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Sample records for 90-day rat feeding

  1. Toxicological evaluation of L-proline in a 90-day feeding study with Fischer 344 rats.

    Tada, Y; Yano, N; Takahashi, H; Yuzawa, K; Ando, H; Kubo, Y; Nagasawa, A; Ohashi, N; Ogata, A; Nakae, D

    2010-10-01

    L-proline (L-Pro) is a non-essential amino acid, and has become widely used as supplements and health foods, recently. A subchronic oral toxicity study of L-Pro was conducted with groups of 10 male and 10 female Fischer 344 rats fed a powder diet containing 0%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% of L-Pro for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs and mortality were noted. We observed no clear treatment-related effects with regard to body weight, food intake or urinalysis data. The average daily water intakes of the treated female groups were significantly increased compared to the controls. The hematology (red blood cell parameter) and serum biochemistry (glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine or uric acid) of the treated male and/or female groups were lower than those of the control groups. However, these changes were lacked dose-dependence, and no abnormalities were found in corresponding pathological findings. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for L-Pro was determined to be a dietary dose of 5.0% (2772.9 mg/kg body weight/day for males and 3009.3mg/kg body weight/day for females) under the present experimental conditions. PMID:20447433

  2. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  3. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  4. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A......., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schroder, M., Poulsen, M......., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Emarni, K., Gatehouse, A., Shu, Q., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing CrylAb protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 339...

  5. Toxicological evaluation of an Allium-based commercial product in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Mellado-García, P; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Jos, A; Cameán, A M

    2016-04-01

    Proallium AP(®) is a commercial Allium extract intended to be used in active food packaging as the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of some organosulfur compounds are well known. However, there is little information on its toxicity and the Scientific Committee on Food (UE) requires the safety assessment of substances used in food contact materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct for the first time a subchronic oral toxicity study of Proallium AP(®) with groups of 10 males and 10 females Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing 0, 25, 100, 400 mg/kg/d for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs or mortality were noted. Besides, no treatment-related effects with regard to any of the toxicological biomarkers considered were observed, including biochemical, haematological and histopathology parameters. In conclusion, the non-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Proallium AP(®) in rats was determined to be a dietary dose of 400 mg/kg/d under the present experimental conditions, a value 500-fold higher than the exposure derived from its potential use in active packaging. PMID:26827789

  6. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats

    Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea;

    2007-01-01

    An animal model for safety assessment of genetically modified foods was tested as part of the SAFOTEST project. In a 90-day feeding study on Wistar rats, the transgenic KMD1 rice expressing Cry1Ab protein was compared to its non-transgenic parental wild type, Xiushui 11. The KMD1 rice contained 1...

  7. Safety assessment of essential oil from Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (peperina): 90-days oral subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    Escobar, Franco Matías; Sabini, María Carola; Cariddi, Laura Noelia; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Mañas, Fernando; Cristofolini, Andrea; Bagnis, Guillermo; Gallucci, Mauro Nicolas; Cavaglieri, Lilia Renée

    2015-02-01

    Minthostachys verticillata (Lamiaceae), popularly known as peperina is largely used in popular medicine for its digestive, carminative, antispasmodic and antirheumatic properties. There are no reports of repeated exposure toxicity to guarantee their safety. The present study investigated the chemical composition, analyzed by GC-FID, and the 90-day toxicity and genotoxicity effect of M. verticillata essential oil (Mv-EO), using Wistar rats as test animals. The rats were divided into four groups (5 rats/sex/group) and Mv-EO was administered on diet at doses of 0, 1, 4 and 7 g/kg feed. The main components of Mv-EO were pulegone (64.65%) and menthone (23.92%). There was no mortality, adverse effects on general conditions or changes in body weight, food consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the study in male and female rats. Subchronic administration of Mv-EO did not alter the weights, morphological and histopathological analyses of liver, kidney and intestine. Genotoxicity was tested by micronucleus and comet assays. Mv-EO up to a concentration of 7 g/kg feed for 90 days did not exert a cyto-genotoxic effect on the bone marrow and cells blood of Wistar rats. These results suggest that Mv-EO appears to be safe and could be devoid of any toxic risk. PMID:25445298

  8. The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study

    Ann Marone Palma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber, when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. Methods Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for toxicological effects on parameters that included neuromotor activity, body weight, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Results Mean body weight, mean feed consumption and food efficiency in the treated groups were generally comparable to controls for both male and female rats. No changes were noted in neuromotor behavior, and histopathological analysis revealed no significant changes between treated and control animals. There were no differences in mean organ weight, organ-to-body weight or organ-to-brain weight values between controls and treated animals. Decreased red blood cell count occurred in the high dose males and increases in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase enzyme levels and triglycerides, while significant decreases in serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were observed in the females fed 5.0% PGX. However, the decreased mineral concentrations may be the result of significantly increased urinary volume in both males and females at the high dose, with a concomitant decrease in urinary specific gravity (males and females and protein concentration (females. These results were within historical control values, did not correlate with any histopathological changes, and were not considered adverse. Conclusion The results indicate a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for PGX at 5.0% of the diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 3219 and 3799 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively.

  9. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA)

    Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene;

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus...... nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Mate and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified or...

  10. 90 days bioassay in sprague-dawley rats exposed to 20KHz magnetic field

    Kim, Sung-Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National Univ. Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pack, Jeong-Ki [ETRI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Done-SIk [College of Engineering, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sprague Dawley rats (20 rats/group [10 males, 10 females] in sham and magnetic field exposed groups) were exposed in carrousel irradiator to an 20 KHz magnetic field for 8 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for 90 days. Urine analysis (pH, SG, protein, ketone body, RBC, WBC, glucose, bilirubin, and urobilinogen), blood analysis (WBC, RBC, HGB; henoglubin concentration, HCT; hematocrit, MCV; mean corpuscular volume, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and PLT; platelet or thrombocyte count), blood biochemistry (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), histopathological analysis for organs such as liver, kidney, testis, ovary, spleen, brain, heart, and lung were performed. When compared to the sham control rats, there were no significant differences in above analysis of magnetic field exposed rats. From the results, there were no significant differences between control and exposed fetus.

  11. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    Afolabi Saheed O; Akindele Abidemi J; Awodele Olufunsho; Anunobi Chidozie C; Adeyemi Olufunmilayo O

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at d...

  12. A 90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Submerged Mycelial Culture of Cordyceps cicadae (Ascomycetes) in Rats.

    Chen, Yen-Lien; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps cicadae is a parasitic fungus that hibernates inside a host (Cicada flammata Dist.) and then grows its fruiting body on the surface of the insect. The complete insect/fungus combination of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese traditional medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the medicinal benefits of cultured mycelia are as effective as those found in the wild. However, toxicological information regarding the chronic consumption of C. cicadae mycelia culture is not available. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible toxicity arising from repeated exposure to freeze-dried submerged mycelial culture of C. cicadae for 90 days. A total of eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 males and 10 females in each group). C. cicadae was administered daily to animals by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. No animal deaths occurred and no treatment-related clinical signs were observed during the study period. No statistical differences in body weight gain, relative organ weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were observed. Gross necropsy and histopathological findings indicated that there was no treatment-related abnormality. Based on the results, the no observed adverse effect level of C. cicadae whole broth is determined to be > 2000 mg/kg for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of this study provides support for the use of C. cicadae fermentation product as a safe agent in functional food. PMID:26559863

  13. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    Afolabi Saheed O

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p +, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males.

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  15. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats

    Werley, Michael S.; Kirkpatrick, Dan J.; Oldham, Michael J.; Jerome, Ann M.; Langston, Timothy B.; Lilly, Patrick D.; Donna C. Smith; Mckinney, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved b...

  16. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats.

    Werley, Michael S; Kirkpatrick, Dan J; Oldham, Michael J; Jerome, Ann M; Langston, Timothy B; Lilly, Patrick D; Smith, Donna C; Mckinney, Willie J

    2016-01-01

    A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1-4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  17. Distribution, elimination, and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically introduced 30 nm ceria-engineered nanomaterial in rats.

    Yokel, Robert A; Au, Tu C; MacPhail, Robert; Hardas, Sarita S; Butterfield, D Allan; Sultana, Rukhsana; Goodman, Michael; Tseng, Michael T; Dan, Mo; Haghnazar, Hamed; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Nanoceria is used as a catalyst in diesel fuel, as an abrasive in printed circuit manufacture, and is being pursued as an antioxidant therapeutic. Our objective is to extend previous findings showing that there were no reductions of cerium in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system up to 30 days after a single nanoscale ceria administration. An ~5% aqueous dispersion of citrate-stabilized 30 nm ceria, synthesized and characterized in-house, or vehicle, was iv infused into rats terminated 1, 7, 30, or 90 days later. Cageside observations were obtained daily, body weight weekly. Daily urinary and fecal cerium outputs were quantified for 2 weeks. Nine organs were weighed and samples collected from 14 tissues/organs/systems, blood and cerebrospinal fluid for cerium determination. Histology and oxidative stress were assessed. Less than 1% of the nanoceria was excreted in the first 2 weeks, 98% in feces. Body weight gain was initially impaired. Spleen weight was significantly increased in some ceria-treated groups, associated with abnormalities. Ceria was primarily retained in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. There was little decrease of ceria in any tissue over the 90 days. Granulomas were observed in the liver. Time-dependent oxidative stress changes were seen in the liver and spleen. Nanoscale ceria was persistently retained by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, associated with adverse changes. The results support concern about the long-term fate and adverse effects of inert nanoscale metal oxides that distribute throughout the body, are persistently retained, and produce adverse changes. PMID:22367688

  18. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  19. A 90-Day Toxicology Study of Meat from Genetically Modified Sheep Overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-...

  20. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption. PMID:25900579

  1. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of lung cells from Fischer 344 rats following 28 days of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs, plus 28 days and 90 days post-exposure.

    Kim, Jin Sik; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung Gil; Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Song, Kyung Seuk; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Gun Ho; Jeon, Kisoo; Ahn, Kang Ho; Yu, Il Je

    2014-03-01

    Despite their useful physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to cause concern over occupational and human health due to their structural similarity to asbestos. Thus, to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on lung cells in vivo, eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (each group = 25 animals), a fresh air control (0 mg/m(3)), low (0.17 mg/m(3)), middle (0.49 mg/m(3)), and high (0.96 mg/m(3)) dose group, and exposed to MWCNTs via nose-only inhalation 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 28 days. The count median length and geometric standard deviation for the MWCNTs determined by TEM were 330.18 and 1.72 nm, respectively, and the MWCNT diameters ranged from 10 to 15 nm. Lung cells were isolated from five male and five female rats in each group on day 0, day 28 (only from males) and day 90 following the 28-day exposure. The total number of animals used was 15 male and 10 female rats for each concentration group. To determine the genotoxicity of the MWCNTs, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted on the rat lung cells. As a result of the exposure, the olive tail moments were found to be significantly higher (p air control. In addition, the high-dose exposed male and middle and high-dose exposed female rats retained DNA damage, even 90 days post-exposure (p < 0.05). To investigate the mode of genotoxicity, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, TGF- β, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ) were also measured. For the male rats, the H2O2 levels were significantly higher in the middle (0 days post-exposure) and high- (0 days and 28 days post-exposure) dose groups (p < 0.05). Conversely, the female rats showed no changes in the H2O2 levels. The inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid did not show any statistically significant difference

  2. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. PMID:26993751

  3. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    Park HS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hark-Soo Park,1 Seon-Ju Kim,1 Taek-Jin Lee,1 Geon-Yong Kim,1 EunHo Meang,1 Jeong-Sup Hong,1 Su-Hyon Kim,1 Sang-Bum Koh,1 Seung-Guk Hong,1 Yle-Shik Sun,1 Jin Seok Kang,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Jayoung Jeong,4 Jong-Kwon Lee,4 Woo-Chan Son,5 Jae-Hak Park61General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Namseoul University, Cheonan, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, 4National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Seoul, 5Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 6Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, KoreaPurpose: The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM,20(+ nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days.Methods: For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM,20(+ NPs.Results: No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with

  4. A 90-day study of subchronic oral toxicity of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    Park HS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hark-Soo Park,1 Sung-Sup Shin,1 Eun Ho Meang,1 Jeong-sup Hong,1 Jong-Il Park,1 Su-Hyon Kim,1 Sang-Bum Koh,1 Seung-Young Lee,1 Dong-Hyouk Jang,1 Jong-Yun Lee,1 Yle-Shik Sun,1 Jin Seok Kang,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Jayoung Jeong,4 Jong-Kwon Lee,4 Woo-Chan Son,5 Jae-Hak Park6 1General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Namseoul University, Cheonan, Korea; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, Korea; 4National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea; 6Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Purpose: The widespread use of nanoparticles (NPs in industrial and biomedical applications has prompted growing concern regarding their potential toxicity and impact on human health. This study therefore investigated the subchronic, systemic oral toxicity and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(- NPs in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days.Methods: The high-dose NP level was set at 500 mg/kg of bodyweight, and the mid- and low-dose levels were set at 250 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were observed during a 14-day recovery period after the last NP administration for the persistence or reduction of any adverse effects. Toxicokinetic and distribution studies were also conducted to determine the systemic distribution of the NPs.Results: No rats died during the test period. However, ZnOSM20(- NPs (500 mg/kg induced changes in the levels of anemia-related factors, prompted acinar cell apoptosis and ductular hyperplasia, stimulated periductular lymphoid cell infiltration and excessive salivation, and increased the numbers of regenerative acinar cells in the pancreas. In addition, stomach

  5. Subacute (90 Days) Oral Toxicity Studies of Kombucha Tea

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  6. Safety evaluation of AB-LIFE(®) (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529): Antibiotic resistance and 90-day repeated-dose study in rats.

    Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Stahl, Buffy; Smith, Amy B; Burns, Frank; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Yeung, Nicolas; Lyra, Anna; Svärd, Laura; Saarinen, Markku T; Alhoniemi, Esa; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2016-06-01

    AB-LIFE(®) is a probiotic product consisting of equal parts of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, 7528, and 7529) blended with inert excipients. Whole genome sequencing was performed on each of the three strains. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by genomic mining for resistance genes, and assessment for transferability. No risk of transfer potential was identified for any antibiotic resistance genes in the three strains. AB-LIFE(®) was evaluated for potential subchronic oral toxicity in rats, with dosages of 300 and 1000 mg/kg BW/day (equivalent to 5.55 × 10(10) and 1.85 × 10(11) CFU/kg BW/day). Survival of the three test strains through the gastrointestinal tract was supported by fecal analysis. No adverse effects were identified with respect to in-life parameters, clinical or anatomic pathology, translocation, or fecal chemical analyses. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AB-LIFE(®) in male and female rats was 1000 mg/kg BW/day (1.85 × 10(11) CFU of AB-LIFE(®)/kg BW/day), the highest dose level evaluated. These results, in conjunction with a previous acute toxicity study in rats, support the conclusion that AB-LIFE(®) is safe for human consumption. PMID:27016492

  7. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork. PMID:26363208

  8. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  9. Leadership Transitions and the First 90 Days.

    Shirey, Maria R

    2016-04-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses leadership role transitions and provides a framework for successfully navigating the crucial 1st 90 days in an executive leadership role. PMID:27011151

  10. Effects of feeding Ascochyta-infected and normal lentils to rats (short-term study).

    Tarwid, J N; Morrall, R A; Mills, J H

    1985-01-01

    Weanling, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either rat chow with no lentils, 80% normal lentils or 80% diseased lentils heavily infected with the fungus Ascochyta lentis. Body weight, feed consumption and clinical appearance were monitored over 90 days and blood samples were collected at the termination of the experiment. Weight gain and feed consumption were similar in the control group and the group fed diseased lentils. Weight gain was slightly depressed in the group fe...

  11. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad training plan

    This is the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) team training plan for the 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad of Hazardous Waste. It is intended to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and the Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit. Training unrelated to compliance with WAC 173-303-330 is not addressed in this training plan. WAC 173-303-330(1)(d)(ii, v, vi) requires that personnel be familiarized, where applicable, with waste feed cut-off systems, response to ground-water contamination incidents, and shutdown of operations. These are not applicable to 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad, and are therefore not covered in this training plan

  12. A 90-Day Toxicology Study of Transgenic Rice Expressing Lysine-Rich Protein Fusion Gene in Sprague-Dawley Rats%转高赖氨酸融合蛋白基因大米喂养SD大鼠90天试验研究

    董英; 施卫东; 周兴华; 张奕; 王云; 肖香

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Rats were fed by transgenic rice expressing lysine-rich protein fusion gene to study if the transgenic rice possesses potential toxic or adverse effects. [Method] According to the composition of the transgenic GL gene rice and its parental rice, a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 70% transgenic GL gene rice or 70% parental rice was prepared. And the nutrition of the diet was the same as the control diet. Sixty weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups according to their sex and weight respectively: transgenic rice group, nontransgenic rice group, and control group. They were fed with corresponding diet for 90 days. Indicators including body weight, feed volume, feed utilization rate, blood routine test, blood biochemistry test, urinary routine test, relative organ weights and organ histopathological examinations were observed. [Result] No significant differences were found between transgenic rice group and non-transgenic rice group (P>0.05) and no histopathological damage was detected. Female feed volume and CHOL of male serum of terminal experiment in transgenic rice group were lower than those of control group (P0.05);转GL基因大米组与对照组相比,转GL基因大米雌性组进食量、雄性组试验末期血清中CHOL显著低于对照组(P<0.05),而转GL基因大米雌性组食物利用率、雄性组试验末期全血中MCV、雄性组试验中期血清中AST、雄性组试验末期血清中AST/ALT和P显著高于对照组(P<0.05),但这些数据并没有显示出生物学意义上的显著性差异,而且血常规与血生化指标均在正常值范围内.[结论]转GL基因大米对大鼠生长发育无明显不良影响,转GL基因大米和其亲本大米对大鼠有同等的食用安全性.

  13. A 90 -day Feeding Test on Rat by Valerian Liquid%缬草液的大鼠90天喂养试验

    蒋中仁; 刘科亮; 徐薇; 金伟; 卢润生; 谢惠萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价缬草液对动物的亚慢性毒性.方法 采用经口灌胃法连续90d给予SD大鼠后,观察缬草液对动物血液学指标、血生化指标、脏体比、进食量及食物利用率和组织病理学指标等的影响.结果 雄鼠试验中期中剂量组白细胞分类中的其它细胞(5.40±0.84)%显著高于对照组(4.56±0.52)%(F=5.810,P<0.05),雌鼠低剂量组末期白细胞计数(5.55±1.60)×109/L显著低于(9.59±2.44)×109/L(F=7.024,P <0.05),雄鼠低剂量组血糖(5.83±0.47)mmol/L显著低于对照组(6.32±0.31)mmol/L(F=3.178,P<0.05),雌鼠低剂量组尿素氮(9.38±1.28)mmol/L显著高于对照组(8.13±0.80) mmol/L(F=3.076,P<0.05),其余指标未见异常.结论 在本试验条件下,未观察到缬草液明显的毒性反应.

  14. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad inspection plan

    This document provides the inspection plan for the 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad. The 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad stores waste oils contaminated with lead generated while draining oil from equipment within 290-C. The 190-C pumphouse originally pumped water to the C Reactor after the water was treated/filtered in an adjacent building. Characteristic waste oil is removed from the facility equipment, packaged and stored in fifty-five-gallon drums. Included in this plan are the details concerning necessary security equipment, inspection for proper sign posting and other factors that may affect the integrity of the facility. The 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad shall be inspected at lease once each calendar week

  15. Feeding studies in rats with mineral hydrocarbon food grade white oils.

    Baldwin, M K; Berry, P H; Esdaile, D J; Linnett, S L; Martin, J G; Peristianis, G C; Priston, R A; Simpson, B J; Smith, J D

    1992-01-01

    This investigation compared the effects of feeding rats diets containing food grade white oil processed by either conventional oleum treatment or the more modern method of catalytic hydrogenation. In two separate experiments, male or female Fischer-344 rats were given free access for 90 days to diets containing 0, 10, 100, 500, 5,000, 10,000, or 20,000 ppm of either oleum-treated white oil (OTWO) or hydrotreated white oil (HTWO). There were no mortalities and no adverse clinical signs associated with feeding either white oil. Treatment-related effects evidenced by hematological, clinical chemical, and pathological changes were generally dose-related and more marked in female than in male rats, and the OTWO caused a greater pathological response than the HTWO. Tissue residues of saturated hydrocarbons were up to 5.2 times higher in female rats than in males. Rats fed 5,000 ppm or more of either white oil showed dose-related alterations in several hematological and clinical chemistry variates associated mainly with hepatic damage or functional alteration. At necropsy, mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged, and increases in weight of liver, kidney, and spleen were significant. Microscopic changes were characterized by multifocal lipogranulomata in mesenteric lymph node and liver. No changes were observed in rats fed OTWO or HTWO for 90 days at dietary concentrations of 10 or 100 ppm, equivalent to a minimum intake of 0.65 and 6.4 mg/kg/day, respectively. Differences in degree of pathological response associated with each oil may have been due to their differences in specification rather than processing method. PMID:1295071

  16. Subchronic feeding study of four white mineral oils in dogs and rats.

    Smith, J H; Bird, M G; Lewis, S C; Freeman, J J; Hogan, G K; Scala, R A

    1995-02-01

    Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted on four highly refined white mineral oils to determine any potential for toxicity in Long-Evans rats (20 per sex per dose level) and beagle dogs (4 per sex per dose level). Each oil was fed at dietary dose levels of 300 ppm and 1500 ppm (w/w). No treatment-related effects of toxicological importance were detected in daily observations of general health or in periodic assessments of food consumption and body weight, hematology, serum clinical chemistry, and urinalysis. Observations in dogs suggested that the white oils produced mild laxative effects. Gross and histopathologic examinations, as well as measurements of organ weights, did not reveal any macroscopic or microscopic changes which could be due to treatment. In addition, special staining by Oil Red O of liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, stomach, and kidneys indicated no evidence of oil or lipid deposition. A special re-examination of tissues from female and male rats, in response to more recent conflicting data from the Fischer 344 strain, found no histopathologic signs of macrophage accumulation and/or microgranuloma formation in liver, spleen, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These data indicate that repeated exposure to relatively high levels of white mineral oils in the diets does not produce significant subchronic toxicity in Long-Evans rats or beagle dogs. PMID:7768201

  17. A subchronic feeding study of dicamba-tolerant soybean with the dmo gene in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Wang, Xiaoyun; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiyin; Xu, Wentao; Jia, Xin; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Changhui; Huang, Kunlun; Liang, Zhihong

    2016-06-01

    The dicamba-tolerant soybean MON87708 expresses the dicamba mono-oxygenase (DMO) enzyme that is encoded by the dmo gene. In order to evaluate the safety of this soybean, a 90-day subchronic feeding toxicity study (13 weeks) was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 140 rats were divided into 7 groups (10/sex/group), including a standard commercial diet control group. The genetically modified (GM) soybean MON87708 and the near isogenic non-GM soybean A3525 were respectively processed to unhulled, full-fat, and heat-treated powder, then mixed into the diet at levels of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (wt/wt) with the main nutrients of the various diets balanced and then fed to 6 groups. The remaining group of rats fed with a commercial rat diet served as blank control. Some isolated parameters indicated statistically significant differences in body weight, feed consumption/utilization, hematology, serum biochemistry, and relative organ weights. These differences were not consistent across gender or test-diet dose, which were attributed to incidental and biological variability. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the transgenic soybean MON87708 containing DMO was as safe as non-transgenic isogenic counterpart with historical safe use. PMID:26850684

  18. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis 90-Day Seasonal Forecast of Precipitation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) precipitation forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface precipitation anomalies. The ECCA uses...

  19. A 90-day dietary study on kappa carrageenan with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract.

    Weiner, Myra L; Nuber, David; Blakemore, William R; Harriman, Jay F; Cohen, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Groups of Fischer 344 rats (20/sex/group) received control or treated diets at levels of 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm kappa carrageenan with a molecular weight range (Mw) of 196,000-257,000 Da for 90 days. The Low Molecular Weight Tail (LMT) ranged between 1.9% and 12.0%<50 kDa (mean 7%) based on the results of a program initiated to develop a validated analytical method to measure the LMT. This is the first GLP dietary study in which carrageenan is characterized by percentage LMT. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Individual food consumption/body weight measurements were made weekly. Ophthalmic exam was conducted prior to and at the end of treatment. Hematology/serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluations were done at necropsy, as were organ weight determinations for adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thyroid with parathyroids. Full histopathological evaluation of organs was conducted on the control and 50,000 ppm groups, including hematoxylin-eosin-stained cross sections of paraffin-embedded rolled colon. Clinical signs were limited to soft feces in high dose rats and to a lesser extent in low dose rats. There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, urinalysis, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or on organ weights or ophthalmic, macroscopic or microscopic findings. The gastrointestinal tract appeared normal in detailed histopathological evaluation using the Swiss roll technique. The NOAEL is 50,000 ppm in the diet (mean calculated test material consumption of 3394+/-706 mg/kg/day in males, 3867+/-647 mg/kg/day in females). The results of the study provide evidence that it is not necessary to characterize carrageenan by a specification for LMT (less than 5% below 50 kDa) as has been done in Commission Directive 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 (Commission Directive, 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 amending Directive 96/77/EC laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colors and sweeteners

  20. Ninety-day feeding study in Fischer-344 rats of highly refined petroleum-derived food-grade white oils and waxes.

    Smith, J H; Mallett, A K; Priston, R A; Brantom, P G; Worrell, N R; Sexsmith, C; Simpson, B J

    1996-01-01

    Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted in male and female Fischer-344 (F-344) rats on highly refined white mineral oils and waxes representative of those used for food applications. The goal was to help clarify the mixed results found in other toxicity studies with laboratory animals. Seven white oils and 5 waxes were fed at dietary doses of 20,000, 2,000, 200, and 20 ppm and compared with control groups on untreated diet; toxicity was assessed at 90 days and also after a reversal period of 28 days and/or 85 days. Higher molecular-sized hydrocarbons (microcrystalline waxes and the higher viscosity oils) were without biological effects. Paraffin waxes and low- to midviscosity oils produced biological effects that were inversely related to molecular weight, viscosity, and melting point; oil type and processing did not appear to be determinants. Biological effects were more pronounced in females than in males. Effects occurred mainly in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes and included increased organ weights, microscopic inflammatory changes, and evidence for the presence of saturated mineral hydrocarbons in affected tissues. Inflammation of the cardiac mitral valve was also observed at high doses in rats treated with paraffin waxes. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism for the responses observed and the relevance of these inflammatory responses in the F-344 rat to other species, including humans. PMID:8992612

  1. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients. PMID:25211044

  2. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    An, Seong Soo A

    2014-01-01

    Hwa Jung Ryu,1,* Mu Yeb Seo,2,* Sung Kyu Jung,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Seung-Young Lee,2 Dong-Hyouk Jang,2 Taek-Jin Lee,2 Ki-Yeon Jo,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Kyu-Bong Cho,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Beom Jun Lee,5 Sang Wook Son1 1Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gyunggido, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, 5...

  3. Clinical profile of bronchiolitis in infants younger than 90 days in Saudi Arabia

    Syed Amir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile at presentation, disease course and outcome of bronchiolitis in <3-month-old infants who presented to our Pediatric Emergency Department (PED during one disease season. Settings: Retrospective chart review during one bronchiolitis season, from November 1, 2011 to April 20, 2012. Subjects: All <90-day-old infants presenting with clinical bronchiolitis presenting to Urban PED of a tertiary care university hospital during one bronchiolitis season. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review based on computer records of all emergency department visits of infants less than 90 days with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis, covering the period between November 1, 2011 and April 30, 2012. Results: Out of the total of 1895 infants <90 days of age, 141 had a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis and 35 needed admission to hospital. Blood for culture was obtained from 47 infants, urine for culture was obtained from 46 infants and cerebrospinal fluid for culture was obtained from eight infants. One case of bacteremia was documented, but this was found to be a contaminant. No cases of meningitis occurred among these infants. However, one infant had a positive urine culture consistent with infection (Escherichia coli . Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be conclude that the risk of bacteremia or meningitis among infants <90 days of age with fever and bronchiolitis is low. The

  4. Daily Rhythms of Feeding in the Genetically Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

    Alingh Prins, Ab; Jong-Nagelsmit, Annemarie de; Keijser, Jan; Strubbe, Jan H.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding patterns were examined in obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) adult Zucker rats over the light-dark cycle during 14 days. Obese rats eat more than lean rats especially during the dark phase. Light and dark feeding expressed as percentage of 24 hr intake showed no significant differences between th

  5. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. PMID:17356802

  6. The impact of 90-day prescriptions on adherence at workplace pharmacies compared to traditional mail order.

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Davis, Jeffery; Murphy, Patricia; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Sherman, Bruce; Manfred, James

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated adherence to medications used to treat chronic conditions for patients with 90-day prescriptions, comparing patients with access to workplace pharmacy services versus patients using mail order services. De-identified pharmacy claims data were used to compute medication possession ratio and gaps in therapy. Results were compared for patients who filled 90-day prescriptions at workplace pharmacies versus patients who filled 90-day prescriptions using mail order pharmacy services in a 1-year period. Statistical tests to assess between group differences were performed controlling for differences because of age, sex, number of select chronic conditions, number of unique medication therapeutic classes, and patient out-of-pocket cost per therapy day. Statistically significant differences were found between patients who filled their maintenance medications at the worksite compared to those who used mail-order pharmacy services. Patients filling prescriptions at a workplace pharmacy were 22% less likely to have a gap in therapy of over 30 days compared to similar patients using mail order services. Workplace pharmacy utilizers also had overall adherence rates 3.68% higher than patients who utilized mail order pharmacy services. Our analysis suggests that it may not be just the quantity of medication dispensed that impacts patients' adherence to their prescription medication, but a variety of other factors including pharmacist-patient interaction. Having a pharmacist on-site and available to patients with chronic considerations could provide added value. These results can aid employers and other stakeholders to decide which prescription benefits to offer their employees and members. PMID:22092153

  7. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad supplemental information to the Hanford facility contingency plan

    The 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad stores waste oils primarily contaminated with lead generated while draining equipment within the building of residual lubricating oils. Waste oils are packaged and stored in fifty-five gallon drums, or other containers permitted by the Site Specific Waste Management Instruction. Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) manual BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements Procedures, references this document. This document is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements in Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units (units). Refer to BHI-EE-02, for additional information

  8. Neuropeptide Y stimulates feeding but inhibits sexual behavior in rats.

    Clark, J T; Kalra, P S; Kalra, S P

    1985-12-01

    The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a tyrosine-rich peptide found in the rat brain, on feeding and sexual behavior were studied in male and female rats. Intraventricular (ivt) injections of NPY during the final hours of the light period induced feeding in a dose-related manner. While the lowest dose tested (0.02 nM) was without effect, higher doses (0.12, 0.47, 2.3 nM) uniformly elicited feeding with a latency of about 15 min in male rats. With the most effective dose, 0.47 nM, the increased food intake was due to an increased local eating rate. In contrast, the pattern of feeding behavior after a related peptide, rat pancreatic polypeptide (rPP), was quite different and less impressive. During the first hour, only one ivt dose of rPP (0.45 nM) evoked an increase in food intake, due to an increased time spent eating. Further, the effects of NPY on food intake were greater during the nocturnal period. Interestingly, increased food intake in nocturnal tests (4 h) was due solely to augmented intake during the first 60 min after ivt administration. In mating tests, initiated 2 h after the onset of darkness and 10 min after ivt administration of peptide, all but the lowest dose of NPY (0.01 nM) drastically suppressed ejaculatory behavior. Most rats treated with higher doses of NPY (0.02, 0.12, or 0.47 nM) mounted and intromitted only a few times before the cessation of sexual activity, and elongated latencies to the initial mount and intromission were observed. In contrast to the dramatic NPY-induced suppression of ejaculatory behavior, rPP (0.11 and 0.45 nM) was without effect on copulatory behavior. To substantiate further that the impairment of sexual behavior seen in NPY-treated rats was not due to an attenuated sexual ability, an additional experiment was performed. Penile reflexes, including erection, were monitored 10 min after ivt injection of NPY (0.12 nM), rPP (0.11 nM), or saline. No effect of NPY or rPP was observed on the proportion of rats showing

  9. Small intestinal response to 'elemental' and 'complete' liquid feeds in the rat: effect of dietary bulk.

    Maxton, D. G.; Cynk, E U; Thompson, R P

    1987-01-01

    The effect of oral isocaloric feeding on small intestinal structure and function was studied in the rat. The liquid 'elemental' enteral feed Vivonex HN, the liquid 'complete' feed Ensure and the same liquid complete feed with 9% bulk Enrich were compared with solid chow containing 21% bulk (normal rat chow), all given for four weeks. Weight gain was significantly less in the group fed Vivonex HN than that of any other groups. The bulkless Vivonex HN and Ensure increased proximal jejunal mass ...

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  11. The effects of firocoxib (Previcox™ in geriatric dogs over a period of 90 days

    K.E. Joubert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in geriatric dogs with osteoarthritis has not been well studied in veterinary medicine. This study evaluated the effects of firocoxib administered to dogs over 7 years of age for 90 days. Pain and lameness scores were evaluated by the owner weekly for the 1st month and then biweekly through to the end of the study, the veterinarian evaluated the dogs monthly. Serum chemistry, including urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, aspartate transaminase, bile acids and bilirubin, urine specific gravity and a urine dipstick, were performed at monthly intervals. Forty-five dogs were enrolled into the treatment group and 9 into the control group. A total of 33 dogs completed the trial in the treatment group and 8 in the control group. Lameness and pain scores were found to be significantly lower in the treated group from day 30 for most parameters evaluated. Bile acids (although not comparable to controls, with higher mean value and a high standard deviation in the control group; in addition the control group had increased bile acids at day 0 and urea (within normal reference range provided (WNL were significantly different in the treatment group between days 0 and 90. Urea (WNL on days 30 and 90 and creatinine (WNL on day 90 were significantly different between the control group and the treatment group. The most common adverse events reported were diarrhoea, vomition, dark faeces and anorexia. This study showed that firocoxib was effective in managing pain associated with osteoarthritis for 90 days. Despite the geriatric high-risk population used for this study, minimal biochemical changes were seen and adverse drug events seen were in agreement with those previously reported.

  12. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  13. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  14. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats anticipating circadian feeding schedules.

    Opiol, Hanna; Pavlovski, Ilya; Michalik, Mateusz; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-05-01

    Rats readily learn to anticipate a reward signaled by an external stimulus. Anticipatory behaviors evoked by conditioned stimuli include 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), a proposed behavioral correlate of positive affect and activation of midbrain dopamine pathways. Rats can also anticipate a reward, such as food, provided once daily, without external cueing. Anticipation of a daily reward exhibits formal properties of a circadian rhythm. The neural circuits that regulate the timing and amplitude of these rhythms remain an open question, but evidence suggests a role for dopamine. To gain further insight into the neural and affective correlates of circadian food anticipatory rhythms, we made 2h and 24h USV recordings in rats fed 2h/day in the light period, a procedure that induces robust anticipation 2-3h before mealtime. Potential interactions between internal and external time cues in USV production were evaluated by inclusion of a 3 kHz tone 15 min before mealtime. Prior to scheduled feeding, spontaneous 50 kHz USVs were rare during the light period. During scheduled feeding, flat and frequency modulated (FM) 50kHz USVs occurred prior to and during mealtime. FM USVs were more closely related to anticipation, while flat USVs were more dependent on food access. USVs also occurred during spontaneous waking at other times of day. The tone did not evoke USVs but did modulate activity. Behavioral anticipation of a daily meal is accompanied by USVs consistent with a positive affective state and elevated dopamine transmission. PMID:25677650

  15. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Poulsen, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats...

  16. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys. PMID:23444337

  17. Energy metabolism and nutrient oxidation in young pigs and rats during feeding, starvation and re-feeding

    Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, Kirsten; Tauson, Anne-Helene;

    2005-01-01

    -4 days of starvation and 4 days of re-feeding. O2 consumption and CO2 production were measured by open-air-circuit respiration units. In the feeding period, protein retention in relation to metabolic live mass (kg(0.75)) was identical for pigs and rats, while there was a tendency of a higher fat...... production during feeding and re-feeding was covered by OXP+OXCHO with no OXF and reversibly after 2 days of starvation by OXP+OXF with no OXCHO. The rat may be a suitable model for pigs regarding general patterns of quantitative nutrient partition, but any direct application of results measured with rats to......The investigation included individual measurements of energy metabolism and oxidation of nutrients in 12 castrated male pigs (Sus scrofa) (20-40 kg) and 12 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) (65-105 g). Measurements were carried out in 5-6 days balance periods with ad libitum feeding, followed by 3...

