high specific activity for tumour localization

    The project aimed to develop 99mTc octreotide analogue for use in nuclear oncology. Several attempts to label SRIF analogues with 99mTc have used a direct labelling approach but, for this project, HYNIC was chosen as a technetium ligand. A comparison of two different SRIF analogues designed for high specific activity labelling with 99mTc was done. HYNIC-Octreotide and HYNIC-TOC were prepared and a kit formulation that can be labelled conveniently is currently being studied in a clinical setting. (author)

  14. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131IDZ (131I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  15. Irradiation test of bar code label

    The irradiation test of bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was done to determine the effect of radiation. Low and medium radioactive waste is that below total activity of 4,000Bq/g according to the Korean nuclear law. The irradiation amount to radiate bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was calculated by MCNP-4b computer code. The nuclide such as Co-60 and Cs-137 was assumed to contribute 50 % of total activity. Real irradiation amount for bar code label was finally calculated by the dimensions of the container and the bar code label. The identification of post and the physical deflection of irradiated bar code label was tested by the bar code reader. The coated bar code label was suitable to use on low and medium radioactive waste container

  16. Green power: naturemade - History of a label

    This article presents the history of the set of 'naturemade' labels that are used to designate power generated in facilities that use renewable energy. Electricity from hydropower, wind-power, biogas and solar energy plants that fulfil particular ecological conditions receives a special label, 'Naturemade Star'. 'Normal' hydropower can be awarded the 'Naturemade Basic' label. The development of the labels is discussed in the light of increasing liberalisation of European electricity markets and increasing sales of 'green power' by electricity utilities. The need for certification of production facilities and the founding of the label's certification authority, the 'Verein fuer umweltgerechte Elektrizitaet' (VUE), a society for the promotion of environment-friendly electricity, are discussed. Criticisms made by certain environmental protection organisations on the awarding of the 'Naturemade Basic' label to projects that in their opinion do not help protect the environment are quoted. The article is completed with an interview on the subject with Ursula Stocker from the VUE

  17. Proposals for radioactive material by rail (packaging, labelling and carriage) regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996

    The proposed Radioactive Material by Rail (Packaging, Labelling and Carriage Regulations (Northern Ireland) are presented in this consultation document. The proposals establish a new system of safety controls which implement the requirements of two European Directives. These are the ADR and RID Framework Directives which relate to the transport of dangerous goods by road and rail respectively. (UK)

  18. Improving Recurrent Neural Networks For Sequence Labelling

    Dinarelli, Marco; Tellier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study different types of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) for sequence labeling tasks. We propose two new variants of RNNs integrating improvements for sequence labeling, and we compare them to the more traditional Elman and Jordan RNNs. We compare all models, either traditional or new, on four distinct tasks of sequence labeling: two on Spoken Language Understanding (ATIS and MEDIA); and two of POS tagging for the French Treebank (FTB) and the Penn Treebank (PTB) corpora. The...

  19. Alternative ways for private label manufacturing

    Kelemen, Zita; Némethné Tömő, Zsuzsa

    2010-01-01

    Private labels are a growing phenomenon globaly. retatlers become stronger and stronger by offering their own quality private label product for customers in all segments. Certainly they do not open factories to produce these items but rather search for dedicated private label producers or pressure branded goods manufacturers to produce it for them. The article deals with the strategic choiches manufacturers can have and suggest the necessary factors that need to be evaluated to decide on the ...

  20. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine.

  1. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine. (author)

  2. Applications of radioactively labelled nucleic acid probes

    Isotopically labelled nucleic acid probes are used extensively in many areas of molecular biology research. Several radioactive isotopes have been utilised for this purpose, with P-32 and S-35 proving the most popular. This contribution will highlight the factors dictating the choice of radioisotope and will describe techniques for in vitro labelling of nucleic acids. The experimental data presented will be focused on applications of labelled nucleic acids including DNA probe assays and DNA sequencing. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Classifier Risk Estimation under Limited Labeling Resources

    Kumar, Anurag; Raj, Bhiksha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose strategies for estimating performance of a classifier when labels cannot be obtained for the whole test set. The number of test instances which can be labeled is very small compared to the whole test data size. The goal then is to obtain a precise estimate of classifier performance using as little labeling resource as possible. Specifically, we try to answer, how to select a subset of the large test set for labeling such that the performance of a classifier estimated ...

  4. Novel Properties of Fuzzy Labeling Graphs

    Nagoor Gani, A.; Muhammad Akram; D. Rajalaxmi (a) Subahashini

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of fuzzy labeling and fuzzy magic labeling graph are introduced. Fuzzy magic labeling for some graphs like path, cycle, and star graph is defined. It is proved that every fuzzy magic graph is a fuzzy labeling graph, but the converse is not true. We have shown that the removal of a fuzzy bridge from a fuzzy magic cycle with odd nodes reduces the strength of a fuzzy magic cycle. Some properties related to fuzzy bridge and fuzzy cut node have also been discussed.

  5. Simultaneous segmentation and statistical label fusion

    Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi-atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  6. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  7. (d,1)-total labelling of graphs

    Havet, Frédéric; Yu, Min-Li

    2002-01-01

    A $(d,1)$-total labelling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of integers to $V(G)\\cup E(G)$ such that: (i) any two adjacent vertices of $G$ receive distinct integers, (ii) any two adjacent edges of $G$ receive distinct integers, and (iii) a vertex and its incident edge receive integers that differ by at least $d$ in absolute value. The {\\it span} of a $(d,1)$-total labelling is the maximum difference between two labels. The minimum span of a $(d,1)$-total labelling of $G$ is denoted by $\\lambda_...

  8. Radioactivity measuring system of labelled biopolymers

    System for determining the radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising a bank of containers filled with aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers. This system features an electric drive to move the bank of containers step by step; a device for the acid precipitation of the biopolymers which sends determined amounts of co-precipitant and diatom suspension in an acid solution to the containers containing a biological sample; a system for taking precipitated samples from the containers; a system for filtering the precipitated biopolymers carrying out successive filterings; placing the deposit into suspension; dissolving the biopolymers and sending the labelled mixture labelled by the scintillation labeller to the detection chamber

  9. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  10. Stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan

    Stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan is an application of nucleus technology in amino acids. Progresses in stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan in recent years are reviewed.. In the respect of synthesis, in addition to the methods of organic synthesis and isotope exchange, the microbial technology which has the advantage of U-label and construct has been used widely. In the respect of applications, stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan as trace has been used widely in yields of medicine, biology and chemistry et al. Along with the development of protein engineering, molecular biology and peptide drugs, they will have a fine future. (authors)

  11. Labelling of biorelated compounds and monoclonal antibodies with 188-Re,186-Re and 99mTc

    Some bio-related compounds were labelled with 188Re and 186Re 188Re was obtained from 188W/188Re generator which was produced by neutron irradiation of enriched 186WO3 target (99.79%) in JRR-2 and 186Re was supplied by Production Div., Department of Radioisotopes, JAERI, Japan. Rhenium labelling involved reduction of perrhenate with SnCl2.2H20 in HCI. Bio-related compounds citrate and gluconate were then labelled with reduced rhenium. The labelling yield of labelled compounds as determined by thin-layer chromatography were greater than 98% and 94% for 188Re-citrate and gluconate, respectively. Monoclonal antibodies (mouse,lgG2A and lgG;Fab'2, human lgG2A; anti-hepatoma and IgG) were also successfully labelled with 188Re, 186Re, and 99mTc by direct method using citrate and glucoheptonate as transchelating agents

  12. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [131I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  13. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I]epidepride was stable under 4℃, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exihibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection.All these results suggest that[131I]epidepride may be usedd widely as a useful dopamineD2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  14. Labeling Lanreotide with 125I and 188Re. China

    Lanreotide (D-β-Nal-Cys-Try-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Thr-NH2) is a new somatostatin analogue. It can bind to human somatostatin receptor (hSSTR) subtype 2 through 5 with high affinity and to hSSTR subtype 1 with low affinity. We investigate labeling condition, quality control and stability in vitro of 125I-Lanreotide and 188Re-lanreotide respectively. (A) Lanreotide is labeled with 125I using Chloramine T. The effect of reaction condition (such as reaction time, pH value, Lanreotide amount, quantity of Chloramine T and reaction volume) on labeling yield is investigated in detail. (B) The labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RP) is measured with paper chromatography (PC) and Sep-Pak C18 Cartridge. For PC method, 125I-Lanreotide is spotted on the Whatman No.1 paper and developed in the mixture of CH3CH2CH2CH2OH and CH3CH2OH and NH4OH (v/v/v=5:2:1), the Rf value of every component in the mobile phase is given in table 1. For Sep-Pak C18 Cartridge methods each cartridge is washed with 10 ml of ethanol followed by 10 ml of iso-CH3CH2CH2OH solution. Aliquots of 0.1 mI sample is loaded onto the cartridge, unbound peptide (sodium iodine-125) is eluted with 5 ml of 0.5mol/L sodium acetate solution, 125I-Lanreotide is eluted with 5 mI of 95% aqueous ethanol solution. (C) The stability of 125I-Lanreotide in vitro is investigated by labeling compound incubating for 48 hours at 37 deg. C in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and RP is tested by PC at specific time intervals. (D) Lanreotide is labeled directly with 188Re via the mixture of citrate and tartate using stannous chloride as reduced agent. The influence of reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, amount of stannous chloride, amount of Lanreotide and reaction time on labeling yield is investigated in detail. At the time, the stability in vitro quality control and animal test are evaluated

  15. Perceived barriers and motives to reading nutrition label among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia

    Ranilović, Jasmina; Colić Barić, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine barriers and motives associated with reading nutrition information among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia and relationship with demographic and health factors of recruited sample.Label ‘non-users’ are subjects reported that had never or do not know or wish to tell aboutreading nutrition label during food purchasing (n=375) and were recruited from representative sample telephone interviewed Croatian, for assessing nutrition label attitudes. It is found that ...

  16. Direct Democracy

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno;

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... included as a chapter in the Handbook are possible measures for best practices of implementation, designed for those who wish to tailor direct democracy instruments to their specific needs. In order to further complement the best practices, a variety of global case studies detail the practical uses of...... direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  17. Fluorogenic Labeling of 5-Formylpyrimidine Nucleotides in DNA and RNA.

    Samanta, Biswajit; Seikowski, Jan; Höbartner, Claudia

    2016-01-26

    5-Formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-formyluracil (5fU) are natural nucleobase modifications that are generated by oxidative modification of 5-methylcytosine and thymine (or 5-methyluracil). Herein, we describe chemoselective labeling of 5-formylpyrimidine nucleotides in DNA and RNA by fluorogenic aldol-type condensation reactions with 2,3,3-trimethylindole derivatives. Mild and specific reaction conditions were developed for 5fU and 5fC to produce hemicyanine-like chromophores with distinct photophysical properties. Residue-specific detection was established by fluorescence readout as well as primer-extension assays. The reactions were optimized on DNA oligonucleotides and were equally suitable for the modification of 5fU- and 5fC-modified RNA. This direct labeling approach of 5-formylpyrimidines is expected to help in elucidating the occurrence, enzymatic transformations, and functional roles of these epigenetic/epitranscriptomic nucleobase modifications in DNA and RNA. PMID:26679556

  18. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  19. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  20. To Label or Not to Label: The Special Education Question for African Americans

    Gold, Moniqueka E.; Richards, Heraldo

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the benefits of categorically identifying and labeling students with disabilities have been debated on many grounds, particularly when it comes to labeling African-American children who many argue are over-labeled or disproportionately represented in selected categories such as learning disabilities. In this article, the authors…

  1. On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees

    Stephan Rosebrock

    2010-02-01

    We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.

