WorldWideScience

Sample records for 92-500 section 316b

  1. Determination of compliance with PL 92-500 Section 316(b) for the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant of the Indiana and Michigan Power Company

    Region III of the US Fish and Wildlife Service contracted with the Division of Environmental Impact Studies, Argonne National Laboratory, to make the 316(b) determination for the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant of the Indiana and Michigan Power Company and to make recommendations for improvement in intake design to facilitate compliance. To conduct this assessment, appropriate literature on screening systems and reports furnished by the applicant on intake design and operation and on ecological studies at the site were reviewed. Modifications of the location and design of the existing intake and possibilities of retrofitting with fine-mesh screening to screen larval forms of fishes were examined. It was determined that currently there is no dictated need for fine-mesh screening of intake flow at the D.C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant

  2. Use of Equivalent Loss Models Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    William Dey

    2002-01-01

    Equivalent loss models encompass a variety of life table-based approaches that can be used to convert age- and life stage-specific estimates of entrainment and impingement loss to a common, easily understood currency. This common currency can be expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, yield to the fishery, or biomass to the ecosystem. These models have at least two key uses in the Section 316(b) assessment process: screening for adverse environmental impact (AEI) and determination of en...

  3. Use of Equivalent Loss Models Under Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act

    William Dey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent loss models encompass a variety of life table-based approaches that can be used to convert age- and life stage-specific estimates of entrainment and impingement loss to a common, easily understood currency. This common currency can be expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, yield to the fishery, or biomass to the ecosystem. These models have at least two key uses in the Section 316(b assessment process: screening for adverse environmental impact (AEI and determination of environmental benefits associated with intake alternatives. This paper reviews the various forms of equivalent loss models, their data input requirements, and their assumptions and limitations. In addition, it describes how these models can be used as a second-level screening tool as part of the assessment of the potential for AEI. Given their relative simplicity and ease of use, equivalent loss models should prove to be an important tool in the arsenal of impact assessment methods for Section 316(b.

  4. Use of equivalent loss models under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act.

    Dey, William

    2002-06-13

    Equivalent loss models encompass a variety of life table-based approaches that can be used to convert age- and life stage-specific estimates of entrainment and impingement loss to a common, easily understood currency. This common currency can be expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, yield to the fishery, or biomass to the ecosystem. These models have at least two key uses in the Section 316(b) assessment process: screening for adverse environmental impact (AEI) and determination of environmental benefits associated with intake alternatives. This paper reviews the various forms of equivalent loss models, their data input requirements, and their assumptions and limitations. In addition, it describes how these models can be used as a second-level screening tool as part of the assessment of the potential for AEI. Given their relative simplicity and ease of use, equivalent loss models should prove to be an important tool in the arsenal of impact assessment methods for Section 316(b). PMID:12805898

  5. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas

  6. An Analysis of Citizen Participation Programs Relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500): Case Studies of the Washington County Project; State of Wisconsin; and Dane County, Wisconsin Programs.

    Salmon, Elizabeth E.

    The thesis, which presents an analysis of three Wisconsin citizen participation programs relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), has identified the adult education role in teaching and applying skills, promoting growth in governmental understanding, assisting in public planning and…

  7. A Blueprint for the Problem Formulation Phase of EPA-Type Ecological Risk Assessments for 316(b Determinations

    Webster Van Winkle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between management objectives focused on sustainability of fish populations and the indigenous aquatic community, and a management objective focused on minimizing entrainment and impingement losses accounts for much of the ongoing controversy surrounding §316(b. We describe the EPA’s ecological risk assessment framework and recommend that this framework be used to more effectively address differences in management objectives and structure §316(b determinations. We provide a blueprint for the problem formulation phase of EPA-type ecological risk assessments for cooling-water intake structures (CWIS at existing power plant facilities. Our management objectives, assessment endpoints, conceptual model, and generic analysis plan apply to all existing facilities. However, adapting the problem formulation process for a specific facility requires consideration of the permitting agency’s guidelines and level of regulatory concern, as well as site-specific ecological and technical differences. The facility-specific problem formulation phase is designed around the hierarchy of biolo gical levels of organization in the generic conceptual model and the sequence of cause-effect events and risk hypotheses represented by this model. Problem formulation is designed to be flexible in that it can be tailored for facilities where §316(b regulatory concern is low or high. For some facilities, we anticipate that the assessment can be completed based on consideration of susceptibility alone. At the other extreme, a high level of regulatory concern combined with the availability of extensive information and consideration of costly CWIS mitigation options may result in the ecological risk assessment relying on analyses at all levels. Decisions on whether to extend the ecological risk assessment to additional levels should be based on whether regulatory or generator concerns merit additional analyses and whether available information is adequate to

  8. Cesarean Sections

    ... arise with the mother and/or baby during pregnancy or labor. An emergency C-section might be required if: labor stops ... of possible problems with the placenta during future pregnancies. In the case of emergency C-sections, the benefits usually far outweigh the ...

  9. Impingement and entrainment of fishes at the Savannah River Plant: an NPDES 316b demonstration

    McFarlane, R.W.; Frietsche, R.F.; Miracle, R.D.

    1978-02-01

    Environmental impacts of the Savannah River Plant's withdrawal of Savannah River water include impingement of juvenile and adult fish on trash removal screens, and entrainment of planktonic fish eggs and larval fish into the pumping system. The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has the capacity to pump 3.6 million cubic meters of water per day--25% of the minimal river discharge--for cooling and other purposes. Present removal is 7% of the actual river discharge. In the river and intake canals reside sixty-nine species of fishes. The species composition of the resident fish community of the intake canals is similar to the species composition in the river, but different in relative species abundance. The dominant sunfishes tend to reside in the canals for long periods and seldom go from canal to canal. The fish impingement rate at the plant ranks very low in comparison with electric power plants on inland waters. Thirty-five species of fishes were impinged during 1977. The average impingement rate of 7.3 fish per day extrapolates to 2,680 fish per year. No single species comprised more than 10% of the sample. The most commonly impinged species were bluespotted sunfish, warmouth, channel catfish, and yellow perch. The relative abundance of those species impinged deviates from their relative abundance in the canal fish population.

  10. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... c-section delivery without labor, there's an increased risk for the baby to need some extra help. ... with each successive c-section, there's an increased risk of there being scar tissue, which may increase ...

  12. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... classical cesarean sections, because the risk of uterine rupture with subsequent labor is greater, we generally don' ... With a BVAC, there's a risk of uterine rupture. With multiple cesarean sections, there's a risk of ...

  13. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... JODI JACKSON, MD: Anytime that you have a c-section delivery without labor, there's an increased risk ... important to think about the reasons why a c-section is indicated. The literature suggests that once ...

  14. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... opinion on this seemingly growing trend to undergo electric cesarean section instead of traditional vaginal delivery, especially ... that we've got a completely dry operative field. And it looks really great. So we sort ...

  15. Flow Cytometry Section

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  16. Light Imaging Section

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  17. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... for granted and feel that this is not something that's potentially dangerous, and therefore, maybe we might ... be with the family as much, so it's something to consider always when performing a c-section ...

  18. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... sections sometimes have a good bit of scar tissue. Sometimes there's really not a whole lot there. ... there's an increased risk of there being scar tissue, which may increase the patient's risk for complications ...

  19. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  20. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  1. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: The operation 3:12 Dr. Siobhan ...

  2. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... may increase the patient's risk for complications or injury to surrounding organs such as bowel or bladder. ... sections, there's a risk of scar tissue and injury to surrounding organs. So I think it's oftentimes ...

  3. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... hear the baby and the baby will be right here with her immediately after delivery. So we' ... a repeat cesarean section, we make the incision right through the patient's previous incision. This is called ...

  4. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... We've already started, so things are going well. 00:05:37 FEMALE VOICE: [Unintelligible.] 00:05: ... D. RIDGWAY, MD: Sure. The repeat cesarean section. Well, typically we try not to do elective deliveries ...

  5. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... need a lot of special help. So it's real important when c-sections are performed that we ... patients, the particular risks of both, and both options need to be discussed. And then the patient ...

  6. Utility straight sections

    Leemann, B.; Peggs, S.; Peterson, J.

    1985-10-01

    Utility straight sections are insertions in the SSC lattice to provide relatively free space to facilitate various beam manipulations. These uses include beam-abort, injection (and conceivably ejection), space for the rf system, and collimation. A typical utility straight section is 1500 meters in overall length (ranging from 500 to 1200 meters). It has zero dispersion and high values of the beta functions. The betatron phase shift across the insertion is about 90{degrees} in each plane.

  7. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  8. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available ... cesarean section delivery during this hour-long period. I am Dr. Reagan Wittek. I am an obstetrician with Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... joined us for this webcast. Next to me I have Dr. Elizabeth Wickstrom, who is a maternal- ...

  9. PRES 2012 special section

    Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Wang, Qiuwang; Lund, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing the...

  10. Sectional global sensitivity measures

    In this paper the approach of sectional sensitivity measures is introduced. Opposite to well-known global sensitivity measures not only a singleton value is provided to appraise the functional input–output interrelation but rather a more detailed description of these interrelation is enabled. Therefore, the domain of definition (input space) and/or the codomain (result space) are subdivided in a finite number of subdomains/subranges. The evaluation of global sensitivity measures in these subdomains/subranges allows for a proper appraisal of the functional interrelation in local regions. The theoretic background of sectional sensitivity measures is elaborated in detail and exemplified by means of analytical functions. The advantages of sectional sensitivity measures are discussed by means of a medical intervention planning of a radio frequency ablation. - Highlights: • Global sensitivity measures provide just a singleton value per input dimension. • Sectional sensitivity measures enable evaluation of functional interrelation. • Subdivision of input and output in intervals (subdomains). • Usage of absolute partial derivatives as sensitivity measure. • Regional sensitivity statements in input as well as in output space possible

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  12. Total Cross Sections

    G. GiacomelliBologna University and INFN

    2014-01-01

    The measurements of the hadron-hadron total cross sections are the first measurements performed when a new hadron accelerator opens up a new energy region; the measurements were made as function of the incoming beam momentum or c.m. energy and have often been repeated with improved accuracy and finer energy spacing.

  13. Transpacific section planned

    Swift, James

    1984-04-01

    A transpacific section across the subpolar gyre near latitude 47°N is planned for September-October 1985. This complements the 24.5°N section planned for March-May 1985. The purpose of the expedition is to determine the western boundary current structure, to determine the meridional flow in the region of the Emperor Seamounts, to measure the transport of heat by ocean currents, to determine the net transport of water masses and estimate the meridional general circulation of the north Pacific, and to improve the mapping of tracer distributions in the deep north Pacific.Approximately 110 surface-to-bottom conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) rosette stations across the width of the ocean will be occupied, with maximum station spacing of 80 km over abyssal plains, closing to 30-50 km over rough topography and boundaries. Water samples will be collected and analyzed on board for salinity, oxygen, and nutrients.

  14. Pollutant Scavenging Section

    Slinn, W. G.N.; Hales, J. M.; Hane, C. E.; Young, J. A.; Davis, W. E.; Drewes, D. R.; Tanner, T, M.; Thomas, C. W.; Wogman, N. A.; Dana, M. Terry; Glover, D. M.

    1976-03-01

    This section is comprised of 18 papers. The removal of atmospheric pollutants by clouds and precipitation is a major factor in determining budgets of pollutants distributed on a regional scale. The quantity and patterns of pollutants delivered to sensitive ecosystems, as well as the distributions remaining as inhalation hazards in scavenged air, can only be defined by a thorough investigation of precipitation scavenging processes. Results are reported from research studies on in-cloud scavenging in frontal and convective storms, and below-cloud scavenging of submicron particulates. (CH)

  15. Perimortem caesarean section.

    Parry, Richard; Asmussen, Tilo; Smith, Jason E

    2016-03-01

    This review describes a simple approach to perimortem caesarean section (PMCS) that can be used by a doctor in the resuscitation room or prehospital environment when faced with a mother of more than 20 weeks gestation in cardiac arrest. It explores the indications for and contraindications to the procedure, the physiological rationale behind it, equipment needed, technical aspects of the procedure and reviews recent literature on maternal and fetal outcomes. Like other uncommon procedures such as emergency department thoracotomy, rehearsal and preparation for a PMCS is essential to give both mother and baby the best chance of survival. PMID:25714106

  16. MedlinePlus: Cesarean Section

    ... C-section C-section - slideshow Cesarean section Going home after a C-section Vaginal birth after C-section Related Health Topics Childbirth Childbirth Problems Languages Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - ...

  17. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  18. Environmental Impact Section

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  19. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  20. Trans-Pacific Section

    A trans-Pacific section along latitude 24.5°N is planned for 1985, with the field program tentatively scheduled for April 17 to June 27. The purpose of the expedition is to measure the transport of heat by ocean currents, to determine the net transport of water masses and estimate the meridional general circulation of the North Pacific, and to improve the mapping of tracer distributions in the deep North Pacific.Approximately 200 surface-to-bottom CTD/rosette stations will be occupied across the width of the ocean, with maximum station spacing of 80 km over abyssal plains, closing to 30-50 km over rough topography and boundaries. Water samples will be collected and analyzed on board for salinity, oxygen, and nutrients.

  1. Radiation and photochemistry section

    The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane +·, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H·atom reactions yielding eaq- provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in aq- reactions

  2. Neutrino Cross section Future

    Gollapinni, Sowjanya

    2016-01-01

    The study of neutrino-nucleus interactions has recently received renewed attention due to their importance in interpreting the neutrino oscillation data. Over the past few years, there has been continuous disagreement between neutrino cross section data and predictions due to lack of accurate nuclear models suitable for modern experiments which use heavier nuclear targets. Also, the current short and long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments focus in the few GeV region where several distinct neutrino processes come into play resulting in complex nuclear effects. Despite recent efforts, more experimental input is needed to improve nuclear models and reduce neutrino interaction systematics which are currently dominating oscillation searches together with neutrino flux uncertainties. A number of new detector concepts with diverse neutrino beams and nuclear targets are currently being developed to provide necessary inputs required for next generation oscillation experiments. This paper summarizes these effor...

  3. Group cross sections calculations

    Just a few methods have been developped to compute multigroup cross-sections from ENDF data. We have developped an original method in order to get accuracy and to reduce the number of discretization points in the same time; this is why we have tried to use polynomial integration. In this paper, we describe this method: in the first part, we recall some physical hypothesis generally used to solve the linear Boltzmann equation: that is the frame in which the numerical method has been developped. Polynomial methods are really powerfull only if discretization points are suitably chosen. This choice is explained in the next part of this paper. In conclusion, some numerical results are given to illustrate our method

  4. Cancer and Toxicology Section

    The Cancer and Toxicology Section is concerned with the investigation of the mechanisms by which chemicals, radiation, and viruses cause the changes broadly identified as cancer. In addition, the study of mechanisms has been extended to include the nontumorigenic effects of various agents associated with fossil energy and fuels. Research in molecular genetics of carcinogenesis focuses largely on the transposon properties of the genomes of retroviruses. The transposon structure of the DNA genomes of endogenous murine N-tropic and B-tropic type C retroviruses is being elucidated, and their chromosomal location mapped in hamster-mouse cell hybrids. A model of the mechanism of retrovirus induction by radiation and chemicals is being developed, and experiments have established that compounds such as hydroxyurea act as inducer. There is the possibility that transposition of sequences of this endogenous virus may be linked to leukemogenesis. Research in regulation of gene expression aims at defining in molecular terms the mechanisms determining expression of specific genes, how these are regulated by hormones, and the events responsible for dysfunction of gene expression in cancer. In corollary work, a library of cloned cDNAs specific for products of genes of special interest to regulation is being developed. Improvement of reversed-phase chromatography as a means of isolating bacterial plasmids and restriction fragments of DNA is underway. Newly developed techniques permit the isolation of supercoiled plasmid DNA directly from bacterial extracts. The technology has been developed recently for the photosynthetic growth of the chemo-autotrophic organism Rhodospirillum rubrum and the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase has been produced in quantity

  5. Industrial Section Convenor's Report

    Barone, M.; Riboni, P.

    2002-11-01

    recently into the areas of interest of our community (Hourdakis and Intrasoft) and the examples of an Industry historically committed to a strong R&D effort (SAES-Getters). Finally a case of involvement of industry in a "Big Science" project (CMS) completed the palette of the contributions to this Industry Section. The full set of transparencies of the lectures, are filed and made available at the conference site: .

  6. PLSS Townships and Sections, Sections, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'Sections'. Data by this publisher are...

  7. 7 CFR 3200.3 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note). (c) Hispanic-serving institutions—institutions of higher education as defined in section 316(b) of the Higher...

  8. Diffractive and rising cross sections

    The energy dependence of the diffractive component of the proton-proton cross section is discussed and its contribution to the rise of the total cross section at high energies is examined. 17 refs., 9 figs

  9. C-section - series (image)

    ... anesthesia, which renders the patient unconscious, for emergency C-sections because it can be administered quickly and takes effect almost immediately. When the C-section is planned, the doctor may order regional ...

  10. Adverse Environmental Impact: 30-Year Search for a Definition

    Mayhew, David A.; Muessig, Paul H.; Loren D. Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b) of the act: “adverse environmental impact” (AEI). Section 316(b) requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regar...

  11. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    This paper discusses the following topics: 14 MeV pulsed neutron facility; detection and measurement system; 238U capture cross sections at 23 and 964 keV using photon neutron sources; capture cross sections of Au-197 at 23 and 964 keV; and yttrium nuclear cross section measurement

  12. Scheduling a C-Section

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  13. Modeling golden section in plants

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this study, tree, flower and fruit models have been generated by using the corresponding golden section characteristics, resulting in more natural patterns. Furthermore, the golden section can be found in the bifurcate angles of trees and lobed leaves, extending the golden section theory.

  14. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5...... containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, β-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and...

  15. (n,2n) cross sections

    Most of the fission products and a few of the actinides in ENDF/B-V do not have (n,2n) cross sections. A complete set of these cross sections is presented in the multigroup structure defined. These were constructed for future use in the DANDE Code System

  16. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  17. Cross Sections and Lorentz Violation

    Colladay, Don; Kostelecky, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The derivation of cross sections and decay rates in the Lorentz-violating standard-model extension is discussed. General features of the physics are described, and some conceptual and calculational issues are addressed. As an illustrative example, the cross section for the specific process of electron-positron pair annihilation into two photons is obtained.

  18. Three-Section Expiratory CT:

    Loeve, Martine; de Bruijne, Marleen; Hartmann, Ieneke C. J.;

    2012-01-01

    a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.Materials and Methods: In this institutional review board-approved pilot study, 20 subjects aged 6-20 years (12 female and eight male; median age, 12.6 years) contributed two expiratory CT studies (three-section baseline CT, volumetric follow-up CT) and two...... PFT studies over 2 years after parental informed consent was obtained. From follow-up CT studies, seven sets were composed: Set 1 was volumetric. Sets 2, 3, 4, and 5, had spacing of 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 20.4 mm, respectively, between sections. Sets 6 and 7 contained five and three sections, respectively....... Longitudinal follow-up was performed with three sections. All images were deidentified and randomized, and TA was scored with the Brody II system and a new quantitative system. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, calculation of Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, and use...

  19. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  20. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  1. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: Recovering after surgery 3:47 Dr. ...

  2. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations...

  3. Measurement of fission cross sections

    A review is presented on the recent progress in the experiment of fission cross section measurement, including recent activity in Japan being carried out under the project of nuclear data measurement. (author)

  4. Who's afraid of Section 13?

    This article discusses the time restrictions of Section 13 of the Federal Power Act and its impact on independent hydroelectric plant project development. The topics of the article include Section 13 history, the Government Accounting Office report findings regarding developers 'banking' of proposed project sites and project construction commencement time limits, and a review of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission data on license applications, licenses granted and completed projects

  5. The total charm cross section

    R. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that due to the small charm quark mass, which amplifies the effect of the other parameters in the calculation, the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  6. Particle sizes from sectional data

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due to...... the local stereological estimation procedure and the variance due to the variability of particle sizes in the population. Methods for judging the difference between the distribution of estimated particle sizes and the distribution of true particle sizes are also provided....

  7. [Cesarean section and eye disorders].

    Karska-Basta, Izabella; Tarasiewicz, Marta; Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Miniewicz, Joanna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a growing tendency for cesarean birth has been noted both, in Poland and worldwide. Non-obstetric problems constitute a large part of indications for cesarean section. Many ophthalmologists and obstetricians still believe that high myopia, the presence of peripheral retinal degenerations, history of retinal detachment surgery, diabetic retinopathy, or glaucoma are indications for surgical termination of pregnancy. However, these recommendations are not evidence-based. The literature offers no proof that high myopia and previous retinal surgery increase the risk of retinal detachment during spontaneous vaginal delivery. There is only one indication for cesarean section in myopic patients, i.e. the presence of choroidal neovascularization, which can cause subretinal bleeding with acute visual loss. Prolonged and intensified Valsalva maneuver during labor in patients with an active proliferative diabetic retinopathy may be an indication for an elective cesarean section. Uterine contractions during the second stage of vaginal delivery lead to a marked elevation of intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure fluctuations during the delivery may damage retinal ganglion cells, resulting in further progression of visual field. Thus, glaucoma associated with advanced visual field changes is the next ophthalmic indication for cesarean section. The report presents the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of pregnancy on pre-existing ocular disorders and the influence of physiological changes on the clinical course of these diseases during the stages of natural delivery. The authors discuss also the ophthalmic indications for cesarean section. PMID:27306132

  8. The Hausdorff Dimension of Sections

    Min NIU; Lifeng XI

    2007-01-01

    The notion of finite-type open set condition is defined to calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of the sections of some self-similar sets, such as the dimension of intersection of the Koch curve and the line x = a with a ∈(Q).

  9. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  10. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  11. Vibratome sections of difficult tissues

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    After 1 hours of aldehyde fixation, 4 to 20 hours of soaking in 2% BSA (bovine serum albumin) solution and another 17 hours in the same fixative, the vibratome will produce smooth, even sections from agar embedded guinea pig thyroid, skeletal muscle or larynx with the same ease as it will from soft......, homogeneous tissues such as liver or spleen....

  12. Neonatology and the caesarean section.

    Zanini, R; Minghetti, D

    2012-10-01

    The origins of the use of the Caesarean section date far back in human history. Traces of this procedure can be found in Greek mythology and in the history of Ancient Rome. Many documents about the history of religion make reference to a delivery from the abdomen. PMID:22958012

  13. Cross sections for nuclear astrophysics

    General properties of low-energy cross sections and of reaction rates are presented. We describe different models used in nuclear astrophysics: microscopic models, the potential model, and the R-matrix method. Two important reactions, 7Be(p,γ)8B and 12C(α,γ)16O, are then briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Metonymy and Cross Section Demand

    Evstigneev, Igor V.; Hildenbrand, Werner; Jerison, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Cross section consumer expenditure data are frequently used to make conclusions about consumer demand behavior. Such conclusions, however, can only be justified under certain assumptions, which are often left unstated in the empirical demand literature. An assumption of this type, the metonymy hypothesis, was stated rigorously and then exploited by Hardle, Hildenbrand and Jerison when analyzing the monotonicity property of aggregate demand functions. The purpose of the present paper is to exa...

  15. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    David Jenn; Cuong Ton

    2012-01-01

    The radar cross section (RCS) of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axi...

  16. New activation cross section data

    New nuclear cross section libraries (known as USACT92) have been created for activation calculations. A point-wise file was created from merging the previous version of the activation library, the U.S. Nuclear Data Library (ENDF/B-VI), and the European Activation File (EAF-2). 175 and 99 multi-group versions were also created. All the data are available at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center

  17. Progress report : Plasma Physics Section

    The activities of the plasma physics section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India over the last five years (1970-75) are reported. The R and D programme of the section has been divided into four cells mainly i.e., (i) Thermal plasma (ii) Relativistic Electron Beam (iii) Energetics and (iv) Electron beam technology. The salient features of the development activities carried out in these cells are outlined. In the Thermal plasma group, considerable research work has been done in (a) fundamental plasma studies, (b) industrial plasma technology and (c) open cycle MHD power generation project. The relativistic electron beam group is engaged in improving the technology to realize high power lasers, and pulsed thermonuclear fusion. The energetics programme is oriented to develop high voltage d.c. generators and pulse generators. The electron beam techniques developed here are routinely used for melting refractory and reactive metals. The technical know-how of the welding machines developed has been transfered to industries. Equipment developed by this section, such as, (1) electron beam furnace, (2) plasma cutting torch, (3) impulse magnet charger etc. are listed. (A.K.)