  18. Chronic Ethanol Feeding to Rats Decreases Adiponectin Secretion by Subcutaneous Adipocytes

    Chen, Xiaocong; Sebastian, Becky M.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding to mice and rats decreases serum adiponectin concentration and adiponectin treatment attenuates chronic ethanol-induced liver injury. While it is clear that lowered adiponectin has pathophysiological importance, the mechanisms by which chronic ethanol decreases adiponectin are not known. Here we have investigated the impact of chronic ethanol feeding on adiponectin expression and secretion by adipose tissue. Rats were fed a 36% Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid ...

  19. 77 FR 45571 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in...

    2012-08-01

    ...,'' or DPS (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). The DPS Policy requires the consideration of two elements when... waters surrounding Culebra Island, Puerto Rico (63 FR 46693; September 2, 1998). ESA-implementing... Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in Hawaii and Notice of...

  20. 78 FR 25044 - Listing Endangered or Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Include the Killer...

    2013-04-29

    ... (NMFS), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to include the Orcinus orca known as Lolita in the... Garrett, Shelby Proie, Karen Munro, and Patricia Sykes to include the killer whale (Orcinus orca) known as... phrase ``Distinct Population Segment,'' or DPS (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). The DPS Policy...

  1. 75 FR 23654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Hermes Copper...

    2010-05-04

    ... finding (71 FR 44966, August 8, 2006) is limited to Marschalek and Deutschman's (2008) study of the effect... previous 90-day finding published in the Federal Register on August 8, 2006 (71 FR 44966). Previous Federal... Hermes copper (71 FR 44966) or Thorne's hairstreak butterflies (71 FR 44980) was warranted. (For...

  2. 76 FR 10299 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Wild...

    2011-02-24

    ... FR 54707), for the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and a 12-month finding published on September 22, 2010, for the plant Agave eggersiana (75 FR 57720), we have focused on wild populations in our... completed a 90-day finding on August 15, 2007 (72 FR 45717). Based upon the information available at...

  3. 76 FR 60431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the American...

    2011-09-29

    ... and range, see 72 FR 4967, pp. 4968-4977. The life history of the American eel begins in the Sargasso..., 2005, the Service issued a 90-day finding (70 FR 38849), which found that the petition presented... threatened or ] endangered was not warranted (72 FR 4967). Species Information This section is a summary...

  4. 76 FR 61531 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Subspecies...

    2011-10-04

    ... present information that indicates the degree, if any, that invasive plants are spreading in the... silverspot. carsonensis. In the February 28, 1996, Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR) (61 FR 7595), we adopted... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Subspecies of Great...

  5. Acute hypothalamic administration of L-arginine increases feed intake in rats

    Carlos Ricardo Maneck Malfatti; Luiz Augusto da Silva; Ricardo Aparecido Pereira; Renan Garcia Michel; André Luiz Snak; Fabio Seidel dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the chronic (oral) and acute (hypothalamic infusion) effects of L-arginine supplementation on feed intake, body composition, and behavioral changes in rats. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into two groups treated orally for 60 days; one group received L-arginine (1 g/kg body weight) and one group received saline (1 mL/NaCl ...

  6. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days

    Ryu HJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hwa Jung Ryu,1,* Nak-won Seong,2,* Byoung Joon So,1 Heung-sik Seo,2 Jun-ho Kim,2 Jeong-Sup Hong,2 Myeong-kyu Park,2 Min-Seok Kim,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Kyu-Bong Cho,4 Mu yeb Seo,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Sang Wook Son1 1Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gyunggi-Do, South Korea; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. Keywords: silica nanoparticles, toxicity, dermal route

  7. Prediction of 90-day mortality in older patients after discharge from an emergency department: a retrospective follow-up study

    Hofman, Susanna E.; Lucke, Jacinta A.; Heim, Noor; de Gelder, Jelle; Fogteloo, Anne J.; Heringhaus, Christian; de Groot, Bas; Anton J M de Craen; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Older people frequently attend the emergency department (ED) and have a high risk of poor outcome as compared to their younger counterparts. Our aim was to study routinely collected clinical parameters as predictors of 90-day mortality in older patients attending our ED. Methods We conducted a retrospective follow-up study at the Leiden University Medical Center (The Netherlands) among patients aged 70 years or older attending the ED in 2012. Predictors were age, gender, time and w...

  8. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. PMID:26631601

  9. Influences of northward propagating 25-90-day and quasi-biweekly oscillations on eastern China summer rainfall

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Zesheng; Zhao, Ping

    2015-07-01

    The present study reveals that rainfall anomalies associated with the 25-90-day (quasi-biweekly) tropical convective activity propagates northward (northwestward) into northern China (the Yangtze River). Enhanced rainfall over southern China results directly from enhanced convection propagating northward from the South China Sea (SCS)-western north Pacific (WNP), strengthened northward water vapor transport and intensified upper-level divergence. The anomalous anticyclone over SCS-WNP, which is induced by local lower sea surface temperature, provides a favorable condition for transporting more moisture to southern China. Stronger subtropical westerly jet and South Asia high strengthen upper-level divergence. The northward propagating 25-90-day oscillation over eastern China reaches farther north than the quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO). The intensity of QBWO in summer rainfall has significantly strengthened over southern China after 1993 but not for the 25-90-day oscillation. This is mainly contributed by an interdecadal increase in rainfall over southern China and the Yangtze River Basin in the wet phases of QBWO. The interdecadal enhancement of rainfall associated with the QBWO is attributed to three factors. One is lower tropospheric convergence caused by anomalous anticyclone over the WNP and anomalous cyclone over Korean Peninsula and Japan. The second is upper tropospheric divergence resulting from strengthening of subtropical westerly jet and the South Asia high. The last is enhanced ascent over South China through meridional vertical circulation.

  10. Persistence of Trichinella spiralis in Rat Carcasses Experimentally Mixed in Different Feed

    Saloniemi H

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infected rat carcasses were incubated for 6 weeks in several animal feeds to assess how long Trichinella can present a risk for an outbreak in contaminated feeds. In groups of 6, 24 infected target rats were placed in silage, grained barley, propionic acid-preserved feed, and also into simulated pasture conditions. Test environments were sampled after one-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week-incubations. Trichinella larvae were recovered by digestion, and their infectivity was evaluated in rats. A two-week incubation reduced the number of recovered larvae, but still after 6 weeks low numbers were isolated from all feeds except from the experimental group simulating pasture conditions. After 2 weeks storage, the larvae were infective in all storage environments. However, up to 4 weeks, they survived only in the propionic acid-fermented feed and there in small numbers with reduced reproductive capability. This indicates the possibility of farm animals to get infection from rats or other infected material being hazardously mixed with hay or other feed. If silage is stored for at least one month before use, however, the risk from this forage appears to be minimized.

  11. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    Joram D Mul

    Full Text Available Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH. MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI, both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+ or pmch(-/- rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/- rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/- rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  12. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs was studied. The non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in the selected feed ingredient oats were characterized. Distinct populations of arabinoxylans (AXs) were observed in oats,...

  13. Sham feeding is inhibited by dietary-induced obesity in rats.

    Vanderweele, D A; Van Itallie, T B

    1983-10-01

    A group of six female, albino rats were maintained on a cafeteria diet of cookies, milk, and elevated-fat (shortening), rat-chow mixture and rat chow while a similar group received only rat chow ad lib for 17 weeks. When the groups differed significantly in mean body weight (obese-387.5 g, controls-287.2 g; p less than 0.001), gastric fistulas were implanted in each animal. After recovery, the rats were adapted to a liquid diet and assessed for sham feeding. Control-fed, normal-body-weight subjects showed substantial sham feeding when ingesting the Vivonex with the fistulas open compared to fistula-closed intake; meal frequency, meal size (apart from the initial meal) and total food intake were significantly increased while the satiety ratios following each meal were significantly decreased. Obese animals showed no significant increased feeding and satiety ratios were unreliably altered; while normal-body-weight controls increased 4-hr food intakes by 93% and halved their mean satiety ratios the obese animals showed an 8% increase in 4-hr food intake and only a 22% decrease in mean satiety ratios. We offer the hypothesis that, when animals are induced to become obese by palatable and varied diets which are then terminated, the anorexia produced is independent of gastrointestinal interactions inasmuch as that anorexia extends to sham feeding. PMID:6361815

  14. Small intestinal response to 'elemental' and 'complete' liquid feeds in the rat: effect of dietary bulk.

    Maxton, D G; Cynk, E U; Thompson, R P

    1987-06-01

    The effect of oral isocaloric feeding on small intestinal structure and function was studied in the rat. The liquid 'elemental' enteral feed Vivonex HN, the liquid 'complete' feed Ensure and the same liquid complete feed with 9% bulk Enrich were compared with solid chow containing 21% bulk (normal rat chow), all given for four weeks. Weight gain was significantly less in the group fed Vivonex HN than that of any other groups. The bulkless Vivonex HN and Ensure increased proximal jejunal mass compared to Enrich with 9% bulk or to normal rat chow. Jejunal mucosal DNA and protein levels also tended to be higher in Ensure and Vivonex HN fed animals, as was jejunal sugar absorption. In the terminal ileum, however, total weight was decreased by both elemental and complete feeds with and without bulk, but particularly by the elemental diet. Bulkless feeds therefore increase jejunal and reduce terminal ileal mass. The striking atrophy of the terminal ileum produced by the elemental diet may be important for its efficacy in treating inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3040541

  15. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  16. The consequences of gustatory deafferentation on body mass and feeding patterns in the rat

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Colbert, Connie L.; Garcea, Mircea; Smith, James C.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of orosensory signals, especially taste, on body mass, and feeding and drinking patterns in the rat was examined. Gustatory deafferentation was produced by bilateral transection of the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal, and greater superficial petrosal nerves. Total calories consumed from sweetened-milk diet and oil-chow mash by the nerve-transected rats significantly decreased relative to sham-operated controls, mostly attributable to decreases in bout number, but not size. N...

  17. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on recovery in a methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis rat model

    Kuiken, Nicoline S. S.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Havinga, Rick; Albert K Groen; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Patients suffering from gastrointestinal mucositis often receive parenteral nutrition as nutritional support. However, the absence of enteral nutrition might not be beneficial for the intestine. We aimed to determine the feasibility of minimal enteral feeding (MEF) administration in a methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis rat model and thereby determine the effect of MEF on recovery. Methods Male Wistar rats were attached to swivel systems from day 1 to 5 after 45 mg/kg MTX IV injectio...

  18. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora ...

  19. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  20. Unique purified hydrated-gelatin diet for feeding dietary fiber to Wistar rats.

    deBethizy, J D; Street, J C

    1984-02-01

    A purified hydrated gelatin diet was developed for feeding dietary fibers to Wistar rats. A dry fiber mix was prepared that consisted of 54.91 dextrose, 13.80 casein, 2.97 AIN mineral mix, 1.28 AIN vitamin mix, 0.17 dl-methionine, 6.80 lard and 5.10 gelatin (g/100g total dry feed). Either cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, or pectin (15 g/100 g total dry feed) was added to the hydrated dry fiber mix and blended until complete distribution and hydration of the fiber was achieved. After gelling, these hydrated diets were stable for up to 24 hours in environmental conditions commonly encountered in animal facilities. Gel weep was minimal thus permitting feed consumption to be monitored conveniently by weighing the residue in the feeders. In situ examination of stomach contents after feeding such hydrated diets to rats indicated that the gelatin gel was readily degraded and did not confound gel formation by fiber itself. Feed efficiency values (g gain/100 kcal digestible energy) for these diets following a 26-day feeding trial were as follows: no fiber, 6.21; cellulose, 6.38; hemicellulose, 6.23; lignin, 6.52; and pectin, 5.53. PMID:6325819

  1. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation, gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol, and diet (i.e., western-style diet vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day, but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females.

  2. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  3. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Sieglinde Zelzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (n = 30 and high-fat diet (n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE, the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  4. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:26006242

  5. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  6. Effects of feeding outer bran fraction of rice on lipid accumulation and fecal excretion in rats.

    Ijiri, Daichi; Nojima, Tsutomu; Kawaguchi, Mana; Yamauchi, Yoko; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Ijiri, Satoru; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Outer bran fraction of rice (OBFR) contains higher concentrations of crude fiber, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid compared to whole rice bran (WRB). In this study, we examined the effects of feeding OBFR on lipid accumulation and fecal excretion in rats. Twenty-one male rats at seven-week-old were divided into a control group and two treatment groups. The control group was fed a control diet, and the treatment groups were fed OBFR- or WRB-containing diet for 21 days. There was no significant difference in growth performance. Feeding OBFR diet increased fecal number and weight accompanied by increased fecal lipid content, while it did not affect mRNA expressions encoding lipid metabolism-related protein in liver. In addition, feeding OBFR-diet decreased the abdominal fat tissue weight and improved plasma lipid profiles, while WRB-containing diet did not affect them. These results suggested that feeding OBFR-diet might prevent lipid accumulation via enhancing fecal lipid excretion in rats. PMID:25867004

  7. Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases.

    Svensson, Catarina; Lundborg, Karin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Olsson, Sven-Ove

    2003-05-15

    The health of 3081 heifer calves born in 122 dairy herds in the south-west of Sweden from 1 January to 31 December, 1998, was monitored from birth until 90 days of age. The calves were kept either in individual pens (n=2167), in group pens, with 3-8 calves to a pen and manual feeding of milk (n=440), in group pens with 6-30 calves per pen and an automatic milk-feeding system (n=431), or with their dams (n=43). Disease incidence was recorded by farmers and project veterinarians, who clinically examined the calves and auscultated their lungs every 2-3 months. A disease was graded as 'severe' if the general loss of condition or of appetite in the calf continued for >2 days or if the animal suffered severe weight loss due to the disease. The effects of season, breed, housing, and type of colostrum feeding, and time, place and supervision of calving on the incidences of diarrhea, severe diarrhea, respiratory disease, other infectious disease and moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds, were analyzed by logistic-regression models (with herd as a random effect). The total morbidity rate was 0.081 cases per calf-month at risk. Incidence rates of arthritis, diarrhea, omphalophlebitis, respiratory disease and ringworm were 0.002, 0.035, 0.005, 0.025 and 0.009 cases per calf-months at risk, respectively. The odds ratios for diarrhea and severe diarrhea were increased in Swedish Red and Whites (OR: 1.6, 2.3) and in calves that received colostrum from first-lactation cows (OR: 1.3-1.8), and for severe diarrhea in calves born in summer or that received colostrum through suckling (OR: 1.7, 1.8). The odds ratios for respiratory disease and increased respiratory sounds were increased in calves housed in large-group pens with an automatic milk-feeding system (OR: 2.2, 2.8). Supervision of calving was associated with a decreased odds ratio for respiratory disease (OR: 0.7) and birth in individual maternity pen or tie stalls with a decreased odds ratio for increased

  8. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  9. Chronic Rumex Patientia Seed Feeding Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP, this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, RP-treatedcontrol and -diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered at a dose of 60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, RP-treated groups received RP seed powder mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6% for 4 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found out that regarding initial latency, there was no significant difference among the groups. In addition, diabetic rats developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p<0.01, as it is evident by a lower STL. Furthermore, RP treatment of diabetic rats did produce a significant improvement in retention and recall (p<0.05. Discussion: Taken together, chronic RP feeding could improve retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats

  10. The diurnal rhythm of bone resorption in the rat. Effect of feeding habits and pharmacological inhibitors.

    Mühlbauer, R C; Fleisch, H

    1995-01-01

    Prevention of low bone mass is important to reducing the incidence of osteoporotic fractures. This paper shows that, in rats, bone mass can be increased by feeding habits per se. Using six-hourly urinary excretion of [3H]tetracycline from prelabeled rats to monitor bone resorption, we previously found a peak of bone resorption following food administration. We now demonstrate that dividing the solid and liquid intake into portions blunts this peak and leads to a decrease in 24-h bone resorpti...

  11. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  12. Depression of biliary glutathione excretion by chronic ethanol feeding in the rat

    The effects of chronic alcohol feeding on biliary glutathione excretion were studied in rats pair fed diets containing either ethanol (36% of total energy) or isocaloric carbohydrate for 4-6 weeks. An exteriorized biliary-duodenal fistula was established and total glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were measured. A significant decrease was observed in rats fed alcohol chronically compared to their pair fed controls in the biliary excretion of GSH (55.7 +/- 37.0 vs 243.1 +/- 29.0 μg/ml bile, p 35-L-methionine incorporation into hepatic and biliary GSH was unchanged or even increased after chronic ethanol feeding. 22 references, 4 figures

  13. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  14. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    Moura Leandro; Kalva-Filho Carlos; Loures João; de Sousa Silva Maria; Zorzetto Lucas; Junior Marcelo; de Araújo Michel; Dalia Rodrigo; de Mello Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The...

  15. Biokinetic study of radionuclides in rats after feeding a chitosan diet

    Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. Chitin and chitosan are known to be one of the naturals chelating agents. We already reported that the whole-body retention of orally administered 85Sr in rats decreased remarkably after feeding a chitosan diet when comparing them with controls. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to the animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radionuclides in food. Wistar strain male rats were used in this experiment. These rats were fed with different diets in order to observe the removal of ingested radio-iron and zinc by chitosan. The whole-body retention of radio-iron was slightly lower in the 5%-chitosan diet group than non-chitosan diet group. In tissue distribution study, rats were sacrificed 14 days after administration. The relative concentration of iron in the blood and spleen was found to be lower in the 5%-chitosan diet group. The whole-body retention of 65Zn decreased sharply in the rats given 3% phytate water in advance of 65Zn administration when compared with the control rats. The rats given 5% chitosan and 1% phytate water also showed a significant reduction in radio-zinc. However, 5% chitosan diet on it's own did not have a significant effect on accelerating the removal of radio-zinc in the rats. Previous studies have shown that the administration of 1% phytate water is also not effective in reducing radio-zinc in rats. These results suggest that the effectiveness of phytate and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on their concentration. (author)

  16. Loperamide effects on anxiety level and feeding behavior in rats. Role of vagal afferentation.

    Sudakov, S K; Bashkatova, V G; Kolpakov, A A; Chernyaeva, N N

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the role of vagal afferentation in the interaction of the peripheral and central parts of the endogenous opioid system, in the mechanisms of sensorial satiation and anxiety in rats. It has been established that vagotomized rats spent less time in open arm of the plus-maze in comparison with sham-operated animals. Peripheral administration of μ-opioid receptor agonist loperamide was shown to reduce anxiety level in sham-operated rats and had no effect on this parameter in vagotomized animals. Testing in a PhenoMaster module system showed that loperamide administration suppressed feeding behavior in sham-operated animals and partially suppressed it in vagotomized animals. Vagotomy virtually completely blocked the anxiolytic effect of loperamide and partially blocked the anorexigenic effect of the μ-opioid receptor agonist. PMID:23113267

  17. 77 FR 27403 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    2012-05-10

    ... predators, including ] ungulates, raccoons, opossum, dogs, cats, raptors, storks, and other snakes... largest of rattlesnakes, including swine, raccoons, otters, dogs, cats, raptorial birds, storks, eastern...) Habitat requirements for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy throughout...

  18. Wholesomeness studies in rats fed irradiated Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta)

    A 90-day feeding study, including a single reproduction, was undertaken to evaluate the safety of radurized 1.5 kGy (150 krad) Indian mackerel in Wistar rats. Three roups of rats, each consisting of 60 animals, were given the following diets for a period of 90 days: (1) stock laboratory ration; (2) a diet containing 35% unirradiated mackerel powder dried to 8-10% moisture; and (3) a diet containing 35% irradiated mackerel powder dried to 8-10% moisture. The following parameters were evaluated to assess the potential toxic effects: general appearance and any overt signs of toxicity body weight food consumption haematological profile clinical chemistry liver analysis gross pathology absolute and relative organ eights reproductive performance mutagenicity evaluation using (a) Host-mediated assay; (b) Cytogenetic studies on the bone marrow of rats; (c) Dominant lethal test (F1-generation). In summary, the 90-day feeding study and the single reproduction study in Wistar rats did not show any effect that could be attributed to the ingestion of irradiated mackerel. The difference probably observed between animals fed the stock ration and the mackerel diets arise from the significant variations in the nutritional components, in particular in the protein, of the two diets. (orig./AJ)

  19. Seeking behavior, place conditioning, and resistance to conditioned suppression of feeding in rats intermittently exposed to palatable food.

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Santos, Jeffrey W; Smith, Karen L; Ferragud, Antonio; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive consumption of highly palatable food within short periods of time accompanied by loss of control over eating. Extensive evidence provides support for the consideration of binge eating disorder as an addiction-like disorder. In this study, we wanted to determine whether rats undergoing an operant binge-like eating procedure could develop maladaptive forms of conditioned feeding behaviors. For this purpose, we trained male rats to self-administer either a sugary, highly palatable diet ("Palatable" rats) or a chow diet ("Chow" rats) for 1 hour a day. After escalation and stabilization of palatable food intake, we tested Chow and Palatable rats in (a) a conditioned place preference test, (b) a second-order schedule of reinforcement, (c) a cue-induced suppression of feeding test. In the conditioned place preference task, Palatable rats spent significantly more time in the compartment that was previously paired with the palatable food, compared to Chow controls. Furthermore, in the second-order schedule of reinforcement task, Palatable rats exhibited active lever responding 4- to 6-fold higher than Chow control rats. Finally, in the cue-induced suppression of feeding test, although Chow control subjects reduced responding by 32% in the presence of the conditioned punishment, Palatable rats persevered in responding despite the aversive cue. These results further characterize this animal model of binge-like eating and provide additional evidence for the addictive properties of highly palatable food. PMID:25798634

  20. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Processes of 30-90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer

    Vialard, J. [Univerite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Case 100, CNRS, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Goswami, B.N. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Lengaigne, M. [Univerite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Case 100, CNRS, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); CSIR, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Sengupta, D. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Centre of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-05-15

    During summer, the northern Indian Ocean exhibits significant atmospheric intraseasonal variability associated with active and break phases of the monsoon in the 30-90 days band. In this paper, we investigate mechanisms of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) signature of this atmospheric variability, using a combination of observational datasets and Ocean General Circulation Model sensitivity experiments. In addition to the previously-reported intraseasonal SST signature in the Bay of Bengal, observations show clear SST signals in the Arabian Sea related to the active/break cycle of the monsoon. As the atmospheric intraseasonal oscillation moves northward, SST variations appear first at the southern tip of India (day 0), then in the Somali upwelling region (day 10), northern Bay of Bengal (day 19) and finally in the Oman upwelling region (day 23). The Bay of Bengal and Oman signals are most clearly associated with the monsoon active/break index, whereas the relationship with signals near Somali upwelling and the southern tip of India is weaker. In agreement with previous studies, we find that heat flux variations drive most of the intraseasonal SST variability in the Bay of Bengal, both in our model (regression coefficient, 0.9, against {proportional_to}0.25 for wind stress) and in observations (0.8 regression coefficient); {proportional_to}60% of the heat flux variation is due do shortwave radiation and {proportional_to}40% due to latent heat flux. On the other hand, both observations and model results indicate a prominent role of dynamical oceanic processes in the Arabian Sea. Wind-stress variations force about 70-100% of SST intraseasonal variations in the Arabian Sea, through modulation of oceanic processes (entrainment, mixing, Ekman pumping, lateral advection). Our {proportional_to}100 km resolution model suggests that internal oceanic variability (i.e. eddies) contributes substantially to intraseasonal variability at small-scale in the Somali upwelling region

  2. 78 FR 53391 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the North Pacific...

    2013-08-29

    ... the phrase ``Distinct Population Segment,'' or DPS (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). The DPS Policy... feeding grounds (Symons and Weston, 1958)) indicate that there is seasonal variation in sperm production... whales under Article VIII of the ICRW, which allows the killing of whales for scientific...

  3. Effects of peripheral and central bombesin on feeding behavior of rats.

    Gibbs, J; Kulkosky, P J; Smith, G P

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injections of tetradecapeptide bombesin (BBS) produced large, dose-related suppressions of liquid and solid food intake in rats, with threshold doses of 1--2 micrograms-kg-1. The feeding-associated behaviors of rats receiving BBS by this route at a test meal were normally sequenced, and several other observations suggested that the effect of BBS was specific and not due to malaise. The structurally related amphibian peptide litorin and the structurally related mammalian gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) produced similar suppressions of food intake. The satiety effect of BBS administered intraperitoneally did not require the accumulation of food in the gut, the presence of intact adrenals, the abdominal vagus, or the release of cholecystokinin. When BBS and cholecystokinin were administered simultaneous, the suppressive effects on food intake were additive. Lateral cerebroventricular injections of BBS also produced large, dose-related suppressions of food intake, with a threshold dose of 100 ng per rat. The effect by this route, however, was not behaviorally specific: BBS produced equivalent inhibitions of food and water intake at every point on the dose-response curve, and produced a marked increase in grooming which dominated the behavioral display. Thus, (1) peripheral BBS is a putative satiety signal in the rat; (2) the class (endocrine, paracrine, or neural) and mechanism of this satiety action is not established; and (3) the differences in specificity and behavior following intraperitoneal and cerebroventricular routes indicate that peripheral BBS does not act solely via the cerebrospinal fluid to elicity satiety. PMID:6283491

  4. Resurgence of Sucrose and Cocaine Seeking in Free-Feeding Rats

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Craig, Andrew R.; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Resurgence is relapse of an extinguished operant response following the removal of alternative reinforcement. In animal models of resurgence to date, rats have been food deprived and food is used as the source of alternative reinforcement. Thus, when the alternative reinforcer is removed, the only remaining source of food during experimental sessions is no longer available. Acute food deprivation is known to produce reinstatement of drug seeking, thus such deprivation has been suggested a potential mechanism of resurgence. The present experiments examined whether resurgence of sucrose and cocaine seeking could be obtained with rats that were not food deprived. Free feeding rats were trained to press a lever for either sucrose (Exp 1) or cocaine infusions (Exp 2). Next, lever pressing was extinguished and an alternative response (nose poking) was reinforced with sucrose. When nose poking was also placed on extinction, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking were observed. Thus, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking can be obtained in rats that are not food restricted and it appears unlikely that an acute hunger state is responsible for resurgence. In addition, the present procedures for studying resurgence in the absence of interpretive complexities introduced by the use of food-deprivation may prove useful for further investigations of the neurobiological mechanisms of resurgence. PMID:25446761

  5. GUT MICROBIOTA STRUCTURE OF RATS UNDER INTRODUCTION OF THE DIET SHREDDED XENOGRAFT SUBSTRATE

    P’yatnytskyi Yu.S; Pokryshko O.V

    2014-01-01

    The data about the influence of lyophilized xenograf powder on rats small intestines and colons cavities microflora composition at the standard conditions and are presented in this article. After feeding animals by this powder for 90 days the disappearance of Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., S. aureus populations, the reducing of a colonization density of the intestine by other lactosonegative species of Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteria and Candida and increased quantitative indicators specif...

  6. EFFICACY OF TOMATO AND / OR GARLIC IN AMELIORATING CARDIAC DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS FRYING OIL

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Tomato has anti-mutagenic activities and contains lycopene (a powerful antioxidant) that appears to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of tomato or garlic alone or their combination against cardiac disorders in rats fed commercial diet fortified with frying oil (15% w/w) for 30 days. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and were divided into five groups; group 1, control (rats fed diet containing 15% w/w fresh oil); group 2, animals fed diets fortified with frying oil; groups 3-5, rats fed as in group 2 and received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic by gavage, respectively.Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c),and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were estimated in the serum of different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in the serum as well as lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were assessed in cardiac tissues.The results obtained revealed that, feeding rats on frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profile, LDL-c, VLDL-c and TBARS associated with a marked depletion in GSH. Elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CPK, ALT

  7. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  8. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  9. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content – A 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore dep...

  10. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  11. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  12. Seeking behavior, place conditioning and resistance to conditioned suppression of feeding in rats intermittently exposed to palatable food

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Santos, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Karen L.; Ferragud, Antonio; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive consumption of highly palatable food within short periods of time accompanied by loss of control over eating. Extensive evidence provides support for the consideration of binge eating disorder as an addiction-like disorder. In this study, we wanted to determine whether rats undergoing an operant binge-like eating procedure could develop maladaptive forms of conditioned feeding behaviors. For this purpose, we trained male rats to self-adminis...

  13. Anti-peroxidative and Biochemical Protective Activity of Khaya Senegalensis Stem Bark Extract on Rats Fed Pesticideinfused feed

    Mhya, DH; Umar, IA; Onyike E

    2014-01-01

    Anti-peroxidative and biochemical protective activity of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark on rats fed pesticide-infused feed was investigated. Animals were fed with cypermethrin-infused feed at a dose of 300mgkg-1 feed for 42 days. Different groups of animals were co-treated daily with 50mgkg-1, 100mgkg-1 and 200mgkg-1 body weight (bwt) of plant extract orally. The extract control group received 200mgkg-1 bwt plant extract while the pesticide control animals were fed with cyper...

  14. Feeding of Nigella sativa during neonatal and juvenile growth improves learning and memory of rats.

    Beheshti, Farimah; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    The positive roles of antioxidants on brain development and learning and memory have been suggested. Nigella sativa (NS) has been suggested to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This study was done to investigate the effects of feeding by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory of rats. The pregnant rats were kept in separate cages. After delivery, they were randomly divided into four Groups including: (1) control; (2) NS 100 mg/kg (NS 100); (3) NS 200 mg/kg (NS 200); and (4) NS 400 mg/kg (NS 400). Rats in the control group (Group 1) received normal drinking water, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 received the same drinking water supplemented with the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) from the 1st day after birth through the first 8 weeks of life. After 8 weeks, 10 male offspring from each group were randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) test. Finally, the brains were removed and total thiol groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined. In the MWM, treatment by 400 mg/kg extract reduced both the time latency and the distance traveled to reach the platform compared to the control group (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). Both 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract increased the time spent in the target quadrant (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). In the PA test, the treatment of the animals by 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of NS extract significantly increased the time latency for entering the dark compartment (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). Pretreatment of the animals with 400 mg/kg of NS extract decreased the MDA concentration in hippocampal tissues whereas it increased the thiol content compared to the control group (p < 0.001). These results allow us to propose that feeding of the rats by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth has positive effects on learning and memory. The

  15. Addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to the Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index improves 90-day mortality prediction in critically ill patients

    Mahato, Bisundev; Otero, Tiffany M. N.; Holland, Carrie A.; Giguere, Patrick T.; Bajwa, Ednan K; Camargo, Carlos A.; Quraishi, Sadeq A

    2016-01-01

    Background The Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index (DCCI) has low predictive value in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our goal was to determine whether addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels to the DCCI improved 90-day mortality prediction in critically ill patients. Methods Plasma 25OHD levels, DCCI, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were assessed within 24 h of admission in 310 ICU patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves of the prediction...

  16. Sutureless replacement of aortic valves with St Jude Medical mechanical valve prostheses and Nitinol attachment rings: feasibility in long-term (90-day) pig experiments

    Berreklouw, Eric; Koene, Bart; De Somer, Filip; Bouchez, Stefaan; Chiers, Koen; Taeymans, Yvo; Van Nooten, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nitinol attachment rings (devices) used to attach mechanical aortic valve prostheses suturelessly were studied in long-term (90 days) pig experiments. Methods: The aortic valve was removed and replaced by a device around a St Jude Medical mechanical valve prosthesis in 10 surviving pigs. Supravalvular angiography was done at the end of the operation. No coumarin derivates were given. Results: No or minimal aortic regurgitation was confirmed in all surviving pigs at the end ...

  17. Anti-peroxidative and Biochemical Protective Activity of Khaya Senegalensis Stem Bark Extract on Rats Fed Pesticideinfused feed

    Mhya, DH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-peroxidative and biochemical protective activity of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark on rats fed pesticide-infused feed was investigated. Animals were fed with cypermethrin-infused feed at a dose of 300mgkg-1 feed for 42 days. Different groups of animals were co-treated daily with 50mgkg-1, 100mgkg-1 and 200mgkg-1 body weight (bwt of plant extract orally. The extract control group received 200mgkg-1 bwt plant extract while the pesticide control animals were fed with cypermethrin-infused feed. Serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation marker; malondialdehyde (MDA, and antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were measured. Serum levels of ALP, AST, ALT, Urea, and MDA were elevated in the pesticide control animals as well as decreased activities of CAT and SOD as compared to cotreated, normal, and extract control rats. Our investigation showed that daily oral dose of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark administered along pesticide-infused feed consumption produced significant (p<0.05 protection in a dose-dependent increase. The study shows that pesticide (cypermethrin induces lipid peroxidation and also alters biochemical parameters. Aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark may contain biologically active components that play a protective role against pesticide-mediate alternation of biochemical parameters and also exhibit anti-peroxidative activity in rats.

  18. Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: mechanisms of action

    El May Michèle V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Garlic or Allium sativum (As shows therapeutic effects such as reduction of blood pressure or hypercholesterolemia but side-effects on reproductive functions remain poorly investigated. Because of garlic's chemical complexity, the processing methods and yield in preparations differ in efficacy and safety. In this context, we clarify the mechanisms of action of crushed crude garlic on testicular markers. Methods During one month of treatment, 24 male rats were fed 5%, 10% and 15% crude garlic. Results We showed that crude garlic-feeding induced apoptosis in testicular germ cells (spermatocytes and spermatids. This cell death process was characterized by increased levels of active CASP3 but not CASP6. Expression of the caspase inhibitors BIRC3 and BIRC2 was increased at all doses of As while expression of XIAP and BIRC5 was unchanged. Moreover, expression of the IAP inhibitor DIABLO was increased at doses 10% and 15% of As. The germ cell death process induced by As might be related to a decrease in testosterone production because of the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a, Hsd3b5 and Hsd17b. Evaluation of Sertoli markers showed that TUBB3 and GSTA2 expression was unchanged. In contrast, AMH, RHOX5 and CDKN1B expression was decreased while GATA4 expression was increased. Conclusion In summary, we showed that feeding with crude garlic inhibited Leydig steroidogenic enzyme expression and Sertoli cell markers. These alterations might induce apoptosis in testicular germ cells.

  19. Vitamin A and feeding statuses modulate the insulin-regulated gene expression in Zucker lean and fatty primary rat hepatocytes.

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Unattended hepatic insulin resistance predisposes individuals to dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and many other metabolic complications. The mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance at the gene expression level remains unrevealed. To examine the effects of vitamin A (VA, total energy intake and feeding conditions on the insulin-regulated gene expression in primary hepatocytes of Zucker lean (ZL and fatty (ZF rats, we analyze the expression levels of hepatic model genes in response to the treatments of insulin and retinoic acid (RA. We report that the insulin- and RA-regulated glucokinase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expressions are impaired in hepatocytes of ZF rats fed chow or a VA sufficient (VAS diet ad libitum. The impairments are partially corrected when ZF rats are fed a VA deficient (VAD diet ad libitum or pair-fed a VAS diet to the intake of their VAD counterparts in non-fasting conditions. Interestingly in the pair-fed ZL and ZF rats, transient overeating on the last day of pair-feeding regimen changes the expression levels of some VA catabolic genes, and impairs the insulin- and RA-regulated gene expression in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that VA and feeding statuses modulate the hepatic insulin sensitivity at the gene expression level.

  20. Measurement of gastric emptying during and between meal intake in free-feeding Lewis rats.

    van der Velde, P; Koslowsky, I; Koopmans, H S

    1999-02-01

    A new scintigraphic measurement technique is described that allows accurate assessment of gastric emptying in between as well as during a number of successive meals. Measurements were made every minute of food intake, gastric nutrient filling, and gastric emptying over a 6 h, 40 min period in conscious, free-feeding, loosely restrained rats. Before receiving access to the food, the animals had been deprived for a period of 31 h. Over the full duration of the experiment, an average rate of gastric emptying of 2.46 +/- 0.18 (SE) kcal/h was established. During most meals, however, the gastric emptying rate was increased so that an average of 26.9 +/- 2.7% of the ingested calories was emptied while the animals were feeding, with an average emptying rate of 0.15 +/- 0.014 kcal/min or 8.88 +/- 0.84 kcal/h. This transient increase in the rate of gastric emptying was followed by a subsequent slowing of gastric emptying after meal termination; in the 10-min postmeal interval, an average emptying rate of 0.96 +/- 0.12 kcal/h was found. Despite these fluctuations during and immediately after meals, a relatively constant rate of caloric emptying is maintained over longer periods. There were no differences between the emptying rate during the first meal when the gastrointestinal tract was still empty, compared with later meals when the gastrointestinal tract had been filled with food. The emptying rate during the 10-min postmeal interval, however, was significantly reduced during later meals. The results suggest that gastric emptying is controlled by different mechanisms during and after the ingestion of food and that these mechanisms remain in effect at various degrees of gastrointestinal filling. PMID:9950942

  1. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Zaid O IBRAHEEM; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFD)received an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat) for the same period. The third group (HFDG) was given 80 mg/kg (body weight)/day gentamicin s...