  2. China Cotton label to be generalized

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  3. Eco-Labeling Perspectives amongst Malaysian Consumers

    Nik Ramli Nik Abdul Rashid

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Malaysian consumers’ trust of an eco-label and the influence it has in their choice for the corresponding environment friendly product. Taking into consideration the infancy stage of the Malaysia green marketing initiative, traditional approach to evaluating local consumer receptiveness to the eco-label might not be suitable. This paper approaches the introduction of eco-label with two perspectives in mind. Firstly, while earlier studies from the western scholars use eco-label as a part of the augmented product, this study introduces eco-label as a separate moderating variable. Secondly, the choice of employees working in ISO14001 certified organizations as the population explore a potentially conducive place to initiate a systematic effort in developing a green consumer community. The result is very encouraging. This study has shown that, with some exposure to environmental related experiences Malaysian consumer would indeed react positively to the eco-label. In fact, for situation that requires them to consider environmental aspects of a product that they wish to purchase, the eco-label will definitely be the crucial factor that will push them to make the right purchase choice. Key words: Eco-label; Environmental attitude; Knowledge of Environmental Issues; Green Products; Environmental Management System

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  5. The anatomy of a laser label

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  6. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  7. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions...

  8. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling... low phosphate diet to prevent formation of phosphate urinary stones, through the reduction...

  9. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1982-03-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of (1,2-/sup 3/H)fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described.

  10. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling terminology. Terms pertaining to identification and packaging of biological products shall mean: (a) Label. All written, graphic, or printed matter: (1) Upon or attached to a final container of a... other written, printed, or graphic matter accompanying the final container. (c) Final container....

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Growth How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON ...

  12. STRATEGIC LABELING AND TRADE OF GMOS

    Veyssiere, Luc; Giannakas, Konstantinos

    2004-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the strategic effects of national regulatory decisions on labeling of GM products and identifies the determinants of the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium labeling regimes in a small number of producing countries that compete for access in the world market for an agricultural product.

  13. 21 CFR 1271.370 - Labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ...) You must label each HCT/P made available for distribution clearly and accurately. (b) The following information must appear on the HCT/P label: (1) Distinct identification code affixed to the HCT/P container, and assigned in accordance with § 1271.290(c); (2) Description of the type of HCT/P; (3)...

  14. Directing 101.

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  15. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Giovana Longo-Silva; Maysa Helena de Aguiar Toloni; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quanti...

  16. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  17. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF3-Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 700C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  18. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  19. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23286072

  20. The uptake of tritium-labelled carnitine by monolayer cultures of human fetal muscle and its potential as a label in cytotoxicity studies

    As a novel approach to the investigation of immune responses directed against muscle antigens in inflammatory muscle disease, the use of tritium-labelled carnitine as a selective marker for myotubes in monolayer cultures was investigated. Tritium-labelled carnitine was incubated either with monolayer cultures of human fetal muscle or with syngeneic monolayer cultures of human fetal fibroblasts. The rate of uptake and loss of tritium-labelled carnitine by muscle cultures was compared with that shown by fibroblast cultures; values for the ratio Ksub(m)/Vsub(max) were 3.1 for muscle cultures and 0.46 for fibroblast cultures. Freeze-dried radioautographs of muscle monolayers, previously incubated with tritium-labelled carnitine confirmed the specific intra-tubular localization of the label. Fetal muscle monolayers, previously incubated with tritium-labelled carnitine, were used as targets in long-term cytotoxicity experiments into lymphocyte-mediated myotoxicity. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with inflammatory muscle disease were shown to be myotoxic, but lymphocytes from normal individuals or those with non-inflammatory muscle disease were not. Carnitine-based measures of myotoxicity closely followed the clinical activity of the disease in one patient and the test shows considerable potential as a means of assessing myotube killing by lymphocytes on a per-cell basis. (author)

  1. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  2. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    Alstrup, Stephen; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2013-01-01

    We consider NCA labeling schemes: given a rooted tree $T$, label the nodes of $T$ with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the label of their nearest common ancestor. For trees with $n$ nodes we present upper and lower bou...

  3. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced......Direct plant uptake of organic nitrogen (N) is often studied using the dual-labeling approach (15N + 13C or 15N + 14C). However, the method might be hampered by uptake of labeled inorganic carbon (C) produced by mineralization of labeled organic compounds. Here we report the results from a triple...... labeling experiment (15N + 13C + 14C) investigating whether root uptake of labeled inorganic C can bias the results obtained in studies of organic N uptake using dual-labeled amino acids (15N, 13C). In a rhizosphere tube experiment we investigated 13C and 14C uptake by maize either supplied with labeled...

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of 99mTc-labelled peptides for infection imaging

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the different in vitro and in vivo behaviours of UBI 29-41 labelled with 9'9mTc by direct and indirect methods, in order to examine its specificity for detection of S. aureus infected sites. The UBI 29-41 was labelled with 99mTc by a direct method (98% labelling yield), using KBH4 and stannous pyrophosphate in order to reduce the 99mTc. The conjugation of UBI 29-41 with NHS-MAG3 and with NHS-HYNIC, for labelling with 99Tc was also studied. The conjugates were purified by Sephadex G-15 column and labelled with 9'9mTc using tricine as coligand for HYNIC conjugate and sodium tartrate for MAG3 conjugate. Chromatographic studies were performed using ITLC and reverse phase and gel permeation HPLC. Radiochemical purities higher than 98% were obtained in all cases. Biodistribution studies and digital autoradiography in normal and S. aureus infected NIH mice were performed. Results were correlated with chromatographic and in vitro bacteria binding assays. The purpose of this investigation was to select the best method for labelling UBI 29-41 in order to obtain images with the highest infected site/normal site ratio and a favourable biodistribution in mice. (author)

  5. Genetically encoded protein photocrosslinker with a transferable mass spectrometry-identifiable label

    Yang, Yi; Song, Haiping; He, Dan; Zhang, Shuai; Dai, Shizhong; Lin, Shixian; Meng, Rong; Wang, Chu; Chen, Peng R.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling photocrosslinking reagents with mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for studying protein–protein interactions in living systems, but it still suffers from high rates of false-positive identifications as well as the lack of information on interaction interface due to the challenges in deciphering crosslinking peptides. Here we develop a genetically encoded photo-affinity unnatural amino acid that introduces a mass spectrometry-identifiable label (MS-label) to the captured prey proteins after photocrosslinking and prey–bait separation. This strategy, termed IMAPP (In-situ cleavage and MS-label transfer After Protein Photocrosslinking), enables direct identification of photo-captured substrate peptides that are difficult to uncover by conventional genetically encoded photocrosslinkers. Taking advantage of the MS-label, the IMAPP strategy significantly enhances the confidence for identifying protein–protein interactions and enables simultaneous mapping of the binding interface under living conditions. PMID:27460181

  6. A code-based approach for labeling in complex irregular regions

    Zhi-long LI; Jun-jie CAO; Xiu-ping LIU; Zhi-xun SU

    2009-01-01

    Labeling information in a complex irregular region is a useful procedure occurring frequently in sheet metal and the furniture industry which will be beneficial in parts management. A fast code-based labeler (FCBL) is proposed to accomplish this objective in this paper. The region is first discretized, and then encoded by the Freeman encoding technique for providing the 2D regional information by 1D codes with redundancies omitted. We enhance the encoding scheme to make it more suitable for our complex problem. Based on the codes, searching algorithms are designed and can be extended with customized constraints. In addition, by introducing a smart optimal direction estimation, the labeling speed and accuracy of FCBL are significantly improved. Experiments with a large range of real data gained from industrial factories demonstrate the stability and millisecond-level speed of FCBL. The proposed method has been integrated into a shipbuilding CAD system, and plays a very important role in ship parts labeling process.

  7. A Mild Method for Regioselective Labeling of Aromatics with Radioactive Iodine

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nissen, Felix; Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Mier, Walter; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to label ortho‐, meta‐, and para‐trimethylsilyl‐substituted aryl substituents with radioactive iodide is described. The method takes advantage of the ipso‐directing and activating properties of trimethylsilyl substituents on the arenes. The method was demonstrated on a griseoful......A novel technique to label ortho‐, meta‐, and para‐trimethylsilyl‐substituted aryl substituents with radioactive iodide is described. The method takes advantage of the ipso‐directing and activating properties of trimethylsilyl substituents on the arenes. The method was demonstrated on a...

  8. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome;

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions of...... the problem. For the maximization version we give a -approximation algorithm and show that it is APX-hard. For the minimization version, we show that it is not approximable within n 1 − ε for every ε> 0. When every color appears in the graph at most r times and r is an increasing function of n the...... problem is not O(r 1 − ε )-approximable. For fixed constant r we analyze a polynomial-time (r + H r )/2-approximation algorithm (H r is the r-th harmonic number), and prove APX-hardness. Analysis of the studied algorithms is shown to be tight....

  9. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  10. Directing Creativity

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction and on the...... other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  11. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  12. 9 CFR 112.5 - Review and approval of labeling.

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING... color of label print, provided that such change does not affect the legibility of the label; (iii)...

  13. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  14. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines. PMID:6631228

  15. A test of different menu labeling presentations.

    Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Liu, Linda J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-12-01

    Chain restaurants will soon need to disclose calorie information on menus, but research on the impact of calorie labels on food choices is mixed. This study tested whether calorie information presented in different formats influenced calories ordered and perceived restaurant healthfulness. Participants in an online survey were randomly assigned to a menu with either (1) no calorie labels (No Calories); (2) calorie labels (Calories); (3) calorie labels ordered from low to high calories (Rank-Ordered Calories); or (4) calorie labels ordered from low to high calories that also had red/green circles indicating higher and lower calorie choices (Colored Calories). Participants ordered items for dinner, estimated calories ordered, and rated restaurant healthfulness. Participants in the Rank-Ordered Calories condition and those in the Colored Calories condition ordered fewer calories than the No Calories group. There was no significant difference in calories ordered between the Calories and No Calories groups. Participants in each calorie label condition were significantly more accurate in estimating calories ordered compared to the No Calories group. Those in the Colored Calories group perceived the restaurant as healthier. The results suggest that presenting calorie information in the modified Rank-Ordered or Colored Calories formats may increase menu labeling effectiveness. PMID:22918176

  16. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T2O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  17. Unsupervised Identification of Isotope-Labeled Peptides.

    Goldford, Joshua E; Libourel, Igor G L

    2016-06-01

    In vivo isotopic labeling coupled with high-resolution proteomics is used to investigate primary metabolism in techniques such as stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) and peptide-based metabolic flux analysis (PMFA). Isotopic enrichment of carbon substrates and intracellular metabolism determine the distribution of isotopes within amino acids. The resulting amino acid mass distributions (AMDs) are convoluted into peptide mass distributions (PMDs) during protein synthesis. With no a priori knowledge on metabolic fluxes, the PMDs are therefore unknown. This complicates labeled peptide identification because prior knowledge on PMDs is used in all available peptide identification software. An automated framework for the identification and quantification of PMDs for nonuniformly labeled samples is therefore lacking. To unlock the potential of peptide labeling experiments for high-throughput flux analysis and other complex labeling experiments, an unsupervised peptide identification and quantification method was developed that uses discrete deconvolution of mass distributions of identified peptides to inform on the mass distributions of otherwise unidentifiable peptides. Uniformly (13)C-labeled Escherichia coli protein was used to test the developed feature reconstruction and deconvolution algorithms. The peptide identification was validated by comparing MS(2)-identified peptides to peptides identified from PMDs using unlabeled E. coli protein. Nonuniformly labeled Glycine max protein was used to demonstrate the technology on a representative sample suitable for flux analysis. Overall, automatic peptide identification and quantification were comparable or superior to manual extraction, enabling proteomics-based technology for high-throughput flux analysis studies. PMID:27145348

  18. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    LisaJaneBurklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one’s emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one’s own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N=39. Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes.