  18. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  19. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  20. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  1. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    In this report, we outline the progress achieved in two distinct under the DOE-sponsored cross section project: the initial results obtained from the pulsed 14 MeV neutron facility, and a cooperative effort with Argonne National Laboratory in the measurement of fast neutron cross sections in yttrium. In the 14 MeV neutron laboratory, this year has seen the maturation of the project into one in which initial scattering measurements are now underway. We have improved the accelerator and ion source in several significant ways, so that neutron intensities have now been proven to be adequate for our series of elastic scattering angular distribution measurements outlined in our initial proposal of two years ago. We have successfully tested all components of the time-of-flight spectrometer and recorded initial neutron spectra from the ring targets that we have obtained for our first angular distribution measurements. Examples of the time-of-flight spectra that have been obtained are given later in this report. At the present time, the accelerator is operating with the highest degree of reliability that we have experienced since installing the pulsing system. Improvements made over the past year have not only increased the available neutron intensity, but also increased our capability to deal with inevitable component failures that require repair or replacement. The measurements carried out in conjunction with Argonne have contributed significantly to the available database on fast neutron interactions in yttrium. Results indicate that the cross section for the 89 Y(n,p)89Sr reaction is substantially higher than represented in ENDF/B-VI

  2. Activities of Radiation Standard Section

    A brief account of the various facilities and services provided by the Radiation Standards Section (RSS) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is given. RSS maintains the primary and secondary standards of various parameters of radiation measurements. It ensures accurate radiological measurements as per international requirements, through periodic international intercomparisons of national standards. It also provides calibration services to various users of radiation sources and instruments. The activities of RSS are described under the headings: (1) Radiological Metrology Standards, (2) Radionuclide Standards, Neutron Metrology, (4) Instruments Calibration, (5) Non-ionizing Radiations, and (6) Instrumentation. (author). figs., tabs

  3. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  4. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  5. Nuclear Data Section status report

    This report summarises the Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) related activity of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) for the period October 1998 to September 2000. It covers both online NSDD user service either Telnet or Web services, and offline NSDD service. The NSDD development programs and projects are related to NDS contribution to the IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services program, Coordinated Research Project on nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation, Coordinated Research Project on updating of x-ray and gamma-ray decay data standards for detector calibration, and Coordinated Research Project on development of database for prompt gamma-neutron activation analysis

  6. Turbine airfoil having outboard and inboard sections

    Mazzola, Stefan; Marra, John J

    2015-03-17

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and formed from at least an outboard section and an inboard section such that an inner end of the outboard section is attached to an outer end of the inboard section. The outboard section may be configured to provide a tip having adequate thickness and may extend radially inward from the tip with a generally constant cross-sectional area. The inboard section may be configured with a tapered cross-sectional area to support the outboard section.

  7. Medical Reasons for a C-Section

    ... Labor & birth > Medical reasons for a c-section Medical reasons for a c-section E-mail to ... have your baby through vaginal birth. What are medical reasons for having a c-section? Your health ...

  8. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies...

  9. To the Ocean Sciences section

    Hickey, Barbara

    To maximize our ability to obtain recognition of Ocean Sciences Section members as Fellows of AGU while minimizing the associated workload, I have, in consultation with our executive committee, established an Ocean Sciences Fellows Committee chaired by the President-Elect to oversee and assist in the nomination process.The committee asks that anyone wanting to sponsor a nomination send a one-page proposal telling why an individual should be made a Fellow. Proposals will be reviewed by the commitee, and a number equal to 1 ½ to 2 times our nomination quota will be chosen for full presentation. Committee members will then work with nominators to select and contact seconders, while the nominator provides the required curriculum vitae and publication list. The committee will assist in any manner possible to insure that the files that go forward are both timely and well documented.

  10. 24 CFR 882.123 - Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring.

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Annual Adjustment Factor (24 CFR part 888) most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of Section 23 Units to... Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.123 Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section...

  11. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase

  12. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  13. Introduction to the Special Section

    Terry-Ann Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several theories of international migration have emerged to explain and predict the patterns created by the international flows of people. While used as an explanatory tool for other sociological phenomena, world-systems analysis has also emerged as a dominant paradigm through which international migration may be explored. In April 2008 Fairfield University in Fairfield, CT hosted the thirty-second annual conference of the Political Economy of the World-System section of the American Sociological Association. The theme was Flow of People and Money across the World-System: Past, Present and Future. The collection of papers presented at this conference was academically rich and produced a wealth of scholarship, some of which is presented in this issue. Vernengo and Bradbury examine the risks associated with dollarization in Ecuador, arguing that although these risks are minimized by the influx of migrant remittances into the country, the trend remains unstable and unsustainable, as was evident in Argentina. Rocha deconstructs the optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, instead arguing that they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism. Dick and Jorgenson focus on environmental consequences of foreign investment dependence for less-developed countries and how various types of ecological degradation can contribute to mass migration. Kentor, Sobel and Timberlake discuss the hierarchy of global cities through which so much money flows back and forth, and specifically the spatiality of inter-corporate integration in the global economy such as the spatial distribution of intra-firm corporate headquarter-subsidiary networks operations and centrality in transportation networks. Lastly, Degirmen presents a case study of globalization of capital in Turkey and how interest and exchange rate shocks produced particularly interesting effects on capital and liquidity structures.

  14. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  15. FOREWORD: Special section on imaging

    Bertero, M.; Scherzer, O.

    2003-12-01

    Imaging is a rapidly growing area in applied sciences. It has an interdisciplinary character and a wide range of applications such as medicine, nondestructive evaluation, microscopy and astronomy, as well as many industrial processes. The increasing demand on imaging is due to the change of role of vision. Today vision is not through eyes only but complemented, for instance, by ultrasound, x-ray computerized tomography (CT), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), to name but a few. Moreover, traditional imaging systems such as microscopes and telescopes are now equipped with detection instruments (CCD cameras) and the resulting digital images are currently processed and enhanced. Finally, the relevance of imaging for industry is best documented by a recent feature by Robert West (West R 2003 In industry, seeing is believing Physics World June 2003). Today the scope of imaging has broadened and plays a central role in many different areas ranging, for instance, from remote sensing to seismology. In most cases the new imaging techniques are based on indirect measurements of physical parameters; therefore they quite naturally lead to the demand of solving (linear or nonlinear) inverse problems. This indicates the central role that inverse problems have in imaging science. This special section highlights several topics of recent advances in imaging. The first five papers concern problems originating from medical imaging which can have important applications in other domains. The paper by Ji et al covers a new and promising diagnostic tool in medicine: the identification of abnormal tissues by elastic shear wave properties. The two subsequent papers by Louis and by Defrise et al concern 3D cone beam tomography which is the most recent and advanced technique in x-ray CT. Both the case of circular and helical scanning are considered. The paper by Natterer et al is also about tomography but is intended to exploit the mathematical analogies between x-ray CT and synthetic

  16. Analytical study of indications of cesarean section

    Janki M. Pandya

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Reduction of number of primary cesarean sections and successful VBAC trials are recommended to keep the rate of cesarean sections to the possible minimum level. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1460-1463

  17. 40 CFR 86.1204 - Section numbering.

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1204 Section numbering. The section numbering system set forth...

  18. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  19. Section Level Public Land Survey - polygons

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Data are derived primarily from Section corner locations captured from paper USGS seven and one-half...

  20. Evaluation of cross section for 103Rh

    A completely new evaluation for the neutron cross sections is presented. The experimental data mainly referred to EXFOR, and the recommended cross sections are compared with ENDF/B-6, BROND-2, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2

  1. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  2. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  3. 46 CFR Section 1 - Books of account.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Books of account. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Section 1 Books of account. A separate set of books of account shall be opened for the purpose...

  4. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  5. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  6. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    The 235U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to 235U. However, the more difficult 235U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the 235U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  9. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  10. Psychosocial Factors for Women Requesting Cesarean Section

    Yajuan Zhao; Shuangyun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rates of caesarean section are progressively increasing in many parts of the world. As a result of psychosocial factors, there has been an increasing tendency for pregnant women without justifiable medical indications for caesarean section to ask for this procedure in China. The psychosocial factors for requesting cesarean section were analyzed in our study. Methods: A self-made questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were ...

  11. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  12. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 2

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume II contains cross-sections for K+ and K- induced reactions. (orig.)

  13. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  14. Ion and electron impact ionization cross sections

    Several current projects are described in which cross sections of interest to radiation physics are being measured. These include total and multiple ionization cross sections for protons on several gases covering a wide energy range, the measurement of cross sections differential in the angle and energy of ejected electrons for several gases including water vapor, and a review of proton ionization data. The work on water vapor has also been extended to electron and neutral hydrogen impact. A brief discussion is also given of some systematics of ionization cross sections. 13 references

  15. Perspectives of cesarean section in buffaloes

    G N Purohit; Mitesh Gaur; Amit Kumar; Chandra Shekher; Swati Ruhil

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section in buffaloes is an emergency operative procedure being performed prinicipally for uncorrectable uterine torsions and for delivery of fetal monsters. Left paramedian (lateral and parallel to the milk vein) and oblique ventrolateral (above arcus cruralis) are the two common operative sites used for buffalo caesarean section. Although many anesthetic combinations including intravenous and inhalation anesthetic procedures have been experimented in the buffalo species yet most caesarean sections in buffaloes are satisfactorily performed in right lateral recumbency under mild sedation and local infiltration analgesia or paravertebral nerve blocks. The history, indications, anesthesia, operative procedures, post operative complications and future fertility following caesarean section in buffalo are described.

  16. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  17. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  18. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  19. Damage cross section library (DAMSIG77)

    The damage cross sections of various materials are converted to a data format, which can be used as library for the program SAND-II. The materials available in this library are graphite, stainless steel, aluminium, silicium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium and niobium. A number of these materials have more than one cross section set, originating from different evaluations. Cross sections for some activation reactions, commonly used to determine thermal and fast neutron fluences have been included too. Moreover, also some artificial cross sections are introduced in this library which can be used to derive values for some physical quantities which may characterize neutron spectra

  20. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...

  1. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and KL0. It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  2. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  3. Educational strategies in performing cesarean section

    Madsen, Kristine; Grønbeck, Lene; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg;

    2012-01-01

    section, it is recommended that trainees perform 10-15 to 40 supervised cesarean sections prior to operating independently. Surgical technical skills of trainees/residents may be assessed by Objective Structured Assessment of Technical skills (OSATS), which provides a foundation for constructive feedback...

  4. H. W. Laboratory manual: 100 Area section

    1950-07-01

    The purpose of this manual is to present a Hazard Breakdown of all jobs normally encountered in the laboratory work of the three sections comprising the Analytic Section, Metallurgy and Control Division of the Technical Department. A Hazard Breakdown is a careful analysis of any job in which the source of possible dangers is clearly indicated for each particular step. The analysis is prepared by individuals who are thoroughly familiar with the specific job or procedure. It is felt that if the hazards herein outlined are recognized by the Laboratory personnel and the suggested safety cautions followed, the chance for injury will be minimized and the worker will become generally more safety conscious. The manual, which is prefaced by the general safety rules applying to all the laboratories, is divided into three main sections, one for each of the three sections into which the Laboratories Division is divided. These sections are as follows: Section 1 -- 200 Area Control; Section 2 -- 100 Area Control; Section 3 -- 300 Area Control, Essential Materials, and Methods Improvement.

  5. Nucleon-XcJ Dissociation Cross Sections

    冯又层; 许晓明; 周代翠

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-XcJ dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent interexchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmüller-Tye quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium.

  6. 29 CFR Section 1607.16 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    .... Job analysis. A detailed statement of work behaviors and other information relevant to the job. L. Job description. A general statement of job duties and responsibilities. M. Knowledge. A body of information... of performance on the job. See section 5B and section 14C. E. Construct validity. Demonstrated...

  7. Along the Traces of the Conic Sections

    Toni CHEHLAROVA; Sendova, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Based on a geometry problem by Ivan Salabashev we demonstrate an exploratory process leading to conic sections as a locus of points. We work for the purpose with the GeoGebra dynamic software making use of different objects’ representations for explorations related with conic sections.

  8. Fission cross section calculations for Pa isotopes

    Based on the recently measured cross-section values for the neutron-induced fission of 231Pa and our experience gained with other isotopes, new self consistent neutron cross section calculations for n+231Pa have been performed up to 30 MeV. The results are quite different to the existing evaluations, especially above the first chance fission threshold. (authors)

  9. Assembling the LHC short straight sections

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The building where the short straight sections are being assembled, was often called ‘Lego Land’ by the workers because of the wide variety of sets of magnets and cryostats. Short straight sections contain magnets for manipulating the beam inside cryostats with liquid helium to keep the magnets at a cool 1.9 K (-271.3°C).

  10. Comparative analysis among several cross section sets

    Critical parameters were calculated using the one dimensional multigroup transport theory for several cross section sets. Calculations have been performed for water mixtures of uranium metal, plutonium metal and uranium-thorium oxide, and for metallics systems, to determine the critical dimensions of geometries (sphere and cylinder). For this aim, the following cross section sets were employed: 1) multigroup cross section sets obtained from the GAMTEC-II code; 2) the HANSEN-ROACH cross section sets; 3) cross section sets from the ENDF/B-IV, processed by the NJOY code. Finally, we have also calculated the corresponding critical radius using the one dimensional multigroup transport DTF-IV code. The numerical results agree within a few percent with the critical values obtained in the literature (where the greatest discrepancy occured in the critical dimensions of water mixtures calculated with the values generated by the NJOY code), a very good results in comparison with similar works. (Author)

  11. Photoproton cross section for 17O

    The measurement of the 17O(γ,p)16N reaction from threshold to an excitation energy of 44 MeV is presented. These results have been summed with the previously measured total photoneutron cross section to provide an approximation to the total photoabsorption cross section of 17O. The magnitude of the 17O photoabsorption cross section at the peak of the Giant Dipole Resonance is considerably less than the equivalent value for the photoabsorption cross sections of 16O and 18O. In addition, the integrated total photoabsorption cross section for 17O (up to 40 MeV) exhausts only about 58% of the sum rule; the values for the cases of 16O and 18O are significantly larger than this. The present data along with results from other reaction channels of this nucleus, were used to make spin, parity, and isospin assignments for several states in 17O. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  13. Photoneutron cross sections for the silicon isotopes

    The photoneutron cross sections for 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si have been measured up to 33 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons, using neutron multiplicity counting. Average neutron energies were obtained simultaneously with the cross-section data by the ring-ratio technique. The giant dipole resonance for 28Si and 30Si exhibit appreciable fragmentation; that for 29Si does not. The (γ,2n) cross section for 30Si is large; that for 29Si is consistent with zero. The (γ,1n) cross section for 30Si decreases sharply with energy to values near zero as the (γ,2n) cross section grows, then increases to appreciable values as the (γ,2n) cross section diminishes; this extreme behavior, although never seen before, is attributable to the competition between the (γ,n), (γ,2n), and (γ,pn) decay channels. Some properties of the isospin components of the giant resonance are inferred. Other features of the data, including the integrated cross sections, are found to be similar in many respects to corresponding results for the oxygen and magnesium isotopes. The 28Si nucleus is found to be a better core for 29Si and 30Si than might have been expected from previous descriptions of its open-shell character

  14. CNC Extruder for varied section extrusion

    H.J. Choi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work presented in this paper might be used for basic data in the design of a lot extruded aluminum products using the variable section extrusion process.Design/methodology/approach: The capacity of a CNC extruder was calculated and decided as analyzing the FEM results performed by commercial software DEFORM-2D. CNC extruder and die set for variable section extrusion was invented by field extrusion experts.Findings: CNC extruder had a key role in variable extrusion process. Furthermore there was few die sets with mold feeding parts for aluminum extrusion. To be capable of extruding aluminum products with variable cross section are CNC extruder and the die set.Research limitations/implications: For future research of developed CNC extruder, frame structures of the extruder would be analyzed and designed using FE analysis. In addition CNC extruder would be operated by the control program for variable section as a PC version.Practical implications: Aluminum parts with variable section would increase as utilizing the CNC extruder and cost price of the parts be down. Many industrial products using the variable section extrusion process would be used in diverse fields.Originality/value: Extruded aluminum part with variable section is rarely used since extruders don’t be designed and developed for variable section extrusion. It is important that an extruder with CNC control, which could be easily handled and have accessible software to be operated by field user, are invented. As stated above, CNC extruder is needed for production of industrial products with variable section for today. Therefore design and development of CNC extruder having the die set for mold feeding parts was tackled in this paper as efficient approach using commercial FEM code.

  15. 40 CFR 125.138 - As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I keep records...

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I keep records and report? 125.138 Section 125.138... Intake Structures for New Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the Act § 125.138 As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I keep...

  16. 40 CFR 125.134 - As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I do to...

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I do to comply with this subpart? 125.134 Section 125... Intake Structures for New Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the Act § 125.134 As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I do...

  17. 40 CFR 125.137 - As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I perform...

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I perform monitoring? 125.137 Section 125.137 Protection of... Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the Act § 125.137 As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I perform monitoring? As an owner...

  18. The 42Ca photoneutron cross section

    The measurement of the 42Ca(γ,nsub(t)) is reported here over the energy range 10.5 - 28 MeV. Bremsstrahlung radiation from the 35 MeV Betatron at this University was used to measure a yield curve of photoneutrons, from which the (γ,nsub(t)) cross section was derived. Since proton and neutron emission are the major decay modes of the giant dipole resonance, summing these cross sections approximates the photo-absorption cross section. With this information the theoretical predictions can be checked

  19. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 3

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data, particularly those from the CERN Collider, have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume III contains cross-sections for p and anti p induced reactions. (orig.)

  20. New airfoil sections for straight bladed turbine

    A theoretical investigation of aerodynamic performance for vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine with new airfoils sections is carried out. The blade section aerodynamics characteristics are determined from turbomachines cascade model. The model is also adapted to the vertical Darrieus turbine for the performance prediction of the machine. In order to choose appropriate value of zero-lift-drag coefficient in calculation, an analytical expression is introduced as function of chord-radius ratio and Reynolds numbers. New airfoils sections are proposed and analyzed for straight-bladed turbine

  1. Screening corrections to the Rutherford cross section

    Differential cross sections for elastic p-Au scattering were measured in the energy range between 0.2 and 0.8 MeV for scattering angles from 300 to 1500 in order to determine corrections to the Rutherford cross section due to the screening of the nuclear charge by the atomic electrons. Furthermore, differential cross sections have been calculated in the weakly screening region using various screening functions. A simple analytical expression has been derived for the representation of both experimental and theoretical results. (orig.)

  2. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    Samson, R. A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species ha...

  4. Differential cross sections of positron hydrogen collisions

    于荣梅; 濮春英; 黄晓玉; 殷复荣; 刘旭焱; 焦利光; 周雅君

    2016-01-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed.

  5. Systematics of (n,2n) Cross Sections

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experimental data of (n, 2n) cross sections were collected and evaluated as complete as possible. There are 640 sets of experimental data for 130 nuclei. The data were fitted to the expressions that describe the

  6. PLSS Townships and Sections, SectionsUTM83, Published in 2006, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'SectionsUTM83'. Data by this publisher...

  7. PLSS Townships and Sections, Section coverage, Published in 2008, Ellsworth Community College.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset as of 2008. It is described as 'Section coverage'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in a...

  8. The constitutionality of section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act: Section 20 GG 'Kalkar decision'

    OVG Muenster, decision dated Aug. 18th, 1977 - VII A 338/74: 'Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act disagrees with the constitution in as far as it also allows the licensing of FBR type reactores'. The grounds upon which the judgment is based are given in detail: According to the opinion of the Senate, section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act does not conform to the principle of separation of powers (section 20, sub-section 2, sentence 2 GG), to the principle of parliamentary democracy (section 20, sub-section 1 and 2 GG) and to the principles of the law and order state (section 20, sub-section 3 GG) in as far as the present version enables the licensing of fast breeders. (orig./HP)

  9. Photoneutron cross section of 34S

    Using an enriched 34S target, the reaction 34S(γ,sn)33S has been measured from below threshold (10.4 MeV) to 28 MeV by directly counting the photoneutrons as a function of bremsstrahlung energy. The resultant cross section shows gross splitting in the GDR region. The integrated cross section is discussed in the light of the systematics of similar nuclei having two neutrons outside a doubly closed shell/sub-shell core

  10. Photoneutron cross section of 34S

    Using an enriched 34S target, the reaction 34S(γ, sn) has been measured from below threshold (10.4 MeV) to 28 MeV by directly counting the photoneutrons as a function of bremsstrahlung energy. The resultant cross section shows gross splitting in the GDR region. The integrated cross section is discussed in the light of the systematics of similar nuclei having two neutrons outside a doubly closed shell/sub-shell core. (orig.)

  11. Psychiatric illness in women requesting caesarean section

    Sydsjö, Gunilla; Möller, Louise; Lilliecreutz, Caroline; Bladh, Marie; Andolf, E; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare psychiatric in-and outpatient care during the 5 years before first delivery in primiparae delivered by caesarean section on maternal request with all other primiparae women who had given birth during the same time period. Design Prospective, population-based register study. Setting Sweden. Sample Women giving birth for the first time between 2002 and 2004 (n = 64 834). Methods Women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request (n = 1009) were compared with all ot...

  12. Microwave Transmitter With Multimode Output Section

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Bhanji, Alaudin M.; Cormier, Reginald A.

    1988-01-01

    Output-waveguide structure transports 400 kW of continuous-wave signal power at 34.5 GHz. Transmitter generates 400 kW of continuous-wave (CW) signal power. Main feature of conceptual design of this microwave transmitter is output section. Output waveguide structure includes mode converter, directional coupler, polarization monitor, and corrugated overmoded output section. Output directional pattern suitable for antenna illumination without flared feedhorn.

  13. Automatic Morphometry of Nerve Histological Sections

    Romero, E.; Cuisenaire, O.; Denef, J.; Delbeke, J.; Macq, B.; Veraart, C.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the automatic segmentation, recognition and measurement of neuronal myelinated fibers in nerve histological sections is presented. In this method, the fiber parameters i.e. perimeter, area, position of the fiber and myelin sheath thickness are automatically computed. Obliquity of the sections may be taken into account. First, the image is thresholded to provide a coarse classification between myelin and non-myelin pixels. Next, the resulting binary image is further simplified usi...

  14. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Scielzo N.D.; Dietrich F.S.; Escher J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ) cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  15. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  16. Fibonacci Numbers, Golden Section and Applications

    Şen, Erdoğan

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we examined mathematical properties of Fibonacci numbers and applications of this numbers in the nature,geometry and economy.We obtained Golden section and proved some mathematical identities using Golden section. Infinity of the prime numbers proved by using properties of Fibonacci numbers. Encounterings with Fibonacci numbers in the nature are examined with details. Also examples are given for relation about Fibonacci numbers and stock exchange and these are examined.

  17. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  18. Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections

    The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)

  19. Hotel Section Management by Using Balanced Scorecard

    Anna Lysy; Małgorzata Sztorc

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some problems in using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in a hotel section. Fundamental element, which marks out BSC conception, is consolidation around vision and strategy appointed by the hotel management. Well compiled strategy should join all the targets and indexes, which compose four perspectives in BSC. Hotel section is the main gaining centre in the hotel, because the service quality is the main target of management strategy. BSC is a tool, which should not only measure eff...

  20. Volcanology Section Bulletin. French Geologic Society

    This issue of the Volcanology Section Bulletin is a compilation of abstracts from the meeting the section of April, 2 1996 about the active volcanism of Central America and Mexico. The abstracts selected in this issue report on measurements of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes disequilibrium in lava, and radon fluctuations in volcanic gases. One abstract reports on new 14C datings on avalanche debris. (J.S.)