  2. GUT MICROBIOTA STRUCTURE OF RATS UNDER INTRODUCTION OF THE DIET SHREDDED XENOGRAFT SUBSTRATE

    P’yatnytskyi Yu.S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The data about the influence of lyophilized xenograf powder on rats small intestines and colons cavities microflora composition at the standard conditions and are presented in this article. After feeding animals by this powder for 90 days the disappearance of Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., S. aureus populations, the reducing of a colonization density of the intestine by other lactosonegative species of Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteria and Candida and increased quantitative indicators specific to populations of E. coli and Clostridia are noted. However, the adding to the rats ration this substrate did not significantly affect the microbiota of different parts of the digestive tract.

  3. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings’ response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems...... (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA...... immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L)....

  4. Evaluation of Changes of Kidney Parameteres in New Zealand Rabbits Subsequent to 90 Days Exposure to Uranyl Nitrate in Drinking Water

    A Mahmoudzadeh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to examine the reversibility of renal injury in the male New Zealand white rabbits sub­se­quent to a 90-days exposure to uranyl nitrate (UN in drinking water. Animals were exposed for 90 days to uranyl ni­trate in their drinking water (24 or 500mg/l. Control group were given municipal tap water. Methods: The indicators of kidney function measured in this study included glucose (marker of tubular microalbu­min(marker of glomerular and marker for cell toxicity was  alkaline phosphatase. Results: Urinary glucose was found to be significantly different and positively correlated with uranium intake for rabbits. Mi­croal­buminuria was found to be significantly different but this different is in normal range. Increase of alkaline phos­phatase at weeks 2, 4, 6 was correlated with uranium intake, but at weeks 8, 10, 13 excretion of alkaline phosphatase was de­creased. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic ingestion of uranium in drinking water affect kidney function and to the proxi­mal tubule, rather than glomerul.

  5. Potential subchronic food safety of the stacked trait transgenic maize GH5112E-117C in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Han, Shiwen; Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Mei, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    The food safety of stacked trait genetically modified (GM) maize GH5112E-117C containing insect-resistance gene Cry1Ah and glyphosate-resistant gene G2-aroA was evaluated in comparison to non-GM Hi-II maize fed to Sprague-Dawley rats during a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Three different dietary concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %, w/w) of the GM maize were used or its corresponding non-GM maize. No biologically significant differences in the animals' clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were found between the stacked trait GM maize groups, and the non-GM maize groups. The results of the 90-day subchronic feeding study demonstrated that the stacked trait GM maize GH5112E-117C is as safe as the conventional non-GM maize Hi-II. PMID:26919987

  6. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, controlling for an array of preoperative variables, the occurrence of a major complication was not associated with worsening ODI scores 12 months after surgery. There was no difference in the percentage of patients achieving the MCID for disability (66% vs 64%), back pain

  7. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos.

    Marjorie Riofrío-Lazo

    Full Text Available Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna. The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS = 55.8%, followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%, and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%, captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98% and arthropods (2%. Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs, showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  8. Effects of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leucocytes

    Garrelds, Ingrid; Elliott, G; Zijlstra, Freek; Bonta, I L

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids front in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A lower number of cells was isolated from the peritonea of treated than control young rats after 4 d feeding, but after 60 d no differences were observed. A similar reduction in cell number was foun...

  9. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  10. The rat as a model for evaluation of biotin bioavailability from feed ingredients for poultry and swine.

    Misir, R

    1987-01-01

    Biotin bioavailability from poultry and swine feed ingredients was determined in an experiment involving growing rats (55-60 g body weight, initially), housed individually in stainless steel cages with raised metal floors. The rats were fed a biotin-free diet fortified with egg-white powder for 7 d prior to being put on test. Thereafter, 5 rats were randomly assigned to each of the experimental diets, as follows: a basal egg white-free diet (A) without added biotin, or supplemented with graded levels of d-biotin, i.e., 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 microgram/g, and also 12 test diets prepared by incorporating various cereal grains and/or two protein supplements into diet A by partial replacement of casein and carbohydrates. The experimental diets were fed ad libitum for 21 d, and met or exceeded recommended levels for all nutrients except biotin. Results showed significant correlations between pairs of parameters, including plasma biotin vs biotin intake (P less than 0.01), liver biotin vs biotin intake (P less than 0.05) and plasma biotin vs liver biotin (P less than 0.01). The bioavailable biotin from test ingredients was estimated using the derived regression equation, Y = 0.54X + 1.05, (r = 0.85), where X = biotin intake (microgram/d) and Y = plasma biotin (ng/ml). In most cases, these values were greater than the corresponding biotin intakes, indicating that intestinal biotin synthesis and coprophagy might be increasing the supply of bioavailable biotin to the rats. Therefore, the rat might not be a good model animal for routine evaluation of biotin bioavailability from feed ingredients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3583596

  11. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Quercetin (CAS No. 117-39-5) in F344 Rats (Feed Studies).

    1992-09-01

    Quercetin is a member of a group of naturally occurring compounds, the flavonoids, which have a common flavone nucleus composed of two benzene rings linked through a heterocyclicpyrone ring. Quercetin is found in various plants, food products, and dyes of natural origin. The estimated average daily intake of quercetin by an individual in the United States is 25 mg. The Food and Drug Administration nominated quercetin for toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in the rat because it is a chemical that is widely distributed in foods. Quercetin was administered to rats by dosed feed since human exposure is by dietary consumption. Information in the literature showed that quercetin administered in the diet to rats at levels up to approximately 4% caused a minor body weight effect, whereas higher dose levels produced greater than 10% reduction in body weight gains relative to controls. Based on this information, the NTP 2-year studies were conducted by administering 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 40,000 ppm quercetin (>95% pure) in feed to groups of 50 male and female rats for 104 weeks. Ten additional animals per dose group were evaluated at 6 and 15 months. Body Weight, Survival, and Clinical Findings in the 2-Year Studies: Body weights of exposed male and female rats given 1,000 and 10,000 ppm were within 5% of controls throughout the studies. Reduced body weight gain in male and female rats receiving 40,000 ppm was observed by week 15 and the final mean body weights were 87% of controls at week 104. Survival and feed consumption were similar among exposed and control groups throughout the studies. The average amounts of quercetin consumed per day by the 1,000, 10,000 and 40,000 ppm dose groups after week 52 were 40, 400, and 1,900 mg/kg of body weight. Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Effects in the 2-Year Studies: In male rats, the principal toxic effects associated with the dietary administration of quercetin for 2 years were observed in the kidney. There were dose

  12. Effects of central administration of oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin on chronic inflammation and feeding/drinking behaviors in adjuvant arthritic rats.

    Matsuura, Takanori; Kawasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Motojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Ueno, Hiromichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Sabanai, Ken; Mori, Toshiharu; Ohnishi, Hideo; Sakai, Akinori; Ueta, Yoichi

    2016-05-16

    An increase in the arthritis index as a marker of chronic inflammation and suppression of food intake are observed in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rats. Our previous study demonstrated that central oxytocin (OXT)-ergic pathways were activated potently in AA rats. In the present study, OXT-saporin (SAP) cytotoxin, which chemically disrupts OXT signaling was administered centrally to determine whether central OXT may be involved in the developments of chronic inflammation and alteration of feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. The arthritis index was significantly enhanced in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered intrathecally (i.t.) but not intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Suppression of food intake was significantly attenuated transiently in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered i.c.v. but not i.t. Suppression of drinking behavior was not affected by i.t. or i.c.v. administration of OXT-SAP in AA rats. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of an OXT receptor antagonist did not change the arthritis index or feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. These results suggest that central OXT-ergic pathways may be involved in anti-inflammation at the spinal level and suppression of feeding behavior at the forebrain-brainstem level in AA rats. PMID:27060190

  13. Carbohydrate feeding increases total body and specific tissue 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine neogenesis in the rat

    The glucose-fed rat, in contrast to the chow-fed animal, has a higher serum total T3 concentration and an increase in the hepatic content of T4 5'-deiodinase (type I) activity. The mechanism and significance of these glucose-induced changes in T3 metabolism are elucidated in this study. To focus on extrathyroidal thyroid hormone metabolism the kinetic parameters were determined in thyroidectomized T4-replaced rats (1.25 micrograms T4/100 g BW.day). Kinetics of T4 and T3 were studied separately by infusing labeled hormone to equilibrium. Glucose feeding for 72 h (G) significantly increased both the total and free serum T3 concentrations compared to the respective means in the chow-fed control group (P). The glucose-induced changes in serum T3 reflect the approximate doubling of T3 production to 14.7 +/- 0.6 ng/h.100 g in G rats compared to 7.6 +/- 0.7 ng/h.100 g in P rats. The higher T3 production rate in the G group is due to a significant increase in the fractional total body T4 to T3 conversion (0.33 +/- 0.02) compared to that in the P group (0.19 +/- 0.02). The tissue (liver, kidney, brain, and brown adipose tissue) concentration of T4 (nanograms per g wet wt) was significantly increased in the G group. The increase ranged from 54% in liver to 80% in kidney, brain, and brown adipose tissue. The tissue concentration of T3 (nanograms per g wet wt) was even more dramatically increased by glucose feeding than was T4. The glucose-induced increment in organ T3 ranged from 2.5-fold (kidney, muscle, and brain) to 5-fold (liver and white adipose tissue) to 12-fold (brown adipose tissue). These data indicate that the increase in serum total and free T3 concentrations associated with glucose feeding reflects augmented total body T3 production from T4. The effect of the enhanced T3 neogenesis was generalized, as the T3 content was increased in each organ studied. Thus, glucose feeding has unique effects on T3 metabolism

  14. First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100–150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all...

  15. LINE-1 Hypomethylation in a Choline-Deficiency-Induced Liver Cancer in Rats: Dependence on Feeding Period

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic feeding of methyl-donor (methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficient diet induces hepatocellular carcinoma formation in rats. Previous studies have shown that promoter CpG islands in various cancer-related genes are aberrantly methylated in this model. Moreover, the global genome in methyl-donor-deficient diet fed rats contains a lesser amount of 5-methylcytosine than control livers. It is speculated that more than 90% of all 5-methylcytosines lie within the CpG islands of the transposons, including the long/short interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE and SINE. It is considered that the 5-methylcytosines in LINE-1 limit the ability of retrotransposons to be activated and transcribed; therefore, the extent of hypomethylation of LINE-1 could be a surrogate marker for aberrant methylation in other tumor-related genes as well as genome instability. Additionally, LINE-1 methylation status has been shown to be a good indicator of genome-wide methylation. In this study, we determined cytosine methylation status in the LINE-1 repetitive sequences of rats fed a choline-deficient (CD diet for various durations and compared these with rats fed a choline-sufficient (CS diet. The methylation status of LINE-1 was assessed by the combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA method, where the amount of bisulfite-modified and RsaI-cleaved DNA was quantified using gel electrophoresis. Progressive hypomethylation was observed in LINE-1 of CD livers as a function of feeding time; that is, the amount of cytosine in total cytosine (methylated and unmethylated increased from 11.1% (1 week to 19.3% (56 weeks, whereas in the control CS livers, it increased from 9.2% to 12.9%. Hypomethylation in tumor tissues was slightly higher (6% than the nontumorous surrounding tissue. The present result also indicates that age is a factor influencing the extent of cytosine methylation.

  16. Meropenem vs standard of care for treatment of late onset sepsis in children of less than 90 days of age: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    de Cabre Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS with the mortality of 17 to 27% is still a serious disease. Meropenem is an antibiotic with wide antibacterial coverage. The advantage of it over standard of care could be its wider antibacterial coverage and thus the use of mono-instead of combination therapy. Methods NeoMero-1, an open label, randomised, comparator controlled, superiority trial aims to compare the efficacy of meropenem with a predefined standard of care (ampicillin + gentamicin or cefotaxime + gentamicin in the treatment of LOS in neonates and infants aged less than 90 days admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 550 subjects will be recruited following a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The trial includes patients with culture confirmed (at least one positive culture from normally sterile site except coagulase negative staphylococci in addition to one clinical or laboratory criterion or clinical sepsis (at least two laboratory and two clinical criteria suggestive of LOS in subjects with postmenstrual age The study will start recruitment in September 2011; the total duration is of 24 months. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-001515-31

  17. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  18. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was ...

  19. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    Lovince Asimwe; Abiliza Kimambo; Germana Laswai; Louis Mtenga; Martin Weisbjerg; Jorgen Madsen; John Safari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary treatments namely hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and maize meal with molasses (MMMO). Ad ...

  20. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  1. Transitions between sleep and feeding states in rat ventral striatum neurons

    Tellez, Luis A; Perez, Isaac O.; Simon, Sidney A.; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2012-01-01

    Neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been shown to participate in several behavioral states, including feeding and sleep. However, it is not known if the same neuron participates in both states and, if so, how similar are the responses. In addition, since the NAc contains several cell types, it is not known if each type participates in the transitions associated with feeding and sleep. Such knowledge is important for understanding the interaction between two different neural networks. ...

  2. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    Di Pierro F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Piero Nobili,2 Paolo Risso,3 Carlo Fornaini4 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Stomatology Institute, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Health Science, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 4Teleo Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nice, Nice, France Abstract: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18. Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®. The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. Keywords: BLIS M18, caries prediction, dextranase, urease, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, plaque, salivary pH, bacteriocins

  3. Uterine responses to feeding soy protein isolate and treatment with 17β-estradiol differ in ovariectomized female rats.

    Ronis, Martin J; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Blackburn, Michael L; Cleves, Mario A; Singhal, Rohit; Badger, Thomas M

    2016-04-15

    There are concerns regarding reproductive toxicity from consumption of soy foods, including an increased risk of endometriosis and endometrial cancer, as a result of phytoestrogen consumption. In this study, female rats were fed AIN-93G diets made with casein (CAS) or soy protein isolate (SPI) from postnatal day (PND) 30, ovariectomized on PND 50 and infused with 5 μg/kg/d 17β-estradiol (E2) or vehicle. E2 increased uterine wet weight (Pestrogen receptor (ER)α to the promoters of ER-responsive genes after SPI feeding. The major E2 up-regulated uterine pathways were carcinogenesis and extracellular matrix organization, whereas SPI feeding up-regulated uterine peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling and fatty acid metabolism. The combination of E2 and SPI resulted in significant regulation of 504 fewer genes relative to E2 alone. The ability of E2 to induce uterine proliferation in response to the carcinogen dimethybenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as measured by expression of PCNA and Ki67 mRNA was suppressed by feeding SPI (Pselective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) interacting with a small sub-set of E2-regulated genes and is anti-estrogenic in the presence of endogenous estrogens. PMID:26945725

  4. Absorptive activity of calcium in the isolated cecal epithelium adaptively increased by 2 week's feeding of difructose anhydride III in rats.

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amano, Midori; Chiji, Hideyuki; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Tomita, Fusao; Hara, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We compared net Ca absorption and Lucifer Yellow (LY), a paracellular passage dye, permeability in the epithelium isolated from the rat small intestine, cecum, and colon after feeding with control and difructose anhydride (DFA) III diets for 14 days using the Ussing chamber system. Feeding of DFA III increased net Ca transport and LY passage in the cecal but not in small intestinal or colonic epithelium. Ability of paracellular Ca passage via Tight-junction (TJ) in the cecum was changed adapt...

  5. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    de Moura Leandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg (ALP, restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP, ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg (ALD and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD. The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises.

  6. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of catalpol extracted from Rehmannia glutinosa (Di Huang) on rat diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat, high-sugar feed

    Zhu, HuiFeng; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jinghuan; Wan, Dong; Feng, Shan; Yang, Xian; Tao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes, associated with hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress, would lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Rehmannia glutinosa (Di Huang) is widely used to nourish yin, invigorate the kidney (shen), and treat xiao ke (a diabetes-like syndrome in Chinese medicine). This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of catalpol from R. glutinosa on rat diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat, high-sugar feed. Methods Rats (eigh...

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats

    Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

    2011-01-01

    Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal...

  8. Fluctuations in central and peripheral temperatures associated with feeding behavior in rats

    Smirnov, Michael S.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the pattern of temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and skin, along with locomotion in food-deprived and nondeprived rats following the presentation of an open or closed food container and during subsequent eating or food-seeking behavior without eating. Although rats in food-deprived, quiet resting conditions had more than twofold lower spontaneous locomotion and lower temperature values than in nondeprived conditions, after presentation of a...

  9. Modulation of olfactory sensitivity and glucose-sensing by the feeding state in obese Zucker rats

    Aimé, Pascaline; Palouzier-Paulignan, Brigitte; Salem, Rita; Al Koborssy, Dolly; Garcia, Samuel; Duchamp, Claude; Romestaing, Caroline; Julliard, A. Karyn

    2014-01-01

    The Zucker fa/fa rat has been widely used as an animal model to study obesity, since it recapitulates most of its behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions, such as hyperphagia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Although it is well established that olfaction is under nutritional and hormonal influences, little is known about the impact of metabolic dysfunctions on olfactory performances and glucose-sensing in the olfactory system of the obese Zucker rat. In the present study, using a behavioral paradigm based on a conditioned olfactory aversion, we have shown that both obese and lean Zucker rats have a better olfactory sensitivity when they are fasted than when they are satiated. Interestingly, the obese Zucker rats displayed a higher olfactory sensitivity than their lean controls. By investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in glucose-sensing in the olfactory system, we demonstrated that sodium-coupled glucose transporters 1 (SGLT1) and insulin dependent glucose transporters 4 (GLUT4) are both expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). By comparing the expression of GLUT4 and SGLT1 in OB of obese and lean Zucker rats, we found that only SGLT1 is regulated in genotype-dependent manner. Next, we used glucose oxidase biosensors to simultaneously measure in vivo the extracellular fluid glucose concentrations ([Gluc]ECF) in the OB and the cortex. Under metabolic steady state, we have determined that the OB contained twice the amount of glucose found in the cortex. In both regions, the [Gluc]ECF was 2 fold higher in obese rats compared to their lean controls. Under induced dynamic glycemia conditions, insulin injection produced a greater decrease of [Gluc]ECF in the OB than in the cortex. Glucose injection did not affect OB [Gluc]ECF in Zucker fa/fa rats. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network function and provide strong arguments towards establishing the OB glucose-sensing as a key factor for sensory olfactory processing

  10. Modulation of olfactory sensitivity and glucose sensing by the feeding state in obese Zucker rats.

    Pascaline eAimé

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zucker fa/fa rat has been widely used as an animal model to study obesity, since it recapitulates most of its behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions, such as hyperphagia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Although it is well established that olfaction is under nutritional and hormonal influences, little is known about the impact of metabolic dysfunctions on olfactory performances and glucose-sensing in the olfactory system of the obese Zucker rat. In the present study, using a behavioral paradigm based on a conditioned olfactory aversion, we have shown that both obese and lean Zucker rats have a better olfactory sensitivity when they are fasted than when they are satiated. Interestingly, the obese Zucker rats displayed a higher olfactory sensitivity than their lean controls. By investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in glucose-sensing in the olfactory system, we demonstrated that sodium-coupled glucose transporters 1 (SGLT1 and insulin dependent glucose transporters 4 (GLUT4 are both expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB. By comparing the expression of GLUT4 and SGLT1 in OB of obese and lean Zucker rats, we found that only SGLT1 is regulated in genotype-dependent manner. Next, we used glucose oxidase biosensors to simultaneously measure in vivo the extracellular fluid glucose concentrations ([Gluc]ECF in the OB and the cortex. Under metabolic steady state, we have determined that the OB contained twice the amount of glucose found in the cortex. In both regions, the [Gluc]ECF was 2 fold higher in obese rats compared to their lean controls. Under induced dynamic glycemia conditions, insulin injection produced a greater decrease of [Gluc]ECF in the OB than in the cortex. Glucose injection did not affect OB [Gluc]ECF in Zucker fa/fa rats. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network function and provide strong arguments towards establishing the OB glucose-sensing as a key factor for sensory

  11. TRH injected into the nucleus accumbens shell releases dopamine and reduces feeding motivation in rats.

    Puga, L; Alcántara-Alonso, V; Coffeen, U; Jaimes, O; de Gortari, P

    2016-06-01

    The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), an anorexigenic factor that reduces food intake in food-restricted animals, may be involved in motivation for food. Injected centrally, TRH impairs acquisition of food-rewarded behavior. Through the TRH-R1 receptors, TRH injected in the nucleus accumbens increases dopamine content-perhaps the mechanism by which the peptide modulates food motivation. This, however, is still to be demonstrated. We sought to evaluate dopamine release by microdialysis after a TRH injection into the nucleus accumbens shell in free-moving fasted rats. In addition, we assessed dopamine content and turnover by HPLC and the relationship with the motivation for food by analyzing the performance of rats during a progressive-ratio (PR) operant-conditioning test. Finally, we determined serum leptin and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in order to evaluate the animals' metabolic response to food restriction and the impact of intra-accumbal TRH administration on circulating hormones. Intra-accumbal injections of TRH reduced food intake in food-restricted rats-compared to counterparts treated with saline-, without further decreasing T3 or leptin levels, which dropped due to their dietary regime. TRH-injected rats had lower breaking points on the PR schedule, which indicated lower motivation to eat. Accordingly, compared to saline-treated animals, dopamine release and turnover increased in the nucleus accumbens of TRH-injected rats, a finding that suggests a relationship between motivation for food and TRH-induced release of dopamine. PMID:27006143

  12. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E.; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T.; Wright, David C.; McBride, Brian W.; Dyck, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. Methods CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared fro...

  13. Effect of Feeding Status on Adjuvant Arthritis Severity, Cachexia, and Insulin Sensitivity in Male Lewis Rats

    Stofková, A.; Železná, Blanka; Romzová, Marianna; Uličná, O.; Kiss, A.; Skurlová, M.; Jurcovicová, J.

    -, ID 398026 (2010), s. 1-12. ISSN 0962-9351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0427; GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * feeding Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2010

  14. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics i

  15. Reducing effect of feeding powdered nacre of Pinctada maxima on the visceral fat of rats.

    Shono, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ichiro; Aoyagi, Eriko; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Momoko; Urata, Mari; Sannomiya, Katsutaka; Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2008-10-01

    An abdominal fat accumulation complicated by high blood triglycerides is regarded as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Feeding powdered nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, resulted in reduced body weight, visceral fat amount, and blood triglyceride level without influencing the food intake, body length, or amount of muscular tissue, suggesting that nacre powder specifically could decrease visceral fat. PMID:18838791

  16. Long-term high-fat-diet feeding induces skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in rats in a sex-dependent and muscle-type specific manner

    Gómez-Pérez Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a crucial role in the etiology of insulin resistance, in which skeletal muscle is the main tissue contributor. Sex differences in skeletal muscle insulin and antioxidant responses to high-fat-diet (HFD feeding have been described. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is a sex dimorphism in the effects of HFD feeding on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and on the adiponectin signaling pathway, as well as the influence of the muscle type (oxidative or glycolytic. Methods Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of male and female Wistar rats of 2 months of age fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD or a low fat diet for 26 weeks were used. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative damage markers, oxidative capacity and antioxidant defences were analyzed. Serum insulin sensitivity parameters and the levels of proteins involved in adiponectin signaling pathway were also determined. Results HFD feeding induced mitochondrial biogenesis in both sexes, but to a higher degree in male rats. Although HFD female rats showed greater antioxidant protection and maintained a better insulin sensitivity profile than their male counterparts, both sexes showed an impaired response to adiponectin, which was more evident in gastrocnemius muscle. Conclusions We conclude that HFD rats may induce skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis as an attempt to compensate the deleterious consequences of adiponectin and insulin resistance on oxidative metabolism, and that the effects of HFD feeding are sex-dependent and muscle-type specific.

  17. Increased Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Temporal Changes in the Feeding Regime of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats - A Potential Role for Bmal2 in the Liver

    Polidarová, Lenka; Sládek, Martin; Nováková, Marta; Parkanová, Daniela; Sumová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2013), e75690. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : circadian * clock gene * metabolism * liver * feeding regime * Bmal2 * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  18. Fructose consumption does not worsen bone deficits resulting from high-fat feeding in young male rats.

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Toklu, Hale Z; Balaez, Alex; Phillips, Ean G; Otzel, Dana M; Chen, Cong; Wronski, Thomas J; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Sakarya, Yasemin; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Dietary-induced obesity (DIO) resulting from high-fat (HF) or high-sugar diets produces a host of deleterious metabolic consequences including adverse bone development. We compared the effects of feeding standard rodent chow (Control), a 30% moderately HF (starch-based/sugar-free) diet, or a combined 30%/40% HF/high-fructose (HF/F) diet for 12weeks on cancellous/cortical bone development in male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8weeks. Both HF feeding regimens reduced the lean/fat mass ratio, elevated circulating leptin, and reduced serum total antioxidant capacity (tAOC) when compared with Controls. Distal femur cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) was 23-34% lower in both HF groups (p<0.001) and was characterized by lower cancellous bone volume (BV/TV, p<0.01), lower trabecular number (Tb.N, p<0.001), and increased trabecular separation versus Controls (p<0.001). Cancellous BMD, BV/TV, and Tb.N were negatively associated with leptin and positively associated with tAOC at the distal femur. Similar cancellous bone deficits were observed at the proximal tibia, along with increased bone marrow adipocyte density (p<0.05), which was negatively associated with BV/TV and Tb.N. HF/F animals also exhibited lower osteoblast surface and reduced circulating osteocalcin (p<0.05). Cortical thickness (p<0.01) and tissue mineral density (p<0.05) were higher in both HF-fed groups versus Controls, while whole bone biomechanical characteristics were not different among groups. These results demonstrate that "westernized" HF diets worsen cancellous, but not cortical, bone parameters in skeletally-immature male rats and that fructose incorporation into HF diets does not exacerbate bone loss. In addition, they suggest that leptin and/or oxidative stress may influence DIO-induced alterations in adolescent bone development. PMID:26855373

  19. Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes

    Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

  20. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats were fed control rice, transgenic rice expressing Cry1Ab protein or PHA-E lectin, or transgenic rice spiked with the purified recombinant protein. Total immunoglobulin levels, mitogen-induced cell proliferation, T-dependent antibody response to sheep red blood cells and the antigen-specific antibody response in serum were examined at the end of the studies. A dose-dependent increase in mesenteric lymph node weight and total immunoglobulin A was seen when feeding PHA-E transgenic rice alone or spiked with 0.1% purified PHA-E lectin for 90 days indicating a local effect of PHA-E in the intestine. No adverse effects of Cry1Ab protein were found. An anti-PHA-E and anti-Cry1Ab antibody response was induced both after inhalation (control groups) and after inhalation/ingestion (groups fed recombinant protein alone or together with transgenic rice). In conclusion, only PHA-E lectin was found to have an immunomodulating effect when feeding rats for 90 days with approximately 70 mg PHA-E/kg bodyweight per day. As both PHA-E lectin and Cry1Ab protein were capable of inducing an antigen-specific antibody response it is important to make careful considerations when designing future animal studies to avoid intake of proteins from the other groups by inhalation as well as to examine the sensitization and elicitation potential of 'foreign' proteins before introduction to the world market

  1. INFLUENCE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA (DRUM-STICK FRUIT EXTRACT ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO LOW LEVELS OF ARSENIC THROUGH FEED ON RATS

    Vaibhav R. Pachade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Moringa oleifera fruits hot methanolic extract (MFE, if any, in minimizing the adverse reactions of repeated exposure to arsenic trioxide (AT in feed was investigated in Wistar rats with reference to haematological profile. Three groups of rats each containing 10 (5male+5female were used. The group I served as negative control. Rats of group II were fed arsenic trioxide (AT alone @ 100 ppm in feed while those of group III simultaneously received AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Blood samples were collected from retroorbital plexus for estimation of hematological parameters (haemoglobin, PCV, TEC, MCH, MCHC, MCV of different groups on 0 day, 15th day and 29th day respectively. Exposure to AT through feed in group II resulted in significant (P<0.05 decrease in haemoglobin, TEC and MCHC, accompanied by increased MCV, with no significant alteration of PCV or MCH of the rats. While rats of group III treated with AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day also resulted in same consequences as it was in group II but it was slightly less than that of group II suggesting of mild non significant protective effect.

  2. Feeding and reward: Perspectives from Three Rat Models of Binge Eating

    Cowin, Rebecca L; Avena, Nicole M.; Mary M. Boggiano

    2011-01-01

    Research has focused on understanding how overeating can affect brain reward mechanisms and subsequent behaviors, both preclinically and in clinical research settings. This work is partly driven by the need to uncover the etiology and possible treatments for the ongoing obesity epidemic. However, overeating, or non-homeostatic feeding behavior, can occur independent of obesity. Isolating the variable of overeating from the consequence of increased body weight is of great utility, as it is wel...

  3. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz.) Swingle in rats

    Kanjana Jaijoy; Nadthaganya Suwanlikhid; Anongnad Ngamjariyawat; Amornnat Thuppia; Nirush Lertprasertsuke; Umarat Srisawat; Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female) did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 ma...

  4. Maternal-infant separation impedes changes in feeding behavior during estrous cycle of rats

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Inoue, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic and stressful events during childhood are associated with the development of eating disorders. We conducted an animal study to test if association stress in childhood affects ingestive behavior later in life by using female rats that have an adjusted estrous cycle. First, electrical impedance of the vagina was conducted to test estrous cycle adjustment. Second, the effects of 6 h per day maternal separation from birth to weaning, which models a psychologically stressful experience i...

  5. Radiation Detoxification of Full-Fat Rapeseed for Better Health Performance of feeding Rats

    The present investigation was conducted to study the impact of radiation detoxification of full-fat rapeseed on the performance of male Albino rats. Radiation processing up to and including 70 kGy did not cause any changes in the proximate chemical composition of whole rapeseed. After irradiating full-fat seed at 20, 50, and 70 kGy and heating with boiling water for 2 min, the total content of glucosinolates decreased by 12.45%, 15.91% 20.11% and 61.53% respectively. Body weight of rats fed on control diet had more body weight followed in order against those fed heated seed and seed irradiated at 70, 50, and 20 kGy and those kept on raw rapeseed. The results indicate that radiation processing of rapeseed did not fully correct the growth depression in rats. The cumulative mortality rates more pronounced with those fed raw seed followed by those fed rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy, while those fed heated and irradiated seed at 70 kGy, their mortality rates were unchanged when compared to the control group. Raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy increased thyroid and liver weights. Meanwhile, treatment of rapeseed with heated and 70 kGy radiation dose normalized the weights of thyroid and liver. Results of the present study indicate that the glucosinolates content of rapeseed after irradiation treatment at 70 kGy is still high and exert their biological effects on animal as compared with the effect of heat treatment. Therefore, it seems that higher radiation dose is required for complete destruction of glucosinolates

  6. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  7. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G;

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P < 0.05) nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other...

  8. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  9. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  10. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  11. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Baranski, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarlo-Sonta, Krystyna; Rembialkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Çakmak, İsmail; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Ozturk, Levent; Krolikowski, Tomasz; Wisniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/...

  12. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  13. Attenuation of Zn-induced hyperleptinemia/leptin resistance in Wistar rat after feeding modified poultry egg

    Taneja Satish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing exponentially world over. Leptin resistance/hyperleptinemia is attributed to its cause in majority of the obese humans where mutation in genetic component or ob gene has not been found operative. The generation of oxidative stress was suggested as its cause. In our previous study, we have reported that the inclusion of antioxidant enriched modified poultry egg (ME in diet reversed the ionic imbalance and ameliorated the oxidative stress caused by excessive Zn in diet. In the present study, the efficacy of ME verses conventional egg (CE was tested on Zn-induced leptin resistance in rat model to ascertain if the supplementation of antioxidants in the form of egg can reverse Zn-induced leptin resistance to leptin sensitive state. Methods Hyperleptinemia was induced in rats by feeding them Zn-supplemented hyperleptinemic diets-I and II (Zn-HL-Diet for 2 months. Thereafter, half of them were fed either on CE or ME mixed Zn-HL-diets I and II for another two months. The data was analyzed applying one way Anova and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. Results The results revealed that food intake, gain in body weight, height and number/unit surface area of intestinal microvillus and serum leptin, glucose, insulin and cortisol were higher in CE and Zn-HL-Diet treated groups; serum Zn, Cu, Mg were higher and Cu and Mg in tissues were lower in them than the control group. In ME treated groups, these parameters were lower and were close to the control group. These changes resulted from the restoration of ionic balance of Zn, Cu and Mg in the blood serum and tissues including liver and hair in ME treated rats. Conclusion The data suggest that Zn-induced leptin resistance can be attenuated through restoring the ionic balance of Zn, Cu and Mg through inclusion of antioxidants in diet such as these modified eggs. But further clinical studies are required before they are put to use for human consumption.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of the Melanocortin Receptor Agonist Melanotan-II (MTII) on Feeding Depends on Dietary Fat Content and not Obesity in Rats on Free-Choice Diets

    José K van den Heuvel; Eggels, Leslie; van Rozen, Andrea J.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Adan, Roger A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Conflicting data exist on sensitivity changes of the melanocortin system during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that melanocortin sensitivity depends on diet composition, in particular on the fat content rather than the level of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diet composition on feeding responses to a melanocortin receptor agonist, using free-choice diets that differ in food components. Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to a chow...

  15. Effect of acetic acid feeding on the circadian changes in glycogen and metabolites of glucose and lipid in liver and skeletal muscle of rats.

    Fushimi, Takashi; Sato, Yuzo

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of acetic acid feeding on the circadian changes in glycogen concentration in liver and skeletal muscle. Rats were provided meal once daily (09.00-13.00 hours) for 10 d. On the 11th day, they were either killed immediately or given 9 g diet containing either 0 (control) or 0.7 g/kg-diet acetic acid beginning at 09.00 hours for 4 h, as in the previous regimen. Rats in the fed group were killed at 4, 8 or 24 h after the start of feeding. At 4 h after the start of feeding, the acetic acid group had significantly greater liver and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen concentrations (Psupercompensation, a large increase in the glycogen level that is beneficial in improving performance, in liver and skeletal muscle by transitory inhibition of glycolysis. Further, we indicate the possibility of a transient enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver by acetic acid feeding. PMID:16277773

  16. Effect of feed supplementation with a-ketoglutarate, combined with vitamin B6 or C, on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats

    Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Filip, Rafal; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2007-01-01

    for 9 d (n=16) or 18 d (n=10). No significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), or feed efficiency were seen between the dextrose-treated control group and the AKG treated groups. The highest ADG and ADFI were seen in the AKG 2B rats. The AKG 2B and AKG 2C...

  17. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat. PMID:25984724

  18. Consumption of Mercury-contaminated Rice Induces Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Aggravation in Rats

    XIU-LING JI; GUI-WEN JIN; JIN-PING CHENG; WEN-HUA WANG; JING LU; LI-YA QU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the oxidative stress induced by consumption of mercury-contaminated rice in rats, and to assess the possible public health risk of mercury contamination in Wanshan mining area. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were fed the mercury-contaminated rice produced from Wanshan area for 90 days. The antioxidant status and the free radicals in rat serum were evaluated. Results High mercury accumulation in organs of rats fed the mercury-contaminated rice confirmed the server pollution of mercury in Wanshan mining area. The intensity of electron spin resonance (ESR) signal increased by 87.38% in rats fed the rice from Wanshan compared with that in the control rats fed the rice from Shanghai, suggesting that chronic dietary consumption of rice from mercury mining area could induce an aggravation of free radicals. Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice was associated with significant decreases in the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and concentration of serum nitric oxide (NO), but it had no effect on serum nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice raised the level of serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA), indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. Conclusion The long-term dietary consumption of mercury-contaminated rice induces the aggravation of free radicals and exerts oxidative stress.

  19. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (del. leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats.

    Christian Eseigbe Imafidon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA on the feeding pattern of rats that were exposed to cadmium (Cd toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml/100 g, daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4 at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 after which they received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml/100 g, respectively via oral route for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05 the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05. Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 284-292

  20. 75 FR 36588 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period

    2010-06-28

    ... in the Federal Register of March 29, 2010 (75 FR 15387). In the ANPRM, FDA requested comments on the... March 29, 2010 (75 FR 15387), FDA published an ANPRM with a 90-day comment period to request comments on... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed...