  19. Peptide-membrane Interactions by Spin-labeling EPR

    Smirnova, Tatyana I.; Smirnov, Alex I.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in combination with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a well-established method that has recently grown in popularity as an experimental technique, with multiple applications in protein and peptide science. The growth is driven by development of labeling strategies, as well as by considerable technical advances in the field, that are paralleled by an increased availability of EPR instrumentation. While the method requires an introduction of a paramagnetic probe at a well-defined position in a peptide sequence, it has been shown to be minimally destructive to the peptide structure and energetics of the peptide-membrane interactions. In this chapter, we describe basic approaches for using SDSL EPR spectroscopy to study interactions between small peptides and biological membranes or membrane mimetic systems. We focus on experimental approaches to quantify peptide-membrane binding, topology of bound peptides, and characterize peptide aggregation. Sample preparation protocols including spin-labeling methods and preparation of membrane mimetic systems are also described. PMID:26477253

  20. Multi-label literature classification based on the Gene Ontology graph

    Lu Xinghua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology is a controlled vocabulary for representing knowledge related to genes and proteins in a computable form. The current effort of manually annotating proteins with the Gene Ontology is outpaced by the rate of accumulation of biomedical knowledge in literature, which urges the development of text mining approaches to facilitate the process by automatically extracting the Gene Ontology annotation from literature. The task is usually cast as a text classification problem, and contemporary methods are confronted with unbalanced training data and the difficulties associated with multi-label classification. Results In this research, we investigated the methods of enhancing automatic multi-label classification of biomedical literature by utilizing the structure of the Gene Ontology graph. We have studied three graph-based multi-label classification algorithms, including a novel stochastic algorithm and two top-down hierarchical classification methods for multi-label literature classification. We systematically evaluated and compared these graph-based classification algorithms to a conventional flat multi-label algorithm. The results indicate that, through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods can significantly improve predictions of the Gene Ontology terms implied by the analyzed text. Furthermore, the graph-based multi-label classifiers are capable of suggesting Gene Ontology annotations (to curators that are closely related to the true annotations even if they fail to predict the true ones directly. A software package implementing the studied algorithms is available for the research community. Conclusion Through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods have better potential than the conventional flat multi-label classification approach to facilitate

  1. Segmental isotopic labeling of a 140 kDa dimeric multi-domain protein CheA from Escherichia coli by expressed protein ligation and protein trans-splicing

    Minato, Yuichi; Ueda, Takumi; Machiyama, Asako; Shimada, Ichio; Iwaï, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Segmental isotopic labeling is a powerful labeling tool to facilitate NMR studies of larger proteins by not only alleviating the signal overlap problem but also retaining features of uniform isotopic labeling. Although two approaches, expressed protein ligation (EPL) and protein trans-splicing (PTS), have been mainly used for segmental isotopic labeling, there has been no single example in which both approaches have been directly used with an identical protein. Here we applied both EPL and PT...

  2. Preparation of 11C labelled tamoxifen

    1999-01-01

    The syntheses and HPLC analysis of N-desmethyltamoxifen and carbon-11labelled tamoxifen are described. In order to obtain the N-desmethyltamoxifen,tamoxifencitrate was first converted to tamoxifen free base.N-desmethyltamoxifen wasprepared by reacting tamoxifen free base with 1-chloroethyl-chloroformate(ACE.Cl).For 11C labeling, N-desmethyltamoxifen was heated with 11Cmethyl iodide for 10min at 130℃,and the 11Clabelled compound was purifiedby HPLC on a μBonapak TM C18 column.Injectable 11C-tamoxifen was obtained within 50~60min from EOB (end-of-bombardment) with a labeling yield of 60%~70%.

  3. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article...... consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  4. Private Labels, Price Rivalry, and Public Policy

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Sørgard, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The article examines how the existence of a retailer owned brand, private label, aspects the price setting of a national brand. We …nd that the potential for a private label introduction may lead to price concessions from the national brand producer, but that actual private label introduction as such may very well lead to higher retail prices on national brands. We argue that this may have important implications for the interpretation of empirical results and the public policy towards natio...

  5. Denitrification studies with 13N-labeled nitrate

    Nitrate labeled with 13N(13NO3-) was produced in a cyclotron by the 16O(p, α)13N reaction with protons having energies of 14.5 million electron volts. The 13NO3 was used as a tracer for direct quantitative measurements of denitrification rates in soils from flooded rice fields. The 13N technique provides a new tracer method for the measurement of denitrification rates in natural systems over short time intervals, without changing the concentration of NO3- in the system

  6. Kinugasa Reactions in Water: From Green Chemistry to Bioorthogonal Labelling

    Mariya Chigrinova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kinugasa reaction has become an efficient method for the direct synthesis of β-lactams from substituted nitrones and copper(I acetylides. In recent years, the reaction scope has been expanded to include the use of water as the solvent, and with micelle-promoted [3+2] cycloadditions followed by rearrangement furnishing high yields of β-lactams. The high yields of stable products under aqueous conditions render the modified Kinugasa reaction amenable to metabolic labelling and bioorthogonal applications. Herein, the development of methods for use of the Kinugasa reaction in aqueous media is reviewed, with emphasis on its potential use as a bioorthogonal coupling strategy.

  7. Association of protein C23 with rapidly labeled nucleolar RNA

    Herrera, A.H.; Olson, M.O.

    1986-10-07

    The association of nucleolar phosphoprotein C23 with preribosomal ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles was examined in Novikoff hepatoma nucleoli. RNA was labeled with (/sup 3/H)uridine for various times in cell suspensions, and RNP particles were extracted from isolated nucleoli and fractionated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The majority of protein C23 cosedimented with fractions containing rapidly labeled RNA (RL fraction). To determine whether there was a direct association of RNA with protein C23, the RL fraction was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light (254 nm) for short periods of time. After 2 min of exposure there was a 50% decrease in C23 as measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses, with no significant further decrease at longer times. When UV-treated fractions were subjected to phenol/chloroform extractions, as much as 30% of the labeled RNA was found in the phenol (protein) layer, indicating that RNA became cross-linked to protein. Similarly, there was an increase in protein C23 extracted into the water layer after irradiation. By SDS-PAGE analyses the cross-linked species migrated more slowly than protein C23, appearing as a smear detected either by (/sup 3/H)uridine radioactivity or by anti-C23 antibody. With anti-C23 antibodies, up to 25% of the labeled RNA was precipitated from the RL fraction. Dot-blot hybridizations, using cloned rDNA fragments as probes, indicated that the RNA in the RL fraction and the immunoprecipitated RNA contained sequences from 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA.

  8. Association of protein C23 with rapidly labeled nucleolar RNA

    The association of nucleolar phosphoprotein C23 with preribosomal ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles was examined in Novikoff hepatoma nucleoli. RNA was labeled with [3H]uridine for various times in cell suspensions, and RNP particles were extracted from isolated nucleoli and fractionated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The majority of protein C23 cosedimented with fractions containing rapidly labeled RNA (RL fraction). To determine whether there was a direct association of RNA with protein C23, the RL fraction was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light (254 nm) for short periods of time. After 2 min of exposure there was a 50% decrease in C23 as measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses, with no significant further decrease at longer times. When UV-treated fractions were subjected to phenol/chloroform extractions, as much as 30% of the labeled RNA was found in the phenol (protein) layer, indicating that RNA became cross-linked to protein. Similarly, there was an increase in protein C23 extracted into the water layer after irradiation. By SDS-PAGE analyses the cross-linked species migrated more slowly than protein C23, appearing as a smear detected either by [3H]uridine radioactivity or by anti-C23 antibody. With anti-C23 antibodies, up to 25% of the labeled RNA was precipitated from the RL fraction. Dot-blot hybridizations, using cloned rDNA fragments as probes, indicated that the RNA in the RL fraction and the immunoprecipitated RNA contained sequences from 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA

  9. [Metabolism of labeled exogenous glucose in fiber flax tissues].

    Chikov, V I; Avvakumova, N Iu; Bakirova, G G; Khamidullina, L A

    2005-01-01

    A labeled glucose solution was introduced into cut fiber flax plants (45-50 cm high) using a special unit under a pressure of 0.1 atm for 30 min, 1, and 2 h. The highest quantities of labeled carbon were revealed in the woody tissue. Sucrose made up a considerable proportion in low molecular weight products of [ [2-14C]-glucose transformation (23.5%). Metabolism of labeled glucose in the leaves exposed to sunlight yielded a set of metabolites similar to products of 14CO2 photoassimilation. In the shade, the pattern of 14C distribution in labeled compounds of the water/alcohol soluble fraction remained similar in mature leaves, while in juvenile leaves, 14C content decreased in sucrose and increased in organic and amino acids. In the shade, the incorporation of 14C into starch and hot water soluble polysaccharides increased at the expense of the acetone fraction (lipids and pigments), water/salt soluble proteins, and cellulose. Low light conditions increased the radioactivity ratio of sparingly soluble (KOH and Triton X-100 soluble) proteins to albumins and globulins. We propose that the synthesis of components of the photosynthetic apparatus in juvenile leaves is directly powered by photosynthesis and the photosynthesis of glucose and the polymers compete for ATP energy. Appearance of sucrose in the woody tissue is due to its release from the phloem to the stem apoplast and the radial transfer to the xylem, where it is transported to the upper shoot with the transpiration flow. PMID:16004260

  10. A Study on Standards System of Chinese Environmental Labeling Program

    2006-01-01

    @@ Implementing Outlines for the Chinese Environmental Labeling Program By awarding certificates and labels to related manufacturers in accordance with certain environmental labeling standards, environmental labeling,also called "Green Label"or "Eco-label", certifies via governmental departments or public and private organizations that the whole process of producing,using, recalling and disposing of manufacturers'products is in compliance with certain environmental requirements. Many countries are establishing and promoting environmental labeling plans. Environmental labeling, as an important promotion means for prevention and control of pollution in a market-oriented manner, is being extended and developed constantly across the world.

  11. Direct Taxation - Directions of Harmonization

    Narcis Eduard MITU

    2008-01-01

    Most often, harmonization in the fiscal field concerned indirect taxation, and was aimed at assuring that national tax system do not interfere with the freedom of movement of goods, services, persons and capitals. There is no need to harmonize most part of direct taxation rules, as they are strictly enforceable the EU member states and they are thus an attribute of these states sovereignty. In the field of direct taxation, the community acquis mainly concerns the profit (company) tax and the ...

  12. Directed Replacement

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  13. A new era in retail: Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels.

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label production opportunities arise. Due to increased private-label competition, national-brand manufacturers increasingly pursue a dual-branding strategy and engage in private-label production next to their n...

  14. Parametrization, molecular dynamics simulation and calculation of electron spin resonance spectra of a nitroxide spin label on a poly-alanine alpha helix

    Sezer, Deniz; Freed, Jack H.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    The nitroxide spin label 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-3-methyl-methanethiosulfonate (MTSSL), commonly used in site-directed spin labeling of proteins, is studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After developing force field parameters for the nitroxide moiety and the spin label linker, we simulate MTSSL attached to a poly-alanine alpha helix in explicit solvent to elucidate the factors affecting its conformational dynamics. Electron spin resonance spectra at 9 and 250 GHz are ...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Zika & Pregnancy: What to Know Signing Kids Up ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food ...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring ...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes ... Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, ...

  1. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.

