WorldWideScience

Sample records for 83-3 label improvement

  1. Improving Recurrent Neural Networks For Sequence Labelling

    Dinarelli, Marco; Tellier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study different types of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) for sequence labeling tasks. We propose two new variants of RNNs integrating improvements for sequence labeling, and we compare them to the more traditional Elman and Jordan RNNs. We compare all models, either traditional or new, on four distinct tasks of sequence labeling: two on Spoken Language Understanding (ATIS and MEDIA); and two of POS tagging for the French Treebank (FTB) and the Penn Treebank (PTB) corpora. The...

  2. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strength...

  3. Improved specificity of hippocampal memory trace labeling.

    Cazzulino, Alejandro S; Martinez, Randy; Tomm, Nicole K; Denny, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on the identification and manipulation of memory traces in rodent models. The two main mouse models utilized are either a CreER(T2) /loxP tamoxifen (TAM)- or a tetracycline transactivator/tetracycline-response element doxycycline-inducible system. These systems, however, could be improved to label a more specific population of activated neurons corresponding to behavior. Here, we sought to identify an improved selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) in which we could label an individual memory trace in ArcCreER(T2) mice. We found that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is a selective SERM in the ArcCreER(T2) × Rosa26-CAG-stop(flox) -channelrhodospin (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) mice. The half-life of 4-OHT is shorter than TAM, allowing for more specificity of memory trace labeling. Furthermore, 4-OHT allowed for context-specific labeling in the dentate gyrus and CA3. In summary, we believe that 4-OHT improves the specificity of memory trace labeling and will allow for refined memory trace studies in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26662713

  4. Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households

    Ana Castillo-Martinez; Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar; Jose-Maria Gutierrez-Martinez; Jose M. Gomez-Pulido; Eva Garcia-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags, several ...

  5. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    Bryan, Frederick W., E-mail: frederick.w.bryan@vanderbilt.edu; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Reich, Daniel S. [Translational Neuroradiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); and Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    . Statistical fusion resulted in statistically indistinguishable performance from self-assessed weighted voting. The authors developed a new theoretical basis for using self-assessed performance in the framework of statistical fusion and demonstrated that the combined sources of information (both statistical assessment and self-assessment) yielded statistically significant improvement over the methods considered separately. Conclusions: The authors present the first systematic characterization of self-assessed performance in manual labeling. The authors demonstrate that self-assessment and statistical fusion yield similar, but complementary, benefits for label fusion. Finally, the authors present a new theoretical basis for combining self-assessments with statistical label fusion.

  6. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    . Statistical fusion resulted in statistically indistinguishable performance from self-assessed weighted voting. The authors developed a new theoretical basis for using self-assessed performance in the framework of statistical fusion and demonstrated that the combined sources of information (both statistical assessment and self-assessment) yielded statistically significant improvement over the methods considered separately. Conclusions: The authors present the first systematic characterization of self-assessed performance in manual labeling. The authors demonstrate that self-assessment and statistical fusion yield similar, but complementary, benefits for label fusion. Finally, the authors present a new theoretical basis for combining self-assessments with statistical label fusion

  7. Activized Learning: Transforming Passive to Active with Improved Label Complexity

    Hanneke, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We study the theoretical advantages of active learning over passive learning. Specifically, we prove that, in noise-free classifier learning for VC classes, any passive learning algorithm can be transformed into an active learning algorithm with asymptotically strictly superior label complexity for all nontrivial target functions and distributions. We further provide a general characterization of the magnitudes of these improvements in terms of a novel generalization of the disagreement coeff...

  8. Improved quality control of carbon-14 labelled compounds

    IUT Ltd is a producer of carbon-14 labelled organic compounds like benzene, methanol, phenol, formaldehyde, Na-acetates and also special ordered compounds. The quality control of these compounds is carried out by means of HPLC and GC-MS due to chemical purity. Molar activity was determined by Liquid Scintillation Counting and HPLC being equipped by a radioactivity detector. Unfortunately the accuracy of the activity determination was arrived only ±4% relatively. This error is too high because of the large dilution factors. In respect of the IUT accreditation as an analytical laboratory in Germany the accuracy had to be improved remarkably. Therefore the GC-MS-determination of molar activities of labelled compounds is used as the 14C-labelled compound. A special evaluation code is used to determine the enrichment values relative to the unlabelled molecules. Taking into account the results of GC-MS the accuracy of molar activity determination is improved to ±2%. The spectra evaluation is demonstrated and some examples are discussed

  9. Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags, several research studies were tackled for establishing consumer trends and behavior patterns. Furthermore, a survey and data collection were conducted to obtain updated values to validate information obtained from previous studies. The result are two water labels that establish six different levels to graphically show the efficiency, and they also include a comparison with the average consumption by customers of the same province. To ensure that the benefits of this evaluation are available to citizens, its inclusion on the water bill is proposed.

  10. Improving eco-labelling as an environmental policy instrument

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch;

    2014-01-01

    reassurance that these attributes are actually delivered. We argue that the label will only have the desired effect if the consumers know the production standards underpinning it and have trust in the label. We test this argument using organic food as our example. The empirical results obtained on the basis...... of our analysis of Danish purchasing data on actual purchases combined with detailed survey data show that the higher the level of knowledge of labelling attributes and the higher the degree of trust in the label, the more likely consumers are to buy organic food.......Eco-labels have an import role in promoting green consumption since most eco-labelled products are credence goods, implying that the valued process attributes they contain are not observable to the consumer even after purchase or consumption. Therefore, the consumers rely heavily on eco-labels as a...

  11. An Interactive User Interface for Drug Labeling to Improve Readability and Decision-Making.

    Abedtash, Hamed; Duke, Jon D

    2015-01-01

    FDA-approved prescribing information (also known as product labeling or labels) contain critical safety information for health care professionals. Drug labels have often been criticized, however, for being overly complex, difficult to read, and rife with overwarning, leading to high cognitive load. In this project, we aimed to improve the usability of drug labels by increasing the 'signal-to-noise ratio' and providing meaningful information to care providers based on patient-specific comorbidities and concomitant medications. In the current paper, we describe the design process and resulting web application, known as myDrugLabel. Using the Structured Product Label documents as a base, we describe the process of label personalization, readability improvements, and integration of diverse evidence sources, including the medical literature from PubMed, pharmacovigilance reports from FDA adverse event reporting system (FAERS), and social media signals directly into the label. PMID:26958158

  12. Improving the design of nutrition labels to promote healthier food choices and reasonable portion sizes.

    Roberto, C A; Khandpur, N

    2014-07-01

    Accurate and easy-to-understand nutrition labeling is a worthy public health goal that should be considered an important strategy among many to address obesity and poor diet. Updating the Nutrition Facts Panel on packaged foods, developing a uniform front-of-package labeling system and providing consumers with nutrition information on restaurant menus offer important opportunities to educate people about food's nutritional content, increase awareness of reasonable portion sizes and motivate consumers to make healthier choices. The aims of this paper were to identify and discuss: (1) current concerns with nutrition label communication strategies; (2) opportunities to improve the communication of nutrition information via food labels, with a specific focus on serving size information; and (3) important future areas of research on nutrition labeling as a tool to improve diet. We suggest that research on nutrition labeling should focus on ways to improve food labels' ability to capture consumer attention, reduce label complexity and convey numeric nutrition information in simpler and more meaningful ways, such as through interpretive food labels, the addition of simple text, reduced use of percentages and easy-to-understand presentation of serving size information. PMID:25033961

  13. Improved Process Quality through Certification Systems: An Assessment of Selected Animal Welfare Labels

    Heinke Heise

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The process quality of food products is currently the subject of increased attention. In the area of meat production, public discussion has centered on perceived low standards of animal welfare. Besides an increase in legislative regulations, improved animal welfare standards are most frequently achieved through the establishment of socalled animal welfare labels. So far these labeling concepts have not been substantially evaluated in terms of how well they carry out their goal of improving process quality in agricultural animal husbandry. This paper will use a recognized list of criteria to evaluate selected animal welfare labels. Results show that competing labels vary strongly regarding the improvement of process quality. This has far‐reaching effects not only for consumers andother label users, but also for companies that want to enter the animal welfare segment of the meat market.

  14. Improved tumor localization with (strept)avidin and labeled biotin as a substitute for antibody

    We have investigated tumor localization with labeled biotin administered subsequent to unlabeled and unconjugated streptavidin. Nude mice bearing anti-CEA tumors (LS174T) received 10 μg of 111In-labeled anti-CEA antibody (C110) or 111In-labeled streptavidin with sacrifice 5 h later. In an examination of pretargeting, other animals received 50 μg of unlabeled streptavidin followed 3 h later with 1 μg of 111In-labeled biotin (EB1) and sacrifice 2 h later. The biodistribution of labeled streptavidin was similar to that of labeled specific antibody except for lower blood and higher kidney levels. Tumor levels were also lower with labeled streptavidin but, because of still lower levels in liver and blood, the tumor/normal tissue ratios were improved. When unlabeled streptavidin was administered and followed by labeled biotin (pretargeting), tumor levels were further reduced modestly; however, normal tissue levels were greatly reduced such that the tumor/blood and tumor/liver ratios were 10.6 and 2.2 vs 1.5 and 0.5 for the specific antibody. Improvements were seen in all tissues sampled with the exception of kidney and muscle. A further control of labeled biotin alone (without the preinjection of streptavidin) showed minimal accumulations in all tissues with the exception of kidneys. In conclusion, the accumulation of (strept)avidin by passive diffusion in tumor may be comparable, at early times, to the accumulation of specific antibody. (author)

  15. Automation of cDNA Synthesis and Labelling Improves Reproducibility

    Daniel Klevebring

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several technologies, such as in-depth sequencing and microarrays, enable large-scale interrogation of genomes and transcriptomes. In this study, we asses reproducibility and throughput by moving all laboratory procedures to a robotic workstation, capable of handling superparamagnetic beads. Here, we describe a fully automated procedure for cDNA synthesis and labelling for microarrays, where the purification steps prior to and after labelling are based on precipitation of DNA on carboxylic acid-coated paramagnetic beads. Results. The fully automated procedure allows for samples arrayed on a microtiter plate to be processed in parallel without manual intervention and ensuring high reproducibility. We compare our results to a manual sample preparation procedure and, in addition, use a comprehensive reference dataset to show that the protocol described performs better than similar manual procedures. Conclusions. We demonstrate, in an automated gene expression microarray experiment, a reduced variance between replicates, resulting in an increase in the statistical power to detect differentially expressed genes, thus allowing smaller differences between samples to be identified. This protocol can with minor modifications be used to create cDNA libraries for other applications such as in-depth analysis using next-generation sequencing technologies.

  16. Improving Triple Play Services Using Multi Protocol Label Switching Technology

    Waheed Yasin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Traditional IP networks have many limitations such as routing tables, which can be complex and time consuming. These limitations affect the performance of the network in some applications of triple play services (i.e., voice, video and data which are characterized as time sensitive applications. Thus, Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS technology has been proposed to speed up the traffic flow in the network using labels. Approach: In this study, an experiment using the Network Simulator NS-2 was performed to evaluate the impact of MPLS technology on the Triple Play Services based on the average throughput of the network, total number of packets received at destination nodes and packet loss rates and this is compared to that provided by traditional IP networks. Results: The results showed that MPLS performs better since it utilizes all the available paths to the destinations. Conclusion: MPLS allows Internet Services Providers (ISPs to provide better triple play services for end-users.

  17. Improved tumor localization with (strept)avidin and labeled biotin as a substitute for antibody

    We have investigated tumor localization with labeled biotin administered subsequent to unlabeled and unconjugated streptavidin. Nude mice bearing anti-CEA tumors (LS174T) received 10 μg of 111In-labeled anti-CEA antibody (C110) or 111In-labeled streptavidin with sacrifice 5 h later. In an examination of pretargeting, other animals received 50 μg of unlabeled streptavidin followed 3 h later with 1 μg of 111In-labeled biotin (EB1) and sacrifice 2 h later. The biodistribution of labeled streptavidin was similar to that of labeled specific antibody except for lower blood and higher kidney levels. Tumor levels were also lower with labeled streptavidin but, because of still lower levels in liver and blood, the tumor/normal tissue ratios were improved. When unlabeled streptavidin was administered and followed by labeled biotin (pretargeting), tumor levels were further reduced modestly; however, normal tissue levels were greatly reduced such that the tumor/blood and tumor/liver ratios were 10.6 and 2.2 vs 1.5 and 0.5 for the specific antibody. Improvements were seen in all tissues sampled with the exception of kidney and muscle. A further control of labeled biotin alone showed minimal accumulation in all tissues with the exception of kidneys. In conclusion, the accumulation of (strept)avidin by passive diffusion in tumor may be comparable, at early times, to the accumulation of specific antibody. By combining the administration of unlabeled (strept)avidin with labeled biotin, tumor targeting may potentially be improved. (author)

  18. Improved method to label beta-2 agonists in metered-dose inhalers with technetium-99m

    Ballinger, J.R.; Calcutt, L.E.; Hodder, R.V.; Proulx, A.; Gulenchyn, K.Y. (Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa (Canada). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Respiratory Unit)

    1993-01-01

    Labelling beta-2 agonists in a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with technetium-99m allows imaging of the deposition of the aerosol in the respiratory tract. We have developed an improved labeling method in which anhydrous pertechnetate is dissolved in a small volume of ethanol, diluted with a fluorocarbon, and introduced into a commercial MDI. Imaging the MDI demonstrated that the [sup 99m]Tc was associated with the active ingredient, not just the propellant. The method has been used successfully with salbutamol and fenoterol MDIs and should be directly applicable to other MDIs which contain hydrophilic drugs. (Author).

  19. Label-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance: A New Concept for Improved Performance in Optical Biosensor Analysis

    Niko Granqvist

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR is a well-established optical biosensor technology with many proven applications in the study of molecular interactions as well as in surface and material science. SPR is usually applied in the label-free mode which may be advantageous in cases where the presence of a label may potentially interfere with the studied interactions per se. However, the fundamental challenges of label-free SPR in terms of limited sensitivity and specificity are well known. Here we present a new concept called label-enhanced SPR, which is based on utilizing strongly absorbing dye molecules in combination with the evaluation of the full shape of the SPR curve, whereby the sensitivity as well as the specificity of SPR is significantly improved. The performance of the new label-enhanced SPR method was demonstrated by two simple model assays: a small molecule assay and a DNA hybridization assay. The small molecule assay was used to demonstrate the sensitivity enhancement of the method, and how competitive assays can be used for relative affinity determination. The DNA assay was used to demonstrate the selectivity of the assay, and the capabilities in eliminating noise from bulk liquid composition variations.

  20. Improving perfusion quantification in arterial spin labeling for delayed arrival times by using optimized acquisition schemes

    Kramme, Johanna [Fraunhofer MEVIS-Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Univ. Bremen (Germany). Faculty of Physics and Electronics; Gregori, Johannes [mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Diehl, Volker [Fraunhofer MEVIS-Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); ZEMODI (Zentrum fuer morderne Diagnostik), Bremen (Germany); Madai, Vince I.; Sobesky, Jan [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Samson-Himmelstjerna, Frederico C. von [Fraunhofer MEVIS-Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Lentschig, Markus [ZEMODI (Zentrum fuer morderne Diagnostik), Bremen (Germany); Guenther, Matthias [Fraunhofer MEVIS-Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Univ. Bremen (Germany). Faculty of Physics and Electronics; mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The improvement in Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion quantification, especially for delayed bolus arrival times (BAT), with an acquisition redistribution scheme mitigating the T1 decay of the label in multi-TI ASL measurements is investigated. A multi inflow time (TI) 3D-GRASE sequence is presented which adapts the distribution of acquisitions accordingly, by keeping the scan time constant. The MR sequence increases the number of averages at long TIs and decreases their number at short TIs and thus compensating the T1 decay of the label. The improvement of perfusion quantification is evaluated in simulations as well as in-vivo in healthy volunteers and patients with prolonged BATs due to age or steno-occlusive disease. The improvement in perfusion quantification depends on BAT. At healthy BATs the differences are small, but become larger for longer BATs typically found in certain diseases. The relative error of perfusion is improved up to 30% at BATs > 1500 ms in comparison to the standard acquisition scheme. This adapted acquisition scheme improves the perfusion measurement in comparison to standard multi-TI ASL implementations. It provides relevant benefit in clinical conditions that cause prolonged BATs and is therefore of high clinical relevance for neuroimaging of steno-occlusive diseases.

  1. An improved smaller biotin ligase for BioID proximity labeling.

    Kim, Dae In; Jensen, Samuel C; Noble, Kyle A; Kc, Birendra; Roux, Kenneth H; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Roux, Kyle J

    2016-04-15

    The BioID method uses a promiscuous biotin ligase to detect protein-protein associations as well as proximate proteins in living cells. Here we report improvements to the BioID method centered on BioID2, a substantially smaller promiscuous biotin ligase. BioID2 enables more-selective targeting of fusion proteins, requires less biotin supplementation, and exhibits enhanced labeling of proximate proteins. Thus BioID2 improves the efficiency of screening for protein-protein associations. We also demonstrate that the biotinylation range of BioID2 can be considerably modulated using flexible linkers, thus enabling application-specific adjustment of the biotin-labeling radius. PMID:26912792

  2. Improvement of probe peptides for coiled-coil labeling by introducing phosphoserines.

    Ono, Satoshi; Yano, Yoshiaki; Matsuzaki, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a method of rapidly labeling membrane proteins in living cells using a high-affinity heterodimeric coiled-coil construct containing an E3 tag (EIAALEK)(3) genetically fused to the target protein and a K4 probe (KIAALKE)(4) labeled with a fluorophore such as tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) at its N-terminus (TMR-K4). However, coiled-coil labeling cannot be applied to highly negatively charged cell lines such as HEK293, because of the nonspecific adsorption of the positively charged K4 probes to cell membranes. To reduce the net positive charge, we synthesized new probes that include phosphoserine residues (pSer) between the K4 sequence and TMR fluorophore (TMR-(pSer)(n)-K4, [n = 1-3]). The affinity of the pSer-introduced probes was comparable to that of the TMR-K4 probe. However, the TMR-(pSer)(2)-K4 and TMR-(pSer)(3)-K4 probes tended to aggregate during labeling. In contrast, TMR-pSer-K4, which was as soluble as TMR-K4, achieved higher signal/background ratios (30-100) for four host cell lines (HEK293, HeLa, SH-SY5Y, and PC12) than did TMR-K4 (~10 for HEK293 cells), demonstrating that the improved probe can be used for various types of cells. PMID:22782565

  3. Zwitterionic reagents for labeling, cross-linking and improving the performance of chemiluminescent immunoassays.

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David; Wen, David

    2012-03-01

    Improving reagent performance in immunoassays both to enhance assay sensitivity and to minimize interference are ongoing challenges in clinical diagnostics. We describe herein the syntheses of a new class of hydrophilic reagents containing sulfobetaine zwitterions and their applications. These zwitterionic reagents are potentially useful for improving the properties of immunoassay reagents. We demonstrate for the first time that zwitterion labeling is a general and viable strategy for reducing the non-specific binding of proteins to microparticles and, to improve the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic peptides. We also describe the synthesis of zwitterionic cross-linking reagents and demonstrate their utility for peptide conjugation. In automated, chemiluminescent immunoassays, improved assay performance was observed for a hydrophobic, small analyte (theophylline) using an acridinium ester conjugate with a zwitterionic sulfobetaine linker compared to a hexa(ethylene)glycol linker. Sandwich assay performance for a large analyte (thyroid stimulating hormone) was similar for the two acridinium ester labels. These results indicate that zwitterions are complementary to poly(ethylene)glycol in improving the aqueous solubility and reducing the non-specific binding of chemiluminescent acridinium ester conjugates. PMID:22278720

  4. Manual-Protocol Inspired Technique for Improving Automated MR Image Segmentation during Label Fusion.

    Bhagwat, Nikhil; Pipitone, Jon; Winterburn, Julie L; Guo, Ting; Duerden, Emma G; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Lepage, Martin; Miller, Steven P; Pruessner, Jens C; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in multi-atlas based algorithms address many of the previous limitations in model-based and probabilistic segmentation methods. However, at the label fusion stage, a majority of algorithms focus primarily on optimizing weight-maps associated with the atlas library based on a theoretical objective function that approximates the segmentation error. In contrast, we propose a novel method-Autocorrecting Walks over Localized Markov Random Fields (AWoL-MRF)-that aims at mimicking the sequential process of manual segmentation, which is the gold-standard for virtually all the segmentation methods. AWoL-MRF begins with a set of candidate labels generated by a multi-atlas segmentation pipeline as an initial label distribution and refines low confidence regions based on a localized Markov random field (L-MRF) model using a novel sequential inference process (walks). We show that AWoL-MRF produces state-of-the-art results with superior accuracy and robustness with a small atlas library compared to existing methods. We validate the proposed approach by performing hippocampal segmentations on three independent datasets: (1) Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Database (ADNI); (2) First Episode Psychosis patient cohort; and (3) A cohort of preterm neonates scanned early in life and at term-equivalent age. We assess the improvement in the performance qualitatively as well as quantitatively by comparing AWoL-MRF with majority vote, STAPLE, and Joint Label Fusion methods. AWoL-MRF reaches a maximum accuracy of 0.881 (dataset 1), 0.897 (dataset 2), and 0.807 (dataset 3) based on Dice similarity coefficient metric, offering significant performance improvements with a smaller atlas library (github.com/CobraLab/AWoL-MRF. PMID:27486386

  5. A 2-Phase Labeling and Choice Architecture Intervention to Improve Healthy Food and Beverage Choices

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Methods. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. Results. At baseline (977 793 items, including 199 513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P < .001), and green items increased in phase 1 (P < .001). The largest changes occurred among beverages. Red beverages decreased 16.5% during phase 1 (P < .001) and further decreased 11.4% in phase 2 (P < .001). Green beverages increased 9.6% in phase 1 (P < .001) and further increased 4.0% in phase 2 (P < .001). Bottled water increased 25.8% during phase 2 (P < .001) but did not increase at 2 on-site comparison cafeterias (P < .001). Conclusions. A color-coded labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention. PMID:22390518

  6. Preparation and evaluation of radio labelled recombinant human interleukin 2 by improved chloramine T method

    Iodination by improved chloramine T method was investigated. Iodine was activated with very small quantity of chloramine T (21 fold excess to iodine in molar ratio) and then recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) was added to the mixture. Characteristics of the labelled rIL-2 after purification by reversed-phase HPLC was superior to those by usual chloramine T method or lactoperoxidase method. The specific activity was 0.74-1.11 MBq/μg and the immunoreactivity, biological activity and binding ability to rIL-2 receptors were similar to the intrinsic rIL-2. The improved chloramine T method is useful for iodination of unstable peptides and proteins. (author)

  7. Improving dwellings by enchancing action on labelling for the EPBD directive

    Klobut, K., Email: krzysztof.klobut@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Improving energy efficiency is regarded by the European Commission as a key element in energy policy. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) stipulates that residential buildings must have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when they are sold, rented out or constructed. The EPC includes a label rating of the energy efficiency of the dwelling and recommendations of costeffective energy-saving measures. The project reported here aims to investigate why EPCs seem to hardly motivate dwelling owners to take measures to improve the energy performance of their dwelling and the reason why a large part of dwelling owners apparently do not use the recommendations from the EPC. Electronic questionnaires and in-depth interviews techniques were used. The results of these interviews and questionnaires will be used to provide policy recommendations for further actions in the fi eld of energy savings in the residential sector. (orig.)

  8. Does the Ecomark Label Promote Environmentally Improved Products in India and What Experiences Can Be Drawn from the Nordic Ecolabel?

    Thomsen, Jakob; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    belonging to a different region of the world. Firstly we analyse, the ability of the Indian “Ecomark” label to promote environmentally improved products in India. The Ecomark scheme was launched in 1991, however the Ecomark label currently remains a nonstarter, with little awareness and no real consumer......, this paper seeks to identify the differences between the Ecomark label and the second ecolabel under analysis – the much more successful “Nordic Ecolabel” from Scandinavia. The structural differences, selection process for criteria and the demand and awareness of the two ecolabels are analysed, in...

  9. A randomized, controlled study of an educational intervention to improve recall of auxiliary medication labeling and adherence to antibiotics

    Pham, Jade A; Pierce, William; Muhlbaier, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether medication counseling with emphasis on auxiliary labels improves recall of auxiliary label information and adherence to medication schedules. Methods: A prospective, randomized study of an educational intervention in community pharmacies near Baltimore, Maryland. Fifty literate, English-speaking adults receiving one of the 18 commonly dispensed antibiotics were randomized to receive a counseling session or no counseling. Five to seven days after medication pickup,...

  10. Transplantation of magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells improves cardiac function in a swine myocardial infarction model

    QI Chun-mei; JU Sheng-hong; MA Ming; TANG Yao-liang; MA Gen-shan; LIU Nai-feng; SHEN Cheng-xing; CHEN Zhong; LIU Xiao-jun; HU Yao-peng; ZHANG Xiao-li; TENG Gao-jun

    2008-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation provides a new approach for myocardial repair.However,many important fundamental questions about MSCs transplantation remain unanswered.There is an urgent need to identify MSCs from the beating heart and analyze the efficacy of this new approach.This study aimed to localize the magnetically labeled MSCs(MR-MSCs)and monitor the restorative effects of MR-MSCs with magnetic resonance(MR) imaging.Methods Acute myocardial infarction(AMI)was created in swine by a balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery.Cells were delivered via intracoronary infusion after myocardial infarction.Infarct size change and cardiac function were assessed with 3.0T MR scanner.The results were then confirmed by histological and western blot analysis.All statistical procedures were performed with Systat (SPSS version 12.01).Results A total of 26 swine were divided into four groups(sham-operated group,n=6;AMI group with PBS transplantation,n=6;labeled MSCs group,n=7;unlabeled MSCs group,n=7).MSCs,MR-MSCs(107 cells)or PBS were delivered by intracoronary injection after MI and serial cardiac MR imaging studies were performed at 0,4 and 8 weeks after transplantation.MR imaging demonstrated MI size decreased after MSCs transplantation in labeled and unlabeled groups,however,increases were seen in the AMI group at 8 weeks after MI.The left ventricular eiection fraction(LVEF) was slightly increased in the AMI group((41.87±2.45)%vs(39.04±2.80)%,P>0.05),but significantly improved in the MR-MSCs group((56.85±1.29)%vs(40.67±2.00)%,P<0.05)and unlabeled group((55.38±1.07)%vs(41.78±2.08)%,P<0.05) at 8 weeks after treatment.MR-MSCs were further confirmed by Prussian blue and immunofluorescent staining.Western blot analvsis demonstrated that there was an increased expression of cardiomyocyte markers such as myosin heavy chain and troponin T in the MSCs treatment groups and the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase 2 to

  11. 78 FR 8446 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; Prescription Drug Labeling Improvement and Enhancement...

    2013-02-06

    ... prescription drug labeling in 1979 (44 FR 37434, June 26, 1979). However, over the ensuing 25 years, labeling... discontinued marketing a drug product, but has not requested withdrawal of the NDA, must still comply with... utility of the prescription drug labeling as a communication tool and to discuss strategies for making...

  12. Investigations into agents for improving cell labeling with positron- and gamma-emitting radionuclides

    It was possible to label leukocytes with Co-oxine, but a large proportion of the radioactivity was eluted from the cells upon washing. Ruthenium oxine labeled platelets efficiently in plasma while negligible proportion of radioactivity was eluted from the cells. Three factors influence the labeling efficiency of the cells: duration of the incubation periods; cell concentration; and ACD concentration

  13. Improved Tracking and Resolution of Bacteria in Holographic Microscopy Using Dye and Fluorescent Protein Labeling

    Nadeau, Jay L.; Cho, Yong Bin; Kühn, Jonas; Liewer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is an emerging imaging technique that permits instantaneous capture of a relatively large sample volume. However, large volumes usually come at the expense of lower spatial resolution, and the technique has rarely been used with prokaryotic cells due to their small size and low contrast. In this paper we demonstrate the use of a Mach-Zehnder dual-beam instrument for imaging of labeled and unlabeled bacteria and microalgae. Spatial resolution of 0.3 μm is achieved, providing a sampling of several pixels across a typical prokaryotic cell. Both cellular motility and morphology are readily recorded. The use of dyes provides both amplitude and phase contrast improvement and is of use to identify cells in dense samples. PMID:27242995

  14. Carbon emissions intensity ratio: an indicator for an improved carbon labelling scheme

    This letter proposes a new carbon labelling scheme to improve the visibility of products’ life cycle carbon emissions (sometimes defined as carbon footprint). This approach starts by normalizing carbon emissions data on a common scale of ‘carbon emissions intensity’, and a new indicator ‘carbon emissions intensity ratio’ is generated based upon its ratio to the annual national greenhouse gas emission per gross domestic product. Five ranges (extremely low, low, medium, high and extremely high) are used to represent the level of carbon emissions intensity ratio by a simple diagram with colour gradation. Case examples are presented, in which the carbon emissions intensity ratios of various selected products, both distinct and related, are calculated and compared. The limitations of this approach are then discussed, laying a foundation for further work. (letter)

  15. Improved tracking and resolution of bacteria in holographic microscopy using dye and fluorescent protein labeling

    Nadeau, Jay; Cho, YongBin; Kühn, Jonas; Liewer, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is an emerging imaging technique that permits instantaneous capture of a relatively large sample volume. However, large volumes usually come at the expense of lower spatial resolution, and the technique has rarely been used with prokaryotic cells due to their small size and low contrast. In this paper we demonstrate the use of a Mach-Zehnder dual-beam instrument for imaging of labeled and unlabeled bacteria and microalgae. Spatial resolution of 0.3 micrometers is achieved, providing a sampling of several pixels across a typical prokaryotic cell. Both cellular motility and morphology are readily recorded. The use of dyes provides both amplitude and phase contrast improvement and is of use to identify cells in dense samples.

  16. Improving pediatric liquid medication labeling of the hospital information system in Malaysia: qualitative analysis of pharmacists’ perceptions

    Chan HK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequacies of drug labeling have been frequently reported among Malaysian healthcare institutes, in which the Hospital Information System (HIS is used. Objective: To identify potential areas to improve the existing labels used for pediatric liquid medications. Methods: This study was qualitative in nature, whereby focus group discussions (FGDs, face-to-face interviews (FTFIs, and onsite observation were used for data collection. Pharmacists stationed at three units (outpatient, inpatient and clinical pharmacy of a tertiary hospital were targeted. Both FGDs and FTFIs were facilitated using a semi-structured interview guide, video-recorded and transcribed verbatim. All transcripts were thematically analyzed using content analysis approach. Results: Thirteen pharmacists participated in FGDs, while five were approached for FTFIs. Data analysis resulted in four major themes: format of labels, presentation of medication instructions, insufficiency of information, and the need for external aids and education. Participants unanimously agreed on the need for enlarging font sizes of key information. Suggestions were made to use more specific instructions for administration times and pictograms to illustrate important directions. The absence of information about storage, stability and handling of liquid medications was also highlighted. While discussion mainly focused on improving drug labeling, participants consistently stressed the need for an instruction sheet and pharmacist-based, one-to-one education regarding medication instructions. Conclusion: This study provides important insights into critical shortcomings in current labeling practice, underlying the need for developing a new label that incorporates a new format, additional information and pictograms for pediatric liquid medications.