  1. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats’ possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel’s intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat. PMID:25984724

  2. Post Hoc Analyses of Data from a 90-Day Clinical Trial Evaluating the Tolerability and Efficacy of Tapentadol Immediate Release and Oxycodone Immediate Release for the Relief of Moderate to Severe Pain in Elderly and Nonelderly Patients

    Gary Vorsanger; Jim Xiang; David Biondi; David Upmalis; Jacqueline Delfgaauw; René Allard; Bruce Moskovitz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of tapentadol immediate release (IR) and oxycodone IR for relief of moderate to severe pain in elderly and nonelderly patients.METHODS: Post hoc data analyses were conducted on a 90-day randomized, phase 3, double-blind, flexible-dose study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00364546) of adults with moderate to severe lower back pain or osteoarthritis pain who received tapentadol IR 50 mg or 100 mg, or oxycodone HCl IR 10 mg or 15 mg every 4 h to 6 h ...

  3. Effects of peripherally administered cholecystokinin-8 and secretin on feeding/drinking and oxytocin-mRFP1 fluorescence in transgenic rats.

    Motojima, Yasuhito; Kawasaki, Makoto; Matsuura, Takanori; Saito, Reiko; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Ueno, Hiromichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Hideo; Sakai, Akinori; Ueta, Yoichi

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral administration of cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 or secretin activates oxytocin (OXT)-secreting neurons in the hypothalamus. Although OXT is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, detailed mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the central OXTergic pathways after intraperitoneally (i.p.) administration of CCK-8 and secretin using male OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) transgenic rats and male Wistar rats. I.p. administration of CCK-8 (50μg/kg) and secretin (100μg/kg) decreased food intake in these rats. While i.p. administration of CCK-8 decreased water intake, i.p. administration of secretin increased water intake. Immunohistochemical study revealed that Fos-Like-Immunoreactive cells were observed abundantly in the brainstem and in the OXT neurons in the dorsal division of the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (dpPVN). We could observe marked increase of mRFP1 fluorescence, as an indicator for OXT, in the dpPVN and mRFP1-positive granules in axon terminals of the dpPVN OXT neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) after i.p. administration of CCK-8 and secretin. These results provide us the evidence that, at least in part, i.p. administration of CCK-8 or secretin might be involved in the regulation of feeding/drinking via a OXTergic pathway from the dpPVN to the NTS. PMID:26919961

  4. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC50 values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC50 values 50 of 47 mg/L SDD.

  5. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  6. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance.

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 10⁵ Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C) ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment of

  7. Effect of diet composition on the protein synthetic pattern of the rat pancreas after a feeding period of five days

    Poort, S.R.; Poort, C.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were fed for five days on a protein-rich and on a carbohydrate-rich diet, respectively. One half of the pancreas of these rats was incubated with [3H]-leucine and the other half with [14C]leucine and extracts from these pancreas halves were prepared. Mixtures of the differently labeled extracts

  8. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of [3-3H]phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis

  9. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred. PMID:23323826

  10. Safety Evaluation of Multiple Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Wistar Rats Based on the Ames Test and a 28-Day Feeding Study

    Cheng-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three lactic acid bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, HK006, and HK109, and Pediococcus pentosaceus PP31 exhibit probiotic potential as antiallergy agents, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the safety of these new strains requires evaluation when isolated from infant faeces or pickled cabbage. Multiple strains (HK006, HK109, and PP31 were subject to a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a short-term oral toxicity study. The powder product exhibited mutagenic potential in Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA1535 (with or without metabolic activation. In the short-term oral toxicity study, rats received a normal dosage of 390 mg/kg/d (approximately 9×109 CFU/kg/d or a high dosage of 1950 mg/kg/d (approximately 4.5×1010 CFU/kg/d for 28 d. No adverse effects were observed regarding the general condition, behaviour, growth, feed and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry indices, organ weights, or histopathologic analysis of the rats. These studies have demonstrated that the consumption of multiple bacterial strains is not associated with any signs of mutagenicity of S. Typhimurium or toxicity in Wistar rats, even after consuming large quantities of bacteria.

  11. The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains

    Jegstrup, Inger Marie; Nygaard Hansen, Marianne; Brandt, Kirsten; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2003-01-01

    In this experiment we study the effects of various culturing methods of plant based foods on health and fertility parameters in a two-generation study in rats. The organic method of growing plants without pesticides and synthetic fertiliser will be compared to a conventional method of growing plants (using pesticides and artificial fertiliser). The diets have been supplemented with minerals and vitamins according to the recommendations of the National Research Council for rats (1995), in orde...

  12. Restricted Feeding Phase Shifts Clock Gene and Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) Expression in Rats1–4

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali; Rhoads, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The intestine exhibits striking diurnal rhythmicity in glucose uptake, mediated by the sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT1); however, regulatory pathways for these rhythms remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that SGLT1 rhythmicity is linked to the circadian clock. To investigate this, we examined rhythmicity of Sglt1 and individual clock genes in rats that consumed food ad libitum (AL). We further compared phase shifts of Sglt1 and clock genes in a second group of rats followin...

  13. Feed consumption and weight gaining behavior of zucker fatty (fa/fa rats with single and in combination treatment of clonidine and metformin

    Ranjitsinh M. Rajput

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is metabolic disorder with high blood glucose level. Type-2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and chronic hyperglycemia. So agents that are efficiently reduces weight gain along with diabetic control may play beneficial role in obese diabetic subjects. Methods: Zucker Fatty Rats were used for the study. Animals were divided in four groups, (control group, Clonidine group, metformin group and combination group. Normal weight gain and feed consumption data were obtained up to 9 weeks of age there after animals were started treatment according to above mentioned groups. During treatment again feed consumption and weight gain data were generated. The experimental results are expressed as the Mean ± SEM in each group. Statistical analysis has been performed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The data suggest that there is decrease in body weight gain during the treatment with clonidine and in combination of clonidine and metformin. If we consider weight gain of control as 100 % weekly than clonidine group shows 10.45 % weight gain while metformin shows 96.5 % weight gain and in combination group it shows 33.63 % weight gain. So, there is significant reduction in weight gain of the group treated with clonidine and combination of clonidine and metformin. Same time there is reduction in feed consumption of animals. Conclusions: The centrally acting drug Clonidine affects the feed consuming behavior and weight gain of animals. It shows hypophagic effect and reduces weight gain in single as well as in combination with metformin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 102-110

  14. Creatine supplementation and oxidative stress in rat liver

    Araújo, Michel B; Moura, Leandro P; Junior, Roberto C Vieira; Junior, Marcelo C; Dalia, Rodrigo A; Sponton, Amanda C; Ribeiro, Carla; Mello, Maria Alice R

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty 90-day-old adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups for the eight-week experiment. Control group (C) rats received a balanced control diet; creatine control group (CCr) rats received a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine; trained group (T) rats received a balanced diet and intense exercise training eq...

  15. The Effects of Long-Term Feeding of Rodent Food Bars on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Levels In Fisher Rats

    Ramirez, Joel; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Piert, S.; Barrett, J.; Yul, D.; Dalton, B.; Girten, B.

    2001-01-01

    A specialized rodent food bar diet has been developed and utilized successfully for short-duration shuttle missions. Recent tests conducted in preparation for experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) indicated that long-term food bar feeding for three months induced hyperlipidemia in rats. This study examined oxidative stress status in livers of these same animals. Spectrophotometric analysis of 79 Fischer rat livers (40 female and 39 male) for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was conducted using Bioxytech LPO-587(TM) assay kit and SOD-525(Tm) assay kit, respectively. The treatment groups consisted of 20 male CHOW and 19 male FOOD BAR rats and 20 female CHOW and 20 female FOOD BAR rats. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures. The male FOOD BAR group LPO mean (3.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/g) was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) greater than that of the male CHOW group (2.1 +/-0.1 mmol/g). Moreover the female FOOD BAR group LPO mean (2.9 +/-0.1 mmol/g) was also significantly greater than the female CHOW group mean (2.2 +/-0.1 mmol/g). The mean values for SOD in both male and female groups showed no significant differences between CHOW and FOOD BAR groups. These results show that LPO levels were significantly higher in both the male and female FOOD BAR groups compared to CHOW groups and that there was no concomitant increase in SOD levels across the group. In addition, males showed a greater difference than females in terms of LPO levels. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the use of the current food bar formulation for long-term experiments such as those planned for the ISS.

  16. Platycodon grandiflorum extract represses up-regulated adipocyte fatty acid binding protein triggered by a high fat feeding in obese rats

    Yoon Shin Park; Yoosik Yoon; Hong Seok Ahn

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum extract (PGE) on lipid metabolism and FABP mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of high fat diet-induced obese rats.METHODS: PGE was treated to investigate the inhibitory effect on the pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 differentiation and pancreatic lipase activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 439.03 ± 7.61 g were divided into four groups: the control groups that fed an experimental diet alone (C and H group) and PGE treatment groups that administered PGE along with a control diet or HFD at a concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight (C + PGE and H + PGE group, respectively) for 7 wk. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerol (TG) concentrations were measured from the tail vein of rats. Adipocyte cell area was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue and the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA expression was analyzed by northern blot analysis.RESULTS: PGE treatment inhibited 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation, and also decreased pancreatic lipase activity. In this experiment, PGE significantly reduced plasma TC and TG concentrations as well as body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue weight. PGE also significantly decreased the size of subcutaneous adipocytes. Furthermore, it significantly repressed the up-regulation of FABP mRNA expression induced by a high-fat feeding in subcutaneous adipose tissue.CONCLUSION: PGE has a plasma lipid lowering-effect and anti-obesity effect in obese rats fed a high fat diet.From these results, we can suggest the possibility that PGE can be used as a food ingredient or drug component to therapeutically control obesity.

  17. NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).

    1982-12-01

    Propyl gallate is a white to nearly white odorless powder having a slightly bitter taste. Solutions of propyl gallate turn dark in the presence of iron or iron salts. Propyl gallate has been used since 1948 as an antioxidant to stabilize cosmetics, food packaging materials, and foods containing fats. As an additive, it may be found in edible fats, oils, mayonnaise, shortening, baked goods, candy, dried meat, fresh pork sausage, and dried milk, and it is used in hair grooming products, pressure-sensitive adhesives, lubricating oil additives, and transforming oils. A NTP Carcinogenesis bioassay of propyl gallate was conducted by feeding diets containing 6,000 or 12,000 ppm propyl gallate to groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 untreated rats and 50 untreated mice of each sex served as controls. Survival of rats and mice was not adversely affected by propyl gallate, but mean body weights of dosed rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. At 104 weeks, mean body weights of low-and high-dose rats were 4% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% and 19% lower than those of the controls for females. Similarly, mean body weights of low-and high-dose mice were 5% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% (both dose groups) lower than those of the controls for females. Thyroid follicular-cell adenomas or carcinomas (combined) occurred in male rats with a statistically significant (P<0.05) positive trend, but the incidences in the dosed groups were not statistically significant in direct comparisons with the control groups. Moreover, the incidence of high-dose male rats with follicular-cell tumors (3/50, 6%) was not statistically different from the historical control rate (14/584, 2.4%) for the laboratory that conducted this bioassay. Rare tumors (an astrocytoma or a glioma) were found in the brains of two low-dose female rats. The incidence of all brain tumors in the

  18. Effects of feeding dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the hepatic metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in rats

    Prasanna, H.R.; Schwartz, A.; Hacobian, N.; Magee, P.N.

    1987-05-01

    The possibility that the anticarcinogenic action of the naturally occurring steroid DHEA could arise from its interference in the metabolic activation of DMBA was investigated. Young mature male Sprague Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with a diet containing a nontoxic dose of DHEA in the diet. Control rats were pairfed and received the same diet except DHEA. The animals were given interperitoneally 120 ..mu..Ci of (/sup 3/H)DMBA in DMSO. After 48 hours the rats were sacrificed. Liver weights at sacrifice were 11.7 +/- 0.9 g and 7.1 g +/- 0.6 g for DHEA fed and control animals respectively. Protein content of whole liver and hepatic microsomal protein was significantly higher in DHEA fed animals. Binding of DMBA to hepatic DNA was 6688 +/- 1308 and 4070 +/- 890 dpm/mg DNA for control and DHEA fed animals respectively. Furthermore the excretion of DMBA derived radioactivity in urine was 2.3 fold more in DHEA fed animals. These results suggest that DHEA could protect rats from the carcinogenic manifestations of DMBA by interfering at the biotransformation step of the carcinogen.

  19. Effects of feeding dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the hepatic metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in rats

    The possibility that the anticarcinogenic action of the naturally occurring steroid DHEA could arise from its interference in the metabolic activation of DMBA was investigated. Young mature male Sprague Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with a diet containing a nontoxic dose of DHEA in the diet. Control rats were pairfed and received the same diet except DHEA. The animals were given interperitoneally 120 μCi of [3H]DMBA in DMSO. After 48 hours the rats were sacrificed. Liver weights at sacrifice were 11.7 +/- 0.9 g and 7.1 g +/- 0.6 g for DHEA fed and control animals respectively. Protein content of whole liver and hepatic microsomal protein was significantly higher in DHEA fed animals. Binding of DMBA to hepatic DNA was 6688 +/- 1308 and 4070 +/- 890 dpm/mg DNA for control and DHEA fed animals respectively. Furthermore the excretion of DMBA derived radioactivity in urine was 2.3 fold more in DHEA fed animals. These results suggest that DHEA could protect rats from the carcinogenic manifestations of DMBA by interfering at the biotransformation step of the carcinogen

  20. Maternal High Fat Feeding Does Not Have Long-Lasting Effects on Body Composition and Bone Health in Female and Male Wistar Rat Offspring at Young Adulthood

    Paula M. Miotto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  1. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of methylphenidate hydrochloride (Cas No. 298-59-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). Technical report series

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride in feed to groups of 70 F344/N rats of each sex at doses of 0, 100, 500, or 1,0000 ppm and to groups of 70 B6C3F1 mice of each sex at doses of 0, 50, 250, or 500 ppm. Under the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of methylphenidate hydrochloride in male or female F344/N rats receiving 100, 500, or 1,000 ppm. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female B6C3F1 mice, based on the occurrence of hepatocellular neoplasms. Treatment of female rats with methylphenidate hydrochloride was associated with a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland fibroadenomas. Administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride to male and female mice resulted in increased incidence of eosinophilic foci in the liver.

  2. Feeding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(omega)nitroarginine elevates serum very low density lipoprotein and hepatic triglyceride synthesis in rats.

    Goto, T; Ohnomi, S; Khedara, A; Kato, N; Ogawa, H; Yanagita, T

    1999-05-01

    This study was conducted to study the influence of dietary L-N(omega)nitroarginine (L-NNA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on serum lipids and lipoproteins and on the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in rats. Feeding rats a diet containing 0.2 g/kg L-NNA for 5 weeks elevated serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipid, and free fatty acid and reduced serum nitrate (an oxidation product of NO). The elevation in serum triglyceride was mainly due to the elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. Contents of cholesterol and phospholipid in the VLDL fraction also were elevated by L-NNA. L-NNA treatment caused significantly higher activity of hepatic microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (the rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride synthesis) and lower activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation). Activities of hepatic enzymes responsible for fatty acid synthesis such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and fatty acid synthase were unaffected by L-NNA. The activity of hepatic microsomal phosphocholine cytidyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was reduced significantly by L-NNA. Our results suggest that lower NO production caused the elevations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis by higher esterification of fatty acid and lower fatty acid oxidation, leading to an enrichment of VLDL triglyceride. PMID:15539300

  3. Feed withdrawal abate regimens lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome symptoms, such as glucose tolerance, are associated with the diameter of retroperitoneal adipocytes in rats.

    He, Mao L; Sharma, Ranjana; Mir, Priya S; Okine, Erasmus; Dodson, Michael V

    2010-02-01

    Adipocyte numbers were increased by feed withdrawal (FW) regimens in cattle; thus, the effect of FW regimens was studied in male Wistar and fa/fa obese rats, as models for humans, in 2 completely randomized design experiments to abate lipodystrophy and progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms. The hypothesis was that application of FW regimens could alter adipose tissue cellularity, adipocyte size, and affect area under the curve (AUC) during glucose tolerance tests. Objectives were to determine associations among retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue adipocyte number, diameter, and AUC, as affected by fortnightly or a single (at age 50 days) 24-hour FW regimen. Adipocyte marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression was elevated (P = .054) in the retroperitoneal tissue of fa/fa obese rats in the fortnightly FW treatment because of a 13% increase in tissue cell density (cells per gram; P = .13). Average cell diameter in retroperitoneal adipose and AUC were negatively corelated. Regression analyses after including the square of average cell diameter indicated that average retroperitoneal adipocyte diameter (between 65 and 135 mum) and the AUC were related in a quadratic manner (R(2) = 0.14; n = 49; P = .03) for Wistar rats. Cell number of the inguinal and retroperitoneal adipocytes tended to be positively corelated (r = 0.24; P = .09 and r = 0.26; P = .07, n = 49, respectively) to the AUC and are indexes of adiposity. Results suggest that maintenance of retroperitoneal adipocytes at appropriate diameters may control progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms such as glucose tolerance. PMID:20226998

  4. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime;

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar...... rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high......-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  5. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (Pcopper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  6. Isoenergetic Feeding of Low Carbohydrate-High Fat Diets Does Not Increase Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Capacity in Rats

    Betz, Matthias J.; Maximilian Bielohuby; Brigitte Mauracher; William Abplanalp; Hans-Helge Müller; Korbinian Pieper; Juliane Ramisch; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Felix Beuschlein; Martin Bidlingmaier; Marc Slawik

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4...

  7. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats

    Betz, Matthias J.; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks...

  8. Biochemical and histological changes in whole body gamma-irradiated rats feed on wheat, barely and corn bran

    The present work aims to study the effect of adding 3 different of dietary fibers (wheat, barley or corn bran) to normal balanced diet on liver function, blood, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level to counteract their elevation in whole body gamma irradiation rats. The experimental diets (balanced diet + fibre additive) were fed for 4 weeks. Samples (blood and tissue) were collected at intervals of times 7, 14 and 28 days post exposure to single dose (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. The control group consumed a fibre diet for 4 weeks, but not irradiated. The minimum aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the lowest blood total cholestrol, triglycerides and blood glucose were observed in rats (irradiated and non-irradiated rats) fed on wheat bran experimental diet (barley or corn bran). It could be concluded that wheat fibers were more effective, as compared with other fibers contained in balanced diet, in improving the investigated parameters observed after whole body gamma irradiation exposure

  9. RSS Feeds

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/rss.html RSS Feeds To use the sharing features on this page, ... NLM RSS Feeds and Podcasts . General Interest RSS Feeds What's New: MedlinePlus Announcements and Special Features The ...

  10. PUNARNAVA MANDUR: TOXICITY STUDY OF CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN WISTAR RATS

    P. S. Jamadagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differential leukocyte Count, Reticulocyte count and Organ weights were recorded and analyzed statistically. At termination, rats were sacrificed, examined for gross pathological changes, organs were collected, weighed and processed for histopathological evaluation. There was no effect on body weights and feed consumption, no abnormal findings in the histopathological evaluation of high dose group animals but there was significant increase in weight of liver in females of high dose group as compared to control. Hence, the dose level 450 mg/kg of Punarnava Mandur was found as NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level. However, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level could not be established. It was suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses so as to establish target organ of toxicity.

  11. Effects of mesulergine treatment on diet selection, brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) turnover in free feeding rats.

    Giannakopoulos, G; Galanopoulou, P; Daifotis, Z; Couvaris, C

    1998-07-01

    1. The effects of mesulergine, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonist with dopamine (DA) agonistic properties, on rats diet selection over a seven day period and on 5-HT and DA turnover was studied. 2. Three groups of male Wistar rats were individually caged and ad libitum fed with a standard (SD) and 50% sweet carbohydrate enriched diet (CED). Food intake was measured daily 4 hrs and 24 hrs after i.p. injections of mesulergine (1 and 3 mg/kg) or vehicle. 5-HT and 5-HIAA in hypothalamus (Hy), Striatum (St) and hippocampus (Hi) as well as DA and DOPAC in (Hy) and (St) were assayed at the 8th day of the experiment. 3. There was a dose dependent increase of SD consumption 4 hrs after mesulergine treatment while the CED remained unchanged with total food intake dose dependently increased as a consequence. At 24 hrs measurements SD consumption was increased only for the dose of 1 mg/kg of mesulergine, while a dose dependent decrease of CED intake was observed. Total food intake was unchanged for the dose of 1 mg/kg and decreased with the dose of 3 mg/kg consequently. A dose dependent decrease of rats body weight was observed too. 4. A significant increase of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in (Hy) and (St) for the dose of 1 mg/kg and in (Hi) for the dose of 3 mg/kg with no changes of DA turnover were found. 5. The above data suggest a dual mode of action of mesulergine presented as a short term hyperphagia due to simultaneous antiserotonergic and dopaminergic activity and long-term hypophagia due to long-term agonistic effects of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:9723121

  12. Water-Soluble Chitosan Nanoparticles Inhibit Hypercholesterolemia Induced by Feeding a High-Fat Diet in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Chitosan, a deacetylated product of chitin, has been demonstrated to lower cholesterol in humans and animals. However, chitosan is not fully soluble in water which would influence absorption in the human intestine. In addition, water-soluble chitosan (WSC) has higher reactivity compared to chitosan. The present study was designed to clarify the effects of WSC and water-soluble chitosan nanoparticles (WSC-NPs) on hypercholesterolemia induced by feeding a high-fat diet in male Sprague-Dawley rats. WSC-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method and the spray-drying technique. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape and had a smooth surface. The mean size of WSC-NPs was 650 nm variing from 500 to 800?nm. Results showed that WSC-NPs reduced the blood lipids and plasma viscosity significantly and increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities significantly. This paper is the first report of the lipid-lowering effects of WSC-NPs suggesting that the WSC-NPs could be used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia

  13. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Maryam Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in

  14. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    Jin-Zhi Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results: During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry.

  15. Effects of hyperglycemia and aging in angiogenesis and reepithelization of colonic anastomoses in rats Efeitos da hiperglicemia e do envelhecimento sobre a angiogênese e a reepitelização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos

    Norton Luiz Nóbrega; Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões; Daniel Barczak; Sérgio Ossamu Ioshii

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate angiogenesis and reepithelization of colonic anastomoses in rats. METHODS: 82 Wistar rats, divided into: young normoglycemic, old normoglycemic and hyperglycemic. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin. Glycemia was assessed before induction, at 24 hours and after 90 days, when a colotomy and an anastomosis were performed, assessed at days 3, 7, and 14. Samples were prepared by immuno-histochemistry (PCNA and antifactor VIII). RESULTS: Mean glycemia after 90 days strept...

  16. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats.

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu; Owyang, Chung

    2015-05-15

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  17. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  18. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  19. Down-regulation of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine channel in severely food-restricted rats

    V.A. Vizotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that myocardial dysfunction induced by food restriction is related to calcium handling. Although cardiac function is depressed in food-restricted animals, there is limited information about the molecular mechanisms that lead to this abnormality. The present study evaluated the effects of food restriction on calcium cycling, focusing on sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2, phospholamban (PLB, and ryanodine channel (RYR2 mRNA expressions in rat myocardium. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 60 days old, were submitted to ad libitum feeding (control rats or 50% diet restriction for 90 days. The levels of left ventricle SERCA2, PLB, and RYR2 were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Body and ventricular weights were reduced in 50% food-restricted animals. RYR2 mRNA was significantly decreased in the left ventricle of the food-restricted group (control = 5.92 ± 0.48 vs food-restricted group = 4.84 ± 0.33, P < 0.01. The levels of SERCA2 and PLB mRNA were similar between groups (control = 8.38 ± 0.44 vs food-restricted group = 7.96 ± 0.45, and control = 1.52 ± 0.06 vs food-restricted group = 1.53 ± 0.10, respectively. Down-regulation of RYR2 mRNA expressions suggests that chronic food restriction promotes abnormalities in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

  20. Safety Assessment of Zigbir®: A Polyherbal Formulation in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Joseph Joshua Allan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of Zigbir®, a polyherbal formulation intended for use as food supplement, was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats treated orally at the dose of 2000 mg/kg in acute and at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg for 90 days in subchronic toxicity study. The median lethal dose of Zigbir® was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg, and fourteen-day repeated dose toxicity study revealed it to be safe up to 1000 mg/kg. The subchronic study did not show any mortality or treatment-related adverse clinical signs. The treated animals exhibited normal feed intake and comparable body weight gain except for a decrease in females of 500 and 1000 mg/kg groups. Ocular examination revealed no abnormalities. Further, Zigbir® administration in rats did not induce any major changes in urinalysis, hematological, and biochemical evaluations except for minor alterations in few parameters at different dose levels. Gross and histopathological findings did not show any lesions attributable to Zigbir® administration. The no observed effect level of Zigbir® was found to be 500 and 250 mg/kg in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

  1. Chronic exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide and high-fat feeding increases body mass without affecting glucose tolerance in female rats

    Dudele, Anete; Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina;

    2015-01-01

    -related inflammation in females. Therefore, we addressed how experimentally induced chronic inflammation affects body mass, energy intake, and glucose metabolism in female rats. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with slow release pellets that delivered a constant daily dose of 53 or 207 μg of...... lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per rat for 60 days. Control rats were instrumented with vehicle pellets. Due to inflammatory nature of high-fat diet (HFD) half of the rats received HFD (60% of calories from lard), while the other half remained on control diet to detect possible interactions between two modes of induced...... inflammation. Our results showed that chronic LPS administration increased female rat body mass and calorie intake in a dose-dependent manner, and that HFD further exacerbated these effects. Despite these effects, no effects of LPS and HFD were evident on female rat glucose metabolism. Only LPS elevated...

  2. 神经肽Y在杏仁中央核内对禁食大鼠摄食的调节方式%Regulation of neuropeptide Y in central nucleus of amygdaloid on feeding of fasted rats

    朱永香; 王倩; 王爽; 于玮; 南瑛; 曹健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the regulatory mode of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) on feeding of fasted rats,and to explore the possible mechanism.Methods 34 male SD rats were chosen,and 10 rats of them were divided into feeding group(n=5) and fasted 24 h group(n=5),and the rat brain was obtained.The expressions of NPY and neuropeptide Y 1 receptor (Y1R)in CeA were detected by immunohistochemical staining method.The other 24 rats were implanted cannula in CeA.The postoperative 12 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups,and the rats in one group were injected with NPY and the rats in another group were injected with saline in CeA(control 1 group),after 1,2 and 4 h,the intake of food was detected.The other postoperative 12 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups,and the rats in one group were injected with Y1R antagonist and the rats in another group were injected with saline in CeA(control 2 group),after 1,2 and 4 h,the intake of food was detected.Results Compared with feeding group,the NPY expression in CeA of the rats in fasted 24 h group was significantly increased (P<0.05),and the Y1R expression in CeA of the rats in fasted 24 h group was significantly decreased (P<0.05).Compared with control 1 group,the intake of food of the rats injected with NPY in CeA within 1 h was significantly increased(P<0.05) ; compared with control 2 group,the intake of food of the rats injected with Y1R antagonist in CeA within 1 h was significantly decreased(P<0.05).Conclusion NPY in CeA has promotion effect on the feeding of fasted rats,and the mechanism may be regulated by Y1 receptor.%目的:观察神经肽Y(NPY)在杏仁中央核(CeA)内对禁食大鼠摄食的调节方式,并探讨其可能的作用机制.方法:选择雄性SD大鼠34只,将其中10只大鼠随机分为正常摄食组与禁食24 h组,每组5只,取大鼠脑组织,应用免疫组织化学方法检测大鼠CeA内NPY及其Y1受体的表达;剩余24只大鼠

  3. Rapid switch of hepatic fatty acid metabolism from oxidation to esterification during diurnal feeding of meal-fed rats correlates with changes in the properties of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, but not of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.

    Moir, A M; Zammit, V A

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the ingestion of a meal on the partitioning of hepatic fatty acids between oxidation and esterification were studied in vivo for meal-fed rats. The time course for the reversal of the starved state was extremely rapid and the process was complete within 2 h, in marked contrast with the reversal of the effects of starvation in rats fed ad libitum [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 49-55]. This rapid reversal occurred in spite of the fact that, in the liver of the meal-fed animals before feeding, a similar degree of partitioning of fatty acids in favour of oxidation was observed as in 24 h-starved rats (previously fed ad libitum). This suggested that the lower degree of ketonaemia observed in meal-fed rats before a meal is not due to the inability of acylcarnitine formation to compete successfully with esterification of fatty acids to the glycerol moiety. Investigation of the possible mechanisms that could contribute towards the rapid switching-off of fatty acid oxidation revealed that this was correlated with a very rapid rise and overshoot in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, but not with any change in the activity, or sensitivity to malonyl-CoA, of the mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I). The role of these two parameters in the reversal of fasting-induced hepatic fatty acid oxidation was thus the inverse of that observed previously for refed 24 h-starved rats. The rapid increase in [malonyl-CoA] was accompanied by an immediate and complete reversion of the kinetic characteristics (Ka for citrate, expressed/total activity ratio) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to those found in the post-meal animals, again in contrast with the time course observed in refed 24 h-starved rats [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1990) Biochem. J. 272, 511-517]. The rapidity with which these changes occurred was specific to the partitioning of acyl-CoA; the meal-induced diversion of glycerolipids towards phospholipid synthesis and the

  4. Effects of opioid antagonists naloxone and naltrexone on neuropeptide Y-induced feeding and brown fat thermogenesis in the rat. Neural site of action.

    Kotz, C.M.; Grace, M.K.; Briggs, J.; Levine, A S; Billington, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y administered intracerebroventricularly and into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus stimulates feeding and decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Although specific neuropeptide Y antagonists are not yet available, previous studies had shown that the opioid antagonist naloxone blocked neuropeptide Y-induced feeding when both drugs were injected intracerebroventricularly. We wanted to find out if naloxone injected into specific brain sites would block neuropept...

  5. Defects in embryonic hindbrain development and fetal resorption resulting from vitamin A deficiency in the rat are prevented by feeding pharmacological levels of all-trans-retinoic acid

    White, Jeffrey C.; Shankar, V. Narayanaswamy; Highland, Margaret; Epstein, Miles L; DeLuca, Hector F.; Clagett-Dame, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Vitamin A is required for reproduction and normal embryonic development. We have determined that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) can support development of the mammalian embryo to parturition in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats. At embryonic day (E) 0.5, VAD dams were fed purified diets containing either 12 μg of atRA per g of diet (230 μg per rat per day) or 250 μg of atRA per g of diet (4.5 mg per rat per day) or were fed the purified diet supplemented with a source of retinol (100 units of re...

  6. Long-term fatty liver-induced insulin resistance in orotic acid-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver rats.

    Han, Xiuqing; Liu, Chunhua; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether fatty liver preceded insulin resistance or vice versa using a long-term orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model without the confounding effects of obesity and hyperlipidemia and explored the role of the liver in insulin resistance. Male Wistar rats were fed with or without OA supplementation for 30, 60, and 90 days. The NAFLD group showed increased liver lipid at 30, 60, and 90 days; glucose intolerance was noted at 60 and 90 days. Furthermore, partial liver proteins and gene expressions related to upstream signaling of insulin were decreased. However, the liver glycogen content was elevated, and gluconeogenesis genes expressions were obviously decreased at 90 days. The occurrence of fatty liver preceded insulin resistance in OA-induced NAFLD without the interference of obesity and hyperlipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance may not play a conclusive role in insulin resistance in this model. PMID:26775542

  7. Protective effect of chenodeoxycholic acid against lipid kidney injury induced by high-fructose feeding in rats and the underlying mechanism

    胡志娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the intervention of chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA) on kidney of high-fructose-fed rats,and investigate the mechanism of CDCA on lipid kidney injury.Methods Forty-eight healthy male Wistar

  8. EFFECT OF FEEDING OF HONEY MIXED WITH GHEE AND ITS HEATED FORMS ON HEPATOTOXICITY, ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND LIPID PROFILE OF RATS

    K R Anilakumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey and ghee are widely used in our diet. Ayurveda emphasized that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects that eventually lead to death. This study reveals their effect on multicomponent antioxidant system in rat liver. Six groups of rats were maintained for 6 weeks as Control; Honey incorporated diet; Heated honey incorporated diet; Ghee incorporated diet; Honey with ghee incorporated diet and heated honey with heated ghee incorporated diet. Results revealed a significant raise in serum alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, hepatic glutathione S- transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase with associated increase in serum conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde of rats fed with honey mixed ghee and heated honey mixed with heated ghee. Hence, it is concluded that consumption of honey with equal amount of ghee and its mixture in the heated forms raises the detoxifying enzymes and the levels of lipid peroxides in rat liver.

  9. Rats

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  10. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor ...

  11. EFFECT OF FEEDING OF HONEY MIXED WITH GHEE AND ITS HEATED FORMS ON HEPATOTOXICITY, ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND LIPID PROFILE OF RATS

    Anilakumar, K. R.; Annapoorani, A.; Farahath khanum; NA Murthy; AS Bawa

    2011-01-01

    Honey and ghee are widely used in our diet. Ayurveda emphasized that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects that eventually lead to death. This study reveals their effect on multicomponent antioxidant system in rat liver. Six groups of rats were maintained for 6 weeks as Control; Honey incorporated diet; Heated honey incorporated diet; Ghee incorporated diet; Honey with ghee incorporated diet and heated honey with heated ghee incorporated diet. Resu...

  12. Feeding guilt.

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  13. Insulin-regulated Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA expression in primary hepatocytes from zucker fatty but not lean rats is affected by feeding conditions.

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available Insulin regulates the transcription of genes for hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that this action may be impaired in hepatocytes from insulin resistant animals. Primary hepatocytes from insulin sensitive Zucker lean (ZL and insulin resistant Zucker fatty (ZF rats in ad libitum or after an overnight fasting were isolated, cultured and treated with insulin and other compounds for analysis of gene expression using real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of one insulin-induced (Srebp-1c and one insulin-suppressed (Pck1 genes in response to insulin, glucagon, and compactin treatments in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats were analyzed. Additionally, the effects of insulin and T1317 on their levels in hepatocytes from ad libitum or fasted ZL or ZF rats were compared. The mRNA levels of Srebp-1c, Fas, and Scd1, but not that of Insr, Gck and Pck1, were higher in freshly isolated hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF than that from ZL rats. These patterns of Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA levels remained in primary hepatocyte cultured in vitro. Insulin's ability to regulate Srebp-1c and Pck1 expression was diminished in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF, but not ZL rats. Glucagon or compactin suppressed Srebp-1c mRNA expression in lean, but not fatty hepatocytes. However, glucagon induced Pck1 mRNA expression similarly in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. Insulin caused the same dose-dependent increase of Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. It synergized with T1317 to induce Srebp-1c, and suppressed Pck1 mRNA levels in hepatocytes from fasted, but not that from ad libitum ZF rats. We demonstrated that insulin was unable to regulate its downstream genes' mRNA expression in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF rats. This impairment can be partially restored in hepatocytes from ZF rats after an overnight fasting, a phenomenon that deserves further investigation.

  14. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory Practice... fixative as soon as necropsy is performed and no less than 48 hrs prior to trimming. Tissues should...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the... adequacy of nutritional requirements of the species tested and for impurities that might influence the... in the control and treatment groups must be sacrificed. (10) Clinical pathology. Hematology...

  16. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NOx abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NOx emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NOx from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr-1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NOx concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NOx concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NOx concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  17. Effect of fructose or sucrose feeding with different levels on oral glucose tolerance test in normal and type 2 diabetic rats

    Kwon, Sanghee; Kim, You Jin; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether acute fructose or sucrose administration at different levels (0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg body weight) might affect oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. In OGTT, there were no significant differences in glucose responses between acute fructose- and sucrose-administered groups. However, in normal rats, the AUCs of the blood glucose response for the fructose-administered groups tended to be lower than those of th...