  1. Photoproton cross section for 14C

    Using bremsstrahlung, the 14C(γ,p) reaction cross section has been measured from threshold to 29 MeV. The integrated cross section up to 30 MeV is 18±3 MeV mb. Above 23.5 MeV, the reported cross section includes a contribution, estimated at 3.5 MeV mb, due to the 14C(γ,d) and 14Cγ,pn) reactions. Essentially the entire 14C(γ,p) cross section results from decay of T> dipole states. From knowledge of other decay channels estimates of the cross section, integrated to 30 MeV for the T and T> components of the giant resonance (GDR) of 81 MeV mb and 43 MeV mb are obtained. The splitting of the mean energies of the GDR isospin components is 8.5 MeV. Comparisons with several shell-model calculations are made with the data, and general agreement is found. A comparison of photonuclear absorption cross sections for 12,1314C and 16,17,18 O shows dramatic redistribution of dipole strength as neutrons are added to the core nuclei. 41 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  2. CAD support section: tasks and projects

    Friman, Per Olof; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    The CAE section is well known for its daily support of CAD usage at CERN but, in fact, a large part of the section’s activity is dedicated to anticipating future needs and dealing with operating systems issues and evolution of CAD software. The section supports more than 200 professional CAD users located all around the site, and it helps many other users at CERN and outside with CAD data exchange. The section is in charge of developing tools to fulfil the specific needs of the design offices and adapting these tools to the changing hardware and software environment. As an example, the section, in collaboration with the MME design office and the survey group, has developed the DMU application, which is used extensively for the LHC integration studies. In the coming years, the big challenge for the section as well as for the design offices will be the introduction of Catia. This project, started last year, is going on to adapt Catia and its data manager SmarTeam to the tools and practices in use today. Ca...

  3. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing. PMID:606833

  4. FDAMA Section 114: Why the Renewed Interest?

    Perfetto, Eleanor M; Burke, Laurie; Oehrlein, Elisabeth M; Gaballah, Mena

    2015-05-01

    The FDA regulates the use of information by biopharmaceutical companies in their promotional activities. Section 114 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) was specifically designed to allow companies to more readily disseminate health care economic information (HCEI) to those who need it for formulary decision making. However, very little HCEI has been distributed promotionally under this provision over the past 17 years. There are recent discussions by stakeholders regarding the need for updates, revisions, or guidance regarding Section 114.In light of recent renewed interest in Section 114 of the FDAMA, the purpose of this commentary is to equip managed care decision makers with the information they need to understand and respond to industry communications that are governed by Section 114. This commentary reviews and synthesizes the regulatory history and language of the statute and changes to the promotion regulation generated by Section 114. It explores the reasons for the section's limited use to date, for recent renewed interest, and why changes by various stakeholders are suggested at this time. Also discussed is what managed care pharmacists need to know about Section 114, and suggestions are included regarding the active role pharmacists can play in this change process. Renewed interest in FDAMA Section 114 appears to stem largely from the increasingly visible and growing interest in comparative effectiveness research, the emergence of "big data," the expanding range of data sources available for deriving HCEI, and recent court decisions that might indicate a change in the regulatory environment. Various stakeholders are proposing recommendations regarding changes to FDAMA Section 114. Managed care pharmacists should be aware that companies are restricted when communicating HCEI promotional messages; this may mean seeing the use of FDAMA Section 114 as the "competent and reliable" effectiveness standard in promotion. If the

  5. A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology

    A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.

  6. Obstetrical correlates of the first time cesarean section, compared with the repeated cesarean section

    To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in patients having their first cesarean section (FCS) and compare it with findings in patients with repeated cesarean section (RCS). This study included all the women who gave birth by cesarean sections, 817 of the total 5992 deliveries, at this unit during the study period. Data on potential risk factors for the first cesarean section (FCS) and repeated cesarean section (RCS were extracted from medical records, which were reviewed and compared between these two groups of women. Data were statistically analyzed with student t-test for comparison between means and Chi-square test for comparison between percentages. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Significance was taken at p 0.05). The frequency of first cesarean section and repeat cesarean section is high in our setup. Adequate following of the programs to diminish the percentage of FCS by curtailing its predisposing factors is needed. (author)

  7. Standardization of experimental animals temporal bone sections

    Dalian Ding; Jintao Yu; Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Haiyan Jiang; Wenjuan Zhang; Hong Sun; Shankai Yin; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the temporal bone for light microscopy is an important step in histological studies of the inner ear. Due to the complexity of structures of the inner ear, it is difficult to measure or compare structures of interest without a commonly accepted standardized measure of temporal bone sections. Therefore, standardization of temporal bone sections is very important for histological assessment of sensory hair cells and peripheral ganglion neurons in the cochlear and vestibular systems. The standardized temporal bone sectioning is oriented to a plane parallel to the outer and internal auditory canals. Sections are collected from the epitympanum to the hypotympanum to reveal layers in the order of the crista ampullaris of the superior and lateral semicircular canals, macula utriculi and macula sacculi, superior vestibular ganglion neurons, macula of saccule and inferior vestibular ganglion neurons, cochlear modiolus, endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac, and finally the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular canal. Moreover, technical details of preparing for temporal bone sectioning including fixation, decalcification, whole temporal bone staining, embedding penetration, and embedding orientation are also discussed.

  8. Verification of important cross section data

    Full text: Continuing efforts in nuclear data development have made the design of a fusion power system less uncertain. The fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL) development effort since 1987 under the leadership of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section has provided a credible international library for the investigation and design of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). Integral neutronics experiments are being carried out for ITER and fusion power plant blanket and shield assemblies to validate the available nuclear database and to identify deficiencies for further improvement. Important cross section data need experimental verifications if these data are evaluated based on physics model calculations and there are no measured data points available. A particular reaction cross section is Si28(n,x)Al27, which is the important cross section to determine whether the low activation SiC composite structure can be qualified as low level nuclear waste after life time exposure in the first wall neutron environment in a fusion power plant. Measurements of helium production data for candidate fusion materials are also needed, particularly at energies above 14 MeV for the assessment of materials damage in the IFMIF neutron spectrum. To a less extent, it appears that V51(n,x)Ti50 reaction cross section also needs to be measured to further confirm a recent new evaluation of vanadium for ENDF/B-VII. (author)

  9. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  10. Youssef’s Syndrome following Cesarean Section

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Youssef’s syndrome is characterized by cyclic hematuria (menouria, absence of vaginal bleeding (amenorrhea, and urinary incontinence due to vesicouterine fistula (VUF, the least common of the urogynecological fistulas. Youssef’s syndrome has a variable clinical presentation. A vesicouterine fistula is an abnormal pathway between the bladder and the uterus. The most common cause is lower segment Cesarean section. Conservative treatment may be appropriate in some cases, but surgery is the definitive treatment. Vesicouterine fistula should be suspected in cases presenting with urinary incontinence even years after Cesarean section. Diagnostic tests as well as necessary appropriate surgery should be performed on cases with suspected vesicouterine fistula. We present a 40-year-old multiparous woman with vesicouterine fistula after primary Cesarean section; she presented with urinary incontinence, hematuria, and amenorrhea 1 year after the birth. Here, we discuss our case with the help of previously published studies found in the literature.

  11. Neutron cross section of methane hydrate

    Kiyanagi, Y.; Date, S.; Horikawa, T.; Takamine, J.; Iwasa, H.; Kamiyama, T. [Graduate School of Eng., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Uchida, T.; Ebinuma, T.; Narrita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science, Tsukisamu, Sapporo (Japan); Bennington, S.M. [ISIS Dept., Rutherford Appleton, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    To estimate the neutronic characteristics of methane hydrate and also to synthesize cross section data for simulation we need neutron scattering data ranging wide energy and momentum region. We performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments to get information about the neutron cross section on methane hydrate. It was found that at high momentum transfer region rotational mode as well as vibration mode showed recoil like behavior. On the other hand, at low momentum region, as well known, free rotation like energy levels were observed. The energy level of ice in methane hydrate was very similar to normal ice. The results suggest that the rough expression of the cross section of the methane hydrate is presented by linear combination of the methane and ice. (orig.)

  12. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  13. Radioecological state of the Czechoslovakian Danube section

    As to be able to determine the radioactivity of the Czechoslovak section of the Danube river monthly water sampling and quarterly sediment, aquatic flora, and fauna sampling was performed. The results of this investigation have shown that the radioactivity level of our Danube section is low, consisting mostly of natural radionuclides. No relationships among respective seasons and radioactivity level were observed, neither any significant dependencies between flow rate and radionuclide level. In spite of the low radioactivity of the Czechoslovak Danube section we assume it necessary to continue in carrying out radiological analyses of water and sediment samples, as well as aquatic flora and fauna, since there are some nuclear power plants already in operation in the Danube basin and further are to be constructed or are already under construction. (author)

  14. RFQ radial matching sections and fringe fields

    The entrance radial matching section is an extremely important part of any radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. It allows a beam having time-independent characteristics to become adapted to the time-dependent focusing in the RFQ. The matching sections proposed in this paper are defined by a four-term potential function and are very effective over lengths of 3 β lambda or longer. The fringe field at the RFQ exit is mainly of interest because of the time-varying on-axis potential. The beam can either lose or gain energy, depending on the shape of the fringe field. The same four-term potential function can be used for shaping the vanes at the exit so that the fringe fields can be controlled. This formulation also applies to exit radial matching sections, which would be useful if the beam is to enter another RFQ operated at a higher frequency. 4 references, 4 figures

  15. Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene

    Hill, R E; Hill, Roger E.

    2003-01-01

    This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and double differential cross sections at 232 meV at various angles with the available experimental data (at room temperature), and then extrapolate the calculations to lower temperatures (77K and 4K). The new temperature dependent scattering kernel gives a good quantitative fit to the available room temperature data and has a temperature dependence that is qualitatively consistent with thermodynamics.

  16. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    2010-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  17. Radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates

    We apply the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to estimate the radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates by computing the asymmetry parameter and the cross sections for extinction and scattering. The ballistic particle-cluster aggregate and the ballistic cluster-cluster aggregate consisting of either dielectric or absorbing material are considered to represent naturally existing aggregates. We show that the asymmetry parameter perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation is maximized where the wavelength is comparable to the aggregate size, which may be characterized by the area-equivalent radius or the radius of gyration rather than the volume-equivalent radius. The asymmetry parameter for the aggregate depends on the morphology of the particle, but not on the constituent material. Therefore, the dependence of the radiation pressure cross section on the material composition arises mainly from that of the extinction and scattering cross sections, in other words, the single-scattering albedo. We find that aggregates consisting of high-albedo material show a large deviation of radiation pressure from the direction of incident radiation. When the aggregates are illuminated by blackbody radiation, the deviation of the radiation pressure increases with increasing temperature of the blackbody. Since the parallel component of the radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates is smaller than that for the volume-equivalent spheres at the size parameter close to unity, the Planck-mean radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates having radius comparable to the effective wavelength of radiation shows a lower value, compared with the volume-equivalent sphere. Consequently, the slope of the radiation pressure force per mass of the particle as a function of particle mass shows a lower maximum for the aggregates than for compact spherical particles. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. DSM-5 section III personality traits and section II personality disorders in a Flemish community sample.

    Bastiaens, Tim; Smits, Dirk; De Hert, Marc; Vanwalleghem, Dominique; Claes, Laurence

    2016-04-30

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) is a dimensional self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology according to the criterion B of the DSM-5 Section III personality model. In the current issue of DSM, this dimensional Section III personality model co-exists with the Section II categorical personality model derived from DSM-IV-TR. Therefore, investigation of the inter-relatedness of both models across populations and languages is warranted. In this study, we first examined the factor structure and reliability of the PID-5 in a Flemish community sample (N=509) by means of exploratory structural equation modeling and alpha coefficients. Next, we investigated the predictive ability of section III personality traits in relation to section II personality disorders through correlations and stepwise regression analyses. Results revealed a five factor solution for the PID-5, with adequate reliability of the facet scales. The variance in Section II personality disorders could be predicted by their theoretically comprising Section III personality traits, but additional Section III personality traits augmented this prediction. Based on current results, we discuss the Section II personality disorder conceptualization and the Section III personality disorder operationalization. PMID:27086247

  19. Charged particle reaction cross sections and nucleosynthesis

    The role of proton and α-particle induced reactions in carbon, neon, oxygen and silicon burning in massive stars is surveyed. The problems associated with determining thermonuclear reaction rates for reactions with widely spaced resonances and with closely spaced or overlapping resonances are discussed and the associated experimental approaches are reviewed. Experimental techniques which have been used in the measurement of reaction cross sections are discussed and their strengths and weaknesses are identified. Recent developments in attempts to establish reliable statistical-model codes for calculation of reaction cross sections are presented and discussed. The results of experimental tests of statistical model codes are summarised and evaluated

  20. Surface tensor estimation from linear sections

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus; Hug, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    From Crofton’s formula for Minkowski tensors we derive stereological estimators of translation invariant surface tensors of convex bodies in the n-dimensional Euclidean space. The estimators are based on one-dimensional linear sections. In a design based setting we suggest three types of estimators....... These are based on isotropic uniform random lines, vertical sections, and non-isotropic random lines, respectively. Further, we derive estimators of the specific surface tensors associated with a stationary process of convex particles in the model based setting....

  1. Surface tensor estimation from linear sections

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus; Hug, Daniel

    From Crofton's formula for Minkowski tensors we derive stereological estimators of translation invariant surface tensors of convex bodies in the n-dimensional Euclidean space. The estimators are based on one-dimensional linear sections. In a design based setting we suggest three types of estimators....... These are based on isotropic uniform random lines, vertical sections, and non-isotropic random lines, respectively. Further, we derive estimators of the specific surface tensors associated with a stationary process of convex particles in the model based setting....

  2. Reinforced concrete columns of variable cross section

    Brant, N.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a series of 19 full scale tests carried out on pin-ended reinforced concrete columns are reported. The columns tested had either tapered rectangular sections along the length or octagonal cross sections. All columns, except the last 6, were subjected to uniaxial eccentricities at one of the ends (the stronger end), and a nominally concentric load at the other end. For the case of the last six columns the loading applied at the stronger end was biaxially eccentric. For each of t...

  3. Neutron capture cross sections from surrogate measurements

    The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. The method is applied to the 155Gd(n,γ) reaction. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ) cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications. (authors)

  4. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  5. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-01

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  6. Joins of DGA modules and sectional category

    Fernández Suárez, Lucía; Ghienne, Pierre; Kahl, Thomas; Vandembroucq, Lucile

    2009-01-01

    We construct an explicit semifree model for the fiber join of two fibrations p: E --> B and p': E' --> B from semifree models of p and p'. Using this model, we introduce a lower bound of the sectional category of a fibration p which can be calculated from any Sullivan model of p and which is closer to the sectional category of p than the classical cohomological lower bound given by the nilpotency of the kernel of p^*: H^*(B;Q) --> H^*(E;Q). In the special case of the evaluation fibration X^I ...

  7. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  8. Introduction to the Volume's Two Thematic Sections

    Christopher Chase-Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The first batch contains an article by Political Scientist Daniel Whitcncck on epistemic communities and global leadership and a special thematic section focussing around the ideas ofW. Warren Wagar regarding the future of the world-system and global politics. The second batch of papers in Volume 2 has been edited by P. Nick Kardulias of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at Kenyon College. This special thematic section focusses on anthropological and archaeological approaches to the study of world systems.

  9. Saturation Effects in Hadronic Cross Sections

    Shoshi, Arif I.; Steffen, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    We compute total and differential elastic cross sections of high-energy hadronic collisions in the loop-loop correlation model that provides a unified description of hadron-hadron, photon-hadron, and photon-photon reactions. The impact parameter profiles of pp and gamma*p collisions are calculated. For ultra-high energies the hadron opacity saturates at the black disc limit which tames the growth of the hadronic cross sections in agreement with the Froissart bound. We compute the impact param...

  10. Multiple simultaneous body-section radiography

    The authors report the resuts of a five-layer simultaneous multisection tomographic technique to be used in pediatric radiology, based on an appropriately selected series of Trimax rare-earth intesifying screens arranged in progressive speed order. The technique has been so far employed with excellent results in 100 children, especially during ivp, when X-ray examination is very frequently disturbed by ileo-colic gas. The many advantages of the tecnique are emphasized: a) all sections are perfectly parallel and simultaneous, in the same respiratory phas and body position; b) film density is practically identical in all sections; c) there is considerable saving in time, machine consumption, and radiation dose

  11. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  12. Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene

    Hill, Roger E.; Liu, C. -Y.

    2003-01-01

    This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and doubl...

  13. Atlas of neutron capture cross sections

    This report describes neutron capture cross sections in the range 10-5 eV - 20 MeV as evaluated and compiled in recent activation libraries. The selected subset comprise the (n,γ) cross sections for a total of 739 targets for the elements H (Z = 1, Z = 1) to Cm (Z = 96, A = 238) totaling 972 reactions. Plots of the point-wise data are shown and comparisons are made with the available experimental values at thermal energy, 30 keV and 14.5 MeV. 10 refs, 7 tabs

  14. 38 CFR 10.36 - Proof of marital cohabitation under section 602 or section 312 of the Act.

    2010-07-01

    ... cohabitation under section 602 or section 312 of the Act. 10.36 Section 10.36 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of marital cohabitation under section 602 or section 312 of the Act. In order to prove marital cohabitation within the meaning of that term as used in section 602(a) or section 312(c)1 of the Act,...

  15. Section of CMS Beam Pipe Removed

    2013-01-01

    Seven components of the beam pipe located at the heart of the CMS detector were removed in recent weeks. The delicate operations were performed in several stages as the detector was opened. Video of the extraction of one section: http://youtu.be/arGuFgWM7u0

  16. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics

  17. LSP-Nucleus Elastic Scattering Cross Sections

    Vergados, J. D.; Kosmas, T. S.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate LSP-nucleus elastic scattering cross sections using some representative input in the restricted SUSY parameter space. The coherent matrix elements are computed throughout the periodic table while the spin matrix elements for the proposed $^{207}Pb$ target which has a rather simple nuclear structure. The results are compared to those given from other cold dark matter detection targets.

  18. Revision of Coelogyne section Speciosae (Orchidaceae)

    Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    1999-01-01

    Section Speciosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. Sixteen species are recognized, including one new ( C. tommii) and one dubious species ( (C. dichroantha). Three former varieties are raised to subspecies level ( C. speciosa subsp. speciosa, subsp. incarnata and subsp. fimbriata). Two species formerly included in sect. Speciosae by several authors are excluded (C. eberhardtii and C. lawrenceana).

  19. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-04-01

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p 2( 3P O) valence state.

  20. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p2(3P0) valence state. (orig.)

  1. Top quark cross sections and differential distributions

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    I present results for the top quark pair total cross section and the top quark transverse momentum distribution at Tevatron and LHC energies. I also present results for single top quark production. All calculations include NNLO corrections from NNLL threshold resummation.

  2. Announcing a New Journal Section: Community Outreach

    Evans, Michele; Moy, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The Oncologist announces a new section, “Community Outreach,” which will provide a dedicated forum for issues of access to care and cancer prevention across the economic continuum. Community Outreach will focus on publishing high-impact clinical, prevention, and applied research, and practical information and analyses on disparities in cancer care across the economic continuum.

  3. Neutron cross sections of importance to astrophysics

    Neutron reactions of importance to the various stellar burning cycles are discussed. The role of isomeric states in the branched s-process is considered for particular cases. Neutron cross section needs for the 187Re-187Os, 87Rb-87Sr clocks for nuclear cosmochronology are discussed. Other reactions of interest to astrophysical processes are presented. 35 references

  4. 76 FR 12760 - Section 302 Report

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office Section 302 Report AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of inquiry... Inquiry seeking comments for a report to Congress addressing possible recommendations for phasing out...

  5. Modelisation of the fission cross section

    The neutron cross sections of four nuclear systems (n+235U, n+233U, n+241Am and n+237Np) are studied in the present document. The target nuclei of the first case, like 235U and 239Pu, have a large fission cross section after the absorption of thermal neutrons. These nuclei are called 'fissile' nuclei. The other type of nuclei, like 237Np and 241Am, fission mostly with fast neutrons, which exceed the fission threshold energy. These types of nuclei are called 'fertile'. The compound nuclei of the fertile nuclei have a binding energy higher than the fission barrier, while for the fissile nuclei the binding energy is lower than the fission barrier. In this work, the neutron induced cross sections for both types of nuclei are evaluated in the fast energy range. The total, reaction and shape-elastic cross sections are calculated by the coupled channel method of the optical model code ECIS, while the compound nucleus mechanism are treated by the statistical models implemented in the codes STATIS, GNASH and TALYS. The STATIS code includes a refined model of the fission process. Results from the theoretical calculations are compared with data retrieved from the experimental data base EXFOR. (author)

  6. Note from the Radioactive Waste Section

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.

  7. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  8. Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium

    Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+(4I9/2) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10-15 cm2) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+ ion. Charge transfer cross section between U+ in the first excited state (289 cm-1) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)

  9. Section 8: Affordable Housing for Exceptional Families

    Wright, Wesley E.

    2009-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need. Unfortunately, affordable housing is a need that low income families who are caring for children and adults with disabilities can rarely afford without assistance. Because participating families generally pay rent of no more than 30 percent of their adjusted monthly income, the Section 8 program can provide…

  10. Section XI -- 25 years of development

    The original concept of nuclear power plant designers was that the higher standards of design and fabrication would make inservice inspections unnecessary, and little attention was given to provisions for access. By 1966 the Atomic Energy Commission recognized that a planned program of periodic inservice inspections would be needed. They began development of criteria, and encouraged industry code-writing organizations to do likewise. These groups joined forces in 1968, and their product was published by ASME in 1970 as part of the Boiler and Pressure Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Systems. Section XI, 24 pages in 1970, is now 723 pages. While it originally covered only light water reactor Class 1 components and piping, it now includes Class 2, 3, and containment, and liquid metal cooled reactor plants. Along the way, rules have been developed for gas-cooled and low pressure heavy water reactor plants. The growth in size of Section XI from its modest beginning has been largely because of recognition that the rules governing plant inspection/operation need to be considerably different from the rules provided for the component designer/manufacturer. Rules have been developed in the areas of repair/replacement technology, NDE methodology, NDE acceptance standards, and analytical evaluation methods in the absence of appropriate rules in Section III

  11. Cesarean section for the second twin

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Nielsen, Elise Hoffmann; Perin, Trine;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although management of twin deliveries has been a topic of discussion for decades, a consensus on how to deliver twins is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine short-term neonatal outcome of the second twin delivered by cesarean section after vaginal delivery of the firs...

  12. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β- - 47Sc, 67Cu - β+ - 44Sc, 64Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, 68Ge/68Ga - and α emitters - 211At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - natCu or natNi - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the natTi(p,X)47Sc and 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  13. Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections

    Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-04-13

    We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

  14. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  15. Adverse Environmental Impact: 30-Year Search for a Definition

    David A. Mayhew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b of the act: “adverse environmental impact” (AEI. Section 316(b requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regarding AEI were reinvigorated following the 1995 Consent Decree requiring EPA to propose new rules to implement Section 316(b. This article reviews and compares eight proposed definitions of AEI. Six of the definitions define AEI as impact expressed at the population or higher level of biological organization. The two remaining definitions are unrelated to populations: a 1% cropping of the near-field organisms and “one fish equals AEI”. The latter definition is based on the desire of some stakeholders to define AEI as the loss of any public trust resources. Equating loss of public trust resources with AEI hampers consensus on a definition because a societal-based policy concept (public trust resources is commingled with science-based definitions based on population effects. We recommend that a population-based definition of AEI be incorporated into Section 316(b guidance and observe that this will not preclude a state from exercising its law and policy to protect public trust resources.

  16. 77 FR 34927 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Proposed Regulations To Establish Requirements...

    2012-06-12

    ... under section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), at 76 FR 22174. EPA received voluminous comments and... (76 FR 43230). In today's NODA, EPA is providing additional preliminary data that may be relevant to... questions designed to mimic consumer decision-making in actual markets. A stated preference survey, in...