  17. Extracorporeal adsorption therapy: A Method to improve targeted radiation delivered by radiometal-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    antibody labeled with indium-111 (111In), seven patients received RIT with anti-CD20 antibody labeled with indium-111 for biokinetics and dosimetry, and therapeutic doses of antibody labeled with yttrium-90 (90Y). Performing the ECAT procedure at a rate that such that one blood volume per hour were circulated for 3 hours, resulted in mean radioactivity depletion of 96% in whole blood, 49% in whole body 49%, 62% in the lungs and 40% in liver and kidneys. There was no sufficient data to determine whether there was an improvement in the relative delivery of radiation to the tumor compared to normal organs by performing ECAT, but pharmacokinetic modeling studies suggested a potential therapeutic advantage using this approach. [refs] To evaluate the potential therapeutic advantages of ECAT, we performed biodistribution studies in nonhuman primates comparing the therapeutic ratios of radiation delivered using this approach to those delivered by conventional RIT alone. In addition, we evaluated lutetium-177 (177Lu) as an alternative isotope to optimize the delivery of RIT by improving the therapeutic index (target to non-target ratio)

  18. Improving accuracy of medication identification in an older population using a medication bottle color symbol label system

    Cardarelli Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate and refine an adjuvant system of color-specific symbols that are added to medication bottles and to assess whether this system would increase the ability of patients 65 years of age or older in matching their medication to the indication for which it was prescribed. Methods This study was conducted in two phases, consisting of three focus groups of patients from a family medicine clinic (n = 25 and a pre-post medication identification test in a second group of patient participants (n = 100. Results of focus group discussions were used to refine the medication label symbols according to themes and messages identified through qualitative triangulation mechanisms and data analysis techniques. A pre-post medication identification test was conducted in the second phase of the study to assess differences between standard labeling alone and the addition of the refined color-specific symbols. The pre-post test examined the impact of the added labels on participants' ability to accurately match their medication to the indication for which it was prescribed when placed in front of participants and then at a distance of two feet. Results Participants appreciated the addition of a visual aid on existing medication labels because it would not be necessary to learn a completely new system of labeling, and generally found the colors and symbols used in the proposed labeling system easy to understand and relevant. Concerns were raised about space constraints on medication bottles, having too much information on the bottle, and having to remember what the colors meant. Symbols and colors were modified if they were found unclear or inappropriate by focus group participants. Pre-post medication identification test results in a second set of participants demonstrated that the addition of the symbol label significantly improved the ability of participants to match their medication to the appropriate

  19. 3D GRASE PROPELLER: Improved Image Acquisition Technique for Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Imaging

    Tan, Huan; Hoge, W. Scott; Hamilton, Craig A.; Günther, Matthias; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive technique that can quantitatively measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). While traditionally ASL employs 2D EPI or spiral acquisition trajectories, single-shot 3D GRASE is gaining popularity in ASL due to inherent SNR advantage and spatial coverage. However, a major limitation of 3D GRASE is through-plane blurring caused by T2 decay. A novel technique combining 3D GRASE and a PROPELLER trajectory (3DGP) is presented to minimize through-plane blurring without sacrificing perfusion sensitivity or increasing total scan time. Full brain perfusion images were acquired at a 3×3×5mm3 nominal voxel size with Q2TIPS-FAIR as the ASL preparation sequence. Data from 5 healthy subjects was acquired on a GE 1.5T scanner in less than 4 minutes per subject. While showing good agreement in CBF quantification with 3D GRASE, 3DGP demonstrated reduced through-plane blurring, improved anatomical details, high repeatability and robustness against motion, making it suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:21254211

  20. Radioactively labelled DNA probes for crop improvement. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    With the advent of DNA molecular marker technology in the 1980s plant breeding had a new and powerful tool with which to increase its efficacy. Such markers are abundant and directly reveal information about the genotype and therefore are more useful than simple phenotypic markers. In plant breeding applications, molecular markers reveal information about variability and genetic relationships, and enable genetic mapping, which greatly assists the breeder in selection of parents and progeny, as well as in management of breeding strategies. Furthermore, molecular markers linked to phenotypic traits permit very early selection of superior progenies from breeding populations, therefore significantly reducing the need for field testing and greatly increasing efficiency of plant breeding programmes. For this to occur the oligonucleotide probes for labelling genetic markers and/or the primers for polymerase chain reactions to amplify genetic markers needed to be also accessible to scientists in developing Member States. In addition, technical information, training and troubleshooting were needed to support the utilization of DNA markers. In the early 1990s there was a dramatic increase in requests for access to this technology. This co-ordinated research project (CRP) facilitated the transfer of molecular marker technology, in terms of both material and information, from advanced laboratories to assist breeding programmes in developing countries. Two other CRPs were conducted concurrently in order to assist developing Member States to utilise molecular markers - Application of DNA Based Marker Mutations for Improvement of Cereals and other Sexually Reproduced Crop Plants, and Use of Novel DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for the Detection and Characterisation of Genetic Variation in Vegetatively Propagated Crops (IAEA-TECDOC-1010 and IAEA-TECDOC-1047, respectively). The present CRP built upon the success of the former projects by ensuring the availability of probes

  1. Measuring the consumer benefits of improving farm animal welfare to inform welfare labelling

    Kehlbacher, Ariane; Bennett, Richard; Balcombe, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers in the European Union are envisioning the introduction of a community farm animal welfare label which would allow consumers to align their consumption habits with their farm animal welfare preferences. For welfare labelling to be viable the market for livestock products produced to higher welfare standards has to be sufficiently segmented with consumers having sufficiently distinct and behaviourally consistent preferences. The present study investigates consumers’ preferences...

  2. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. •12C/13C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 12C/13C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The 12C-/13C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the possibility of generating a very

  3. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    Peng, Jun; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. •{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The {sup 12}C-/{sup 13}C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the

  4. Improving Multi-Instance Multi-Label Learning by Extreme Learning Machine

    Ying Yin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instance multi-label learning is a learning framework, where every object is represented by a bag of instances and associated with multiple labels simultaneously. The existing degeneration strategy-based methods often suffer from some common drawbacks: (1 the user-specific parameter for the number of clusters may incur the effective problem; (2 SVM may bring a high computational cost when utilized as the classifier builder. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, namely multi-instance multi-label (MIML-extreme learning machine (ELM, to address the problems. To our best knowledge, we are the first to utilize ELM in the MIML problem and to conduct the comparison of ELM and SVM on MIML. Extensive experiments have been conducted on real datasets and synthetic datasets. The results show that MIMLELM tends to achieve better generalization performance at a higher learning speed.

  5. Improving Cerebral Blood Flow Quantification for Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion MRI by Removing Residual Motion Artifacts and Global Signal Fluctuations

    Wang, Ze

    2012-01-01

    Denoising is critical to improving the quality and stability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification in arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI due to the intrinsic low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of ASL data. Previous studies have been focused on reducing the spatial or temporal noise using standard filtering techniques, and less attention has been paid to two global nuisance effects, the residual motion artifacts and the global signal fluctuations. Since both nuisances affect the whol...

  6. PRIVATE LABEL AS AN IMPROVING FACTOR OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF RETAIL CHAINS

    Gusakova E. P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main feature and role of private label of retail chains. The product categories and CTM-classification are marked out in there. A positive experience in creating and promotion of CTM on the example of the "Magnit" company is also considered

  7. Improvements in the labelling technique of human proinsulin for radioimmunoassay use

    Changes in the labelling technique of human proinsulin were done viewing the attainment of a tracer with a higher specific activity (SA) and consequently a increasing in the radioimmunoassay sensitivity: employment of polypropylene vials recovered with Iodogen dissolved in dichloromethane and evaporates used up to 15 months and the tracers showed high SA and purity, with a shelf-live of a months. (author)

  8. Improved Intensity-Based Label-Free Quantification via Proximity-Based Intensity Normalization (PIN)

    Van Riper, Susan K.; de Jong, Ebbing P.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Carlis, John V.; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly turning to label-free MS1 intensity-based quantification strategies within HPLC–ESI–MS/MS workflows to reveal biological variation at the molecule level. Unfortunately, HPLC–ESI–MS/MS workflows using these strategies produce results with poor repeatability and reproducibility, primarily due to systematic bias and complex variability. While current global normalization strategies can mitigate systematic bias, they fail when faced with complex variability stemming f...

  9. Expression microarray reproducibility is improved by optimising purification steps in RNA amplification and labelling

    Brenton James D; Aparicio Samuel; Barbosa-Morais Nuno L; Ahmed Ahmed A; Naderi Ali; Caldas Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Expression microarrays have evolved into a powerful tool with great potential for clinical application and therefore reliability of data is essential. RNA amplification is used when the amount of starting material is scarce, as is frequently the case with clinical samples. Purification steps are critical in RNA amplification and labelling protocols, and there is a lack of sufficient data to validate and optimise the process. Results Here the purification steps involved in ...

  10. An improved in vivo deuterium labeling method for measuring the biosynthetic rate of cytokinins

    Tarkowski, Petr; Floková, K.; Václavíková, Kateřina; Jaworek, P.; Raus, M.; Nordström, A.; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; Šebela, M.; Frébortová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2010), s. 9214-9229. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/08/0920; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinin * deuterium labelling * biosynthetic rate Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2010

  11. Expression microarray reproducibility is improved by optimising purification steps in RNA amplification and labelling

    Brenton James D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression microarrays have evolved into a powerful tool with great potential for clinical application and therefore reliability of data is essential. RNA amplification is used when the amount of starting material is scarce, as is frequently the case with clinical samples. Purification steps are critical in RNA amplification and labelling protocols, and there is a lack of sufficient data to validate and optimise the process. Results Here the purification steps involved in the protocol for indirect labelling of amplified RNA are evaluated and the experimentally determined best method for each step with respect to yield, purity, size distribution of the transcripts, and dye coupling is used to generate targets tested in replicate hybridisations. DNase treatment of diluted total RNA samples followed by phenol extraction is the optimal way to remove genomic DNA contamination. Purification of double-stranded cDNA is best achieved by phenol extraction followed by isopropanol precipitation at room temperature. Extraction with guanidinium-phenol and Lithium Chloride precipitation are the optimal methods for purification of amplified RNA and labelled aRNA respectively. Conclusion This protocol provides targets that generate highly reproducible microarray data with good representation of transcripts across the size spectrum and a coefficient of repeatability significantly better than that reported previously.

  12. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p < 0.05) and a reduction in sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p < 0.05) light items from baseline to the TLL period. The effectiveness of TLL did not differ according to any of the demographic or other factors examined in the survey. Average daily revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. PMID:25913684

  13. Improvements in or relating to systems for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers

    A system for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprises a set of containers for containing aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers; an electric drive for setting the set of containers in stepwise motion: means for acid precipitation of biopolymers arranged to provide feeding of preset volumes of a coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to the containers: means for removal of suspensions, filtering, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers and consecutively feeding the mixture and a scintillator to a detection chamber, and a measuring cell arranged in the detection chamber. The sequence of operations is controlled automatically. (author)

  14. An improved synthesis of an 125I and 211At labelled benzamide for melanoma imaging

    Recent studies have indicated that benzamides can exhibit affinity for malignant melanoma and may be exploited diagnostically in the treatment of this cancer. Radioiodinated N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[123I/131I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide (*I-IMBA) is a benzamide with promising diagnostic properties. A new synthesis procedure was developed to obtain 125I-IMBA suitable for use in vivo. The assets of the procedure include the use of less toxic reagents and better reproducible results when radiolabelling the precursor. The procedure also facilitates the synthesis of the astatinated N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[211At]astatine-4-methoxybenzamide (211At-AMBA), a new benzamide with a therapeutic potential. The regiospecific no-carrier-added 125I- and 211At-labeling of the benzamide is performed by demetalation of an organotin precursor. Using tributylstannyl as a leaving group, the radiochemical yield obtained after 15 minutes of reaction was 70 %-90 % for both 125I-IMBA and 211At-AMBA. The labelling was performed in a solution of MeOH:AcOH with NCS as the oxidising agent. The organotin precursor N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)-4-methoxy-benzamide was synthesized from 3-bromo-4-methoxybenzoic acid, with n-BuLi (2 eq) and Bu3SnCl (1 eq) in THF, giving 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid. The amide function was introduced by converting the acid group into an active N-succinimidyl-ester, a good leaving group in the reaction with 2-(diethylamino)ethylamine. The overall yield of the organotin precursor was 65 %

  15. Quantum Dots Encapsulated with Canine Parvovirus-Like Particles Improving the Cellular Targeted Labeling.

    Yan, Dan; Wang, Bin; Sun, Shiqi; Feng, Xia; Jin, Ye; Yao, Xueping; Cao, Suizhong; Guo, Huichen

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have a promising prospect in live-cell imaging and sensing because of unique fluorescence features. QDs aroused significant interest in the bio-imaging field through integrating the fluorescence properties of QDs and the delivery function of biomaterial. The natural tropism of Canine Parvovirus (CPV) to the transferrin receptor can target specific cells to increase the targeting ability of QDs in cell imaging. CPV virus-like particles (VLPs) from the expression of the CPV-VP2 capsid protein in a prokaryotic expression system were examined to encapsulate the QDs and deliver to cells with an expressed transferrin receptor. CPV-VLPs were used to encapsulate QDs that were modified using 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Gel electrophoresis, fluorescence spectrum, particle size, and transmission electron microscopy verified the conformation of a complex, in which QDs were encapsulated in CPV-VLPs (CPV-VLPs-QDs). When incubated with different cell lines, CPV-VLPs-QDs significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of QDs and selectively labeled the cells with high-level transferrin receptors. Cell-targeted labeling was achieved by utilizing the specific binding between the CPV capsid protein VP2 of VLPs and cellular receptors. CPV-VLPs-QDs, which can mimic the native CPV infection, can recognize and attach to the transferrin receptors on cellular membrane. Therefore, CPV-VLPs can be used as carriers to facilitate the targeted delivery of encapsulated nanomaterials into cells via receptor-mediated pathways. This study confirmed that CPV-VLPs can significantly promote the biocompatibility of nanomaterials and could expand the application of CPV-VLPs in biological medicine. PMID:26398132

  16. Quantum Dots Encapsulated with Canine Parvovirus-Like Particles Improving the Cellular Targeted Labeling.

    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs have a promising prospect in live-cell imaging and sensing because of unique fluorescence features. QDs aroused significant interest in the bio-imaging field through integrating the fluorescence properties of QDs and the delivery function of biomaterial. The natural tropism of Canine Parvovirus (CPV to the transferrin receptor can target specific cells to increase the targeting ability of QDs in cell imaging. CPV virus-like particles (VLPs from the expression of the CPV-VP2 capsid protein in a prokaryotic expression system were examined to encapsulate the QDs and deliver to cells with an expressed transferrin receptor. CPV-VLPs were used to encapsulate QDs that were modified using 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Gel electrophoresis, fluorescence spectrum, particle size, and transmission electron microscopy verified the conformation of a complex, in which QDs were encapsulated in CPV-VLPs (CPV-VLPs-QDs. When incubated with different cell lines, CPV-VLPs-QDs significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of QDs and selectively labeled the cells with high-level transferrin receptors. Cell-targeted labeling was achieved by utilizing the specific binding between the CPV capsid protein VP2 of VLPs and cellular receptors. CPV-VLPs-QDs, which can mimic the native CPV infection, can recognize and attach to the transferrin receptors on cellular membrane. Therefore, CPV-VLPs can be used as carriers to facilitate the targeted delivery of encapsulated nanomaterials into cells via receptor-mediated pathways. This study confirmed that CPV-VLPs can significantly promote the biocompatibility of nanomaterials and could expand the application of CPV-VLPs in biological medicine.

  17. Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.

    Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

    2014-04-01

    Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (Pnutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out. PMID:24373732

  18. Improved conditions for labeling EDTMP with 188Re for bone pain palliation

    Introduction: Ethilenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) is a tetraphosphonate ligand which, when labeled with 188Re, can be used for relief of metastatic bone pain. The preferential localization of phosphonate complexes in bone is attributed to their affinity for calcium, and tetraphosphonates may be equal or superior to diphosphonates in this regard. In the present study, it was aimed to determine optimal conditions for preparation of a kit of EDTMP to be labeled with 188Re. Methods: EDTMP was dissolved in NaOH 1N, and alkalinity was reversed with HCl till pH 2, when SnCl2. 2H20 and also ascorbic acid were introduced in the mixture, followed by Na188ReO4. The preparation was incubated in water bath for 30 minutes and after cooling radiochemical purity was assessed. Optimization of the process consisted in varying the values of EDTMP mass (20, 30, 40 mg) SnCl2.2H20 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/mL), and reaction time (15 and 30 minutes). Radiochemical purity and stability were ascertained in vitro and also in Swiss mice. Bone/muscle uptake ratio was calculated from %ID/g of these organs. Results: The best 188Re-EDTMP complex was obtained with 40 mg of the ligand and 2 mg/mL of stannous chloride heated during 15 minutes, and the product was radiochemically stable during 24 hours. Kidney and bone uptake were very significant (respectively 4.5 ± 0.5% and 3.1 ± 0.3 %ID/g). Bone/muscle ratio observed four hours post-injection was also very adequate (28.5). Conclusions: A stable and biologically useful complex of 188Re-EDTMP can be prepared with high concentration of EDTMP and considerable uptake by bone. It compares favorably with 153Sm-EDTMP, as 188Re has more advantageous radioisotopic properties than 153Sm, and it can be recommended for further studies in conditions of painful bone metastases

  19. Improved Double-Vial Radiorespirometric Technique for Mineralization of 14C-Labeled Substrates †

    Coveney, Michael F.; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1984-01-01

    New procedures which simplify sample preparation and improve counting efficiency were developed for double-vial radiorespirometry. Under certain conditions, efficiency of fluor-NaOH-impregnated wicks was not stable, but was adversely affected by water vapor, NaOH concentration, and CO2 loading. Glass fiber wick material treated with a methanolic fluor-NaOH solution showed improved 14C counting efficiency (58%) compared with previous methods.

  20. Research recommendations for applying vitamin A-labelled isotope dilution techniques to improve human vitamin A nutrition.

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Kurpad, Anura V; Hunt, Janet R

    2014-01-01

    The current use of serum retinol concentrations as a measurement of subclinical vitamin A deficiency is unsatisfactory for many reasons. The best technique available for vitamin A status assessment in humans is the measurement of total body pool size. Pool size is measured by the administration of retinol labelled with stable isotopes of carbon or hydrogen that are safe for human subjects, with subsequent measurement of the dilution of the labelled retinol within the body pool. However, the isotope techniques are time-consuming, technically challenging, and relatively expensive. There is also a need to assess different types of tracers and doses, and to establish clear guidelines for the use and interpretation of this method in different populations. Field-friendly improvements are desirable to encourage the application of this technique in developing countries where the need is greatest for monitoring the risk of vitamin A deficiency, the effectiveness of public health interventions, and the potential of hypervitaminosis due to combined supplement and fortification programs. These techniques should be applied to validate other less technical methods of assessing vitamin A deficiency. Another area of public health relevance for this technique is to understand the bioconversion of β-carotene to vitamin A, and its relation to existing vitamin A status, for future dietary diversification programs. PMID:25537106

  1. Improving the radiochemical purity determination of 123I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine

    The HPLC method originally applied at the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) for the radiochemical purity determination of 123iodine labeled m-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) takes 18.5 min. The final product release also depends on this result, and to facilitate this stage, we aimed to decrease this analysis time. We also intended to use fewer toxic compounds, if feasible. The optimization approach used herein was a combination of factorial and mixture designs to study simultaneously the selected variables. Analysis time, resolution and chromatograms aspect were the measured responses. The qualitative analysis of these responses provided the best chromatographic separation conditions that were 52 mM KH2PO4 in a solution of ethanol and water (1:1), applying a flow rate of 0.50 mL min-1 and C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm). These optimum conditions not only decreased the analysis time in 61 %, but also allowed the reduction of mobile phase toxicity. To assure reliable data, method validation was performed for these conditions. The method has proved its specificity, the detection limit found was 3.70 × 10-4 MBq mL-1 and the quantification limit has corresponded to 1.11 × 10-3 MBq mL-1. Repeatability and intermediate precision has not exceeded 3 and 5 %, respectively, and the accuracy has matched the interval of 95-105 %. This new method has been routinely applied in the radiochemical purity determination of 123I-mIBG at IEN. (author)

  2. Development of new and improved labelling procedures for introducing isotopic hydrogen and carbon-11 into organic compounds

    New and improved methods for introducing radioisotopic hydrogen (tritium) and carbon (positron-emitting short-lived carbon-11, t1/2 = 20.4 min) into organic molecules for application in biological research have been explored. In Chapter 1 the applications of radioactive isotopes in biological and clinical research is surveyed, with particular emphasis on the value of β-emitting tritium and positron-emitting carbon-11. In Chapter 2 we report the use of the non-radioactive hydrogen isotope, deuterium, as a surrogate for tritium in the development of microwave-enhanced labelling procedures, based on catalytic hydrogen transfer to olefins (e.g. styrene, styrene derivatives, cinnamic acid and its derivatives). Hydrogen or deuterium donors (e.g. formate salts) were used alone or in combination with other sources (e.g. D2O). The method was found to give fully hydrogenated products using very short microwave irradiation times (∼ 2 min) and was highly reproducible. Importantly, the method is environmentally clean, as when extended to tritiated formates little or no radioactive waste is produced. In Chapter 3 we explored the labelling of CGP 62349 {3-[1-(R)-[3-(4-methoxybenzyl)phosphinyl-2-(S)-hydroxy-propyl- amino]ethyl]benzoic acid}, a γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor antagonist, with carbon-11 in order to provide a prospective radioligand for medical imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Labelling agents, [11C]iodomethane and [11C]methyl triflate, prepared by improved methods, were used in the rapid methylation of desmethyl-CGP 62349. Substantially higher radiochemical yields (78%) of [11C]CGP 62349 were achieved by the new methods compared to that produced in a previously published procedure (9%). In addition, the use of [11C]methyl triflate rather than [11C]iodomethane has the advantage of giving a high radiochemical yield and a lower amount of carrier. In Chapter 4 we report on the use of [11C]carbon monoxide as a labelling agent. This has

  3. Improving mid stream urine sampling: reducing labelling error and laboratory rejection

    Jakes, Adam; McCue, Eleanor; Cracknell, Alison

    2014-01-01

    A urine sample is vital in older patients with pyrexia or acute confusion, and commonly directs clinicians towards a source of infection. Not only can the organism be identified, but sensitivities to antibiotics can also guide prescribing. A high number of urine samples were not being processed on the medicine for older people wards at St. James's Hospital due to incomplete hand-written request forms not complying with trust policy. Previous attempts to re-educate staff had failed to improve ...

  4. A probiotic treatment containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus improves IBS symptoms in an open label trial

    FAN Yu-jing; CHEN Shu-jie; YU Ying-cong; SI Jian-min; LIU Bin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods: Eighty-five patients [male 32, female 53; age (45.31±11.72) years]were given live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules 1260 mg/d t.i.d.×4 weeks. Syndrome scales were used to evaluate the efficacy in gastrointestinal syndrome. Fecal flora was also measured before and after the treatment. Six bacteria were cultured and the colony forming units were counted in stool. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-four patients finished the follow-up. No side-effect was found. For treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, the effective rate of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules was 56.8% in the second week, 74.3% in the fourth week and 73.0% in the sixth week. Single symptom was improved, especially in abdominal pain and stool character. The probiotica containing live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus could increase bifidobacterium count (P<0.01) and lactobacillus count (P<0.05); decrease bacteroides count (P<0.05) and enterococci count (P<0.01); No obvious changes were observed in clostridium difficile colonitis and enterobacteriaceae (P>0.05). Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that the administration of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus improved the symptom of irritable bowel syndrome and that there was a gradual increase of this effect. Thereafter conditions remained stable for 2 weeks. That improvement may be associated with alterations in gastrointestinal flora.

  5. No-wash ethanol precipitation of dye-labeled reaction products improves DNA sequencing reads.

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    The advent of DNA sequencing has significantly accelerated molecular biology and clinical genetic testing. Despite recent increases in next-generation sequencing throughput, the most popular platform for DNA sequencing is still the multi-capillary DNA sequencer, which is ideally suited for small-scale sequencing projects and is highly accurate. However, the methods remain time-consuming and laborious. Here, I describe a modified ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) method that skips the washing step in ethanol precipitation. My improvements to standard methods save labor, time, and cost per run and increase the sequence reads by 5 to 10%. This modified method will provide immediate benefits to many researchers. PMID:25256164

  6. Improving cerebral blood flow quantification for arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI by removing residual motion artifacts and global signal fluctuations.

    Wang, Ze

    2012-12-01

    Denoising is critical to improving the quality and stability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification in arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to the intrinsic low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of ASL data. Previous studies have been focused on reducing the spatial or temporal noise using standard filtering techniques, and less attention has been paid to two global nuisance effects, the residual motion artifacts and the global signal fluctuations. Since both nuisances affect the whole brain, removing them in advance should enhance the CBF quantification quality for ASL MRI. The purpose of this paper was to assess this potential benefit. Three methods were proposed to suppress each or both of the two global nuisances. Their performances for CBF quantification were validated using ASL data acquired from 13 subjects. Evaluation results showed that covarying out both global nuisances significantly improved temporal SNR and test-retest stability of CBF measurement. Although the concept of removing both nuisances is not technically novel per se, this paper clearly showed the benefits for ASL CBF quantification. Dissemination of the proposed methods in a free ASL data processing toolbox should be of interest to a broad range of ASL users. PMID:22789842

  7. Transdermal fentanyl improves pain control and functionality in patients with osteoarthritis: an open-label Canadian trial.

    Choquette, Denis; McCarthy, Timothy G; Rodrigues, Jude F N; Kelly, Allan J; Camacho, Fernando; Horbay, G L A; Husein-Bhabha, Farah A

    2008-05-01

    Current treatment guidelines advocate opioids for arthritis when standard analgesics produce inadequate relief. Efficacy, adverse effects (AEs), dosing regimens, physician expertise and patient preference influence treatment selection. This study assessed transdermal fentanyl (TDF) as a treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This prospective, Canadian open-label, 8-week trial assessed the efficacy and safety of TDF in patients with OA of hip or knee with moderate-to-severe target joint pain inadequately controlled using weak opioids. TDF was initiated at 25 mcg/h and titrated to optimal pain control. Rescue acetaminophen 500 mg was allowed (maximum 4 g/day). The main endpoint was improvement in pain control assessment rating (five rating categories); pain intensity (0-10 numerical scale), functionality (WOMAC-OA Index), health-related quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey) and global impression were also evaluated. Eighty-one patients (61% female, mean age 60 years) were enrolled; 62 were evaluable. All had failed on previous weak opioid therapy, primarily codeine or codeine combinations. At treatment end, 65% rated pain control as improved (Pain Control Assessment rating change >or=1 category; pacetaminophen. At 1 month and end of treatment, changes in the SF-36 physical global scale and individual sub-scores for the pain index and role-physical scales were highly significant (pdizziness and vomiting. Most treatment-related AEs were mild to moderate in intensity. TDF improved pain control, functionality and health-related quality of life in these patients. The findings support current recommendations for use of opioids such as TDF as a treatment option for a sub-population of patients with OA pain. PMID:18038178

  8. In Silico Instrumental Response Correction Improves Precision of Label-free Proteomics and Accuracy of Proteomics-based Predictive Models*

    Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2013-01-01

    In the analysis of proteome changes arising during the early stages of a biological process (e.g. disease or drug treatment) or from the indirect influence of an important factor, the biological variations of interest are often small (∼10%). The corresponding requirements for the precision of proteomics analysis are high, and this often poses a challenge, especially when employing label-free quantification. One of the main contributors to the inaccuracy of label-free proteomics experiments is...

  9. Inulin-125I-tyramine, an improved residualizing label for studies on sites of catabolism of circulating proteins

    Residualizing labels for protein, such as dilactitol-125I-tyramine (125I-DLT) and cellobiitol-125I-tyramine, have been used to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of long-lived plasma proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and lipoproteins. The radioactive degradation products formed from labeled proteins are relatively large, hydrophilic, resistant to lysosomal hydrolases, and accumulate in lysosomes in the cells involved in degradation of the carrier protein. However, the gradual loss of the catabolites from cells (t1/2 approximately 2 days) has limited the usefulness of residualizing labels in studies on longer lived proteins. We describe here a higher molecular weight (Mr approximately 5000), more efficient residualizing glycoconjugate label, inulin-125I-tyramine (125I-InTn). Attachment of 125I-InTn had no effect on the plasma half-life or tissue sites of catabolism of asialofetuin, fetuin, or rat serum albumin in the rat. The half-life for hepatic retention of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled asialofetuin was 5 days, compared to 2.3 days for 125I-DLT-labeled asialofetuin. The whole body half-lives for radioactivity from 125I-InTn-, 125I-DLT-, and 125I-labeled rat serum albumin were 7.5, 4.3, and 2.2 days, respectively. The tissue distribution of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled proteins agreed with results of previous studies using 125I-DLT, except that a greater fraction of total degradation products was recovered in tissues. Kinetic analyses indicated that the average half-life for retention of 125I-InTn degradation products in tissues is approximately 5 days and suggested that in vivo there are both slow and rapid routes for release of degradation products from cells

  10. Deletion of Genes Encoding Arginase Improves Use of "Heavy" Isotope-Labeled Arginine for Mass Spectrometry in Fission Yeast.

    Weronika E Borek

    Full Text Available The use of "heavy" isotope-labeled arginine for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC mass spectrometry in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is hindered by the fact that under normal conditions, arginine is extensively catabolized in vivo, resulting in the appearance of "heavy"-isotope label in several other amino acids, most notably proline, but also glutamate, glutamine and lysine. This "arginine conversion problem" significantly impairs quantification of mass spectra. Previously, we developed a method to prevent arginine conversion in fission yeast SILAC, based on deletion of genes involved in arginine catabolism. Here we show that although this method is indeed successful when (13C6-arginine (Arg-6 is used for labeling, it is less successful when (13C6(15N4-arginine (Arg-10, a theoretically preferable label, is used. In particular, we find that with this method, "heavy"-isotope label derived from Arg-10 is observed in amino acids other than arginine, indicating metabolic conversion of Arg-10. Arg-10 conversion, which severely complicates both MS and MS/MS analysis, is further confirmed by the presence of (13C5(15N2-arginine (Arg-7 in arginine-containing peptides from Arg-10-labeled cells. We describe how all of the problems associated with the use of Arg-10 can be overcome by a simple modification of our original method. We show that simultaneous deletion of the fission yeast arginase genes car1+ and aru1+ prevents virtually all of the arginine conversion that would otherwise result from the use of Arg-10. This solution should enable a wider use of heavy isotope-labeled amino acids in fission yeast SILAC.

  11. Food Labels

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  12. Improved labelling of DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated peptides and antibodies with 111In in HEPES and MES buffer.

    Brom, Maarten; Joosten, Lieke; Oyen, Wim JG; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer used during the labelling procedure: NaAc, NH4Ac, HEPES and MES buffer. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock and cadmium contamination, the decay product of 111In, was also examined in th...

  13. Improved labelling of DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated peptides and antibodies with 111In in HEPES and MES buffer.