  18. 短期高脂饮食改变大鼠对蔗糖的喜好和甜味觉的敏感性%Alterations of sucrose preference and sweet taste sensitivity after short-term high-fat diet feeding in rats

    孙慧玲; 闫君宝; 吕波; 孙波; 李金容; 闫剑群

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高脂饮食对大鼠甜味觉敏感性的影响。方法刚断乳雄性 SD 大鼠,适应1周后,高脂饮食喂养2周,按体质量增加程度将实验动物分为3组,即肥胖易感组(obesity prone,OP)、肥胖抵抗(obesity resistant,OR)组和对照组(control,C)。OP及 OR组继续喂养高脂饲料,对照组转由正常饲料喂养(C-C),连续8周。采用条件性厌味(CTA)及双瓶选择实验,检测大鼠对甜味的喜好及其阈值变化,并测定大鼠热量总摄入量和食物转化效率。结果①高脂喂养的OP大鼠体质量增加明显高于OR及对照组大鼠,而对照组大鼠体质量增加又高于高脂喂养的OR大鼠。②高脂喂养的大鼠(OP与OR)的蔗糖阈值明显低于正常对照组大鼠,但OP与OR大鼠之间的蔗糖阈值无差异。③高脂喂养大鼠(OP与 OR)的蔗糖喜好明显高于正常对照组大鼠,而 OP与 OR大鼠之间的蔗糖喜好无差异。④高脂喂养的 OP大鼠总热量摄入明显高于 OR 大鼠,但高脂饲料喂养与正常饲料喂养的大鼠总热量摄入无差异。⑤高脂喂养的 OP 大鼠食物效率明显高于 OR大鼠及正常对照大鼠,而高脂喂养的 OR大鼠食物效率与正常对照大鼠无差异。结论高脂饮食可通过增高大鼠甜味敏感性,从而影响摄食行为并引起肥胖。%Objective To investigate the effect of high-fat diet on the sweet taste sensitivity in rats. Methods We subjected weaning male SD rats to the new feeding environment for 1 week and then fed them with high-fat diet for 2 weeks.According to the degree of weight gain,the rats were divided into obesity-prone (OP) group,obesity-resistant (OR)group and control (C)group.OP and OR rats continued to intake high-fat diet for 8 weeks,but those in control group were fed with normal diet (C-C)for 8 weeks.By applying the conditioned taste aversion (CTA)and the double-bottle experiment,we detected sucrose detection threshold and sucrose preference, and determined the

  19. Effect of feed supplementation with phytohaemagglutinin in combination with a-ketoglutarate on growth and nitrogen elimination pathways in rats with acute renal failure induced by nephrectomy

    Filip, Rafat; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    + AKG, 3) Shap-operated, 4) Sham-operated + AKG. AKG was administered via drinking water, while PHA was administered via a stomach tube. Results: Lower daily weight gain (Pintestine and total Gl tract weight (P...-operated and uraemic rats, AKG treatment led to a significant reduction in the urea levels (Pintestinal wall, apparently favouring faecal excretion, can...

  20. Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-1 and neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-2 influence differentially feeding and penile erection in male rats: sites of action in the brain.

    Melis, Maria Rosaria; Sanna, Fabrizio; Succu, Salvatora; Ferri, Gian Luca; Argiolas, Antonio

    2012-08-20

    The effect of NERP-1 and NERP-2, two recently discovered VGF-derived peptides, on feeding and penile erection was studied after injection into the lateral ventricles, the lateral hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. NERP-2 (1-5 nmol), but not NERP-1 (2-4 nmol), increased feeding in a dose-dependent manner when injected into the lateral ventricles or bilaterally into the lateral hypothalamus but not into the arcuate or the paraventricular nucleus. The effect of NERP-2 given into the lateral ventricles was found in the first, but not in the second 60 min after treatment, and was antagonized by SB-408124, an orexin-1 receptor antagonist given into the lateral ventricles or the arcuate nucleus, but not into the paraventricular nucleus. However, SB-408124 was unable to reduce NERP-2-induced feeding when injected bilaterally into the lateral hypothalamus before NERP-2 given also bilaterally into the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, NERP-1, but not NERP-2, induced penile erection in a dose-dependent manner when injected into the lateral ventricles or the arcuate nucleus, but not into the paraventricular nucleus or the lateral hypothalamus. The pro-erectile effect of NERP-1 was not prevented by the prior injection of d(CH(2))(5)Tyr (Me)(2)-Orn(8)-oxytocin or SB-408124 into the lateral ventricles. The present results suggest that while NERP-2 facilitates feeding by acting in the lateral hypothalamus, possibly by increasing orexin activity in the arcuate nucleus, NERP-1 facilitates penile erection by acting in the arcuate nucleus with a mechanism not related to orexin or oxytocin. PMID:22561139

  1. NINETY-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF CHLORAL HYDRATE IN THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered drinking water containing 300, 600, 1200, or 2400 mg/l chloral hydrate for 90 days. ontrol group recieved distilled water only. o animals died during the study and differences were observed in body weight gain or food and wate...

  2. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. in rats

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. A single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histopathological changes of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats (10 male, 10 female daily with the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 90 days. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematology, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology. The results suggest that the water extract from the dried fruits of P. nigrum does not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in either male or female rats.

  3. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus Terrestris Fruit on Some Markers of Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Diabetic Rats

    M. Roghani; S Arbab-Soleymani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic diabetes mellitus in the long run accompanies enhanced oxidative stress burden and decreases activity of antioxidant defense system. Due to significant role of these factors in development of some neurological disorders and with regard to antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT), this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of its oral administration on brain tissue level of some markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in diabetic rat...

  4. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus Terrestris Fruit on Some Markers of Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Diabetic Rats

    M Roghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diabetes mellitus in the long run accompanies enhanced oxidative stress burden and decreases activity of antioxidant defense system. Due to significant role of these factors in development of some neurological disorders and with regard to antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of its oral administration on brain tissue level of some markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, rats were divided into 4 groups, i.e. control, TT-treated control, diabetic, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was intraperitoneally administered (60mg/Kg. In addition, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 3% for 5 weeks. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitrite as well as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in brain tissue were measured at the end of the study. Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in tissue level of MDA (p<0.01 and nitrite (p<0.01 and a non-significant reduction of SOD activity. Furthermore, TT treatment significantly reduced level of MDA p<0.01 and nitrite (p<0.05. Also, SOD activity in treated-diabetic group was non-significantly higher as compared to diabetics. Conclusion: Chronic oral treatment with TT could attenuate some markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in brain tissue in diabetic rats which this could possibly prevent some neurological disorders due to enhanced oxidative stress.

  5. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    Govind Pandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

  6. EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT, BARLEY AND CORN BRAN TREATED WITH GAMMA RAYS IMPROVING BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS OXIDIZED OIL

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of adding 3 different dietary fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran) to normal balanced diet after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 20 kGy before adding cotton seed oils and boiled oil. The experimental diet was fed for 4 weeks. This study was designed to throw more light on certain biochemical and histological changes in liver of male albino rats. Rats were classified into 8 groups; control group fed on diet fibers free, group 2 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran), group 3 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers, group 4 fed on diet supplemented with 15% boiled oil, group 5 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fiber and 15% boiled oil, group 6 fed on diet supplemented with fibers and cotton seed oil 15%, group 7 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and boiled oil 15% and group 8 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and cotton seed oil 15%. Experimental investigations were carried out after 4 weeks. The results obtained revealed that extended administration of fibers and cotton seed oil has significantly minimized the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and significantly ameliorated the glutathion content. Superoxide dismutas and catalase enzymes were assayed in blood, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected. In addition, modulations of cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed through all the experiments. In rats fed on boiled oil, the data showed histological changes in liver such as tissue degeneration, lymphocyte infiltration, hepatic cell necrosis and dilation of portal spaces and blood vessels.

  7. Age ultrastructural features of sclera in intact rats

    Ulyanova N.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The absence of adequate experimental myopia model is the actual problem in pathophysiological studying of the myopia progression. Studies of the chick eye have formed the basis for several hypotheses of myopic development. The most pathogenesis reasonable myopia animal model is a form-deprivation myopia in chicks. The introduction of form-deprivation myopia animal model in mammals in particular rats, is necessary to study the dynamics of age morphological changes in sclera. Objective. To examine age-related features of the sclera in intact rats on the ultra-structural level. Methods. It was investigated the sclera ultrastructure by using electron microscopy method in intact rats at 14, 21, 30, 90 days. Results. It was set that in rats’ eyes at the age of 14-21 days the sclera presence of fibroblasts, characterizing the active generation of plastic materials, mainly on collagen. At the age of 30-90 days, the number of fibroblasts decreases and normal cells become mature look. However, practically, in all study periods, but with advantage aged 14-21 days, some of the cells are eliminated by apoptosis. At the age of 14-21 days is not formed clear scleral tissue architecture, part of the collagen fibrils stacked in bundles, part loosely arranged. At the age of 90 days, collagen scleral stroma is ordered. Conclusion. We identified a significant amount of fibroblasts decreasing, fibroblasts functional activity reduction, and collagen fibers ordering in sclera of the intact rats during the period from 14 to 90 days of postnatal ontogenesis. The highest intensity of the restructuring in the sclera is observed between 14-30 days of postnatal ontogenesis. In our opinion, this period is optimal for experimental modeling myopia in rats.

  8. Protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet determine lipid metabolism and response to high-fat feeding in rat progeny in an age-dependent manner

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Gawecki, Jan; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Tubacka, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diet during gestation can exert a long-term effect on the progeny’s health by programming their developmental scheme and metabolism. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of maternal diet on lipid metabolism in 10- and 16-week-old rats. Pregnant dams were fed one of four diets: a normal protein and normal folic acid diet (NP-NF), a protein-restricted and normal folic acid diet (PR-NF), a protein-restricted and folic-acid-supplemented diet (PR-FS), or a normal protein and ...

  9. Gas chromatographic measurement of 3- and 4-thia fatty acids incorporated into various classes of rat liver lipids during feeding experiments.

    Grav, H J; Asiedu, D K; Berge, R K

    1994-08-01

    A practical procedure is described for the quantitative measurement of the amount of acyl units derived from tetradecylthioacetic acid (effecting hypolipemia in rats) and tetradecylthiopropionic acid (effecting hyperlipidemia). The procedure involves three main successive steps: (1) extraction; (2) solid-phase lipid class separation yielding free fatty acids, phospholipids, triacylglycerides, cholesterol esters, and diacylglycerides without crosscontamination; and (3) gas chromatography of hydrolyzed lipids derivatized to picolinyl esters, combined with unambiguous identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The overall recoveries of heptadecanoyl lipids added as internal standards during extraction were 94-96%, except for cholesteryl heptadecanoate where the recovery was 60% owing to incomplete hydrolysis. Recoveries of thia fatty acids from samples spiked with these compounds were 95%. Flame-ionization response factors were found to be 0.92 and 0.81 for the tetradecylthioacetic acid and tetradecylthiopropionic acid picolinyl esters, respectively, compared to that of heptadecanoic acid. The lower limit of quantitation was 25 pmol as injected. Measurement of the amount of thia fatty acyl units in rat plasma and in liver lipids 4 h after administration of single doses by gastric intubation indicated efficient absorbtion and rapid incorporation into liver lipids, particularly in the phospholipid fraction. Both plasma clearance and channelling into lipids was slower for the 4-thia fatty acid. PMID:7952108

  10. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

    Kim, Jong-Kyu; Cho, Hae-Won; Han, Jeong-Hee; Lee, Sung-Bae; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to obtain information concerning the health hazards that may result from a 13 week inhalation exposure of n-pentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 413 'Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study (as revised in 2009)'. The rats were divided into 4 groups (10 male and 10 female rats in each group...

  11. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  13. Association between the Levels of Biogenic Amines and Superoxide Anion Production in Brain Regions of Rats after Subchronic Exposure to TCDD

    Byers, James P.; Masters, Karilane; Sarver, Jeffrey G.; Hassoun, Ezdihar A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of TCDD on the distribution of biogenic amines and production of superoxide anion (SA) in different brain regions of rats have been studied after subchronic exposure. Groups of females Sprague-Dawley rats were administered daily dose of 46 ng TCDD/kg/day (treated groups), or the vehicle used to dissolve TCDD (control group), for 90 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the exposure period and their brains were dissected into different regions including, hippocampus (H), cer...

  14. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated animal feed

    The emphasis in recent years on livestock farming as a means of increasing the availability of animal protein in India has led to a spurt in the commercial production of a variety of cattle and poultry feeds. Adverse climatic conditions have posed problems of insect infestation and spoilage due to microorganisms, for which radiation treatment of prepacked feeds could provide a solution. The wholesomeness of an irradiated (0.2 and 2.5 Mrad) diet composed of wheat, shrimp, milk powder, vegetable and oil has been investigated in long term feeding studies involving five successive generations of rats. Growth, foodintake, longevity and mortality remained comparable between control and test groups of animals. Reproductive performance as judged by fertility index, litter size and weaning index were also similar. Examination of the animals sacrified at the age of 23-24 months for gross pathological manifestations including tumor incidence did not indicate any significant differences between the control and the test groups. Judged by a variety of parameters, the rearing of rats for upto five generations on an irradiated diet had no adverse influences on their health. (author)

  15. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  16. Comparison of the effects of feeding Indian fish liver oils supplemented with or without cholesterol and bile salts on certain enzymes in liver, heart and serum of rats

    Tanksale K

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes viz. glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, cholesterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13, aspartate amino transferase (EC 2.6.1.1 and alanine amino transferase (2.6.1.2 are intimately related to lipid metabolism. Hence their activities are bound to be affected by the type of dietary fat and substances like bile salts and cholesterol which also influence the lipid metabolism. This relationship between dietary lipid constituent and enzymes was studied in albino rats maintained on diets containing three Indian Shark Liver Oils viz. Waghbeer, Khada mushi and Pisori supple-mented with or without cholesterol and bile salts, Enzyme activities were studied in liver, heart and serum. It was noted that higher unsaturation of dietary fat increased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase enzyme while activities of transaminases and chole-sterol esterase were lowered. Addition of cholesterol and bile salts to these diets decreased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase and hydrolytic activity of cholesterol esterase. There was increase in the activities of transaminases and esterifying activity of choles-terol esterase due to supplementation with cholesterol and bile salts.

  17. Long-Term Regulation of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System in the Myocardium of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats by Feeding Bioactive Peptides Derived from Spirulina platensis.

    Pan, Huanglei; She, Xingxing; Wu, Hongli; Ma, Jun; Ren, Difeng; Lu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the long-term (8 weeks) anti-hypertensive effects of 10 mg/kg tripeptides isolated from Spirulina platensis, Ile-Gln-Pro (IQP) and Val-Glu-Pro (VEP), and S. platensis hydrolysates (SH) on spontaneously hypertensive rats. The treatment period was 6 weeks, and observation continued for another 2 weeks. After treatment, weighted systolic blood pressure, weighted diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular mass index, and right ventricular mass index of groups treated with IQP, VEP, and SH were significantly lower than those of the group treated with distilled water, even when the treatments had been withdrawn for 2 weeks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting showed the mRNA expression levels and protein/peptide concentrations of the main components of the renin angiotensin system in myocardium were significantly affected by treatment: angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II, and angiotensin type 1 receptor were down-regulated, whereas angiotensin type 2 receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7), and Mas receptor were up-regulated. PMID:26245714

  18. Preventive Effects of Flaxseed and Sesame Oil on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    S. Boulbaroud; Mesfioui, A.; A. Arfaoui; A. Ouichou; A. El Hessni

    2008-01-01

    A study was designed to examine the effects of dietary flaxseed oil (FO) and sesame oil (SO) which are rich successively in n-3 and (n-9 and n-6) on biochemical parameters and histological status of bone. Sixty-four 90-day-old female wistar rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups: sham-operated rat (sham)+ control diets, ovariectomized rat (OVX))+ control diets, OVX+ 7% FO, OVX+ 7% SO, OVX+ 10% FO, OVX+ 10% SO. After 4 weeks of treatments, rats were euthanized; blood and tissues were c...

  19. In vivo evaluation of the sealing ability of two endodontic sealers in root canals exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days Avaliação, in vivo, da capacidade de selamento de dois cimentos endodônticos em canais radiculares expostos ao meio bucal por 45 e 90 dias

    Patrícia Maria Poli Kopper

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12. After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification. The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05. Group E90 (2.03±0.94 showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (pEste estudo in vivo avaliou a capacidade de selamento de um cimento endodôntico resinoso (AH Plus e um a base de óxido de zinco eugenol (Endofill, em dentes de cães, expostos ao meio bucal, por 45 e 90 dias. Foi realizado o tratamento endodôntico de 48 incisivos inferiores de 8 cães. Uma randomização estratificada determinou o tipo de cimento a ser usado em cada canal que foram tratados pela técnica de condensação lateral. Após a obturação, o excesso de material obturador, na porção cervical do canal radicular foi seccionado, restando o comprimento de 10 mm no interior do canal

  20. Effect of feeding graded doses of citrinin on apoptosis and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats through the F1 generation.

    Singh, Nittin Dev; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Dwivedi, Prabhaker; Leishangthem, Geeta Devi; Rahman, Shafiqur; Reddy, Jamuna; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the effect of graded doses of citrinin (CIT) on apoptosis and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats till F1 generation. The animals were divided into four groups comprising 25 males and 25 females each, that is, group I: 1 ppm CIT; group II: 3 ppm CIT; group III: 5 ppm CIT; and group IV was kept as a control. The male and female animals of all the groups were kept separately and were fed basal rations containing the above-mentioned concentrations of CIT for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, male and female animals of respective groups were kept for mating (one male/two females). After getting 10 pregnant females, the males were killed. These 10 pregnant females were allowed to give birth to young ones (F1 generation) naturally which were fed CIT in the above-mentioned doses till the age of 6 weeks and then were killed. Apoptosis was analysed in kidneys, liver and testes by DNA ladder pattern, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling assay and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Besides, tissue oxidative stress was also analysed. It was concluded in the present study that CIT induces its toxic effects till F1 generation, and apoptosis and oxidative stress both play a very important role in toxicity. The effect of CIT was observed in a dose-dependent manner. However, in kidneys, both the mechanisms (apoptosis and oxidative stress) play their role in inflicting renal damage, while in liver only reactive oxygen species play a major role. Finally, the CIT toxicity did not lead to apoptosis and oxidative stress in male gonads till F1 generation. PMID:24105066

  1. Vegetable Protein Sources Used as Feed

    Olimpia Colibar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effect of using some vegetal raw flours (Glycine hispida, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba, treated by autoclaving, introduced in the feeding white rats, was followed by the presented experiments. Feeding growing rats with diets containing raw grain legumes, as the main source of protein, reduce the rate of growth. This effect attenuates with the aging of rats. Inhibition of growth is the most evident in the consumption of raw beans (by 33% over the control group. Autoclaving reduces the level of anti-nutritive factors (with 0.2% - 36.73% and decreases the growth inhibition (with 10.7% - 27.51%.

  2. Effect of the ascorbic acid treatment on the NADHd-positive myenteric neurons of diabetic rats proximal colon

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni; Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira; Priscila de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the ascorbic acid on the myenteric neurons of diabetic rats proximal colon. Fifteen rats (90 days old) were divided into three groups: control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic with ascorbic acid (DA). After 120 days of daily treatment with ascorbic acid, the intestinal segments were submitted to the NADH-diaphorase (NADHd) histochemistry technique to expose the myenteric neurons. The group DA showed a higher neuronal density (33.4 %) whe...

  3. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80°C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with 60Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  4. Effect of electroacupuncture on the bio-chemical indices of bone and bone collagen metabo-lism and TNF-α in osteoporosis model rats without ovaries

    鲍圣涌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of electroacu-puncture(EA) on postmenopausal osteoporosis(PMO).Methods Sixty female SD rats aged 6 months were selected,resected double ovaries and fed for 90 days in order to make the model of experimental osteoporosis,and then,they were randomly divided into a model control group

  5. Intravitreal bevacizumab in pigmented rabbit eyes: histological analysis 90 days after injection Bevacizumabe intravítreo em olhos de coelhos não albinos: análise histológica 90 dias após a injeção

    João Carlos Diniz Arraes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate bevacizumab toxicity in neurosensorial retina and retinal pigment epithelium in pigmented rabbit eyes by means of histological studies. METHODS: Thirty eyes of fifteen rabbits were distributed into three groups: sham group (S, that received a 0.1 ml balanced saline solution (BSS intravitreal injection (10 eyes; group 1, that received a 1.25 mg (0.1 ml bevacizumab intravitreal injection (10 eyes; and group 2, that received a 2.5 mg (0.1 ml bevacizumab intravitreal injection (10 eyes. Rabbits were sacrificed 90 days after the procedure and both eyes of each rabbit were enucleated. A histological examination of neurosensorial retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE was performed. Its morphological features and layer thickness were also analyzed. RESULTS: No histological differences in neurosensorial retina or in retinal pigmented epithelium were found and layer thickness did not differ significantly between balanced saline solution-injected eyes and bevacizumab-injected eyes. CONCLUSION: After a 90-day follow-up period, a single 1.25 or 2.5 mg bevacizumab intravitreal injection did not lead to toxic damage in the neurosensorial retina and retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rabbit eyes, and it appears to be a safe procedure for retinal neovascular diseases.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a toxicidade do bevacizumabe na retina neurossensorial e epitélio pigmentado da retina (EPR em olhos de coelhos não albinos pelos estudos histológicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta olhos de 15 coelhos foram distribuídos em três grupos: 10 olhos no grupo placebo (P, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 0,1 ml de solução salina balanceada (SSB; 10 olhos no grupo 1, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 1,25 mg (0,1 ml de bevacizumabe; e 10 olhos no grupo 2, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 2,5 mg (0,1 ml de bevacizumabe. Os coelhos tiveram seus dois olhos enucleados sob anestesia geral e submetidos à eutanásia 90 dias após a inje

  6. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    Govind Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for c...

  7. Safety assessment of non-animal chondroitin sulfate sodium: Subchronic study in rats, genotoxicity tests and human bioavailability.

    Miraglia, Niccolò; Bianchi, Davide; Trentin, Antonella; Volpi, Nicola; Soni, Madhu G

    2016-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate, an amino sugar polymer made of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-galactosamine, is used in dietary supplements to promote joint health. Commonly used chondroitin sulfate is of animal origin and can pose potential safety problems including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of microbial derived chondroitin sulfate sodium (CSS) in subchronic toxicity, genotoxicity and bioavailability studies. In the toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were gavaged with CSS at dose levels of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90-days. No mortality or significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, body weight gain or feed consumption were noted. Similarly, no toxicologically relevant treatment-related changes in hematological, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and organ weights were noted. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. In vitro mutagenic and clastogenic potentials as evaluated by Ames assay, chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay did not reveal genotoxicity of CSS. In pharmacokinetic study in human, CSS showed higher absorption as compared to chondroitin sulfate of animal origin. The results of subchronic toxicity study supports the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for CSS as 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. PMID:27108107

  8. Pulmonary emphysema induced by passive smoking: an experimental study in rats

    Cendon S.P.; Battlehner C.; Lorenzi-Filho G.; Dohlnikoff M.; Pereira P.M.; Conceição G.M.S.; Beppu O.S.; Saldiva P.H.N.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a short time model for inducing experimental emphysema in rats by chronic tobacco smoke inhalation. Three groups of male Wistar rats (6 months old) were studied: controls (N = 8), rats intoxicated for 45 days (s-45, N = 7) or for 90 days (s-90, N = 8). The exposed animals were intoxicated 3 times a day (10 cigarettes per exposure period), 5 days a week. Pulmonary damage was assessed by means of functional tests and quantitative pathological examination of the airways and lung pare...

  9. Chlorpyrifos -induced testicular damage in rats: The effect of glutathione antioxidant

    N.A. El-Nisr; E. E. Elsharkawy; D. Yahia

    2012-01-01

      This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of adult rat exposed to Chlorpyriphos (CPF). CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days/ twice/ weekly. Co- administration of water soluble non enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) was given in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, oral, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismut...

  10. Structural Changes of the Testis and Changes in Semen Quality Parameters Caused by Intraperitoneal and Peroral Administration of Selenium in Rats

    Michal Cabaj; Róbert Toman; Mária Adamkovičová; Peter Massányi; Svätoslav Hluchý; Norbert Lukáč; Jozef Golian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the structural changes in the testis and semen quality parameters of rat after a singleintraperitoneal and repeated peroral selenium administration. Rats were killed 36 hours following the intraperitonealadministration of selenium selenite (2 mg.kg-1 b.w.; 98% purity) and after 90 days of the peroral repeatedadministration of selenium in drinking water (5 mg.l-1). Testis samples were evaluated by histological andmorphometrical methods in light microscopy. Eva...

  11. Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Maria Gabriella Gentile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1 to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2 to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001. Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.

  12. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  13. Depletion of selected polychlorodibenzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans in farmed trout exposed to contaminated feeds

    Brambilla, G.; Dellatte, E.; Fochi, I.; Iacovella, N.; Domenico, A. di [Dept. Food Safety and Animal Health, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)]|[Dept. Environment and Primary Health Care, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Farmed fish can bioaccumulate persistent toxic substances when fed on animal-based fat feeds. This fact has recently prompted a re-evaluation of the overall toxicological risk associated with contamination levels recorded in farmed vs. wild salmons. The bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in farmed trout has recently been described nevertheless, poor information is available about their depletion under controlled conditions. In this paper, the results of a 90-day depletion study in groups of trout exposed to three different levels of feed contamination for 30 days are reported. As a follow-up of a PCB depletion study the present paper aims at giving indications for risk management in fish farming practices, to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the produce intended for human consumption.

  14. Evaluation of the oral subchronic toxicity of AHTN (7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in the rat.

    Api, Anne Marie; Smith, Robert L; Pipino, Sandra; Marczylo, Timothy; De Matteis, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) is used as a fragrance material in a wide variety of consumer products. Because of its widespread exposure, a 90-day oral feeding study, with 4-week recovery periods for selected rats, was conducted. AHTN was added to the diet of rats at levels calculated to result in mean daily doses of 1.5, 5, 15 or 50 mg AHTN/kg body weight/day. On completion of the treatment period, 3 males and 3 females from each of the high dose groups and controls were maintained for a treatment free period of 4 weeks. There were no adverse effects revealed upon clinical examination or following extensive histopathological examinations. Histopathological examination of the prostate, seminal vesicles, mammary gland and testes of males and ovaries, mammary gland, uterus and vagina of females, undertaken on all animals in all test groups, revealed no evidence of hormonal effects of AHTN. A statistically significant decrease in body weight gain was observed in both sexes in the high dose group only. Statistically significant effects were observed in hematology and blood chemistry, although these effects were all within the range for historical controls and were not proportional to dose. A green to dark brown coloration in the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes was also seen in high dose animals. At the end of the treatment-free period, the color change was almost completely reversed; one high dose male still had green colored lymph nodes, but the liver appeared normal. A green coloration of the lacrimal glands in females, but not males, was also seen in 8/12, 4/15 and in 1 female given 50, 15 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. This green color was still present in 2/3 of the high dose females after the treatment-free period. Microscopic examination of unstained sections of frozen livers under UV illumination did not reveal any fluorescence that might have been consistent with porphyrin accumulation. These findings were

  15. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  16. Sodium arsenate induce changes in fatty acids profiles and oxidative damage in kidney of rats.

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Dhibi, Madiha; Mekni, Manel; Haouas, Zohra; Chreif, Imed; Neffati, Fadoua; Hammami, Mohamed; Sakly, Rachid

    2014-10-01

    Six groups of rats (n = 10 per group) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg/l of sodium arsenate for 45 and 90 days. Kidneys from treated groups exposed to arsenic showed higher levels of trans isomers of oleic and linoleic acids as trans C181n-9, trans C18:1n-11, and trans C18:2n-6 isomers. However, a significant decrease in eicosenoic (C20:1n-9) and arachidonic (C20:4n-6) acids were observed in treated rats. Moreover, the "Δ5 desaturase index" and the saturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio were increased. There was a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde at 10 mg/l of treatment and in the amount of conjugated dienes after 90 days (p < 0.05). Significant kidney damage was observed at 10 mg/l by increase of plasma marker enzymes. Histological studies on the ultrastructure changes of kidney supported the toxic effect of arsenate exposure. Arsenate intoxication activates significantly the superoxide dismutase at 10 mg/l for 90 days, whereas the catalase activity was markedly inhibited in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly increased at 45 days and dramatically declined after 90 days at 10 mg/l (p < 0.05). A significant increase in the level of glutathione was marked for the groups treated for 45 and 90 days at 1 mg/l followed by a significant decrease for rats exposed to 10 mg/l for 90 days. An increase in the level of protein carbonyl was observed in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for a direct effect of arsenate on fatty acid (FA) metabolism which concerns the synthesis pathway of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and leads to an increase in the trans FAs isomers. Therefore, FA-induced arsenate kidney damage could contribute to trigger kidney cancer. PMID:24920263

  17. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  18. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  19. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane;

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait. In Fe...

  20. 高脂与高果糖喂养大鼠对骨骼肌脂代谢相关蛋白基因表达的影响%Influence of High-Fat Feeding and High-Fructose Feeding on the Gene Expressions of Lipid-Metabolism-Related Enzymes in Skeletal Muscles of Rats

    任路平; 陈树春; 宋光耀; 李凡; 孙文; 彭兰博

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of two different dietary factors on muscle lipid metabolism by observing the changes in gene expressions of lipid - metabolism - related enzymes in muscle tissue in both high - fat fed mice and high -fructose fed mice. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, high - fat group and high - fructose group, with each group being fed for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglyceride ( TG ) in muscle tissues were measured in 3 groups. Glucose input rate ( GIR ) was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study. The gene expressions of lipid -transportation -related enzymes: lipoprotein lipase ( LPL ), fatty acid translocase CD36 ( FAT/ CD36 ); lipid - synthesis - related proteins: sterol regulatory element binding protein - 1 c ( SREBP - 1 c ), fatty acid synthase ( FAS ), acytel CoA carboxylase ( ACC ), stearoyl - CoA desaturase 1 ( SCD - 1 ) and lipid - oxidation - related proteins: carnitine palmitoyltrans-ferase - 1(3 ( CPT I (3 ), uncoupling protein 3 ( UCP3 ) in muscle tissues were also detected. Results Compared with control group, blood glucose, plasma insulin, and TG content in muscle tissues were significantly increased while GIR was significantly decreased in both high -fat group and high -fructose group ( P <0. 05 ) . Compared with control group, the gene expressions of LPL, FAT/ CD36, SREBP - 1 c, FAS, ACC and SCD - 1 in muscle were significantly increased in high - fat group and high -fructose group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Meanwhile, the gene expressions of CPT I (3 and UCP3 were significantly increased ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Whole - body insulin resistance, muscle triglyceride accumulation can be induced by both high - fat feeding and high - fructose feeding. Lipid accumulation in muscle is associated with the increased gene expressions of lipid - transportation -related and lipid -synthesis -related proteins. The gene expressions of lipid -oxidation -related proteins were also

  1. Development of Wideband Feed

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  2. Ontogeny of alpha-amylase circadian rhythms in rat parotid gland.

    Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Bellavia, S L

    1986-01-01

    The content of alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1.) and total soluble proteins of parotid glands (from rats exposed to a photoperiod of 14 hr light: 10 hr dark), have been determined every 2 or 3 hr over 24 hr periods in 15, 25 and 90-day-old rats. In 35-, 45- and 72-day-old rats, determinations were performed only at 0100 and 1400 hr. The alpha-amylase and total soluble protein contents from 90-day-old rats show a circadian variation, with a maximum value at 2200 hr and a minimum at 1400 hr. Parotids from 15- and 25-day-old rats also show a circadian rhythm. The minimum value is recorded at 0100 hr and the maximum at 1400 hr. At day 35 and after, there is an inversion of the amylase rhythm. In immature rats, it appears that alpha-amylase and soluble protein are under the influence of another synchronizer, whose timing is independent of that imposed by mastication of solid food. PMID:2878787

  3. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  4. NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) (CAS No. 50-81-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).

    1983-03-01

    L-Ascorbic acid is essential for many physiologic functions in animals and humans, mostly biochemical reactions involving oxidation. L-Ascorbic acid is approved for use as a dietary supplement and chemical preservative by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is on the FDA's list of substances generally recognized as safe. L-Ascorbic acid may be used in soft drinks as an antioxidant for flavor ingredients, in meat and meat-containing products, for curing and pickling, in flour to improve baking quality, in beer as a stabilizer, in fats and oils as an antioxidant, and in a wide variety of foods for vitamin C enrichment. L-Ascorbic acid may also find use in stain removers, hair waving preparations; plastics manufacture, photography, and water treatment. A NTP Carcinogenesis bioassay of L-ascorbic acid (>97% pure) was conducted by administering diets containing 25,000 or 50,000 ppm L-ascorbic acid to groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 103 weeks. Controls consisted of 50 untreated rats and untreated mice of each sex. Fifty-thousand ppm is the highest dose recommended for chronic studies. Survival of dosed and control female rats and of dosed and control female mice were comparable. Survival of high-dose male rats was slightly greater than that of the controls (P=0.087). Survival of high-dose male mice was significantly greater (P=0.009) than that of the controls. Throughout most of the study, mean body weights of dosed female rats and dosed female mice were lower than those of the controls. Final body weights were comparable among groups, except for the high-dose female rats (0.07) than those in the controls, the trend test was not significant (P>/=0.07), and no increases were observed for male rats. Under the conditions of this bioassay, L-ascorbic acid was not carcinogenic for male and female F344/N rats or male and female B6C3F1 mice. Levels of Evidence of Carcinogenicity: Male Rats: Negative Female Rats: Negative Male Mice: Negative

  5. Prevention and control of pneumonia induced by 60Co γ irradiation of thorax in rats of selenium-enriched Spirulina

    From the indicators including body weight, wet lung weight, percentage of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood, the cell count of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and its chemoluminescence, contents of hydroxyproline and collagen mRNA synthesis in lung, and pathological changes in pulmonary tissue, the preventive and curative effects of selenium-enriched Spirulina on the pneumonia induced by 60Co γ irradiation of thorax in rats were demonstrated during 90 days of observation

  6. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk

    The transfer of 137Cs, 85Sr, 131I, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 85Sr and 131I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10−4, (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10−2, (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10−4, (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10−4, (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10−4 and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10−3 d L−1 for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, and 238U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. - Highlights: • Estimated Fm values for Sr, Cs, Pb, Po tend to be lower compared to other milk producing domestic animals. • The Fm values would help to predict ingestion dose to the general public due to intake of radionuclides through camel. • Estimated half-lives for artificial radionuclides were shorter than those for natural radionuclides. • The data obtained in the study can be considered as the first published data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk

  7. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  8. Feeding Your Teen Vegetarian

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Feeding Your Teen Vegetarian By Mindy Hermann, MBA, RD Published July ... fries, soft drinks, desserts and candy. Have Your Teen Help "A vegetarian meal can be a healthy ...

  9. Transition feeding of sows

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially...... feeding practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  10. Probiotic in Ruminant Feed

    Dicky Pamungkas; Yenny Nur Anggraeni

    2006-01-01

    The technology development of ruminant feed is related to the effort of fulfilling the nutrient requirement for maintenance and production of rumen microbes and optimizing the protein synthesis of rumen microbes, hence improving the animal production . Probiotic is widely used in feed to avoid the negative effect of antibiotic after therapeutic treatment and to be used as growth promoter . This paper describes the concept of probiotic, selection of microbes for probiotic, the benefit, the eff...

  11. Erectile Dysfunction in Rats with Diabetes Induced by High-lipid Feeding and Low-dose Streptozotocin Injection%高脂饮食联合小剂量链脲佐菌素注射制备糖尿病大鼠模型勃起功能研究

    乐岭; 陈璐璐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the erectile dysfunction in rats with diabetes induced by high-lipid feeding and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) intra-abdominal injection. Methods Sixty 6-week old healthy male Wistar rats with normal e-rectile function were randomly divided into diabetic group (50 rats) and control group (10 rats, normal diet feeding). After eight weeks of high-lipid diet feeding, the diabetic model group accepted intra-abdominal injection of STZ, 35 mg/kg. At the ninth week, the tail vein blood was sampled to test the fasting glucose and lipid profile (low-intensity lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) and the fasting plasma insulin. Apomorphine (APO) function test was performed to test the erectile function. Results After 8-week of high-lipid diet feeding, the weight of rats was significant increased. After injecting STZ, the blood gluscose of the diabetic group (increased to (14. 8 ± 3. 9) mmol/L), the serum insulin (decreased to (4. 3 ± 0. 7) uIU/L) and the insulin resistance index were all significantly different from those of the control group (P <0. 05). Serum triglyceride and low-intensity lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in diabetic group than those in control group (P<0. 05). There was no obivous change of the erectile function in normal group and the erection rate was 100%. In diabetic group, 1 rat died after STZ injection, 24 rats showed erection and the erectile rate (48. 9%) was significantly lower than that in normal group. Conclusion Diabetes rats induced by high-lipid feeding and low-dose STZ intra-abdominal injection have increased glucose, insulin resistance and erectile dysfunction, which can be utilized as the the model of type 2 diabetes complicated with erectile dysfunction.%目的 研究高脂喂养联合小剂量链脲佐菌素注射制备的糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)大鼠的勃起功能.方法 60只6周龄,勃起功能正常的SD大鼠随机分为对照组(10只)和实验组(50只).实验组高脂喂养8周

  12. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    C. Lubaczeuski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight or saline [control (CTL group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups. The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca2+ mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  13. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca2+ mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats

  14. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M. [Laboratório de Pâncreas Endócrino e Metabolismo, Departamento de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bonfleur, M.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  15. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  16. Effects of sodium arsenate exposure on liver fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress in rats.