  2. Synthesis of tritium-labelled natural prostaglandins

    The most suitable method for the preparation of tritium-labelled prostaglandins is the biosynthetic procedure. Polyunsaturated labelled fatty acids are converted into prostaglandins by a prostaglandin synthetase enzyme system produced from sheep seminal vesicule, and the crude product is purified using thin layer chromatography. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are prepared in a reaction series. Tritium is introduced at the very last step. A very little amount (10-20 mg) of tritium-labelled prostaglandin E2 can be converted into A2, B2 and F2 respectively, conversion and separation being carried out simultaneously on the same silica plate. After the separation on thin layer silica gel the obtained tritium-labelled prostaglandin (PC) was chemically and radiochemically pure, its activity was 3700 GBq/mmol (100 Ci/mmol) and it was suitable for RIA kits. (author)

  3. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  4. 40 CFR 86.001-35 - Labeling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.001-35 Labeling. Section 86.001-35 includes text that...

  5. 40 CFR 86.098-35 - Labeling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-35 Labeling. Section 86.098-35 includes text that...

  6. Labels in PURE - Til gavn eller hindring?

    Zurcher, Sacha; Sass, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er baseret på en usability test af anvendelse af labels i PURE, et vidensregistreringssystem. Formålet var at undersøge om hvorvidt de anvendte labels i PURE understøtter forskernes inddatering af forskellige publikationstyper. Pilot testen viste at man skal være opmærksom på, at de...... anvendte labels ikke nødvendigvis dækker over et kontrolleret fagsprog der modsvarer alle faglige domæner. PURE understøtter således ikke intuitivt alle forskeres forståelse af registrering af publikationstyper. Endvidere kan det skabe forvirring når sproget ikke er konsistent, som det er tilfælde i PURE...... resultaterne kun bruges som en indikator på, hvorvidt de brugte labels i PURE er tydelige og genkendelige for forskere....

  7. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Have Food Allergies? Read the Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... These foods account for 90 percent of all food allergies: milk egg fish, such as bass, flounder, or ...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ...

  11. Radiobiological characteristic of tritium-labelled lysine

    Experiments on mice and rats injected with tritium-labeled lysine have revealed that one day after injection about 80% of the label was retained in organs and tissues as tissue-bound tritium. Retention curves for tritium in the body were decomposed into two exponentials. The biological half-lives of tritium-labeled lysine in various tissues exceed half-lives of other tritiated amino acids and of triated water. The average dose in different tissues following injection of tritiated lysine exceeds that from equal of tritium oxide (THO) by 1.5-8 times. Contribution of the tissue-bound tritium in dose is about 90%. radiobiological experiments showed strong genetic and citotoxic effects in male mice after injection of tritium-labeled lysine

  12. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Georgescu Cecilia; Ognean Claudia Felicia; Tita Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on document...

  13. Synthesis of tritium labelled mometasone furoate

    Hesk, D.; Koharski, D.; McNamara, P.; Magatti, C.; Saluja, S. (Schering Plough Research Inst., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)); Delduca, P.; Thomas, L. (Amersham International plc, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    [sup 3]H-mometasone furoate was synthesized by a six step procedure. The label was introduced via the reduction and re-oxidation of the 1,2 double bond in the A ring. The remaining 4 steps were accomplished with an overall radiochemical yield of 28%. Analysis by [sup 3]H nmr indicated that most of the label ([approx] 95%) was located in the 2-position and the remainder in the 1-position. (author).

  14. 27 CFR 20.134 - Labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... as conspicuously as the words “denatured alcohol.” (e) Use of the words “rubbing alcohol.” If the words “rubbing alcohol” appear on the label of an article, (1) the article shall be made in accordance with § 20.118 of this part, and (2) the label (i) shall have the words “rubbing alcohol” in letters...

  15. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  16. A method for labeling polyacrylamide gels

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever struggled with the identification of your polyacrylamide gels after running a few of them at once? Here is a new method for labeling gels which is easy, free and does not interfere with your protein samples. You will be intrigued once you learn how you can add a label to your laboratory-made gels and will have no problem identifying your gels any more.

  17. Stability of rhenium-188 labeled antibody

    For clinical application of beta-emitter labeled antibody, high specific activity is important. Carrier-free Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generator is an ideal radionuclide for this purpose. However, low stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, especially in high specific activity, due to radiolytic decomposition by high energy (2.1 MeV) beta ray was problem. We studied the stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, and stabilizing effect of several nontoxic radical-quenching agents. Pre-reduced monoclonal antibody (CEA79.4) was labeled with Re-188 by incubating with generator-eluted Re-188-perrhenate in the presence of stannous tartrate for 2 hr at room temperature. Radiochemical purity of each preparation was determined by chromatography (ITLC-SG/acetone, ITLC-SG/Umezawa, Whatman No.1/saline). Human serum albumin was added to the labeled antibodies(2%). Stability of Re-188-CEA79.4 was investigated in the presence of vitamin C, ethanol, or Tween 80 as radical-quenching agents. Specific activities of 4.29∼5.11 MBq/μg were obtained. Labeling efficiencies were 88±4%(n=12). Very low stability after removal of stannous tartrate from the preparation was observed. If stored after purging with N2, all the preparations were stable for 10 hr. However, if contacted with air, stability decreased. Perrhenate and Re-188-tartrate was major impurity in declined preparation (12∼47 and 9∼38% each, after 10 hr). Colloid-formation was not a significant problem in all cases. Addition of vitamin C stabilized the labeled antibodies either under N2 or under air by reducing the formation of perrhenate. High specific activity Re-188 labeled antibody is unstable, especially, in the presence of oxygen. Addition of vitamin C increased the stability

  18. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tavares, Leoberto C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Departamento de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2000-07-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  19. Horseradish peroxidase-driven fluorescent labeling of nanotubes with quantum dots.

    Didenko, Vladimir V; Baskin, David S

    2006-03-01

    We describe the first enzyme-driven technique for fluorescent labeling of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The labeling was performed via enzymatic biotinylation of nanotubes in the tyramide-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction. Both direct and indirect fuorescent labeling of SWNTs was achieved using either biotinyl tyramide or fluorescently tagged tyramides. Biotinylated SWNTs later reacted with streptavidin-conjugated fluorophores. Linking semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum dots (Q-dots), to the surface of nanotubes resulted in their fluorescent visualization, whereas conventional fluorophores bound to SWNTs directly or through biotin-streptavidin linkage, were completely quenched. Enzymatic biotinylation permits fluorescent visualization of carbon nanotubes, which could be useful for a number of biomedical applications. In addition, other organic molecules such as proteins, antibodies, or DNA can be conjugated to biotinylated SWNTs using this approach. PMID:16568818

  20. Hierarchical Label Fusion with Multiscale Feature Representation and Label-Specific Patch Partition

    Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patch-based label fusion methods have achieved many successes in medical imaging area. After registering atlas images to the target image, the label at each target image point can be subsequently determined by checking the patchwise similarities between the underlying target image patch and all atlas image patches. Apparently, the definition of patchwise similarity is critical in label fusion. However, current methods often simply use entire image patch with fixed patch size through...

  1. Food Retailers’ Objectives of Developing Private Label Products and their Perspectives to Private Label Products

    Serkan Kilic

    2011-01-01

    In the intensive competitive environment, retailers incline to develop their own branded products (private label products) to make a differentiation over their rivals and to gain a market share. On the other side, retailers’ have some objectives in developing private label products. At this point, this study put forwards the differences between retailers’ some characteristics and objectives of developing private label products and investigates the tendencies and expectations towards private l...

  2. Background suppression in arterial spin labeling MRI with a separate neck labeling coil

    Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2011-01-01

    In arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF), pair-wise subtraction of temporally adjacent non-labeled and labeled images often can not completely cancel the background static tissue signal because of temporally fluctuating physiological noise. While background suppression (BS) by inversion nulling improves CBF temporal stability, imperfect pulses compromise CBF contrast. Conventional BS techniques may not be applicable in small animals because the arterial transit...

  3. Thrombokinetics with In-111-oxine labelled platelets

    Indium-111-oxine has been employed as a redioactive platelet label for thrombosis imaging and thrombokinetic studies in man. To evaluate it's suitability for platelet survival and turnover, thrombokinetic studies were carried out in hematological normal subjects, in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and chronic congestive splenomegaly. For In-111-oxine labelled platelets, platelets were collected by differential centrifugation from 44 ml of whole blood drawn into 6 ml of acid citrate dextrose solution. Platelet suspension was incubated with In-111-oxine, which was extracted before use by the method of Thakur and co-workers. The survival, recovery and turnover of In-111-labeled platelets were 8.6 +- 0.5 days, 63.0 +- 5.4% and 3.9 +- 0.3 x 104/ μl/day, respectively, which were similar with those of Cr-51 method. Platelet disappearance curves labelled with In-111 and Cr-51 simultaneously were similar in one case. In patients with ITP, platelet survival shortened in the same degree with Cr-51 method. The two simultaneous labeling studies between In-111 and Cr-51 showed no differences. In the patients with congestive splenomegaly, the same results were obtained. Thrombokinetic studies with In-111-oxine labelled platelets offer the advantages of reduced blood requirements, and the ability to perform external imaging of platelet distribution. (author)

  4. Automated lobe-based airway labeling.

    Gu, Suicheng; Wang, Zhimin; Siegfried, Jill M; Wilson, David; Bigbee, William L; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-01-01

    Regional quantitative analysis of airway morphological abnormalities is of great interest in lung disease investigation. Considering that pulmonary lobes are relatively independent functional unit, we develop and test a novel and efficient computerized scheme in this study to automatically and robustly classify the airways into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobe. Given an airway tree, which could be obtained using any available airway segmentation scheme, the developed approach consists of four basic steps: (1) airway skeletonization or centerline extraction, (2) individual airway branch identification, (3) initial rule-based airway classification/labeling, and (4) self-correction of labeling errors. In order to assess the performance of this approach, we applied it to a dataset consisting of 300 chest CT examinations in a batch manner and asked an image analyst to subjectively examine the labeled results. Our preliminary experiment showed that the labeling accuracy for the right upper lobe, the right middle lobe, the right lower lobe, the left upper lobe, and the left lower lobe is 100%, 99.3%, 99.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among these, only two cases are incorrectly labeled due to the failures in airway detection. It takes around 2 minutes to label an airway tree using this algorithm. PMID:23093951

  5. Weed Seed Labelling with Rare Earth Elements

    The dormancy period of weed seed under field conditions so far could not be determined with reliability because of the lack of a suitable method for labelling seed. Rademacher and co-workers labelled weed seed with 35S for studying germination in relation to different methods of soil cultivation. Since 35S has a half-period of 87.1 d only, labelling is practically ineffective after one year. The authors of this paper therefore tried to label weed seed with lanthanum, europium and dysprosium. Since these elements (1) do not occur in the standard soils in interfering quantities, and (2) can easily be determined by neutron activation analysis, they are useful for non-radioactive labelling. In pot experiments they were added like fertilizers before the soil was seeded with Sinapsis alba or Vicia villosa. After harvesting, samples of the plants' roots, stems, leaves, and seed were irradiated in the reactor and the rare earth elements determined by neutron-activation analysis. Evaluation of the results disclosed that traceable quantities of lanthanum, europium, and dysprosium were present in roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the grains of seed. It is the intention, in further experiments, to increase the concentration of the applied elements up to the limit of compatibility, and to find out whether a more concentrated supply will increase the incorporation in seeds. If one of these elements is present in a reasonable concentration, experiments with labelled weed seed will be possible for periods of several years. (author)

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  7. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites

  8. Food Retailers’ Objectives of Developing Private Label Products and their Perspectives to Private Label Products

    Serkan Kilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive competitive environment, retailers incline to develop their own branded products (private label products to make a differentiation over their rivals and to gain a market share. On the other side, retailers’ have some objectives in developing private label products. At this point, this study put forwards the differences between retailers’ some characteristics and objectives of developing private label products and investigates the tendencies and expectations towards private label products. The results of the research present that there are no differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ ownership of private label. However, it is found that there are some differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ level of activity, number of branches and scale. In the study, it is also put forward that food retailers expect an increase in the demand of private label products at nearly terms and inclining to develop private labels more than before.