    Brom, M.; Joosten, L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Gotthardt, M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer

  14. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. Method: We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after…

  15. Use of gold nanoparticle-labeled secondary antibodies to improve the sensitivity of an immunochromatographic assay for aflatoxin B1

    We describe a sensitive method for the immunochromatographic determination of aflatoxin B1. It is based on the following steps: 1) Competitive interaction between non-labeled specific primary antibodies and target antigens in a sample and in the test zone of a membrane; 2) detection of the immune complexes on the membrane by using a secondary antibodies labeled with gold nanoparticles. The method enables precise adjustment of the required quantities of specific antibodies and the colloidal (gold) marker. It was applied in a lateral flow format to the detection of aflatoxin B1 and exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 160 pg · mL−1 if detected visually, and of 30 pg · mL−1 via instrumental detection. This is significantly lower than the LOD of 2 ng · mL−1 achieved by conventional lateral flow analysis using the same reagents. (author)

  16. A simple protocol for amino acid type selective isotope labeling in insect cells with improved yields and high reproducibility

    An easy to use and robust approach for amino acid type selective isotope labeling in insect cells is presented. It relies on inexpensive commercial media and can be implemented in laboratories without sophisticated infrastructure. In contrast to previous protocols, where either high protein amounts or high incorporation ratios were obtained, here we achieve both at the same time. By supplementing media with a well considered amount of yeast extract, similar protein amounts as with full media are obtained, without compromising on isotope incorporation. In single and dual amino acid labeling experiments incorporation ratios are consistently ≥90% for all amino acids tested. This enables NMR studies of eukaryotic proteins and their interactions even for proteins with low expression levels. We show applications with human kinases, where protein–ligand interactions are characterized by 2D [15N, 1H]- and [13C, 1H]-HSQC spectra.

  17. Post midnight spread-F occurrence over Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E during low and ascending phases of solar activity

    K. Niranjan

    Full Text Available A study carried out on the occurrence of post midnight spread-F events at a low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, India revealed that its occurrence is maximum in the summer solstice months of the low solar activity period and decreases with an increase in the sunspot activity. The F-region virtual height variations show that 80% of these spread-F cases are associated with an increase in the F-region altitude. It is suggested with the support of the night airglow 6300 A zenith intensity data obtained with co-located ground-based night airglow photometer and electron temperature data from the Indian SROSS C2 satellite that the seasonal variation of the occurrence and probable onset times of the post midnight spread-F depend on the characteristics of the highly variable semipermanent equatorial Midnight Temperature Maximum (MTM.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; ionosphere atmosphere interactions Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and Aurora

  18. Wasteful Labeling

    Mahenc, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The role of labeling is to solve the adverse selection problem caused by unsubstantiated claims from firms. The problem however is likely to remain unsolved if the labeling agency is not trustworthy.The agency can be suspected to divert the fees charged for labeling from their primary purpose of collecting information in order to raise excessive revenue. This paper addresses this issue and shows that labeling may be wasteful if the agency is likely to be untrustworthy. To award firms green la...

  19. Improving quality of arterial spin labeling MR imaging at 3 Tesla with a 32-channel coil and parallel imaging.

    Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Petr, Jan; Bannier, Elise; Barillot, Christian; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare 12-channel and 32-channel phased-array coils and to determine the optimal parallel imaging (PI) technique and factor for brain perfusion imaging using Pulsed Arterial Spin labeling (PASL) at 3 Tesla (T). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers underwent 10 different PASL perfusion PICORE Q2TIPS scans at 3T using 12-channel and 32-channel coils without PI and with GRAPPA or mSENSE using factor 2. PI with factor 3 and 4 were used only with the 32-channel coil....

  20. An improved method for 14C-labeling of L-DOPS, a norepinephrine precursor amino acid

    (2S,3R)-2-Amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid (L-DOPS) (1) was efficiently labeled with carbon-14 at the 3-position of the propionic acid moiety for use in mammalian metabolic studies. Condensation of 3,4-bis(benzyloxy) =carbonyl-14C=-benzaldehyde (7) with the optically active 5-oxazolidinone (8) gave the optically active alcohol (9). Catalytic hydrogenation of 9 under acidic condition afforded 1. The overall yield of 1 was 74% from 7. (author)

  1. Improved electrochemical performances of polyaniline nanotubes-poly-L-lysine composite for label-free impedance detection of DNA hybridization

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive label-free DNA hybridization biosensing platform was fabricated based on the synergistic effect of polyaniline nanotubes (PANInt) and poly-L-lysine (pLys).The composite of pLys and PANInt was coated onto the carbon paste electrode (CPE) to form a uniform and very stable nanocomposite membrane.The pLys in the composite film not only acts as a membrane to retain good electron transfer capability of PANInt even at physiological pH,but also possesses fine biocompatibility for bio-analytes.DNA probes with negatively charged phosphate groups were readily linked to the positively charged pLys surface due to the strong electrostatic affinity.The synergistic effect of PANInt and pLys could significantly enhance the sensitivity of DNA hybridization recognition.The phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene fragment from transgenic corn and the polymerase chain reaction amplification of the terminator of nopaline synthase gene from the real sample of a kind of transgenic soybean were detected by this DNA electrochemical biosensor via label-free impedance method.This stable composite gives convenient permselectivity properties as a transducer material for the design of modern electrochemical impedance biosensor using [Fe(CN)6]3-/4as an indicator.

  2. VHF and L-band scintillation characteristics over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of simultaneous VHF (244 MHz and L-band (1.5 GHz scintillations recorded at a low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, during the low sunspot activity year of March 2004 to March 2005, suggest that the occurrence of scintillations is mainly due to two types, namely the Plasma Bubble Induced (PBI, which maximizes during the post sunset hours of winter and equinoctial months, and the Bottom Side Sinusoidal (BSS type, which maximizes during the post-midnight hours of the summer solstice months. A detailed study on the spectral characteristics of the scintillations at both the frequencies show that the post-sunset scintillations are strong with fast fading (≈40 fad/min and are multiple in nature in scattering, giving rise to steep spectral slopes, whereas the post-midnight scintillations, which occur mostly on the VHF signal with low fading rate (≈4 fad/min, are of the BSS type, often showing typical Fresnel oscillations with reduced roll off spectral slopes, indicating that the type of irregularity resembles a thin screen structure giving rise to weak scattering. Using the onset times of several similar scintillation patches across the two satellite (FLEETSAT 73° E, INMARSAT 65° E ray paths (sub-ionospheric points are separated by 82 km, the East ward movement of the irregularity patches is found to vary from 150 to 250 m/s during the post sunset hours and decrease slowly during the post midnight hours. Further, the east-west extent of the PBI type of irregularities is found to vary from 100 to 500 km, while that of the BSS type extend up to a few thousand kilometers.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Auroral ionosphere; Electric fields and currents

  3. The nematode stoma: Homology of cell architecture with improved understanding by confocal microscopy of labeled cell boundaries.

    Jay Burr, A H; Baldwin, James G

    2016-09-01

    Nematode stomas vary widely in the cuticular structures evolved for different feeding strategies, yet the arrangement of the epithelial cell classes that form these structures may be conserved. This article addresses several issues that have impeded the full acceptance of this hypothesis including controversies arising from the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans stoma. We investigated fluorescent antibody labeling of cell boundaries in conjunction with confocal microscopy as an alternative to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using MH27 to label apical junctions in C. elegans and two other species. Accurately spaced optical sections collected by the confocal microscope provide a three-dimensional array of pixels (voxels) that, using image-processing software, can be rotated and sectioned at accurately chosen thicknesses and locations. Ribbons of fluorescence clearly identify cell boundaries along the luminal cuticle in C. elegans and Zeldia punctata and less clearly in Bunonema sp. The patterns render cell classes and their relationships readily identifiable. In the C. elegans stoma they correct a misreading of serial TEMs that was not congruent with architecture in other nematodes-the row of marginal cells is now seen to be continuous as in other nematodes, rather than being interrupted by encircling pm1 cells. Also impeding understanding, the reference to certain cell classes as 'epithelial' and others as "muscle" in the C. elegans literature is at variance with muscle expression in most other taxa. For consistent comparison among species, we propose that these cell class descriptors based on function be replaced by topological terms. With these and other confusing concepts and terminology removed, the homology of the cellular architecture among taxa becomes obvious. We provide a corrected description of the cell architecture of the C. elegans stoma and examples of how it is modified in other taxa with different feeding strategies. J. Morphol. 277

  4. Nutrition Labeling

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  5. Nutrition Labeling

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  6. Improved PET Imaging of uPAR expression using new Cu-64-labeled cross-bridged peptide ligands

    Persson, Morten; Hosseini, Masood; Madsen, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between uPAR expression, cancer cell invasion and metastases is now well-established and has prompted the development of a number of uPAR PET imaging agents, which could potentially identify cancer patients with invasive and metastatic lesions. In the present study, we synthesized....... Importantly, the more stable of the new uPAR PET tracers, (64)Cu-CB-TE2A-PA-AE105, exhibits a significantly reduced liver uptake compared to (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 as well as (64)Cu-CB-TE2A-AE105, (p...... and characterized two new cross-bridged (64)Cu-labeled peptide conjugates for PET imaging of uPAR and performed a head-to-head comparison with the corresponding and more conventionally used DOTA conjugate. Based on in-source laser-induced reduction of chelated Cu(II) to Cu(I), we now demonstrate the...... following ranking with respect to the chemical inertness of their complexed Cu ions: DOTA-AE105 95%) were achieved in all cases by incubation at 95ºC. In vivo, they display identical tumor uptake after 1h, but differ significantly after 22 hrs, where the DOTA-AE105 uptake remains surprisingly high...

  7. WaveletQuant, an improved quantification software based on wavelet signal threshold de-noising for labeled quantitative proteomic analysis

    Li Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative proteomics technologies have been developed to comprehensively identify and quantify proteins in two or more complex samples. Quantitative proteomics based on differential stable isotope labeling is one of the proteomics quantification technologies. Mass spectrometric data generated for peptide quantification are often noisy, and peak detection and definition require various smoothing filters to remove noise in order to achieve accurate peptide quantification. Many traditional smoothing filters, such as the moving average filter, Savitzky-Golay filter and Gaussian filter, have been used to reduce noise in MS peaks. However, limitations of these filtering approaches often result in inaccurate peptide quantification. Here we present the WaveletQuant program, based on wavelet theory, for better or alternative MS-based proteomic quantification. Results We developed a novel discrete wavelet transform (DWT and a 'Spatial Adaptive Algorithm' to remove noise and to identify true peaks. We programmed and compiled WaveletQuant using Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition. We then incorporated the WaveletQuant program in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP, a commonly used open source proteomics analysis pipeline. Conclusions We showed that WaveletQuant was able to quantify more proteins and to quantify them more accurately than the ASAPRatio, a program that performs quantification in the TPP pipeline, first using known mixed ratios of yeast extracts and then using a data set from ovarian cancer cell lysates. The program and its documentation can be downloaded from our website at http://systemsbiozju.org/data/WaveletQuant.

  8. Single-center open-label randomized study of anemia management improvement in ESRD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Bellasi Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether anemia and mineral bone abnormalities (chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder [CKD-MBD] are associated still remains to be elucidated. Both anemia and CKD-MBD have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome and poor quality of life. However, recent evidence suggests that use of large doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs to correct hemoglobin (Hb may be detrimental in CKD. The Optimal Anemia Treatment in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD (Optimal ESRD Treatment study will assess whether lowering of parathyroid hormone (PTH is associated with a reduction in ESA consumption. The Optimal ESRD Treatment study is a pilot single-center open-label study with blinded end point (a prospective randomized open blinded end-point [PROBE] design enrolling 50 patients on maintenance dialysis. Eligible patients with intact PTH (iPTH 300-540 pg/mL and Hb 10-11.5 g/dL will be randomized 1:1 to strict PTH control (150-300 pg/mL versus standard care (PTH range 300-540 pg/mL. Available drugs for CKD-MBD and anemia treatment will be managed by the attending physician to maintain the desired levels of PTH (according to study arm allocation and Hb (10-11.5 g/dL. Echocardiographic data for cardiac structure and function as well as arterial stiffness will be assessed at study inception and completion. The Optimal ESRD Treatment study should shed light on the complicated interplay of anemia and CKD-MBD and on the feasibility of clinical trials in this domain. The study results are expected in the spring of 2017.

  9. A triglycine linker improves tumor uptake and biodistributions of 67-Cu-Labeled anti-neuroblastoma MAb chCE7 F(ab')2 fragments

    The peptide-linked copper chelators CPTA-triglycyl-L-p-isothiocyanato-phenylalanine (CPTA-R1-NCS) as well as DOTA-triglycyl-L-p-isocyanato-phenylalanine (DOTA-R1-NCS) were synthesized and coupled to F(ab')2 fragments of the anti-neuroblastoma monoclonal antibody (MAb) chCE7. 67Cu-labeled conjugates were compared with the original CPTA- and DO3A-F(ab')2 in vitro and in vivo in mice bearing neuroblastoma xenografts. With the CPTA-R1-F(ab')2, biodistributions were improved, because radioactivity present in the kidney was reduced. With the DOTA-R1-F(ab')2, clearance from the blood was slower and tumor uptake was higher compared with the other conjugates. DOTA-R1-F(ab')2 achieved the best tumor/tissue ratios

  10. Preclinical Evaluation of a Novel In-111-Labeled Bombesin Homodimer for Improved Imaging of GRPR-Positive Prostate Cancer

    Carlucci, G.; Ananias, H. J. K.; Yu, Z.; Hoving, H. D.; Helfrich, W.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Liu, S.; de Jong, I. J.; Elsinga, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    Rational-designed multimerization of targeting ligands can be used to improve kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Multimeric targeting ligands may be produced by tethering multiple identical or two or more monomeric ligands of different binding specificities. Consequently, multimeric ligands may s

  11. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility of an open label intervention to improve hydroxyurea adherence in youth with sickle cell disease

    Smaldone, Arlene; Findley, Sally; Bakken, Suzanne; Matiz, L. Adriana; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Jia, Haomiao; Matos, Sergio; Manwani, Deepa; Green, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHW) are increasingly recognized as a strategy to improve health outcomes for the underserved with chronic diseases but has not been formally explored in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). SCD primarily affects African American, Hispanic and other traditionally underserved populations. Hydroxyurea (HU), an oral, once-daily medication, is the only approved therapeutic drug for sickle cell disease and markedly reduces symptoms, morbidity and mortality and improves quality of life largely by increasing hemoglobin F blood levels. This paper presents the rationale, study design and protocol for an open label randomized controlled trial to improve parent-youth partnerships in self-management and medication adherence to HU in adolescents with SCD. Methods/Design A CHW intervention augmented by text messaging was designed for adolescents with SCD ages 10–18 years and their parents to improve daily HU adherence. Thirty adolescent parent dyads will be randomized with 2:1 intervention group allocation. Intervention dyads will establish a relationship with a culturally aligned CHW to identify barriers to HU use, identify cues to build a habit, and develop a dyad partnership to improve daily HU adherence and achieve their individualized “personal best” hemoglobin F target. Intervention feasibility, acceptability and efficacy will be assessed via a 2-site trial. Outcomes of interest are HU adherence, dyad self-management communication, quality of life, and resource use. Discussion Despite known benefits, poor HU adherence is common. If feasible and acceptable, the proposed intervention may improve health of underserved adolescents with SCD by enhancing long-term HU adherence. PMID:27327779

  12. Sudarshan Kriya yoga improves quality of life in healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV: results from an open label randomized clinical trial

    N Mawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Improving quality of life (QOL of healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV is critical needing home-based, long-term strategy. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY intervention is acknowledged for its positive impact on health. It is hypothesised that SKY would improve PLHIV′s QOL, justifying an evaluation. Methods: In this open label randomized controlled pilot trial, 61 adult PLHIV with CD4 count more than 400 cells/µl and Karnofsky scale score above 70 were enrolled. Those with cardiac disease, jaundice, tuberculosis, or on antiretroviral therapy/yoga intervention were excluded. All were given standard care, randomized to SKY intervention (31: I-SKY and only standard of care in control (30: O-SOC arms. The I-SKY participants were trained for six days to prepare for daily practice of SKY at home for 30 min. A validated 31-item WHOQOL-HIVBREF questionnaire was used to document effect in both arms from baseline to three visits at 4 wk interval. Results: Baseline QOL scores, hypertension and CD4 count were similar in both arms. An overall 6 per cent improvement of QOL scores was observed in I-SKY group as compared to O-SOC group, after controlling for baseline variables like age, gender, education and occupation ( p0 =0.016; 12 per cent for physical ( p0 =0.004, 11 per cent psychological ( p0 =0.023 and 9 per cent level of independence ( p0 =0.001 domains. Improvement in I-SKY observed at post-training and in the SKY adherence group showed increase in these two domains. Conclusions: A significant improvement in QOL scores was observed for the three health related QOL domains in SKY intervention arm. This low cost strategy improved physical and psychological state of PLHIV calling for upscaling with effective monitoring for sustainability of quality of life.

  13. Improvement in social and cognitive functioning associated with paliperidone extended-release treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a 24-week, single arm, open-label study

    Shi, Chuan; Yao, Shu Qiao; Xu, Yi Feng; Shi, Jian Guo; Xu, Xiu Feng; Zhang, Cong Pei; Jin, Hua; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This single-arm, open-label study aimed to explore the effects of extended-release paliperidone on social and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Paliperidone extended-release (flexible dose ranging from 3 to 12 mg/day orally) was administered for 24 weeks in patients with schizophrenia. Patient function was assessed using the personal and social performance scale, measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery, positive and negative syndrome scale, and clinical global impression-severity. Results Ninety patients were included in the full analysis set, while 72 patients were included in the per protocol set. The personal and social performance score was 54.3±14.3 at baseline, and significantly increased to 73.4±12.6 at week 24 (Pschizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery assessment, six of the nine individual subtests, six of the seven cognitive domains, and total cognitive scores improved significantly (Pschizophrenia.

  14. Second antibody clearance of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen for improved tumor imaging

    The authors have investigated the use of a second antibody (SA) directed against the radiolabeled primary anti-tumor antibody (PA) to enhance the clearance rate of the PA from the circulation and nontarget tissues. Administration of 50 or 250 μg of anti-goat IgG (SA) hr after the administration of 10 μg of /sup 131/I-goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody (PA) to hamsters bearing human colonic tumor xenografts resulted in a 5-fold reduction in the level of circulating PA after 4 hr in comparison to the control group only given /sup 131/I-PA. The percentage of PA in the blood decreased rapidly over 72 hr in animals given 250 μg of the SA, but at 50 μg of SA the level of activity in the blood after 24 hr was similar to the control. Tumor accretion was identical after 4 hr, but after 24 hr the animals given 250 μg of SA had 2-3 fold less PA in the tumor than either the control group or the 50 μg dose of SA. Tumor/nontumor ratios for all major organs but the spleen improved 6-8 fold within 48 hr after injection of 250 μg of the SA with tumor/blood ratios as high as 40:1. A SA dose of 50 μg resulted in a significantly higher tumor/blood ratio after only 4 hr; tumor/nontumor ratios at later times were similar to the control group. Tumors located in the hind legs were visible in all groups by imaging 24 hr after injection of the SA, but only the 250 μg dose of SA showed a significant reduction in total body activity. These results suggest that the SA approach may be used to reduce the total background radioactivity while maintaining tumor accretion of /sup 131/I-PA to allow for selective tumor imaging

  15. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Multi-Ingredient Anti-Aging Moisturizer Designed to Improve the Appearance of Facial Skin.

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2015-07-01

    An open label clinical trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer designed to improve the appearance of facial skin. Parameters studied included fine lines and wrinkles, clarity/brightness, visual roughness, tactile roughness, evenness of skin tone (redness), evenness of skin tone (hyperpigmentation) and overall appearance. Thirty-seven female subjects, ages 35-60 years completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the facial anti-aging moisturizer include: Astragalus membranaceus root extract, a peptide blend including palmitoyl tripeptide-38, standardized rosemary leaf extract (ursolic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). Subjects were instructed to apply the moisturizer twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of product usage. Clinical evaluations were conducted at each visit. A self-assessment questionnaire was conducted at week 4, week 8, and week 12. The self-assessment questionnaire included product efficacy inquiries and product aesthetic inquiries. Digital photography was conducted at baseline, week 8, and week 12. After 8 weeks of twice daily use, clinical evaluation results show that the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer produced a statistically significant improvement in the scores of all clinical grading parameters assessed compared to baseline. A greater statistically significant improvement was seen at 12 weeks. At week 12, there was a statistically significant percentage of favorable results versus unfavorable results in all product efficacy and product aesthetic self-assessment questionnaire results. Digital photography supported the clinical grading and self-assessment questionnaire results. Additionally, the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer is judged to be mild and well tolerated. Several tolerability parameters were assessed at all time

  16. Edge colouring by total labellings

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.;

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  17. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet.

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-11-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procurement policies (for increasing healthful or reducing unhealthful choices), and worksite wellness programs (especially when comprehensive and multicomponent). Evidence was inconclusive for food and menu labeling (for consumer or industry behavior) and changes in local built environment (e.g., availability or accessibility of supermarkets, fast food outlets). We found little empiric evidence evaluating marketing restrictions, although broad principles and large resources spent on marketing suggest utility. Widespread implementation and evaluation of evidence-based policy strategies, with further research on other strategies with mixed/limited evidence, are essential "population medicine" to reduce health and economic burdens and inequities of diet-related illness worldwide. PMID:26370554

  18. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  19. Food labels

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention for the...... two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted with...

  20. Environmental Labeling

    Andrea Podhorsky

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies how information disclosed by voluntary environmental labels creates incentives for firms to invest in environmentally-friendly production technologies. I develop a model with differentiated products and imperfectly-informed consumers. Consumers care about the environmental characteristics of goods (for example, how they were produced), but cannot directly observe these product characteristics. Firms differ in their abilities to develop "clean" technologies, but have no ince...

  1. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    , their size etc. are studied before setting up a label scheme. A new labelling study was launched in 2000, the purpose of which is to: * improve the foundation for evaluating the value and effect of labelling schemes * improve the possibilities for pursuing an active consumer policy within the area * give......Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes...

  2. Donepezil Combined with Natural Hirudin Improves the Clinical Symptoms of Patients with Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A 20-Week Open-Label Pilot Study

    De-qiang Li, Yu-ping Zhou, Han Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of donepezil plus natural hirudin in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's Disease. Methods: In the 20-week, randomized, open-label and controlled study, 84 patients received either donepezil (5 mg/day for the first 4 weeks and 10 mg/day thereafter or donepezil plus natural hirudin (3 g/day treatment. Efficacy was reflected by the change of the total scores of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog, Activities of Daily Life (ADL and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Results: The patients with the donepezil plus natural hirudin treatment showed more significant improvement in the daily activities and the decline of the cognition than those with donepezil treatment. Significant difference was present in the groups since the 8th week. No group difference was found in the NPI change. However, within the hirudin treatment group, more powerful efficacy including NPI assessment was found in the patients with vascular risk factors (VRF as comparing to with those without VRF. The combination of donepezil and natural hirudin was well tolerated. The dropout rate was greater in the donepezil and natural hirudin (50% treatment group than in the donepezil (39% treatment group. Similar result was found in the incidence of adverse events (23.8% vs 19.0%, but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. Adverse events were the most common reason for the dropout. Although hemorrhage and hypersensitiveness were more common in donepezil plus Maixuekang treatment (11.9% and 7.1% group than in donepezil treatment (2.4% and 2.4% group, no significant difference was present between the two groups. Economic problem was another important reason for the patients' withdrawal. Conclusions: Compared with the donepezil treatment in the patients with mild-to-moderate AD, our results suggest that donepezil combined with natural hirudin may improve the treatment effects in the ADL, BPSD and

  3. Simplification to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir maintains viral suppression and improves bone and renal biomarkers in ASSURE, a randomized, open label, non-inferiority trial.

    David A Wohl

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Simplification of antiretroviral therapy in patients with suppressed viremia may minimize long-term adverse effects. The study's primary objective was to determine whether abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir (ABC/3TC+ATV was virologically non-inferior to tenofovir/emtricitabine + atazanavir/ritonavir (TDF/FTC+ATV/r over 24 weeks in a population of virologically suppressed, HIV-1 infected patients. DESIGN: This open-label, multicenter, non-inferiority study enrolled antiretroviral experienced, HIV-infected adults currently receiving a regimen of TDF/FTC+ATV/r for ≥ 6 months with no history of virologic failure and whose HIV-1 RNA had been ≤ 75 copies/mL on 2 consecutive measurements including screening. Patients were randomized 1 ∶ 2 to continue current treatment or simplify to ABC/3TC+ATV. METHODS: The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL at Week 24 by the Time to Loss of Virologic Response (TLOVR algorithm. Secondary endpoints included alternative measures of efficacy, adverse events (AEs, and fasting lipids. Exploratory endpoints included inflammatory, coagulation, bone, and renal biomarkers. RESULTS: After 24 weeks, ABC/3TC+ATV (n = 199 was non-inferior to TDF/FTC+ATV/r (n = 97 by both the primary analysis (87% in both groups and all secondary efficacy analyses. Rates of grade 2-4 AEs were similar between the two groups (40% vs 37%, respectively, but an excess of hyperbilirubinemia made the rate of grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities higher in the TDF/FTC+ATV/r group (30% compared with the ABC/3TC+ATV group (13%. Lipid levels were stable except for HDL cholesterol, which increased significantly in the ABC/3TC+ATV group. Bone and renal biomarkers improved significantly between baseline and Week 24 in patients taking ABC/3TC+ATV, and the difference between groups was significant at Week 24. No significant changes occurred in any inflammatory or coagulation biomarker within or between treatment

  4. Optimal Blood Suppression inversion time based on breathing rates and heart rates to improve renal artery visibility in spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses: A preliminary study

    Pei, Yi Gang; Li, Fang; Long, Xue Ying; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Jin Kang; Li, Wen Zheng [Dept. of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha (China); Shen, Hao [GE Healthcare, Waukesha (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To determine whether an optimal blood suppression inversion time (BSP TI) can boost arterial visibility and whether the optimal BSP TI is related to breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) for hypertension subjects in spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses (SLEEK). This prospective study included 10 volunteers and 93 consecutive hypertension patients who had undergone SLEEK at 1.5T MRI system. Firstly, suitable BSP TIs for displaying clearly renal artery were determined in 10 volunteers. Secondly, non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with the suitable BSP TIs were performed on those hypertension patients. Then, renal artery was evaluated and an optimal BSP TI to increase arterial visibility was determined for each patient. Patients' BRs and HRs were recorded and their relationships with the optimal BSP TI were analyzed. The optimal BSP TI was negatively correlated with BR (r1 = -0.536, P1 < 0.001; and r2 = -0.535, P2 < 0.001) and HR (r1 = -0.432, P1 = 0.001; and r2 = -0.419, P2 = 0.001) for 2 readers (κ = 0.93). For improving renal arterial visibility, BSP TI = 800 ms could be applied as the optimal BSP TI when the 95% confidence interval were 17-19/min (BR1) and 74-82 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 17-19/min (BR2) and 74-83 bpm (HR2) for reader#2; BSP TI = 1100 ms while 14-15/min (BR1, 2) and 71-76 bpm (HR1, 2) for both readers; and BSP TI = 1400 ms when 13-16/min (BR1) and 63-68 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 14-15/min (BR2) and 64-70 bpm (HR2) for reader#2. In SLEEK, BSP TI is affected by patients' BRs and HRs. Adopting the optimal BSP TI based on BR and HR can improve the renal arterial visibility and consequently the working efficiency.

  5. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  6. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 105 nucleotides/μm2 (i.e. 2 x 1013 phosphorus atoms/cm2). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling

  7. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  8. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have......Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...

  9. Stable isotope metabolic labeling with a novel N-enriched bacteria diet for improved proteomic analyses of mouse models for psychopathologies.

    Elisabeth Frank

    Full Text Available The identification of differentially regulated proteins in animal models of psychiatric diseases is essential for a comprehensive analysis of associated psychopathological processes. Mass spectrometry is the most relevant method for analyzing differences in protein expression of tissue and body fluid proteomes. However, standardization of sample handling and sample-to-sample variability are problematic. Stable isotope metabolic labeling of a proteome represents the gold standard for quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. The simultaneous processing of a mixture of labeled and unlabeled samples allows a sensitive and accurate comparative analysis between the respective proteomes. Here, we describe a cost-effective feeding protocol based on a newly developed (15N bacteria diet based on Ralstonia eutropha protein, which was applied to a mouse model for trait anxiety. Tissue from (15N-labeled vs. (14N-unlabeled mice was examined by mass spectrometry and differences in the expression of glyoxalase-1 (GLO1 and histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2 (Hint2 proteins were correlated with the animals' psychopathological behaviors for methodological validation and proof of concept, respectively. Additionally, phenotyping unraveled an antidepressant-like effect of the incorporation of the stable isotope (15N into the proteome of highly anxious mice. This novel phenomenon is of considerable relevance to the metabolic labeling method and could provide an opportunity for the discovery of candidate proteins involved in depression-like behavior. The newly developed (15N bacteria diet provides researchers a novel tool to discover disease-relevant protein expression differences in mouse models using quantitative mass spectrometry.