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Dhibi, Madiha; Haouas, Zohra; Chreif, Imed; Neffati, Fadoua; Hammami, Mohamed; Sakly, Rachid

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of arsenic on liver fatty acids (FA) composition, hepatotoxicity and oxidative status markers in rats. Male rats were randomly devised to six groups (n=10 per group) and exposed to sodium arsenate at a dose of 1 and 10 mg/l for 45 and 90 days. Arsenate exposure is associated with significant changes in the FA composition in liver. A significant increase of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all treated groups (p<0.01) and trans unsaturated fatty acids (trans UFA) in rats exposed both for short term for 10 mg/l (p<0.05) and long term for 1 and 10 mg/l (p<0.001) was observed. However, the cis UFA were significantly decreased in these groups (p<0.05). A markedly increase of indicator in cell membrane viscosity expressed as SFA/UFA was reported in the treated groups (p<0.001). A significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde by 38.3 % after 90 days of exposure at 10 mg/l was observed. Compared to control rats, significant liver damage was observed at 10 mg/l of arsenate by increasing plasma marker enzymes after 90 days. It is through the histological investigations in hepatic tissues of exposed rats that these damage effects of arsenate were confirmed. The antioxidant perturbations were observed to be more important at groups treated by the high dose (p<0.05). An increase in the level of protein carbonyls was observed in all treated groups (p<0.05). The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of arsenite on FA composition disturbance causing an increase of SFA and TFAs isomers, liver dysfunction and oxidative stress. Therefore, arsenate can lead to hepatic damage and propensity towards liver cancer. PMID:23949113

  17. Effects of High-fructose Feeding on Islet Function and Glucose Regulated Protein78 of Rats%高果糖饮食对大鼠胰岛功能和胰岛葡萄糖调节蛋白78的影响

    赵永才; 任路平; 宋光耀; 王超

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of early islet function and glucose-regulated protein78 (GRP78) of insulin resistance rats induced by high-fructose feeding. Methods A total of 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=18) and high-fructose feeding group (n=18), and were fed with common diet and high-fructose di-et respectively for 8 weeks. The related indexes were detected, and islet function was evaluated by calculating values of ho-meostasis model assessment insulin resistance ( HOMA-IR) , HOMA-βand△I30/△G30 using oral glucose tolerance test ( OGTT) in rats. The GRP78 protein levels were detected by isolating and purifying islets of the rats. Results Compared with those in control group, in high-fructose group, levels of fasting serum insulin, proinsulin, triglyceride ( TG) and HO-MA-IR and islet GRP78 protein expression were significantly higher (P0. 01 ) . Conclusion The high-fructose feeding for 8 weeks can induce early islet dysfunction and can increase GRP78 protein expression in rats, and islet dysfunction may relate to endoplasmic reticulum stress.%目的:高果糖饮食所致的胰岛素抵抗大鼠早期胰岛功能和胰岛葡萄糖调节蛋白78( glucose related pro-tein78,GRP78)的变化。方法雄性Wistar大鼠36只随机分为对照组和高果糖组,每组18只,分别给予正常饲料和高果糖饲料喂养8周,测定相关指标,并应用口服葡萄糖耐量试验( OGTT)测定血糖和血胰岛素计算稳态模型胰岛素抵抗指数( HOMA-IR)、稳态模型胰岛素分泌指数( HOMA-β)和口服葡萄糖后30 min胰岛素增量和血糖增量比值(△I30/△G30)评价胰岛功能。分离和纯化大鼠胰岛测定GRP78蛋白水平。结果与对照组相比,高果糖组空腹胰岛素、胰岛素原、血甘油三酯以及HOMA-IR均明显升高(P均0.01)。与对照组相比,高果糖组胰岛GRP78蛋白表达明显增加( P<0.01)。结论高果糖喂养8周导致 Wistar大鼠出现早期胰

  18. Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats

    A. Chambô-Filho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

  19. Ionizing radiation effect on sensory changes in feeds with respect to their usability by dogs

    To evaluate the effect of ionizing radiatin on sensory changes in feeds, four groups of experimental animals were formed. Two groups were fed a ration where the main component (meat feed mixture VETACAN and loose feed mixture VETAVIT) was irradiated with 60Co to a dose of 25 kGy/kg for a period of 90 days. In the remaining two groups a non-irradited ration was used for the same period. For both diets, control groups of dogs were formed and the feed ration was biologically fortified with a vitamin-mineral supplement to the physiological standard. The observations showed that the effect of radiation caused a significant qualitative decrease in the level of energy nutrients, particularly in proteins and lipids. It is assumed that the extent of damage of the lipid fraction is also accompanied by deficient vitamin activity and by significant changes in taste and aromatic properties felt by animals. Irradiation of the feed ration caused a significant 20 to 25% decrease in food intake with a subsequent decrease in live weight and deterioration of physical condition. Irradiated diets without biological fortification caused significant losses of weight from the initial value x-bar = 39.5 kg to x-bar = 35.33 kg, in comparison with the non-irradiated rations through which the live weight was stabilized, and at biological fortification positively influenced. Irradiation of the feed ration during the period of study did not cause a response of the organism displayed by changes in the pysiological values of body temperature and heart and respiration rates in experimental animals. Radiosterilization of feeds any significant decrease in training ability and performance of the dogs. (author)

  20. Permissive underfeeding versus target enteral feeding in adult critically ill patients (PermiT Trial: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Arabi Yaseen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional support is an essential part of the management of critically ill patients. However, optimal caloric intake has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to compare two strategies of enteral feeding: permissive underfeeding versus target feeding. Method/Design This is an international multi-center randomized controlled trial in critically ill medical- surgical adult patients. Using a centralized allocation, 862 patients will be randomized to permissive underfeeding or target feeding. Patients in the permissive group receive 50% (acceptable range is 40% to 60% of the calculated caloric requirement, while those in the targeted group receive 100% (acceptable range 70% to 100% of the calculated caloric requirement. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, 28-day, and 180-day mortality as well as health care-associated infections, organ failure, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The trial has 80% power to detect an 8% absolute reduction in 90-day mortality assuming a baseline risk of death of 25% at an alpha level of 0.05. Discussion Patient recruitment started in November 2009 and is currently active in five centers. The Data Monitoring Committee advised continuation of the trial after the first interim analysis. The study is expected to finish by November 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68144998

  1. Hemorrhagic shock influence on colonic anastomoses in rats: evaluation of rupture by liquid distension resistance test Influência do choque hemorrágico na anastomose de cólon em ratos: avaliação com teste de resistência à pressão de ruptura

    Yara Ematne Amaral Pereira; João José Fagundes; Rosana Celestina Morandini; Maria de Lourdes Setsuko Ayrizono; Ricardo Bolzam do Nascimento; Raquel Franco Leal; Juvenal Ricardo Navarro Góes; Mario Mantovani; Claudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of hemorrhagic shock in colonic anastomoses in rats, with a rupture by liquid distension resistance test. METHODS: Wistar lineage rats, averaging 90 days old and weighing from 310 to 380 grams were divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), 10 animals were submitted to colonic anastomoses in normovolemic terms and the second group (G2), of 10 animals, was submitted to colonic anastomoses in hypovolemic conditions. The shock was caused by half milliliter ...

  2. Effect of fluoride and gonadal steroid deficiency on enamel and dentin mineralization of female rats Efeito do fluoreto e da deficiência de esteróides gonadais sobre a mineralização de esmalte e dentina de ratas

    Eliana Mitsue Takeshita; Sayaka Iwama; Tatiana Correa da Silva; Rita Cássia Menegatti Dornelles; Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem; Kikue Takebayashi Sassaki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of estrogen deficiency on enamel and dentin microhardness of female rats' incisors, as well as the influence of chronic administration of fluoride on that response. Sham or OVX rats drank distilled water or distilled water with 10 ppm fluoride as NaF, for 90 days. The upper incisors were removed and the specimens submitted to microhardness analysis of enamel and dentin. The data were compared by variance analysis and Tukey's test (p

  3. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  4. Hematological alterations in diabetic rats

    Mahmoud, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction in adipocytes is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-associated anemia has been reported due to the increased non-enzymatic glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins, which correlates with hyperglycemia. The present study was hypothesized to assess the effect of citrus flavonoids on hematological parameters and adipose tissue interleukin-6 and adiponectin in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with a high fat diet for 2 weeks follow...

  5. Capsaicin treatment differentially affects feeding suppression by bombesin-like peptides

    Ladenheim, Ellen E; Knipp, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral administration of bombesin (BN) and the related mammalian peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB), suppress food intake in rats. To examine whether all BN-like peptides utilize the same neural pathways to reduce feeding, rats were treated on postnatal day 2 with the injection vehicle or capsaicin, a neurotoxin that damages a subset of visceral afferent fibers. When rats reached adulthood, we compared the ability of a dose range of systemically administered ...

  6. The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    Galarce, Ezequiel M.; McDannald, Michael A; Holland, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete “interruption” stimulus and the unexpected termination of food trials, sated rats show enhanced food consumption when exposed to that ...

  7. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  8. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  9. Enhanced post-ischemic neurogenesis in aging rats

    EdwardPreston

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g. by irradiation in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10-13 months old rats, cell production can be restored towards the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35 and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age.

  10. Effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in split-dose streptozotocin induced neonatal rat model: a chronic study

    I. Mohammed Salman; Md. Naseeruddin Inamdar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus using n-STZ rat model on a long term basis. Methods: The diabetic model was developed using a split dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on 2nd and 3rd postnatal days. The diabetic rats were treated orally with gliclazide suspension at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 90 days. Cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure, heart ra...

  11. Protective role of Nigella sativa against experimentally induced type-II diabetic nuclear damage in Wistar rats

    T. J. Sheikh; D. V. Joshi; B. J. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To identify the anti-mutagenic effect of Nigella sativa on the experimentally induced chronic diabetes (type – II) in Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: The anti-mutagenic effect was evaluated in Nigella sativa treated diabetic rats against the streptozotocin - nicotinamide (STZ-NA) (at a dose rate of 45-110 i.p mg/kg b.wt for 90 days) induced type-II diabetes mellitus using bone marrow micronucleus tests. The antioxidant status was tested by estimating the serum levels of lipid peroxida...

  12. Feed sources for livestock

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  13. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth Performance and Survival Rate of Angel Fish, Pterophyllum scalare (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Milad Kasiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823 is South American cichlid become very popular among aquarists. There is little information on their culture and aquarium husbandry. In this study growth performance and survival rate of angelfish subjected to different feeding frequencies were evaluated. Four groups of angel fish juveniles (0.87 ± 0.01 g; 3.98 ± 0.08 mm were fed either four meals per day (F1, two meals per day (F2, one meal per day (F3 and every other day (F4 for 90 days. Final live weight and specific growth rate (SGR values of group F1 and F2 were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P 0.05 in survival rate among the treatments. The best feed conversion ration (FCR was obtained from four daily feeding (F1 (P 0.05 among experimental groups. In conclusion, the best results in growth performance were obtained by feeding four meals per day (F1 and two meals per day (F2, so they were recommended for angel fish feeding.

  14. Biocompatibility of RealSeal, its primer and AH Plus implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study tested rat connective tissue response to RealSeal, RealSeal primer or AH Plus after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats had subcutaneous sockets created on their back and received four implants each of polyethylene tubes containing one of the materials tested according to the groups: AH (AH Plus Sealer; RS (RealSeal Sealer; RP (RealSeal Primer; CG (control group - empty tube. After histological processing, sections were analyzed to identify the presence of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils, macrophages and giant cells, as well as fibrous capsule and abscesses, by an examiner using light microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparisons test were used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate scores significantly higher than those of the control group were observed at 14 and 60 days in AH group, and at 90 days in RS group (p<0.05. There were no differences in terms of presence of macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils or fibrosis. AH Plus group scored higher for abscesses at 7 days than after any other period (p=0.031. RP group scored higher for lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at 14 days than at 90 days (p=0.04. CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study was to demonstrate that issues involved with tissue tolerance of a Resilon-containing sealer, RealSeal Sealer, cannot be attributed to its primer content.

  15. Chlorpyrifos -induced testicular damage in rats: The effect of glutathione antioxidant

    N.A. El-Nisr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available   This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of adult rat exposed to Chlorpyriphos (CPF. CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days/ twice/ weekly. Co- administration of water soluble non enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH was given in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, oral, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone hormone level in the serum was significantly decreased. The decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Co-dministration of GSH restored these parameters.

  16. Chlorpyrifos induced testicular damage in rats: ameliorative effect of glutathione antioxidant.

    Elsharkawy, Eman E; Yahia, Doha; El-Nisr, Neveen A

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days, twice weekly. Coadministration of water-soluble nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) was performed in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and GSH reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone level in the serum was significantly decreased. A decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Coadministration of GSH restored these parameters. PMID:23172834

  17. Melter feed system 3-way feed valve Auma motorized operator

    This document discusses the Scale Melter currently testing feed systems. One component of that system is a valve operator, which directs the feed slurry or flush water through the 3-way ball valve to the melter. This valve operator may be causing problems on the TNX Scale Melter by failing to accurately align the feed valve ports

  18. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the rat endometrium.

    Martinez, Marcelo; Milton, Flora A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Almeida-Francia, Camila C D; Cagnon-Quitete, Valeria H A; Tirapelli, Luiz F; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We described the effects of low- and high-dose ethanol intake on the structure and apoptosis signaling of the uterine endometrium of UChA and UChB rats (animals with voluntary ethanol consumption). Thirty adult female rats, 90 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): UChA rats fed with 10% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum (free choice for water or ethanol) drinking water or ethanol) drinking from 2 to 5 g/kg/day; control rats without ethanol (only water). After 120 days of treatment, rats displaying estrus were euthanized. Uterine epithelial cells of the UCh rats showed dilated cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, presence of lipid droplets, altered nuclear chromatin, and disrupted mitochondria. The UCh rats exhibited intense atrophied epithelial cells with smaller areas and perimeters of cytoplasm and nuclei. The endometrium of UChA rats showed higher levels of caspase-3 while Xiap and Bcl2 varied from moderate to weak. Both UChA and UChB rats exhibited a stronger immunoreaction to Ki-67 and IGFR-1 on epithelial and stromal cells. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the uterine endometrium of UCh rats, regardless of low- or high-dose consumption, promoting reproductive disorders. PMID:27139238

  19. Anti-osteoporotic Activity of the Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. in Ovariectomized Wistar Rats

    Huban Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Cissus quadrangularis (CQ is used as an osteoprotective agent inAyurveda, the Indian system of alternative medicine. The present study wasdone to validate the anti-osteoporotic role of the petroleum ether extract ofCQ on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.Methods: Female wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each; (1 TheNormal control (NC group (n = 6 received no surgery and no treatment,(2. The Sham control (SHAM group (n = 6 received sham surgery but notreatment, (3 the Ovariectomized (OVX group (n = 6 received an ovariectomyand normal saline treatment for 90 days, (4 the Ovariectomized +raloxifene (OVX + RAL group (n = 6 received an ovariectomy and treatmentwith raloxifene, a known anti-osteoporotic agent for 90 days commencingfrom 22nd post ovariectomy day and (5 the Ovariectomy + Cissus quadrangularis(OVX + CQ group (n = 6 received an ovariectomy, and treatmentwith the petroleum ether extract of CQ 500 mg/kg body weight dailyfor 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day. At the end of thetreatment period, rats in all groups were sacrificed and the right femur wasused for biomechanical analysis, and the left femur for histomorphometricalanalysis.Results: CQ significantly increased the force required to break the femur (p < 0.001and significantly increased the thickness of both cortical (p < 0.001 and trabecularbone (p < 0.001. This action of CQ was comparable to the action ofraloxifene.Conclusions: The petroleum ether extract of CQ stem seems to possess anti-osteoporoticactivity in rats.

  20. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    therefore perform occasional upward repositioning jumps. We quantified the fluid disturbance generated by repositioning jumps in a millimetre-sized copepod (Re ∼ 40). The kick of the swimming legs generates a viscous vortex ring in the wake; another ring of similar intensity but opposite rotation is formed...... around the decelerating copepod. A simple analytical model, that of an impulsive point force, properly describes the observed flow field as a function of the momentum of the copepod, including the translation of the vortex and its spatial extension and temporal decay. We show that the time-averaged fluid...... signal and the consequent predation risk is much less for an ambush-feeding than a cruising or hovering copepod for small individuals, while the reverse is true for individuals larger than about 1 mm. This makes inefficient ambush feeding feasible in small copepods, and is consistent with the observation...

  1. A History of Infant Feeding

    Stevens, Emily E.; Patrick, Thelma E.; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the adverti...

  2. Feeding the City

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  3. Feed sources for livestock

    Zanten, van, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  4. Residual Feed Intake

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  5. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  6. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  7. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  8. 转FBP7-iaaM基因棉籽对大鼠蛋白质和脂肪及钙吸收利用率的影响%Influence of absorption availability of protein, fat and calcium in rats by feeding genetically modified cottonseed with FBP7-iaaM gene

    曾强; 王静; 赵岩; 姜文玲; 李瑞

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究喂饲转FBP7-iaaM基因棉籽对大鼠主要营养素(蛋白质、脂肪和钙)吸收利用率的影响.方法 将60只Wistar大鼠随机分为3组,即转基因组(饲料中转FBP7-iaaM基因棉籽含量为5%)、亲本组(饲料中亲本对照冀棉14棉籽含量为5%)和饲以常规饲料的对照组,每组20只,雌雄各半,均喂养14d,比较各组大鼠蛋白质功效比值,蛋白质、脂肪、钙的表观消化率等情况.结果 两性别转基因组、亲本组大鼠的蛋白质、脂肪的表观消化率及雌性大鼠钙的表观消化率均高于对照组(P<0.01),但转基因组与亲本组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);转基因组、亲本组雄性大鼠的蛋白质功效比值均高于对照组,但差别无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 喂饲转FBP7-iaaM基因棉籽和亲本对照棉籽对大鼠蛋白质、脂肪吸收利用率基本具有实质等同性.%Objective To study the effect of genetically modified(GM) cottonseed with FBP7-iaaM gene on main nutrients (protein, fat, calcium) absorption availability of rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups, one transgenic cottonseed group, one parent strain control cottonseed group, one feed control group. The rats were fed with corresponding food for 14 days. The apparents digestibility of protein, fat, calcium and the protein efficiency ratio were observed. Results The apparents digestion rate of protein,fat in male and female and calcium in female in GM group and parent control group were higher than those of feed control group (P0.05). Conclusion There was substantial-equivalent in absorption availability of the main nutrients (protein, fat) between transgenic cottonseed and its parent strain control cottonseed in rats.

  9. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  10. First feeding of larval herring

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    , visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage. In......The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk...... the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower...

  11. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  12. Radiation pasteurization of poultry feed: Preliminary results of feeding tests

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as a vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it would directly offset the cost of treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed. 10 refs, 8 tabs

  13. Learning Teaching (LT) Program: Developing an Effective Teacher Feedback System. 90-Day Cycle Report

    Park,Sandra; Takahashi, Sola; White, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Early career teachers make up an increasingly large proportion of the public school teaching force. Often less effective and facing greater challenges than their more experienced counterparts, new teachers tend to leave the profession at high rates and, given that the modal length of teaching experience has now dropped to one year, finding ways to…

  14. C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Predicts 90-Day Mortality of Septic Patients

    Ranzani, Otavio T.; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Forte, Daniel Neves; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Park, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Residual inflammation at ICU discharge may have impact upon long-term mortality. However, the significance of ongoing inflammation on mortality after ICU discharge is poorly described. C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin are measured frequently in the ICU and exhibit opposing patterns during inflammation. Since infection is a potent trigger of inflammation, we hypothesized that CRP levels at discharge would correlate with long-term mortality in septic patients and that the CRP/a...

  15. Zika Phase I Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | Poster

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And there is no vaccine available at this time. In the face of what has become a global health crisis, the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) responded to a call from Anthony Fauci, Ph.D., head, NIAID, to get a candidate vaccine into human trials by the summer of 2016.

  16. A Comparative 90 Day Toxicity Study of Allyl Acetate, Allyl Alcohol and Acrolein

    Auerbach, Scott S.; Mahler, Joel; Travlos, Gregory S.; Irwin, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Allyl acetate (AAC), allyl alcohol (AAL), and acrolein (ACR) are used in the manufacture of detergents, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals and as agricultural agents. A metabolic relationship exists between these chemicals in which allyl acetate is metabolized to allyl alcohol and subsequently to the highly reactive,α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein. Due to the weaker reactivity of the protoxicants, allyl acetate and allyl alcohol, relative to acrolien we hypothesized the protoxicants ...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    2010-07-01

    ... compounds, then a full study using three dose levels might not be necessary. (e) Test procedures—(1) Animal...) Identification of animal diet. (E) Acclimation period. (iv) Test procedure should include the following data: (A... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE...

  18. Low Magnitude Mechanical Signals Reduce Risk-Factors for Fracture during 90-Day Bed Rest

    Muir, J. W.; Xia, Y.; Holquin, N.; Judex, S.; Qin, Y.; Evans, H.; Lang, T.; Rubin, C.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight leads to multiple deleterious changes to the musculoskeletal system, where loss of bone density, an order of magnitude more severe than that which follows the menopause, combined with increased instability, conspire to elevate the risk of bone fracture due to falls on return to gravitational fields. Here, a ground-based analog for spaceflight is used to evaluate the efficacy of a low-magnitude mechanical intervention, VIBE (Vibrational Inhibition of Bone Erosion), as a potential countermeasure to preserve musculoskeletal integrity in the face of disuse. Twenty-six subjects consented to ninety days of six-degree head-down tilt bed-rest. 18 completed the 90d protocol, 8 of which received daily 10-minute exposure to 30 Hz, 0.3g VIBE, applied in the supine position using a vest elastically coupled to the vibrating platform. The shoulder harness induced a load of 60% of the subjects body weight. At baseline and 90d, Qualitative Ultrasound Scans (QUS) of the calcaneus and CT-scans of the hip and spine were performed to measure changes in bone density. Postural control (PC) was assessed through center of pressure (COP) recordings while subjects stood on a force platform for 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes closed, and again with eyes opened. As compared to control bedrest subjects,

  19. Imprinting Analysis of the Porcine MEST Gene in 75 and 90 Day Placentas and Prenatal Tissues

    Chenchang XU; Lijie SU; Quanyong ZHOU; Changchun LI; Shuhong ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. Mouse mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) has been identified as an imprinted gene and mapped to an imprinted region of mouse chromosome 6 (MMU6). It plays essential roles in embryonic and placental growth, and it is required for maternal behavior in adult female mouse. Here, we isolated the porcine MEST gene and detected a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region. The RsaI polymorphism was used to investigate the allele frequencies in different pig breeds and the imprinting status in prenatal porcine tissues.Allele frequencies were significantly different between the native Chinese and Landrace breeds, except that most of the native Yushan pigs (21/26) are heterozygous at this locus. The results indicate that MEST was imprinted in placentas on days 75 and 90 of gestation as well as in the 75 d fetal heart, muscle, kidney, lung and liver.

  20. Infant feeding and HIV

    Ameena Ebrahim Goga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on antiretroviral prophylaxis during breastfeeding show that maternal HAART (alone or with 1,4 or 24 weeks infant prophylaxis or infant prophylaxis alone (with limited maternal prophylaxis for 6, 14 or 24 weeks reduces HIV transmission through breastmilk (postnatal transmission. Maternal postnatal regimens appear to be as efficacious as infant postnatal regimens, although one study shows a trend favouring infant nevirapine over maternal HAART (both used from 1 week to 6 months post-delivery. These new findings necessitate a review of existing PMTCT interventions, and the immediate implementation of regimens that reduce postnatal transmission - where this is feasible – to save children’s lives. In the public sector, whilst stakeholders engage in discussions about which is the best regimen to minimise postnatal transmission SSSUPPORT should be given to all HIV-positive women, as explained below, to improve infant outcomes and reduce postnatal transmission: Screen all women for HIV, Send off CD4 cell counts on all HIV-positive women, Screen all HIV-positive women for AFASS using a standardised tool (e.g. Table 3; Understand the woman’s personal and socio-cultural context; Promote exclusive or predominant breastfeeding if all AFASS criteria are not met; Promote exclusive formula feeding if all AFASS criteria are met; Organise supplies of formula milk and cotrimoxazole; Review mothers and infants in the first 3 days post-delivery, in the first two weeks postnatally and monthly thereafter, and review health and feeding practices, regardless of feeding choice, at every visit; lastly Treat all pregnant women with HAART if they meet national criteria for HAART initiation.

  1. Effect of Feeding with Genetically Modified RDV MP- Corn on Growth of Rats%转基因抗矮花叶病玉米对大鼠生长发育的影响

    屈静; 宋鑫; 雁平梅; 阎小艳; 高晋华

    2012-01-01

    The studies were designed to evaluate the effect of genetically modified corn containing event RDV MP~ on growth and male reproductive structure in SD rats two generations fed with either GM com or its conventional counterpart. The body weight and the survival rate of F2 offspring at the age of 1, 4, 21 d were measured and calculated, so did the developing landmarks of 194 offspring. At the end of the study, the tissue samples of testis and epididymis were obtained for histopathological examinations. No toxicologically significant differences were observed in survival rate, physiological and neurobehavioral development indexes of F2 offspring, and microscopic phthology in the treatment group. These results demonstrated that the long-term dietary intake of genetically modified RDV MP- com did not have any influence on growth and male reproductive organs in SD Rats.%为探讨转基因抗矮花叶病玉米对大鼠F2生长发育和雄性生殖器官结构的影响,将SD大鼠(F0)随机分为对照组和试验组,进行2代饲喂试验;统计F2仔鼠出生时平均体质量、出生存活率和哺育存活率,同时检测仔鼠早期各项生长发育指标,仔鼠饲喂至60d处死,并对其睾丸及附睾进行组织学观察.结果表明,与对照组相比,食用含33%转基因抗矮花叶病玉米的SD大鼠,其F2仔鼠的平均体质量、成活率及早期各项发育指标达标率均无统计学差异,雄鼠睾丸和附睾组织无明显异常.因此,中长期饲喂33%转基因抗矮花叶病玉米,并未影响SD大鼠F2的生长发育和雄性生殖器官的组织结构.

  2. Effect of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) on fertility, pregnancy, and postnatal development of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Morrissey, R E; Vesonder, R F

    1985-01-01

    A diet containing 20 ppm (micrograms/g) of purified deoxynivalenol (DON) was fed to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 60 and 15 days, respectively, before breeding. Rats consuming feed amended with DON throughout pregnancy and lactation showed no clinical signs of toxicity, nor did the control or pair-fed control groups. Male rats in the DON treatment group showed no feed refusal but were less efficient than males in control groups in converting feed into body mass. Feed refusal in fema...

  3. Histomorphometry of the organic matrix of the femur in ovariectomized rats treated with sodium alendronate

    Patricia Tanios Haddad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two different concentrations of sodium alendronate on the quantity of organic matrix in the femur of rats with estrogen suppression caused by ovariectomy.METHODS: Sixty-days-old Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus were subjected to bilateral laparotomy to remove the ovaries. The animals were divided into a control group, in which they only underwent laparotomy; an ovariectomized group (OVX; an ovariectomized group treated with 1 mg/kg of alendronate (OVX 1 mg; and an ovariectomized group treated with 2 mg/kg of alendronate (OVX 2 mg. The rats received alendronate twice a week for 90 days. The left femur was then removed, fixed and processed for embedding in paraffin. Semi-serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were used to determine the area occupied by organic bone matrix, by means of image analysis software. The animals' weights were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment.RESULTS: The ovariectomized animals and those treated with 1 mg/kg of alendronate presented significant increases in body weight (p 0.05 to that of the non-ovariectomized control animals (2,04,800 ± 9590, which indicates that this medication had a preventive effect with regard to bone mass loss.CONCLUSION: The higher concentration of the medication, administered twice a week for 90 days, was more effective than the dose of 1 mg/kg over the same period.

  4. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats.

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2016-07-27

    Papaya is an important fruit that provides a variety of vitamins with nutritional value and also holds some pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection have been generated by cloning the coat protein gene of the PRSV which can be used as a valuable strategy to fight PRSV infection and to increase papaya production. In order to assess the safety of GM papaya as a food, this subchronic study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory responses of the GM papaya line 823-2210, when compared with its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2), in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Both non-GM and GM 823-2210 papaya fruits at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) dosages were administered via daily oral gavage to male and female rats consecutively for 90 days. Immunophenotyping, mitogen-induced splenic cell proliferation, antigen-specific antibody response, and histopathology of the spleen and thymus were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results of immunotoxicity assays revealed no consistent difference between rats fed for 90 days with GM 823-2210 papaya fruits, as opposed to those fed non-GM TN-2 papaya fruits, suggesting that with regard to immunomodulatory responses, GM 823-2210 papaya fruits maintain substantial equivalence to fruits of their non-GM TN-2 parent. PMID:27396727

  5. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  6. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  7. Berberine in Combination with Insulin Has Additive Effects on Titanium Implants Osseointegration in Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    Li Lu; Huang Zhijian; Li Lei; Chen Wenchuan; Zhu Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of berberine in combination with insulin on early osseointegration of implants in diabetic rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: healthy rats were used as control (HC), and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with insulin, berberine, berberine + insulin (IB), or no treatment. Each rat received one machined-surface cp-Ti implant into the right tibia and was given insulin injection and/or gavage feeding with berb...

  8. Effect of alternate administration of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA for reducing incidence of 238Pu-induced osteosarcoma in rats

    For removing plutonium-238 from body and for reducing incidence of osteosarcoma in rats, Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA were alternately administered so as to decrease the side-effects of DTPA in this experiment. After a single intramuscular injection of 3.7 x 104 Bq/kg of plutonium-238 into rats, Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA were alternately injected intramuscularly for 90 days. The findings showed that the incidence of osteosarcoma in Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA treated rats was 10% against 40% in control rats. After 46 days of treatment with these chelating agents the retention activity of plutonium-238 in bone, liver and kidney was markedly lower than that for control rats

  9. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Omar Ortiz-Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm, besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  10. Effects of chronic delta-9-THC treatment on cardiac beta-adrenoceptors in rats

    Evans, E.B.; Seifen, E.; Kennedy, R.H.; Kafiluddi, R.; Paule, M.G.; Scallet, A.C.; Ali, S.F.; Slikker, W. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    This study was designed to determine if chronic treatment with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters cardiac beta-adrenoceptors in the rat. Following daily oral administration of 10 or 20 mg/kg THC or an equivalent volume of control solvent for 90 days, rats were sacrificed, and sarcolemmal membranes were prepared from ventricular myocardium. Beta-adrenoceptor density and binding affinity estimated with (-)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol; a beta-adrenergic antagonist, were not significantly affected by treatment with THC when compared to vehicle controls. These results suggest that the tolerance to cardiovascular effects of THC which develops during chronic exposure in the rat is not associated with alterations in cardiac beta-adrenoceptors as monitored by radiolabeled antagonist binding.

  11. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  12. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  13. Multiple part feeding

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - The...... necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile....... Originality/value - The paper presents a full-scale demonstration of a state-of-the-art COTS autonomous mobile manipulator system with particular focus on industrial utilization and application....

  14. Characterization of the feeding inhibition and neural activation produced by dorsomedial hypothalamic cholecystokinin administration

    Chen, Jie; Scott, Karen A.; Zhao, Zhengyan; Moran, Timothy H.; BI, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Within the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), cholecystokinin (CCK) has been proposed to modulate neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling to affect food intake. However, the neural circuitry underlying the actions of this CCK-NPY signaling system in the controls of food intake has yet to be determined. We sought to characterize the feeding inhibition and brain neural activation produced by CCK administration into the DMH of rats. We determined the time course of feeding inhibitory effects of exogenous DM...

  15. SIRT1 IS INVOLVED IN ENERGY METABOLISM: THE ROLE OF CHRONIC ETHANOL FEEDING AND RESVERATROL

    Oliva, Joan; French, Barbara A.; Li, Jun; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Fu, Paul; French, Samuel W.

    2008-01-01

    Sirt1, a deacetylase involved in regulating energy metabolism in response to calorie restriction, is up regulated after chronic ethanol feeding using the intragastric feeding model of alcohol liver disease. PGC1α is also up regulated in response to ethanol. These changes are consistent with activation of the Sirt1/PGC1α pathway of metabolism and aging, involved in alcohol liver disease including steatosis, necrosis and fibrosis of the liver. To test this hypothesis, male rats fed ethanol intr...

  16. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823

    Milad Kasiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW, dried Tubifex (DT, dried Gammarus (DG and prepared granulated feed (PGF, twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI, fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested.

  17. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823).

    Kasiri, Milad; Farahi, Amin; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g) were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW), dried Tubifex (DT), dried Gammarus (DG) and prepared granulated feed (PGF), twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested. PMID:25610565

  18. Effect of orlistat on fat absorption in rats: A comparison of normal rats and rats with diverted bile and pancreatic juice

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    Orlistat is a specific inhibitor of pancreatic and gastric lipases leading to decreased absorption of fat. In the present study, we measured the effect of orlistat on lymphatic fat transport in rats following intake of oils very different in FA composition and TAG structure, and compared this with...... the transport in normal rats and rats with fat malabsorption. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct, and a feeding catheter was inserted into the stomach. In addition, malabsorbing rats were cannulated in the common bile and pancreatic duct. Emulsified safflower, fish...

  19. Naringenin ameliorates renal and platelet purinergic signalling alterations in high-cholesterol fed rats through the suppression of ROS and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Chtourou, Yassine; Kamoun, Zeineb; Zarrouk, Wissem; Kebieche, Mohammed; Kallel, Choumous; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fetoui, Hamadi

    2016-01-01

    Naringenin (NGEN) is a natural flavonoid aglycone of naringin that has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of NGEN on oxidative and inflammatory parameters, as well as to evaluate the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in kidney and platelet membranes of rats exposed to a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 90 days. Kidney oxidative stress and mRNA expression of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) genes were evaluated by real time RT-PCR. The co-administration of NGEN (50 mg kg(-1)) for 90 days significantly prevented renal failure in HCD rats as indicated by an improvement of renal markers. Histopathological observation findings are also consistent with these effects. Moreover, NGEN (50 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased the lipid profile and inhibited pro-oxidant and inflammation marker levels in the kidney of HCD rats. Furthermore, the NTPDase activities were significantly decreased in platelets and kidney membranes of HCD-treated rats and these alterations were improved by NGEN. In conclusion, this study suggests that naringenin can potentially improve the renal failure and platelet alterations observed in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet probably through its antioxidant effects. PMID:26565065

  20. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor...

  1. Percutaneous pharmacokinetic and subchronic studies with 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (EHD) in fischer 344 rats

    The percutaneous absorption, distribution, and excretion of undiluted 14C-EHD were evaluated initially. Approximately 35% of a 150 mg/kg dose of EHD was continuously absorbed through the skin over 48 hr. Plasma 14C increased to maximum concentrations slowly due to a rapid excretion into the urine, and peaked at 14-20 hr after dosing. No unchanged EHD and at least 2 major metabolites were observed in the urine. For the toxicity evaluations, EHD was administered to rats by occluded cutaneous application at dose levels of 0, 0.5, 2.0, or 4.0 ml/kg/day in two separate studies of 11- and 90-day duration. EHD was applied 6 hours/day for a total of nine applications over an 11-day period or for 65 applications 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations (90-day), food consumption, body weight, and clinical and anatomic pathology were evaluated. After 11 days, no biologically significant differences were observed in treated animals. Over 90 days, EHD resulted in slight depression in food consumption and body weight gain in females at the high dose. It is concluded that substantial skin absorption of EHD does not result in significant systemic toxicity at doses as high as 4.0 ml/kg/day

  2. Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Chung, H. E.; Yu, J.; Baek, M.; Lee, J. A.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, S. H.; Maeng, E. H.; Lee, J. K.; Jeong, J.; Choi, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle have been extensively applied to diverse industrial fields because they possess UV light absorption, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic characteristics as well as antimicrobial property. However, up to date, toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles in animal models have not been completely determined. Moreover, little information is available about kinetic behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles in vivo, which will be crucial to predict their potential chronic toxicity after long-term exposure. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles after single-dose and repeated dose 90-day oral administration in male and female rats, respectively. The blood samples were collected following administration of three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and ZnO concentration was assessed by measuring zinc level with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The result showed that the plasma ZnO concentration significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, but decreased within 24 h after single-dose oral administration up to 500 mg/kg, without any significant difference between gender. However, when repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study was performed, the elevated plasma concentrations did not return to normal control levels in all the cases, indicating their toxicity potential. These findings suggest that repeated oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles up to the dose of 125 mg/kg could accumulate in the systemic circulation, thereby implying that the NOAEL values could be less than 125 mg/kg via oral intake.