  9. Residual nanoparticle label immunosensor for wash-free C-reactive protein detection in blood.

    Huttunen, Roope J; Näreoja, Tuomas; Mariani, Laura; Härmä, Harri

    2016-09-15

    Current diagnostic immunotechnologies are universally based on the measurement of the bound label-antibody fraction in direct binding or sandwich-assay type approaches with various detection techniques (e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or ELISA) on solid stationary phase surface. Here an alternative reciprocal approach is presented based on the detection of the non-bound fraction of nanoparticle-labelled antibodies using microparticles as solid support. The advantage of detecting the non-bound fraction of the labelled antibody instead of the bound fraction is the high dynamics and the suggested increased flexibility in the selection of the detection mode. No actual washing steps are required as the bound and non-bound fractions of the detection nanoparticle label are separated using physical separation rather than consecutive washing repeats. The quantitative proof-of-concept set-up was demonstrated through blood-based detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). A blood sample containing CRP was diluted 1/50 and measured in 15-min resulting in a linear response at a range from 1 to 30μg/ml. The lowest limit of detection was below 0.03μg/ml and the assay coefficient of variation ranged from 0.3 to 9%. The nanoparticle-based residual label detection outperformed the corresponding molecular label method providing wider applicability with nearly an order of magnitude higher signal-to-background ratio for novel assay configurations in clinical diagnostics practices. PMID:27104585

  10. Peer Group Effects on Moslem Consumer’s Decision To Purchase Halal Labeled Cosmetics.

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to analyze peer group effects on Moslem consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics directly and indirectly which is mediated by consumers’ religious behavior. This research applies Structural Equation Model and convenience random sampling with 215 samples who have bought halal-labeled cosmeticsand live in Southern Tangerang. The findings show that: first, peer groupdirectly affect consumers’ decisionto purchase halal-labeled cosmetics; second, hablumminannas behavior mediates peer group and consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmeticsindirectly, third, hablumminallah behavior has the most dominant effect on Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics. Based on the findings, it could be concluded that the reason of consumers’ decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics is because their religious behavior are high. Therefore, it is suggested that government and related institutions need to implement the Security Act of Halal Products immediately in order to protect the consumer from consuming non-halal productsDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1682

  11. Do homeowners use energy labels? A comparison between Denmark and Belgium

    Energy labels on buildings are mandatory in Europe since 2006 with the application of the European directive 2002/91/CE on the energy performance of buildings. Therefore, it is relevant to analyse how the labels work in those countries that already have experiences with them. This article analyses how house owners have interpreted and used the knowledge from labels for the renovation of their house. The study is based on qualitative interviews with ten households having a Belgian volunteer energy assessment and ten households having the Danish mandatory energy label on their newly bought house. The article questions the faith in the rational enlightened actor, which is at the basis of the idea of labels. Using sociological theories on knowledge and everyday life in the interpretation of the qualitative material, it is shown that people relate to, interpret and question new knowledge rather than just take it in. Furthermore, it is also shown how the use of knowledge and advice interact with other priorities in everyday life. These results can help explain why people often do not carry through energy measures even though it might be economically advantageous to them. In the conclusion, it is also discussed how this type of knowledge might be used to improve energy labels

  12. Interim findings of an evaluation of the U.S. EnergyGuide label

    Egan, Christine; Payne, Christopher T.; Thorne, Jennifer

    2000-08-20

    The United States has labeled appliances with the EnergyGuide labels since 1980. Consensus is growing that this label is confusing to consumers and has little impact on purchase decisions. Many researchers have documented that alternative labeling approaches are effective in other countries. The authors comprehensively evaluated the U.S. appliance labeling program for white goods, heating and cooling equipment, and water heaters, with emphasis on products sold through retail outlets. To date, our research has included consumer focus groups and semi-structured interviews with various market actors to assess how best to communicate energy information. With consumers and retail sales staff, five graphical designs were tested a European-style, letter based graphic; an Australian-style star-based graphic; a speedometer-style graphic; a thermometer-style graphic; and the current U.S. style. With manufacturers and contractors, we did not directly test alternate designs. Instead, we asked their opinion of and experience with the current EnergyGuide labeling program.

  13. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-07-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr{sup 3}]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with {sup 99m} using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of {approx}80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for {sup 99m}Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG{sub 3}) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel {sup 188}Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O

  14. Stable isotope labeling, in vivo, of D- and L-tryptophan pools in lemna gibba and the low incorporation of label into indole-3-acetic acid

    The authors present evidence that the role of tryptophan and other potential intermediates in the pathways that could lead to indole derivatives needs to be reexamined. Two lines of Lemna gibba were tested for uptake of [15N-indole]-labeled tryptophan isomers and incorporation of that label into free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Both lines required levels of L-[15N]tryptophan 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over endogenous levels in order to obtain measurable incorporation of label into IAA. Labeled L-tryptophan was extractable from plant tissue after feeding and showed no measurable isomerization into D-tryptophan. D-[15N]trytophan supplied to Lemna at rates of approximately 400 times excess of endogenous D-tryptophan levels (to yield an isotopic enrichment equal to that which allowed detection of the incorporation of L-tryptophan into IAA), did not result in measurable incorporation of label into free IAA. These results demonstrate that L-tryptophan is a more direct precursor to IAA than the D isomer and suggest (a) that the availability of tryptophan in vivo is not a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of IAA, thus implying that other regulatory mechanisms are in operation and (b) that L-tryptophan also may not be a primary precursor to IAA in plants

  15. Unlabelled and radioactive labelled derivatives of butylamino propiophenone and their preparation

    This invention relates to new unlabelled and radioactive labelled derivatives of butylamino propiophenone and their preparation. This invention is primarily directed to a radioimmunoassay for clinical or experimental testing for the presence of and quantitation of bupropion, a pharmacologically active antidepressant compound, in biological fluids

  16. Governing GMOs: The (Counter Movement for Mandatory and Voluntary Non-GMO Labels

    Carmen Bain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2012 the anti-GMO (genetically modified organism movement has gained significant grassroots momentum in its efforts to require mandatory GMO food labels through state-level ballot and legislative efforts. Major food and agriculture corporations are opposed to mandatory GMO labels and have successfully defeated most of these initiatives. Nevertheless, these battles have garnered significant media attention and re-energized the debate over GMO crops and foods. In this paper, we argue that one of the most significant outcomes of this fight is efforts by food retailers and value-based food companies to implement voluntary non-GMO labels and brands. We draw on the governance and political consumerism literature to explore (counter movement efforts for mandatory labels and how these efforts are being institutionalized through private voluntary governance institutions. Our assessment is based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with key informants from consumer and environmental organizations, agriculture and biotech companies, and government regulatory agencies, as well as a content analysis of food industry websites. A growing number of food retailers recognize the reputational and economic value that new niche markets for non-GMO foods can offer, while the anti-GMO movement views these efforts as a step in the direction of mandatory GMO labels. We conclude that voluntary labels may act to settle the labeling debate by mollifying agri-food industry concerns about mandatory labeling and meeting the desire of political consumers for greater choice and transparency but without addressing the broader social and environmental sustainability concerns that drives the anti-GMO movement in the first place.

  17. 9 CFR 317.400 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.400 Exemption from nutrition labeling. (a) The following meat or meat food products are exempt from...

  18. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all poultry products...

  19. 9 CFR 381.500 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.500 Exemption from nutrition labeling. (a) The following poultry products are exempt from nutrition labeling:...

  20. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  1. 7 CFR 201.31a - Labeling treated seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling treated seed. 201.31a Section 201.31a..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.31a Labeling treated seed. (a) Contents of label. Any agricultural...

  2. 49 CFR 172.432 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label.

    2010-10-01

    ... § 172.407, the background on the INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label must be white. ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. 172.432 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...

  3. Quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling in C. elegans

    Fredens, Julius; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Giessing, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate labeling of Caenorhabditis elegans with heavy isotope-labeled lysine by feeding them with heavy isotope-labeled Escherichia coli. Using heavy isotope-labeled worms and quantitative proteomics methods, we identified several proteins that are regulated in response to loss or RNAi-med...

  4. 21 CFR 101.10 - Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods. 101.10 Section 101.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.10 Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods. Nutrition labeling in...

  5. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  6. 21 CFR 341.72 - Labeling of antihistamine drug products.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antihistamine drug products. 341.72... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.72 Labeling of antihistamine drug products. (a) Statement of... product as an “antihistamine.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the...

  7. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  8. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  9. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  10. Deuterium labeling for neutron structure-function-dynamics analysis.

    Meilleur, Flora; Weiss, Kevin L; Myles, Dean A A

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering and diffraction provide detailed information on the structure and dynamics of biological materials across time and length scales that range from picoseconds to nanoseconds and from 1 to 10,000 A, respectively. The particular sensitivity of neutrons to the isotopes of hydrogen makes selective deuterium labeling of biological systems an essential tool for maximizing the return from neutron scattering experiments. In neutron protein crystallography, the use of fully deuterated protein crystals improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by an order of magnitude and enhances the visibi-lity of the molecular structure (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3872-3877, 2000; Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:1413-1417, 2005; Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:539-544, 2005). In solution and surface scattering experiments, the incorporation of deuterium-labeled subunits or components into complex assemblies or structures makes it possible to deconvolute the scattering of the labeled and unlabeled subunits and to determine their relative dispositions within the complex (J Mol Biol 93:255-265, 1975). With multiple labeling patterns, it is also possible to reconstruct the locations of multiple subunits in ternary and higher-order complexes (Science 238:1403-1406, 1987; J Mol Biol 271:588-601, 1997; J Biol Chem 275:14432-14439, 2000; Biochemistry 42:7790-7800, 2003). In inelastic neutron scattering experiments, which probe hydrogen dynamics in biological materials, the application of site, residue, or region-specific hydrogen-deuterium-labeling patterns can be used to distinguish and highlight the specific dynamics within a system (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:4970-4975, 1998).Partial, selective, or fully deuterated proteins can be readily produced by endogenous expression of recombinant proteins in bacterial systems that are adapted to growth in D(2)O solution and using selectively deuterated carbon sources. Adaptation can be achieved either by gradual

  11. A novel in vivo cell-wall labeling approach sheds new light on peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Olrichs, Nick K; Aarsman, Mirjam E G; Verheul, Jolanda; Arnusch, Christopher J; Martin, Nathaniel I; Hervé, Mireille; Vollmer, Waldemar; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2011-05-01

    Peptidoglycan synthesis and turnover in relation to cell growth and division has been studied by using a new labeling method. This method involves the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptidoglycan precursors into the cell wall by means of the cell-wall recycling pathway. We show that Escherichia coli is able to import exogenous added murein tripeptide labeled with N-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (AeK-NBD) into the cytoplasm where it enters the peptidoglycan biosynthesis route, resulting in fluorescent labels specifically located in the cell wall. When wild-type cells were grown in the presence of the fluorescent peptide, peptidoglycan was uniformly labeled in cells undergoing elongation. Cells in the process of division displayed a lack of labeled peptidoglycan at mid-cell. Analysis of labeling patterns in cell division mutants showed that the occurrence of unlabeled peptidoglycan is dependent on the presence of FtsZ, but independent of FtsQ and FtsI. Accumulation of fluorescence at the division sites of a triple amidase mutant (ΔamiABC) revealed that AeK-NBD is incorporated into septal peptidoglycan. AmiC was shown to be involved in the rapid removal of labeled peptidoglycan side chains at division sites in wild-type cells. Because septal localization of AmiC is dependent on FtsQ and FtsI, this points to the presence of another peptidoglycan hydrolase activity directly dependent on FtsZ. PMID:21472954