  10. Dengue virus growth, purification, and fluorescent labeling.

    Zhang, Summer; Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2014-01-01

    The early events of the dengue virus life cycle involve virus binding, internalization, trafficking, and fusion. Fluorescently labeled viruses can be used to visualize these early processes. As dengue virus has 180 identical copies of the envelope protein attached to the membrane surface and is surrounded by a lipid membrane, amine-reactive (Alexa Fluor) or lipophilic (DiD) dyes can be used for virus labeling. These dyes are highly photostable and are ideal for studies involving cellular uptake and endosomal transport. To improve virus labeling efficiency and minimize the nonspecific labeling of nonviral proteins, virus concentration and purification precede fluorescent labeling of dengue viruses. Besides using these viruses for single-particle tracking, DiD-labeled viruses can also be used to distinguish serotype-specific from cross-neutralizing antibodies. Here the details of virus concentration, purification, virus labeling, applications, and hints of troubleshooting are described. PMID:24696327

  11. Carbonyl iron (magnetic) suspensions labelled with technetium-99m. A potential radiopharmaceutical for improved radionuclide angiography and systemic blood flow determinations

    Carbonyl iron particles 3μm in diameter can be conveniently labelled with technetium-99m at specific activities of at least 4mCi/mg of iron. Labelling is achieved by suspending the particles in 99Tcsup(m)-pertechnetate in isotonic saline and using heat. This labelling process is more than 99% efficient. The suspension is maintained by use of a suspending agent and an ultrasonic bath. The preparation is potentially useful for both angiography and blood-flow determinations. 99Tcsup(m) carbonyl iron particle suspension, in the absence of a strong magnetic field, localizes in the reticuloendothelial system of the liver and spleen. Some activity is also retained by the lungs and kidneys. When the radiolabelled particles are intravenously injected into a rabbit's ear and a powerful, hand-held, permanent magnet (1000G at 5mm) is placed adjacent to the abdominal aorta, the radioactive particles passing by the magnet are partially trapped. Removal of the magnet releases the particles. Magnetic fields of 1000G also produce aggregation of the radiolabelled iron particles. When the kidney is placed within such a magnetic field and then the particles are injected intravenously, there is extensive trapping of the aggregated particles in the precapillary vessels. If the field is rapidly removed and a ''degaussing'' (alternating) magnetic field introduced, the aggregation process is reversed and there is extensive clearing of the particles from the kidney. The radiolabelled particles can thus be used for blood flow determinations in a manner analogous to radiolabelled albumin aggregates. Unlike albumin aggregates, however, radiolabelled iron particles can be injected intravenously and will pass through the pulmonary circulation. Also, the precapillary occlusive process is at least partially reversible. (author)

  12. The role of detergent in labeling of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteria

    The chelating agents oxine, acetylacetone, tropolone, and 2-mercaptopyridine 1-oxide were analysed for their suitability in labelling the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (E.r.), strain B10, with 111In and 67Ga. The labelling conditions were improved. The bactericidal activity of the labeling process was investigated. The different chelates did not result in a significant difference in labelling yield. The addition of 0.01% detergent to the labelling buffer doubled the labelling yield up to 45%. Labelled bacteria were injected intravenously into rats. The percentage organ distribution was determined and compared with a control group. (author)

  13. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  14. Issues in Data Labelling

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  15. Improved kinetic stability of DTPA-dGlu as compared with conventional monofunctional DTPA in chelating indium and yttrium: preclinical and initial clinical evaluation of radiometal labelled minigastrin derivatives

    higher background activity in the whole body and those organs known to accumulate the respective free radiometal (e.g. 88Y-DTPA-Leu1-minigastrin had bone uptake of 22%ID/g as compared to only 1.2%ID/g with its dGlu1 analogue). In humans, fast tumour and stomach uptake was observed for both 111In-labelled compounds, but DTPA-dGlu1-minigastrin lacked the liver, spleen and bone marrow uptake observed with its Leu1 analogue. In conclusion, anionic amino acid derivatives of DTPA may display improved metabolic stability as compared with monofunctional DTPA conjugates. DTPA-dGlu1-minigastrin is preferred to ''monofunctional'' DTPA-Leu1-minigastrin for diagnostic application with 111In for the in vivo detection of CCK-B receptor-expressing tissues. (o

  16. Improved kinetic stability of DTPA-dGlu as compared with conventional monofunctional DTPA in chelating indium and yttrium: preclinical and initial clinical evaluation of radiometal labelled minigastrin derivatives

    Behe, Martin; Gotthardt, Martin; Behr, Thomas M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Philipps-University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043, Marburg (Germany); Becker, Wolfgang; Angerstein, Christa [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    as a fast renal clearance pattern. However, DTPA-Leu{sup 1}-minigastrin showed higher background activity in the whole body and those organs known to accumulate the respective free radiometal (e.g. {sup 88}Y-DTPA-Leu{sup 1}-minigastrin had bone uptake of 22%ID/g as compared to only 1.2%ID/g with its dGlu{sup 1} analogue). In humans, fast tumour and stomach uptake was observed for both {sup 111}In-labelled compounds, but DTPA-dGlu{sup 1}-minigastrin lacked the liver, spleen and bone marrow uptake observed with its Leu{sup 1} analogue. In conclusion, anionic amino acid derivatives of DTPA may display improved metabolic stability as compared with monofunctional DTPA conjugates. DTPA-dGlu{sup 1}-minigastrin is preferred to ''monofunctional'' DTPA-Leu{sup 1}-minigastrin for diagnostic application with {sup 111}In for the in vivo detection of CCK-B receptor-expressing tissues. (orig.)

  17. Improved detection and measurement of low levels of [18F]fluoride metabolized from [18F]-labeled pyrimidine nucleoside analogues in biological samples

    Introduction: It is important to identify all circulating metabolites, including free fluoride, for accurate pharmacokinetic modeling of [18F]-labeled radiotracers. We sought to determine the most efficient method to detect and quantify low levels of free [18F]fluoride in biological samples. Methods: Low levels of [18F]fluoride were analyzed using two methods: (A) an ion-exchange cartridge and gamma counting, and (B) radio-HPLC, to compare the detection limits of these two analytical methods. Twenty microliters of [18F]fluoride solution was loaded onto an ion-exchange cartridge, then eluted with 20% MeCN/water (5 ml) and radioactivity trapped in the cartridge counted on a gamma counter. [18F]Fluoride was also determined in plasma and urine from mice injected with [18F]-labeled thymidine analogues using Method A. Results: The detection sensitivity of Method A was 9.4-fold higher than that of Method B (0.075±0.004 vs. 0.71±0.02 nCi). With Method A, [18F]fluoride was determined in plasma for [18F]FLT, [18F]FMAU, [18F]FEAU and N3-[18F]FPrT as 1.4±0.31% (n=4), 0.17±0.49% (n=3), 4.88±1.62% (n=3) and 12.94±0.48% (n=4), respectively. The amount of [18F]fluoride determined in the urine was 11.49±1.60% (n=4) from [18F]FLT, 5.36±2.34% (n=3) from [18F]FMAU, 13.57±1.96% (n=3) from [18F]FEAU and 11.19±1.98% (n=4) from N3-[18F]FPrT. Conclusion: Low levels of [18F]fluoride in biological samples can be detected and quantified using an ion-exchange cartridge and gamma counting. This methodology is simple, accurate and superior to the standard use of radio-HPLC on a C18 column for metabolite analysis, and it should be useful in pharmacokinetic modeling for animal imaging studies using an [18F]-labeled radiotracer and PET.

  18. Geomagnetic activity control on VHF scintillations over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7°N, 83.3°E, 20°N dip)

    D S V V D Prasad; P V S Rama Rao; G Uma; S Gopi Krishna; K Venkateswarlu

    2005-08-01

    Using the data of amplitude scintillations recorded at 244MHz from the geostationary satellite, FLEETSAT (73°E) at a low latitude station, Waltair (17.7°N, 83.3°E, 20°N dip), during the increasing sunspot activity period of 1997-2000, the effect of the geomagnetic storms on the occurrence of ionospheric scintillations has been studied. A total of 60 SC storms studied during this period, following the Aarons' criterion, reveals that the local time of onset of the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storms play an important role in the generation or inhibition of the ionospheric irregularities. Out of the 60 storms studied, nearly 60 to 70% satisfied the categories I, II and III of Aarons' criteria. However, in the remaining 30 to 40% of the cases, no consistent results were observed. Thus, there is a necessity for further investigation of the effect of geomagnetic storms on ionospheric irregularities, particularly with reference to the altitude variations of the F-layer (h'F) relating to the changes in the local electric fields.

  19. A Multi-Parameter Decoupling Method with a Lamb Wave Sensor for Improving the Selectivity of Label-Free Liquid Detection †

    Zhou, Lianqun; Wu, Yihui; Xuan, Ming; Manceau, Jean-François; Bastien, François

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a liquid multi-parameter decoupling method with only one Lamb wave sensor is presented. In a Lamb wave sensor, antisymmetric modes (A01 mode for low frequency, A03 mode for high frequency) and symmetric modes (S0 mode) are used to detect multiple parameters of a liquid, such as its density, sound velocity, and viscosity. We found they can play very different roles in the detections. For example, the A01 mode is very sensitive to the liquid's density but the A03 mode is sensitive to the sound velocity. Here, the A0 mode is used to identify the density of the detected liquid and with this density value we obtained the viscosity by the amplitude shifts of the S0 mode. This could be a way to distinguish an unknown liquid with high sensitivity or to solve the problem of selectivity of label-free detection on biosensors. PMID:23112604

  20. Improving the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings using the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime-labelled white-blood-cell abdomen scan

    Heading AbstractBackground. Diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with equivocal signs and symptoms may be difficult. The usual approach is hospital observation and frequent re-examination. However, many surgeons are reluctant to delay surgery because of the risk of perforation and a negative laparotomy.Objective. To assess and compare the value of the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO)-labelled white-blood-cell (WBC) abdomen scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical presentation.Patients and methods. Fifty children with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and possible acute appendicitis, but atypical findings were included. After IV injection of 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs, serial anterior abdomen scans were obtained using a gamma camera.Results. Thirty-three children underwent surgery, while 17 children were managed conservatively and were followed up for at least 1 month. Four children had false-positive results and one child had a false-negative scan result. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the scan to diagnose acute appendicitis in children with atypical findings was 96.7, 80.0, 90.0, 87.8 and 94.1%, respectively.Conclusions. The 99mTc-HMPAO WBC abdomen scan is a potential tool for diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value allows early discharge from the emergency department to avoid costly observation in hospital and potentially unnecessary surgery in those patients with negative scans. (orig.)

  1. Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:25231629

  2. An open-label, prospective study to evaluate social function and overall improvement of extended-release paliperidone treatment in Thai schizophrenia patients

    Charnsil C; Vongpanich S

    2013-01-01

    Chawanun Charnsil,1 Salinee Vongpanich21Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Medical Affairs Department, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Previous studies with extended-release (ER) paliperidone have reported an effective outcome in terms of personal and social functioning improvement and also reported schizophrenia symptom improvement. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate improvements in symptom control and social functio...

  3. Succesful labelling schemes

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the...... spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire....... 664 households returned a completed questionnaire. There were five answering categories for each label in the questionnaire: * have not seen the label before. * I have seen the label before but I do not know the precise contents of the labelling scheme. * I have seen the label before, I do not know...

  4. Effects of a Facial Cream Containing the Minor Alkaloid Anatabine on Improving the Appearance of the Skin in Mild to Moderate Rosacea: An Open-Label Case Series Study

    Ryan K. Lanier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current medical and scientific research indicates that rosacea, a chronic and often debilitating skin condition that primarily affects the central face, may be caused by an overactive or excessive inflammatory immune response. Regardless of etiology, the accompanying redness and inflammation is unsightly and difficult for the patient. Anatabine is an alkaloid from the plant family Solanaceae that has been shown in several preclinical studies to modulate proinflammatory signaling pathways. Objective: A cream containing anatabine was developed and evaluated in an open-label case series study for safety and effects on the appearance of the skin in 10 patients with mild to moderate rosacea. Methods: Patients applied the cream to the face twice daily for a period of 30 days. Patients and the study physician completed safety and efficacy assessments at study end. Results: Results showed that 50% of the patients self-reported improvement in the appearance of their skin, and the physician noted improvement in 70% of the patients. Photographs taken before and after 30 days of cream use provide visual evidence of the improvement in several patients. There were no complications or adverse events reported by any of the patients in the study, indicating that the anatabine cream was safe and very well tolerated. Conclusion: The results of this open-label case series show that a facial cream containing anatabine can improve the appearance of the skin in patients with mild to moderate rosacea and suggest that a double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial in a larger number of subjects is warranted.

  5. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  6. A Multi-Parameter Decoupling Method with a Lamb Wave Sensor for Improving the Selectivity of Label-Free Liquid Detection

    Jean-François Manceau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a liquid multi-parameter decoupling method with only one Lamb wave sensor is presented. In a Lamb wave sensor, antisymmetric modes (A01 mode for low frequency, A03 mode for high frequency and symmetric modes (S0 mode are used to detect multiple parameters of a liquid, such as its density, sound velocity, and viscosity. We found they can play very different roles in the detections. For example, the A01 mode is very sensitive to the liquid’s density but the A03 mode is sensitive to the sound velocity. Here, the A0 mode is used to identify the density of the detected liquid and with this density value we obtained the viscosity by the amplitude shifts of the S0 mode. This could be a way to distinguish an unknown liquid with high sensitivity or to solve the problem of selectivity of label-free detection on biosensors.

  7. Improved adherence with once-daily versus twice-daily dosing of mometasone furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler: a randomized open-label study

    Rand Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence with prescribed asthma medication is a major barrier to positive treatment outcomes. This study was designed to determine the effect of a once-daily administration of mometasone furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI on treatment adherence compared with a twice-daily administration. Methods This was a 12-week open-label study designed to mimic an actual clinical setting in patients ≥12 years old with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Patients were randomized to receive MF-DPI 400 μg once-daily in the evening or MF-DPI 200 μg twice-daily. Adherence was assessed primarily using the number of actual administered doses reported from the device counter divided by the number of scheduled doses. Self-reports were also used to determine adherence. Health-related quality of life, healthcare resource utilization, and days missed from work or school were also reported. Results 1233 patients were randomized. The mean adherence rates, as measured by the automatic dose counter, were significantly better (P P Conclusion Mean adherence rates were greater with a once-daily dosing regimen of MF-DPI than with a twice-daily dosing regimen. This trial was completed prior to the ISMJE requirements for trial registration.

  8. Improved immunoscintigraphy by subcutaneous injection of sup(99m)Tc or 111In labelled F(ab')2 fragments of an anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody

    Technetium-99m and/or 111In labelled F(ab')2 fragments of a melanoma associated MoAb 225.28S were injected i.v. in 80 patients affected by stage I to IV malignant melanoma. 75% of metastatic lesions already documented by other methods were detected by immunoscintigraphy, which was also capable of detecting a certain number of unknown metastases. The authors observed a lower percentage of positive scans in liver, lung and skin because of the poor tumour to background ratio. In some patients, subcutaneous (s.c.) injection allowed visualization documented metastases undetected by i.v. administration. An equal amount on non-specific F(ab')2 fragments (MoAb 4C4) injected s.c. as a negative control showed no positive scans. Clinical studies and chromatographic patterns of patient serum samples suggest that the s.c. route of administration offers, with respect to the the i.v. route, the advantage of reducing vascular background and aspecific accumulation in liver, probably because of retention of possible contaminants by the lymphatic system. (author)

  9. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  10. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  11. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír; Koucky, Michal; Saks, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the online labeling problem with parameters n and m we are presented with a sequence of nkeys from a totally ordered universe U and must assign each arriving key a label from the label set {1,2,…,m} so that the order of labels (strictly) respects the ordering on U. As new keys arrive it may be...... necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order in...... are known that use O(n logn) relabelings. A matching lower bound was claimed in [7]. That proof involved two distinct steps: a lower bound for a problem they call prefix bucketing and a reduction from prefix bucketing to online labeling. The reduction seems to be incorrect, leaving a (seemingly...

  12. Background suppression in arterial spin labeling MRI with a separate neck labeling coil

    Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2011-01-01

    In arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF), pair-wise subtraction of temporally adjacent non-labeled and labeled images often can not completely cancel the background static tissue signal because of temporally fluctuating physiological noise. While background suppression (BS) by inversion nulling improves CBF temporal stability, imperfect pulses compromise CBF contrast. Conventional BS techniques may not be applicable in small animals because the arterial transit...

  13. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Findings Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation...

  14. Improved 3D triple resonance experiments, HNN and HN(C)N, for HN and 15N sequential correlations in (13C, 15N) labeled proteins: Application to unfolded proteins

    Panchal, Sanjay C.; Bhavesh, Neel S.; Hosur, Ramakrishna V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India)

    2001-06-15

    Two triple resonance experiments, HNN and HN(C)N, are presented which correlate H{sup N} and {sup 15}N resonances sequentially along the polypeptide chain of a doubly ({sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) labeled protein. These incorporate several improvements over the previously published sequences for a similar purpose and have several novel features. The spectral characteristics enable direct identification of certain triplets of residues, which provide many starting points for the sequential assignment procedure. The experiments are sensitive and their utility has been demonstrated with a 22 kDa protein under unfolding conditions where most of the standard triple resonance experiments such as HNCA, CBCANH etc. have limited success because of poor amide, C{sup {alpha}} and C{sup {beta}} chemical shift dispersions.

  15. Improved 3D triple resonance experiments, HNN and HN(C)N, for HN and 15N sequential correlations in (13C, 15N) labeled proteins: Application to unfolded proteins

    Two triple resonance experiments, HNN and HN(C)N, are presented which correlate HN and 15N resonances sequentially along the polypeptide chain of a doubly (13C, 15N) labeled protein. These incorporate several improvements over the previously published sequences for a similar purpose and have several novel features. The spectral characteristics enable direct identification of certain triplets of residues, which provide many starting points for the sequential assignment procedure. The experiments are sensitive and their utility has been demonstrated with a 22 kDa protein under unfolding conditions where most of the standard triple resonance experiments such as HNCA, CBCANH etc. have limited success because of poor amide, Cα and Cβ chemical shift dispersions

  16. An open-label, prospective study to evaluate social function and overall improvement of extended-release paliperidone treatment in Thai schizophrenia patients

    Charnsil C

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chawanun Charnsil,1 Salinee Vongpanich21Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Medical Affairs Department, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Previous studies with extended-release (ER paliperidone have reported an effective outcome in terms of personal and social functioning improvement and also reported schizophrenia symptom improvement. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate improvements in symptom control and social functioning of paliperidone ER and acknowledge the safety profile of paliperidone ER in Thai patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Patients with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria were allowed flexible 3–12 mg/day dosing during the 10-week study duration. Patients were interviewed and assessed in social functioning using the Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale. Patients were also rated on overall severity of illness using the Clinical and Global Impressions – Severity (CGI-S scale.Results: In total, 40 patients were enrolled, 80% of enrolled patients (n = 32 completed the 10-week study period. Thirty-eight eligible patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis set (male 39.5%, female 60.5%. One patient was lost to follow-up without postbaseline-efficacy measurements. Another patient was terminated early due to a change in diagnosis during the trial. Statistically significant improvements from baseline in PSP total score were observed at all time points. Clinically relevant improvement in PSP (increase of at least one 10-point category was observed in 47.40% of patients at end point. Improvement in CGI-S was observed at end point (P < 0.001. The mean reduction ± standard deviation at end point in CGI-S was 0.8 ± 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.48–1.16. The most commonly reported adverse events (≥5% of patients were daytime drowsiness (15% and headache (15%. Three subjects

  17. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procuremen...

  18. Efficient Thread Labeling for Monitoring Programs with Nested Parallelism

    Ha, Ok-Kyoon; Kim, Sun-Sook; Jun, Yong-Kee

    It is difficult and cumbersome to detect data races occurred in an execution of parallel programs. Any on-the-fly race detection techniques using Lamport's happened-before relation needs a thread labeling scheme for generating unique identifiers which maintain logical concurrency information for the parallel threads. NR labeling is an efficient thread labeling scheme for the fork-join program model with nested parallelism, because its efficiency depends only on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. This paper presents an improved NR labeling, called e-NR labeling, in which every thread generates its label by inheriting the pointer to its ancestor list from the parent threads or by updating the pointer in a constant amount of time and space. This labeling is more efficient than the NR labeling, because its efficiency does not depend on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. Some experiments were performed with OpenMP programs having nesting depths of three or four and maximum parallelisms varying from 10,000 to 1,000,000. The results show that e-NR is 5 times faster than NR labeling and 4.3 times faster than OS labeling in the average time for creating and maintaining the thread labels. In average space required for labeling, it is 3.5 times smaller than NR labeling and 3 times smaller than OS labeling.

  19. Improved Muscle Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy through L-Arginine and Metformin: An Investigator-Initiated, Open-Label, Single-Center, Proof-Of-Concept-Study.

    Patricia Hafner

    Full Text Available Altered neuronal nitric oxide synthase function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy leads to impaired mitochondrial function which is thought to be one cause of muscle damage in this disease. The study tested if increased intramuscular nitric oxide concentration can improve mitochondrial energy metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a novel therapeutic approach through the combination of L-arginine with metformin. Five ambulatory, genetically confirmed Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients aged between 7–10 years were treated with L-arginine (3 x 2.5 g/d and metformin (2 x 250 mg/d for 16 weeks. Treatment effects were assessed using mitochondrial protein expression analysis in muscular biopsies, indirect calorimetry, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, quantitative thigh muscle MRI, and clinical scores of muscle performance. There were no serious side effects and no patient dropped out. Muscle biopsy results showed pre-treatment a significantly reduced mitochondrial protein expression and increased oxidative stress in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients compared to controls. Post-treatment a significant elevation of proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was observed as well as a reduction in oxidative stress. Treatment also decreased resting energy expenditure rates and energy substrate use shifted from carbohydrates to fatty acids. These changes were associated with improved clinical scores. In conclusion pharmacological stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway leads to improved mitochondria function and clinically a slowing of disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This study shall lead to further development of this novel therapeutic approach into a real alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02516085.

  20. Assessing Odor Level when Using PrePex for HIV Prevention: A Prospective, Randomized, Open Label, Blinded Assessor Trial to Improve Uptake of Male Circumcision.

    Vincent Mutabazi

    Full Text Available The PrePex is a WHO--prequalified medical device for adult male circumcision for HIV prevention. The Government of Rwanda was the first country to implement the PrePex device and acts as the leading center of excellence providing training and formal guidelines. As part of the Government's efforts to improve PrePex implementation, it made efforts to improve the psychological acceptability of device by men, thus increasing uptake with VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Some men who underwent the PrePex procedure complained of foreskin odor while wearing the PrePex 3-7 days after it was placed. This complaint was identified as potential risk for uptake of the device. Researchers from Rwanda assumed there is a possible relation between the level of foreskin odor and patient foreskin hygiene technique. The Government of Rwanda decided to investigate those assumptions in a scientific way and conduct a trial to test different hygiene-cleaning methods in order to increase the acceptability of PrePex and mitigate the odor concern. The main objective of the trial was to compare odor levels between three arms, having identical personal hygiene but different foreskin hygiene techniques using either clear water with soap during a daily shower, soapy water using a syringe, or chlorhexidine using a syringe. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled to the trial and randomly allocated into three trial arms. Using chlorhexidine solution daily almost completely eliminated odor, and was statistically significant more effective that the other two arms. The trial results suggest that odor from the foreskin, while wearing the PrePex device, could be related to the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can be prevented by a chlorhexidine cleaning method. This finding can be used to increase acceptability by men when considering PrePex as one of the leading methods for HIV prevention in VMMC programs.

  1. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  2. Labelling Fashion Markets

    Aspers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article discusses how an ethical and environmental labelling system can be implemented in fashion garment markets. Consumers act in markets that provide them with more information than their limited cognitive capacity allows them to handle. Ethical and environmental labelling in markets characterized by change, such as the fashion garment market, makes decision-making even more complicated. The ethical and environmental labelling system proposed here is designed to alleviate firms...

  3. Blood cell labelling

    The labelling of blood cells in vitro for subsequent in vivo studies was one of the earliest applications of radioactive tracers in clinical medicine and laid the foundations for many important contributions to the advancement of knowledge of human blood cell pathophysiology. The characteristics required for satisfactory clinical studies, the mechanisms of cell labelling, the problems of radiation or chemical damage to the labelled cells and some examples of modern clinical applications are described and discussed. (Author)

  4. On labelled compounds nomenclature

    Different approaches of major labelled compounds producers to their nomenclature in technical and commercial documentation are discussed. Some draft options of a standard technical guide document for labelled compounds nomenclature rules are suggested. Such a document after due discussion by the experts will serve to unification of the labelled compounds nomenclature within the frame of the CMEA member-countries co-operation in this field. The suggested options are based on the general recommendations by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and incorporate some more accurate definitions originating from the labelled compounds production and application experience

  5. Label propagation algorithm based on local cycles for community detection

    Zhang, Xian-Kun; Fei, Song; Song, Chen; Tian, Xue; Ao, Yang-Yue

    2015-12-01

    Label propagation algorithm (LPA) has been proven to be an extremely fast method for community detection in large complex networks. But an important issue of the algorithm has not yet been properly addressed that random update orders in label propagation process hamper the algorithm robustness of algorithm. We note that when there are multiple maximal labels among a node neighbors' labels, choosing a node' label from which there is a local cycle to the node instead of a random node' label can avoid the labels propagating among communities at random. In this paper, an improved LPA based on local cycles is given. We have evaluated the proposed algorithm on computer-generated networks with planted partition and some real-world networks whose community structure are already known. The result shows that the performance of the proposed approach is even significantly improved.

  6. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  7. Labeling and Delinquency.

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  8. Label Fusion Strategy Selection

    Nicolas Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques—STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA—and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall.

  9. OR Specimen Labeling.

    Zervakis Brent, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Mislabeled surgical specimens jeopardize patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this project was to determine whether labeling surgical specimens with two patient identifiers would result in an 80% reduction in specimen labeling errors within six months and a 100% reduction in errors within 12 months. Our failure mode effects analysis found that the lack of two patient identifiers per label was the most unsafe step in our specimen handling process. We piloted and implemented a new process in the OR using the Plan-Do-Check-Act conceptual framework. The audit process included collecting data and making direct observations to determine the sustainability of the process change; however, the leadership team halted the direct observation audit after four months. The total number of surgical specimen labeling errors was reduced by only 60% within six months and 62% within 12 months; therefore, the goal of the project was not met. However, OR specimen labeling errors were reduced. PMID:26849982

  10. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  11. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  12. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60Co, 125I or 131I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  13. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  14. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O4- stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  15. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. PMID:25795524

  16. FDA Online Label Repository

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and...

  17. Like your labels?

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off. PMID:21539053

  18. Certified Rule Labeling

    Nagele, Julian; Zankl, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The rule labeling heuristic aims to establish confluence of (left-)linear term rewrite systems via decreasing diagrams. We present a formalization of a confluence criterion based on the interplay of relative termination and the rule labeling in the theorem prover Isabelle. Moreover, we report on the integration of this result into the certifier CeTA, facilitating the checking of confluence certificates based on decreasing diagrams for the first time. The power of the method is illustrated by ...

  19. Labelling of Vincamine derivatives

    Tritium labelled Vincamine and ethyl apovincaminate (Cavinton) have been prepared on the bases of known stereospecific synthesis. High specific activity compounds were obtained by the catalytic tritiation of appropriate unsaturated starting compounds. When the structure of the unsaturated starting compounds was changed (even rather for from the reaction centre) instead of the catalytic addition of tritium a specific hydrogen-tritium exchange reaction was found to be the main labelling process

  20. Labelling of electricity

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  1. Streaming Label Learning for Modeling Labels on the Fly

    You, Shan; Xu, Chang; Wang, Yunhe; Xu, Chao; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to handle a large volume of labels in multi-label learning. However, existing approaches explicitly or implicitly assume that all the labels in the learning process are given, which could be easily violated in changing environments. In this paper, we define and study streaming label learning (SLL), i.e., labels are arrived on the fly, to model newly arrived labels with the help of the knowledge learned from past labels. The core of SLL is to explore and exploit the relations...

  2. Eco-labelling, competition and environment: Endogenization of labelling criteria

    Ben Youssef, Adel; Lahmandi-Ayed, Rim

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggests a modelling of the labelling procedure consistent with empirical observations, that allows the endogenous calculation of labelling criteria. The authority in charge of the labelling program chooses the level of labelling criteria so as to maximise the social surplus, anticipating competition between firms in environmental qualities and prices. While accounting simply for the informational role of labels, this model allows to understand observed behavior such as firms' igno...

  3. On online labeling with polynomially many labels

    Babka, M.; Bulánek, Jan; Čunát, V.; Koucký, Michal; Saks, M.

    Berlin : Springer, 2012 - (Epstein, L.; Ferragina, P.), s. 121-132 ISBN 978-3-642-33089-6. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7501). [20th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2012). Ljubljana (SI), 10.09.2012-12.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0854; GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online labeling * file maintenance problem * lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-33090-2_12

  4. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  5. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constr

  6. Off-Label Drug Use

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  7. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  8. Radio labeling with preassigned frequencies.

    2004-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least $2$. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so-called span of the labeling). RL is a well-studied problem, mainly motivated by frequency assignment problems in which transmitters are not allowed to operate on the same frequency channel. We c...

  9. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  10. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1-13C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose-13C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13CO2 and galactose-13C from galactosylglycerol-13C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate-13C

  11. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride-18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  12. How descriptive menu labels influence attitudes and repatronage

    Wansink, B.; Painter, J.; Ittersum, van K.

    2002-01-01

    How do descriptive menu labels influence customers? In a six-week field experiment involving 140 customers, descriptive menu labels (such as "Grandma's zucchini cookies" or "succulent Italian seafood filet") increased sales by 27% and improved attitudes towards the food, attitudes towards the restau

  13. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  14. Semantic Role Labeling

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  15. Fluorescent RNA labeling using self-alkylating ribozymes.

    Sharma, Ashwani K; Plant, Joshua J; Rangel, Alexandra E; Meek, Kirsten N; Anamisis, April J; Hollien, Julie; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2014-08-15

    The ability to fluorescently label specific RNA sequences is of significant utility for both in vitro and live cell applications. Currently, most RNA labeling methods utilize RNA-nucleic acid or RNA-protein molecular recognition. However, in the search for improved RNA labeling methods, harnessing the small-molecule recognition capabilities of RNA is rapidly emerging as a promising alternative. Along these lines, we propose a novel strategy in which a ribozyme acts to promote self-alkylation with a fluorophore, providing a robust, covalent linkage between the RNA and the fluorophore. Here we describe the selection and characterization of ribozymes that promote self-labeling with fluorescein iodoacetamide (FIA). Kinetic studies reveal a second-order rate constant that is on par with those of other reactions used for biomolecular labeling. Additionally, we demonstrate that labeling is specific to the ribozyme sequences, as FIA does not react nonspecifically with RNA. PMID:24896502

  16. Label-free biological and chemical sensors

    Hunt, Heather K.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2010-09-01

    Highly sensitive, label-free biodetection methods have applications in both the fundamental research and healthcare diagnostics arenas. Therefore, the development of new transduction methods and the improvement of the existing methods will significantly impact these areas. A brief overview of the different types of biosensors and the critical parameters governing their performance will be given. Additionally, a more in-depth discussion of optical devices, surface functionalization methods to increase device specificity, and fluidic techniques to improve sample delivery will be reviewed.

  17. Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives

    Radioactive labelling of guanidine bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy-texaphyrin with 166Ho and 90Y is described. UV-VIS absorption spectrometry was used to describe porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour over a wide pH range. This technique also provided preliminary information about the complexation of holmium and yttrium with porphyrin and texaphyrin. The labelling yield of the macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal-to-ligand ratio and time of incubation. The optimum reaction conditions for the formation of radioactive complexes of porphyrin and texaphyrin were determined by thin layer chromatography combined with beta activity measurement. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was also examined. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4-) because radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 186Re and 188Re play an important role in the therapy of many tumorous diseases. The possibility of using the ReO4- anion directly for labeling without reduction to a lower oxidation state can simplify considerably the preparation of the radiotherapeutic pharmaceuticals. Neither UV-Vis spectrometry nor TLC gave evidence of any incorporation of the ReO4- anion into the porphyrin ring

  18. Labeling of herbicide femesafen

    5-[2-chroo-4-(trifluoromethyl ) phenoxy]-N-(methyl sulphonyl )-2-niorobenzamide [femesafen] was labeled by six steps. Radio-chemical yield was 19.15%. TLC analysis of the final product showed that the radiochemical purity is not less than 99%. (authors)

  19. Waisda?: video labeling game

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  20. Understanding Food Labels

    ... girls Eating healthy at restaurants Special food issues Vegetarian eating Eating for strong bones Quiz: Food Facts Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding ...

  1. Stabilization of labelled compounds

    This invention concerns a composition including a labelled compound, and the vitamin B 12. This vitamin gives a red colour to the solution and stabilize it radiochemically, allowing to transport the solution at ambient temperature and a storage at 4 degrees celsius. (N.C.). 5 refs

  2. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constraints, which pose more demands on how the labels should be placed in relation to their surroundings. For example, a label is preferably placed above and to the right of a city. These two aspects (comb...

  3. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  4. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  5. Labeling lake water with tritium

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  6. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  7. Nomenclature for labelled compounds

    This paper report on isotopically labelled compounds. The first indexing system for isotopically labelled organic compounds is generally credited to Boughton and named after him. An extension of his principles for designating compounds containing hydrogen isotopes has been part of the Chemical Abstracts Service index nomenclature system for many years. After close on five years labor the IUPAC sponsored Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry presented in 1979 their findings on Isotopically Modified Compounds. The system codified in their rules provides for recognition of various types of isotopic modification and is therefore of more general applicability. Concurrently the rules for the nomenclature of isotopically modified inorganic compounds are developed. These are to be seen as supplementing and extending the guidelines laid down in the IUPAC Inorganic Nomenclature Rules already published

  8. Labelling, Deviance and Media

    Greer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Labelling theory is a perspective that emerged as a distinctive approach to criminology during the 1960s, and was a major seedbed of the radical and critical perspectives that became prominent in the 1970s. It represented the highpoint of an epistemological shift within the social sciences away from positivism – which had dominated criminological enquiry since the late-1800s – and toward an altogether more relativistic stance on the categories and concepts of crime and control. It inspired a ...