  3. Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle have been extensively applied to diverse industrial fields because they possess UV light absorption, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic characteristics as well as antimicrobial property. However, up to date, toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles in animal models have not been completely determined. Moreover, little information is available about kinetic behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles in vivo, which will be crucial to predict their potential chronic toxicity after long-term exposure. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles after single-dose and repeated dose 90-day oral administration in male and female rats, respectively. The blood samples were collected following administration of three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and ZnO concentration was assessed by measuring zinc level with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The result showed that the plasma ZnO concentration significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, but decreased within 24 h after single-dose oral administration up to 500 mg/kg, without any significant difference between gender. However, when repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study was performed, the elevated plasma concentrations did not return to normal control levels in all the cases, indicating their toxicity potential. These findings suggest that repeated oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles up to the dose of 125 mg/kg could accumulate in the systemic circulation, thereby implying that the NOAEL values could be less than 125 mg/kg via oral intake.

  4. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  5. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  6. 鹅脱氧胆酸对高果糖饮食致大鼠肾损伤的保护作用及其机制%Protective effect of chenodeoxycholic acid against lipid kidney injury induced by high-fructose-feeding in rats and the underlying mechanism

    胡志娟; 任路平; 王超; 李芳; 董春霞; 李刚; 刘冰; 宋光耀

    2013-01-01

    significantly up-regulated (all P < 0.01).The gene and protein expressions of PPARα and ACO in kidneys of rats fed with high fructose were significantly down-regulated (all P < 0.01).TGF-β1,PAI-1,TNF-α,IL-6 and Nox2 in kidneys of rats fed with high fructose were significantly up-regulated (all P < 0.01).The levels of these changes were prominent with the extention of time.CDCA treatment could reverse these changes (all P < 0.05).Conclusions High-fructose feeding can lead to kidney injury in rats.CDCA enhances lipid anabolism,attenuates lipid catabolism,by activating FXR,down-regulating SREBP-1c and SCD-1,upregulating PPARα and ACO,subsequently decreases profibrotic growth factors,improves renal inflammation,and protects kidney against oxidative stress.%目的 利用鹅脱氧胆酸对高果糖喂养大鼠的干预,探讨鹅脱氧胆酸在脂质肾损伤中的保护作用.方法 将48只大鼠随机分为对照组(n=16)、高果糖组(n=16)及鹅脱氧胆酸组(CACD组,n=16),8周及16周时各组分别随机处死8只,检测各组大鼠的肾功能、空腹血糖、血脂、24 h尿白蛋白量、肾皮质三酰甘油含量;PAS染色及透射电镜观察大鼠肾脏病理学变化;应用实时荧光定量PCR法和Western印迹法分别检测法尼醇X受体(FXR)、小异源二聚体伴侣(SHP)、固醇调节元件结合蛋白1c (SREBP-1c)、硬脂酰辅酶A去饱和酶1(SCD-1)、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α(PPARα)、酰基辅酶A氧化酶(ACO)、转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)、1型纤溶酶原激活物抑制物(PAI-1)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、白细胞介素6(IL-6)及NADPH氧化酶(Nox2) mRNA和蛋白的表达.结果 与对照组比较,高果糖组大鼠左肾质量/体质量、血中三酰甘油和极低密度脂蛋白水平、24 h尿白蛋白量、肾皮质中三酰甘油水平较高,肾脏病理改变加重,基底膜增厚,且随时间延长而加重(均P< 0.05);FXR和SHP基因及蛋白表达较低(P<0.01),且随时

  7. Influence of UV and RTG radiation on levels of free amino acids in rat brain tissue

    Experiments were carried out with 204 Wistar rats divided into two experimental groups and control groups. Eighty-four rats of group 1 were UV-irradiated, and 90 rats of group 2 were irradiated with roentgen rays. Amino acids were separated by high-voltage electrophoresis and by paper chromatography. Changes in concentrations of amino acids in the brain tissue under the influence of UV radiation were analyzed after 24 hr in 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 90 day-old rats, and after 1, 2, 3 and in 8-day rats. The effect of irradiation with 1,200r of X rays was studied after 24 hr in rats in the same stages of development, and, in addition, the effect of 250r doses was observed in 3-day rats at 2, 7, 17, 27 and 47 days after roentgen irradiation. The following amino acids were assayed electrochromatographically: aspartic, glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acids, alanine, glycine, serine, threonine, leucine and lysine. Brain levels of amino acids were raised under the influence of the factors applied, and ultraviolet and ionizing radiation had transient effect. (author)

  8. Chronic Effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate on Stereological Parameters of Testis in Adult Wistar Rats

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIn recent years concerns have been raised regarding the incidence of male reproductive disorders from exposure to endocrine disruptors. So, chronic effects of di(2-ethylhexylphthalate were studied on histological and stereological structure of testis in adult Wistar rats. Materials and MethodsThirty two adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in four equal experiment groups; oil vehicle group and three treated groups which received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day di(2-ethylhexylphthalate by gavage for 90 days, respectively. At the end of exposure period the volume of testes was measured by Cavellieri method, testes weight was recorded and then fixed in Bouin’s solution. Following tissue processing, 5 µm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, relative and total volumes of seminiferous tubules, tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were estimated.ResultsThe results showed that mean weight and volume of testis were decreased significantly (35.2% and 23.9% respectively in rats treated with 500 mg/kg/day DEHP for 90 days. Seminiferous tubules diameter reduced, 4.4% and 13.4% in 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP-treated groups, respectively. Relative volumes of tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were increased significantly in 100 (P< 0.05 and 500 (P< 0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups. Also, testosterone serum levels were significantly higher (P< 0.05 in rats exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. ConclusionPresent study indicated dose-dependent reductions of testicular parameters in adult male rats chronically exposed to di(2-ethylhexylphthalate.

  9. Subchronic and genetic safety evaluation of a calcium fructoborate in rats.

    Marone, Palma Ann; Heimbach, James T; Nemzer, Boris; Hunter, John M

    2016-09-01

    A branded calcium fructoborate product, a nature-identical calcium salt of bis (fructose) ester of boric acid found in plants and a natural source of boron in the human diet and sold under the trade name FruiteX-B(®) Brand Calcium Fructoborate ("FrxB"), was evaluated in a 90-day dietary toxicity study and two genotoxicity studies. In the 90-day study, four groups of 10 male and 10 female Crl:SD CD(®) IGS rats were fed diets with FrxB admixtures of 0.56, 1.12, and 1.68% dietary concentration, providing mean overall daily intakes of FrxB in male rats of 385.8, 774.9, and 1161.3 mg/kg bw/day, and 392.1, 784.4, and 1171.1 mg/kg bw/day in female rats. There were no mortalities, no clinical or ophthalmologic signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, Functional Observational Battery (FOB), or Motor Activity (MA) findings associated with the administration of FrxB. There were no adverse changes in hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, or urinalysis parameters in male or female rats considered the result of test substance administration. At necropsy, there were no macroscopic, histopathological findings, or organ weight changes deemed related to administration of the test substance. Under the conditions of this study, based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for FrxB in the diet was 1161.3 and 1171.1 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively. Bacterial mutagenicity studies and a micronucleus test using Chinese hamster V79 cells demonstrated no mutagenic or genotoxic potential of the tested brand of calcium fructoborate. PMID:27350145

  10. Biochemical effects of vepacide (from Azadirachta indica) on Wistar rats during subchronic exposure.

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of Vepacide (from Azadirachta indica), a neem-based pesticide, on acid (AcP) and alkaline (AkP) phosphatase in different tissues of male and female albino Wistar rats. Subchronic doses of Vepacide in coconut oil (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg; maximum volume of 0.2 mL) were administered orally for 45 or 90 days. The administration of Vepacide resulted in a significant increase in AcP and AkP in serum, kidney, lung, and liver tissue (AkP only in liver), whereas a significant decrease of AcP in liver was observed in male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment with moderate and high doses. The alterations in serum, liver, kidney, and lung tissues of both male and female rats caused by this compound were statistically significant, and the changes were also dose and time dependent. The alterations in male rats were not statistically significant when compared with female rats, indicating that there were no sexual differences. The withdrawal study (28 days post-treatment) revealed significant recovery, indicating reversal of the toxic symptoms once the toxicant was removed. There was a high degree of positive correlation between results for serum as compared to those for kidney, lung, and liver (AkP only for liver). However, there was a high negative correlation between AcP results for serum as compared with those for liver. The alterations in these enzymes indicated that lung tissue was the most susceptible, followed by liver and kidney. AcP and AkP are marker enzymes, and their increase in serum, with parallel increases in different tissues, might be due to the increased permeability of plasma membranes. The decrease in liver AcP may be due to the necrosis of cellular tissues. The changes observed in these enzyme activities could be useful as biomarkers of exposure to Vepacide. PMID:15388273

  11. A Recombinant Humanized Anti-Cocaine Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits the Distribution of Cocaine to the Brain in Rats

    Norman, Andrew B.; Gooden, Felicia C. T.; Tabet, Michael R.; Ball, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb), h2E2, is a humanized version of the chimeric human/murine anti-cocaine mAb 2E2. The recombinant h2E2 protein was produced in vitro from a transfected mammalian cell line and retained high affinity (4 nM Kd) and specificity for cocaine over its inactive metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester. In rats, pharmacokinetic studies of h2E2 (120 mg/kg i.v.) showed a long terminal elimination half-life of 9.0 days and a low volume of distribution at st...

  12. Effects of Acupuncture Therapy on Triglyceride of Quadriceps Femoris in High Fat Diet Feeding-induced Insulin Resistance Rats%“标本配穴”针刺对高脂饮食所致胰岛素抵抗大鼠股四头肌中三酰甘油的影响

    杨柳; 李强; 徐芬; 闵霏; 吴松; 刘建民; 唐宏图; 陈泽斌; 梁凤霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of acupuncture therapy on triglyceride (TG) content of quadriceps femoris in the high fat diet feeding-induced insulin resistance rats; To discuss acupuncture mechanisms to improve the insulin sensitivity. Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats at the age of eight weeks were randomly divided into normal group, model group, electro-acupuncture group, and sham electro-acupuncture group. The normal group was given basic diet, and model group, electro-acupuncture group and sham electro-acupuncture group were given high fat diet for 8 weeks, after which, the model of insulin resistance was successfully obtained. Electro-acupuncture group was given acupuncture therapy with “Guanyuan (GV4)”, “Zhognwan (GV12)”, “Zusanli (ST36)”, and “Fenglong (ST40)” for 8 weeks. Sham electro-acupuncture group was given stimulation at non-acupuncture points which were not on the meridians and near the acupoints but not at the area of the acupoints. In addition, food intake and body weight of each group were recorded, blood glucose was tested, TG content of quadriceps femoris was measured by enzymatic method after the treatment. Results The weight of the rats and TG levels of quadriceps femoris in electro-acupuncture group and sham electro-acupuncture group were significantly lower than those in model group, with significant statistical difference (P<0.05), especially in electro-acupuncture group. Conclusion Acupuncture therapy could improve insulin sensitivity to prevent and its related diseases.%目的:观察“标本配穴”针刺对胰岛素抵抗大鼠股四头肌中三酰甘油(TG)含量的影响,探讨针刺提高胰岛素敏感性的机制。方法8周龄Wistar大鼠32只,随机分为正常组、模型组、电针组、假电针组,每组8只。正常组予基础饲料,其余各组予高脂饲料喂养,8周后形成胰岛素抵抗模型,电针组予“标本配穴”针刺法,取“关元”、“中脘”及双侧“足三里

  13. Radiation processing technology for feed mixes and litter for laboratory animals

    The research was centred on feed mixes for laboratory rats and mice in conditions of germ-free and conventional breeding in isolators. Polyethylene was chosen as the most suitable packing material for radiation processing and subsequent storage. Pelleted diets and litter are packaged in three layers in 400x600 mm bags. 25 kGy for germ-free breeding and 50 kGy for gnotobiotic breeds of laboratory rats and mice were determined as being sufficient. The quality of processed diets and their effect on the weight and growth of rats is discussed. (Pu)

  14. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  15. Sub-chronic effect of neem based pesticide (Vepacide) on acetylcholinesterase and ATPases in rat.

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K; Jamil, K

    1999-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterases (AChE), Na(+)-K+, Mg2+ and Ca(2+)-ATPases were monitored in rat brain when treated orally with 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of Vepacide, an active ingredient from neem seed oil, daily for 90 days. Brain AChE, Na(+)-K+ and Ca(2+)-ATPases were inhibited whereas Mg(2+)-ATPase levels were enhanced in both the sexes after 45 and 90 days of treatment. The relative sensitivities of these ATPases to Vepacide indicated that Ca(2+)-ATPase being more sensitive than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in both the sexes. The magnitude of Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibited by this compound was higher than that of brain AChE. It appears to be sexual dimorphism in the alterations of brain AChE, Na(+)-K+ and Mg(2+)-ATPases by Vepacide with females being significant when compared with males. After 28 days of post treatment the alterations observed were approached to those of controls both in male and female rats showing reversal of the toxicity. These results indicated that the ATPases were potently inhibited by Vepacide and seemed to be its precise target among the enzyme studied. This can be used as biochemical marker of exposure to this neem derived product. PMID:10466107

  16. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  17. Effect of simulated weightlessness on energy metabolism in the rat

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Results of measurements of food uptake and body weight changes occurring in rats suspended from a harness so that the antigravity muscles were not used for locomotion are presented. The rats were tested in pairs, with both in a harness but only one suspended off its hind legs; this section lasted 7 days. A second phase of the experiment involved feeding the nonsuspended rat the same amount of food the experimental rat had consumed the previous day. All rats experienced decreased in body weight and food intake in the first stage, while in the second stage the suspended rat lost more weight. The total oxygen uptake, CO2 output, and rate of C-14O2 production were depressed in the suspended rats, then returned to normal levels once the rats were back on the ground. It is concluded that the gross metabolic processes are unaffected by simulated weightlessness.

  18. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    Anbalagan, T

    2009-01-01

    A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

  19. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  20. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE RAT TESTES CAUSED BY DIAZINON ADMINISTRATION

    R. TOMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the structural changes in the rat testis after a diazinon administration. The testis structure changes after the diazinon administration of 20 mg/kg b.w. (i.p. and daily dose of 40 mg/l in drinking water (p.o. were evaluated in light microscopy. 36 hours after the diazion i.p. administration, the vacuolization of the seminiferous epithelium, evacuation of germ cells into the tubule lumen, epithelium necrosis and interstitium extension were observed. After 90 days of daily oral administration, the changes in the testis were not as visible as in the acute intoxication. The germ cells released from the basal lamina and then were visible in the tubule lumen. Diazinon causes the damage of the germinal epithelium in the testes leading to the spermatogenesis failure. The infertility can then appear.

  1. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  2. Feeding profiles of tame moose

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the feeding profiles of tame moose. 3 moose were observed for 99 hours while in natural range, each bite plant species, browse conditions and size...

  3. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  4. Feeding Disorders in Williams Syndrome

    S. M Greis

    2009-01-01

    Statement of Purpose: Children with Williams Syndrome are at risk for a myriad of developmental disabilities because of the complicated medical and neurological conditions. Little has been written about the specific types of feeding problems in these children. A better understanding of how this syndrome affects a child’s ability to manipulate increasingly complex food textures and advance oral motor function could provide improved outcomes for feeding and swallowing developme...

  5. Feed quality in swine diet

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  6. Chronic ethanol feeding modulates the synthesis of digestive enzymes

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on pancreatic protein synthesis were investigated. Protein synthesis was assessed by studying the rate of incorporation of 3H-leucine into TCA-precipitable proteins in isolated pancreatic acini from rats. Chronic ethanol ingestion increased the rate of pancreatic protein synthesis by 2-4 fold. The onset of the increase in protein synthesis was detectable two days after ethanol feeding, reached a maximum after 7 days and remained unchanged after 4 months on the ethanol-containing diet. The rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes was studied by SDS-PAGE on extracts obtained from purified zymogen granules. Ethanol feeding induced an increase in the rate of synthesis of most of the digestive enzymes; chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and an unidentified protein were increased to a greater extent than other digestive enzymes. By contrast, the synthesis of amylase was selectively decreased after ethanol feeding. These results suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion has specific effects on the rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes in the exocrine pancreas

  7. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated whole diet

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  8. Multigeneration Feeding Studies with an Irradiated Whole Diet

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5 Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5 Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences' in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  9. Differential growth retardation and Myofibrillar fragmentation in rats submitted to feed restriction and realimentation Taxa de crescimento e fragmentação Miofibrilar diferenciadas em ratos submetidos a restrição alimentar e realimentação

    Eric Franchi Leonardo; Eduardo Francisquine Delgado; Adriana Regina Bagaldo; Dante Pazzanese Duarte Lanna; Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz

    2008-01-01

    Feed regimens alter muscle growth rate, hence they might impact the proteolytic system involved in tenderization during meat conditioning. The aim of this project was to verify the effects of feed restriction regimens on muscular and animal growth and their impact on postmortem myofibrillar fragmentation. The regimens were: 1) Feeding ad libitum for 11 d (Al/2); 2) Feed restriction (60% of Net Energy for maintenance - NEm) for 11 d (Rt/2); 3) Ad libitum for 22 d (Al); 4) Ad libitum for 4 d an...

  10. Light white oils exhibit low tissue accumulation potential and minimal toxicity in F344 rats.

    McKee, Richard H; Drummond, John G; Freeman, James J; Letinski, Daniel J; Miller, Mary Jo

    2012-03-01

    Female F344 rats were fed diets containing 0.02%, 0.2%, or 2.0% white mineral oil for 90 days. There were no gross or microscopic differences in target organs at the 0.02% level. In the higher-dose groups, relative liver and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) weights were increased, and MLN inflammation was observed. At the 2% level, there was very limited evidence of microgranuloma formation in the liver but at a lower incidence and at lesser severity than has been reported in studies of C₂₂-C₂₅ oils. Analysis of liver extracts from treated rats revealed that C₁₅-C₂₀ constituents were underrepresented by comparison to their corresponding concentrations in the test oil. These results provide evidence that although hydrocarbons with carbon numbers < C₂₀ are absorbed, they are not preferentially retained and do not contribute to inflammatory processes in liver. PMID:22422433

  11. Effects of propoxur on male fertility in wistar rat exposed neonatally

    Augustave Kenfack

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propoxur is a carbamate pesticide widely used in crop and foodstuff protection. They are known to cause a wide variety of symptoms in animals. Methods: Twenty four young male rats were exposed to 0.00, 1.73, 2.60 and 5.20 mg/kg body weight through oral intubation for 90 days. Results: The testis weight increased significantly (P 0.05 but the percentage of sperm motility decreased significantly (P 0.05 change was observed between the control and treated males for the litter size, viability rate and sex-ratio. Conclusions: Despite the impairment of seminal epithelia and sperm characteristics, male rats orally exposed to the studied doses of propoxur maintained their fertility at the 90th day of treatment. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 898-902

  12. Effect of orlistat on fat absorption in rats: A comparison of normal rats and rats with diverted bile and pancreatic juice

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    the transport in normal rats and rats with fat malabsorption. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct, and a feeding catheter was inserted into the stomach. In addition, malabsorbing rats were cannulated in the common bile and pancreatic duct. Emulsified safflower, fish......, and randomized oils were administered, and lymph was collected for 24 h and analyzed for FA composition. Administration of 25 mg orlistat together with the dietary oils resulted in very small changes from baseline lymphatic transport, indicating that inhibition of the fat absorption was almost...

  13. Feeding-associated alterations in striatal neurotransmitter release

    Acworth, I. N.; Ressler, K.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Published evidence suggests a role for dopaminergic (DA) brain pathways in feeding-associated behaviors. Using the novel technique of brain microdialysis of striatal extracellular fluid (ECF) as an index of DA release, Church et al. described increases in levels of DA when animals had limited access to pellets, but not with free access. Dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens did increase with free access to pellets post starvation or after food reward. We used permanently implanted microdialysis probes to measure ECF levels of DA, DOPAC, HVA, and large neutral amino acids (LNAA) for up to 72 hours after implantation among rats experiencing different dietary regimens.

  14. Feed your head: neurodevelopmental control of feeding and metabolism.

    Lee, Daniel A; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  15. Determination of zearalenone in cereal grains, animal feed, and feed ingredients using immunoaffinity column chromatography and liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study.

    Campbell, Harold M; Armstrong, J Fred

    2007-01-01

    A method using immunoaffinity column chromatography (IAC) and liquid chromatography (LC) for determination of zearalenone in cereal grains, animal feed, and feed ingredients was collaboratively studied. The test portion is extracted by shaking with acetonitrile-water (90 + 10, v/v) and sodium chloride. The extract is diluted and applied to an immunoaffinity column, the column is washed with water or phosphate-buffered saline or methanol-water (30 + 70, v/v), and zearalenone is eluted with methanol. The eluate is evaporated, the residue is dissolved in mobile phase and analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. The presence of zearalenone can be confirmed using an alternate excitation wavelength or diode array detection. Twenty samples were sent to 13 collaborators (8 in Europe, 2 in the United States, one in Japan, one in Uruguay, and one in Canada). Eighteen samples of naturally contaminated corn, barley, wheat, dried distillers grains, swine feed, and dairy feed were analyzed as blind duplicates, along with blank corn and wheat samples. The analyses were done in 2 sample sets with inclusion of a spiked wheat control sample (0.1 mg/kg) in each set. Spiked samples recoveries were 89-116%, and for the 18 naturally contaminated samples, RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 6.67 to 12.1%, RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 12.5 to 19.7%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.61 to 0.90. PMID:18193738

  16. Sitagliptin attenuates cardiomyopathy by modulating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in experimental diabetic rats

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Al-Amin, Maha A; Al-Ajmi, Hanaa N; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-01-01

    Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has been reported to promote cardioprotection in diabetic hearts by limiting hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known about the involvement of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway modulation in the cardioprotective effects of sitagliptin. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects of sitagliptin against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), focusing on the modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection, and rats received sitagliptin orally and daily for 90 days. Diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and a significant increase in heart-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio. Serum troponin I and creatine kinase MB, cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide levels showed significant increase in diabetic rats. In contrast, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses were significantly declined in the heart of diabetic rats. Histopathological study revealed degenerations, increased collagen deposition in the heart of diabetic rats. Sitagliptin alleviated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, HW/BW ratio, histological architecture, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and rejuvenated the antioxidant defenses. In addition, cardiac levels of pJAK2 and pSTAT3 were increased in diabetic rats, an effect which was remarkably decreased after sitagliptin treatment. In conclusion, these results confer an evidence that sitagliptin has great therapeutic potential on DCM through down-regulation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

  17. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    2010-01-01

    ...) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration... § 205.603 may be used as feed additives and supplements. (b) The producer of an organic operation must... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or...

  18. Feeding the Monster

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  19. Tube feeding patients with dementia.

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2006-04-01

    As the population ages, the incidence of dementia increases. All types of dementia, whether they are reversible or irreversible, lead to loss of intellectual function and judgment, memory impairment, and personality changes. The skills to feed oneself, use eating utensils, and consume items recognized as food, thereby maintaining nutrition status, may be lost as dementia progresses. Reports indicate that nutrition status may be maintained when patients are hand fed, but this is labor intensive and therefore expensive. Feeding via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube is often chosen as an acceptable alternative. Research indicates that there is little benefit in this population when aggressive nutrition support is instituted. Providing tube feeding to patients with dementia does not necessarily extend life, increase weight, or reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers or aspiration. There are many legal and ethical issues involved in the decision to place a feeding tube in demented patients. The primary issue in patients with dementia may be autonomy and the right of an individual to decide whether or not a tube should be placed at all. Legally, there is clear precedent that the courts see the insertion of a feeding tube as extraordinary care that the patient has the right to refuse. However, much of case law is derived from cases of patients who were in a persistent vegetative state. Advance directives help to determine what the patient would want for himself. Considering all the options before the patient can no longer make decisions is the most desirable course. PMID:16556924

  20. The development and use of a test to identify resistance to the anticoagulant difenacoum in the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    Redfern, R; Gill, J E

    1978-12-01

    Feeding tests were carried out in the laboratory to obtain basic data on the susceptibility of wild Norway rats to difenacoum. The results were used to derive a standard test procedure for the identification of difenacoum resistance in warfarin-susceptible and resistant rats. Details are given of tests on rats from suspected difenacoum-resistant infestations on farms. PMID:731023

  1. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents.

    Philip G Cox

    Full Text Available The masticatory musculature of rodents has evolved to enable both gnawing at the incisors and chewing at the molars. In particular, the masseter muscle is highly specialised, having extended anteriorly to originate from the rostrum. All living rodents have achieved this masseteric expansion in one of three ways, known as the sciuromorph, hystricomorph and myomorph conditions. Here, we used finite element analysis (FEA to investigate the biomechanical implications of these three morphologies, in a squirrel, guinea pig and rat. In particular, we wished to determine whether each of the three morphologies is better adapted for either gnawing or chewing. Results show that squirrels are more efficient at muscle-bite force transmission during incisor gnawing than guinea pigs, and that guinea pigs are more efficient at molar chewing than squirrels. This matches the known diet of nuts and seeds that squirrels gnaw, and of grasses that guinea pigs grind down with their molars. Surprisingly, results also indicate that rats are more efficient as well as more versatile feeders than both the squirrel and guinea pig. There seems to be no compromise in biting efficiency to accommodate the wider range of foodstuffs and the more general feeding behaviour adopted by rats. Our results show that the morphology of the skull and masticatory muscles have allowed squirrels to specialise as gnawers and guinea pigs as chewers, but that rats are high-performance generalists, which helps explain their overwhelming success as a group.

  2. Alterations of gene profiles in Leydig-cell-regenerating adult rat testis after ethane dimethane sulfonate-treatment

    Yu-Fei Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Only occupying about 1%-5% of total testicular cells, the adult Leydig cell (ALC is a unique endocrine cell that produces androgens. Rat Leydig cells regenerate after these cells in the testis are eliminated with ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS. In this study, we have characterized Leydig cell regeneration and messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA profiles of EDS treated rat testes. Serum testosterone, testicular gene profiling and some steroidogenesis-related proteins were analyzed at 7, 21, 35 and 90 days after EDS treatment. Testicular testosterone levels declined to undetectable levels until 7 days after treatment and then started to recover. Seven days after treatment, 81 mRNAs were down-regulated greater than or equal to two-fold, with 48 becoming undetectable. These genes increased their expression 21 days and completely returned to normal levels 90 days after treatment. The undetectable genes include steroidogenic pathway proteins: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Scarb1, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2a1. Seven days after treatment, there were 89 mRNAs up-regulated two-fold or more including Pkib. These up-regulated mRNAs returned to normal 90 days after treatment. Cyp2a1 did not start to recover until 35 days after treatment, indicating that this gene is only expressed in ALCs not in the precursor cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining using tissue array confirmed the changes of several randomly picked genes and their proteins.

  3. Body fluid volumes in rats with mestranol-induced hypertension

    Because estrogens have been reported to produce sodium retention, this study investigated the possibility that hypertension in rats resulting from the ingestion of an estrogen used as an oral contraceptive could be due to increases in body fluid volumes. Female rats were given feed containing mestranol for 1, 3, and 6 mo; control rats were given the feed without mestranol. The mestranol-treated rats had higher arterial pressures than the controls only after 6 mo of treatment. Plasma volume, extracellular fluid volume, and total body water were measured in each rat by the distribution volumes of radioiodinated serum albumin, 32SO4, and tritiated water, respectively. The body fluid volumes, expressed per 100 g of body weight, were not different between the mestranol-treated rats and their controls at any of the three treatment times. Due to differences in body weight and lean body mass between the mestranol-treated and the control rats, these volumes also were expressed per 100 g of lean body mass. Again, no differences were observed between the mestranol-treated rats and the control rats for any of these body fluid compartments at any of the treatment times. These studies, therefore, were unable to provide evidence that increases in body fluid volumes contributed to the elevated arterial pressure in this rat model of oral contraceptive hypertension

  4. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Romestaing, Caroline; Piquet, Marie-Astrid; Bedu, Elodie; Rouleau, Vincent; Dautresme, Marianne; Hourmand-Ollivier, Isabelle; Filippi, Céline; Duchamp, Claude; Sibille, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH featur...

  5. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Romestaing, C.; PIQUET, MA; Bedu, E.; Rouleau, V.; Dautresme, M.; Hourmand-Ollivier, I.; Filippi, C.; Duchamp, C.; Sibille, B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods: 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results: MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH fea...

  6. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Filippi Céline; Duchamp Claude; Hourmand-Ollivier Isabelle; Dautresme Marianne; Rouleau Vincent; Bedu Elodie; Piquet Marie-Astrid; Romestaing Caroline; Sibille Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NA...

  7. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other mechanisms might play a role in feed intake regulation. Under hypoxia feed intake and oxygen consumption are interrelated. In this thesis we proposed the ‘oxystatic’ concept of feed intake regulat...

  8. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  9. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk of Mizoram

    James Lalthansanga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1 on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration at 0% (G1, 20% (G2, 30% (G3, and 40% (G4. Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05, although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01 as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  10. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien;

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati......We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey...... concentrations, and that chemical prey perception is feasible if prey cells release dissolved organic material in short-lasting but intense bursts. We demonstrate that mechanoreception at a very short range is sufficient to sustain a living, even in a dilute ocean. Further, if chemoreception requires that prey...... and Centropages hamatus, offered a 45-μm sized dinoflagellate at very low concentration. The observed short prey detection distances, up to a few prey cell radii, are consistent with mechanoreception and we argue briefly that near-field mechanoreception is the most likely and common prey perception mechanism...

  11. Standardization of model to induce obesity in rats

    Gipsis Suárez Román

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a risk factor for multiple diseases. There are various rat models to induce this condition. Genetic models and diet-induced obesity are expensive. Within the models of hypothalamic obesity, there is one achieved by the administration of monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. This substance is not expensive and causes the major metabolic alterations observed in human obesity. Objective: to select an appropriate treatment scheme to induce obesity with monosodium glutamate during neonatal period. Methods: monosodium glutamate was administered to Wistar rats during the neonatal period, using three different treatment schemes (with five, seven and ten doses of 4mg/g/day through two routes of administration: subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. Controls were administered 0.9% sodium chloride. To establish the diagnosis of obesity, the following variables were measured at 90 days: weight, snout-anus length and Lee index. Results: with all treatment schemes tested, snout-anus length was statistically different between the group treated with monosodium glutamate and the controls group. 100% of the rats that reached adulthood injected with monosodium glutamate was obese. Conclusion: the scheme of five doses of monosodium glutamate, applied subcutaneously on alternate days, was selected as obesity is obtained with less handling and lower percentage of neonatal deaths.

  12. Local feed resources for poultry

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  13. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were...

  14. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of the effect of chronic exposure to 137Cesium on sleep-wake cycle in rats

    Since the Chernobyl accident, the most significant problem for the population living in the contaminated areas is chronic exposure by ingestion of radionuclides, notably 137Cs, a radioactive isotope of cesium. It can be found in the whole body, including the central nervous system. The present study aimed to assess the effect of 137Cs on the central nervous system and notably on open-field activity and the electroencephalographic pattern. Rats were exposed up to 90 days to drinking water contaminated with 137Cs at a dosage of 400 Bq kg-1, which is similar to that ingested by the population living in contaminated territories. At this level of exposure, no significant effect was observed on open-field activity. On the other hand, at 30 days exposure, 137Cs decreased the number of episodes of wakefulness and slow wave sleep and increased the mean duration of these stages. At 90 days exposure, the power of 0.5-4 Hz band of 137Cs-exposed rats was increased in comparison with controls. These electrophysiological changes may be due to a regional 137Cs accumulation in the brain stem. In conclusion, the neurocognitive effects of 137Cs need further evaluation and central disorders of population living in contaminated territories must be considered

  16. Child feeding and human rights

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  17. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  18. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  19. Feeding-induced oleoylethanolamide mobilization is disrupted in the gut of diet-induced obese rodents.

    Igarashi, Miki; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Narayanaswami, Vidya; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by initiating neural and hormonal responses to the ingestion of nutrients. In addition to peptide hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CKK) and peptide YY (PYY), the lipid-derived mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been implicated in the control of satiety. Previous studies in humans and rodent models have shown that obesity is associated with changes in CCK, PYY and other gut-derived peptide hormones, which may contribute to decreased satiety and increased energy intake. In the present study, we show that small-intestinal OEA production is disrupted in the gut of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and mice. In lean rodents, feeding or duodenal infusion of Intralipid® or pure oleic acid stimulates jejunal OEA mobilization. This response is strikingly absent in DIO rats and mice. Confirming previous reports, we found that feeding rats or mice a high-fat diet for 7 days is sufficient to suppress jejunal OEA mobilization. Surprisingly, a similar effect is elicited by feeding rats and mice a high-sucrose low-fat diet for 7 days. Collectively, our findings suggest that high fat-induced obesity is accompanied by alterations in the post-digestive machinery responsible for OEA biosynthesis, which may contribute to reduced satiety and hyperphagia. PMID:26024927

  20. SEABIOPLAS project Seaweed co-products as micro-additives in fish feed

    Maria João Dias Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    The role of the CIIMAR team in the project is to study the use of seaweeds and their extracts in fish nutrition. Several variables, such as zootecnical parameters, metabolic and digestive enzymes, as well as stress and immune response parameters will be used as indicators of growth performance, fish health and welfare conditions. To do so, several feeding trials will be carried out under controlled rearing conditions, where biotic and abiotic factors will be used as stressors to determine the protective effects of seaweed supplementation in fish diets. Juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, will be used as the fish model, in a fast growing stage (IBW: 15-50 g. Each dietary treatment (control diet vs. experimental diets will be fed in triplicate groups for approximately 90 days, twice a day to apparent satiety. Fish will be individually marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag prior to the beginning of the trials for monitoring individual fish performance. During the trials, samplings will be carried out at different times for determination the effects of treatment duration on the results. Growth performance will be determined by means of growth rate (% body weight/day; feed conversion ratio (FCR; voluntary fed intake (VFI, % body weight/day; protein efficiency ratio (PER; nutrient retention efficiency (%. To evaluate fish health and welfare condition, several stress biomarkers will be determine, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LP, oxidized protein (POx; Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. In addition, gross morphometric indices: such as the condition factor (K and hepato-somatic index (HSI will be calculated as auxiliary indicators of health status and liver condition of fish. For immune parameters, plasma for humoral analyses parameters will be used (peroxidase, lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity and superoxide anion production.

  1. The global feed market: Asian perspectives

    Zhou, Zhang-Yue

    2004-01-01

    Global demand for feed, especially cereal feed, is expected to increase in the decades to come. At the global level, demand for cereal feed will be met by the supply. There are, however, disparities between regions. As a result of strong livestock industry development, the Asian region as a whole will have a shortage of cereal feed and will become a major cereal feed importer. This paper examines existing projections of feed demand and supply in the Asian region. It also sheds light on the im...

  2. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  3. Evaluating the various phases of cisplatin-induced emesis in rats

    Shi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Use of cisplatin as a chemotherapeutic agent causes acute and delayed emesis. Kaolin, saccharin solution and normal feed consumption have been evaluated as an index of cisplatin-induced emesis in rats; however, the most preferable of these methods for evaluating the various phases of emesis remains unclear. In the current study, kaolin, saccharin solution and normal feed consumption following cisplatin administration (6 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were simultaneously investigated in rats. Kaolin...

  4. Infectivity of Canadian isolates of Trichinella spiralis nativa for swine, rats and carnivores.

    Smith, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The infectivity of Trichinella spiralis nativa isolates from widely separated geographic areas of Canada was determined by feeding infected musculature to swine, laboratory rats and carnivores (cats, foxes, ferrets). Low infectivity for swine and rats and high infectivity for carnivores were observed. Light infections were established in four of 16 swine examined between 25 and 53 days postinfection. Feeding of infected porcine musculature to ferrets demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis nat...