  12. The role of detergent in labeling of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteria

    The chelating agents oxine, acetylacetone, tropolone, and 2-mercaptopyridine 1-oxide were analysed for their suitability in labelling the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (E.r.), strain B10, with 111In and 67Ga. The labelling conditions were improved. The bactericidal activity of the labeling process was investigated. The different chelates did not result in a significant difference in labelling yield. The addition of 0.01% detergent to the labelling buffer doubled the labelling yield up to 45%. Labelled bacteria were injected intravenously into rats. The percentage organ distribution was determined and compared with a control group. (author)

  13. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  14. Axonal transport of labelled proteins and increased functional activity in sciatic nerve of the frog Rana hexadactyla in vitro

    In vitro speed of fast moving labelled protein fraction was investigated in the lumbar 8 nerve of R.hexadactyla during normal and electrical stimulation conditions. 3H-leucine labelled oroteins moved in a proximo-distal direction at a speed of 144 mm/day at 25 deg C. No change was observed in the rate of proteins transported in stimulated nerves but the amount of protein bound radioactivity increased over stimulation. In ligature experiments, amount of labelled proteins accumulating at a ligature was higher in stimulated nerves. Electrical stimulation of nerve resulted in an increase in protein synthetic rate in the respective ganglion. (author)

  15. Building sustainable supply chains: consumer choice or direct management?

    Hebditch, David; Blackmore, Emma

    2012-06-15

    Putting a 'carbon label' on products to show how much carbon dioxide is emitted during their production, transport and disposal has been heralded as a powerful route to sustainability within companies' supply chains. Several leading firms have joined the Carbon Trust carbon labelling scheme over the past five years, including UK-based retail giant Tesco, which as early as 2007 promised to use carbon labels on all its products. But earlier this year, the multinational said it was dropping carbon labels and instead directly managing its supply chains. Many other companies are similarly choosing direct management over consumer choice as the most effective route to emission reductions. In so doing, they are shouldering greater responsibility for the emissions and impacts of their supply chains. But environmental concerns must not be allowed to trump development needs and companies must not unfairly disadvantage smaller-scale producers in developing countries.

  16. Utility of No-Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases.

    Dickson, Marsha A.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 547 of 2,000 consumers indicated consumer support for socially responsible purchasing. For 16%, "No-Sweat" labels indicating the working conditions of apparel makers were a strong purchasing influence. Women, especially unmarried females with lower educational attainment, were most likely to purchase clothing with No-Sweat labels.…

  17. Selenium as an alternative peptide label - comparison to fluorophore-labelled penetratin

    Hyrup Møller, Laura; Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact on peptide properties of labelling peptides with the fluorophore TAMRA or the selenium (Se) containing amino acid SeMet was evaluated. Three differently labelled variants of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin (Pen) were synthesized, PenMSe, TAMRA...

  18. A nucleotide-independent cyclic nitroxide label for monitoring segmental motions in nucleic acids

    Spin labels, which are chemically stable radicals attached at specific sites of a bio-molecule, enable investigations on structure and dynamics of proteins and nucleic acids using techniques such as site-directed spin labeling and paramagnetic NMR. Among spin labels developed, the class of rigid labels have limited or no independent motions between the radical bearing moiety and the target, and afford a number of advantages in measuring distances and monitoring local dynamics within the parent bio-molecule. However, a general method for attaching a rigid label to nucleic acids in a nucleotide-independent manner has not been reported. We developed an approach for installing a nearly rigid nitroxide spin label, designated as R5c, at a specific site of the nucleic acid backbone in a nucleotide-independent manner. The method uses a post-synthesis approach to covalently attach the nitroxide moiety in a cyclic fashion to phosphorothioate groups introduced at two consecutive nucleotides of the target strand. R5c-labeled nucleic acids are capable of pairing with their respective complementary strands, and the cyclic nature of R5c attachment significantly reduced independence motions of the label with respect to the parent duplex, although it may cause distortion of the local environment at the site of labeling. R5c yields enhanced sensitivity to the collective motions of the duplex, as demonstrated by its capability to reveal changes in collective motions of the substrate recognition duplex of the 120-kDa Tetrahymena group I ribozyme, which elude detection by a flexible label. The cyclic R5c nitroxide can be efficiently attached to a target nucleic acid site using a post-synthetic coupling approach conducted under mild biochemical conditions, and serves as a viable label for experimental investigation of segmental motions in nucleic acids, including large folded RNAs. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13628-015-0019-5) contains supplementary material, which

  19. Functionally Labeled Polymers And Nanoparticles : : Synthetic Strategies And In Vivo Analysis

    Randolph, Lyndsay M.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of labeled polymers and polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications, one desires synthetic approaches that allow the most direct route to incorporate functional moieties. We contend the most desirable route is via the direct incorporation of functional groups during the polymerization process itself as monomers and/or chain transfer agents. In this work, we utilize ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) due to the high functional group tolerance of initiators...

  20. Neutrophil labeling with [{sup 99m}Tc]-technetium stannous colloid is complement receptor 3-mediated and increases the neutrophil priming response to lipopolysaccharide

    Gallagher, Hayley [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Ramsay, Stuart C. [School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland (Australia) and Townsville Nuclear Medicine, Mater Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4812 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart.ramsey@jcu.edu.au; Barnes, Jodie [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Maggs, Jacqueline [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4814 (Australia); Cassidy, Nathan [Townsville Nuclear Medicine, Mater Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4812 (Australia); Ketheesan, Natkunam [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland (Australia)

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: [{sup 99m}Tc]-technetium stannous colloid (TcSnC)-labeled white cells are used to image inflammation. Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is probably phagocytic, but the phagocytic receptor involved is not known. We hypothesised that complement receptor 3 (CR3) plays a key role. Phagocytic labeling could theoretically result in neutrophil activation or priming, affecting the behaviour of labeled cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis side scatter measurements can assess neutrophil activation and priming. Methods: We tested whether TcSnC neutrophil labeling is CR3-mediated by assessing if neutrophil uptake of TcSnC was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed at the CD11b component of CR3. We tested if TcSnC-labeled neutrophils show altered activation or priming status, comparing FACS side scatter in labeled and unlabeled neutrophils and examining the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known priming agent. Results: Anti-CD11b mAb reduced neutrophil uptake of TcSnC in a dose-dependent fashion. Labeled neutrophils did not show significantly increased side scatter compared to controls. LPS significantly increased side scatter in control cells and labeled neutrophils. However, the increase was significantly greater in labeled neutrophils than unlabeled cells. Conclusions: Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is related to the function of CR3, a receptor which plays a central role in phagocytosis. TcSnC labeling did not significantly activate or prime neutrophils. However, labeled neutrophils showed a greater priming response to LPS. This could result in labeled neutrophils demonstrating increased adhesion on activated endothelium at sites of infection.

  1. Neutrophil labeling with [99mTc]-technetium stannous colloid is complement receptor 3-mediated and increases the neutrophil priming response to lipopolysaccharide

    Introduction: [99mTc]-technetium stannous colloid (TcSnC)-labeled white cells are used to image inflammation. Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is probably phagocytic, but the phagocytic receptor involved is not known. We hypothesised that complement receptor 3 (CR3) plays a key role. Phagocytic labeling could theoretically result in neutrophil activation or priming, affecting the behaviour of labeled cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis side scatter measurements can assess neutrophil activation and priming. Methods: We tested whether TcSnC neutrophil labeling is CR3-mediated by assessing if neutrophil uptake of TcSnC was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed at the CD11b component of CR3. We tested if TcSnC-labeled neutrophils show altered activation or priming status, comparing FACS side scatter in labeled and unlabeled neutrophils and examining the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known priming agent. Results: Anti-CD11b mAb reduced neutrophil uptake of TcSnC in a dose-dependent fashion. Labeled neutrophils did not show significantly increased side scatter compared to controls. LPS significantly increased side scatter in control cells and labeled neutrophils. However, the increase was significantly greater in labeled neutrophils than unlabeled cells. Conclusions: Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is related to the function of CR3, a receptor which plays a central role in phagocytosis. TcSnC labeling did not significantly activate or prime neutrophils. However, labeled neutrophils showed a greater priming response to LPS. This could result in labeled neutrophils demonstrating increased adhesion on activated endothelium at sites of infection

  2. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  3. Improved specificity of hippocampal memory trace labeling.

    Cazzulino, Alejandro S; Martinez, Randy; Tomm, Nicole K; Denny, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on the identification and manipulation of memory traces in rodent models. The two main mouse models utilized are either a CreER(T2) /loxP tamoxifen (TAM)- or a tetracycline transactivator/tetracycline-response element doxycycline-inducible system. These systems, however, could be improved to label a more specific population of activated neurons corresponding to behavior. Here, we sought to identify an improved selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) in which we could label an individual memory trace in ArcCreER(T2) mice. We found that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is a selective SERM in the ArcCreER(T2) × Rosa26-CAG-stop(flox) -channelrhodospin (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) mice. The half-life of 4-OHT is shorter than TAM, allowing for more specificity of memory trace labeling. Furthermore, 4-OHT allowed for context-specific labeling in the dentate gyrus and CA3. In summary, we believe that 4-OHT improves the specificity of memory trace labeling and will allow for refined memory trace studies in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26662713

  4. Preferential association of glycoproteins to the euchromatin regions of cross-fractured nuclei is revealed by fracture-label

    1986-01-01

    We used fracture-label to establish ultrastructural localization of glycoproteins in cross-fractured nuclei of duodenal columnar and exocrine pancreatic cells. Mannose residues were detected in cell nuclei by labeling freeze-fractured tissues with concanavalin A- horseradish peroxidase X colloidal gold (Con A-HRP X CG) or direct concanavalin A X colloidal gold (Con A X CG); fucose residues were detected with Ulex Europaeus I X colloidal gold (UEA I X CG) markers. Areas of the three main intra...

  5. Syntheses of 18F-labeled reduced haloperidol and 11C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone

    18F-Labeled reduced haloperidol and 11C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone were synthesized in a convenient and quantitative one step reduction from 18F-labeled haloperidol and 11C-labeled N-methylspiperone, respectively. Both products were purified by semipreparative HPLC and were obtained at high specific activity and radiochemical purity. (author)

  6. A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label product

  7. The 90/10 phenomenon in directed signed social networks

    Guo, Long

    2016-01-01

    We empirical study the signs' property in the directed signed social networks of Slashdot and Epinions by using an reshuffled approach. Through calculating the entropy $S_{out}$ and the giant component $G$, we find an interesting 90/10 phenomenon: each individual labels his/her neighbors as friends with $90\\%$ or foes with $10\\%$ uniformly random from the macroscopic perspective. We also find that the entropy $S_{out}$ is suppressed by the non-randomness of labeling sign. Our present work can prove how do the randomness and the non-randomness coexist in human behavior of labeling signs, qualitatively.

  8. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  9. Food Labeling Regulation: A Historical and Comparative Survey

    Moore, Mario

    2001-01-01

    By tracing the history of food labeling laws, we can see that labeling regulation has come a long way from the branding of bread during the reign of King John in the thirteenth century. The food label has gone from a mere enforcement devise to a marketing tool to an instrument for fulfillment of nutrition policy. Labeling regulation has transformed from simple rules to avoid fraud and mispresentation to complex affirmative requirements to help the consumer understand the labeled food in the c...

  10. LabelTranslator: A Tool to Automatically Localize an Ontology

    Espinoza, M; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; E. Mena

    2008-01-01

    This demo proposal briefly presents LabelTranslator, a system that suggests translations of ontology labels, with the purpose of localizing ontologies. LabelTranslator takes as input an ontology whose labels are described in a source natural language and obtains the most probable translation of each ontology label into a target natural language.Our main contribution is the automatization of this process, which reduces human efforts to localize manually the ontology.