  17. 40 CFR 125.130 - What are the purpose and scope of this subpart?

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements Applicable to Cooling Water Intake Structures for New Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities... water intake structures at new offshore oil and gas extraction facilities. The purpose of these... oil and gas extraction facilities. Section 316(b) of the CWA provides that any standard...

  18. Cortinarius section Sanguinei in North America.

    Niskanen, Tuula; Liimatainen, Kare; Ammirati, Joseph F; Hughes, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The North American species of Cortinarius section Sanguinei were studied using morphological characters and ITS and RPB2 sequence data. Several type collections also were examined. Four species were identified: C. harrisonii sp. nov, C. neosanguineus sp. nov., C. sanguineus and C. sierraensis comb. nov. Of these, C. sanguineus also occurs in Europe together with C. puniceus, a fifth member of the section. Typical features of these species include ± red, fairly small basidiomata, stipe basal mycelium often with yellow to reddish yellow tints, amygdaloid to ellipsoid spores, and aniline-red lamellar trama and pileipellis hyphae when mounted in KOH. Two other species with red lamellae C. marylandensis comb. nov. and C. smithii stat. nov. & nom. nov. also are discussed. PMID:22962360

  19. Structured ion impact: Doubly differential cross sections

    The electron emission in coincidence with a projectile that has been ionized has been measured, thus making it possible to separate and identify electrons resulting from these various mechanisms. In 1985, coincidence doubly differential cross sections were measured for 400 to 750 keV/atomic mass unit (amu) He+ impact on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and H2O. Cross sections were measured for selected angles and for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. Because of the coincidence mode of measurement, the total electron emission was subdivided into its target emission and its projectile emission components. The most interesting findings were that target ionization does not account for the electron emission spectrum at lower electron energies. A sizable percentage of these low-energy electrons were shown to originate as a result of simultaneous projectile/target ionizations. Similar features were observed for all targets and impact energies that were studied

  20. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Jet cross sections and PDF constraints

    CMS Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of inclusive jet and dijet production cross sections is presented. Data from LHC proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\TeV$, corresponding to $4.67\\fbinv$ of integrated luminosity, have been collected with the CMS detector. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-$k_T$ clustering algorithm of size parameter $R=0.7$, extending to rapidity $|y|=2.5$, transverse momentum $\\pt=2\\TeV$, and dijet invariant mass $M_{JJ}=5\\TeV$. The measured cross sections are corrected for detector effects and compared to perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order, using various sets of parton distribution functions.

  2. How to write a discussion section?

    Şanlı, Öner; Erdem, Selçuk; Tefik, Tzevat

    2013-09-01

    Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician. The aim of the present review is to outline the main aspects of writing the discussion section of a manuscript. Additionally, we address various issues regarding manuscripts in general. It is advisable to work on a manuscript regularly to avoid losing familiarity with the article. On principle, simple, clear and effective language should be used throughout the text. In addition, a pre-peer review process is recommended to obtain feedback on the manuscript. The discussion section can be written in 3 parts: an introductory paragraph, intermediate paragraphs and a conclusion paragraph. For intermediate paragraphs, a "divide and conquer" approach, meaning a full paragraph describing each of the study endpoints, can be used. In conclusion, academic writing is similar to other skills, and practice makes perfect. PMID:26328131

  3. The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne

    The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne has been measured over a photon energy range 16 to 29 MeV in steps of 100 keV. The giant dipole resonance is resolved into three strong peaks below 21 MeV and at least two broader resonances at higher excitations. This structure is consistent with earlier measurements of poorer resolution and shows a correlation with the recent calculations of Schmid and Do Dang. Comparisons with high resolution neutron time-of-flight and electron scattering data indicate that there appear to exist in the giant resonance of 20Ne, regions of structure roughly 2-3 MeV wide which exhibit localised characteristics related to the excitation mechanisms. The role of deformation and configuration splitting effects in the cross section are discussed and possible directions of further study are noted which might clarify the situation more fully

  4. Hotel Section Management by Using Balanced Scorecard

    Anna Lysy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some problems in using Balanced Scorecard (BSC in a hotel section. Fundamental element, which marks out BSC conception, is consolidation around vision and strategy appointed by the hotel management. Well compiled strategy should join all the targets and indexes, which compose four perspectives in BSC. Hotel section is the main gaining centre in the hotel, because the service quality is the main target of management strategy. BSC is a tool, which should not only measure effectiveness, but also implement changes, as soon as possible, so that the effects and expected results will be quick achieved. Most of the companies, which have used this conception, have treated it as a basic management system that joins strategy and operational activity. Therefore it is necessary to improve, modernize and create new sub perspectives in compiled BSC.

  5. Extendability of parallel sections in vector bundles

    Kirschner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    I address the following question: Given a differentiable manifold M, what are the open subsets U of M such that, for all vector bundles E over M and all linear connections ∇ on E, any ∇-parallel section in E defined on U extends to a ∇-parallel section in E defined on M? For simply connected manifolds M (among others) I describe the entirety of all such sets U which are, in addition, the complement of a C1 submanifold, boundary allowed, of M. This delivers a partial positive answer to a problem posed by Antonio J. Di Scala and Gianni Manno (2014). Furthermore, in case M is an open submanifold of Rn, n ≥ 2, I prove that the complement of U in M, not required to be a submanifold now, can have arbitrarily large n-dimensional Lebesgue measure.

  6. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  7. [The Misgav Ladach method for cesarean section].

    Habek, Dubravko; Kulas, Tomislav; Karsa, Matija

    2007-04-01

    The Misgav Ladach method for cesarean section is based on the principles of surgical minimalism. This is based on the Joel Cohen laparotomy, somewhat higher than the Pfannenstiel incision. Subcutaneous tissue is left undisturbed apart from the midline, rectus muscles are separated by pulling. The peritoneum is opened by stretching with index fingers. The hysterotomy is closed with one layer extraendometrial continuous absorbable stitches (Vicryl), and the visceral and parietal peritoneal layers are left open. Fascia is stitched with a continuous synthetic absorbable stitch. The skin is closed with intracutaneous resorptive suture or metallic stapler sutures. The Misgav Ladach method is restrictive in the use of sharp instruments preferring manual manipulation: it gives faster recovery, shorter period to normal bowel function, less peritoneal adhesions and less scarring in the abdominal layers, less use of postoperative antibiotics, analgesics and antipyretics, and a shorter anesthetic and operative time. It is ideal for emergency and planned cesarean section. PMID:17585470

  8. Cross-section analysis for TRADE fuel

    The TRIGA core includes bounded hydrogen in Zirconium hydride in its fuel meat allowing for fast reactivity transients. The inherent safety mechanism is based on the immediate increase of neutron up-scattering by the hydrogen as a result of a fuel temperature increase. The temperature dependent resonance absorption is the second safety feature. The special fuel type together with the introduction of an external source within it for the TRADE project necessitates an accurate evaluation of the bounded hydrogen cross section generation technique as well as of the resonance treatment. By comparing deterministic tools and Monte Carlo solution methods the generated bounded isotopes cross sections are analysed. Further, the importance of the Doppler and the thermal up-scattering effects are quantified and the sensitivities to the solution method are discussed. (authors)

  9. Tall sections from non-minimal transformations

    Morrison, David R

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we have shown that elliptic fibrations with two sections, or Mordell-Weil rank one, can always be mapped birationally to a Weierstrass model of a certain form, namely, the Jacobian of a $\\mathbb{P}^{112}$ model. Most constructions of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with two sections have been carried out assuming that the image of this birational map was a "minimal" Weierstrass model. In this paper, we show that for some elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with Mordell-Weil rank-one, the Jacobian of the $\\mathbb{P}^{112}$ model is not minimal. Said another way, starting from a Calabi-Yau Weierstrass model, the total space must be blown up (thereby destroying the "Calabi-Yau" property) in order to embed the model into $\\mathbb{P}^{112}$. In particular, we show that the elliptic fibrations studied recently by Klevers and Taylor fall into this class of models.

  10. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  11. Neutron capture cross section measurement techniques

    A review of currently-used techniques to measure neutron capture cross sections is presented. Measurements involving use of total absorption and Moxon-Rae detectors are based on low-resolution detection of the prompt γ-ray cascades following neutron captures. In certain energy ranges activation methods are convenient and useful. High resolution γ-ray measurements with germanium detectors can give information on the parameters of resonance capture states. The use of these techniques is described. (U.S.)

  12. Fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.; Dasgupta, M

    2003-01-01

    A recent publication reports that heavy-ion fusion cross sections at extreme subbarrier energies show a continuous change of their logarithmic slope with decreasing energy, resulting in a much steeper excitation function compared with theoretical predictions. We show that the energy dependence of this slope is partly due to the asymmetric shape of the Coulomb barrier, that is its deviation from a harmonic shape. We also point out that the large low-energy slope is consistent with the surprisi...

  13. How to calculate colourful cross sections efficiently

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Krauss, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  14. Jet cross sections in leptoproduction from QCD

    We have calculated the longitudinal and other polarization dependent cross sections for jet production in deep inelastic ep, νp and anti νp scattering up to order αsub(s) of the quark-gluon coupling constant. Fragmentation of final state partons into hadrons is taken into account. Distributions in thrust, p2sub(Tin) and p2sub(Tout) are predicted for all three reactions and various values of W and Q. (orig.)

  15. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  16. How to write a discussion section?

    Şanlı, Öner; Erdem, Selçuk; Tefik, Tzevat

    2013-01-01

    Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician. The aim of the present review is to outline the main aspects of writing the discussion section of a manuscript. Additionally, we address various issues regarding manuscripts in general. It is advisable to work on a manuscript regularly to avoid losing familiarity with the article. On principle, simple, clear and effective language should be used throughout the text. In addition, a pre-peer r...

  17. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    1992-09-01

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

  18. Revision of Coelogyne section Fuliginosae (Orchidaceae)

    Pelser, P.B.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Fuliginosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. With the help of a pollen study, principal component and cluster analyses with morphological characters and a survey of some additional data, two species are recognized (C. fimbriata and C. triplicatula), including one dubious variety (C. fimbriata var. acuminata). Eleven names are reduced to synonymy. Three species formerly included in sect. Fuliginosae by several authors are excluded ( (C. micrantha, C. treutle...

  19. Electron collision cross sections and radiation chemistry

    A survey is given of the cross section data needs in radiation chemistry, and of the recent progress in electron impact studies on dissociative excitation of molecules. In the former some of the important target species, processes, and collision energies are presented, while in the latter it is demonstrated that radiation chemistry is a source of new ideas and information in atomic collision research. 37 references, 4 figures

  20. Atomic-process cross section data, 1

    Compiled by the Data Study Group, the data are intended for fusion plasma physics research. Cross sections of the latest experimental and theoretic studies cover the processes involving H,D,T as principal plasma materials as well as photons and electrons: emission and absorption of electromagnetic wave, electron collision, ion collision, recombination, neutral atom mutual collision, etc. Edition is so made to enable the future renewal by users. (J.P.N.)

  1. Activity report of Reactor Physics Section - 1985

    This Activity Report contains brief summaries of different studies made in Reactor Physics Section during the year 1985. These are presented under the headings Nuclear Data Processing and Validation, Reactor Design and Analysis, Safety and Noise Analysis, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Reactor Physics Experiments and Statistical Physics. The work on nuclear data during this period comprises primarily of validation of data of 232Th and 233U as a part of participation in the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) under IAEA research contract. The most significant event during 1985 at this centre has been the first criticality of FBTR (Fast Breeder Test Reactor), which was achieved on the 18th of October. Reactor Physics Section has played a key role in this event by carrying out the first approach to criticality with fuel loading in a safe manner and conducting some low power reactor physics experiments which are discussed. The studies made in the field reactor safety and shielding are also connected mainly with the FBTR problems in addition to some work on the PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor) detailed design of which has been just started. Studies pertaining to the other two Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) under IAEA contract, namely (1) on the comparative assessment of processing techniques for the analysis of sodium boiling noise detection and, (2) on the contribution of advanced reactors to energy supply have been continued during this year. At the end of this report, a list of publications made by the members of the section and also the sectional seminars held during this period is included. (author)

  2. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  3. Intervention for postpartum infections following caesarean section

    Hyldig, Nana; Bille, Camilla; Kruse, Marie; Bøgeskov, Renee Anita; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect on wound healing using Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) compared with conventional wound treatment in women, who experience spontaneous dehiscence or reoperation for postoperative infection after caesarean section (CS). In addition the study seeks to elucidate the health economic cost and consequences of this type of infection and treatment.Background: Obesity is an increasing problem in the health care system. Today more than 12% of al...

  4. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the 10B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for 10B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards 237Np(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program

  5. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  6. Starlikeness of sections of univalent functions

    Obradović, M.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Let ${\\S}$ be the class of all normalized analytic and univalent functions in the unit disk $\\ID$. In this paper, we determine condition so that each section $s_{n}(f,z)$ of $f\\in {\\S}$ is starlike in the disk $|z|\\lt r_n$. In particular, $s_{n}(f,z)$ is starlike in $|z|\\leq 1/2$ for $n \\geq 47$.

  7. The Pa-233 fission cross section

    The energy dependent neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa has for the first time been measured directly with mono-energetic neutrons. This isotope is produced in the thorium fuel cycle and serves as an intermediate step between the 232Th source material and the 233U fuel material. Four neutron energies between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV have been measured in a first campaign. Some preliminary results are presented and compared to literature. (author)

  8. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  9. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  10. Section concerns addressed at Spring Meeting

    Bales, Roger C.

    To keep abreast of current issues and plan future activities, Hydrology Section President Steve Burges brought a full agenda to the Executive Committee meeting held in Baltimore last May. The following highlights of that meeting are offered to keep you informed about what's new in the Hydrology Section.To communicate scientific results more effectively to the press at the Fall and Spring Meetings, section Press Officer Harry Lins is organizing a media-interest session that can highlight both science and policy aspects of a subject. Such a session will also help communicate scientific results to a more general audience. Special session convenors are also encouraged to open their session with a 5-10-minute introduction that highlights important issues to be presented in subsequent papers. These introductions are intended mainly for press representatives and nonspecialists in the audience. In general, the press is not well versed on water issues, and there is often less press interest in hydrology than in other areas of geophysics.

  11. Total neutron cross section for 181Ta

    Schilling K.-D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The neutron time of flight facility nELBE, produces fast neutrons in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV by impinging a pulsed relativistic electron beam on a liquid lead circuit [1]. The short beam pulses (∼10 ps and a small radiator volume give an energy resolution better than 1% at 1 MeV using a short flight path of about 6 m, for neutron TOF measurements. The present neutron source provides 2 ⋅ 104  n/cm2s at the target position using an electron charge of 77 pC and 100 kHz pulse repetition rate. This neutron intensity enables to measure neutron total cross section with a 2%–5% statistical uncertainty within a few days. In February 2008, neutron radiator, plastic detector [2] and data acquisition system were tested by measurements of the neutron total cross section for 181Ta and 27Al. Measurement of 181Ta was chosen because lack of high quality data in an anergy region below 700 keV. The total neutron cross – section for 27Al was measured as a control target, since there exists data for 27Al with high resolution and low statistical error [3].

  12. Cross-section reconstruction during uniaxial loading

    The inelastic response of materials to applied uniaxial loading is typically measured using tensile or compressive specimens of an initially circular cross-section. Under deformation, this cross-section may become elliptical due to anisotropic material behaviour. An optical technique for measuring the elliptical deformation of anisotropic, homogeneous cylindrical specimens undergoing uniaxial deformation is presented. It enables the quantification of anisotropic deformation in situ and provides data for material characterization. Three or more silhouette views of a specimen are obtained using multiple cameras or mirrored views. The positions of the edges are computed using a sub-pixel edge detection method, and 3D tangent rays from the camera through these positions are calculated. These bounding tangents are used as the basis for an elliptical fit by least squares at cross-sections along the length of the specimen. Stochastic error estimates are performed by simulation of the experiment. Error estimates, for the experimental set-up used, are also calculated by reconstructing elliptical prisms of precisely measured dimensions. Example reconstructions from specimens of rolled titanium deformed plastically in tension at quasi-static (7 × 10−4 s−1) and high strain rates (3 × 103 s−1) are presented

  13. 37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...

    2010-07-01

    ... under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8 or 71, or with renewal... Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8 or 71, or... section 15 of the Act may be combined with an application for renewal of a registration under section 9...

  14. (n,α) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    We are developing a method of (n,α) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the 12C(n,α0)9Be measurement. We applied this method to the 16O(n,α)13C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  15. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10)

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609)

  16. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    Hondow, N.; Harrington, J.; Brydson, R.; Brown, A.

    2012-07-01

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  17. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  18. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10)

    1992-03-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  19. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  20. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program

    Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. Because the RPV is the only key safety-related component of the plant for which a redundant backup system does not exist, it is imperative to fully understand the degree of irradiation-induced degradation of the RPV's fracture resistance that occurs during service. For this reason, the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program has been established

  1. Golden Section and the Art of Painting

    Olariu, Agata

    1999-01-01

    A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, mathematical theory,...

  2. Problems With Section Two ITP TOEFL Test

    Rizki Ananda

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate (1) the difficulties faced by EFL university students with section two of the ITP, and (2) whether part A or part B was more difficult for them and why. A number of 26 students from two different universities, Syiah Kuala University and the State Islamic University Ar-Raniry were the samples for the test. The data was obtained from a multiple choice questionnaire test consisting of 46 questions, each with 4 answers to choose from. The results showed that...

  3. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  4. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  5. Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium

    We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U92+ reversible U91+ and U91+ reversible U90+ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx. = 5% bare U92+ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U92+ at 962 MeV/nucleon. 7 references, 5 figures

  6. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  7. A New Neutrino Cross Section Data Ressource

    Whalley, M R

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new web based data resource being developed to provide access to accurate and validated cross sections of low energy neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The proposed content of this database are outlined which cover total and differential cross from inclusive, quasi-elastic and exclusive pion production processes from charged and neutral current interactions. Efforts to obtain these data, which come mainly from old bubble chamber experiments, are described as well as the implementation of an embryonic web site to make the resource generally accessible.

  8. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  9. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  10. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a 6Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program

    Rosseel, T.M.

    2000-04-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. Because the RPV is the only key safety-related component of the plant for which a redundant backup system does not exist, it is imperative to fully understand the degree of irradiation-induced degradation of the RPV's fracture resistance that occurs during service. For this reason, the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program has been established.

  12. Implementing Estimation of Capacity for Freeway Sections

    Chang-qiao Shao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the stochastic concept for freeway capacity, the procedure of capacity estimation is developed. Due to the fact that it is impossible to observe the value of the capacity and to obtain the probability distribution of the capacity, the product-limit method is used in this paper to estimate the capacity. In order to implement estimation of capacity using this technology, the lifetime table based on statistical methods for lifetime data analysis is introduced and the corresponding procedure is developed. Simulated data based on freeway sections in Beijing, China, were analyzed and the results indicate that the methodology and procedure are applicable and validated.

  13. Thromboprophylaxis for women undergoing caesarean section.

    Kennedy, C

    2012-02-01

    Thromboprophylaxis for women undergoing caesarean section (CS) was introduced in the hospital in 1995. This study audited the use of tinzaparin prophylaxis in a nested cohort of women who screened negative for diabetes mellitus at 28 weeks gestation. All the women had their weight measured and BMI calculated at the first antenatal visit. Of the 284 women, 68 (24%) had a CS and all received tinzaparin. Of the 68, however, 94% received a dose lower than recommended. Compliance with prophylaxis was complete but compliance with the recommended dosage was suboptimal, which may result in venous thromboembolism after CS despite thromboprophylaxis.

  14. 2012 annual meeting on nuclear technology. Pt. 2. Section reports

    Summary report on 2 out of 12 sessions of the Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology held in Stuttgart, 22 to 24 May 2012: - Fusion technology (Section 9), and - Radiation protection (Section 11). The sessions of the sections: - Reactor physics and methods of calculation (Section 1), - Thermodynamics and fluid dynamics (Section 2), - Safety of nuclear installations - methods, analysis, results (Section 3), - Front end of the fuel cycle, fuel elements and core components (Section 4), - Radioactive waste management, storage (Section 5), - Operation of nuclear installations (Section 6), - New build and innovations (Section 7), - Decommissioning of nuclear installations (Section 8), and - Energy economics (Section 10) will be covered in further issues of atw. The report on the session: - Education, expert knowledge, know-how-transfer (Section 12) has been covered in atw 8/9 (2012). (orig.)

  15. PLSS Townships and Sections - MO 2014 Section 303(d) Listed Impaired Rivers and Streams (SHP)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains Missouri's 2014 Section 303(d) Listed Waters - Rivers and Streams and is a list of certain impaired waters in the State of Missouri. The list...

  16. 30 CFR 779.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 779.25 Section... RESOURCES § 779.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps..., maps and plans included in a permit application as required by this section shall be prepared by,...

  17. Volcanology Section Bulletin. French Geologic Society; Bulletin de la Section de Volcanologie. Societe Geologique de France

    Boudon, G. [I.P.G.P. - Observatoire Volcanologique, 75 - Paris (France); Gourgaud, A. [Universite Blaise Pascal, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France); Soler, E. [Universite Paris 6, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    This issue of the Volcanology Section Bulletin is a compilation of abstracts from the meeting the section of April, 2 1996 about the active volcanism of Central America and Mexico. The abstracts selected in this issue report on measurements of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes disequilibrium in lava, and radon fluctuations in volcanic gases. One abstract reports on new {sup 14}C datings on avalanche debris. (J.S.).

  18. A global reference for caesarean section rates (C-Model): a multicountry cross-sectional study

    Souza, JP; Betran, AP; Dumont, A; de Mucio, B.; Gibbs Pickens, CM; Deneux-Tharaux, C.; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Sullivan, E; Ota, E.; Togoobaatar, G; Carroli, G; Knight, H; Zhang, J.; Cecatti, JG; Vogel, JP

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo generate a global reference for caesarean section (CS) rates at health facilities. DesignCross-sectional study. SettingHealth facilities from 43 countries. Population/SampleThirty eight thousand three hundred and twenty-four women giving birth from 22 countries for model building and 10045875 women giving birth from 43 countries for model testing. MethodsWe hypothesised that mathematical models could determine the relationship between clinical-obstetric characteristics and CS. The...

  19. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  20. Sectional and projectional emittance measurements a

    For many applications of ion sources the quality of the generated ion beam plays an increasingly important role. Ion sources consist of the plasma generator and the extraction system. Both parts can, due to high ion temperature or various aberrations, contribute to a degrading of the beam quality. Though the beam quality is determined by many more factors, the transverse motion of the particles certainly is one of the important parameters. Knowledge of it can be obtained by an emittance measurement. This is best done in a four-dimensional phase space, yielding a density distribution as function of the transverse spatial and momentum coordinates. Often, however, due to practical considerations, only two dimensions of the four-dimensional open-quote open-quote trace space close-quote close-quote are being measured. This two-dimensional data can be obtained as a section or as a projection of the four-dimensional trace space, where both methods have their merits. Projectional emittance measurements can usually be performed much easier and quicker, but by the projection of the four-dimensional space onto a two-dimensional plane information is lost. And although not all the particles of the beam are represented in a section of trace space, here aberrative distortions of the emittance can be seen most clearly and allow an easier comparison to numerically obtained data. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. Numerical and experimental examples are presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program focus is on the development and validation of technology for the assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The HSST Program is organized in 11 tasks: program management, fracture methodology and analysis, material characterization and properties, special technical assistance, fracture analysis computer programs, cleavage-crack initiation, cladding evaluations, pressurized-thermal-shock technology, analysis methods validation, fracture evaluation tests, and warm prestressing. The program tasks have been structured to place emphasis on the resolution fracture issues with near-term licensing significance. Resources to execute the research tasks are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. Close contact is maintained with the sister Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program at ORNL and with related research programs both in the United States and abroad. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the II program tasks from October 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992

  2. The Elusive p-air Cross Section

    Block, Martin M

    2006-01-01

    For the $\\pbar p$ and $pp$ systems, we have used all of the extensive data of the Particle Data Group[K. Hagiwara {\\em et al.} (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 66, 010001 (2002).]. We then subject these data to a screening process, the ``Sieve'' algorithm[M. M. Block, physics/0506010.], in order to eliminate ``outliers'' that can skew a $\\chi^2$ fit. With the ``Sieve'' algorithm, a robust fit using a Lorentzian distribution is first made to all of the data to sieve out abnormally high $\\delchi$, the individual i$^{\\rm th}$ point's contribution to the total $\\chi^2$. The $\\chi^2$ fits are then made to the sieved data. We demonstrate that we cleanly discriminate between asymptotic $\\ln s$ and $\\ln^2s$ behavior of total hadronic cross sections when we require that these amplitudes {\\em also} describe, on average, low energy data dominated by resonances. We simultaneously fit real analytic amplitudes to the ``sieved'' high energy measurements of $\\bar p p$ and $pp$ total cross sections and $\\rho$-values for $\\...