  5. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  6. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-01-01

    Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composit...

  7. Chemopreventive Effects of Morindia Citrifolia Juice (noni on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: Preliminary Study

    Ana Milena Serrano Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effect of Morindia citrifolia juice (Tahitian Noni® in the development of breast cancer induced by carcinogen agent 7.12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA in rats. For this purpose, the breast cancer induction model 1.7-DMBA was used on Spraguey Dawley nulliparous rats of 35 days of age, randomly divided into three groups: group 1 control, which received no treatment, and groups 2 and 3, induced with DMBA at a dose of 55 mg/kg. The latter received a dose of noni juice of 4 ml/kg per day for 90 days. The results showed that a significant percentage (83.33% of the rats from the group induced with DMBA not treated with noni juice developed palpable breast tumors ( ≤ 2 cm of the ductal carcinoma in situ type and atypical ductal hyperplasia, compared to the other groups that did not develop any kind of tumors. In addition, it was found that rats that developed breast cancer had a lower weight gain and significantly increased water consumption (p < 0.05 compared to the other two groups. The results of the hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes between groups. Histopathological changes compatible with liver toxicity were found in rats treated with noni juice. In conclusion, it was found in this preliminary study that noni juice has positive effects in modulating the development of breast cancer induced by DMBA.

  8. Preventive Effects of Flaxseed and Sesame Oil on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    S. Boulbaroud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was designed to examine the effects of dietary flaxseed oil (FO and sesame oil (SO which are rich successively in n-3 and (n-9 and n-6 on biochemical parameters and histological status of bone. Sixty-four 90-day-old female wistar rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups: sham-operated rat (sham+ control diets, ovariectomized rat (OVX+ control diets, OVX+ 7% FO, OVX+ 7% SO, OVX+ 10% FO, OVX+ 10% SO. After 4 weeks of treatments, rats were euthanized; blood and tissues were collected for analyses. Markers of bone formation which is alkaline phosphatase activity and markers of bone resorption which is tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity were measured. Present results showed that OVX increased significantly ALP and TRAP activity and the examination of bone tissue showed disruptive and lytic bone trabeculae. Animals fed 10% FO and 10% SO of fat reduced these parameters and improved bone microarchitecture. Whereas, there was no improvement in biochemical and histological states in OVX rats that received 7% of PUFAs successively provided from FO and SO diets. In conclusion, our results are encouraging because they suggest that PUFAs intake may help to prevent osteoporosis associated with estrogens deficiency. However, further studies are needed to determine the mechanism by which a diet rich in n-3 or lignans modulate bone tissue.

  9. Early repeated maternal separation induces alterations of hippocampus reelin expression in rats

    Jianlong Zhang; Lina Qin; Hu Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The long-term effects of repeated maternal separation (MS) during early postnatal life on reelin expression in the hippocampus of developing rats were investigated in the present study. MS was carried out by separating Wistar rat pups singly from their mothers for 3 h a day during postnatal days (PND) 2–14. Reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus were determined using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, at PND 22, PND 60 and PND 90. MS resulted in the loss of body weight in the developing rats, and reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus generally were down-regulated over the developing period, but the reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus of 90-day-old male rats were up-regulated. These findings suggest that the long-term effects of MS on the expression levels of hippocampal reelin mRNA and protein depends on the age at which the stressed rats’ brains were collected; reelin had important implications for the maternal-neonate interaction needed for normal brain development. In conclusion, repeated MS occurring during early postnatal life may cause the alterations of hippocampal reelin expression with the increasing age of developing rats.

  10. Persistence of the reproductive toxicity of chlorpiryphos-ethyl in male Wistar rat

    Augustave Kenfack; Tah Patience Nain; Pierre Kamtchouing; Joseph Tchoumbou; Narcisse Bertin Vemo; Ferdinand Ngoula; Paul Dsir Womeni Dzeufiet; Omer Bb Ngouateu; Judith Kegne Chombong; Guylne Marie Zambou Zeukeng; Isabelle Leinyuy Nyuysemo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of chlorpiryphos-ethyl (CE) on male fertility. Methods:Rats were gavaged daily from 30 to 120 days old with four doses of CE (10.50;5.25;3.50 and 0.00 mg/kg) and thereafter followed up for 90 additional days. Following this period of observation, each male rat was submitted to a fertility test with two virgin females. Male were then sacrificed and organs collected while females were followed up till delivery. Results:The weights of the testis and epididymis were lower (P<0.05) in rats treated with 10.50 mg/kg CE dose compared to controls. A decrease in the number of sperm per cauda epididymis was recorded in rat given the highest dose of CE with respect to the control value. The sperm motility was lower (P<0.05) in all CE-treated groups compared to the controls. Severe histological abnormalities were observed in testes of treated rats. The males exposed to the highest dose of CE did not produce any offspring. Conclusion:The effects of CE on reproductive system were persistent 90 days after the end of exposure.

  11. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  12. Pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide production facility particles in rats.

    Badding, Melissa A; Fix, Natalie R; Orandle, Marlene S; Barger, Mark W; Dunnick, Katherine M; Cummings, Kristin J; Leonard, Stephen S

    2016-04-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. Occupational exposures to potentially toxic particles generated during ITO production have increased in recent years as the demand for consumer electronics continues to rise. Previous studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity in vitro and animal models have shown pulmonary inflammation and injury in response to various indium-containing particles. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which indium materials or specific processes in the workplace may be the most toxic to workers is unknown. Here we examined the pulmonary toxicity of three different particle samples that represent real-life worker exposures, as they were collected at various production stages throughout an ITO facility. Indium oxide (In2O3), sintered ITO (SITO) and ventilation dust (VD) particles each caused pulmonary inflammation and damage in rats over a time course (1, 7 and 90 days post-intratracheal instillation), but SITO and VD appeared to induce greater toxicity in rat lungs than In2O3 at a dose of 1 mg per rat. Downstream pathological changes such as PAP and fibrosis were observed in response to all three particles 90 days after treatment, with a trend towards greatest severity in animals exposed to VD when comparing animals that received the same dose. These findings may inform workplace exposure reduction efforts and provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of an emerging occupational health issue. PMID:26472246

  13. Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome'

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159392.html Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome' C-section birth ... microbiomes" are altered by cesarean births, antibiotics and formula feeding. "The microbiome is really important in how ...

  14. Postoperative jejunal feeding and outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Baradi, Hani; Walsh, R Matthew; Henderson, J Michael; Vogt, David; Popovich, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy are common, partly because of nutritional debilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of early postoperative tube feeding on outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy and determine the best method for delivering enteral feeding. A retrospective review of 180 consecutive patients undergoing Whipple operations from 1994 to 2000 was performed. Two nonrandomized patient groups were retrospectively studied: those with early postoperative tube feeding vs. those with no planned feeding. Ninety-eight patients (54%) received postoperative jejunal feeding, whereas 82 patients (46%) did not. Jejunal feeding was delivered via a bridled nasojejunal tube in 55 patients (56%) and a gastrojejunal tube in 43 (44%). Vomiting (10% vs. 29%; P=0.002) and use of total parenteral nutrition (6% vs. 27%; P nutrition and lower rates of readmission and complications. A bridled nasojejunal feeding tube appears to be a safe and reliable method of short-term enteral feeding. PMID:15120367

  15. NPY presynaptic actions are reduced in the hypothalamic mpPVN of obese (fa/fa), but not lean, Zucker rats in vitro

    Pronchuk, Nina; Colmers, William F

    2004-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) profoundly enhances feeding when injected intracerebroventricularly, or directly into hypothalamic nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Paradoxically, NPY has a reduced action on feeding in obese Zucker rats relative to lean Zucker rats, although the obese rats have much higher levels of hypothalamic NPY expression. GABAergic inputs to a subpopulation of medial parvocellular PVN (mpPVN) neurons are sensitive to NPY. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the bl...

  16. Effects of Brown Seaweed (Sargassum polycystum) Extracts on Kidney, Liver, and Pancreas of Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Mahsa Motshakeri; Mahdi Ebrahimi; Yong Meng Goh; Hemn Hassan Othman; Mohd Hair-Bejo; Suhaila Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The edible seaweed Sargassum polycystum (SP) is traditionally used against several human diseases. This investigation evaluated the effects of two dietary doses of SP ethanolic and aqueous extracts on the pancreatic, hepatic, and renal morphology of type 2 diabetic rats (T2DM). T2DM was induced by feeding rats on high calorie diet followed by a low dose streptozotocin. Changes in the diabetic rat organs in SP treated groups with different doses of extracts were compared with normal rats, diab...

  17. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

    Hernández-Salinas, Romina; Decap, Valerie; Leguina, Alberto; Cáceres, Patricio; Perez, Druso; Urquiaga, Ines; Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Velarde, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP), rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with...

  18. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  19. Feed in conditions of contamination

    After the Chernobyl accident a population of the having suffered regions (more than 2 million person) was subjected to excessive radiation effect. Use of 'clean' foods promotes an accelerated removing of radionuclides from a body, reduces their accumulation and makes active immunity. The content of radionuclide in various food products is shown, the main public health requirements for food products are indicated, the ration and feeding mode recommendations are given for the population living on contaminated territories. 2 tabs

  20. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  1. Feeding level and frequency for freshwater angelfish

    Felipe de Azevedo Silva Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal feeding level and feeding frequency for the culture of freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare. A randomized block design in a factorial scheme (3 × 2 with three feeding levels (30, 60 and 90 g/kg of body weight (BW/day and two feeding frequencies (1x and 2x/day was set up in duplicate, representing 24 experimental units. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the Tukey test for comparison between means. After 84 days, results indicated that both factors influenced fish performance. No interaction between these factors was, however, observed. Increased feeding level and feeding frequency resulted in increased feed intake. The feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by feeding level, but not affected by feeding frequency. Final weights were higher when fish were fed twice daily, at levels of 60 or 90 g/kg BW/day. Specific growth rate was higher when fish received 60 or 90 g/kg BW/day, regardless of the feeding frequency. Survival was not affected by any treatment, with mean survival rates higher than 90%. It is recommended that juveniles be fed at a level of 60 g/kg BW/day with a minimum of two meals per day, to attain optimal survival, growth and feed efficiency.

  2. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  3. Comparison of Nutrition Compositions of Juvenile Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) Fed with Live Feed and Formula Feed

    Shi, Pei-Song; Zhu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Qin; GU, Qian-Hong; XIONG, Bang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Compositions of the amino acid and fatty acid in the muscle of the juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were assessed after being fed with live feed and formula feed for 60 days. The crude fat content of formula feed group was significantly higher than that of live feed group (P

  4. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    . Therefore a project for studying resistance levels in sewer rats was undertaken in an urban area of a municipality in southern Zealand from where surface rats had been tested during the foregoing years. Rats resistant to difenacoum represented the highest level of resistance in the municipality. Rats were...... primarily tested for possible resistance to coumatetralyl, bromadiolone and difenacoum by Blood Clotting Response tests. Feeding test was used in tests for resistance to difethialone. A total of 24 rats trapped in sewers at 15 locations were tested. Resistance to bromadiolone was found among rats from all...... sewer rat locations and resistance to difenacoum was found in rats from 11. No rats were found resistant to difethialone. The findings of rats resistant to difenacoum in a majority of the sewer locations clearly indicate that use of bromadiolone is insufficient for an effective control. Rodenticides...

  5. Quantity of glucosinolates in 10 cabbage genotypes and their impact on the feeding of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars

    Bohinc Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, we studied the glucosinolate content in 5 cultivars and 5 cabbage hybrids grown outdoors in order to study their influence on the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars (Mamestra brassicae. The selected genotypes were categorized into three groups, early (the growth period from 55 to 70 days, mid-early (80-90 days and mid-late (110-140 days, while the samples of cabbage for glucosinolate analysis were taken at five intervals, during which we also assessed genotypes for the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. We found that the feeding of caterpillars affected primarily the mid-early and mid-late genotypes of cabbage, and that the glucosinolate content among the different cabbage genotypes varies. The highest content of the analyzed glucosinolates was established in mid-late genotypes. Glucobrassicin was the only glucosinolate found in all cabbage genotypes, yet its antixenotic effect (r=0.20 was very low. We found that sinalbin negatively affects the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars in mid-early cabbage genotypes (r=-0.34, while the same effect of sinigrin on the extent of damage can be observed in mid-late genotypes (r=-0.27. We have established a strong or moderate correlation between the gluconapin (r=0.87 and progoitrin (r=0.66 contents in mid-late genotypes and the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. Our research proves that different cabbage genotypes are responsible for different susceptibilities to damage by the cabbage moth, and that one of the factors of natural resistance of cabbage are also glucosinolates. Despite this, due to their variability in cabbage we cannot precisely determine the set of genotypes that would ensure a higher cabbage yield as a result of less damage caused by the cabbage moth. Thus, we need to identify in more detail the reasons for the time and quantum variability of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae.

  6. 40 CFR 161.340 - Toxicology data requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... vitro or in vivo testing. (C) Produces in subchronic studies a morphologic effect (e.g., hyperplasia... No. Acute testing Acute oral toxicity—rat (1) MP and TGAI EP* or EP dilution* and TGAI 81-1 Acute... TGAI 81-7 Subchronic testing 90-day feeding studies—rodent and nonrodent (17) CR CR CR CR CR CR...

  7. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  8. Traveling Companions Add Complexity and Hinder Performance in the Spatial Behavior of Rats

    Dorfman, Alex; Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Eilam, David

    2016-01-01

    and feeding in groups is a way of poison avoidance in wild rats. Finally, the addition of a social component added complexity to the environment since the rats organized their spatial behavior in reference to one another in addition to their organization in the physical surrounding. Consequently, when tested...

  9. Accumbal core: Essential link in feed-forward spiraling striato-nigro-striatal in series connected loop

    Ikeda, H.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to establish the behavioral role of the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) core in the feed-forward spiraling striato-nigro-striatal circuitry that transmits information from the Nacc shell toward the dorsal subregion of the neostriatum (DS) in freely moving rats. Unilateral

  10. Feed and Feed Preheating Effect on MED-TVC Enhancement

    Rapid and significant growth of world installed capacity of Reverse Osmosis (RO) followed by Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) has taken place year after year. Efforts are made to improve the system performance through increasing productivity and lowering specific power consumption by utilizing waste heat for seawater feed pre heat. The present work studies the importance of seawater pre heating in MED by utilizing power plants condenser cooling water. A steady state mathematical model for Multi - Effect Distillation combined with Thermal Vapor Compression (MED-TVC) system and the governing equations are solved using a computer program to evaluate the MED-TVC system performance. The model validity is examined by data collected from two MED - TVC plants which showed good agreement. Furthermore; the study results show that an increase of seawater feed temperature from 32 to 46 degree C enhances the system productivity. Also, it increases the Gain Output Ratio by 8.7%, and decreases the specific heat consumption and the heat transfer are a by 9.6% and 17.4% respectively

  11. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  12. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [125I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β1- and β2-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β1-adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  13. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA) Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  14. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies. PMID:90775

  15. Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats

    Gomes C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10 and handled (N = 11. Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip, the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11 was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10. Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.

  16. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57Co-vitamin B12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B12 was unimpaired. (author)

  17. Oxidative stress is reduced in Wistar rats exposed to smoke from tobacco and treated with specific broad-band pulse electromagnetic fields

    Bajić V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of attempts to reduce the oxidative radical burden of tobacco. A recently patented technology, pulse electromagnetic technology, has been shown to induce differential action of treated tobacco products versus untreated products on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo. In a 90-day respiratory toxicity study, Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke from processed and unprocessed tobacco and biomarkers of oxidative stress were compared with pathohistological analysis of rat lungs. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner to 81% in rats exposed to smoke from normal cigarettes compared to rats exposed to treated smoke or the control group. These results correspond to pathohistological analysis of rat lungs, in which those rats exposed to untreated smoke developed initial signs of emphysema, while rats exposed to treated smoke showed no pathology, as in the control group. The promise of inducing an improved health status in humans exposed to smoke from treated cigarettes merits further investigation.

  18. Effects of Chronic Administration of Melatonin on Spatial Learning Ability and Long-term Potentiation in Lead-exposed and Control Rats

    XIU-JING CAO; MING WANG; WEI-HENG CHEN; DA-MIAO ZHU; JIA-QI SHE; DI-YUN RUAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes in spatial learning performance and long-term potentiation (LTP) which is recognized as a component of the cellular basis of learning and memory in normal and lead-exposed rats after administration of melatonin (MT) for two months. Methods Experiment was performed in adult male Wistar rats (12 controls, 12 exposed to melatonin treatment, 10 exposed to lead and 10 exposed to lead and melatonin treatment). The lead-exposed rats received 0.2% lead acetate solution from their birth day while the control rats drank tap water. Melatonin (3 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to the control and lead-exposed rats from the time of their weaning by gastric garage each day for 60 days, depending on their groups. At the age of 81-90 days, all the animals were subjected to Morris water maze test and then used for extracellular recording of LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG) area of the hippocampus in vivo. Results Low dose of melatonin given from weaning for two months impaired LTP in the DG area of hippocampus and induced learning and memory deficit in the control rats. When melatonin was administered over a prolonged period to the lead-exposed rats, it exacerbated LTP impairment, learning and memory deficit induced by lead. Conclusion Melatonin is not suitable for normal and lead-exposed children.

  19. Morphological changes of sclera in rats with experimental myopia

    Ulyanova N.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The absence of adequate experimental myopia model is the actual problem in pathophysiological studying of the myopia progression. Studies of the chick eye have formed the basis for several hypotheses of myopic development. The most pathogenesis reasonable myopia animal model is a form-deprivation myopia in chicks. It is necessary to study the dynamics of morphological changes in sclera in rats with form-deprivation myopia. Purpose. To investigate changes in the linear dimensions of eyeball and the morphological features of sclera in form-deprivation myopia in rats. Methods. In rats aged 14 days simulated form-deprivation myopia by blepharorrhaphy. The linear dimensions of the eyeball and morphological properties of sclera were studied on the 7th and 14th day of the experiment. Properties of sclera has been studied on the light and electron microscopic level. Results. The studies revealed increasing of sagittal, horizontal and vertical sizes of eyeball in rats with form-deprivation myopia. Sagittal size of the eye in intact rats aged 30 days was on average 4,84±0,08 mm, at the age of 90 days 5,14±0,01 mm. On the 14-th day of modeling myopia (age rats 30 days sagittal size of the eye averaged 5,18±0,06 mm. The collagen fibrils architectonics changes in sclera were revealed mainly in the posterior pole of eyeball. Architectonics broken collagen fibers observed fragmentation, swelling, reduced cell number. Revealed deformation of the scleral ring in the optic disc. Conclusion. Vision deprivation in rats leads to increased growth rate of the linear dimensions of eyeball, more sagittal compared to intact animals (p<0,05, suggesting the development of axial myopia. Minimal changes of sclera collagen fibrils such as swelling were set in the equatorial region of myopic eyeball. Disorders of architectonics and structure of collagen fibrils, degenerative and destructive changes in fibroblasts, deformation of the scleral ring were revealed in

  20. Salmonella occurrence and Enterobacteriaceae counts in pig feed ingredients and compound feed from feed mills in Ireland.

    Burns, Anne Marie; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; McCabe, Evonne M; Walsh, Des; Mohammed, Manal; Grant, Jim; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of non-typhoidal Salmonellae and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw ingredients and compound feeds sampled from feed mills manufacturing pig diets. Between November 2012 and September 2013, feed ingredients (n=340) and compound pig feed (n=313) samples were collected from five commercial feed mills and one home compounder at various locations throughout Ireland. Feed ingredients included cereals, vegetable protein sources and by-products of oil extraction and ethanol production. The compound feeds included meal and pelleted feed for all stages of pig production. Samples were analysed for Salmonella using standard enrichment procedures. Recovered isolates were serotyped, characterised for antibiotic resistance and subtyped by multi locus variance analysis (MLVA). Total Enterobacteriaceae counts were also performed. Salmonella was recovered from 2/338 (0.6%) ingredients (wheat and soybean meal), at two of the six mills. Salmonella was also detected in 3/317 (0.95%) compound feeds including pelleted feed which undergoes heat treatment. All isolates recovered from feed ingredient and compound feed samples were verified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype (4,[5],12:i:-) that lack the expression of flagellar Phase 2 antigens representing monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-). Isolates exhibited resistance to between two and seven antimicrobials. Two distinct MLVA profiles were observed, with the same profile recovered from both feed and ingredients, although these did not originate at the same mill. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Salmonella and a high Enterobacteriaceae counts but it was shown that Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in pelleted feed (heat treated) than in meal (no heat treatment) and that Enterobacteriaceae counts would be very useful indicator in HACPP programme. Overall, although the prevalence of Salmonella in pig feed and feed

  1. Oral subchronic exposure to silver nanoparticles in rats.

    Garcia, Tania; Lafuente, Daisy; Blanco, Jordi; Sánchez, Domènec J; Sirvent, Juan J; Domingo, José L; Gómez, Mercedes

    2016-06-01

    Because of their extremely small size, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show unique physical and chemical properties, with specific biological effects, which make them particularly attractive for being used in a number of consumer applications. However, these properties also influence the potential toxicity of AgNPs. In this study, we assessed the potential toxic effects of an in vivo oral sub-chronic exposure to polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) in adult male rats. We also assessed if oral PVP-AgNPs exposure could alter the levels of various metals (Fe, Mg, Zn and Cu) in tissues. Rats were orally given 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of PVP-AgNPs. Silver (Ag) accumulation in tissues, Ag excretion, biochemical and hematological parameters, metal levels, as well as histopathological changes and subcellular distribution following PVP-AgNPs exposure, were also investigated. After 90 days of treatment, AgNPs were found within hepatic and ileum cells. The major tissue concentration of Ag was found in ileum of treated animals. However, all tissues of PVP-AgNPs-exposed animals showed increased levels of Ag in comparison with those of rats in the control group. No harmful effects in liver and kidney, as well as in biochemical markers were noted at any treatment dose. In addition, no hematological or histopathological changes were found in treated animals. However, significant differences in Cu and Zn levels were found in thymus and brain of PVP-AgNPs-treated rats. PMID:27090107

  2. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  3. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in rats: Indication for using hair as bioindicator of exposure.

    Gao, Bei; He, Xin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Huanhuan; Saito, Norimitsu; Tsuda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis is potentially advantageous in exposure assessment of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) as a non-invasive method, combined with the ability to reflect long-term exposure. The present study aims to assess the feasibility of using hair as an indicator of PFAA exposure. Adult male and female rats were subchronically exposed to selected PFAAs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), for 90 days. Hair, serum, and other tissues, including liver, kidney, spleen, lung, brain and heart, as well as the urine and feces excretions, were analyzed for PFAA levels. PFOA/PFNA/PFOS were detected in rat hair in a dose-dependent manner, in the order of PFOS>PFNA>PFOA. Hair PFAA concentrations were higher in male rats than the female rats, except for PFOS at low dose. Moreover, significant positive correlations as well as similar PFAA profiles were observed between hair, serum, and other tissues. Besides, hair PFAAs were negatively correlated with the urinary excretion rate. Although the influencing factors in humans still need further investigation, the results suggested that hair is capable of reflecting PFAA exposure, and could be employed as an alternative exposure bioindicator of PFAAs. PMID:25118134

  4. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  5. Evaluation of antiosteoporotic activity of Root extract of Rubia Cordifolia in Ovariectomized Rats

    Kasabi Shivakumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the antiosteoporotic activity of ethanolic extract from the root of Rubia cordifolia (RC in bilateral-overiectomy induced osteoporotic rats. The study was performed on female Sprague-dawley rats. Two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of RC root were evaluated by acute oral toxicity test. Raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg was used as a reference standard. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 per group. Bilateral-overiectomy was performed for all the rats except for the rats from group-1, which were sham-operated and served as a basal control. Rats from group-2 were served as an OVX-control and received vehicle. Group-3 was administered with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg, p.o. and served as a standard control. Group-4 and 5 were administered with suspension of ethanolic root extract of RC (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. respectively. Treatment was given for 90 days starting from the 15th day after surgery. At the end of the study, the blood samples from all the groups were withdrawn to assess biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and femur bones were isolated for biomechanical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies. Increased biomechanical strength, calcium absorption, minimal osteoclastic activity and enhanced osteoblastic activity were observed in the rats treated with ethanolic extract of RC root. SEM data adds a confirmatory note to the findings. All these results demonstrate significantly antiosteoporotic activity of RC extract. Further studies are required to determine the active components that are responsible for its antiosteoporotic activity.

  6. Processes of 30–90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer

    Vialard, J.; Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Lengaigne, M.; Sengupta, D.; Goswami, B.N.

    .25 for wind stress) and in observations (0.8 regression coefficient); *60% of the heat flux variation is due do shortwave radiation and *40% due to latent heat flux. On the other hand, both observations and model results indicate a prominent role of dynamical...

  7. 77 FR 58084 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    2012-09-19

    ... the Federal Register (56 FR 56491) a proposed rule to list the scimitar-horned oryx, addax, and dama... nonviable in most cases (70 FR 52319). For more information on the scimitar-horned oryx, dama gazelle, and... on Petitions To Delist U.S. Captive Populations of the Scimitar-Horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle, and...

  8. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    2012-08-27

    ... species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is... because of its life history and the age it must reach before it can reproduce. The species is prized for its flesh and its caviar and was an important commercial species until the beginning of the...

  9. Effect of 90-day space flight (MDS-ISS) on immunological parameters in mice: lymphocyte distribution and function

    Roberts, Arthur; Lhuillier, Andrew; Liu, Yi; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Shi, Yufang

    Elucidation of the effects of space flight on the immune system of astronauts and other animal species is important for the survival and success of manned space flight, especially long-term missions. Space flight exposes astronauts to microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and various psycho-social stressors. Blood samples from astronauts returning from space flight have shown changes in the numbers and types of circulating leukocytes. Similarly, normal lym-phocyte homeostasis has been shown to be severely affected in mice using ground-based models of microgravity and GCR exposure, as demonstrated by profound effects on several immuno-logical parameters examined by other investigators and ourselves. In particular, lymphocyte numbers are significantly reduced and subpopulation distribution is altered in the spleen, thy-mus, and peripheral blood following hindlimb unloading (HU) in mice. Lymphocyte depletion was found to be mediated through corticosteroid-induced apoptosis, although the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction is still under investigation. The proliferative capacity of TCR-stimulated lymphocytes was also inhibited after HU. We have similarly shown that mice exposed to high-energy 56Fe ion radiation have decreased lymphocyte numbers and perturba-tions in proportions of various subpopulations, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and B cells in the spleen, and maturation stages of immature T cells in the thymus. To compare these ground-based results to the effects of actual space-flight, fresh spleen and thymus samples were recently obtained from normal and transgenic mice immediately after 90 d. space-flight in the MDS, and identically-housed ground control mice. Total leukocyte numbers in each organ were enumerated, and subpopulation distribution was examined by flow cytometric analysis of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD25, DX-5, and CD11b. Splenic T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 and assessed for proliferation after 2-4 d., and production of several cytokines was examined using Luminex technology and quantitative PCR. These data are currently being collected and analyzed.

  10. 76 FR 47123 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune...

    2011-08-04

    ... (MW) of electricity based on concentrating solar power technology. The proposed plant, including the... concentrating solar power technology and would be located on about 7,500 ac (3,035 ha) of BLM-managed lands in... a solar power generation facility (Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project), associated...

  11. 75 FR 48914 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Tiger...

    2010-08-12

    ... activities on wild specimens where conservation benefits will be most effective (63 FR 48634, September 11... second year of life is 17 percent, while infanticide is overall the most common cause of cub death... subspecies threatened with extinction in other countries'') under the Endangered Species Conservation Act...

  12. 76 FR 9320 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    2011-02-17

    ... on extinction risk and impacts or threats discussed above. Distribution and Life History of Alabama... defines as ``a very high risk of extinction in the wild.'' The IUCN bases its species classifications on... extinction risk that is cause for concern; this may be indicated in information expressly discussing...

  13. 75 FR 41436 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical...

    2010-07-16

    ...; 44 FR 17711, March 23, 1979) as rationale for likewise designating the waters off the Northeast... offshore, whichever is further, and including the existing marine extensions of Espiritu Santo, Cabezas...

  14. 76 FR 25660 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical...

    2011-05-05

    ... the petitioned revision may be warranted (75 FR 41436, July 16, 2010). Under the ESA, NMFS, and USFWS.... The petitioner also cited the proposed Pacific leatherback critical habitat (75 FR 319; January 5..., whichever is further, and including the existing marine extensions of the Espiritu Santo, Cabezas de...

  15. 77 FR 52301 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Prince of...

    2012-08-29

    ... nematode (Strongyloides robustus) that can cause huge die-offs of northern flying squirrels (Weigl 2007, pp... causing changes in the distribution and decreasing the survival of yellow cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis; Haufler et al. 2010, pp. 19- 20). The resulting die-offs of yellow cedar stands temporarily increase...

  16. 75 FR 51969 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Oklahoma...

    2010-08-24

    ... a petition dated May 22, 2008, from Dr. Douglas Goldman of the Harvard University Herbaria... indicates that, based on 237 herbarium specimen records, the species may be extirpated from nine States of... Tennessee) (Petition, p. 2). The petition also states that these same herbarium records indicate the...

  17. 75 FR 39656 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions to List the...

    2010-07-12

    ... describing what constitutes a DPS of a taxonomic species (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). The joint DPS policy... waters; however, recent evidence from pop-up archival tags has revealed that mature female porbeagle... determined that it was unlikely that infertility rates were associated with exposure to contaminants...

  18. 78 FR 63941 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 23 Species of Corals as...

    2013-10-25

    ... deforestation activity somewhere near or within its range. While this species is restricted to a relatively... location or extent of the deforestation activity nor the extent of the range of the species affected by deforestation. Therefore, we find that for L. ranjithi, the species-specific information presented in...

  19. 77 FR 45 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Sierra Nevada...

    2012-01-03

    ... them at risk of attack, death, or diseases such as rabies, sarcoptic mange, canine distemper, and... canine distemper, rabies, and sarcoptic mange to Sierra Nevada red fox (Perrine et al. 2010, p. 28... 2011, pp. 54-60), an outbreak of canine distemper or other lethal disease, as well as predation...

  20. 75 FR 16713 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Bumphead...

    2010-04-02

    ... also asserts that degradation of its coral habitat through coral bleaching and ocean acidification is a... asserts that the negative effects of coral bleaching and ocean acidification present a significant threat... habitat). The petition cites examples of coral bleaching events in American Samoa (citing Aeby et...

  1. 77 FR 25687 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Speckled Hind as...

    2012-05-01

    ... number of coral stressors, including coral bleaching, disease, tropical storms, coastal development and... speckled hind. A negative finding for goliath grouper was made on June 1, 2011 (76 FR 31592), while the... FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger...

  2. 76 FR 49412 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Saltmarsh Topminnow...

    2011-08-10

    ... expanded human population growth will affect the saltmarsh habitat and thus the species, ``as the global... distinct population ] segment (DPS) that interbreeds when mature (16 U.S.C. 1532(16)). A species... for the species at issue (e.g., population abundance and trends, productivity, spatial structure,...

  3. 77 FR 26478 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Dwarf Seahorse as...

    2012-05-04

    ... population segment'' for the purposes of listing, delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR... second most exported ornamental fish in Florida. Koldewey et al. (2010) conducted an international review... distinct population segment (DPS) that interbreeds when mature (16 U.S.C. 1532(16)). A joint NMFS-U.S....

  4. 77 FR 59582 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Northeastern Pacific...

    2012-09-28

    ... great white shark) under the ESA and designate critical habitat. Both petitions bring forth much of the... population segment'' for the purposes of listing, delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR... Services' DPS policy (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). The WildEarth Guardians petition asserts that all...

  5. 78 FR 24701 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Great Hammerhead...

    2013-04-26

    ... hammerhead shark is considered to be a candidate species (69 FR 19975; April 15, 2004). Within 12 months of..., to list the great hammerhead shark range-wide as threatened, and to designate critical habitat. The...'' for the purposes of listing, delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR...

  6. 75 FR 35746 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Honduran...

    2010-06-23

    ... subsequent letters supporting the petition to list this species from the Francis Lewis High School Key Club... inbreeding depression and genetic drift (random changes in gene frequency). This, in turn, compromises a... structure and decrease in gene flow between populations. (Tabanez and Viana 2000, pp. 929-932)....

  7. 77 FR 43799 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Gila...

    2012-07-26

    ... only mayfly species endemic to New Mexico, where it is known from two sites (an unnamed tributary and... dencyanna) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate... publication of this notice, we are initiating a review of the status of the species to determine if...

  8. 76 FR 9309 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Sand...

    2011-02-17

    ... include sufficient information with your submission (such as scientific journal articles or other... verbena moth from governmental agencies, Native American Tribes, the scientific community, industry, and... on other native or nonnative plant distributions, particularly nonnative beachgrass (Ammophila...

  9. 76 FR 50971 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Leona's...

    2011-08-17

    ... scientific journal articles or other publications) to allow us to verify any scientific or commercial... governmental agencies, Native American Tribes, the scientific community, industry, and any other interested... native vegetation (Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation 2010, p. 15). The second land...

  10. 76 FR 31920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Golden...

    2011-06-02

    ... sufficient information with your submission (such as scientific journal articles or other publications) to... golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) from governmental agencies, Native American Tribes,...

  11. 77 FR 67784 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Heller...

    2012-11-14

    ... with your submission (such as scientific journal articles or other publications) to allow us to verify... (Typhlogastrura helleri) from governmental agencies, Native American tribes, the scientific community, industry... native diversity. BDAs include both the immediate habitat and surrounding lands important in the...

  12. 76 FR 30082 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Spot...

    2011-05-24

    ... sufficient information with your submission (such as scientific ] journal articles or other publications) to... governmental agencies, Native American Tribes, the scientific community, industry, and any other interested... Habitat or Range Information Provided in the Petition The petitioner asserts that the conversion of...

  13. 77 FR 71759 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Prairie...

    2012-12-04

    ... cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi) in Illinois and western Indiana as endangered or threatened... (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi) in Illinois and western Indiana be listed as endangered or threatened species..., small mammals, including eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus...

  14. 76 FR 36049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Utah...

    2011-06-21

    ... their prey; they most likely use their venomous bite as a defense mechanism (Beck 1990, p. 56; Beaman et... 30, 1982 (47 FR 58454), September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37958), and November 15, 1994 (59 FR 58982... February 28, 1996, Notice of Review (61 FR 7595), we discontinued the use of multiple candidate...

  15. 77 FR 70733 - Listing Endangered or Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Southern...

    2012-11-27

    ... primarily from a scientific peer reviewed journal article published subsequent to the listing (Pilot et al... the petition, we have data from new genetic samples and peer reviewed scientific journal articles (e.g... find the analysis of additional genetic samples and publication of new peer reviewed scientific......

  16. 75 FR 42059 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Giant...

    2010-07-20

    ... pore size and thereby decreasing nutrient retention and changing the soil food web (Niwa et al. 2001, p... grassland habitats are influenced by soil disturbance, tillage, traffic, food sources, chemical and... food in upper layers of soil (Sanchez-de Leon and Johnson-Maynard 2008, p. 6). One GPE was found at...

  17. 75 FR 13720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Striped...

    2010-03-23

    ... possible listing under the Act as a Category 2 candidate species (59 FR 58982). In the February 28, 1996, notice (61 FR 7596), the Service discontinued the designation of Category 2 species as candidates and... newts. Mitchell (2002, p. 3) documented the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) which...

  18. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    2012-12-04

    ... Endangered Species and 2 Plant Taxa are Threatened Species'', 43 FR 17910). Cultivar is a taxonomic level... provide descriptive information specific to the sphinx cultivar. They do provide information for the date... cultivar is vegetative (asexual; only one plant is involved and the offspring is genetically identical...

  19. 75 FR 21568 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Harlequin...

    2010-04-26

    ... and size. This butterfly is brownish black at the dorsal area with deep orange markings and confused... references cited is available on the Internet at http://www.regulations.govand upon request from...

  20. 75 FR 13717 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Southern...

    2010-03-23

    ..., Texas pimpleback, false spike, Mexican fawnsfoot, and Texas fawnsfoot, in a separate finding (74 FR... document was made on March 23, 2010. ADDRESSES: This finding is available on the Internet at http://www... margin; the beak cavity is moderately deep. For a more detailed description, see Williams et al. 2008,...