  9. Eco-labelling

    Kuna-Marszałek, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    Considering environmental protection requirements in business operations may, in the long run, determine if a lasting comparative advantage can be achieved. That is why our textbook, rich in case studies, identifies not only the threats a business may pose to the environment but stresses the ways of reducing its negative impact. It discusses, among other things, the concept of corporate social responsibility, environmental management systems, methods and the importance of eco-labelling goods ...

  10. Myocardial arterial spin labeling

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, c...

  11. Relationships among grocery nutrition label users and consumers' attitudes and behavior toward restaurant menu labeling.

    Roseman, Mary G; Mathe-Soulek, Kimberly; Higgins, Joseph A

    2013-12-01

    In the United States (US), based on the 2010 Affordable Care Act, restaurant chains and similar retail food establishments with 20 or more locations are required to begin implementing calorie information on their menus. As enacting of the law begins, it is important to understand its potential for improving consumers' healthful behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore relationships among users of grocery nutrition labels and attitudes toward restaurant menu labeling, along with the caloric content of their restaurant menu selection. Study participants were surveyed and then provided identical mock restaurant menus with or without calories. Results found that participants who used grocery nutrition labels and believed they would make healthy menu selections with nutrition labels on restaurant menus made healthier menu selections, regardless of whether the menu displayed calories or not. Consumers' nutrition knowledge and behaviors gained from using grocery nutrition labels and consumers' desire for restaurants to provide nutrition menu labels have a positive effect on their choosing healthful restaurant menu items. PMID:24012965

  12. Radioiodine labelling of insulin using dimethylsulfoxide as a labelling-aid

    Using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a labelling aid, insulin 126I of radioimmunoassay use has been effectively prepared. A small amount of DMSO was added to usual labelling mixture and the reaction time was controlled. The labelled insulin obtained in such a way showed improved bindabilities to the antibody and thus expressed larger dose-gradients in the plots of standard dose-response curves even though the labelling rate was decreased to some extent. However, by extending the reaction time to about 1 min, average labelling yield of 30% could be obtained. The average increase of bindability (B/F) in definite antiserum dilution was 2.5 comparing with 1.5 obtained in the absence of DMSO. Thus, the net bindability increase was 70% of those obtained in the absence of DMSO. By means of NMR spectrometry, it has been confirmed that the DMSO in the labelling mixture is converted to dimethylsulfone by chloramine-T. The results, generally agreed with the Stagg's postulation, were discussed in view of a competitive oxidation of DMSO with disulfide linkages of the insulin molecule by the chloramine-T. (author)

  13. Labeled leukocyte imaging: current status and future directions

    The ability to radiolabel inflammatory cells that migrate to foci of infection was a significant milestone in the evolution of infection imaging. More than 20 years after being approved for clinical use in the United States, labeled leukocyte imaging using cells labeled with 99m Tc exametazime or 111 Inoxine remains the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing most infections in the immunocompetent population. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging is useful for differentiating infection from tumor; in the postoperative setting, this test facilitates the differentiation of infection from normal postoperative changes. Labeled leukocyte imaging accurately diagnoses mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. In patients with fever of unknown origin, a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, infection as the source of fever. Labeled leukocyte imaging accurately diagnoses pedal osteomyelitis and is useful for distinguishing infection from the neuropathic joint in this population. Together with bone marrow imaging, the labeled leukocyte study is the imaging procedure of choice for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection. There are limitations to the test. Most of the leukocytes labeled are neutrophils, and the procedure is most useful for detecting neutrophil-mediated inflammatory processes, i.e., bacterial infections. It is less useful for illnesses in which the predominant cellular response is other than neutrophilic, such as most opportunistic infections and spinal osteomyelitis. The in vitro labeling procedure is time consuming and is not routinely available. Results of in vivo leukocyte labeling methods have been variable; none are available in the United States. Labeled leukocyte imaging suffers from inherently poor quality images. Single photon emission compute tomography/computed tomography improves lesion localization, and will undoubtedly improve the accuracy of the test. Efforts to develop methods of

  14. Linerless label device and method

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  15. Label-Guided Graph Exploration with Adjustable Ratio of Labels

    Zhang, Meng; Tang, Jijun

    2012-01-01

    The graph exploration problem is to visit all the nodes of a connected graph by a mobile entity, e.g., a robot. The robot has no a priori knowledge of the topology of the graph or of its size. Cohen et al. \\cite{Ilcinkas08} introduced label guided graph exploration which allows the system designer to add short labels to the graph nodes in a preprocessing stage; these labels can guide the robot in the exploration of the graph. In this paper, we address the problem of adjustable 1-bit label guided graph exploration. We focus on the labeling schemes that not only enable a robot to explore the graph but also allow the system designer to adjust the ratio of the number of different labels. This flexibility is necessary when maintaining different labels may have different costs or when the ratio is pre-specified. We present 1-bit labeling (two colors, namely black and white) schemes for this problem along with a labeling algorithm for generating the required labels. Given an $n$-node graph and a rational number $\\rh...

  16. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels

    Haga SB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanne B Haga, Rachel Mills, Jivan Moaddeb Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug's package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration's Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21% of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, US Food and Drug Administration, drug safety, patient education

  17. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Waisda?: video labeling game

    Hildebrand, Michiel; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, Van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the same tags as one of the other players. As a result each video that is played in the game is annotated with tags that are anchored to a time point in the video. Waisda? has been deployed in two projec...

  19. From Label to Practice

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use of...

  20. Labeled bile acids

    A general short procedure for the introduction of 13C to the side chain of bile acids is described. Suitable (Z)-pregn-17(20)-enes are key intermediates, while the isotope is introduced by an ene reaction with [1,2,3-13C3]-methyl propiolate. For the labeling with tritium, the unlabeled product of the ene synthesis, a Δsup(5,16,22)-triene was saturated selectively at 16,17 and 22,23 with tritium gas. (author)

  1. A Food Labeling

    ... " ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎت واﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ " [ Nutrition Labeling and Education Act ... ﻟﻠﻌﺼﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻜﻮن ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء إﻟﻰ ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻣﺮآﺰة : ﻳﺠﺮى اﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪول Brix ﻓﻲ 21 CFR 101.30(h)(1) ...

  2. Towards Multi Label Text Classification through Label Propagation

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Classifying text data has been an active area of research for a long time. Text document is multifaceted object and often inherently ambiguous by nature. Multi-label learning deals with such ambiguous object. Classification of such ambiguous text objects often makes task of classifier difficult while assigning relevant classes to input document. Traditional single label and multi class text classification paradigms cannot efficiently classify such multifaceted text corpus. Through our paper we are proposing a novel label propagation approach based on semi supervised learning for Multi Label Text Classification. Our proposed approach models the relationship between class labels and also effectively represents input text documents. We are using semi supervised learning technique for effective utilization of labeled and unlabeled data for classification. Our proposed approach promises better classification accuracy and handling of complexity and elaborated on the basis of standard datasets such as Enron, Slashdot and Bibtex.

  3. International Implications of Labeling Foods Containing Engineered Nanomaterials

    Grieger, Khara D.; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mortensen, Ninell P.;

    2016-01-01

    To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related...... to the use of ENMs in foods and the potential impacts that this type of food labeling might have on diverse stakeholder groups, including those outside the European Union (EU), e.g., in the United States. We also provide recommendations to stakeholders for overcoming existing challenges related to labeling...... foods containing ENMs. The revised EU food labeling requirements will likely result in a number of positive developments and a number of challenges for stakeholders in both EU and non-EU countries. Although labeling of foods containing ENMs will likely improve transparency, provide more information...

  4. CNN: Single-label to Multi-label

    Wei, Yunchao; Xia, Wei; Huang, Junshi; Ni, Bingbing; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Shuicheng

    2014-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has demonstrated promising performance in single-label image classification tasks. However, how CNN best copes with multi-label images still remains an open problem, mainly due to the complex underlying object layouts and insufficient multi-label training images. In this work, we propose a flexible deep CNN infrastructure, called Hypotheses-CNN-Pooling (HCP), where an arbitrary number of object segment hypotheses are taken as the inputs, then a shared CNN is...

  5. Visualization of inflammatory processes using in vitro and in vivo labelled leucocytes

    Radionuclide labelled leukocytes are used as a method of choice in demonstrating a variety of active inflammatory process and abscesses. It is the purpose of this study to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro methods for leucocyte labelling. A total of 124 patients with inflammatory lesions are studied. In 95 of them the in vitro method with 99mTc-HMPAO or 111In-oxine labelling is applied, in 29 - the in vivo method with 99mTc-Mab (BW 250/183), and in 10 - a combination of both methods. The following values for the main characteristics of the methods are found: 1) for in vitro method: sensitivity - 86.4%, specificity - 96.6% and accuracy -91.2%; 2) for in vivo method: sensitivity - 83.3%, specificity - 93.8% and accuracy - 86.2%. It is assumed that in serious case and when prompt diagnosis is required, the use of the easier-to-use in vivo method is indicated, whereas in processes which are chronic or with obscure localization, the in vitro method is more suitable since it may possibly yield a leucocyte scan of a higher quality. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (orig.)

  6. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  7. Modeling the effects of labeling

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents partic...... participated in an in home test. The results indicate that catch time alone is not enough to work as an efficient predictor of actual perceived quality.......A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  8. Aggregating Labels in Crowdsourcing Data

    Priisalu, Maria; Grey, Francois; Segal, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Project Specification Crowdsourcing is gaining popularity in academia with the launch of crowdsourcing platforms such as Crowdcrafting [Lombraña, 2015] and GeoTagX [UNOSAT, 2015]. There have been a number of proposed algorithms for the aggregation of true labels and a confusion matrix from crowdsourced labels for ordinal, nominal and binary labels. The work here consists of an implementation of the Dawid Skene [Dawid 1979] adaptation of the Expectation Maximization algorithm [D...

  9. Classification and Labelling for Biocides

    Rubbiani, Maristella

    2015-01-01

    CLP and biocides The EU Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures, the CLP-Regulation, entered into force on 20th January, 2009. Since 1st December, 2010 the classification, labelling and packaging of substances has to comply with this Regulation. For mixtures, the rules of this Regulation are mandatory from 1st June, 2015; this means that until this date classification, labelling and packaging could either be carried out according to D...

  10. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14CO2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed

  11. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  12. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions.

  13. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid.

    Kulikova, Natalia A; Abroskin, Dmitry P; Badun, Gennady A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Korobkov, Viktor I; Beer, Anton S; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Senik, Svetlana V; Klein, Olga I; Perminova, Irina V

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions. PMID:27350412

  14. Achieving transparency in carbon labelling for construction materials – Lessons from current assessment standards and carbon labels

    Highlights: • The evolution of international GHG standards is reviewed. • The evolution of international carbon labelling schemes is reviewed. • The transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes are revealed. • Key recommendations are provided to improve transparency in carbon labelling. - Abstract: The construction industry is one of the largest sources of carbon emissions. Manufacturing of raw materials, such as cement, steel and aluminium, is energy intensive and has considerable impact on carbon emissions level. Due to the rising recognition of global climate change, the industry is under pressure to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes are therefore developed as meaningful yardsticks to measure and compare carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes can help switch consumer-purchasing habits to low-carbon alternatives. However, such switch is dependent on a transparent scheme. The principle of transparency is highlighted in all international greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, including the newly published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products – requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication. However, there are few studies which systematically investigate the transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes. A comparison of five established carbon labelling schemes, namely the Singapore Green Labelling Scheme, the CarbonFree (the U.S.), the CO2 Measured Label and the Reducing CO2 Label (UK), the CarbonCounted (Canada), and the Hong Kong Carbon Labelling Scheme is therefore conducted to identify and investigate the transparency requirements. The results suggest that the design of current carbon labels have transparency issues relating but not limited to the use of a single sign to represent the comprehensiveness of the carbon footprint. These transparency issues are partially caused by the flexibility given to select system boundary in the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to measure GHG emissions. The

  15. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    2011-12-05

    ... the type of packaging material on which the label is printed; n. Brand name changes, provided that... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features..., location, and indication of final color. To obtain sketch label approval, domestic meat and...

  16. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  17. Oxygen labelled CO2

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C16O18O and 2.8 percent C18O2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s-1 and 0.12s-1 for C18O2 and 2.5s-1 and 0.87s-1 for C16O18O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C18O2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C16O18O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C16O18O as well as by C18O2. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Food labelled Information: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Preferences

    Alessandro Banterle; Alessia Cavaliere; Elena Claire Ricci

    2012-01-01

    Labelling can support consumers in making choices connected to their preferences in terms of qualitative features. Nevertheless, the space available on packaging is limited and some indications are not used by consumers. This paper aims at analysing which kinds of currently labelled information are of interest and actually used by consumers, and which additional kinds could improve consumer choices. Moreover, we investigate the attitude of consumers with respect to innovative strategies for t...

  19. A comparison of two 99Tcm leucocyte labelling techniques

    Full text: 111In-oxine labelled leucocytes are routinely used for the diagnosis of various inflammatory conditions. The search for a good 99Tcm labelling agent continues in order to prevent the radio-toxicity effects to lymphocytes caused by the high radiation dose from 111In decay. 99Tcm-HMPAO, a lipophilic, neutral molecule, has a leucocyte labelling mechanism similar to that of 111In-oxine (Passive Diffusion).Granulocytes are preferentially labelled with 99Tcm-HMPAO. Another method for labelling leucocytes with 99Tcm has been achieved with the polycationic, hydrophilic molecule, Modified Poly-lysine (MPL). Most mammalian cells have negatively charged surfaces which electrostatically attract cationic 99Tcm-MPL. Surface adsorption followed by internalisation by endocytosis leads to cell labelling. The entire mechanism is termed non-specific adsorptive endocytosis. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro stability of the 99Tcm-leucocyte label prepared with 99Tcm-MPL to that prepared with 99Tcm-HMPAO. Leucocytes were isolated from venous blood using the 2% methyl cellulose sedimentation method. Half of the leucocytes were incubated in 99Tcm-HMPAO (1.5 GBq, 1 mL) for 15 minutes, the remaining leucocytes were incubated in 99Tcm- MPL (1.5 GBq, 1 mL) for 45 minutes. The labelling stability of the leucocytes was determined by incubation at room temperature in serum for 120 minutes. 99Tcm-MPL labels all components of the leucocyte population equally well and its improved labelling efficiency and stability may have application in studying the trafficking of T-lymphocytes in adoptive immunotherapy. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. The Influence of Eco-labeled Products on Consumer Buying Behavior : By focusing on eco-labeled bread

    Bryunina, Daria; Khodadad Safaei, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Research Question: How eco-label can influence on consumer buying behavior by focusing on bakery industry. Purpose: The main objective of this research is to identify and analyze how eco-label on bread can influence on consumer buying behavior. Furthermore, the thesis will propose suggestions for the food markets future improvements. Method: In this paper the literature review has based on the secondary data and telephone interview, e-survey and interview as the primary data has been carried ...

  1. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    ... Food Standards and Labels: The Facts Labeling and Marketing Information [ Top of Page ] OVEN PREPARED: Product is fully cooked and ready to eat. [ Top of Page ] YOUNG TURKEY: Turkeys of either sex that are less than 8 months of age according to present regulations. [ Top of Page ] Last ...

  2. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  3. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors to...... indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product's relative performance.......Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label on...

  4. Sublinear distance labeling for sparse graphs

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Porat, Ely

    A distance labeling scheme labels the $n$ nodes of a graph with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine the distance in the graph between the two nodes by looking only at the labels. A $D$-preserving distance labeling scheme only returns precise distances be...

  5. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact ...

  7. Labelling GM-free Products

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to...... limited. The results indicate that for switching to ‘GM-free’ production, long-term effects such as the creation of a positive image or differentiation from competitors are more important for dairy companies than short-term effects such as higher sales or profit....

  8. Sustainability labels on food products

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK...... types of information available on food labels or as use inferred from the results of a choice-based conjoint analysis. Hierarchical regression indicated that use is related to both motivation and understanding, and that both motivation, understanding and use are affected by demographic characteristics...

  9. New labels for radiation therapy

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  10. New labels for radiation therapy

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  11. Stable isotope labeling strategy based on coding theory

    We describe a strategy for stable isotope-aided protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, called stable isotope encoding. The basic idea of this strategy is that amino-acid selective labeling can be considered as “encoding and decoding” processes, in which the information of amino acid type is encoded by the stable isotope labeling ratio of the corresponding residue and it is decoded by analyzing NMR spectra. According to the idea, the strategy can diminish the required number of labelled samples by increasing information content per sample, enabling discrimination of 19 kinds of non-proline amino acids with only three labeled samples. The idea also enables this strategy to combine with information technologies, such as error detection by check digit, to improve the robustness of analyses with low quality data. Stable isotope encoding will facilitate NMR analyses of proteins under non-ideal conditions, such as those in large complex systems, with low-solubility, and in living cells

  12. Substrate coated with receptor and labelled ligand for assays

    Improvements in the procedures for assaying ligands are described. The assay consists of a polystyrene tube on which receptors are present for both the ligand to be assayed and a radioactively labelled form of the ligand. The receptors on the bottom portion of the tube are also coated with labelled ligands, thus eliminating the necessity for separate addition of the labelled ligand and sample during an assay. Examples of ligands to which this method is applicable include polypeptides, nucleotides, nucleosides and proteins. Specific examples are given in which the ligand to be assayed is digoxin, the labelled form of the ligand is 3-0-succinyl digoxyigenin tyrosine (125I) and the receptor is digoxin antibody. (U.K.)

  13. Stable isotope labeling strategy based on coding theory

    Kasai, Takuma; Koshiba, Seizo; Yokoyama, Jun; Kigawa, Takanori, E-mail: kigawa@riken.jp [RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center (QBiC), Laboratory for Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We describe a strategy for stable isotope-aided protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, called stable isotope encoding. The basic idea of this strategy is that amino-acid selective labeling can be considered as “encoding and decoding” processes, in which the information of amino acid type is encoded by the stable isotope labeling ratio of the corresponding residue and it is decoded by analyzing NMR spectra. According to the idea, the strategy can diminish the required number of labelled samples by increasing information content per sample, enabling discrimination of 19 kinds of non-proline amino acids with only three labeled samples. The idea also enables this strategy to combine with information technologies, such as error detection by check digit, to improve the robustness of analyses with low quality data. Stable isotope encoding will facilitate NMR analyses of proteins under non-ideal conditions, such as those in large complex systems, with low-solubility, and in living cells.

  14. Interactive Segmentation with Super-Labels.

    Delong, Andrew; Gorelick, Lena; Schmidt, Frank R; Veksler, Olga; Boykov, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    In interactive segmentation, the most common way to model object appearance is by GMM or histogram, while MRFs are used to encourage spatial coherence among the object labels. This makes the strong assumption that pixels within each object are i.i.d. when in fact most objects have multiple distinct appearances and exhibit strong spatial correlation among their pixels. At the very least, this calls for an MRF-based appearance model within each object itself and yet, to the best of our knowledge, such a "two-level MRF" has never been proposed. We propose a novel segmentation energy that can model complex appearance. We represent the appearance of each object by a set of distinct spatially coherent models. This results in a two-level MRF with "super-labels" at the top level that are partitioned into "sub-labels" at the bottom. We introduce the hierarchical Potts (hPotts) prior to govern spatial coherence within each level. Finally, we introduce a novel algorithm with EM-style alternation of proposal, α-expansion and re-estimation steps. Our experiments demonstrate the conceptual and qualitative improvement that a two-level MRF can provide. We show applications in binary segmentation, multi-class segmentation, and interactive co-segmentation. Finally, our energy and algorithm have interesting interpretations in terms of semi-supervised learning. PMID:25309973

  15. International Implications of Labeling Foods Containing Engineered Nanomaterials.

    Grieger, Khara D; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mortensen, Ninell P; Cates, Sheryl; Kowalcyk, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related to the use of ENMs in foods and the potential impacts that this type of food labeling might have on diverse stakeholder groups, including those outside the European Union (EU), e.g., in the United States. We also provide recommendations to stakeholders for overcoming existing challenges related to labeling foods containing ENMs. The revised EU food labeling requirements will likely result in a number of positive developments and a number of challenges for stakeholders in both EU and non-EU countries. Although labeling of foods containing ENMs will likely improve transparency, provide more information to facilitate consumer decisions, and build trust among food safety authorities and consumers, critical obstacles to the successful implementation of these labeling requirements remain, including the need for (i) harmonized information requirements or regulations between countries in different regions of the world, (ii) clarification of the regulatory definitions of the ENMs to be used for food labeling, (iii) robust techniques to detect, measure, and characterize diverse ENMs in food matrices, and (iv) clarification of the list of ENMs that may be exempt from labeling requirements, such as several food additives used for decades. We recommend that food industries and food safety authorities be more proactive in communicating with the public and consumer groups regarding the potential benefits and risks of using ENMs in foods. Efforts should be made to improve harmonization of information requirements between countries to avoid potential international trade barriers. PMID:27296434

  16. Quality control of labelled compounds

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (131I, 14C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  17. Visualization of inflammatory processes using 'in vitro' and in vivo' labelled leucocytes

    The labelled leucocytes have become a means of choice for the diagnosis of a variety of active inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' methods for labelling of leucocytes. A total of 146 patients, suspected of having various inflammatory lesions were examined. In 95 of them 'in vitro' method with 99mTc-HMPAO or 111In-oxine was used, in 29 'in vivo' method with 99mTc-MAB (BW 250/183) and in 22 both methods. The obtained results of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 87,3%, 96,5%, 89,5% for 'in vitro' method and 83,3%, 93,8%, 86,2% for 'in vivo' method. Taking into consideration the received data and comparable results, we think that in seriously ill patients and in cases of urgency, the use of easier 'in vivo' method is more suitable, while in chronic processes or in such with unclear localisation, 'in vitro' method is recommended, which sometimes gives images with better quality. (orig.)

  18. Labelling of some amino acids with radioiodine

    Some radioiodine labelled compounds which have application in nuclear medicine have been prepared. Two common techniques were employed. A comparative study on the radioiodination of the amino acids, L - tyrosine, L - a - methyl tyrosine and L-tyrosine methyl ester has been carried out by the electrophilic radioiodination technique. The blood flow reagent, antipyrine, also has been prepared by this technique using chloramine - T, iodogen and H2 O2 as oxidizing agents to generate electrophilic iodine. Radio chromatograms revealed side product impurities at long reaction times and high oxidizing agent concentrations. Comparison between the different oxidizing agents was done. Optimization of the radioiodination conditions, such as Ph of the medium, reaction time, oxidizing agent and substrate concentrations and carrier KI concentration was performed resulting in high radiochemical yields of 97% L - 3 -(131) iodotyrosine, 95% L -3-(131) iodo-a-methyl tyrosine, 88% L-3-(131) iodotyrosine methyl ester and 96% 4-(131) iodoantipyrine within short reaction times at room temperature when chloramine - T was used as oxidizing agent. Purification by high pressure liquid chromatography resulted in high radiochemically pure products suitable for medical application. Radioiodinated 3- iodotyrosine and 4- iodophenyl alanine have been prepared by the isotopic exchange technique using cuprous chloride as catalyst for the exchange reaction. The effect of solvents and the different parameters affecting the labelling yield were investigated to optimize the conditions for labelling of these compounds. Kinetic study indicated a second order reaction with an activation energy of 9.6 and 12.20 Kcal/mole for 3- iodotyrosine and 4-iodophenyl alanine respectively. Reducing agents were added to the Cu CI catalyzed reactions to improve the yield and decrease side products formation. Applying the results obtained to the radioiodination of the phenyl fatty acid 15(p-iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid

  19. Labeling and functionalizing amphipols for biological applications.

    Le Bon, Christel; Popot, Jean-Luc; Giusti, Fabrice

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers developed as an alternative to detergents for handling membrane proteins (MPs) in aqueous solution. MPs are, as a rule, much more stable following trapping with APols than they are in detergent solutions. The best-characterized APol to date, called A8-35, is a mixture of short-chain sodium polyacrylates randomly derivatized with octylamine and isopropylamine. Its solution properties have been studied in detail, and it has been used extensively for biochemical and biophysical studies of MPs. One of the attractive characteristics of APols is that it is relatively easy to label them, isotopically or otherwise, without affecting their physical-chemical properties. Furthermore, several variously modified APols can be mixed, achieving multiple functionalization of MP/APol complexes in the easiest possible manner. Labeled or tagged APols are being used to study the solution properties of APols, their miscibility, their biodistribution upon injection into living organisms, their association with MPs and the composition, structure and dynamics of MP/APol complexes, examining the exchange of surfactants at the surface of MPs, labeling MPs to follow their distribution in fractionation experiments or to immobilize them, increasing the contrast between APols and solvent or MPs in biophysical experiments, improving NMR spectra, etc. Labeling or functionalization of APols can take various courses, each of which has its specific constraints and advantages regarding both synthesis and purification. The present review offers an overview of the various derivatives of A8-35 and its congeners that have been developed in our laboratory and discusses the pros and cons of various synthetic routes. PMID:24696186

  20. Your emotion or mine: Labeling feelings alters emotional face perception- An ERP study on automatic and intentional affect labeling

    Cornelia Herbert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that words are powerful regulators of emotion processing. Although a number of studies have used words as contextual cues for emotion processing, the role of what is being labeled by the words (i.e. one’s own emotion as compared to the emotion expressed by the sender is poorly understood. The present study reports results from two experiments which used ERP methodology to evaluate the impact of emotional faces and self- versus sender-related emotional pronoun-noun pairs (e.g. my fear vs. his fear as cues for emotional face processing. The influence of self- and sender-related cues on the processing of fearful, angry and happy faces was investigated in two contexts: an automatic (experiment 1 and intentional affect labeling task (experiment 2, along with control conditions of passive face processing. ERP patterns varied as a function of the label’s reference (self vs. sender and the intentionality of the labelling task (experiment 1 vs. experiment 2. In experiment 1, self-related labels increased the motivational relevance of the emotional faces in the time-window of the EPN component. Processing of sender-related labels improved emotion recognition specifically for fearful faces in the N170 time-window. Spontaneous processing of affective labels modulated later stages of face processing as well. Amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP were reduced for fearful, happy, and angry faces relative to the control condition of passive viewing. During intentional regulation (experiment 2 amplitudes of the LPP were enhanced for emotional faces when subjects used the self-related emotion labels to label their own emotion during face processing, and they rated the faces as higher in arousal than the emotional faces that had been presented in the “label sender’s emotion” condition or the passive viewing condition. The present results argue in favor of a differentiated view of language-as-context for emotion

  1. LabeledIn: cataloging labeled indications for human drugs.

    Khare, Ritu; Li, Jiao; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Drug-disease treatment relationships, i.e., which drug(s) are indicated to treat which disease(s), are among the most frequently sought information in PubMed®. Such information is useful for feeding the Google Knowledge Graph, designing computational methods to predict novel drug indications, and validating clinical information in EMRs. Given the importance and utility of this information, there have been several efforts to create repositories of drugs and their indications. However, existing resources are incomplete. Furthermore, they neither label indications in a structured way nor differentiate them by drug-specific properties such as dosage form, and thus do not support computer processing or semantic interoperability. More recently, several studies have proposed automatic methods to extract structured indications from drug descriptions; however, their performance is limited by natural language challenges in disease named entity recognition and indication selection. In response, we report LabeledIn: a human-reviewed, machine-readable and source-linked catalog of labeled indications for human drugs. More specifically, we describe our semi-automatic approach to derive LabeledIn from drug descriptions through human annotations with aids from automatic methods. As the data source, we use the drug labels (or package inserts) submitted to the FDA by drug manufacturers and made available in DailyMed. Our machine-assisted human annotation workflow comprises: (i) a grouping method to remove redundancy and identify representative drug labels to be used for human annotation, (ii) an automatic method to recognize and normalize mentions of diseases in drug labels as candidate indications, and (iii) a two-round annotation workflow for human experts to judge the pre-computed candidates and deliver the final gold standard. In this study, we focused on 250 highly accessed drugs in PubMed Health, a newly developed public web resource for consumers and clinicians on prevention

  2. Regulatory Requirements for Packaging and Labeling of Pharmaceuticals in India and USA

    Ruby Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    In pharma industry Packaging and Labeling plays very important role for improvements of attraction to human beings. This study provides an overview of regulatory requirements and tests for Quality control and suitability of packaging and labeling of prescription and Over-The-Counter (OTC) Products in USA and India. The study had been in formative to understand the need and importance of the labeling requirements of pharmaceuticals to protect the consumers by providing the suitable instruction...

  3. Assessing the Effects of Gender and Education on the Influence of Menu Labels Among Latino Consumers

    Martinez-Cardoso, Aresha Maree

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional content labels on fast food and restaurant menus and signage have gained popularity and momentum with the recognized need to motivate individuals to improve their eating habits outside the home. However, no known studies have assessed nutrition and menu labeling behavior among Latino consumers while taking into consideration factors such as gender and education. Higher levels of education may influence the utility of menu labeling as more educated individuals recognize the benefi...

  4. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    2010-10-01

    ... line outer border to meet the requirements of § 172.406(d) of this subpart. (c) Size. (1) Each diamond..., numbers, and border must be shown in black on a label except that— (i) White may be used on a label with a... the CORROSIVE label. (iii) White may be used for the symbol for the ORGANIC PEROXIDE label. (3)...

  5. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so-called span of the labeling). RL is a well-studied problem, mainly motivated by frequency assignment problems in which transmitters are not allowed to operate on the same frequency channel. We con...

  6. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginger, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of $G$ such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least $2$. The radio labeling problem (\\mbox{\\sc RL}) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so-called span of the labeling). \\mbox{\\sc RL} is a well-studied problem, mainly motivated by frequency assignment problems in which transmitters are not allowed to operate on the sa...