  3. Cross-section measurements for radioactive samples

    The measurement of (n,p), (n,α) and (n,γ) cross sections for radioactive nuclei is of interest to both nuclear physics and astrophysics. For example, using these reactions, properties of levels in nuclei at high excitation energies, which are difficult or impossible to study using other reactions, can be investigated. Also, reaction rates for both big-bang and stellar nucleosynthesis can be obtained from these measurements. In the past, the large background associated with the sample activity limited these types of measurements to radioisotopes with very long half-lives. The advent of the low-energy, high-intensity neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering CEnter (LANSCE) has greatly increased the number of nuclei which can be studied. Examples of (n,p) measurements on samples with half lives as short as fifty-three days will be given. The nuclear physics and astrophysics to be learned from these data will be discussed. Additional difficulties are encountered when making (n,γ) rather than (n,p) or (n,α) measurements. However, with a properly-designed detector, and the high peak neutron intensities now available, (n,γ) measurements can be made for nuclei with half lives as short as several months. Progress on the Los Alamos (n,γ) cross-section measurement program for radioactive samples will be discussed. 39 refs., 7 figs

  4. Calculation of cross sections for heavy isotopes

    In the present work an integrated system of codes for basic neutron data evaluation were assembled and built. Complete evaluations for the isotopes 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 238Pu were performed. The following cross sections: total, elastic, radiative capture, fission, total inelastic, partial inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n) and differential elastic were evaluated as well as the average number of neutrons per neutron-induced fission and the average elastic scattering cosine in the lab system.The data for the plutonium isotopes were incorporated into the German KEDAK file. A method was developed for calculating the energy distributions of the second and third secondary neutrons from the A(n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions in the framework of the compound nucleus theory, and utilizing the nuclear data of the nuclei A, A-1, A-2. This method was used to generate the 238U secondary neutron energy distributions in the incident neutron energy range of 6 to 15 MeV. A nuclear data evaluation for 237U in the resolved inelastic scattering range (10-700 keV) was performed. The compound elastic and partial inelastic scattering cross sections were used in the 238U secondary neutron energy distribution calculations. (B.G.)

  5. Introduction à la section 3

    Michel PETIT

    2012-01-01

    Les textes de cette section 3 sont fondés sur les communications présentées au Colloque « Quelle stylistique pour l'étude du discours scientifique en anglais ? » organisé les 13 et 14 octobre 1995 à l'Université de Provence à Aix-en-Provence dans le cadre de l'Institut de Recherche du Monde Anglophone avec le soutien du Conseil Scientifique de l'Université de Provence. Textes publiés sous la responsabilité éditoriale de Michel Petit Responsable du colloque : Michel Petit Comité scientifique d...

  6. Elastic cross sections in an RSIIp scenario

    The elastic differential cross section is calculated at low energies (below 100 MeV) for the elements 3He, 20Ne, 40Ar, 14N, 12C, and for the 208Pb using a finite electromagnetic potential, which is obtained by considering a Randall–Sundrum II scenario modified by the inclusion of p compact extra-dimensions. The length scale is adjusted in the potential to compare with known experimental data and to set bounds for the parameter of the model. The effective four-dimensional (4D) electromagnetic potential is produced by a point charge, as seen from the three-brane that contains it, in uniform motion in an RSIIp scenario. (paper)

  7. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  8. section of an accelerating cavity from LEP

    This is a section of an accelerating cavity from LEP, cut in half to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  9. Feasibility of abdominoplasty with Cesarean section [Retraction

    Thabet WN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the International Journal of Women’s Health have been alerted by Dr Nadine Sherif, the corresponding author, to unacceptable levels of duplication with a previously published paper: Ali A, Essam A. Abdominoplasty Combined with Cesarean Delivery: Evaluation of the Practice. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 2011;35(1:80–86.It is worth noting that this paper was peer-reviewed by two peer-reviewers and the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Women’s Health before publication. The paper concerned is: Thabet WN, Hossny AS, Sherif NA. Feasibility of abdominoplasty with Cesarean section. International Journal of Women’s Health. 2012;4:115–121.

  10. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  11. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  12. Intervention for Postpartum Infections following Caesarean Section

    Hyldig, Nana; Bille, Camilla; Kruse, Marie;

    Purpose: To examine the effect on wound healing, using Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) compared with standard wound dressings in women, who experience spontaneous dehiscence or reoperation due to infection or hematoma after caesarean section. In addition, an analysis of the health economic...... cost and consequences of NPWT is planned. Methods: A randomized controlled trial. The study will be performed at two large obstetrical units in Denmark. Data will be collected prospectively. We expect to include 50 women, of whom two-thirds will be randomized to NPWT. The primary endpoint is the...... treatment for one change with NPWT to be cost effective. Concussion: The preliminary results indicate that NPWT reduce the risk of re-rupture significantly. The benefit of the treatment is expected to be twofold: a) A reduction in health care costs (inpatient bed days and readmissions) b) An increase in the...

  13. Calculated medium energy fission cross sections

    An analysis has been made of medium-energy nucleon induced fission of 238U and 237Np using detailed models of fission, based upon the Bohr-Wheeler formalism. Two principal motivations were associated with these calculations. The first was determination of barrier parameters for proton-rich uranium and neptunium isotopes normally not accessible in lower energy reactions. The second was examination of the consistency between (p,f) experimental data versus new (n,f) data that has recently become available. Additionally, preliminary investigations were also made concerning the effect of fission dynamics on calculated fission cross sections at higher energies where neutron emission times may be significantly less than those associated with fission

  14. Potential flow about arbitrary biplane wing sections

    Garrick, I E

    1937-01-01

    A rigorous treatment is given of the problem of determining the two-dimensional potential flow around arbitrary biplane cellules. The analysis involves the use of elliptic functions and is sufficiently general to include the effects of such elements as the section shapes, the chord ratio, gap, stagger, and decalage, which elements may be specified arbitrarily. The flow problem is resolved by making use of the methods of conformal representation. Thus the solution of the problem of transforming conformally two arbitrary contours into two circles is expressed by a pair of simultaneous integral equations, for which a method of numerical solution is outlined. As an example of the numerical process, the pressure distribution over certain arrangements of the NACA 4412 airfoil in biplane combinations is presented and compared with the monoplane pressure distribution.

  15. Ocean sciences section starts new committee

    Hickey, Barbara

    To maximize our ability to obtain recognition of Ocean Sciences Section members as Fellows of AGU while minimizing the associated workload, I have, in consultation with our executive committee, established an Ocean Sciences Fellows Committee chaired by the President-Elect to oversee and assist in the nomination process.The committee asks that anyone wanting to make a nomination send a one-page proposal telling why an individual should be a Fellow. Proposals will be reviewed by the commitee, and a number equal to 1½ to 2 times our nomination quota will be chosen for full presentation. Committee members will then work with nominators to select and contact seconders, while the nominator provides the required curriculum vitae and publication list. The committee will assist in any manner possible to insure that the files that go forward are both timely and well documented.

  16. Partial cross sections in H- photodetachment

    This dissertation reports experimental measurements of partial decay cross sections in the H- photodetachment spectrum. Observed decays of the 1P0 H-**(n) doubly-excitedresonances to the H(N=2) continuum are reported for n=2,3, and 4 from 1990 runs in which the author participated. A recent analysis of 1989 data revealing effects of static electric fields on the partial decay spectrum above 13.5 eV is also presented. The experiments were performed at the High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, with a relativistic H-beam (β=0.842)intersecting a ND:YAG laser. Variation of the intersection angle amounts to Doppler-shifting the photon energy, allowing continuous tuning of the laser energy as viewed from the moving ions' frame

  17. Radar Cross Section of Moving Objects

    Gholizade, H

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the effects of movement on radar cross section calculations. The results show that relativistic effects (the constant velocity case) can change the RCS of moving targets by changing the incident plane wave field vectors. As in the Doppler effect, the changes in the fields are proportional to $\\frac{v}{c}$. For accelerated objects, using the Newtonian equations of motion yields an effective electric field (or effective current density) on the object due to the finite mass of the conducting electrons. The results indicate that the magnetic moment of an accelerated object is different from that of an un-accelerated object, and this difference can change the RCS of the object. Results for moving sphere and non-uniformly rotating sphere are given and compared with static (\\textbf{v}=0) case.

  18. PREDICTED SEDIMENTARY SECTION OF SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK

    G. I. Leychenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In early February 2012, the drill hole at the Vostok Station encountered theLakeVostokwater. This step is important to study the lake composition including possible microbial life and to model subglacial environments however, the next ambitious target of the Vostok Drilling Project is sampling of bottom sediments, which contain the unique record of ice sheet evolution and environmental changes in centralAntarcticafor millions of years. In this connection, the forecast of sedimentary succession based on existing geophysical data, study of mineral inclusions in the accretion ice cores and tectonic models is important task. Interpretation of Airborne geophysical data suggests thatLakeVostokis the part of spacious rift system, which exists at least from Cretaceous. Reflection and refraction seismic experiments conducted in the southern part ofLakeVostokshow very thin (200–300 m stratified sedimentary cover overlying crystalline basement with velocity of 6.0–6.2 km/s. At present, deposition in southernLakeVostokis absent and similar conditions occurred likely at least last3 m.y. when ice sheet aboveLakeVostokchanged insignificantly. It can be also inferred that from the Late Miocene the rate of deposition inLakeVostokwas extremely low and so the most of sedimentary section is older being possibly of Oligocene to early to middle Miocene age when ice sheet oscillated and deposition was more vigorous. If so, the sampling of upper few meters of this condensed section is very informative in terms of history of Antarctic glaciation. Small thickness of sedimentary cover raises a question about existence of lake (rift depression during preglacial and early glacial times.

  19. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections

    Full text: For the last two decades, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-em) of thin layers of vitrified biological suspensions has considerably extended applications in electron microscopy. Biomacromolecules or their assemblies can be observed in their fully hydrated native state, without any or few microscopy related preparation artefacts. Only electron beam damage still limits resolution, thus leaving room for specialists of image processing, capable of extracting the very last bit of information created by a limited number of electrons. They're skills and programs have been very good when applied to thin specimens but this method does not apply readily to bulk specimens. However over the last 20 years, cryo-em of vitreous bulk material and sections has also been under development. In principle, it is the dream method of structural cell biology. It consists in vitrifying a sample of tissue by rapid cooling, cutting into ultra-thin sections and cryo-em observation with all details perfectly preserved. Practically the technical problems are considerable. First of all, vitrification, which is relatively easy for sub-micron sample, must be extended to macroscopic dimensions. For this purpose, freezing under high pressure has proved very effective. Cutting a piece of vitreous material into under the knife. A compromise must be found between fracturing the brittle material or plastic deformation when it is more viscous. Here the recent development of an oscillating knife is promising. Finally, to become fluent with the various manipulations and adjustments leading to optimal observations requires time and experience. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  20. Effective education to decrease elective caesarean section

    Objective: To examine the effect of education on deciding about natural delivery in women opting for elective caesarean section. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was carried out between January and March 2012 and comprised a sample of 200 women in their third trimester of pregnancy attending women's clinics of Imam Ali Hospital, Zahedan, Iran, with the intention of having elective caesarean section. The subjects were voluntarily classified into three groups: one group received an educational package; the other had educational package along with group discussion, and the last one without any intervention was considered the control group. Post-test was conducted a month after intervention. Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis, and logistic regression tests. Results: Group A represented the controls and had 100 (50%) women; Group B with the educational package had 40 (20%), while there were 60 (30%) women in Group C who had exposure to the educational package as well as group discussion. There were significant changes in behaviour in Group B and C (p <0.01) but no change among the controls in Group A. In Group C, 25 (42%) women decided to go for natural delivery, while 1 (2.5%) woman had a change of opinion in Group B. Four (4%) women in the control Group A had ultimately natural delivery, but they were all emergency cases. Conclusion: The two educational methods increased model construct scores, including awareness, attitude, perceived behaviour control, subjective norms and behavioural intention. Nevertheless, educational package in conjunction with group discussion was more effective in influencing the choice towards natural delivery. (author)

  1. A cross sectional study of rate, indications and complications of primary caesarean section

    Mahima Jain

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: From this tudy, we concluded that overall CS rate is 18.5% and rate of vaginal delivery is 82.1% of the present study from 1st April 2014 to 31st March 2015. While primary cesarean section rate is 55.8%, more in primipara as compared to multipara. The malpresentation was the major indication in primary cesarean section, in both primipara and multipara women in our community, while APH is still a major problem of the multiparity. Anemia, malpresentation, eclampsia and preeclampsia were more common antenatal complications in primipara while APH was antenatal complication in multiparity. Malpresentation (34.3% was the commonest indication for cesarean section in both the groups. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1814-1819

  2. Predicting cesarean section and uterine rupture among women attempting vaginal birth after prior cesarean section.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no validated method for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after cesarean section and no information on the relationship between the risk of emergency cesarean delivery and the risk of uterine rupture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked a national maternity hospital discharge database and a national registry of perinatal deaths. We studied 23,286 women with one prior cesarean delivery who attempted vaginal birth at or after 40-wk gestation. The population was randomly split into model development and validation groups. The factors associated with emergency cesarean section were maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.22 per 5-y increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.28, maternal height (adjusted OR = 0.75 per 5-cm increase, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78, male fetus (adjusted OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.29, no previous vaginal birth (adjusted OR = 5.08, 95% CI: 4.52 to 5.72, prostaglandin induction of labor (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.60, and birth at 41-wk (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.42 or 42-wk (adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.62 gestation compared with 40-wk. In the validation group, 36% of the women had a low predicted risk of caesarean section (< 20% and 16.5% of women had a high predicted risk (> 40%; 10.9% and 47.7% of these women, respectively, actually had deliveries by caesarean section. The predicted risk of caesarean section was also associated with the risk of all uterine rupture (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.31 and uterine rupture associated with perinatal death (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73. The observed incidence of uterine rupture was 2.0 per 1,000 among women at low risk of cesarean section and 9.1 per 1,000 among those at high risk (relative risk = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.6 to 8.1. We present the model in a simple-to-use format. CONCLUSIONS: We present, to our knowledge, the

  3. Predicting cesarean section and uterine rupture among women attempting vaginal birth after prior cesarean section.

    Gordon C S Smith

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no validated method for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after cesarean section and no information on the relationship between the risk of emergency cesarean delivery and the risk of uterine rupture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked a national maternity hospital discharge database and a national registry of perinatal deaths. We studied 23,286 women with one prior cesarean delivery who attempted vaginal birth at or after 40-wk gestation. The population was randomly split into model development and validation groups. The factors associated with emergency cesarean section were maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.22 per 5-y increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.28, maternal height (adjusted OR = 0.75 per 5-cm increase, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78, male fetus (adjusted OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.29, no previous vaginal birth (adjusted OR = 5.08, 95% CI: 4.52 to 5.72, prostaglandin induction of labor (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.60, and birth at 41-wk (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.42 or 42-wk (adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.62 gestation compared with 40-wk. In the validation group, 36% of the women had a low predicted risk of caesarean section ( 40%; 10.9% and 47.7% of these women, respectively, actually had deliveries by caesarean section. The predicted risk of caesarean section was also associated with the risk of all uterine rupture (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.31 and uterine rupture associated with perinatal death (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73. The observed incidence of uterine rupture was 2.0 per 1,000 among women at low risk of cesarean section and 9.1 per 1,000 among those at high risk (relative risk = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.6 to 8.1. We present the model in a simple-to-use format. CONCLUSIONS: We present, to our knowledge, the first validated model for antepartum prediction of the

  4. Radar Cross-section Measurement Techniques

    V.G. Borkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar cross-section (RCS is an important study parameter for defence applications specially dealing with airborne weapon system. The RCS parameter guides the detection range for a target and is therefore studied to understand the effectiveness of a weapon system. It is not only important to understand the RCS characteristics of a target but also to look into the diagnostic mode of study where factors contributing to a particular RCS values are studied. This further opens up subject like RCS suppression and stealth. The paper discusses the RCS principle, control, and need of measurements. Classification of RCS in terms of popular usage is explained with detailed theory of RF imaging and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR. The various types of RCS measurement ranges are explained with brief discussion on outdoor RCS measurement range. The RCS calibration plays a critical role in referencing the measurement to absolute values and has been described.The RCS facility at Reseach Centre Imarat, Hyderabad, is explained with some details of different activities that are carried out including RAM evaluation, scale model testing, and diagnostic imaging.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.204-212, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.341

  5. Problems With Section Two ITP TOEFL Test

    Rizki Ananda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate (1 the difficulties faced by EFL university students with section two of the ITP, and (2 whether part A or part B was more difficult for them and why. A number of 26 students from two different universities, Syiah Kuala University and the State Islamic University Ar-Raniry were the samples for the test. The data was obtained from a multiple choice questionnaire test consisting of 46 questions, each with 4 answers to choose from. The results showed that inversions (12%, subject-verb agreements (10%, adverb clause connectors (7%, passives (6%, reduced adjective clauses (5%, parallel structures (5% and use of verbs (5% were the most difficult questions for the students. Furthermore, they felt that part B was more difficult than part A, as finding an error in a sentence was harder than completing a sentence from a multiple choice. Furthermore, the length of questions in part A did not affect the amount of time the students spent to complete part A and did not cause them to panic. Also, unfamiliar words in part A were not regarded as a problem by the students. Hence, TOEFL teachers and trainers are highly encouraged to pay more attention to doing study exercises for the seven topics with the highest percentages above in part A and also to more practice for part B.

  6. Overview. Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy. Section 8

    Research at the Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy of thr H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics covers three areas: magnetic resonance, magnetic resonance imaging and solid state physics by computer simulation. In first of the mentioned above research directions, we apply magnetic resonance method in studies of molecular rotation in solids. Two ways of rotation have been distinguished: tunneling through the potential barriers and random jumps between distinct orientations. In the second one, the magnetic resonance microscope based on a 6.3 T superconducting magnet was completed. Each part of this system was tested and appropriate software has been written in the Laboratory and used for testing, optimization and running the experiment. In the field of solid state physics the work was concentrated around consequences of tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition, experimentally observed in high temperature superconducting materials. In this section of the Annual Report, the detail descriptions of mentioned activities as well as the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given

  7. HVAC system optimization - in-building section

    Lu Lu; Wenjian Cai; Lihua Xie; Shujiang Li; Yeng Chai Soh [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimize in-building section of centralized Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimization method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  8. HVAC system optimisation-in-building section

    Lu, L.; Cai, W.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Soh, Y.C. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimise in-building section of centralised Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimisation method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  9. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andrzejewski, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Chepel, V; Cennini, P; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente6, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  10. Production cross sections from phenomenological constraints

    Hadronic production cross sections ν sub(n) (s) satisfying exactly the high energy empirical laws known for the first, second and third multiplicity moments are determined. The result is obtained in the form of a second order linear differential equation for ν sub(n) (s) which allows one to calculate explicitly all successive moments. In particular, the fourth moment is in excellent agreement with the data. The asymptotic solution of the equation for ν sub(n) (s) is given analytically. KNO scaling turns out to be an asymptotic property of the solution. The full solution for ν sub(n) (s) is studied numerically and the KNO plot is compared with the data. No free parameters are left to be adjusted except for an overall normalization constant. As expected, KNO scaling sets in rather quickly with increasing n and the agreement with the data is progressively good. This agreement becomes excellent for the whole interval of n/ for which data exist (O) approximately equal to 2. It turns out that the asymptotic solution, given in analytic terms, is an excellent approximation to the data and can thus be used for practical purposes instead of the full solution for calculating ν sub(n) (s). (author)

  11. Flow Lines Under Perturbation within Section Cones

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    We want to examine a closed smooth manifold together with a certain partial order: In the set of vector fields on , , we define a section cone - a convex subset of characterized by the property that if is a singular point for some vector field in then this is the case for all members of . We say...... that a point is greater than or equal to a point if there exists a flow line from to corresponding to some vector field in . The partial order that - under a certain condition - arises from the transitive closure of that relation -- gives rise to (the concept of) a di-path (directed path). That is a continuous...... map from the closed unit interval with the natural partial order inherited from the order of the real numbers to the manifold with the partial order defined as above, which furthermore preserves the partial orders. We examine di-paths between two critical points of minimal and of maximal index up...

  12. 30 CFR 783.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 783.25 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 783.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1) Elevations and locations of test borings and core samplings;...

  13. 28 CFR 51.8 - Section 3 coverage.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 3 coverage. 51.8 Section 51.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.8 Section 3 coverage. Under...

  14. Importance of transesophageal echocardiography in peripartum cardiomyopathy undergoing lower section cesarean section under regional anesthesia

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Goyal, Sameer; Irpachi, Kalpana; Smita, Barya

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a relatively rare but life threatening disease. The etiology and pathogenesis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is generally centered upon viral and autoimmune mechanism. This case report describes the anesthetic management of a patient with term pregnancy suffering from dilated peripartum cardiomyopathy planned for cesarean section, successfully managed with epidural anesthesia after precipitate labour.

  15. 29 CFR 553.201 - Statutory provisions: section 7(k).

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory provisions: section 7(k). 553.201 Section 553.201...: section 7(k). (a) Section 7(k) of the Act provides a partial overtime pay exemption for fire protection.... (b) As specified in §§ 553.20 through 553.28 of subpart A, workers employed under section 7(k)...