  11. Label Confusion: The Groucho Effect of Uncertain Standards

    Rick Harbaugh; Maxwell, John W.; Beatrice Roussillon

    2011-01-01

    Labels certify that a product meets some standard for quality, but often consumers are unsure of the exact standard that the label represents. Focusing on the case of ecolabels for environmental quality, we show how even small amounts of uncertainty can create consumer confusion that reduces or eliminates the value to firms of adopting voluntary labels. First, consumers are most suspicious of a label when a product with a bad reputation has it, so labels are often unpersuasive at showing that...

  12. Learning from product labels and label changes: how to build pharmacogenomics into drug-development programs.

    Surh, Linda C; Pacanowski, Michael A; Haga, Susanne B; Hobbs, Stuart; Lesko, Lawrence J; Gottlieb, Scott; Papaluca-Amati, Marisa; Patterson, Scott D; Hughes, Arlene R; Kim, Myong-Jin; Close, Sandra L; Mosteller, Michael; Zineh, Issam; Dechairo, Bryan; Cohen, Nadine A

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 US FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) Pharmacogenomics (PGx) Workshop follows a series that began in 2002 bringing together multidisciplinary experts spanning regulatory authorities, medical research, healthcare and industry. This report summarizes the 'Building PGx into Labels' sessions from the workshop, which discussed the critical elements in developing PGx outcomes leading to product labels that inform efficacy and/or safety. Examples were drawn from US prescribing information, which integrated PGx knowledge into medical decisions (e.g., panitumumab, warfarin and clopidogrel). Attendees indicated the need for broader dialog and for guidelines on evidentiary considerations for PGx to be included into product labels. Also discussed was the understanding of appropriate PGx placement on labels; how to encourage adoption by medical communities of label recommendations on PGx tests; and, given the global nature of drug development, worldwide considerations including European Summary of Product Characteristics. PMID:21142906

  13. CLEANCHARS: Stata module to replace specific characters or strings in variable names and/or variable labels and/or string variable values and/or value label names and levels with stated characters/strings (using 1-1 or m-1 match)

    Lars Angquist

    2013-01-01

    cleanchars is a program that helps out with replacing unwanted/inconvenient characters/strings in the currently active dataset. Entities searched through, and where changes could be applied, are (i) variable names (ii) variable labels (iii) string variable values (iv) value label names and corresponding level-labels. Moreover, an option directly putting all variable names into lower case is available. Note: Changes related to variable names depend on the user-written command ‘renvars’ (Weesie...

  14. Medical device labeling and advertising: an overview.

    Basile, E M; Armentrout, E; Reeves, K N

    1999-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) to regulate the labeling of all medical devices. This statement, however, is not as simple as it appears. The regulation of medical device labels and labeling, closely linked to the advertisement of medical devices, is a dynamic area, and FDA is struggling to address the new issues that arise daily in this area. This article seeks to: 1) provide the background necessary to understand the current law and FDA's regulation of medical devices; 2) summarize the law and regulations governing medical devices; 3) define "intended use" and explain its importance; and 4) discuss several areas that are of particular interest to FDA, including promotion of uncleared or unapproved devices and uses, Internet promotion, press releases, and comparative claims. PMID:11824451

  15. Labelling and biological evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    The paper describes research aimed at developing radiolabelled agents using 'bone seeking' molecules and peptides as the target specific moieties. For the study of bone seeking molecules, hydroxyethylene diphosphonate (HEDP) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) (V) were labelled with 188Re. For peptide radiolabelling, 99mTc and 111In were used as the diagnostic radioisotopes, and 90Y was used as the therapeutic radioisotope. The labelling yielded agents with high radiochemical purity. The labelled compounds - 188Re- HEDP, 188Re-DMSA(V), 111In-DOTATOC, 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE, 90Y-DOTATOC and 90Y-DOTATATE - were evaluated in mice, rats and healthy beagle dogs. All compounds were also tested in dogs with spontaneous tumours as pathological models. Biodistribution studies showed that the molecules accumulated in their respective target cells. Spontaneous tumours in dogs offered a unique opportunity to investigate the diagnostic utility and therapeutic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  16. ECOLOGICAL CERTIFICATION AND LABELLING OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Mirela Stefanica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of ecological certification and labelling in the field of tourism. In a tourist company, the certification schemes evaluate the general approach of environmental problems, and impose to the tourist services the observance of pre-established principles and guiding lines concerning the environment. They become for the tourist companies a behavioural standard in the development of their activity. The requirements within such schemes are often flexible and open to interpretation, and generally less controversial than the eco-labelling schemes. As compared to the certification schemes, the eco-labels attributed to the tourist services emphasise the impact over the environment of the services of tourist companies, on the basis of certain European criteria. These criteria refer to the whole life cycle of these tourist services.

  17. Improved method to label beta-2 agonists in metered-dose inhalers with technetium-99m

    Ballinger, J.R.; Calcutt, L.E.; Hodder, R.V.; Proulx, A.; Gulenchyn, K.Y. (Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa (Canada). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Respiratory Unit)

    1993-01-01

    Labelling beta-2 agonists in a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with technetium-99m allows imaging of the deposition of the aerosol in the respiratory tract. We have developed an improved labeling method in which anhydrous pertechnetate is dissolved in a small volume of ethanol, diluted with a fluorocarbon, and introduced into a commercial MDI. Imaging the MDI demonstrated that the [sup 99m]Tc was associated with the active ingredient, not just the propellant. The method has been used successfully with salbutamol and fenoterol MDIs and should be directly applicable to other MDIs which contain hydrophilic drugs. (Author).

  18. Traffic Flow Analysis Model based Routing Protocol For Multi-Protocol Label Switching Network

    E.R. Naganathan; Rajagopalan, S.; P. H. Raj

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism which is used in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. Traffic management is still an issue in MPLS network as it involves high speed internet. Approach: This study proposed a traffic flow analysis of the real time MPLS traffic and segregates the MPLS traffic as three major class based on the outcome of traffic flow analysis. U...

  19. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Fang, Ye

    2011-07-01

    We describe a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) method to assess the pharmacology of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor. This method combines dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays using an array of probe molecule-hijacked cells with similarity analysis. The whole cell DMR assays track cell system-based, ligand-directed, and kinetics-dependent biased activities of the drugs, and translates their on-target pharmacology into numerical descriptors which are subject to similarity analysis. We demonstrate that the approach establishes an effective link between the label-free pharmacology and in vivo therapeutic indications of drugs.

  20. Block-Based Connected-Component Labeling Algorithm Using Binary Decision Trees

    Wan-Yu Chang; Chung-Cheng Chiu; Jia-Horng Yang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast labeling algorithm based on block-based concepts. Because the number of memory access points directly affects the time consumption of the labeling algorithms, the aim of the proposed algorithm is to minimize neighborhood operations. Our algorithm utilizes a block-based view and correlates a raster scan to select the necessary pixels generated by a block-based scan mask. We analyze the advantages of a sequential raster scan for the block-based scan mask, and in...

  1. Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis.

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-08-01

    Automatic behavior analysis from video is a major topic in many areas of research, including computer vision, multimedia, robotics, biology, cognitive science, social psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. Two major problems are of interest when analyzing behavior. First, we wish to automatically categorize observed behaviors into a discrete set of classes (i.e., classification). For example, to determine word production from video sequences in sign language. Second, we wish to understand the relevance of each behavioral feature in achieving this classification (i.e., decoding). For instance, to know which behavior variables are used to discriminate between the words apple and onion in American Sign Language (ASL). The present paper proposes to model behavior using a labeled graph, where the nodes define behavioral features and the edges are labels specifying their order (e.g., before, overlaps, start). In this approach, classification reduces to a simple labeled graph matching. Unfortunately, the complexity of labeled graph matching grows exponentially with the number of categories we wish to represent. Here, we derive a graph kernel to quickly and accurately compute this graph similarity. This approach is very general and can be plugged into any kernel-based classifier. Specifically, we derive a Labeled Graph Support Vector Machine (LGSVM) and a Labeled Graph Logistic Regressor (LGLR) that can be readily employed to discriminate between many actions (e.g., sign language concepts). The derived approach can be readily used for decoding too, yielding invaluable information for the understanding of a problem (e.g., to know how to teach a sign language). The derived algorithms allow us to achieve higher accuracy results than those of state-of-the-art algorithms in a fraction of the time. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and datasets, including multimodal data. PMID:26415154

  2. A comparative study of fat storage quantitation in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using label and label-free methods.

    Kelvin Yen

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been employed as a model organism to study human obesity due to the conservation of the pathways that regulate energy metabolism. To assay for fat storage in C. elegans, a number of fat-soluble dyes have been employed including BODIPY, Nile Red, Oil Red O, and Sudan Black. However, dye-labeled assays produce results that often do not correlate with fat stores in C. elegans. An alternative label-free approach to analyze fat storage in C. elegans has recently been described with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy. Here, we compare the performance of CARS microscopy with standard dye-labeled techniques and biochemical quantification to analyze fat storage in wild type C. elegans and with genetic mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway including the genes daf-2 (insulin/IGF-1 receptor, rict-1 (rictor and sgk-1 (serum glucocorticoid kinase. CARS imaging provides a direct measure of fat storage with unprecedented details including total fat stores as well as the size, number, and lipid-chain unsaturation of individual lipid droplets. In addition, CARS/TPEF imaging reveals a neutral lipid species that resides in both the hypodermis and the intestinal cells and an autofluorescent organelle that resides exclusively in the intestinal cells. Importantly, coherent addition of the CARS fields from the C-H abundant neutral lipid permits selective CARS imaging of the fat store, and further coupling of spontaneous Raman analysis provides unprecedented details including lipid-chain unsaturation of individual lipid droplets. We observe that although daf-2, rict-1, and sgk-1 mutants affect insulin/IGF-1 signaling, they exhibit vastly different phenotypes in terms of neutral lipid and autofluorescent species. We find that CARS imaging gives quantification similar to standard biochemical triglyceride quantification. Further, we independently confirm that feeding worms with vital dyes does not lead

  3. Parsec's astrometry direct approaches .

    Andrei, A. H.

    Parallaxes - and hence the fundamental establishment of stellar distances - rank among the oldest, keyest, and hardest of astronomical determinations. Arguably amongst the most essential too. The direct approach to obtain trigonometric parallaxes, using a constrained set of equations to derive positions, proper motions, and parallaxes, has been labeled as risky. Properly so, because the axis of the parallactic apparent ellipse is smaller than one arcsec even for the nearest stars, and just a fraction of its perimeter can be followed. Thus the classical approach is of linearizing the description by locking the solution to a set of precise positions of the Earth at the instants of observation, rather than to the dynamics of its orbit, and of adopting a close examination of the never many points available. In the PARSEC program the parallaxes of 143 brown dwarfs were aimed at. Five years of observation of the fields were taken with the WIFI camera at the ESO 2.2m telescope, in Chile. The goal is to provide a statistically significant number of trigonometric parallaxes to BD sub-classes from L0 to T7. Taking advantage of the large, regularly spaced, quantity of observations, here we take the risky approach to fit an ellipse in ecliptical observed coordinates and derive the parallaxes. We also combine the solutions from different centroiding methods, widely proven in prior astrometric investigations. As each of those methods assess diverse properties of the PSFs, they are taken as independent measurements, and combined into a weighted least-square general solution.