  7. An innovative intervention for the treatment of cognitive impairment–Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: an open-label study

    Guerriero, Fabio; Botarelli, Emanuele; Mele, Gianni; Polo, Lorenzo; Zoncu, Daniele; Renati, Paolo; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Rollone, Marco; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Maurizi, Niccolo; Francis, Matthew; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide; Mannu, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims In the last decade, the development of different methods of brain stimulation by electromagnetic fields (EMF) provides a promising therapeutic tool for subjects with impaired cognitive functions. Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation (EBS) is a novel and innovative EMF brain stimulation, whose working principle is to introduce very weak noise-like stimuli through EMF to trigger self-arrangements in the cortex of treated subjects, thereby improving cognitive faculties. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate in patients with cognitive impairment the effectiveness of EBS treatment with respect to global cognitive function, episodic memory, and executive functions. Methods Fourteen patients with cognitive decline (six with mild cognitive impairment and eight with Alzheimer’s disease) underwent three EBS applications per week to both the cerebral cortex and auricular-specific sites for a total of 5 weeks. At baseline, after 2 weeks and 5 weeks, a neuropsychological assessment was performed through mini–mental state examination, free and cued selective reminding tests, and trail making test. As secondary outcomes, changes in behavior, functionality, and quality of life were also evaluated. Results After 5 weeks of standardized EBS therapy, significant improvements were observed in all neurocognitive assessments. Mini–mental state examination score significantly increased from baseline to end treatment (+3.19, P=0.002). Assessment of episodic memory showed an improvement both in immediate and delayed recalls (immediate recall =+7.57, P=0.003; delayed recall =+4.78, P<0.001). Executive functions significantly improved from baseline to end stimulation (trail making test A −53.35 seconds; P=0.001). Of note, behavioral disorders assessed through neuropsychiatric inventory significantly decreased (−28.78, P<0.001). The analysis concerning the Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment group confirmed a significant improvement of

  8. Photoaffinity Labeling of Plasma Proteins

    Masaki Otagiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique for identifying a target protein. A high degree of labeling specificity can be achieved with this method in comparison to chemical labeling. Human serum albumin (HSA and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP are two plasma proteins that bind a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances. The ligand binding mechanism of these two proteins is complex. Fatty acids, which are known to be transported in plasma by HSA, cause conformational changes and participate in allosteric ligand binding to HSA. HSA undergoes an N-B transition, a conformational change at alkaline pH, that has been reported to result in increased ligand binding. Attempts have been made to investigate the impact of fatty acids and the N-B transition on ligand binding in HSA using ketoprofen and flunitrazepam as photolabeling agents. Meanwhile, plasma AGP is a mixture of genetic variants of the protein. The photolabeling of AGP with flunitrazepam has been utilized to shed light on the topology of the protein ligand binding site. Furthermore, a review of photoaffinity labeling performed on other major plasma proteins will also be discussed. Using a photoreactive natural ligand as a photolabeling agent to identify target protein in the plasma would reduce non-specific labeling.

  9. Radioisotope method for leucocyte labelling

    Whole blood leukocytes were labelled with 99mTc-sulphocolloid, which was selectively deposited in phagocytizing polymorphonuclear cells. To achieve optimal phagocytosis, the authors prepared 99mTc sulphocoloid from a Bulgarian kit. The required size of the colloid particles (1,2 μm) was achieved after 90-120 min storage at room temperature without rotation. Leucocytes were labelled by a proposed by the authors original method: to 10 ml heparinized blood 0,26-0,30 GB 99mTc sulphocolloid was added, incubated for 60 min; the free sulphocolloid was centrifuged in the syringe. The labelled cell sediment was suspended in physiological saline and re-injected. In a study of 16 patients on gamma camera, suspected of having inflammatory processes, the mean labelling effectiveness was 59%, similar to the one reported by other authors, who used similar technique and ready-made kits. Eight patients had positive finding, the inflammatory process in 7 being visualized as early as on hour 2 or 3 and in 1 on hour 24. The new method developed for specific leucocyte labelling with the use of Bulgarian kit may gain acceptance in the visualization of vague inflammatory processes. 3 figs., 4 refs

  10. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  11. Nutrition Labeling Using a Computer Program

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    The 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated nutritional labeling of most foods. As a result, a large portion of food analysis is performed for nutritional labeling purposes. A food labeling guide and links to the complete nutritional labeling regulations are available online at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/˜dms/flg-toc.html. However, interpretation of these regulations and the appropriate usage of rounding rules, available nutrient content claims, reference amounts, and serving size can be difficult.

  12. Pharmacogenomic information in drug labels: European Medicines Agency perspective.

    Ehmann, F; Caneva, L; Prasad, K; Paulmichl, M; Maliepaard, M; Llerena, A; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Papaluca-Amati, M

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) has a growing impact on healthcare and constitutes one of the major pillars of personalised medicine. For the purpose of improved individualised drug treatment, there is an increasing effort to develop drugs suitable for specific subpopulations and to incorporate pharmacogenomic drug labels in existing and novel medicines. Here, we review the pharmacogenomic drug labels of all 517 medicinal products centrally approved in the European Union (EU) since the establishment of the European Medicines Agency in 1995. We identified all pharmacogenomic-related information mentioned in the product labels and classified it according to its main effect and function on drug treatment, that is, metabolism, transport and pharmacodynamics, and according to the place of the respective section of the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC). The labels are preferentially present in drugs having antineoplastic properties. We find that the number of drugs with pharmacogenomic labels in EU increases now steadily and that it will be an important task for the future to refine the legislation on how this information should be utilised for improvement of drug therapy. PMID:25707393

  13. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  14. Lutetium-labelled peptides for therapy of neuroendocrine tumours

    B.L. Kam (Boen); J.J.M. Teunissen (Jaap); E.P. Krenning (Eric); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); S. Khan (Saima); E.I. van Vliet (Esther); D.J. Kwekkeboom (Dirk Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTreatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours. Symptomatic improvement may occur with 177Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues that have been used for peptide receptor radionuc

  15. An innovative intervention for the treatment of cognitive impairment–Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: an open-label study

    Guerriero F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Guerriero,1–3 Emanuele Botarelli,3 Gianni Mele,3 Lorenzo Polo,3 Daniele Zoncu,3 Paolo Renati,3,4 Carmelo Sgarlata,1 Marco Rollone,2 Giovanni Ricevuti,1,2 Niccolo Maurizi,1 Matthew Francis,1 Mariangela Rondanelli,5 Simone Perna,5 Davide Guido,2,6 Piero Mannu3 1Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Therapy, Section of Geriatrics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, Pavia, Italy; 3Ambra Elektron, Italian Association of Biophysics for the Study of Electromagnetic Fields in Medicine, 4Alberto Sorti Research Institute, Medicine and Metamolecular Biology, Turin, Italy; 5Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, 6Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background and aims: In the last decade, the development of different methods of brain stimulation by electromagnetic fields (EMF provides a promising therapeutic tool for subjects with impaired cognitive functions. Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation (EBS is a novel and innovative EMF brain stimulation, whose working principle is to introduce very weak noise-like stimuli through EMF to trigger self-arrangements in the cortex of treated subjects, thereby improving cognitive faculties. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate in patients with cognitive impairment the effectiveness of EBS treatment with respect to global cognitive function, episodic memory, and executive functions. Methods: Fourteen patients with cognitive decline (six with mild cognitive impairment and eight with Alzheimer’s disease underwent three EBS applications per week to both the cerebral cortex and auricular-specific sites for a total of 5 weeks. At baseline, after 2 weeks and 5 weeks, a neuropsychological assessment was performed through mini–mental state

  16. Configuration spaces with summable labels

    Salvatore, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Let M be an n-manifold, and let A be a space with a partial sum behaving as an n-fold loop sum. We define the space C(M;A) of configurations in M with summable labels in A via operad theory. Some examples are symmetric products, labelled configuration spaces, and spaces of rational curves. We show that C(I^n,dI^n;A) is an n-fold delooping of C(I^n;A), and for n=1 it is the classifying space by Stasheff. If M is compact, parallelizable, and A is path connected, then C(M;A) is homotopic to the ...

  17. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  18. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Akmal Rakhmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  19. Third party labeling and the consumer decision process: the case of the PGI European label

    Larceneux, Fabrice; Carpenter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the decision-making process of consumers when faced with food products that have values-based labels. An experimental methodology was used to test the impact of a label of origin guaranteed by the European Union, the Protected Geographic Indications (PGI) label. Consumers' reactions to two different products were investigated with four different presentations: without a specific label, with a simple regional label, with both a regional label and th...

  20. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  1. Legislation--Impact and Trends in Nutrition Labeling: A Global Overview.

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2016-01-01

    The need for accurate nutrition labeling on food products has never been greater. Obesity has assumed near-epidemic levels in both industrialized and emerging nations in recent years, and governments and consumer groups around the world are looking for ways to improve the nutritional choices for their citizenry while simultaneously balancing their freedom of choice through the use of nutrition labeling. Despite increasingly aggressive efforts by government and industry organizations to raise consumer awareness, though, many consumers either do not consult nutrition labels or they are not in a position to interpret the information on these labels accurately. To gain some fresh insights into nutrition labeling practices worldwide, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly, and government literature to describe regulations enacted to date, evolving and future trends, and the likely impact of food product labels. In this regard, the paper highlights similarities and discrepancies that exist, identifies gaps, and gives directions for the future. PMID:24987986

  2. Gastric ulcer localization by direct in vivo labeling of sucralfate: work in progress

    The authors developed and evaluated a new procedure for imaging gastric ulcer disease with technetium 99m - labeled sucralfate. The new method employs direct in vivo labeling of sucralfate instead of in vitro labeling using human serum albumin, as previously reported in the literature. In 26 studies using humans with sucralfate labeled directly in vivo, 15 gave true-negative results. Of 14 studies using humans with in vitro labeled sucralfate, three gave true-negative results, three gave true-positive results, and the results of eight were either false-negative or could not be interpreted because of high levels of activity remaining in the stomach. They suggest that the direct in vivo labeling method significantly improves the sucralfate gastric ulcer imaging technique

  3. Food labelled Information: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Preferences

    Alessandro Banterle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing which kinds of currently labelled information are of interest and actually used by consumers, and which additional kinds could improve consumer choices. We investigate the attitude of consumers with respect to innovative strategies for the diffusion of product information, as smart-labels for mobile-phones. The empirical analysis was organised in focus groups followed by a survey on 240 consumers. Results show that the most important nutritional claims are vitamins, energy and fat content. Consumers show a high interest in the origin of the products, GMOs, environmental impact, animal welfare and type of breeding.

  4. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  5. Process Improvement Essentials

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  6. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements. PMID:23982076

  7. Tetraphenylporphyrin as a protein label for triple detection analytical systems.

    Konopińska, Kamila; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Mazur, Radosław; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Porphyrins and metalloporphyrins are promising new protein labels that can be detected using multiple techniques; improving the reliability of the analysis and broadening the range of the linear response. Here, we investigate the potential of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (Tpp) as a hybrid protein label. The electrochemical and optical properties of porphyrin conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), chicken egg albumin (CEA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined and optimal conditions for Tpp-protein conjugation established. Model conjugates of carboxylated Tpp with BSA and short peptides were characterized using differential pulse voltammetry, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. These results reveal that Tpp is a promising molecule to be used in a triple detection protein labelling system. PMID:27441235

  8. Unfolding network communities by combining defensive and offensive label propagation

    Šubelj, Lovro

    2011-01-01

    Label propagation has proven to be a fast method for detecting communities in complex networks. Recent work has also improved the accuracy and stability of the basic algorithm, however, a general approach is still an open issue. We propose different label propagation algorithms that convey two unique strategies of community formation, namely, defensive preservation and offensive expansion of communities. Furthermore, the strategies are combined in an advanced label propagation algorithm that retains the advantages of both approaches; and are enhanced with hierarchical community extraction, prominent for the use on larger networks. The proposed algorithms were empirically evaluated on different benchmarks networks with planted partition and on over 30 real-world networks of various types and sizes. The results confirm the adequacy of the propositions and give promising grounds for future analysis of (large) complex networks. Nevertheless, the main contribution of this work is in showing that different types of...

  9. Rhenium-186 direct labelling HIgG

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re for achievement of potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. There were selected methods and techniques for the direct labelling of intact HIgG by studding chemical and radiochemical processes of -S-S- bridges prereduction, reduction of 186ReO4- and coupling reaction of rhenium with HIgG. The -S-S- bridges prereduction of HIgG to sulfhydryls was effected using different reducing agents: ascorbic acid, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol, cysteine, active hydrogen. The prereduction reactions are controlled by masic ratios of HIgG/reduction agent, pH, temperature and time of incubation. A pH=4.5 and a 24 hours incubation time are in the advantage of the prereduction yield. The labelling with 186Re of prereduced HIgG with ascorbic acid or active hydrogen and 37 deg. C incubation in 22 hours releases 92% radiochemical purity. (author)

  10. Astatine-211-Labeled Targeted Radiotherapeutics: An Update

    The heavy halogen 211At was first proposed for use in α-particle targeted radiotherapy more than 30 years ago and continues to be one of the most promising radionuclides for this purpose. Although its 7.2-h half life is not ideal for intravenously administered whole antibodies, it is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of antibody fragments, peptides, aptamers and organic molecules. Its diverse chemistry allows its incorporation into a wide array of targeting vehicles, relying on its chemical similarity to iodine to provide a useful point of departure. On the other hand, the relatively low carbon-astatine bond strength is challenging. In common with the other α-emitters being discussed at this symposium, lack of reliable availability is one of the biggest hurdles in the use of 211At for targeted radiotherapy. However, in the case of 211At, it is not a question of production cost or availability of target material, because 211At can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets. Rather, the difficulty is the lack of cyclotrons equipped with the medium energy α-particle beams required for its production. If the infrastructure for producing 211At is to be improved to the stage where 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals can have a meaningful impact, several developments must occur. First, the ability to produce clinically relevant levels of 211At that can be shipped to remote locations in chemically tractable form must be demonstrated. Approaches under consideration include compensating for radiolysis-mediated effects and the consideration of alternative chemistries. Second, strategies for compensating for heterogeneities in dose deposition must be developed, hopefully in a way that is compatible with approval for human use. And third, it is essential that more clinical trials be performed with 211At-labeled therapeutics, particularly in settings of minimum residual disease where the radiobiological advantages of α-particles can be best exploited. Our

  11. French-speaking Children's Freely Produced Labels for Facial Expressions

    PierreGosselin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the labeling of facial expressions in French-speaking children. The participants were 137 French-speaking children, between the ages of 5 and 11 years, recruited from three elementary schools in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The facial expressions included expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants were shown one facial expression at a time, and asked to say what the stimulus person was feeling. Participants’ responses were coded by two raters who made judgments concerning the specific emotion category in which the responses belonged. Five- and 6-year-olds were quite accurate in labeling facial expressions of happiness, anger, and sadness but far less accurate for facial expressions of fear, surprise, and disgust. An improvement in accuracy as a function of age was found for fear and surprise only. Labeling facial expressions of disgust proved to be very difficult for the children, even for the 11-year-olds. In order to examine the fit between the model proposed by Widen and Russell (2003 and our data, we looked at the number of participants who had the predicted response patterns. Overall, 88.52% of the participants did. Most of the participants used between 3 and 5 labels, with correspondence percentages varying between 80.00% and 100.00%. Our results suggest that the model proposed by Widen and Russell is not limited to English-speaking children, but also accounts for the sequence of emotion labeling in French-Canadian children.

  12. Chemiluminescence from alkoxy-substituted acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels.

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David; Wen, David

    2012-05-01

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered by alkaline peroxide in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The surfactant plays a critical role in the chemiluminescence process of these labels by both accelerating their emission kinetics and increasing total light output enabling high throughout and improved assay sensitivity in automated immunoassays. Despite the surfactant's crucial role in the chemiluminescent reaction, no study has investigated how structural perturbations in the acridinium ring could impact the influence of the surfactant. We describe herein the synthesis and properties of three new alkoxy-substituted, acridinium dimethylphenyl esters where the nature of the alkoxy group in the acridinium ring was varied (hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Chemiluminescence measurements of these alkoxy-substituted labels indicate that hydrophilic functional groups in the acridinium ring, in particular sulfobetaine zwitterions, disrupt surfactant-mediated compression of emission times but not enhancement of light yield. These results support the hypothesis that surfactant-mediated effects require the binding of two different reaction intermediates to surfactant aggregates and, that surfactants influence light emission from acridinium esters by two separate mechanisms. Our studies also indicate that preservation of both surfactant effects on acridinium ester chemiluminescence and low non-specific binding of the label can be achieved with a relatively hydrophobic acridinium ring coupled to a hydrophilic phenolic ester leaving group. PMID:22441905

  13. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  14. A Multi-Label Classification Approach Based on Correlations Among Labels

    Raed Alazaidah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi label classification is concerned with learning from a set of instances that are associated with a set of labels, that is, an instance could be associated with multiple labels at the same time. This task occurs frequently in application areas like text categorization, multimedia classification, bioinformatics, protein function classification and semantic scene classification. Current multi-label classification methods could be divided into two categories. The first is called problem transformation methods, which transform multi-label classification problem into single label classification problem, and then apply any single label classifier to solve the problem. The second category is called algorithm adaptation methods, which adapt an existing single label classification algorithm to handle multi-label data. In this paper, we propose a multi-label classification approach based on correlations among labels that use both problem transformation methods and algorithm adaptation methods. The approach begins with transforming multi-label dataset into a single label dataset using least frequent label criteria, and then applies the PART algorithm on the transformed dataset. The output of the approach is multi-labels rules. The approach also tries to get benefit from positive correlations among labels using predictive Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been evaluated using two multi-label datasets named (Emotions and Yeast and three evaluation measures (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, and Harmonic Mean. The experiments showed that the proposed approach has a fair accuracy in comparison to other related methods.

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label ( ... THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  16. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  17. Preparation of methyl-3H labelled dimethylnitrosamine

    Tritium labelled dimethylamine was prepared from benzalmethylimine in reaction with methyl-3H iodide followed by hydrolysis. The product was converted with sodium nitrite in glacial acetic acid into labelled dimethylnitrosamine. The radiochemical yield was 85%. (author)

  18. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses.

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K

    2016-10-01

    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data. PMID:27405864

  19. Open-Label Treatment With Citalopram in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Masand, Prakash S.; Gupta, Sanjay; Schwartz, Thomas L; Virk, Subhdeep; Hameed, Ahmad; Kaplan, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: This open-label pilot study investigated whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disorder with frequent psychiatric comorbidity.

  20. 77 FR 12313 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    2012-02-29

    ..., (3) nutrition labeling requirements, (4) health and nutrition claims, and (5) special labeling issues... with labeling requirements, especially in light of growing concerns about obesity and food...

  1. Do Consumers Really Use Food Labels?

    Ward, Ronald W.; Jauregui, Carlos E.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered Probit models are used to estimate the probabilities of consumers reading food labels for harmful ingredients and for using labels to assist with food purchasing decisions. Demographics, health concerns, attitudes, and eating habits are shown to influence the likelihood of using food labels. Effects from over 25 variables are ranked in terms of their relative impacts on the use of food labels. Dieting, concerns about calories, foreign foods, and many other variable effects on the use ...

  2. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  3. Investigating the effectiveness of an efficient label placement method Using eye movement data

    Ooms, Kristien; De Maeyer, Philippe; Fack, Veerle; Van Assche, Eva; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on improving the efficiency and effectiveness of dynamic and interactive maps in relation to the user. A label placement method with an improved algorithmic efficiency is presented. Since this algorithm has an influence on the actual placement of the name labels on the map, it is tested if this efficient algorithms also creates more effective maps: how well is the information processed by the user. We tested 30 participants while they were working on a dynamic and interacti...

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A Text Size ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  5. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  6. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling. 701.11 Section 701.11 Food and... COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity....

  7. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit

  8. 21 CFR 225.80 - Labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Packaging and Labeling § 225.80 Labeling. (a... adhered to, will assure that the article is safe and effective for its intended purposes. (b)(1) Labels... medicated feed and includes adequate information for the safe and effective use of the medicated feed....

  9. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    2010-04-01

    ...) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design these procedures to ensure proper HCT/P identification and to prevent mix-ups. (b) Verification.... Procedures must ensure that each HCT/P is labeled in accordance with all applicable labeling...

  10. 201Tl labelled myocardium tomoscanning

    A new device, the J and P Tomoscanner, enables us to obtain the transverse scintigraphic section of any organ labelled by a single photon emitting radionuclide. For the time being, this technique has been used mainly for brain and liver studies. This work explores the ability of this tomograph to furnish sections of the 201Tl labelled myocardium by comparing them with the scintillation gamma-camera images. Towards this aim, witnesses and patients with documented anterior or lateral infarctus have been studied. Our actual results show a high correlation between the two explorations. But, by means of the section, both the site and size of the necrosis are visualized. However, only a single tomographic image was obtained in each patient because of the time necessary for its retranscription on paper. In the near future, when it will be possible to perform routinely several sections, a better size estimation will be possible

  11. Orthogonal modulation system with Manchester-coded payload and frequency-shift keying label

    Yang, Liu; Luo, Fengguang

    2016-04-01

    We propose an orthogonal modulation scheme with 40 Gb/s Manchester-coded (MC) payload and 2.5 Gb/s frequency-shift keying (FSK) label. The high-speed FSK label is generated by an FSK modulator, which consists of two modulators, while MC payload is generated by an intensity modulator. Simulation results show that the available extinction ratio of FSK and amplitude-shift keying with MC payload can improve from 5.1 to 11.2 dB, compared with the traditional not-return-to-zero payload. The receiver sensitivities of both MC payload and FSK label show a remarkable improvement.

  12. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13C, 15N, and 2H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2H, 13C, and 15N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  13. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  14. Eco-labels as sustainability brands: The role of visual design and co-branding in credibility of eco-labels.

    Lihhavtshuk, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Eco-labels are designed as a communication tool in green marketing, but their design often fails to deliver environmental data to consumers. This master’s thesis aims to explore the way that the visual design of eco-labels can improve their recognition and credibility, as well as their use in co-branding. This study argues that eco-labels can be independently perceived, researched and marketed as brands. The literature review of this thesis covers the topics of green marketing (GM), brand...

  15. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  16. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  17. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  18. The economics of GM food labels: An evaluation of mandatory labeling proposals in India

    Bansal, Sangeeta; Ramaswami, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    "Labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods is a contentious issue and internationally, there is sharp division whether such labeling ought to be mandatory. This debate has reached India where the government has proposed mandatory labeling. In this context, this paper evaluates the optimal regulatory approach to GM food labels. Mandatory labeling aims to provide greater information and correspondingly more informed consumer choice. However, even without such laws, markets have incentives to ...

  19. Fluorescent labeling and tracking of nanoclay

    Diaz, Carlos A.; Xia, Yining; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael; Jayaraman, Krishnamurthy; Hotchkiss, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems.We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information regarding production of nanocomposites, the silylation procedure, labeling of the nanoclays, characterization of the labels, thermal stability of the labels, and the migration test. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32978f

  20. 75 FR 29775 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    2010-05-27

    ... be discussed at the workshop include: (1) Mandatory label elements, (2) nutrition labeling... labeling and nutrition. FDA expects that participation in this public workshop will provide regulated... with labeling requirements, especially in light of growing concerns about obesity and food...

  1. On randomized online labeling with polynomially many labels

    Bulánek, Jan; Koucký, Michal; Saks, M.

    Berlin: Springer, 2013 - (Fomin, F.; Freivalds, R.; Kwiatkowska, M.; Peleg, D.), s. 291-302. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7965). ISBN 978-3-642-39205-4. [International Colloquium, ICALP 2013 /40./. Riga (LT), 08.07.2013-12.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online labeling * complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-39206-1_25

  2. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  3. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed. PMID:25393768

  4. Labeling of scorpion venom with 99mTc and its biodistribution

    Labeling of scorpion venom (SV) was successfully achieved with 99mTc using direct chelating method. Venom was labeled with 99mTc using stannous chloride as reducing agent. Preliminary studies were done to establish the optimum conditions for obtaining the highest yield of the labeled venom. The labeling technique is effective, as a maximum labeling yield (97 %) was obtained after 30-min reaction time by using 80 μg SV in phosphate buffer of pH 7 and 25 μg Sncl2·2H2O at room temperature. Venom was injected into normal mice to determine the excretion pathway. Biodistribution studies in normal mice with SV shows rapid clearance of the venom from blood and tissue except for kidneys. The improvement of the immunotherapeutic treatment of envenomation requires a better knowledge of the biological actions of the SV since tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical purpose. (author)

  5. Reactive and proactive routing in labelled optical burst switching networks

    Klinkowski, Miroslaw; Careglio, Davide; Solé Pareta, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Optical burst switching architectures without buffering capabilities are sensitive to burst congestion. The existence of a few highly congested links may seriously aggravate the network throughput. Proper network routing may help in congestion reduction. The authors focus on adaptive routing strategies to be applied in labelled OBS networks, that is, with explicit routing paths. In particular, two isolated alternative routing algorithms that aim at network performance improvement because o...

  6. Lutetium-labelled peptides for therapy of neuroendocrine tumours

    Kam, Boen; Teunissen, Jaap; Krenning, Eric; de Herder, Wouter; Khan, Saima; van Vliet, Esther; Kwekkeboom, Dirk Jan

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTreatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours. Symptomatic improvement may occur with 177Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues that have been used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The results obtained with 177Lu-[DOTA 0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTATATE) are very encouraging in terms of tumour regression. Dosimetry studies with 177Lu-DOTATATE as well as the limi...

  7. Label transfer by measuring compactness.

    Varga, Robert; Nedevschi, Sergiu

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a new automatic image annotation algorithm. First, we introduce a new similarity measure between images: compactness. This uses low level visual descriptors for determining the similarity between two images. Compactness shows how close test image features lie to training image feature cluster centers. The measure provides the core for a k-nearest neighbor type image annotation method. Afterward, a formalism for defining different transfer techniques is devised and several label transfer techniques are provided. The method as whole is evaluated on four image annotation benchmarks. The results on these sets validate the accuracy of the approach, which outperforms many state-of-the-art annotation methods. The method presented here requires a simple training process, efficiently combines different feature types and performs better than complex learning algorithms, even in this incipient form. The main contributions of this paper are the usage of compactness as a similarity measure that enables efficient low level feature comparison and an annotation algorithm based on label transfer. PMID:23955754

  8. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon;

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  9. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  10. Manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization with label information

    Li, Huirong; Zhang, Jiangshe; Wang, Changpeng; Liu, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as a popular technique for finding parts-based, linear representations of non-negative data has been successfully applied in a wide range of applications, such as feature learning, dictionary learning, and dimensionality reduction. However, both the local manifold regularization of data and the discriminative information of the available label have not been taken into account together in NMF. We propose a new semisupervised matrix decomposition method, called manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization (MRNMF) with label information, which incorporates the manifold regularization and the label information into the NMF to improve the performance of NMF in clustering tasks. We encode the local geometrical structure of the data space by constructing a nearest neighbor graph and enhance the discriminative ability of different classes by effectively using the label information. Experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods on theCOIL20, PIE, Extended Yale B, and MNIST databases demonstrate the effectiveness of MRNMF.

  11. Efficient scan mask techniques for connected components labeling algorithm

    Sutheebanjard Phaisarn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Block-based connected components labeling is by far the fastest algorithm to label the connected components in 2D binary images, especially when the image size is quite large. This algorithm produces a decision tree that contains 211 leaf nodes with 14 levels for the depth of a tree and an average depth of 1.5923. This article attempts to provide a faster method for connected components labeling. We propose two new scan masks for connected components labeling, namely, the pixel-based scan mask and the block-based scan mask. In the final stage, the block-based scan mask is transformed to a near-optimal decision tree. We conducted comparative experiments using different sources of images for examining the performance of the proposed method against the existing methods. We also performed an average tree depth analysis and tree balance analysis to consolidate the performance improvement over the existing methods. Most significantly, the proposed method produces a decision tree containing 86 leaf nodes with 12 levels for the depth of a tree and an average depth of 1.4593, resulting in faster execution time, especially when the foreground density is equal to or greater than the background density of the images.

  12. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131IDZ (131I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  13. Irradiation test of bar code label

    The irradiation test of bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was done to determine the effect of radiation. Low and medium radioactive waste is that below total activity of 4,000Bq/g according to the Korean nuclear law. The irradiation amount to radiate bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was calculated by MCNP-4b computer code. The nuclide such as Co-60 and Cs-137 was assumed to contribute 50 % of total activity. Real irradiation amount for bar code label was finally calculated by the dimensions of the container and the bar code label. The identification of post and the physical deflection of irradiated bar code label was tested by the bar code reader. The coated bar code label was suitable to use on low and medium radioactive waste container

  14. Green power: naturemade - History of a label

    This article presents the history of the set of 'naturemade' labels that are used to designate power generated in facilities that use renewable energy. Electricity from hydropower, wind-power, biogas and solar energy plants that fulfil particular ecological conditions receives a special label, 'Naturemade Star'. 'Normal' hydropower can be awarded the 'Naturemade Basic' label. The development of the labels is discussed in the light of increasing liberalisation of European electricity markets and increasing sales of 'green power' by electricity utilities. The need for certification of production facilities and the founding of the label's certification authority, the 'Verein fuer umweltgerechte Elektrizitaet' (VUE), a society for the promotion of environment-friendly electricity, are discussed. Criticisms made by certain environmental protection organisations on the awarding of the 'Naturemade Basic' label to projects that in their opinion do not help protect the environment are quoted. The article is completed with an interview on the subject with Ursula Stocker from the VUE

  15. Collaborative labeling of malignant glioma with WebMILL: a first look

    Singh, Eesha; Asman, Andrew J.; Xu, Zhoubing; Chambless, Lola; Thompson, Reid; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common form of primary neoplasm in the central nervous system, and one of the most rapidly fatal of all human malignancies. They are treated by maximal surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy. Herein, we seek to improve the methods available to quantify the extent of tumors using newly presented, collaborative labeling techniques on magnetic resonance imaging. Traditionally, labeling medical images has entailed that expert raters operate on one image at a time, which is resource intensive and not practical for very large datasets. Using many, minimally trained raters to label images has the possibility of minimizing laboratory requirements and allowing high degrees of parallelism. A successful effort also has the possibility of reducing overall cost. This potentially transformative technology presents a new set of problems, because one must pose the labeling challenge in a manner accessible to people with little or no background in labeling medical images and raters cannot be expected to read detailed instructions. Hence, a different training method has to be employed. The training must appeal to all types of learners and have the same concepts presented in multiple ways to ensure that all the subjects understand the basics of labeling. Our overall objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of studying malignant glioma morphometry through statistical analysis of the collaborative efforts of many, minimally-trained raters. This study presents preliminary results on optimization of the WebMILL framework for neoplasm labeling and investigates the initial contributions of 78 raters labeling 98 whole-brain datasets.

  16. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-08-01

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer's production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  17. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labelling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andr& #233

    2010-06-11

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer?s production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  18. Evaluating Propensity Score Methods in a Quasi-Experimental Study of the Impact of Menu-Labeling

    Mayne, Stephanie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Auchincloss, Amy H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Quasi-experimental studies of menu labeling have found mixed results for improving diet. Differences between experimental groups can hinder interpretation. Propensity scores are an increasingly common method to improve covariate balance, but multiple methods exist and the improvements associated with each method have rarely been compared. In this re-analysis of the impact of menu labeling, we compare multiple propensity score methods to determine which methods optimize balance betw...

  19. Alternative ways for private label manufacturing

    Kelemen, Zita; Némethné Tömő, Zsuzsa

    2010-01-01

    Private labels are a growing phenomenon globaly. retatlers become stronger and stronger by offering their own quality private label product for customers in all segments. Certainly they do not open factories to produce these items but rather search for dedicated private label producers or pressure branded goods manufacturers to produce it for them. The article deals with the strategic choiches manufacturers can have and suggest the necessary factors that need to be evaluated to decide on the ...

  20. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine.

  1. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine. (author)

  2. Applications of radioactively labelled nucleic acid probes

    Isotopically labelled nucleic acid probes are used extensively in many areas of molecular biology research. Several radioactive isotopes have been utilised for this purpose, with P-32 and S-35 proving the most popular. This contribution will highlight the factors dictating the choice of radioisotope and will describe techniques for in vitro labelling of nucleic acids. The experimental data presented will be focused on applications of labelled nucleic acids including DNA probe assays and DNA sequencing. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Classifier Risk Estimation under Limited Labeling Resources

    Kumar, Anurag; Raj, Bhiksha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose strategies for estimating performance of a classifier when labels cannot be obtained for the whole test set. The number of test instances which can be labeled is very small compared to the whole test data size. The goal then is to obtain a precise estimate of classifier performance using as little labeling resource as possible. Specifically, we try to answer, how to select a subset of the large test set for labeling such that the performance of a classifier estimated ...