  16. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  17. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  18. Reference solution for cross section parametrization

    Core calculations of nuclear reactors are usually performed by core physics codes (e.g. with NEM or FDM solvers) in diffusion or SP3 approximation of the transport equation. For each fuel type parameterized data libraries are prepared by means of a lattice code. The data libraries are burnup dependent, and the parameterization covers the hyperspace of admissible values of all operational parameters (fuel temperature, moderator density, boron concentration etc.) This approach has two weak spots. The first is, that it is difficult to make perfect parameterization of the data library because of relatively broad range of the parameter values and the fact that the parameters' effect on the macroscopic cross-sections are not mutually independent. The second is that even for perfect parameterizations with precise approximations of the data changes with respect to the feedback parameters the so-called history effects are neglected. It is generally difficult to assess the cumulative errors arising due to the approximative parameterization of the data libraries and due to the history effects. It is as well difficult to assess the efficiency of techniques developed in order to incorporate the history effect in the data library (such as time integration). In this paper we present a tool for reference core calculations in which the above stated approximations are eliminated. This paper presents the solution method, its implementation, as well as the results of a demonstration calculation showing the improvement of the calculation results over the traditional approach, assessing the magnitude of history and parameterization effects importance. The most important feature of the presented method is that it provides the perfect parameterization of macroscopic data, allowing the core physics code developers to understand sources of modeling uncertainties by completely removing the parameterization error (including, unlike other approaches, a complete representation of the

  19. INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management Section

    INIS is an international co-operative information system, operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with 113 Member States and 19 International Organizations, with 35 years of experience now. INIS processes most of the world's scientific and technical literature on the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. INIS maintains a bibliographic database which currently contains over 2.5 million abstracted and indexed records and a comprehensive collection of over 600,000 of full texts documents which are not easily available through the commercial channels, making it the world's most comprehensive and leading information source in the nuclear field. INIS assists Member States in building the capacity of their national and regional INIS Centres. The INIS Secretariat is represented by the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management Section (INIS and NKM) at the IAEA. It works closely with its members, in particular new Member States and developing countries, to fulfil their role as INIS members. This is being done through the transfer of knowledge and know-how in information processing so that the recipient INIS centre becomes self-sufficient in providing relevant information support to the national nuclear programme. Active INIS members enjoy being part of the reliable mechanism to preserve Member States knowledge in the fields of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, accessing the worlds' major nuclear information resources, accessing the reliable nuclear information reservoir for future generations and fostering research and development in the nuclear fields. Additionally INIS ensures visibility of their national literature and achievements worldwide

  20. Editorial to the HUAmS Section

    Sanja Runtić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The texts before you were, in their shorter version, originally presented at the inaugural symposium of the Croatian Association for American Studies (Hrvatsko udruženje za američke studije, established in 2010 with the aim of bringing together researchers and academics in Croatian institutions of higher education that teach, research and are working towards their degrees in different fields comprising American Studies. The first and hopefully not the last symposium showcased a considerable number of Croatian Americanists, while hosting also a few guests from abroad, among them one of the keynote speakers, Professor Douglas Ambrose of Hamilton College, USA. The other plenary address was delivered by Professor Stipe Grgas of the University of Zagreb whose work has been a mainstay of American Studies in Croatia and beyond. While Ambrose, as a historian of the early America and the antebellum society, revisits the importance of religion for the fateful conflict between the North and the South, especially as it is presented by some more recent views, Grgas delves deep into the very core of the disciplinary rationale finding there an interesting, even if unselfconscious, occlusion and evasion pertaining to the role of capitalism and the capitalist economy in the installment and development of American Studies. Thus both scholars, each tackling a different aspect of America, show how older approaches are continuously reinvigorated by the influx of new ideas and new interdisciplinary interventions. This gives the feel of a discipline constantly on the move and in the mood of reshaping itself. In this section, the reshaping is done by means of two major socio-cultural phenomena of long duration, religion and capitalism.

  1. Constraint effects in heavy-section steels

    A focal point of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is the development of technology required for accurate assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). In a series of investigations, the HSST Program is seeking to obtain an improved understanding of the relationships governing transfer of fracture toughness data from small-scale specimens to large-scale structures. This paper describes two analytical approaches to the transferability issues that are being evaluated in the HSST Program. One is a continuum correlative methodology based on two-parameter descriptions (K-T or J-Q) of the near crack-tip fields that incorporate effects of the higher-order T-stress for linear-elastic fracture mechanics conditions or the Q-stress for more general elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions. The second approach utilizes a micromechanical predictive methodology that relates cleavage crack initiation to the attainment of a critical volume enclosed within a selected maximum principal stress contour surrounding the crack tip. In preliminary evaluations, these methodologies were applied to experimental data taken from several intermediate- and large-scale testing programs. Results and conclusions from these applications are discussed in the paper. Applications of the methodologies to analytical studies concerning biaxial stress effects on fracture toughness and safety margin assessments of an RPV subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock transient loadings are also presented. While these fracture methodologies appear to show promise in being able to differentiate among crack-tip constraint levels, numerous issues were identified in the HSST studies that require further investigation. Recommendations are given concerning future work intended to resolve several of these issues. 42 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  2. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program

    In FY1990 the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program was arranged into 8 tasks: (1) program management, (2) KIc curve shift in high-copper welds, (3) KIa curve shift in high-copper welds, (4) irradiation effects on cladding, (5) KIc and KIa curve shifts in low upper-shelf (LUS) welds, (6) irradiation effects in a commercial LUS weld, (7) microstructural analysis of irradiation effects, and (8) in-service aged material evaluations. Of particular interest are the efforts in FY1990 concerning the shifts in fracture toughness and crack arrest toughness in high-copper welds, the unirradiated examination of a LUS weld from the Midland reactor, and the continued investigation into the causes of accelerated low-temperature embrittlement recently observed in RPV support steels. In the Fifth and Sixth Irradiation Series, designed to examine the shifts and possible changes in shape in the ASME KIc and KIa curves for two irradiated high-copper welds, it was seen that both the lower bound and mean fracture toughness shifts were greater than those of the associated Charpy-impact energies, whereas the shifts in crack arrest toughness were comparable. The irradiation-shifted fracture toughness data fell slightly below the appropriately indexed ASME KIc curve even when it was shifted according to Revision 2 of Regulatory Guide 1.99 including its margins. The beltline weld, which was removed from the Midland reactor, fabricated by Babcock and Wilcox, Co. using Linde 80 flux, is being examined in the Tenth Irradiation Series to establish the effects of irradiation on a commercial LUS weld. A wide variation in the unirradiated fracture properties of the Midland weld were measured with values of RTNDT ranging from -22 to 54F through its thickness. In addition, a wide range of copper content from 0.21 to 0.45 wt % was found, compared to the 0.42 wt % previously reported

  3. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P < 0·01) to muscle to bone ratio R(2) = 0·41). Data suggest that muscle to bone ratios differ widely among beef carcasses of similar genetic-management history and that there are carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio. PMID:22054706

  4. Special Section on Fusion Laser Engineering

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) now under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory contains a large frequency-tripled neodymium glass laser system designed to deliver approximately 2 megajoules of ultraviolet laser light in nanosecond pulses to targets for the study of high-energy-density physics and inertial confinement fusion. When all 192 laser beams are operational in 2008 it will dwarf any currently operating laser system, and even with only four beams now operating it is among the largest and most energetic of such systems. This special section is a collection of papers covering important issues in the optical engineering of large lasers such as NIF. A number of other papers on NIF engineering issues can be found in the Proceedings of SPIE, volume 5341. The first paper by Miller, Moses, and Wuest is an overview of the NIF project and the applications for which the facility was designed. The following papers discuss specific issues in greater depth. Spaeth, et al., discuss the NIF laser architecture, the effect of optical performance specifications on the focal spot size, and some aspects of cleanliness in large laser systems. Bonnano discusses the strategy for assembling NIF from ''line-replaceable units'' (LRU) that are assembled in a cleanroom and transported to the laser system in sealed containers that mate with the laser enclosures and allow clean installations without maintaining cleanroom standards throughout the facility. Zacharias, et al., discuss the alignment and wavefront control systems that allow beams to strike the target within ±50 microns after a beam path of about 350 meters. Shaw, et al., discuss a laser performance operations model that is used to set up the laser for a shot, and compare the predictions of the model to data from the first four operating beams. Ermolaeva, et al. discuss the design and performance of a custom optical fiber that was developed for use in NIF ultraviolet diagnostics. Finally, Honig discusses

  5. Development and evaluation of a clinical note section header terminology.

    Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Johnson, Kevin B; Spickard, Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Clinical documentation is often expressed in natural language text, yet providers often use common organizations that segment these notes in sections, such as history of present illness or physical examination. We developed a hierarchical section header terminology, supporting mappings to LOINC and other vocabularies; it contained 1109 concepts and 4332 synonyms. Physicians evaluated it compared to LOINC and the Evaluation and Management billing schema using a randomly selected corpus of history and physical notes. Evaluated documents contained a median of 54 sections and 27 major sections. There were 16,196 total sections in the evaluation note corpus. The terminology contained 99.9% of the clinical sections; LOINC matched 77% of section header concepts and 20% of section header strings in those documents. The section terminology may enable better clinical note understanding and interoperability. Future development and integration into natural language processing systems is needed. PMID:18999303

  6. Revision of Coelogyne section Verrucosae (Orchidaceae): a new sectional delimitation based on morphological and molecular evidence

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Verrucosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised using morphological and molecular data. Eight species are recognized, including two new ones ( C. marthae and C. verrucosa). One name is reduced to synonymy. Four species formerly included by several authors in sect. Verrucosae (C. brachyptera, C. papillosa, C. parishii and C. virescens) are excluded. A total evidence analysis of morphological characters and ITS and matK sequence data supports the monophyly of the ...

  7. Simulation of cross sections for practical ALCHEMI

    Full text: Precisely known atomic scattering factors are essential for accurate atom location by channeling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) based on inner-shell ionization. For ALCHEMI using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), first principles calculations of ionization cross sections, realistically modelling the 'delocalization' of the ionization interaction, give excellent agreement with experiment. Such calculations are complex and computationally intensive. Hence, simple analytic forms are often assumed to describe the ionization potential. Such an approach assumes that the precise shape of the ionization potential is not important but that at least the half width at half maximum (HWHM) should be accurately estimated, for example using estimates of the HWHM from root-mean-square impact parameters for ionization. However this is generally not a good approximation and we have provided more realistic estimates. These are based on accurate atomic scattering form factors for ionization that have been calculated from first principles using relativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions for bound states and Hartree-Slater wave functions for the continuum states. The effective ionization interaction may be approximated by an equivalent local potential. The scattering factors have been calculated for K-shell ionization for elements in the range Z= 6 (carbon) to Z = 50 (tin) and for Z-shell ionization in the range Z = 20 (calcium) to Z = 60 (neodymium). Accurate values of the scattering factors can be obtained by interpolation for incident electron energies between 50 and 400 keV. The utility of these form factors is illustrated, using some data obtained by Matsumura and coworkers during their project to investigate radiation-induced disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel. High angular resolution electron channeling x-ray spectroscopy was employed to investigate ion displacements in MgOnAl2O3 (n = 1.0 and 2.4) irradiated with 1 MeV Ne+ ions or 900 keV electrons at 873

  8. Ligamentous structures in foramen magnum: sectional anatomy, CT and MRI

    Objective: To study the thin sectional anatomy and CT and MR imaging of ligamentous structures of foramen magnum (FM). Methods: Six formalin fixed (10%) specimens including head and neck were selected, and each specimen was imaged with CT and MR. Three specimens were sectioned with frozen section technique, the others were sectioned with plastination. Ligamentous structures of FM on continuous thin sections were observed and compared with the images of CT and MRI. Results: Continuous sections of 3.0 mm slice thickness for the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of FM sectioned with frozen section technique were obtained. Continuous thin sections of 1mm slice thickness for the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of FM sectioned with plastination were obtained. The resulting sections demonstrated excellent distinction of ligamentous structures of FM (including ligamentum alare, ligamentum transversum, membrana tectoria, anterior obturator membrane of atlas, posterior obturator membrane of atlas, and anterior atlanto-axial ligament). A good overall correlation between sections and images of CT and MR was found. Conclusions: In combination with CT and MRI, continuous thin sections of FM offers a better understanding of ligamentous structures of FM. (authors)

  9. A new Director for the BAA Aurora Section

    Gavine, D.

    2011-02-01

    from 2011 January 1, Dr Dave Gavine handed over the Aurora Section Directorship to Ken Kennedy, who has been Assistant Director for the last five years, with special responsibility for Noctilucent Clouds, currently the Section's most important work.

  10. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  11. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  12. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  13. Residual diagnostics for cross-section time series regression models

    Baum, Christopher F

    2001-01-01

    These routines support the diagnosis of groupwise heteroskedasticity and cross-sectional correlation in the context of a regression model fit to pooled cross-section time series (xt) data. Copyright 2001 by Stata Corporation.

  14. [Caesarean section in the context of free policy in Benin].

    Mahieu, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Caesarean section was well appreciated by most beneficiaries. However, an audit of caesarean sections would ensure compliance with the principles of free care and better management of women at all levels of the health system.. PMID:27531438

  15. Photoneutron cross sections measured by Saclay and Livermore

    The differences between the Saclay and Livermore photoneutron cross sections are discussed. It is shown that the differences between Saclay and Livermore (γ,n) and (γ,2n) cross sections arise from the neutron multiplicity sorting. (Author)

  16. Taxonomic Revision and Molecular Studies of Garcinia Section Garcinia (Guttiferae)

    Saleh, Mohd. Nazre

    2006-01-01

    Garcinia section Garcinia is one of 14 sections of the species-rich pantropical genus Garcinia (Guttiferae/Clusiaceae). In its most recent circumscription the section comprised 43 species, mostly of rain forest understorey trees, distributed from eastern India to Fiji, and in Madagascar (Jones, 1980: unpublished Phd. Thesis, University of Leicester). Its most famous member is the fruit tree, mangosteen (G. mangostana). Taxonomic revision of section Garcinia reduces the number o...

  17. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam

    Manogna R.L. Vangala; Amrutha Rudraraju; Subramanyam, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Mat...

  18. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  19. Total cross sections for neutron-nucleus scattering

    Suryanarayana, S. V.; H. Naik; Ganesan, S; Kailas, S; Choudhury, R. K.; Kim, Guinyum

    2010-01-01

    Systematics of neutron scattering cross sections on various materials for neutron energies up to several hundred MeV are important for ADSS applications. Ramsauer model is well known and widely applied to understand systematics of neutron nucleus total cross sections. In this work, we examined the role of nuclear effective radius parameter (r$_0$) on Ramsauer model fits of neutron total cross sections. We performed Ramsauer model global analysis of the experimental neutron total cross section...

  20. 77 FR 26175 - Section 42 Qualified Contract Provisions

    2012-05-03

    ... contract provisions under section 42(h)(6)(F) was published in the Federal Register (72 FR 33706). Written... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BD20 Section 42 Qualified Contract Provisions... housing credit agencies to obtain a qualified contract (as defined in section 42(h)(6)(F) of the...

  1. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    2010-01-01

    ... investments. (2) “Notes and Accounts Receivable-Net” shall include general traffic accounts receivable..., section 23, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... account 2890 Additional Capital Invested. Schedule B-1.1—Balance Sheet (a) This schedule shall be...

  2. Finite sum expressions for elastic and reaction cross sections

    Nuclear cross section calculations are often performed by using the partial wave method or the Eikonal method through Glauber theory. The expressions for the total cross section, total elastic cross section, and total reaction cross section in the partial wave method involve infinite sums and do not utilize simplifying approximations. Conversely, the Eikonal method gives these expressions in terms of integrals but utilizes the high energy and small angle approximations. In this paper, by using the fact that the lth partial wave component of the T-matrix can be very accurately approximated by its Born term, the infinite sums in each of the expressions for the differential cross section, total elastic cross section, total cross section, and total reaction cross section are re-written in terms of finite sums plus closed form expressions. The differential cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for 16O+16O,12C+12C, and p+12C elastic scattering. Total cross sections, total reaction cross sections, and total elastic cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for 12C+12C scattering

  3. Cross sections for electron impact excitation of molecules

    The discussion in this chapter is restricted to elastic scattering, rotational, vibrational, and electronic excitation and total scattering cross sections in electron molecule collisions. Experimental data on differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections are surveyed and short remarks are made on experimental techniques and theoretical approaches used for generating cross section data. 11 references, 3 figures

  4. 18 CFR 300.14 - Filings under section 7(k).

    2010-04-01

    ...(k). 300.14 Section 300.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... section 7(k). Any application for Commission review and approval of a rate or rate schedules established by the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration pursuant to section 7(k) of the...

  5. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which is...

  6. Differential cross section and related integrals for the Moliere potential

    The Moliere potential is widely used in radiation damage simulation studies. It is not much used in analytical transport theory calculations because of the awkward expression for the differential cross section corresponding to the potential. A two step process is followed to obtain a useful cross section: adopting the Lindhard, Nielsen and Scharff (LNS) approximations in order to generate a simpler form of the Moliere cross section and then creating a simple, easy-to-use, fit to that approximate form. Within the framework of the LNS treatment of atomic cross sections, our fit is accurate to 6%. Simple forms for the total cross section and several related quantities are presented. (author)

  7. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing --Comparative Judging of Body Sections' Cold Sensitivity Sequence

    LI Jun; WANG Yun-yi; WU Hai-yan

    2005-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design. By a new psychological & physical researching method, the subjective psychological perception of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulus are studied, and with Thurstone comparative judgement the main human body sections' cold sensitivity sequences are obtained. Furthermore the physiological causes for skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing are suggested.

  8. 76 FR 53880 - Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing...

    2011-08-30

    ... Rural Housing Service Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA... Federal Register on July 7, 2011, regarding Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing...

  9. 16 CFR 1116.7 - Scope of section 37 and its relationship to section 15(b) of the CPSA.

    2010-01-01

    ... interpretative rule relating to the reporting of substantial product hazards at 16 CFR part 1115. (2) The new... section 15(b) of the CPSA. 1116.7 Section 1116.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTS SUBMITTED PURSUANT TO SECTION 37 OF THE CONSUMER...

  10. Graphs of the cross sections in the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section (AMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. The values of ν-bar, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also plotted for appropriate isotopes

  11. Methods of achieving and maintaining an appropriate caesarean section rate.

    Robson, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide. The appropriate caesarean section rate remains a topic of debate among women and professionals. Evidence-based medicine has not provided an answer and depends on interpretation of the literature. Overall caesarean section rates are unhelpful, and caesarean section rates should not be judged in isolation from other outcomes and epidemiological characteristics. Better understanding of caesarean section rates, their consequences and their benefits will improve care, and enable learning between delivery units nationally and internationally. To achieve and maintain an appropriate caesarean section rate requires a Multidisciplinary Quality Assurance Programme in each delivery unit, recognising caesarean section rates as one of many factors that determine quality. Women will always choose the type of delivery that seems safest to them and their babies. Professionals need to monitor the quality of their practice continuously in a standardised way to ensure that women can make the right choice.

  12. Caesarean section survey in Galway--1973 through 1987.

    Bolaji, I I; Meehan, F P

    1993-01-01

    We review the trend, indications and maternal mortality with caesarean section at University College Hospital Galway from 1973 to 1987. The caesarean section rate (CSR) rose from 6.06% in 1973 to 10.18% in 1987, primary sections from 3.58% to 6.51% and repeat sections from 2.49% to 3.67% during the same interval. The four major indications for section were cephalopelvic disproportion, foetal distress, previous section and malpresentations. Lower segment caesarean section was the commonest operation and a slight increase in the classical operation was noted due to an increased intervention in prematurity. The maternal mortality rate was 11.2/10,000 in the 15-year period and the complications leading to death were ultimately ascribable to primary postpartum haemorrhage. Strategies for reduction in the CSR are discussed. PMID:8449255

  13. Rising caesarean section rate: a matter of concern?

    Sanjivani A. Wanjari

    2014-06-01

    Methods: A one year observational study was done in a large government hospital receiving a large number of patients from urban as well as rural areas and also referrals from the periphery. An attempt was made to find out the caesarean section rate and to evaluate the indications that lead to a rise in caesarean section rate. Results: During the one year study period, there were total 14568 deliveries, out of which 5508 were caesarean sections giving a caesarean section rate of 37.8%. Repeat caesarean section after one prior caesarean delivery was the leading contributor of caesarean section rate and accounted for one in three caesarean sections carried out (32.80%. Other leading indications were foetal distress (9.36%, CPD (7.69%, PROM (7.31%, postdate pregnancy (6.62%, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (6.0%. Conclusions: Some of the measures that can reduce caesarean section rate can be 1 reduction in primary caesarean sections 2 giving the option of VBAC to women with one prior caesarean section 3 use of foetal heart tracings and scalp blood sampling for foetal monitoring 4 judicious use of oxytocin and plotting of the partogram for every labour. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 728-731

  14. INDICATIONS FOR CAESAREAN SECTION IN NULLIPAROUS AND MULTIPAROUS WOMEN

    Sheela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Within few years’ number of caesarean sections increased dramatically in our hospital. This study was done to find out whether increasing the number of caesarean sections were due to improving patients transportation and maternal and child welfare program or it was due to caesarean section were performed for improper indication. METHOD AND MATERIAL: It is a retrograded study conducted on the bases of caesarean section performed in Bundelkhand Medical college associated hospital from October 2013 to September 2014. 1536 caesarean section were performed of this 1104 (71.87% were nulliparous and 432 (23.43% were multiparous. During this period only 5 cases of rupture uterus were reported. All are multiparous women with no history of previous section. RESULT: The most common indication of caesarean section among nulliparous women (23.43% was cephalo-pelvic disproportion with other complications like fetal distress, premature rupture membrane, PIH, mal-presentation. Among multiparous women the most common indication for caesarean section was previous caesarean section with Cephalo-pelvic disproportion (26.62% CONCLUSION: In our hospital majority of caesarean sections were compulsory for maternal and fetal wellbeing. Minority of cases there may be difference of opinion or error of judgment. But attempts should be made to decrease even these minorities of cases by critical evaluation of decision to perform caesarean section especially in nulliparous women. First caesarean section itself an indication for subsequent caesarean section but in these cases also presence of other risk factors should identified and if possible careful trial of labour should perform.

  15. PLSS Townships and Sections, section polygons & section corner points, Published in unknown, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Eric Herbert.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is...

  16. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-01-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the Donnachie-Landshoff parametrization of $F_2(x,Q^2)$, we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way works quite well in the massive case, reproducing the original Donnachie-Landshoff structure function for $0.1$ GeV$^2\\leq Q^2\\leq 10$ GeV$^2$. We discuss the large and small form of the dipole cross section and compare with other parameterizations.

  17. Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    Fiel, Joao Claudio B., E-mail: fiel@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and {sup 235} U {sub 92} enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K{sub inf}, generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)

  18. Resonance Averaged Photoionization Cross Sections for Astrophysical Models

    Bautista, M A; Pradhan, A K

    1997-01-01

    We present ground state photoionization cross sections of atoms and ions averaged over resonance structures for photoionization modeling of astrophysical sources. The detailed cross sections calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the R-matrix method, with resonances delineated at thousands of energies, are taken from the Opacity Project database TOPbase and the Iron Project, including new data for the low ionization stages of iron Fe I--V. The resonance-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the detailed cross sections with a Gaussian distribution over the autoionizing resonances. This procedure is expected to minimize errors in the derived ionization rates that could result from small uncertainties in computed positions of resonances, while preserving the overall resonant contribution to the cross sections in the important near threshold regions. The detailed photoionization cross sections at low photon energies are complemented by new relativistic distorted-wave calculations for Z1...

  19. Cement line staining in undecalcified thin sections of cortical bone

    Bain, S. D.; Impeduglia, T. M.; Rubin, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for demonstrating cement lines in thin, undecalcified, transverse sections of cortical bone has been developed. Cortical bone samples are processed and embedded undecalcified in methyl methacrylate plastic. After sectioning at 3-5 microns, cross-sections are transferred to a glass slide and flattened for 10 min. Sections of cortical bone are stained for 20 sec free-floating in a fresh solution of 1% toluidine blue dissolved in 0.1% formic acid. The section is dehydrated in t-butyl alcohol, cleared in xylene, and mounted with Eukitt's medium. Reversal lines appear as thin, scalloped, dark blue lines against a light blue matrix, whereas bone formation arrest lines are thicker with a smooth contour. With this technique cellular detail, osteoid differentiation, and fluorochrome labels are retained. Results demonstrate the applicability of a one-step staining method for cement lines which will facilitate the assessment of bone remodeling activity in thin sections of undecalcified cortical bone.

  20. Fetomaternal hemorrhage in women undergoing elective cesarean section

    Perslev, Anette; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Berkowicz, Adela; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2010-01-01

    presence of fetal red blood cells (fRBCs) using flow cytometry. FMH associated with cesarean section was defined as the difference between the volumes of fRBCs in the two samples. Main Outcome Measures. The frequency and volume of FMH caused by elective cesarean section. Results. 207 women were included in...... with elective cesarean section, provided guidelines such as the current Danish guidelines for Rhesus prophylaxis are followed....

  1. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  2. Revisions in Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae) IV. Coelogyne section Tomentosae

    Vogel, de, V.

    1992-01-01

    This article contains a taxonomic revision of Coelogyne section Tomentosae (24 species). Five species (C. acutilabium, C. bruneiensis, C. echinolabium, C. latiloba, C. velulina) are newly described; three other species are allotted for the first time to this section (C. buennemeyeri, C. distans, C. rupicola). One species, formerly included in section Tomentosae, is excluded (C. veitchii). Six species are here reduced to synonymy. A key to the species is provided. Synonymy, description, distri...