  4. HOW SOY LABELING INFLUENCES PREFERENCE AND TASTE

    Wansink, Brian; Park, Sea Bum; Sonka, Steven T.; Morganosky, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    Using a “Phantom Ingredient” taste test, this article demonstrates how the use of soy labels and health claims on a package negatively biased taste perceptions and attitudes toward a food erroneously thought to contain soy. Consumers who ate products which mentioned soy on the package described the taste more grainy, less flavorful, and as having a strong aftertaste compared to those who ate the product but saw no soy label. Yet, while putting “soy” on a package negatively influenced tast...

  5. Fluorescent labels and their use in separations

    Mathies, Richard A.; Glazer, Alexander; Ju, Jingyue

    1997-01-01

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids.

  6. NMR studies of isotopically labeled RNA

    Pardi, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In summary, the ability to generate NMR quantities of {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs has led to the development of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques for simplifying the resonance assignment and structure determination of RNAs. These methods for synthesizing isotopically labeled RNAs are only several years old, and thus there are still relatively few applications of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques to RNA. However, given the critical role that RNAs play in cellular function, one can expect to see an increasing number of NMR structural studies of biologically active RNAs.

  7. Electrochemical Label-Free Nucleotide Sensors.

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Numerous researchers have devoted a great deal of effort over the last few decades to the development of electrochemical oligonucleotide detection techniques, owing to their advantages of simple design, inherently small dimensions, and low power requirements. Their simplicity and rapidity of detection makes label-free oligonucleotide sensors of great potential use as first-aid screening tools in the analytical field of environmental measurements and healthcare management. This review article covers label-free oligonucleotide sensors, focusing specifically on topical electrochemical techniques, including intrinsic redox reaction of bases, conductive polymers, the use of electrochemical indicators, and highly ordered probe structures. PMID:26227073

  8. Large margin filtering for signal sequence labeling

    Flamary, Rémi; Rakotomamonjy, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Signal Sequence Labeling consists in predicting a sequence of labels given an observed sequence of samples. A naive way is to filter the signal in order to reduce the noise and to apply a classification algorithm on the filtered samples. We propose in this paper to jointly learn the filter with the classifier leading to a large margin filtering for classification. This method allows to learn the optimal cutoff frequency and phase of the filter that may be different from zero. Two methods are proposed and tested on a toy dataset and on a real life BCI dataset from BCI Competition III.

  9. Synthesis of carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor'

    Carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor' (2-chloro-N-ethoxymethyl-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)acetamide) was prepared by chlorination of acetic-1-14C acid obtained from barium radiocarbonate to monochloroacetic-1-14C acid which was further chlorinated to monochloroacetyl-1-14C chloride. The addition reaction of this latter with 2-ethyl-6-methylene aniline gave a chloromethyl derivative the ethanolysis of which resulted in 'acetochlor' labelled in its carbonyl carbon. The overall radiochemical yield is 51%. (author)

  10. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides

  11. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  12. 99mTechnetium labelled Escherichia coli

    Samples of a culture of unlabeled Escherichia coli were incubated with different concentrations of stannous chloride for various time periods. 99mTc (26.0 MBq) was added to each preparation and the results showed a labelling yield of 98% for E. coli. Since the bacterial viability of 99mTc-E. coli and E. coli did not show any statistical differences, these results demonstrate that labelling of E. coli with 99mTc does not modify the bacterial viability, and the radiolabelled bacteria may be a good model to study bacterial translocation

  13. Conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements

    The South African Medical Research Council presented this conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements with application in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The conference was held in Bloemfontein from 3-6 February 1986. This work only consists of the abstracts of the seminars that were delivered on the conference. The radioisotopes that occur most of the time in the abstracts include Indium 111, Indium 114, Chromium 51, Iodine 125, Iodine 131 and Carbon 14. Especially Indium 111 seems to be the method of choice for all labelling

  14. Human polyclonal immunoglobulin labelled with technetium-99m via NHS-MAG3: a comparison of radiochemical behavior and biological efficacy with other labelling methods

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiochemical behavior, biological distribution, and localization in infection sites in mice of a human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) labelled with 99mTc by a novel MAG3-labelling method. The resulting [99mTc]MAG3-HIG was compared with [99mTc]HIG preparations radiolabelled directly via 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me) or stannous ion (Sn) reduction and indirectly via 2-iminothiolane (2-Im) conjugation. All preparations showed similar UV and radioactivity HPLC profile to that of native HIG except for 2-Im-HIG, which showed aggregates. The stabilities of the label to challenge with cysteine were similar for all the preparations. By nondenaturing SDS-PAGE, all preparations other than MAG3-HIG showed evidence of lower molecular weight fragments. The tissue distribution 4 and 24 h after intravenous administration of the four preparations were compared in mice previously administered with an isolate of Staphylococcus aureus in one thigh. The pharmacokinetics varied among the different preparations. When prepared via 2-Me, Sn, and 2-Im, both blood clearance and urinary excretion were faster than that of labelled MAG3-HIG. The absolute uptake in the infected thigh at 24 h was significantly higher for HIG labelled via MAG3 and 2-Me vs. the remaining methods. The infected thigh/normal thigh radioactivity ratios were similar at both time points for labelled HIG prepared via 2-Me, 2-Im, and NHS-MAG3 methods but was significantly lower at 24 h for HIG prepared via Sn. The radioactive HPLC profiles of serum at 4 and 24 h were similar to that of the radiolabelled injectates. Based on these data we conclude that each radiolabelled HIG preparation studied showed increased localization in infectious foci although [99mTc]MAG3-HIG showed superior radiochemical and biological characteristics under the conditions of this investigation

  15. Labelling of endogenous target protein via N-S acyl transfer-mediated activation of N-sulfanylethylanilide.

    Denda, Masaya; Morisaki, Takuya; Kohiki, Taiki; Yamamoto, Jun; Sato, Kohei; Sagawa, Ikuko; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Sato, Youichi; Yamauchi, Aiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira

    2016-07-14

    The ligand-dependent incorporation of a reporter molecule (e.g., fluorescence dye or biotin) onto a endogenous target protein has emerged as an important strategy for elucidating protein function using various affinity-based labelling reagents consisting of reporter, ligand and reactive units. Conventional labelling reagents generally use a weakly activated reactive unit, which can result in the non-specific labelling of proteins in a ligand-independent manner. In this context, the activation of a labelling reagent through a targeted protein-ligand interaction could potentially overcome the problems associated with conventional affinity-based labelling reagents. We hypothesized that this type of protein-ligand-interaction-mediated activation could be accomplished using N-sulfanylethylanilide (SEAlide) as the reactive unit in the labelling reagent. Electrophilically unreactive amide-type SEAlide can be activated by its conversion to the corresponding active thioester in the presence of a phosphate salt, which can act as an acid-base catalyst. It has been suggested that protein surfaces consisting of hydrophilic residues such as amino, carboxyl and imidazole groups could function as acid-base catalysts. We therefore envisioned that a SEAlide-based labelling reagent (SEAL) bearing SEAlide as a reactive unit could be activated through the binding of the SEAL with a target protein. Several SEALs were readily prepared in this study using standard 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-based solid-phase protocols. These SEAL systems were subsequently applied to the ligand-dependent labelling of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) and cyclooxyganese 1. Although we have not yet obtained any direct evidence for the target protein-mediated activation of the SEAlide unit, our results for the reaction of these SEALs with hCA1 or butylamine indirectly support our hypothesis. The SEALs reported in this study represent valuable new entries to the field of affinity-based labelling reagents

  16. Study of tritium labeling of complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls

    The method for tritium labeling of technical mixture (commercial mark - SOVOL, USSR) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The influence of procedure of labeling by thermally activated tritium on the nativity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied. The method of labeling by thermally activated tritium has some factors, which are able to destroy organic compounds - photodegradation, thermo-degradation and degradation caused by reaction of substitution of organic compounds hydrogen atoms by activated tritium atoms. To develop a method of labeling of every organic compound by thermally activated tritium it is necessary to determine and optimize the conditions of labeling. In our case procedure of labeling is complicated because of technical mixture of PCBs consist from more than 20 isomers, chlorinated with different degree. We studied the dependence of appearance of products of degradation PCBs from duration of labeling procedure. It was found that some part of PCBs and product of its degradation were evaporated under vacuum and were collected on the glass flask cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that correlation between labeled of PCBs and products of degradation did not changed with increasing time of labeling, and radiochemical yield of tritium labeled of PCBs was stable - about 15-20 %. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. It was found that purification of labeled PCBs by TLC on silica gel with hexane allows obtaining tritium-labeled PCBs purified from by-products. Thus, TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled PCBs

  17. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    M. van der Merwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review of the relevant literature of mostly quantitative research, but also includes qualitative and mixed method studies. The article examines such aspects as the trustworthiness of claims on food labels, intelligibility of label information, listing of food additives on labels, and labelling of genetically modified foods. As negative perspectives on food labelling are likely to affect consumers’ decision making regarding the purchasing of food products, the food industry must realise their responsibility to provide ethical food labels. The food industry and regulators should aim to provide risk communication and intelligible information through ethical food labels and consumer education programmes on food labelling. Consumers need to be aware of their right to know what they are purchasing through ethical food labels and take a stand in this regard.

  18. Efficient Thread Labeling for Monitoring Programs with Nested Parallelism

    Ha, Ok-Kyoon; Kim, Sun-Sook; Jun, Yong-Kee

    It is difficult and cumbersome to detect data races occurred in an execution of parallel programs. Any on-the-fly race detection techniques using Lamport's happened-before relation needs a thread labeling scheme for generating unique identifiers which maintain logical concurrency information for the parallel threads. NR labeling is an efficient thread labeling scheme for the fork-join program model with nested parallelism, because its efficiency depends only on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. This paper presents an improved NR labeling, called e-NR labeling, in which every thread generates its label by inheriting the pointer to its ancestor list from the parent threads or by updating the pointer in a constant amount of time and space. This labeling is more efficient than the NR labeling, because its efficiency does not depend on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. Some experiments were performed with OpenMP programs having nesting depths of three or four and maximum parallelisms varying from 10,000 to 1,000,000. The results show that e-NR is 5 times faster than NR labeling and 4.3 times faster than OS labeling in the average time for creating and maintaining the thread labels. In average space required for labeling, it is 3.5 times smaller than NR labeling and 3 times smaller than OS labeling.

  19. Direct cervicoplasty.

    Jordan, J Randall; Yellin, Seth

    2014-08-01

    Rejuvenation of the aging neck is one of the common reasons for the patients presented to facial plastic surgeons. In the author's opinion, most of these patients will be best served by a full rhytidectomy approach with periauricular incisions, skin flap undermining, and platysmaplasty. There is a subset of patients, however, who presented with complaints limited to the so-called Turkey Gobbler deformity, and who do not wish to undergo a full rhytidectomy approach. These patients may be well served by a lesser procedure such as a direct cervicoplasty or submentoplasty. The advantages of this approach include shorter operative time, faster recovery, and lower complication rates. The primary disadvantage of these more limited approaches is that there is an anterior cervical scar that may be visible under some conditions. This article will review the multiple options for skin incisions as well as details of the technique that the authors have found may lead to a successful rejuvenation of the submental region. PMID:25076453

  20. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: Impact on visual attention and relationship with body dissatisfaction.

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2016-03-01

    Globally there is increasing advocacy for the implementation of laws requiring disclaimer labels to be attached to media images that have been digitally altered, with the goal of reducing the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal imagery for women. The current study used eye tracking technology to establish how digital alteration disclaimer labels affect women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements, and the interrelationship with body dissatisfaction and state appearance comparison. Participants were 120 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a more detailed specific disclaimer. It was found that women did attend to the disclaimers. Specifically worded disclaimers directed visual attention towards target body areas, which resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, while state appearance comparison predicted increased body dissatisfaction. Further research is imperative to provide guidance on the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:26498728