  4. Novel Properties of Fuzzy Labeling Graphs

    Nagoor Gani, A.; Muhammad Akram; D. Rajalaxmi (a) Subahashini

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of fuzzy labeling and fuzzy magic labeling graph are introduced. Fuzzy magic labeling for some graphs like path, cycle, and star graph is defined. It is proved that every fuzzy magic graph is a fuzzy labeling graph, but the converse is not true. We have shown that the removal of a fuzzy bridge from a fuzzy magic cycle with odd nodes reduces the strength of a fuzzy magic cycle. Some properties related to fuzzy bridge and fuzzy cut node have also been discussed.

  5. Simultaneous segmentation and statistical label fusion

    Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi-atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  6. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  7. (d,1)-total labelling of graphs

    Havet, Frédéric; Yu, Min-Li

    2002-01-01

    A $(d,1)$-total labelling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of integers to $V(G)\\cup E(G)$ such that: (i) any two adjacent vertices of $G$ receive distinct integers, (ii) any two adjacent edges of $G$ receive distinct integers, and (iii) a vertex and its incident edge receive integers that differ by at least $d$ in absolute value. The {\\it span} of a $(d,1)$-total labelling is the maximum difference between two labels. The minimum span of a $(d,1)$-total labelling of $G$ is denoted by $\\lambda_...

  8. Radioactivity measuring system of labelled biopolymers

    System for determining the radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising a bank of containers filled with aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers. This system features an electric drive to move the bank of containers step by step; a device for the acid precipitation of the biopolymers which sends determined amounts of co-precipitant and diatom suspension in an acid solution to the containers containing a biological sample; a system for taking precipitated samples from the containers; a system for filtering the precipitated biopolymers carrying out successive filterings; placing the deposit into suspension; dissolving the biopolymers and sending the labelled mixture labelled by the scintillation labeller to the detection chamber

  9. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  10. Stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan

    Stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan is an application of nucleus technology in amino acids. Progresses in stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan in recent years are reviewed.. In the respect of synthesis, in addition to the methods of organic synthesis and isotope exchange, the microbial technology which has the advantage of U-label and construct has been used widely. In the respect of applications, stable isotope labeled L-tryptophan as trace has been used widely in yields of medicine, biology and chemistry et al. Along with the development of protein engineering, molecular biology and peptide drugs, they will have a fine future. (authors)

  11. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy

  12. Regulatory Requirements for Packaging and Labeling of Pharmaceuticals in India and USA

    Ruby Kashyap

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In pharma industry Packaging and Labeling plays very important role for improvements of attraction to human beings. This study provides an overview of regulatory requirements and tests for Quality control and suitability of packaging and labeling of prescription and Over-The-Counter (OTC Products in USA and India. The study had been in formative to understand the need and importance of the labeling requirements of pharmaceuticals to protect the consumers by providing the suitable instructions for the use of the drug product at suitable place and suitable format. Guidance provides the recommendations for submission.

  13. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [131I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  14. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I]epidepride was stable under 4℃, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exihibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection.All these results suggest that[131I]epidepride may be usedd widely as a useful dopamineD2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  15. Principles of food product labelling

    Krystyna Krysztofiak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the label of the food product is to provide information on ingredients and additionally on its origin, production method, storage conditions, date tagging, as well as to enable to identify the producer or distributor of this product. Legal regulations precisely give instructions on the range and the way of the presentation of these data, so they could be clear and understandable for the average consumer. Since 25th of November 2005, the information about allergens’ presence must be placed on the label, regardless of their content in the product (Directive 2003/89/WE... 2003 – Off. J. L 308: 15-18. The Regulation (WE No 1924/2006 about placing the nutritional information and medicinal claims concerning foods (Regulation (WE No 1924/2006... 2006 a is valid in all countries of European Union since 1st of July 2007 (Off. J. L 404: 9-25. It coordinates the legislative, executive and administrative regulations connected with this labelling. According to these regulations, “nutritional information” states, suggests or gives to understand that the food product has special properties concerning its ingredients. Those statements are of type: “the source of...”, “no... content”, “high content of...”, “low content of...”, “reduced content of...” with reference to calorie or selected ingredients’ content. “Medicinal claims” state, suggest or give to understand, that there is a connection between the food product or one of its ingredients and the health condition of the consumer. First type of these medicinal claims refers to the influence of the ingredient on the physiology. Such a statement is based on generally accepted scientific conclusions and could be properly understood by the average consumer, e.g. “calcium takes part in the process of building of strong bones”. “Statements about decreasing the risk of a disease” give information, that food product or one of its ingredients efficiently

  16. Perceived barriers and motives to reading nutrition label among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia

    Ranilović, Jasmina; Colić Barić, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine barriers and motives associated with reading nutrition information among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia and relationship with demographic and health factors of recruited sample.Label ‘non-users’ are subjects reported that had never or do not know or wish to tell aboutreading nutrition label during food purchasing (n=375) and were recruited from representative sample telephone interviewed Croatian, for assessing nutrition label attitudes. It is found that ...

  17. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  18. Hypoglycemia associated with off-label sitagliptin use

    Heather P Whitley

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Heather P Whitley1,2, Kristi Kelley11Department of Pharmacy Practice, Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Community and Rural Medicine, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Tuscaloosa, AL, USAPurpose: To describe a case of hypoglycemia induced by off-label use of sitagliptin in an adult patient with type 2 diabetes.Case summary: Addition of sitagliptin to metformin, glimepiride, and NovoLog® 70/30 Mix induced hypoglycemia in a 55-year-old Caucasian female. Hypoglycemia improved, although still occurred periodically, following sulfonylurea discontinuation and a 28% insulin dose reduction. Hypoglycemic symptoms were absent during a 3-day dechallange but occurred again upon sitagliptin reinitiation.Discussion: Although the mechanism of action of sitagliptin does not predispose patients to hypoglycemic events, when combined with hypoglycemia-inducing medications, eg, sulfonylureas or insulin, and possibly meglitinides, the incidence likely increases.Conclusions: Caution should be used when combining sitagliptin with either sulfonylureas or insulin, and possibly meglitinides, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as hypoglycemia may ensue. Hypoglycemia due to off-label combinations with insulin and sitagliptin may be prevented by reducing meal-time insulin doses. Prescribers and patients should vigilantly monitor for hypoglycemic events when using sitagliptin off-label with similar pharmacologic combinations such as meglitinides and other rapid-acting insulin products. Additionally, clinicians may encounter resistance from insurance companies to cover such off-label combinations.Keywords: diabetes, DPP-IV inhibitor, sitagliptin, hypoglycemia, drug-induced, off-label

  19. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  20. To Label or Not to Label: The Special Education Question for African Americans

    Gold, Moniqueka E.; Richards, Heraldo

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the benefits of categorically identifying and labeling students with disabilities have been debated on many grounds, particularly when it comes to labeling African-American children who many argue are over-labeled or disproportionately represented in selected categories such as learning disabilities. In this article, the authors…

  1. Assessing the success of the German Eco-label. Examination of the effectiveness of the label from the viewpoint of companies using the label and chosen experts; Erfolgskontrolle Umweltzeichen. Ueberpruefung der Wirksamkeit aus Sicht der zeichennutzenden Unternehmen und ausgewaehlter Experten

    Haessler, R.D.; Mahlmann, I.; Schoenheit, I.

    1998-10-01

    In the forefront of this examination, in which different heuristic methods were used - i.e. interviews, telephone and written surveys - and in the sense of an examination of success, are the previous experiences of the users and interested groups of the German eco-label. This deals individually with, among other things, the preceived environment-related and economic meaning of the eco-label, the reason for using the label, the experiences of using the label or the relationship of the label to other eco-labels and environmental advertising statements, as well as the critical recognition and objections to the `Blue Angel`. Alongside the analysis of all the up-to-date practical knowledge, possibilities for the improvement and development of the `Blue Angel` should also be derived. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Vordergrund der Untersuchung stehen im Sinne einer Erfolgskontrolle die bisherigen Erfahrungen der Nutzer und der interessierten Kreise mit dem Umweltzeichen `Blauer Engel`. Dabei geht es im einzelnen u.a. um die wahrgenommene umweltbezogene und oekonomische Bedeutung des `Blauen Engel`, die Gruende fuer die Nutzung des Umweltzeichens, die Erfahrungen mit der Nutzung oder das Verhaeltnis zu anderen Umweltzeichen und Umwelt-Werbeaussagen, aber auch um kritische Anmerkungen und Einwaende gegenueber dem Umweltzeichen `Blauer Engel`. Neben der Analyse der bisherigen Erfahrungen sollen auch Vorschlaege fuer die Verbesserung und zukuenftige Fortentwicklung des `Blauen Engel` abgeleitet werden. (orig.)

  2. Multicolor protein labeling in living cells using mutant β-lactamase-tag technology.

    Watanabe, Shuji; Mizukami, Shin; Hori, Yuichiro; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2010-12-15

    Protein labeling techniques using small molecule probes have become important as practical alternatives to the use of fluorescent proteins (FPs) in live cell imaging. These labeling techniques can be applied to more sophisticated fluorescence imaging studies such as pulse-chase imaging. Previously, we reported a novel protein labeling system based on the combination of a mutant β-lactamase (BL-tag) with coumarin-derivatized probes and its application to specific protein labeling on cell membranes. In this paper, we demonstrated the broad applicability of our BL-tag technology to live cell imaging by the development of a series of fluorescence labeling probes for this technology, and the examination of the functions of target proteins. These new probes have a fluorescein or rhodamine chromophore, each of which provides enhanced photophysical properties relative to coumarins for the purpose of cellular imaging. These probes were used to specifically label the BL-tag protein and could be used with other small molecule fluorescent probes. Simultaneous labeling using our new probes with another protein labeling technology was found to be effective. In addition, it was also confirmed that this technology has a low interference with respect to the functions of target proteins in comparison to GFP. Highly specific and fast covalent labeling properties of this labeling technology is expected to provide robust tools for investigating protein functions in living cells, and future applications can be improved by combining the BL-tag technology with conventional imaging techniques. The combination of probe synthesis and molecular biology techniques provides the advantages of both techniques and can enable the design of experiments that cannot currently be performed using existing tools. PMID:20961132

  3. On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees

    Stephan Rosebrock

    2010-02-01

    We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.

  4. China Cotton label to be generalized

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  5. Eco-Labeling Perspectives amongst Malaysian Consumers

    Nik Ramli Nik Abdul Rashid

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Malaysian consumers’ trust of an eco-label and the influence it has in their choice for the corresponding environment friendly product. Taking into consideration the infancy stage of the Malaysia green marketing initiative, traditional approach to evaluating local consumer receptiveness to the eco-label might not be suitable. This paper approaches the introduction of eco-label with two perspectives in mind. Firstly, while earlier studies from the western scholars use eco-label as a part of the augmented product, this study introduces eco-label as a separate moderating variable. Secondly, the choice of employees working in ISO14001 certified organizations as the population explore a potentially conducive place to initiate a systematic effort in developing a green consumer community. The result is very encouraging. This study has shown that, with some exposure to environmental related experiences Malaysian consumer would indeed react positively to the eco-label. In fact, for situation that requires them to consider environmental aspects of a product that they wish to purchase, the eco-label will definitely be the crucial factor that will push them to make the right purchase choice. Key words: Eco-label; Environmental attitude; Knowledge of Environmental Issues; Green Products; Environmental Management System

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  7. The anatomy of a laser label

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  8. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  9. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions...

  10. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling... low phosphate diet to prevent formation of phosphate urinary stones, through the reduction...

  11. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1982-03-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of (1,2-/sup 3/H)fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described.

  12. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling terminology. Terms pertaining to identification and packaging of biological products shall mean: (a) Label. All written, graphic, or printed matter: (1) Upon or attached to a final container of a... other written, printed, or graphic matter accompanying the final container. (c) Final container....

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Growth How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON ...

  14. STRATEGIC LABELING AND TRADE OF GMOS

    Veyssiere, Luc; Giannakas, Konstantinos

    2004-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the strategic effects of national regulatory decisions on labeling of GM products and identifies the determinants of the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium labeling regimes in a small number of producing countries that compete for access in the world market for an agricultural product.

  15. 21 CFR 1271.370 - Labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ...) You must label each HCT/P made available for distribution clearly and accurately. (b) The following information must appear on the HCT/P label: (1) Distinct identification code affixed to the HCT/P container, and assigned in accordance with § 1271.290(c); (2) Description of the type of HCT/P; (3)...

  16. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Giovana Longo-Silva; Maysa Helena de Aguiar Toloni; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quanti...

  17. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    Le Li

    Full Text Available Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions.

  18. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  19. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes’ behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes’ connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  20. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  1. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF3-Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 700C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  2. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  3. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23286072

  4. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  5. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    Alstrup, Stephen; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2013-01-01

    We consider NCA labeling schemes: given a rooted tree $T$, label the nodes of $T$ with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the label of their nearest common ancestor. For trees with $n$ nodes we present upper and lower bou...

  6. Synthesis of 15N labeled glyphosate

    Amongst the actually commercialized herbicides the Glyphosate is the most used in Brazil. Its efficiency as well as the others herbicides against undesirable weeds is harmed by its final composts left at the environment. Although studies has being carried out to improve the knowledge about the herbicides behavior at the environment its complexity has led them towards innumerous to new significant research work where the use of radiolabeled composts (radiative tracers) are recommended to evaluate their bio-availability in the soil. However is the use, the manipulation and the storage of radiolabeled composts is requires an extra care under chemical safety point of view. The use of non radiolabeled composts is a world tendency especially for field researches. Under this context the presented work describes a method for the synthesis of 15N labeled glyphosate. The 15N-herbicide was undertaken by phosphometilation with the phosphit dialquil and 15N-glycine. The tests where carried out through a micro scale production plant and of equimolars amounts. At these conditions it's was possible to reach approximately a 20% of yield. At the conclusion of a best operational condition its expected to offer another important toll that shall be used in glyphosate behavior at the environment and undesirably weeds. (author)

  7. Research on improving animal nutrition

    With a view to improve animal nutrition, studies have been carried out on the utilization of animal feeds using radioisotopes. Improvement of the nutritive value of straws, digestibility and VFA production by alkali treatment and other treatments has been studied by injecting VFA labelled with C14 and H3. Microbial protein synthesis rates in ruminants were studied using C14 and S35 labelled mixed culture of bacterial protozca. Results obtained are helpful in understanding the metabolism in rumens and the microbial proteins available to the host animals on various dietary regimen. (A.K.)

  8. Eco-labeling for energy efficiency and sustainability: a meta-evaluation of US programs

    Eco-labeling is a promising market-based approach for improving the environmental performance of products through consumer choice. While eco-labeling itself is not new, eco-labeling to promote energy efficiency or sustainability is a more recent phenomenon. Five such energy-labeling programs in the US are evaluated: Green Seal, Scientific Certification Systems, Energy Guide, Energy Star, and Green-e. Of these, the first four certify energy-efficient appliances while the last one certifies renewable electricity. While Energy Guide and Energy Star are government-run programs, the rest are privately administered. Two evaluation criteria were used--consumer response and manufacturer/marketer response. Very few studies have been done on the private programs making comparative analysis more difficult. It was found that government programs, in general, and Energy Star, in particular, were much more successful than the private programs. For appliance energy labeling, the private programs were found to have an almost insignificant effect on the market. Government support proved to be crucial in determining a program's credibility, financial stability, and long-term viability. Further, targeting of specific product categories, legislative mandates, incentives, and partnerships were found to be other important factors for program success. Simple seal-of-approval logos and labels have generally affected consumer behavior more than the complex information-disclosure labels

  9. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome;

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions of...... the problem. For the maximization version we give a -approximation algorithm and show that it is APX-hard. For the minimization version, we show that it is not approximable within n 1 − ε for every ε> 0. When every color appears in the graph at most r times and r is an increasing function of n the...... problem is not O(r 1 − ε )-approximable. For fixed constant r we analyze a polynomial-time (r + H r )/2-approximation algorithm (H r is the r-th harmonic number), and prove APX-hardness. Analysis of the studied algorithms is shown to be tight....

  10. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  11. Nutrition-Labeling Regulation Impacts on Restaurant Environments

    Saelens, Brian E.; Chan, Nadine; Krieger, James; Nelson, Young; Boles, Myde; Colburn, Trina; Glanz, Karen; Ta, Myduc; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent attempts to improve the healthfulness of away-from-home eating include regulations requiring restaurants to post nutrition information. The impact of such regulations on restaurant environments is unknown. Purpose To examine changes in restaurant environments from before to after nutrition-labeling regulation in a newly regulated county versus a nonregulated county. Methods Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys–Restaurant version audit, environments within the same quick-service chain restaurants were evaluated in King County (regulated) before and 6 and 18 months after regulation enforcement and in Multnomah County (nonregulated) restaurants over a 6-month period. Data were collected in 2008–2010 and analyses conducted in 2011. Results Overall availability of healthy options and facilitation of healthy eating did not differentially increase in King County versus Multnomah County restaurants aside from the substantial increase in onsite nutrition information posting in King County restaurants required by the new regulation. Barriers to healthful eating decreased in King County relative to Multnomah County restaurants, particularly in food-oriented establishments. King County restaurants demonstrated modest increases in signage that promotes healthy eating, although the frequency of such promotion remained low, and the availability of reduced portions decreased in these restaurants. The healthfulness of children’s menus improved modestly over time, but not differentially by county. Conclusions A restaurant nutrition-labeling regulation was accompanied by some, but not uniform, improvements in other aspects of restaurant environments in the regulated compared to the nonregulated county. Additional opportunities exist for improving the healthfulness of awayfrom- home eating beyond menu labeling. PMID:23079173

  12. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  13. 9 CFR 112.5 - Review and approval of labeling.

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING... color of label print, provided that such change does not affect the legibility of the label; (iii)...

  14. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  15. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines. PMID:6631228

  16. A test of different menu labeling presentations.

    Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Liu, Linda J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-12-01

    Chain restaurants will soon need to disclose calorie information on menus, but research on the impact of calorie labels on food choices is mixed. This study tested whether calorie information presented in different formats influenced calories ordered and perceived restaurant healthfulness. Participants in an online survey were randomly assigned to a menu with either (1) no calorie labels (No Calories); (2) calorie labels (Calories); (3) calorie labels ordered from low to high calories (Rank-Ordered Calories); or (4) calorie labels ordered from low to high calories that also had red/green circles indicating higher and lower calorie choices (Colored Calories). Participants ordered items for dinner, estimated calories ordered, and rated restaurant healthfulness. Participants in the Rank-Ordered Calories condition and those in the Colored Calories condition ordered fewer calories than the No Calories group. There was no significant difference in calories ordered between the Calories and No Calories groups. Participants in each calorie label condition were significantly more accurate in estimating calories ordered compared to the No Calories group. Those in the Colored Calories group perceived the restaurant as healthier. The results suggest that presenting calorie information in the modified Rank-Ordered or Colored Calories formats may increase menu labeling effectiveness. PMID:22918176

  17. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T2O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  18. Unsupervised Identification of Isotope-Labeled Peptides.

    Goldford, Joshua E; Libourel, Igor G L

    2016-06-01

    In vivo isotopic labeling coupled with high-resolution proteomics is used to investigate primary metabolism in techniques such as stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) and peptide-based metabolic flux analysis (PMFA). Isotopic enrichment of carbon substrates and intracellular metabolism determine the distribution of isotopes within amino acids. The resulting amino acid mass distributions (AMDs) are convoluted into peptide mass distributions (PMDs) during protein synthesis. With no a priori knowledge on metabolic fluxes, the PMDs are therefore unknown. This complicates labeled peptide identification because prior knowledge on PMDs is used in all available peptide identification software. An automated framework for the identification and quantification of PMDs for nonuniformly labeled samples is therefore lacking. To unlock the potential of peptide labeling experiments for high-throughput flux analysis and other complex labeling experiments, an unsupervised peptide identification and quantification method was developed that uses discrete deconvolution of mass distributions of identified peptides to inform on the mass distributions of otherwise unidentifiable peptides. Uniformly (13)C-labeled Escherichia coli protein was used to test the developed feature reconstruction and deconvolution algorithms. The peptide identification was validated by comparing MS(2)-identified peptides to peptides identified from PMDs using unlabeled E. coli protein. Nonuniformly labeled Glycine max protein was used to demonstrate the technology on a representative sample suitable for flux analysis. Overall, automatic peptide identification and quantification were comparable or superior to manual extraction, enabling proteomics-based technology for high-throughput flux analysis studies. PMID:27145348

  19. 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin

    张金赫; 徐海峰; 邵秋菊; 袁梦晖; 周润锁; 周亮飞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin (AS) and investigate the stability and bioactivity of the 99Tcm-labeled AS in vitro. Methods: AS was extracted, validated, and then labeled with 99Tcm after having been reduced by 2-ME or SnCl2. The best labeling condition was screened by cross design. The labeling efficiency was measured by TLC and column chromatography. The stability of 99Tcm-AS was observed and compared when BSA, saline and different molar ratios of Cys∶AS were separately added. The bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (CEV304). Results: The labeling efficiency can reach (97±1.5)% for the 2-ME-reducing approach. Its best experimental condition was as follows: AS 100 μg,PB(0.5 mol/L, pH 7.3)1 ml, 2-ME 100 μg, MDP (dissolved in 1 ml saline) 10 μl, and 99TcmO4- 185 MBq. The labeling efficiency using SnCl2-reducing method can reach (90±3.0)%. The best experimental procedure was as follows: AS 100 μg,boric acid buffer(0.1 mol/L, pH 9.0)1 ml, 2%SnCl2 (dissolved in 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid) 20 μl, was added into MDP, which was diluted with 1 ml deoxygenized water, and then 20 μl, 99TcmO4- 185 MBq was added. The product of 99Tcm labeled AS was stable in vitro and had the same bioactivity as AS. Conclusion: 99Tcm direct labeling of AS is simple and efficient. And the bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS has no significant change compared with AS.

  20. The role of quality labels in market-driven animal welfare

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Denver, Sigrid;

    2015-01-01

    In policy-making the consumption of specially labelled products, and its role in improving the welfare of livestock, has attracted considerable attention. There is in many countries a diverse market for animal welfare-friendly products which is potentially confusing and may lack transparency. We...... ask whether special quality labels that involve medium levels of animal welfare, as compared with labels promoting premium levels of animal welfare, have a role to play in promoting improvements in animal welfare. The Danish pork market is our reference case, but we also widen the context by comparing...... the markets for pork in three other European countries. Our findings suggest that in order to improve animal welfare through demand for welfare-friendly products it is important to maintain separate the market for products with strong animal welfare profiles from markets for products with medium...

  1. Store Image and Private Label Brands in Zimbabwe: Relationship with General Perception, Perceived Risk and Quality

    Sarah Nyengerai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Private label brand market penetration is estimated at less than 8% in Southern Africa. Retailers need to develop strategies that will drive growth of the industry. A survey was conducted to quantify the effect of two store image dimensions on general private label brand perception as well as the effect of the store image dimensions on perceived risk and quality of private label brands. Data collected was analysed using simple linear regression. Results illustrated that perceived store general image as well as store layout and services had a significant (p < 0.05 and positive effect on general private label brand perception. A higher perception of store image dimensions reduced the perceived risk of purchasing private label brands and the effect was significant (p < 0.05. Store image dimensions did not have a significant effect on perceived quality of private label brands. The authors concluded that there is scope to improve PLB perception among consumers in Zimbabwe through improvements in store image dimensions. They recommended that retailers hone on store image through measures such as selling a wide selection of good quality products; the creation of a good store atmosphere and investment in the training of staff in customers care.

  2. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  3. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  4. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  5. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  6. Preparation of 11C labelled tamoxifen

    1999-01-01

    The syntheses and HPLC analysis of N-desmethyltamoxifen and carbon-11labelled tamoxifen are described. In order to obtain the N-desmethyltamoxifen,tamoxifencitrate was first converted to tamoxifen free base.N-desmethyltamoxifen wasprepared by reacting tamoxifen free base with 1-chloroethyl-chloroformate(ACE.Cl).For 11C labeling, N-desmethyltamoxifen was heated with 11Cmethyl iodide for 10min at 130℃,and the 11Clabelled compound was purifiedby HPLC on a μBonapak TM C18 column.Injectable 11C-tamoxifen was obtained within 50~60min from EOB (end-of-bombardment) with a labeling yield of 60%~70%.

  7. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article...... consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  8. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  9. Private Labels, Price Rivalry, and Public Policy

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Sørgard, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The article examines how the existence of a retailer owned brand, private label, aspects the price setting of a national brand. We …nd that the potential for a private label introduction may lead to price concessions from the national brand producer, but that actual private label introduction as such may very well lead to higher retail prices on national brands. We argue that this may have important implications for the interpretation of empirical results and the public policy towards natio...

  10. QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling

    Buckley, Andy; Pollard, Chris

    2016-02-01

    We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth particle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre-hadronisation partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clustered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudojet combinations to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, and potential uses for truth-level physics object definitions and tagging.

  11. QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling

    Buckley, Andy

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth par- ticle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre- hadronization partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clus- tered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudojet combina- tions to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, a...

  12. QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling

    Buckley, Andy; Pollard, Chris [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth particle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre-hadronisation partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clustered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudo-jet combinations to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, and potential uses for truth-level physics object definitions and tagging. (orig.)

  13. A novel carbon-14 'solvent-free'-labeling procedure with diethyl malonate

    A novel labelling procedure for dialkyl malonate preparation under 'solvent-free' conditions in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst was developed. Improved radiochemical yields (about 70%) as compared to the classical preparation routes in DMF are achieved in mere 10 minutes at 130 deg C. General labelling procedures for alkyl bromides are reported. The radiochemical purity by HPLC and analysis conditions using online radioactivity detection are described. The preparation of radiochemicals by this method shows major advantages as regards the purification of the final labelled compound and, since no organic solvent is used, waste management. A simple and easy two-step chromatographic procedure gives rise to pure dialkyl malonates. The method can be especially useful in short-lived isotope labelling

  14. A code-based approach for labeling in complex irregular regions

    Zhi-long LI; Jun-jie CAO; Xiu-ping LIU; Zhi-xun SU

    2009-01-01

    Labeling information in a complex irregular region is a useful procedure occurring frequently in sheet metal and the furniture industry which will be beneficial in parts management. A fast code-based labeler (FCBL) is proposed to accomplish this objective in this paper. The region is first discretized, and then encoded by the Freeman encoding technique for providing the 2D regional information by 1D codes with redundancies omitted. We enhance the encoding scheme to make it more suitable for our complex problem. Based on the codes, searching algorithms are designed and can be extended with customized constraints. In addition, by introducing a smart optimal direction estimation, the labeling speed and accuracy of FCBL are significantly improved. Experiments with a large range of real data gained from industrial factories demonstrate the stability and millisecond-level speed of FCBL. The proposed method has been integrated into a shipbuilding CAD system, and plays a very important role in ship parts labeling process.

  15. A Study on Standards System of Chinese Environmental Labeling Program

    2006-01-01

    @@ Implementing Outlines for the Chinese Environmental Labeling Program By awarding certificates and labels to related manufacturers in accordance with certain environmental labeling standards, environmental labeling,also called "Green Label"or "Eco-label", certifies via governmental departments or public and private organizations that the whole process of producing,using, recalling and disposing of manufacturers'products is in compliance with certain environmental requirements. Many countries are establishing and promoting environmental labeling plans. Environmental labeling, as an important promotion means for prevention and control of pollution in a market-oriented manner, is being extended and developed constantly across the world.

  16. Multi-label literature classification based on the Gene Ontology graph

    Lu Xinghua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology is a controlled vocabulary for representing knowledge related to genes and proteins in a computable form. The current effort of manually annotating proteins with the Gene Ontology is outpaced by the rate of accumulation of biomedical knowledge in literature, which urges the development of text mining approaches to facilitate the process by automatically extracting the Gene Ontology annotation from literature. The task is usually cast as a text classification problem, and contemporary methods are confronted with unbalanced training data and the difficulties associated with multi-label classification. Results In this research, we investigated the methods of enhancing automatic multi-label classification of biomedical literature by utilizing the structure of the Gene Ontology graph. We have studied three graph-based multi-label classification algorithms, including a novel stochastic algorithm and two top-down hierarchical classification methods for multi-label literature classification. We systematically evaluated and compared these graph-based classification algorithms to a conventional flat multi-label algorithm. The results indicate that, through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods can significantly improve predictions of the Gene Ontology terms implied by the analyzed text. Furthermore, the graph-based multi-label classifiers are capable of suggesting Gene Ontology annotations (to curators that are closely related to the true annotations even if they fail to predict the true ones directly. A software package implementing the studied algorithms is available for the research community. Conclusion Through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods have better potential than the conventional flat multi-label classification approach to facilitate

  17. Feasibility and availability of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides

    Decristoforo, Clemens [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); European Directorate of Quality of Medicines, Group 14, Radioactive Compounds, The European Pharmacopeia, Strasbourg (France); Pickett, Roger D. [GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); European Directorate of Quality of Medicines, Group 14, Radioactive Compounds, The European Pharmacopeia, Strasbourg (France); Verbruggen, Alfons [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); European Directorate of Quality of Medicines, Group 14, Radioactive Compounds, The European Pharmacopeia, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-02-15

    {sup 68}Ga has attracted tremendous interest as a radionuclide for PET based on its suitable half-life of 68 min, high positron emission yield and ready availability from {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators, making it independent of cyclotron production. {sup 68}Ga-labelled DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analogues, including DOTA-TOC, DOTA-TATE and DOTA-NOC, have driven the development of technologies to provide such radiopharmaceuticals for clinical applications mainly in the diagnosis of somatostatin receptor-expressing tumours. We summarize the issues determining the feasibility and availability of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides, including generator technology, {sup 68}Ga generator eluate postprocessing methods, radiolabelling, automation and peptide developments, and also quality assurance and regulatory aspects. {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators based on SnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} or organic matrices are today routinely supplied to nuclear medicine departments, and a variety of automated systems for postprocessing and radiolabelling have been developed. New developments include improved chelators for {sup 68}Ga that could open new ways to utilize this technology. Challenges and limitations in the on-site preparation and use of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides outside the marketing authorization track are also discussed. (orig.)

  18. Instance-Aware Hashing for Multi-Label Image Retrieval.

    Lai, Hanjiang; Yan, Pan; Shu, Xiangbo; Wei, Yunchao; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-06-01

    Similarity-preserving hashing is a commonly used method for nearest neighbor search in large-scale image retrieval. For image retrieval, deep-network-based hashing methods are appealing, since they can simultaneously learn effective image representations and compact hash codes. This paper focuses on deep-network-based hashing for multi-label images, each of which may contain objects of multiple categories. In most existing hashing methods, each image is represented by one piece of hash code, which is referred to as semantic hashing. This setting may be suboptimal for multi-label image retrieval. To solve this problem, we propose a deep architecture that learns instance-aware image representations for multi-label image data, which are organized in multiple groups, with each group containing the features for one category. The instance-aware representations not only bring advantages to semantic hashing but also can be used in category-aware hashing, in which an image is represented by multiple pieces of hash codes and each piece of code corresponds to a category. Extensive evaluations conducted on several benchmark data sets demonstrate that for both the semantic hashing and the category-aware hashing, the proposed method shows substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art supervised and unsupervised hashing methods. PMID:27019492

  19. A new era in retail: Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels.

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label production opportunities arise. Due to increased private-label competition, national-brand manufacturers increasingly pursue a dual-branding strategy and engage in private-label production next to their n...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Zika & Pregnancy: What to Know Signing Kids Up ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food ...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies How to Read a ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes ... Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, ...