  3. Proton-nucleus cross section at high energies

    Wibig, Tadeusz; Sobczynska, Dorota

    1998-01-01

    Cross sections for proton inelastic collision with different nuclei are described within the Glauber and multiple scattering approximations. A significant difference between approximate `Glauber' formula and exact calculations with a geometrical scaling assumption for very high-energy cross section is shown. Experimental values of proton-proton cross sections obtained using extensive air shower data are based on the relationship of proton-proton and respective proton-air absorption cross sect...

  4. 1996 Central New Mexico Section [American Chemical Society] annual report

    Cournoyer, M.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemistry Science and Technology Div.

    1997-02-07

    The main goal of the Central New Mexico Section this year was to increase attendance at the local meetings. Throughout the course of the year attendance at the meeting more than doubled. This was brought on by several factors: having the meeting spread throughout the section (Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Las Vegas, Socorro, Los Alamos); supplementing the ACS National Tour speakers with interesting local sections speakers; and making full use of the newly formed Public Relations Committee. Activities during 1996 are summarized.

  5. The Cabo Mondego section as a possible Bajocian boundary stratotype

    Rocha, Rogério B; Henriques, María Helena Paiva; Soares, Antonio; Mouterde, René; Caloo, Brigitte; Ruget, Christiane; Fernández López, Sixto Rafael

    1990-01-01

    The Cabo Mondego section situated on the Atlantic coast, 160 km north of Lisbon, presents characteristics of a good boundary stratotype section (G.S.S.P.). The outcrop is easily accessible and well exposed near the sea where the erosion process is continuous. The section shows a thick succession of clay limestones with a regular sedimentation and belongs to a sedimenrary basin whose palaeogeography is already well established. The variety and abundance of cephalopods p...

  6. LINX-1: a code for linking polynomial cross section files

    The capabilities of the LINX-1 code are described. It was developed for the purpose of linking seperate fuel assembly and reflector node polynomial cross section files, obtained by the POLX-1 code, together into a single reactor polynomial cross section library. The output of the polynomial cross section library can be in either binary or fixed (BCD) format. Input data requirements and the format of the output file generated by LINX-1 are also described. 2 refs

  7. Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design

    Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs. (U.K.)

  8. Meeting cross section requirements for nuclear energy design

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and explain current requirements in cross section data that are essential to nuclear energy programs and to provide some insight into how these data might be obtained. The report is divided into six sections that describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation, and analysis; determination of high accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; and identification of important cross sections and inferred needs

  9. Theoretical estimates of cross sections for neutron-nucleus collisions

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    We construct an analytical model derived from nuclear reaction theory and having a simple functional form to demonstrate the quantitative agreement with the measured cross sections for neutron induced reactions. The neutron-nucleus total, reaction and scattering cross sections, for energies ranging from 5 to 700 MeV and for several nuclei spanning a wide mass range are estimated. Systematics of neutron scattering cross sections on various materials for neutron energies upto several hundred Me...

  10. Research, Development and Innovation at the Section of Electronics

    The main task of the Section of Electronics is to solve electronic measurement problems emerging in the various fields of experimental research of the institute. Beside this, the section has its own research and development activities. We study new methods to improve measurement accuracy and take part in several projects from CERN to space applications and nuclear medical imaging. The Computational Group of this section takes care of the computing resources of the institute.

  11. [Third section of: Panoramic view of] Hong Kong [circa 1900

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Third section of a panoramic view, composed of four joined prints, looking down from the Peak onto the city of Victoria, the harbour and the Kowloon Peninsula. The first section of the panorama is largely taken up by a spur of the peak. In the bottom right of the second section are the Public Gardens, with the clock tower at the junction of Queen's Road and Peddar Street above them. In the centre of this section is the gothic Roman Catholic Cathedral, with the Victoria Goal beyond. The cen...

  12. [Fourth section of: Panoramic view of] Hong Kong [circa 1900

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Fourth section of a panoramic view, composed of four joined prints, looking down from the Peak onto the city of Victoria, the harbour and the Kowloon Peninsula. The first section of the panorama is largely taken up by a spur of the peak. In the bottom right of the second section are the Public Gardens, with the clock tower at the junction of Queen's Road and Peddar Street above them. In the centre of this section is the gothic Roman Catholic Cathedral, with the Victoria Goal beyond. The ce...

  13. [First section of: Panoramic view of] Hong Kong [circa 1900

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    First section of a panoramic view, composed of four joined prints, looking down from the Peak onto the city of Victoria, the harbour and the Kowloon Peninsula. The first section of the panorama is largely taken up by a spur of the peak. In the bottom right of the second section are the Public Gardens, with the clock tower at the junction of Queen's Road and Peddar Street above them. In the centre of this section is the gothic Roman Catholic Cathedral, with the Victoria Goal beyond. The cen...

  14. [Second section of: Panoramic view of] Hong Kong [circa 1900

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Second section of a panoramic view, composed of four joined prints, looking down from the Peak onto the city of Victoria, the harbour and the Kowloon Peninsula. The first section of the panorama is largely taken up by a spur of the peak. In the bottom right of the second section are the Public Gardens, with the clock tower at the junction of Queen's Road and Peddar Street above them. In the centre of this section is the gothic Roman Catholic Cathedral, with the Victoria Goal beyond. The ce...

  15. Ni elemental neutron induced reaction cross-section evaluation

    A completely new evaluation of the nickel neutron induced reaction cross sections was undertaken as a part of the ENDF/B-V effort. (n,xy) reactions and capture reaction time from threshold to 20 MeV were considered for 5860616264Ni isotopes to construct the corresponding reaction cross section for natural nickel. Both experimental and theoretical calculated results were used in evaluating different partial cross sections. Precompound effects were included in calculating (n,xy) reaction cross sections. Experimentally measured total section data extending from 0.7 MeV to 20 MeV were used to generate smooth cross section. Below 0.7 to MeV elastic and capture cross sections are represented by resonance parameters. Inelastic angular distributions to the discrete isotopic levels and elemental elastic angular distributions are included in the evaluated data file. Gamma production cross sections and energy distribution due to capture and the (n,xy) reactions were evaluated from experimental data. Finally, error files are constructed for all partial cross sections

  16. Beam section stiffness properties usig 3D finite elements

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2013-01-01

    The cross-section properties of a beam is characterized by a six by six stiffness matrix, relating the six generalized strains to the conjugate section forces. The problem is formulated as a single-layer finite element model of a slice of the beam, on which the six deformation modes are imposed via...... Lagrange multipliers. The Lagrange multipliers represent the constraining forces, and thus combine to form the cross-section stiffness matrix. The theory is illustrated by a simple isotropic cross-section....

  17. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  18. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  19. Fano interference and cross-section fluctuations in molecular photodissociation

    We derive an expression for the total photodissociation cross section of a molecule incorporating both direct and indirect processes that proceed through excited resonances, and show that it exhibits generalized Beutler-Fano line shapes. Assuming that the closed system can be modeled by random-matrix theory, we derive the statistical properties of the photodissociation cross section and find that they are significantly affected by the direct processes. In the limit of isolated resonances, we find that direct processes suppress the correlation hole of the cross-section autocorrelation function and lead to a maximum in the cross-section distribution

  20. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented

  1. 48 CFR 315.7000 - Section 508 accessibility standards.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Acquisition of Electronic Information... Section 508 accessibility standards. Commercial nonavailability exception determinations for EIT...

  2. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  3. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  4. Report of material and equipment section`s activities at New York Shipbuilding Corporation during fabrication of AXC 167 1/2 starting May 18, 1951. Part 7, Section 3

    Stewart, J.R.

    1954-04-28

    This document provides Part VII, Section III and Section IV of the report of the Material and Equipment Section`s activities at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. The fabrication, inspection, and testing of reactor components is detailed.

  5. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements

  6. Determination of the total photo-absorption cross section of 197Au from (γ,chin) reaction cross sections

    Cross sections for the reaction 197Au(γ, chin)(chi<=12) have been measured for bremsstrahlung end-point energies in the range 60-340 MeV. From these dominant cross sections, the total photon absorption cross section is determined using a cascade-evaporation calculation to account for the missing reaction channels. The enhancement factor for the classical E1 sum rule is found to be 0.93+-0.10. (orig.)

  7. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  8. National Variation in Caesarean Section Rates: A Cross Sectional Study in Ireland

    Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Brick, Aoife; Layte, Richard; Cunningham, Nathan; Turner, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Internationally, caesarean section (CS) rates are rising. However, mean rates of CS across providers obscure extremes of CS provision. We aimed to quantify variation between all maternity units in Ireland. Methods Two national databases, the National Perinatal Reporting System and the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry Scheme, were used to analyse data for all women delivering singleton births weighing ≥500g. We used multilevel models to examine variation between hospitals in Ireland for elective and emergency CS, adjusted for individual level sociodemographic, clinical and organisational variables. Analyses were subsequently stratified for nullipara and multipara with and without prior CS. Results The national CS rate was 25.6% (range 18.2% ─ 35.1%). This was highest in multipara with prior CS at 86.1% (range 6.9% ─ 100%). The proportion of variation in CS that was attributable to the hospital of birth was 11.1% (95% CI, 6.0 ─ 19.4) for elective CS and 2.9% (95% CI, 1.4 ─ 5.6) for emergency CS, after adjustment. Stratifying across parity group, variation between hospitals was greatest for multipara with prior CS. Both types of CS were predicted by increasing age, prior history of miscarriage or stillbirth, prior CS, antenatal complications and private model of care. Conclusion The proportion of variation attributable to the hospital was higher for elective CS than emergency CS suggesting that variation is more likely influenced by antenatal decision making than intrapartum decision making. Multipara with prior CS were particularly subject to variability, highlighting a need for consensus on appropriate care in this group. PMID:27280848

  9. Modeling and analysis of ground target radiation cross section

    SHI Xiang; LOU GuoWei; LI XingGuo

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the passive millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer detection, the ground target radiation cross section is modeled as the new token for the target MMW radiant characteristics. Its ap-plication and actual testing are discussed and analyzed. The essence of passive MMW stealth is target radiation cross section reduction.

  10. Corrosion and thermal plant section: 1983 review and 1984 programs

    The projects and achievements of the Corrosion and Thermal Plant Section in 1983 are reviewed. Proposed projects and objectives for 1984 are described in outline and an overview of the changes in direction of the work of the section is presented

  11. 40 CFR 52.515 - Original identification of plan section.

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) Control strategies for sulfur oxides and particulate matter were defined by the District's..., Photochemically Reactive Solvent, Process, Process Weight, Process Rate Per Hour, Ringelmann Smoke Chart, Smoke... (Section 199.2)—Added: CFR, EPA, ppmv Unchanged from Section 8-2:702: B.T.U., cal., CO, COHs, cfm, g.,...

  12. 7 CFR 27.9 - Marketing Services Offices; Grading Section.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing Services Offices; Grading Section. 27.9 Section 27.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  13. An amendment of Aspergillus section Candidi based on chemotaxonomical evidence

    Rahbaek, L.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christophersen, C.

    2000-01-01

    candidus and therefore a large number of Aspergilli were screened for production of these compounds to see whether they could be regarded as chemotaxonomical indicators of section membership in the monotypic Aspergillus section Candidi. The results indicated that A. campestris and A. taichungensis should...

  14. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions

  15. Total Cross Sections at High Energies - An Update

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Sohail Afzal Tahir; M. Alam Saeed; M. Qadeer Afzal

    2002-01-01

    Current and future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX, and TOTEMhave been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behaviorof total cross section at very high energies.

  16. Aluminium multi-planar hollow section traffic sign structures

    Soetens, F.

    1998-01-01

    Currently, overhead highway traffic sign structures in The Netherlands are triangular space frame girders composed of circular hollow steel sections supported by two X-shaped columns consisting of rectangular hollow steel sections. However. the Dutch Ministry of Transport has initiated the developme

  17. Surrogate reaction methods for neutron induced cross-sections

    A brief discussion on surrogate reaction methods and some of the recent results on neutron induced fission cross-section measurements carried out by our group and the possibility of extending the measurements for determining (n,g), (n,2n) and (n,p) reaction cross-sections by surrogate reaction method are presented

  18. 40 CFR 52.590 - Original identification of plan section.

    2010-07-01

    ... areas. This page contains the periodic review requirements satisfying 40 CFR 51.306(c), and was adopted....590, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed..., 1988. Rule 391-3-1-.01, “Definitions”, mm, yyy, zzz, aaaa; Rule 391-3-1-.02(4)(c), “Ambient...

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013

  20. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2299 - Original identification of plan section.

    2010-07-01

    ... identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “Texas Air Pollution Control..., 1973. (8) Revisions to regulation IV (Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles) were adopted on..., miscellaneous metal parts and products, factory surface coating of flat wood paneling, vapor tight, and...

  2. 76 FR 62689 - Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695

    2011-10-11

    ..., 2008, as TD 9436, 73 FR 78430 (the December 2008 final regulations). The December 2008 final... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK16 Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695... regulations related to the tax return preparer penalties under section 6695 of the Internal Revenue Code...

  3. A simplified procedure for preparation of undecalcified human bone sections

    Wallin, J A; Tkocz, I; Levinsen, J

    1985-01-01

    A new type of apparatus for sectioning samples of hard, undecalcified bone is described. Slices of fresh or archeological human bone 4-5 mm thick are dehydrated and then embedded in epoxy resin. The apparatus used to prepare sections from the resulting blocks consists of a low-speed rim-type diam...

  4. 77 FR 321 - Section 4(f) Policy Paper

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Highway Administration Section 4(f) Policy Paper AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... draft Section 4(f) Policy Paper that will provide guidance on the procedures the FHWA will follow when.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic Access and Filing You may submit or retrieve comments online through...

  5. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  6. On the scattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    Solymar, L.

    1973-01-01

    A general formula is derived for the scattering cross section of a passiven-element linear array consisting of isotropic radiators. When all the reactances are tuned out and scattering in the mirror direction is investigated, it is found thatA_{sr}, the relative scattering cross section is equal to...

  7. 26 CFR 1.48-3 - Used section 38 property.

    2010-04-01

    ... business until 1962. In 1962, corporation P sells such properties to corporation Y, which leases back... to him by a trust, estate, or electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b... $25,000, if the cost of used section 38 property apportioned to him by an electing small...

  8. Simplified polynomial representation of cross sections for reactor calculation

    It is shown a simplified representation of a cross section library generated by transport theory using the cell model of Wigner-Seitz for typical PWR fuel elements. The effect of burnup evolution through tables of reference cross sections and the effect of the variation of the reactor operation parameters considered by adjusted polynomials are presented. (M.C.K.)

  9. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  10. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  11. Cross section probability tables in multi-group transport calculations

    The use of cross section probability tables in multigroup transport calculations is presented. Emphasis is placed on how probability table parameters are generated in a multigroup cross section processor and how existing transport codes must be modifed to use them. In order to illustrate the accuracy obtained by using probability tables, results are presented for a variety of neutron and photon transport problems

  12. Possibility of spin mechanism of total cross section growth

    The possibility of existence of the spin mechanism of total cross section growth is considered. A nucleon-nucleon scattering is studied. The energy dependence of scattering amplitude and possible effects related with the spin mechanism of total cross section growth are studied. It is shown that the considered mechanism can play a great role at high energies

  13. 14 CFR Section 24 - Profit and Loss Elements

    2010-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting part 241 section 24, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... to all salaries in this classification. (3) Line 13 “Departure Related (Station) Expense” shall... or lease are in the possession of the reporting air carrier and are available for service on...

  14. Should Special Program Students Be Placed in Separate Course Sections?

    Brothen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of separate discussion sections for special admissions students participating in a developmental program and attending an introduction to psychology course. In year one, the special admissions students were segregated into separate small enrollment discussion sections within the larger course. In year two,…

  15. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron;

    2011-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background. Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim. To...

  16. THIONIN STAINING OF PARAFFIN AND PLASTIC EMBEDDED SECTIONS OF CARTILAGE

    BULSTRA, SK; DRUKKER, J; KUIJER, R; BUURMAN, WA; VANDERLINDEN, AJ

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of thionin for staining cartilage sections embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) and the effect of decalcification on cartilage sections embedded in paraffin and GMA were assessed. Short decalcification periods using 5% formic acid or 10% EDTA did not influence the staining properties

  17. Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

  18. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  19. The effect of the decay data on activation cross section

    The effect of the decay data on evaluation of activation cross section is investigated. Present work shows that these effects must be considered carefully when activation cross section is evaluated. Sometime they are main reason for causing the discrepancies among the experimental data

  20. Minijets, soft gluon resummation and photon cross-sections

    Godbole, R. M.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2008-01-01

    We compare the high energy behaviour of hadronic photon-photon cross-sections in different models. We find that the photon-photon cross-section appears to rise faster than the purely hadronic ones (proton-proton and proton-antiproton).

  1. Measurement of the fission cross section of 238Pu

    The fission cross sections of 238Pu have been measured from 0.1 eV to 80 keV energy range using the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer. The cross sections were normalized to the 235U ENDF/B-V data broadened to the resolution of the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer system. The fission areas and widths were determined for the resolved low-energy resonances. The ENDF/B-V fission cross sections for the 238Pu isotope are, in general, not in good agreement with the measured cross sections and a new evaluation is recommended. The observations of structure in the unresolved fission cross sections is suggestive of the existence of intermediate structure. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Capture cross-section of threading dislocations in thin films

    Highlights: ► We study the effect of film stress on capture cross-section of interacting threads. ► Capture cross-section area diverges near film channeling stress. ► Thread interactions are much more likely when local stress is near critical stress. - Abstract: The capture cross section for annihilation of two threads with opposite Burgers vectors moving on orthogonal slip planes in a thin film is examined using a numerical model. The initial configurations of threads that lead to annihilation are mapped out for a range of applied film stresses. The area of the region of initial configurations that lead to annihilation at a given stress and thickness is the capture cross-section. The size of the capture cross-section is shown to be highly sensitive to the applied stress relative to the critical stress for dislocation motion imposed by the film thickness.

  3. An explosive innovation: Phylogenetic relationships of Solanum section Gonatotrichum (Solanaceae

    Stephen Stern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum is one of the largest plant genera and exhibits a wide range of morphological diversity. Solanum section Gonatotrichum, the focus of this study, is unique within the genus because of its fruits that swell with turgor pressure and explosively dehisce to disperse the seeds. We infer phylogenetic relationships within section Gonatotrichum using DNA sequence data from two nuclear regions (ITS and the granule-bound starch synthase gene [GBSSI or waxy] and the chloroplast region trnT-F. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the monophyly of the section with the inclusion of S. lignescens, a species not previously thought to belong to the group due to the presence of stellate hairs. This inclusion of this species in section Gonatotrichum suggests that the simple, often geniculate hairs of species in the group may represent reduced stellate hairs. The presence of heterantherous flowers appears to be derived in the section, but this character is largely lost in S. parcistrigosum.

  4. Anomalously large neutron capture cross sections: a random phenomenon?

    Carlson, B V; Kerman, A K

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the existence of huge thermal neutron capture cross sections in several nuclei. The values of the cross sections are several orders of magnitude bigger than expected at these very low energies. We lend support to the idea that this phenomenon is random in nature and is similar to what we have learned from the study of parity violation in the actinide region. The idea of statistical doorways is advanced as a unified concept in the delineation of large numbers in the nuclear world. The average number of maxima per unit mass, $$ in the capture cross section is calculated and related to the underlying cross section correlation function and found to be $ = \\frac{3}{\\pi \\sqrt{2}\\gamma_{A}}$, where $\\gamma_{A}$ is a characteristic mass correlation width which designates the degree of remnant coherence in the system. We trace this coherence to nucleosynthesis which produced the nuclei whose neutron capture cross sections are considered here.

  5. Narrowing the uncertainty on the total charm cross section and its effect on the J/\\psi\\ cross section

    Nelson, R; R. Vogt; Frawley, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the available parameter space that gives reasonable fits to the total charm cross section to make a better estimate of its true uncertainty. We study the effect of the parameter choices on the energy dependence of the J/\\psi\\ cross section.

  6. Neutron standard cross sections in reactor physics - Need and status

    The design and improvement of nuclear reactors require detailed neutronics calculations. These calculations depend on comprehensive libraries of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Most of the cross sections that form the data base for these evaluations have been measured relative to neutron cross-section standards. The use of these standards can often simplify the measurement process by eliminating the need for a direct measurement of the neutron fluence. The standards are not known perfectly, however; thus the accuracy of a cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross section relative to which it is measured. Improvements in a standard cause all cross sections measured relative to that standard to be improved. This is the reason for the emphasis on improving the neutron cross-section standards. The continual process of measurement and evaluation has led to improvements in the accuracy and range of applicability of the standards. Though these improvements have been substantial, this process must continue in order to obtain the high-quality standards needed by the user community

  7. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  8. The total collision cross section in the glory region

    Chapter 1 presents a calculation of approximate total cross sections in the glory region from noble gas potentials. The relations between the main features of the total cross section and the properties of the potential to which these are sensitive are extensively investigated in chapter II. A beam apparatus has been developed, which allows for accurate measurements on the total cross section. All effects due to the finite angular and velocity resolution of the apparatus can be eliminated from the data to yield actual total cross sections as a function of the relative velocity. This facilitates a comparison to total cross sections predicted by potentials available in the literature. A brief description of the apparatus and of the data reduction is given in chapter III. The total cross section data obtained for various noble gas combinations are presented and analysed in chapter IV, where also a large number of potentials proposed in the literature is tested. In chapter V the quenching of the glories in the case of a non-spherical interaction is analysed. Subsequently, total cross section data for some atom-molecule systems are discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  10. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  11. Determination of Pb total photonuclear absorption cross section in the Δ resonance range by measurement of photoneutrons cross sections

    The photonuclear absorption cross section of Pb, σ(TOT:Esub(γ), is studied in the 145-440 MeV Δ resonance range using a quasi-monochromatic photon beam obtained by monoenergetic positon in-flight annihilation. This study is deduced of the cross section measurement for at least j neutron emission σsup(j))Esub(γ). The cross sections of reactions with 1 or 0 neutron are evaluated as the same values as the experimental errors. The variation of the photonuclear absorption cross section for a nuclear σ(TOT:Esub(γ)/A is mass independent for A<=4-6. It seems that the damping between σ(TOT:Esub(γ)/A and the cross section of the free nucleon is caused by the Fermi movement of the nucleons. In conclusion: it seems that the excitation of the nucleus in the Δ resonance region is produced on free nucleons and there are no collective states

  12. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  13. Neutron inelastic cross section measurements for 24Mg

    OLACEL A.; Borcea, C.; DESSAGNE Philippe; Kerveno, M.; NEGRET A.; PLOMPEN Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The gamma production cross sections from the neutron inelastic scattering on 24Mg were measured for neutron energies up to 18 MeV at GELINA (Geel Linear Accelerator), the neutron source operated by EC-JRC-IRMM, Belgium. The level cross section and the total inelastic cross section were determined. We used the GAINS (Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) spectrometer with 7 large volume HPGe detectors placed at 110◦ and 150◦ with respect to the beam direction. The neutron flux was dete...

  14. Review of Section XI inservice inspection program effectiveness

    Cook, J.F. Sr.

    1993-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Section XI, Division 1, {open_quotes}Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,{close_quotes} of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, searches were performed of the Licensing Event Report and Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System computerized data bases, and a review was made of inservice inspection summary reports. It was found that the Section XI examinations and tests detect flaws in welds and plant components and result in subsequent corrective action. This study also shows that the format and topics of information provided in Section XI-prescribed inservice inspection summary reports vary widely.

  15. Photoionization cross-sections using the polarization propagator approach

    It is shown that the imaginary part of the polarization propagator (PP), when computed at complex frequencies, w+i η, can be, in the limit η -> 0, directly related to the photoionization cross-section. Total photoionization cross-sections can be evaluated directly from the PP, and partial croos-sections can be computed from individual excitation frequencies and transition moments, using the spectral representation of the PP. For complex frequencies not only the real part of the PP but also its imaginary part is propotional to the complex dynamic polarizability. (Author)

  16. Thermal neutron capture cross-sections and neutron separation energies

    Thermal radiative neutron capture cross-sections have been re-evaluated as part of an ongoing project at the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory at Upton, New York, to update the Neutron Cross-sections compendia, Vol. 1, Parts A and B, Neutron Resonance Parameters and Thermal Capture Cross-sections, published by Academic Press in 1981 and 1984, respectively. Neutron separation energies are evaluated as part of an ongoing project at the Atomic Mass Data Center in Orsay, France. The adopted data are compared with new results derived from this evaluation

  17. Commissioning of the Cryogenics of the LHC Long Straight Sections

    Perin, A; Claudet, S; Darve, C; Ferlin, G; Millet, F; Parente, C; Rabehl, R; Soubiran, M; van Weelderen, R; Wagner, U

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

  18. Neutron activation cross section measurements and evaluations in CIAE

    The cross sections of 28 reactions have been measured by the activation method since 1995 in CIAE. At the same time the cross sections of 40 reactions which we have measured since 1989 have been compiled and evaluated. A brief description of experimental measurement of activation cross sections is given. The data measured after 1995 by ourselves are listed in Table 4 and our evaluations for 40 reactions are listed in Table 5, respectively. A graphical intercomparison with available experimental data isi given in appendix. (author)

  19. Testing of cross section libraries for TRIGA criticality benchmark

    Influence of various up-to-date cross section libraries on the multiplication factor of TRIGA benchmark as well as the influence of fuel composition on the multiplication factor of the system composed of various types of TRIGA fuel elements was investigated. It was observed that keff calculated by using the ENDF/B VII cross section library is systematically higher than using the ENDF/B-VI cross section library. The main contributions (∼220 pcm) are from 235U and Zr. (author)

  20. Support of accelerator section of KEK injector linac

    The reexamination of the support of accelerator section is required for the recovery from the damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th, March, 2011. The general idea of KEK injector linac support has the feature of flexible structure, and these were not able to sustain under the shake of lower-6th on the Japanese intensity scale. We investigated the vibration characteristic aiming at the more rigid structure. Furthermore, some new supports were installed on the beamline for positron capture section of SuperKEKB. This report describes the two types of supports of accelerator section. (author)

  1. Remodulation scheme based on a two-section reflective SOA

    A simple and cost-effective remodulation scheme using a two-section reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is proposed for a colorless optical network unit (ONU). Under proper injection currents, the front section functions as a modulator to upload the upstream signal while the rear section serves as a data eraser for efficient suppression of the downstream data. The dependences of the upstream transmission performance on the lengths and driven currents of the RSOA, the injection optical power and extinction ratio of the downstream are investigated. By optimizing these parameters, the downstream data can be more completely suppressed and the upstream transmission performance can be greatly improved. (semiconductor devices)

  2. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  3. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  4. A taxonomic and phylogenetic revision of Penicillium section Aspergilloides

    Houbraken, J.; Visagie, C.M.; Meijer, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Busby, P.E.; Pitt, J.I.; Seifert, K.A.; Louis-Seize, G.; Demirel, R.; Yilmaz, N.; Jacobs, K.; Christensen, M.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Species belonging to Penicillium section Aspergilloides have a world-wide distribution with P. glabrum, P. spinulosum and P. thomii the most well-known species of this section. These species occur commonly and can be isolated from many substrates including soil, food, bark and indoor environments....... The taxonomy of these species has been investigated several times using various techniques, but species delimitation remains difficult. In the present study, 349 strains belonging to section Aspergilloides were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using partial β-tubulin (Ben...

  5. Evaluation of neutron induced reaction cross sections on Rh isotopes

    Evaluations of neutron nuclear data on 101,102,103,105Rh in the incident energies up to 20 MeV were performed, using theoretical nuclear reaction model code CCONE. The calculated cross sections of stable 103Rh are in good agreement with measured inelastic scattering, capture, (n, 2n), (n, p), (n, α) and (n, nα) reaction cross sections. The production cross section for the meta-state of 99Tc with half-life of 6.0 h was evaluated for the estimation of nuclear medicine use and resulted in 2.4 mb at a maximum. (author)

  6. Resonance interaction effects in photonucleon reaction cross sections

    The fine structure of a giant dipole resonance in the photonuclear reaction cross section is investigated. Developed is a diagram of parametrization of cross sections, angular distribution and polarization for two resonances, one of which is directly excited by gamma-quantum, the second - due to internal and external mixing with the first state. It is shown, that for several reaction channels the interaction effects significantly the energy dependence of the cross sections and results in qualitative effects in the photonuclear angular distributions and polarization of photonucleons

  7. Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides

    Nakagawa, T

    2003-01-01

    The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals.

  8. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231Pa

    A first series of fission cross-section measurements for incident neutron energies between 0.6 and 3.4 MeV has confirmed a first chance threshold value around 1b. In contrast to our findings for the fission cross-section in 233Pa, both the direct and the surrogate cross-section data lead to the same result. This seems to support the assumption, that only in cases, where ingoing and outgoing particle are similar, particle-transfer reactions give results that are in agreement with those obtained from direct compound nuclear reactions

  9. Beam section stiffness properties usig 3D finite elements

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2013-01-01

    The cross-section properties of a beam is characterized by a six by six stiffness matrix, relating the six generalized strains to the conjugate section forces. The problem is formulated as a single-layer finite element model of a slice of the beam, on which the six deformation modes are imposed via Lagrange multipliers. The Lagrange multipliers represent the constraining forces, and thus combine toform the cross-section stiffness matrix. The theory is illustrated by a simple isotropic cross-s...

  10. Total cross sections of beauty and charmed mesons on protons

    Using a simple scaling law we predict the values of the total cross sections σ(B±p), σBd,s0, σ(bar Bd,s0P), σ(Dd,s±P), σ(D0p), σ(bar D0p) from known total Kp cross sections. We assume that mesons with the same light valence quark, q, and differing only by their heavy valence quark content, Q, have total cross sections on protons which scale as the inverse of the nth power of the reduced mass of the meson. We predict that σ(Q bar q)p > σ(bar Qq)p

  11. Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides

    The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals. (author)

  12. Review of Section XI inservice inspection program effectiveness

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Section XI, Division 1, open-quotes Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,close quotes of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, searches were performed of the Licensing Event Report and Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System computerized data bases, and a review was made of inservice inspection summary reports. It was found that the Section XI examinations and tests detect flaws in welds and plant components and result in subsequent corrective action. This study also shows that the format and topics of information provided in Section XI-prescribed inservice inspection summary reports vary widely

  13. Measurements of fission cross-sections. Chapter 4

    The steps involved in the measurement of fission cross sections are summarized and the range of techniques available are considered. Methods of fission detection are described with particular emphasis on the neutron energy dependent properties of the fission process and the details of fragment energy loss which can lead to energy-dependent changes in detector efficiency. Selected examples of fission cross-section measurements are presented and methods of data reduction, storage, analysis and evaluation, are examined. Finally requested accuracies for fission cross section data are compared to estimated available accuracies. (U.K.)

  14. Photodetachment cross-section of the negatively charged hydrogen ion

    Frolov, Alexei M.

    2015-01-01

    Photodetachment cross-section $\\sigma_{ph}(p_e)$ of the negatively charged hydrogen ion H$^{-}$ is determined with the use of highly accurate variational wave functions constructed for this ion. Photodetachment cross-sections of the H$^{-}$ ion are also studied for very small and very large values of the photo-electron momentum $p_e$. Maximum of this cross-section and its location have been evaluated to high accuracy. In particular, we have found that $[\\sigma_{ph}(p_e)]_{\\max} \\approx$ 3.862...

  15. Cross Section to Multiplicity Ratios at Very High Energy

    Block, M M

    2014-01-01

    Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio sigma^{el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

  16. Display Section Arrangement for Large Display Panel Design of SMART

    The Large Display Panel (LDP) can be viewed from anywhere in the Main Control Room (MCR) and its simplicity and fixed format makes plant status perceived at a glance. The LDP continuously displays spatially dedicated information that provides the status of the plants critical safety functions, plant operation mode, key operating parameters and status, trend display, etc. The LDP provides a common mental model of the plant to facilitate common plant visualization among all plant operational groups. This promotes a more effective communication process among plant personnel. The LDP consists of two major sections, Fixed Indication Section and Variable Display Section

  17. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  18. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2007, Ashland County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. Data by this publisher are often provided in Ashland County...

  19. Traffic Prediction Based on Correlation of Road Sections

    Xiaodan Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Road section data packet is very necessary for the estimation and prediction in short-time traffic condition. However, previous researches on this problem are lack of quantitative analysis. A section correlation analyzing method with traffic flow microwave data is proposed for this problem. It is based on the metric multidimensional scaling theory. With a dissimilarity matrix, scalar product matrix can be calculated. Subsequently, a reconstructing matrix of section traffic flow could be got with principal components factor analysis, which could display section groups in low dimension. It is verified that the new method is reliable and effective. After that, Auto Regressive Moving Average (A RMA model is used for forecasting traffic flow and lane occupancy. Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effective and exact. The theoretical analysis indicates that the forecasting model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.  

  20. Electronic stopping cross sections for use in ion range calculation

    Theoretical and empirical methods of determining the electronic stopping cross sections are discussed. The values used by various authors in ion range calculations are outlined. Recommendations are made for future range calculations. (author)

  1. Nonelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental nickel

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental nickel were measured from 1.3 to 4.5 MeV, at intervals of approx. 50 keV, with resolutions of 30 to 50 keV and to accuracies of 1 to 2.5%. Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from 1.45 to 3.8 MeV, at intervals and with resolutions comparable to those of the total cross sections, and to accuracies of 3 to 5%. The nonelastic-scattering cross section is derived from the measured values to accuracies of greater than or equal to 6%. The experimental results are compared with previously reported values as represented by ENDF/B-V, and areas of consistency and discrepancy, noted. The measured results are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of a model previously reported by the authors. 4 figures, 1 table

  2. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  3. The method of sectional representation in aerosol dynamics

    Butuirat, F. (Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering); Kielkiewicz, M. (Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering); Moustafa, I. (Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The method of sectional representation is used to solve some problems in aerosol dynamics which also have exact analytical solutions. A series of conclusions are drawn from the analysis of the resulting errors. (orig.)

  4. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  5. Inconsistencies in clinical guidelines for obstetric anaesthesia for Caesarean section

    Winther, Lars; Mitchell, A U; Møller, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthetists need evidence-based clinical guidelines, also in obstetric anaesthesia. We compared the Danish, English, American, and German national guidelines for anaesthesia for Caesarean section. We focused on assessing the quality of guideline development and evaluation of the guidelines...

  6. Longitudinal Vibrations of Rheological Rod With Variable Cross Section

    Katica(Stevanovic)HEDRIH; AleksandarFILIPOVSKI

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal vibrations of rheological rod with variable cross section are examined.Particular solutions and eigenfunction are accomplished for natural vibrations of the rod with hereditary material of standard hereditary body.Some examples are given.

  7. Squalene aspiration pneumonia : thin-section CT and histopathologic findings

    Lee, Jin Seong; Gong, Gyung Yub; Lim, Tae Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the thin-section computed tomography (CT) findings and histopathologic findings of squalene aspiration pneumonia. Thin-section CT scans were obtained from nine patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene (derived from shark liver oil). The condition was diagnosed by biopsy (n=3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=4), or sputum cytology and clinical history (n=2) of squalene use was confirmed in all patients. Specimens of transbronchial lung biopsy were also reviewed and compared with thin-section CT findings. On the basis of these results, we concluded that squalene aspiration pneumonia can be reliably diagnosed by thin-section CT findings particularly when the appropriate history is known. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Fission cross section for 242Am.met

    The neutron-induced fission cross section for 242Am.met (152y) was measured at the Livermore 100-MeV electron linac in the neutron energy range of 0.01 eV to 20 MeV. Fission fragments were detected using a hemispherical fission chamber. The neutron flux was measured below 10 keV using lithium glass scintillators. Above 10 keV, the 242Am.met fission cross section was measured relative to the 235U fission cross section. Below 20 eV, the data were fit with a sum of single-level Breit-Wigner resonances. Results for the distribution of fission widths, the average fission width, and the average level spacing are presented. The fission cross section in the 100 keV to 20 MeV range is compared with previous measurements

  9. Organic research section. 1984 review and 1985 programs

    This report reviews the major activities and accomplishments of the Organic Research Section in 1984 and presents the 1985 work program. The three major areas of the Section's research work are non-metallic materials which includes applications and uses of plastics, petroleum products, coatings and elastomers; reactor waste management; and activity transport/decontamination of nuclear systems. In 1984, 50% of the Section's resources were used on studies in support of nuclear generation, 13% on reactor waste, and 37% on general activities and work in support of utilization, transmission and distribution, and thermal and hydraulic programs. About 60% of the section's work was supported by transfer and revenue funds as a result of urgent short-term work requirements which resulted in 68% of the work falling into the technical investigation, consulting and testing categories

  10. Differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions

    Rong-Mei, Yu; Chun-Ying, Pu; Xiao-Yu, Huang; Fu-Rong, Yin; Xu-Yan, Liu; Li-Guang, Jiao; Ya-Jun, Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed. Project supported by the Nanyang Normal University Science Foundation of China (Grant No. ZX2013017) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174066, 61306007, and U1304114).

  11. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending*

    Baltov Anguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model’s plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB.

  12. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN

    New absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN (cyanoacetylene or propiolonitrile) in the range of 0–10 eV electron energy are presented here, which have been determined from a new analysis of previously reported data (Graupner et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 117). The highest cross sections are observed for the formation of CN− at 5.3 eV and CCCN− at 5.1 eV; approximately 0.06 Å2 and 0.05 Å2 respectively. As part of the re-analysis, it was necessary to determine absolute cross sections for electron-impact ionization of HCCCN with the binary-encounter Bethe method. These electron-impact ionization absolute cross sections for HCCCN are also presented here; the maximum value was found to be ∼6.6 Å2 at ∼80 eV. (paper)

  13. Scaling of Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions

  14. The neutron cross-sections of Xe135

    Measurements of the total and absorption cross-sections of Xe135 reviewed briefly. The low-energy cross-section is very large and dominated by a single resonance at 0.084 eV; the spin state for this level is not known, this being one of the major uncertainties in the data. The resonance parameters given in the literature were found to give a good fit to the total cross-section but failed to reproduce the preferred 2200 m/sec. value of σγ. A new set of parameters was therefore deduced, by a least-squares analysis, which gave this preferred value of σγ and fitted the shape of the total cross section curve. To obtain this fit it was necessary to re-normalise the curve of σT by 4%. The new parameters are listed, and a discussion of the probable accuracy of the data is included. (author)

  15. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  16. Macroscopic cross section measurements in materials by neutron radiography technique

    Macroscopic cross-section of materials play an important role in the study of material properties. Number of materials are used for shielding against penetrating radiation like X-rays, gamma rays and neutrons and exhibit different attenuation cross-sections. Neutron radiography technique is a multi discipline non-destructive technique with a large number of applications. The technique was applied to study and analyze the behavior of different shielding materials against thermal neutrons. Samples as step wedges of graphite, copper, brass and acrylic etc. were fabricated. The test samples were exposed to a beam of thermal neutrons at neutron radiography facility and the transmittance of neutrons through different materials was measured. Gamma-ray contribution and scattered radiation were subtracted from the observed neutron intensities to calculate the neutron macroscopic cross-section. Calculated values of the macroscopic cross-section were compared with the values given in the literature. (author)

  17. Scaling of Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    Kaganovich, I D; Startsev, E

    2003-01-01

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  18. Adhesive bowel strangulation after caesarean section, the rare puerperal complication.

    Záhumenský, J; Zmrhalová, B; Sottner, O; Maxová, K; Brtnická, H; Horák, J; Binder, T; Halaska, M

    2010-01-01

    Caesarean section is the most frequent abdominal operation carried out in obstetric practice. Parturients undergoing this operation are still exposed to a substantial rate of short- and long-term complications. The incidence of re-laparotomy after caesarean section is 0.12-0.70%. The most common indication for re-laparotomy is intra-abdominal bleeding, uterine atony, eventration, haematoma in the muscle and intra-abdominal abscesses. We present the case report of an unusual life-threatening complication of caesarean section that led to re-laparotomy. Caesarean section rate has been continually increasing globally in the last few decades, thus we also have to take into account unusual complications e.g. intestinal complication. PMID:20359439

  19. 49 CFR 236.58 - Turnout, fouling section.

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.58 Turnout, fouling section. Rail joints within the fouling...

  20. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Section 18 Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 18 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizes EPA to allow an unregistered use of a pesticide for a limited time if EPA...

  1. Caesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy following postcoital contraception.

    Fabunmi, Laura; Perks, Nigel

    2002-07-01

    This is believed to be the first reported case of an ectopic pregnancy following failed progestogen-only emergency contraception. The ectopic pregnancy was at the site of a previous caesarean section scar and was managed conservatively. PMID:16259837

  2. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  3. Squalene aspiration pneumonia : thin-section CT and histopathologic findings

    The purpose of this study was to describe the thin-section computed tomography (CT) findings and histopathologic findings of squalene aspiration pneumonia. Thin-section CT scans were obtained from nine patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene (derived from shark liver oil). The condition was diagnosed by biopsy (n=3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=4), or sputum cytology and clinical history (n=2) of squalene use was confirmed in all patients. Specimens of transbronchial lung biopsy were also reviewed and compared with thin-section CT findings. On the basis of these results, we concluded that squalene aspiration pneumonia can be reliably diagnosed by thin-section CT findings particularly when the appropriate history is known. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  4. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  5. Models for Photon-photon Total Cross-sections

    Godbole, RM; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a brief overview of recent models describing the photon-photon cross-section into hadrons. We shall show in detail results from the eikonal minijet model, with and without soft gluon summation.

  6. PLSS Townships and Sections, township, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'township'. Data by this publisher are...

  7. Electron Swarm Parameters and Electron Collision Cross Sections

    Electron collision cross section data for atoms and molecules and electron swarm data in respective gases are important for quantitative modeling of related plasmas. This fact and wide application of plasmas in various fields boos data collection and evaluation activities worldwide. We have been measuring electron swarm parameters (drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, ionization/attachment coefficients, and so on) over a wide E/N range (where E is the electric field and N the gas number density) in a number of gases. We also derived a set of electron collision cross sections for each gas so that the set was consistent with our experimental swarm data. Our speciality in studying molecular target is to measure swarm parameters not only in the pure molecular gas but also in dilute molecular gas-argon gas mixtures, the mix rations of the molecule are 0.5-5.0%. The swarm parameters in pure molecular gas depend primarily on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of the molecule and its vibrational excitation cross sections. Those in the mixtures, on the other hand, depend mainly on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of major argon atom and the vibrational cross sections of minor admixed molecule. Alternative use of swarm parameters in pure molecular gas and those in the mixtures enable us to derive the momentum transfer cross section and vibrational cross sections for the molecule separately. Combination of the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum of argon atom and sharp structures in vibrational cross sections of the molecule frequently gives rise prominent E/N dependences in swarm parameters, which can be used to determine the position and magnitude of resonances in the vibrational excitation cross sections. Detailed accounts of the procedure, including estimated uncertainty in our electron swarm data and also in the resultant set of electron collision cross sections, will be given in the presentation by referring to our recent results. Stress will be

  8. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Šmelcer, L.; Brát, L.

    2015-07-01

    We present a short introduction of the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. Its history is closely tied to Zdeněk Kopal, who was its president in years 1930-1933. Both amateur variable star observers and professional scientists are organized in this section. Many online tools and databases are provided on our web page to make the observers' work easier. We also offer our online electronic journal OEJV to observers, for publishing their results.

  9. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 1

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west.

  10. Techniques and materials for skin closure in caesarean section

    Mackeen, A Dhanya; Berghella, Vincenzo; Larsen, Mie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Caesarean section is a common operation with no agreed upon standard regarding certain operative techniques or materials to use. With regard to skin closure, the skin incision can be re-approximated by a subcuticular suture immediately below the skin layer, by an interrupted suture, or by staples....... A great variety of materials and techniques are used for skin closure after caesarean section and there is a need to identify which provide the best outcomes for women....

  11. Absolute Total np and pp Cross Section Determinations

    Arndt, R A; Laptev, A B; Strakovsky, I I; Workman, R L

    2008-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses of NN scattering data. These cross sections are compared with most recent ENDF/B and JENDL data files, and the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B and JENDL evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region.

  12. Cesarean Section in Morbidly Obese Parturients: Practical Implications and Complications

    Lovina SM Machado

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached pandemic proportions across nations. Morbid obesity has a dramatic impact on pregnancy outcome. Cesarean section in these women poses many surgical, anesthetic, and logistical challenges. In view of the increased risk of cesarean delivery in morbidly obese women, the practical implications and complications are reviewed in this article. A Medline search was conducted to review the recent relevant articles in english literature on cesarean section in morbi...

  13. {beta}-ray photography of lyophilized animal sections

    Baba, Shigeo [Tokyo College of Pharmacy, Hachioji (Japan); Kimata, Hideki [Kowa Co. Ltd., Higashimurayama, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuzawa, Takashi [Nemeto Co. Ltd., Suginami-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-30

    A new photographic method that images the density distribution of lyophilized animal sections approximately 50 {mu}m in thickness is described. The new method involves sandwiching the animal section between a radiation sensor and a {sup 147}Pm planar radiation source. Either conventional photographic film or an imaging plate for radioluminography can be used as the sensor. The method described herein will find promising applications in whole body autoradiography as well as in the study of osteoporosis in experimental animals. (Author).

  14. β-ray photography of lyophilized animal sections

    A new photographic method that images the density distribution of lyophilized animal sections approximately 50 μm in thickness is described. The new method involves sandwiching the animal section between a radiation sensor and a 147Pm planar radiation source. Either conventional photographic film or an imaging plate for radioluminography can be used as the sensor. The method described herein will find promising applications in whole body autoradiography as well as in the study of osteoporosis in experimental animals. (Author)

  15. Behaviour of concrete filled stainless steel elliptical hollow sections

    Lam, D; Gardner, L.; Burdett, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the behaviour and design of axially loaded concrete filled stainless steel elliptical hollow sections. The experimental investigation was conducted using normal and high strength concrete of 30 and 100 MPa. The current study is based on stub column tests and is therefore limited to cross-section capacity. Based on the existing design guidance in Eurocode 4 for composite columns, the proposed design equations use the continuous strength method to determine the strengt...

  16. ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS BY THE EQUIVALENT SECTION METHOD

    Schulz, Mauro; Santisi D'Avila, Maria Paola

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the analysis of reinforced concrete beams subjected to combined axial load, bending moment and shear force. Cross-sections of general shape are divided, along the height, into plane elements. The biaxial behavior is represented according to the smeared rotating crack approach. Using traditionally accepted hypotheses for beams, the shear flow is determined by applying the Jouravski formula to an "equivalent section", which takes into account the nonlinear material be...

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Clinical Note Section Header Terminology

    Denny, Joshua C.; Miller, Randolph A; Johnson, Kevin B; Spickard, Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Clinical documentation is often expressed in natural language text, yet providers often use common organizations that segment these notes in sections, such as “history of present illness” or “physical examination.” We developed a hierarchical section header terminology, supporting mappings to LOINC and other vocabularies; it contained 1109 concepts and 4332 synonyms. Physicians evaluated it compared to LOINC and the Evaluation and Management billing schema using a randomly selected corpus of ...

  18. Singly differential cross sections with exchange for Ps-fragmentation

    Ray, Hasi

    2008-01-01

    Ps ionization in Ps-atom scattering is of fundamental importance. The singly differential cross sections (SDCS) provides more accurate information to test a theory than integrated or total ionization cross section since the averaging over one parameter is not required. We evaluate the SDCS for Ps-ionization with respect to the longitudinal energy distribution of the break-up positron and electron in Ps-H and Ps-He scattering and compare them with the recently available experimental and theore...

  19. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    Cornet Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  20. Preference for Institutional Delivery and Caesarean Sections in Bangladesh

    Kamal, S M Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, preference for place of delivery and socioeconomic factors associated with caesarean section are not well-understood. This paper examines the socioeconomic correlates of preference for institutional delivery and caesarean sections in Bangladesh. The study used data from the nationally-representative 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were constructed to assess the effect of sociodemographic factors on...