  6. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.

  7. Synthesis of tritium-labelled natural prostaglandins

    The most suitable method for the preparation of tritium-labelled prostaglandins is the biosynthetic procedure. Polyunsaturated labelled fatty acids are converted into prostaglandins by a prostaglandin synthetase enzyme system produced from sheep seminal vesicule, and the crude product is purified using thin layer chromatography. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are prepared in a reaction series. Tritium is introduced at the very last step. A very little amount (10-20 mg) of tritium-labelled prostaglandin E2 can be converted into A2, B2 and F2 respectively, conversion and separation being carried out simultaneously on the same silica plate. After the separation on thin layer silica gel the obtained tritium-labelled prostaglandin (PC) was chemically and radiochemically pure, its activity was 3700 GBq/mmol (100 Ci/mmol) and it was suitable for RIA kits. (author)

  8. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  9. 40 CFR 86.001-35 - Labeling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.001-35 Labeling. Section 86.001-35 includes text that...

  10. 40 CFR 86.098-35 - Labeling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-35 Labeling. Section 86.098-35 includes text that...

  11. Labels in PURE - Til gavn eller hindring?

    Zurcher, Sacha; Sass, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er baseret på en usability test af anvendelse af labels i PURE, et vidensregistreringssystem. Formålet var at undersøge om hvorvidt de anvendte labels i PURE understøtter forskernes inddatering af forskellige publikationstyper. Pilot testen viste at man skal være opmærksom på, at de...... anvendte labels ikke nødvendigvis dækker over et kontrolleret fagsprog der modsvarer alle faglige domæner. PURE understøtter således ikke intuitivt alle forskeres forståelse af registrering af publikationstyper. Endvidere kan det skabe forvirring når sproget ikke er konsistent, som det er tilfælde i PURE...... resultaterne kun bruges som en indikator på, hvorvidt de brugte labels i PURE er tydelige og genkendelige for forskere....

  12. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Have Food Allergies? Read the Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... These foods account for 90 percent of all food allergies: milk egg fish, such as bass, flounder, or ...

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ...

  16. Radiobiological characteristic of tritium-labelled lysine

    Experiments on mice and rats injected with tritium-labeled lysine have revealed that one day after injection about 80% of the label was retained in organs and tissues as tissue-bound tritium. Retention curves for tritium in the body were decomposed into two exponentials. The biological half-lives of tritium-labeled lysine in various tissues exceed half-lives of other tritiated amino acids and of triated water. The average dose in different tissues following injection of tritiated lysine exceeds that from equal of tritium oxide (THO) by 1.5-8 times. Contribution of the tissue-bound tritium in dose is about 90%. radiobiological experiments showed strong genetic and citotoxic effects in male mice after injection of tritium-labeled lysine

  17. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments.

  18. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments

  19. Lu-177-Labeled Zirconia Particles for Radiation Synovectomy.

    Polyak, Andras; Nagy, Lívia Naszályi; Drotár, Eszter; Dabasi, Gabriella; Jóba, Róbert P; Pöstényi, Zita; Mikolajczak, Renata; Bóta, Attila; Balogh, Lajos

    2015-12-01

    The present article describes the preparation of β-emitter lutetium-177-labeled zirconia colloid and its preliminary physicochemical and biological evaluation of suitability for local radionuclide therapy. The new (177)Lu-labeled therapeutic radiopharmaceutical candidate was based on the synthesis mode of a previously described zirconia nanoparticle system. The size and shape of the developed radiopharmaceutical compound were observed through a scanning electron microscope and dynamic light scattering methods. The radiocolloid had a 1.7 μm mean diameter and showed high in vitro radiochemical and colloid size stability at room temperature and during the blood sera stability test. After the in vitro characterizations, the product was investigated in the course of the treatment of a spontaneously diseased dog veterinary patient's hock joint completed with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging follow-up measurements and a dual-isotope SPECT imaging tests with conventional (99m)Tc-methanediphosphonic acid bone scintigraphy. In the treated dog, no clinical side-effects or signs of histopathological changes of the joints were recorded during the treatment. SPECT follow-up studies clearly and conspicuously showed the localization of the (177)Lu-labeled colloid in the hock joint as well as detectable but negligible leakages of the radiocolloid in the nearest lymph node. On the basis of biological follow-up tests, the orthopedic team assumed that the (177)Lu-labeled zirconia colloid-based local radionuclide therapy resulted in a significant and long-term improvement in clinical signs of the patient without any remarkable side-effects. PMID:26683134

  20. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  1. Improving designer productivity

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  2. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Georgescu Cecilia; Ognean Claudia Felicia; Tita Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on document...

  3. Synthesis of tritium labelled mometasone furoate

    Hesk, D.; Koharski, D.; McNamara, P.; Magatti, C.; Saluja, S. (Schering Plough Research Inst., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)); Delduca, P.; Thomas, L. (Amersham International plc, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    [sup 3]H-mometasone furoate was synthesized by a six step procedure. The label was introduced via the reduction and re-oxidation of the 1,2 double bond in the A ring. The remaining 4 steps were accomplished with an overall radiochemical yield of 28%. Analysis by [sup 3]H nmr indicated that most of the label ([approx] 95%) was located in the 2-position and the remainder in the 1-position. (author).

  4. 27 CFR 20.134 - Labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... as conspicuously as the words “denatured alcohol.” (e) Use of the words “rubbing alcohol.” If the words “rubbing alcohol” appear on the label of an article, (1) the article shall be made in accordance with § 20.118 of this part, and (2) the label (i) shall have the words “rubbing alcohol” in letters...

  5. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  6. A method for labeling polyacrylamide gels

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever struggled with the identification of your polyacrylamide gels after running a few of them at once? Here is a new method for labeling gels which is easy, free and does not interfere with your protein samples. You will be intrigued once you learn how you can add a label to your laboratory-made gels and will have no problem identifying your gels any more.

  7. Stability of rhenium-188 labeled antibody

    For clinical application of beta-emitter labeled antibody, high specific activity is important. Carrier-free Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generator is an ideal radionuclide for this purpose. However, low stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, especially in high specific activity, due to radiolytic decomposition by high energy (2.1 MeV) beta ray was problem. We studied the stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, and stabilizing effect of several nontoxic radical-quenching agents. Pre-reduced monoclonal antibody (CEA79.4) was labeled with Re-188 by incubating with generator-eluted Re-188-perrhenate in the presence of stannous tartrate for 2 hr at room temperature. Radiochemical purity of each preparation was determined by chromatography (ITLC-SG/acetone, ITLC-SG/Umezawa, Whatman No.1/saline). Human serum albumin was added to the labeled antibodies(2%). Stability of Re-188-CEA79.4 was investigated in the presence of vitamin C, ethanol, or Tween 80 as radical-quenching agents. Specific activities of 4.29∼5.11 MBq/μg were obtained. Labeling efficiencies were 88±4%(n=12). Very low stability after removal of stannous tartrate from the preparation was observed. If stored after purging with N2, all the preparations were stable for 10 hr. However, if contacted with air, stability decreased. Perrhenate and Re-188-tartrate was major impurity in declined preparation (12∼47 and 9∼38% each, after 10 hr). Colloid-formation was not a significant problem in all cases. Addition of vitamin C stabilized the labeled antibodies either under N2 or under air by reducing the formation of perrhenate. High specific activity Re-188 labeled antibody is unstable, especially, in the presence of oxygen. Addition of vitamin C increased the stability

  8. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tavares, Leoberto C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Departamento de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2000-07-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  9. A European Sustainable Tourism Labels proposal using a composite indicator

    The tourism sector in Europe faces important challenges which it must deal with to promote its future development. In this context, the European Commission considers that two key issues must be addressed. On the one hand, a better base of socio-economic knowledge about tourism and its relationship with the environment is needed, and, on the other hand, it is necessary to improve the image of European areas as quality sustainable tourism destinations. In this paper we present analytical tools that cover these needs. Specifically, we define a system of sustainable tourism indicators and we obtain a composite indicator incorporating weights quantified using a panel of experts. Employing the values of this global indicator as a basis, we define a Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking which assesses the perception of each country-brand depending on its degree of sustainability, and a system of sustainable tourism labels which reward the management carried out. - Highlights: • We define a system of indicators to improve the knowledge about sustainable tourism. • We obtain composite indicators based on expert knowledge. • The Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking would improve the image of destinations. • We define a Sustainable Tourism Labels System to assess country-brands. • The conclusions of the empirical analysis can be extrapolated to other tourist areas

  10. A European Sustainable Tourism Labels proposal using a composite indicator

    Blancas, Francisco Javier, E-mail: fjblaper@upo.es [Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Pablo de Olavide University, Carretera de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Lozano-Oyola, Macarena, E-mail: mlozoyo@upo.es [Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Pablo de Olavide University, Carretera de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); González, Mercedes, E-mail: m_gonzalez@uma.es [Department of Applied Economics (Mathematics), Malaga University, Campus El Ejido, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    The tourism sector in Europe faces important challenges which it must deal with to promote its future development. In this context, the European Commission considers that two key issues must be addressed. On the one hand, a better base of socio-economic knowledge about tourism and its relationship with the environment is needed, and, on the other hand, it is necessary to improve the image of European areas as quality sustainable tourism destinations. In this paper we present analytical tools that cover these needs. Specifically, we define a system of sustainable tourism indicators and we obtain a composite indicator incorporating weights quantified using a panel of experts. Employing the values of this global indicator as a basis, we define a Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking which assesses the perception of each country-brand depending on its degree of sustainability, and a system of sustainable tourism labels which reward the management carried out. - Highlights: • We define a system of indicators to improve the knowledge about sustainable tourism. • We obtain composite indicators based on expert knowledge. • The Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking would improve the image of destinations. • We define a Sustainable Tourism Labels System to assess country-brands. • The conclusions of the empirical analysis can be extrapolated to other tourist areas.

  11. Ventilation imaging with 99m technetium labeled aerosols

    The major clinical use of ventilation perfusion scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Accurate diagnosis of PE is essential since effective treatment if available. The scintigraphic characteristic of PE are segmental perfusion defects in lung that is normally ventilated. The inherent shortcoming of perfusion scintigraphy is its lack of specificity. Combining a ventilation study with perfusion imaging improves the diagnostic specificity of lungs scintigraphy. This article describes clinical use of simple same day ventilation and perfusion imaging technique. The technique is based on a low dose ventilation procedure using 99m Tc labelled aerosol immediately followed by a standard dose perfusion procedure. (author)

  12. Hierarchical Label Fusion with Multiscale Feature Representation and Label-Specific Patch Partition

    Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patch-based label fusion methods have achieved many successes in medical imaging area. After registering atlas images to the target image, the label at each target image point can be subsequently determined by checking the patchwise similarities between the underlying target image patch and all atlas image patches. Apparently, the definition of patchwise similarity is critical in label fusion. However, current methods often simply use entire image patch with fixed patch size through...

  13. Food Retailers’ Objectives of Developing Private Label Products and their Perspectives to Private Label Products

    Serkan Kilic

    2011-01-01

    In the intensive competitive environment, retailers incline to develop their own branded products (private label products) to make a differentiation over their rivals and to gain a market share. On the other side, retailers’ have some objectives in developing private label products. At this point, this study put forwards the differences between retailers’ some characteristics and objectives of developing private label products and investigates the tendencies and expectations towards private l...

  14. Thrombokinetics with In-111-oxine labelled platelets

    Indium-111-oxine has been employed as a redioactive platelet label for thrombosis imaging and thrombokinetic studies in man. To evaluate it's suitability for platelet survival and turnover, thrombokinetic studies were carried out in hematological normal subjects, in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and chronic congestive splenomegaly. For In-111-oxine labelled platelets, platelets were collected by differential centrifugation from 44 ml of whole blood drawn into 6 ml of acid citrate dextrose solution. Platelet suspension was incubated with In-111-oxine, which was extracted before use by the method of Thakur and co-workers. The survival, recovery and turnover of In-111-labeled platelets were 8.6 +- 0.5 days, 63.0 +- 5.4% and 3.9 +- 0.3 x 104/ μl/day, respectively, which were similar with those of Cr-51 method. Platelet disappearance curves labelled with In-111 and Cr-51 simultaneously were similar in one case. In patients with ITP, platelet survival shortened in the same degree with Cr-51 method. The two simultaneous labeling studies between In-111 and Cr-51 showed no differences. In the patients with congestive splenomegaly, the same results were obtained. Thrombokinetic studies with In-111-oxine labelled platelets offer the advantages of reduced blood requirements, and the ability to perform external imaging of platelet distribution. (author)

  15. Automated lobe-based airway labeling.

    Gu, Suicheng; Wang, Zhimin; Siegfried, Jill M; Wilson, David; Bigbee, William L; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-01-01

    Regional quantitative analysis of airway morphological abnormalities is of great interest in lung disease investigation. Considering that pulmonary lobes are relatively independent functional unit, we develop and test a novel and efficient computerized scheme in this study to automatically and robustly classify the airways into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobe. Given an airway tree, which could be obtained using any available airway segmentation scheme, the developed approach consists of four basic steps: (1) airway skeletonization or centerline extraction, (2) individual airway branch identification, (3) initial rule-based airway classification/labeling, and (4) self-correction of labeling errors. In order to assess the performance of this approach, we applied it to a dataset consisting of 300 chest CT examinations in a batch manner and asked an image analyst to subjectively examine the labeled results. Our preliminary experiment showed that the labeling accuracy for the right upper lobe, the right middle lobe, the right lower lobe, the left upper lobe, and the left lower lobe is 100%, 99.3%, 99.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among these, only two cases are incorrectly labeled due to the failures in airway detection. It takes around 2 minutes to label an airway tree using this algorithm. PMID:23093951

  16. Weed Seed Labelling with Rare Earth Elements

    The dormancy period of weed seed under field conditions so far could not be determined with reliability because of the lack of a suitable method for labelling seed. Rademacher and co-workers labelled weed seed with 35S for studying germination in relation to different methods of soil cultivation. Since 35S has a half-period of 87.1 d only, labelling is practically ineffective after one year. The authors of this paper therefore tried to label weed seed with lanthanum, europium and dysprosium. Since these elements (1) do not occur in the standard soils in interfering quantities, and (2) can easily be determined by neutron activation analysis, they are useful for non-radioactive labelling. In pot experiments they were added like fertilizers before the soil was seeded with Sinapsis alba or Vicia villosa. After harvesting, samples of the plants' roots, stems, leaves, and seed were irradiated in the reactor and the rare earth elements determined by neutron-activation analysis. Evaluation of the results disclosed that traceable quantities of lanthanum, europium, and dysprosium were present in roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the grains of seed. It is the intention, in further experiments, to increase the concentration of the applied elements up to the limit of compatibility, and to find out whether a more concentrated supply will increase the incorporation in seeds. If one of these elements is present in a reasonable concentration, experiments with labelled weed seed will be possible for periods of several years. (author)

  17. Food Retailers’ Objectives of Developing Private Label Products and their Perspectives to Private Label Products

    Serkan Kilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive competitive environment, retailers incline to develop their own branded products (private label products to make a differentiation over their rivals and to gain a market share. On the other side, retailers’ have some objectives in developing private label products. At this point, this study put forwards the differences between retailers’ some characteristics and objectives of developing private label products and investigates the tendencies and expectations towards private label products. The results of the research present that there are no differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ ownership of private label. However, it is found that there are some differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ level of activity, number of branches and scale. In the study, it is also put forward that food retailers expect an increase in the demand of private label products at nearly terms and inclining to develop private labels more than before.

  18. Immunoscintigraphic diagnosis of ovarian cancer with Tc-99m labeled MAb ior-c5: First clinical results

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the value of radioimmunoscintigraphy using Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antibody ior-c5 labeled with Tc-99m in the detection primary, metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer. Twenty-two patients, aged between 20 and 67 years were included. There were nine new patients with palpable ovarian mass without any previous treatment nor any past history of ovarian cancer (Group-I). In Group -II there were 13 patients with past history of ovarian tumour. Each patient received 1.85-2.22 GBq Tc-99m -ior-c5 injected intravenously. Radiochemical purity of Tc-99m -ior-c5 was 97±2%. Planar and SPECT images were obtained at 4 hours and 18-24 hours. Final diagnosis was made in all patients on the basis of histopathology. The results of scintigraphic studies were correlated with those of histopathological examinations. Histopathology in all nine patients of Group-I were found to be negative for ovarian cancer. However radioimmunoscintigraphy falsely diagnosed 2 cases from this group as positive. These two cases were an ovarian fibroma and a mature cystic teratoma. Ten out of the 13 patients in Group II (77%) had histologically active malignant disease; immunoscintigraphic images correctly identified all positive lesions (9 locoregional, 3 distant). Tumour-to-background ratio was found to be 2.07±0.41. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of immunoscintigraphy with Tc-99m ior-c5 were 100%, 83.3% and 90.9%, respectively. The kappa coefficient of agreement (k) was 0.82±0.12. There were no adverse reactions. It was concluded that radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-99m -ior-c5 could be useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer. However, its clinical role should be more precisely determined in a larger patient population. (author)

  19. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-07-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr{sup 3}]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with {sup 99m} using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of {approx}80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for {sup 99m}Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG{sub 3}) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel {sup 188}Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O

  20. Synthesis of isotopically labeled epothilones

    Ganesh, Thota; Brodie, Peggy J.; Banerjee, Abhijit; Bane, Susan; Kingston, David G I

    2013-01-01

    The epothilones, including epothilones B and D, are macrocyclic lactones which have potent cytotoxicities and which promote the polymerization of tubulin to mictotubules by binding to and stabilizing the tubulin polymer. They have a very similar mechanism of action to paclitaxel (Taxol®). The determination of the microtubule-binding conformation of the epothilones is an important piece of information in designing improved analogs for possible clinical use, and internuclear distance informatio...

  1. 9 CFR 317.400 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.400 Exemption from nutrition labeling. (a) The following meat or meat food products are exempt from...

  2. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all poultry products...

  3. 9 CFR 381.500 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.500 Exemption from nutrition labeling. (a) The following poultry products are exempt from nutrition labeling:...

  4. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  5. 7 CFR 201.31a - Labeling treated seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling treated seed. 201.31a Section 201.31a..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.31a Labeling treated seed. (a) Contents of label. Any agricultural...

  6. 49 CFR 172.432 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label.

    2010-10-01

    ... § 172.407, the background on the INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label must be white. ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. 172.432 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...

  7. Quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling in C. elegans

    Fredens, Julius; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Giessing, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate labeling of Caenorhabditis elegans with heavy isotope-labeled lysine by feeding them with heavy isotope-labeled Escherichia coli. Using heavy isotope-labeled worms and quantitative proteomics methods, we identified several proteins that are regulated in response to loss or RNAi-med...

  8. 21 CFR 101.10 - Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods. 101.10 Section 101.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.10 Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods. Nutrition labeling in...

  9. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  10. 21 CFR 341.72 - Labeling of antihistamine drug products.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antihistamine drug products. 341.72... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.72 Labeling of antihistamine drug products. (a) Statement of... product as an “antihistamine.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the...

  11. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  12. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  13. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  14. Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers: an FDA Perspective on Utilization in Biological Product Labeling.

    Schuck, Robert N; Grillo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Precision medicine promises to improve both the efficacy and safety of therapeutic products by better informing why some patients respond well to a drug, and some experience adverse reactions, while others do not. Pharmacogenomics is a key component of precision medicine and can be utilized to select optimal doses for patients, more precisely identify individuals who will respond to a treatment and avoid serious drug-related toxicities. Since pharmacogenomic biomarker information can help inform drug dosing, efficacy, and safety, pharmacogenomic data are critically reviewed by FDA staff to ensure effective use of pharmacogenomic strategies in drug development and appropriate incorporation into product labels. Pharmacogenomic information may be provided in drug or biological product labeling to inform health care providers about the impact of genotype on response to a drug through description of relevant genomic markers, functional effects of genomic variants, dosing recommendations based on genotype, and other applicable genomic information. The format and content of labeling for biologic drugs will generally follow that of small molecule drugs; however, there are notable differences in pharmacogenomic information that might be considered useful for biologic drugs in comparison to small molecule drugs. Furthermore, the rapid entry of biologic drugs for treatment of rare genetic diseases and molecularly defined subsets of common diseases will likely lead to increased use of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels in the near future. In this review, we outline the general principles of therapeutic product labeling and discuss the utilization of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels. PMID:26912182

  15. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 μg/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  16. Do homeowners use energy labels? A comparison between Denmark and Belgium

    Energy labels on buildings are mandatory in Europe since 2006 with the application of the European directive 2002/91/CE on the energy performance of buildings. Therefore, it is relevant to analyse how the labels work in those countries that already have experiences with them. This article analyses how house owners have interpreted and used the knowledge from labels for the renovation of their house. The study is based on qualitative interviews with ten households having a Belgian volunteer energy assessment and ten households having the Danish mandatory energy label on their newly bought house. The article questions the faith in the rational enlightened actor, which is at the basis of the idea of labels. Using sociological theories on knowledge and everyday life in the interpretation of the qualitative material, it is shown that people relate to, interpret and question new knowledge rather than just take it in. Furthermore, it is also shown how the use of knowledge and advice interact with other priorities in everyday life. These results can help explain why people often do not carry through energy measures even though it might be economically advantageous to them. In the conclusion, it is also discussed how this type of knowledge might be used to improve energy labels

  17. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    Castaneda, Rosalinda T.; Daldrup-Link, Heike [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Boddington, Sophie; Wendland, Mike; Mandrussow, Lydia [University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Henning, Tobias D. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Cologne (Germany); Liu, Siyuan [National Institutes of Health, Language Section, Voice, Speech and Language Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 {mu}g/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  18. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Zhou, Ruokun; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  19. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  20. Utility of No-Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases.

    Dickson, Marsha A.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 547 of 2,000 consumers indicated consumer support for socially responsible purchasing. For 16%, "No-Sweat" labels indicating the working conditions of apparel makers were a strong purchasing influence. Women, especially unmarried females with lower educational attainment, were most likely to purchase clothing with No-Sweat labels.…

  1. Selenium as an alternative peptide label - comparison to fluorophore-labelled penetratin

    Hyrup Møller, Laura; Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact on peptide properties of labelling peptides with the fluorophore TAMRA or the selenium (Se) containing amino acid SeMet was evaluated. Three differently labelled variants of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin (Pen) were synthesized, PenMSe, TAMRA...

  2. The effect of column purification on cDNA indirect labelling for microarrays

    Kiss John Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the microarray reproducibility is dependent upon the performance of standardized procedures. Since the introduction of microarray technology for the analysis of global gene expression, reproducibility of results among different laboratories has been a major problem. Two of the main contributors to this variability are the use of different microarray platforms and different laboratory practices. In this paper, we address the latter question in terms of how variation in one of the steps of a labelling procedure affects the cDNA product prior to microarray hybridization. Results We used a standard procedure to label cDNA for microarray hybridization and employed different types of column chromatography for cDNA purification. After purifying labelled cDNA, we used the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and agarose gel electrophoresis to assess the quality of the labelled cDNA before its hybridization onto a microarray platform. There were major differences in the cDNA profile (i.e. cDNA fragment lengths and abundance as a result of using four different columns for purification. In addition, different columns have different efficiencies to remove rRNA contamination. This study indicates that the appropriate column to use in this type of protocol has to be experimentally determined. Finally, we present new evidence establishing the importance of testing the method of purification used during an indirect labelling procedure. Our results confirm the importance of assessing the quality of the sample in the labelling procedure prior to hybridization onto a microarray platform. Conclusion Standardization of column purification systems to be used in labelling procedures will improve the reproducibility of microarray results among different laboratories. In addition, implementation of a quality control check point of the labelled samples prior to microarray hybridization will prevent hybridizing a poor quality sample to expensive

  3. Deuterium labeling for neutron structure-function-dynamics analysis.

    Meilleur, Flora; Weiss, Kevin L; Myles, Dean A A

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering and diffraction provide detailed information on the structure and dynamics of biological materials across time and length scales that range from picoseconds to nanoseconds and from 1 to 10,000 A, respectively. The particular sensitivity of neutrons to the isotopes of hydrogen makes selective deuterium labeling of biological systems an essential tool for maximizing the return from neutron scattering experiments. In neutron protein crystallography, the use of fully deuterated protein crystals improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by an order of magnitude and enhances the visibi-lity of the molecular structure (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3872-3877, 2000; Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:1413-1417, 2005; Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:539-544, 2005). In solution and surface scattering experiments, the incorporation of deuterium-labeled subunits or components into complex assemblies or structures makes it possible to deconvolute the scattering of the labeled and unlabeled subunits and to determine their relative dispositions within the complex (J Mol Biol 93:255-265, 1975). With multiple labeling patterns, it is also possible to reconstruct the locations of multiple subunits in ternary and higher-order complexes (Science 238:1403-1406, 1987; J Mol Biol 271:588-601, 1997; J Biol Chem 275:14432-14439, 2000; Biochemistry 42:7790-7800, 2003). In inelastic neutron scattering experiments, which probe hydrogen dynamics in biological materials, the application of site, residue, or region-specific hydrogen-deuterium-labeling patterns can be used to distinguish and highlight the specific dynamics within a system (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:4970-4975, 1998).Partial, selective, or fully deuterated proteins can be readily produced by endogenous expression of recombinant proteins in bacterial systems that are adapted to growth in D(2)O solution and using selectively deuterated carbon sources. Adaptation can be achieved either by gradual

  4. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  5. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  6. European energy labelling scheme for windows

    Belling Skou, Mette (VELUX A/S (Denmark)); Kragh, Jesper (DTU Byg, Denmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    In their proposals for revision of the energy labelling directive the European Commission has suggested to include windows. The paper introduces a proposal for an European energy labelling scheme of windows for replacement of windows in the existing building stock taking into consideration the energy performance of windows in both the heating and cooling seasons. The labelling scheme evaluates a methodology where the energy performance in the heating period is established with focus on heat loss and utilization of passive solar energy, whereas the energy performance in the summer (cooling) season will focus on reduction of solar radiation into the building. The methodology is developed with focus on CEN and ISO standardization. With inspiration from the American Energy Star programme for windows, Europe is divided into climate zones where the methodology for each zone is developed on basis of a reference building and climate data. A proposal for labelling will be presented for both heating and cooling seasons in order to enable the user to choose the right product for a specific performance. Based on data from the building stock in the individual climate zones, an energy saving potential for replacement of old windows with new low energy windows will be presented. The possibility for using energy labelling of windows as reference and requirement in the building legislation as an alternative to U-values, will be presented with among others examples from legislation in UK and Denmark.

  7. Syntheses of 18F-labeled reduced haloperidol and 11C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone

    18F-Labeled reduced haloperidol and 11C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone were synthesized in a convenient and quantitative one step reduction from 18F-labeled haloperidol and 11C-labeled N-methylspiperone, respectively. Both products were purified by semipreparative HPLC and were obtained at high specific activity and radiochemical purity. (author)

  8. A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label product

  9. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  10. Food Labeling Regulation: A Historical and Comparative Survey

    Moore, Mario

    2001-01-01

    By tracing the history of food labeling laws, we can see that labeling regulation has come a long way from the branding of bread during the reign of King John in the thirteenth century. The food label has gone from a mere enforcement devise to a marketing tool to an instrument for fulfillment of nutrition policy. Labeling regulation has transformed from simple rules to avoid fraud and mispresentation to complex affirmative requirements to help the consumer understand the labeled food in the c...

  11. LabelTranslator: A Tool to Automatically Localize an Ontology

    Espinoza, M; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; E. Mena

    2008-01-01

    This demo proposal briefly presents LabelTranslator, a system that suggests translations of ontology labels, with the purpose of localizing ontologies. LabelTranslator takes as input an ontology whose labels are described in a source natural language and obtains the most probable translation of each ontology label into a target natural language.Our main contribution is the automatization of this process, which reduces human efforts to localize manually the ontology.

  12. Label Confusion: The Groucho Effect of Uncertain Standards

    Rick Harbaugh; Maxwell, John W.; Beatrice Roussillon

    2011-01-01

    Labels certify that a product meets some standard for quality, but often consumers are unsure of the exact standard that the label represents. Focusing on the case of ecolabels for environmental quality, we show how even small amounts of uncertainty can create consumer confusion that reduces or eliminates the value to firms of adopting voluntary labels. First, consumers are most suspicious of a label when a product with a bad reputation has it, so labels are often unpersuasive at showing that...

  13. Patient reported outcomes: looking beyond the label claim

    Doward Lynda C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of patient reported outcome scales in clinical trials conducted by the pharmaceutical industry has become more widespread in recent years. The use of such outcomes is particularly common for products developed to treat chronic, disabling conditions where the intention is not to cure but to ameliorate symptoms, facilitate functioning or, ultimately, to improve quality of life. In such cases, patient reported evidence is increasingly viewed as an essential complement to traditional clinical evidence for establishing a product's competitive advantage in the marketplace. In a commercial setting, the value of patient reported outcomes is viewed largely in terms of their potential for securing a labelling claim in the USA or inclusion in the summary of product characteristics in Europe. Although, the publication of the recent US Food and Drug Administration guidance makes it difficult for companies to make claims in the USA beyond symptom improvements, the value of these outcomes goes beyond satisfying requirements for a label claim. The European regulatory authorities, payers both in the US and Europe, clinicians and patients all play a part in determining both the availability and the pricing of medicinal products and all have an interest in patient-reported data that go beyond just symptoms. The purpose of the current paper is to highlight the potential added value of patient reported outcome data currently collected and held by the industry for these groups.

  14. Learning from product labels and label changes: how to build pharmacogenomics into drug-development programs.

    Surh, Linda C; Pacanowski, Michael A; Haga, Susanne B; Hobbs, Stuart; Lesko, Lawrence J; Gottlieb, Scott; Papaluca-Amati, Marisa; Patterson, Scott D; Hughes, Arlene R; Kim, Myong-Jin; Close, Sandra L; Mosteller, Michael; Zineh, Issam; Dechairo, Bryan; Cohen, Nadine A

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 US FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) Pharmacogenomics (PGx) Workshop follows a series that began in 2002 bringing together multidisciplinary experts spanning regulatory authorities, medical research, healthcare and industry. This report summarizes the 'Building PGx into Labels' sessions from the workshop, which discussed the critical elements in developing PGx outcomes leading to product labels that inform efficacy and/or safety. Examples were drawn from US prescribing information, which integrated PGx knowledge into medical decisions (e.g., panitumumab, warfarin and clopidogrel). Attendees indicated the need for broader dialog and for guidelines on evidentiary considerations for PGx to be included into product labels. Also discussed was the understanding of appropriate PGx placement on labels; how to encourage adoption by medical communities of label recommendations on PGx tests; and, given the global nature of drug development, worldwide considerations including European Summary of Product Characteristics. PMID:21142906

  15. Obesity prevention and personal responsibility: the case of front-of-pack food labelling in Australia

    Magnusson Roger S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, the food industry and public health groups are locked in serious struggle for regulatory influence over the terms of front-of-pack food labelling. Clear, unambiguous labelling of the nutritional content of pre-packaged foods and of standardized food items sold in chain restaurants is consistent with the prevailing philosophy of 'personal responsibility'. An interpretive, front-of-pack labelling scheme has the capacity to encourage healthier patterns of eating, and to be a catalyst for improvements in the nutritional quality of food products through re-formulation. On the other hand, the strength of opposition of the Australian Food and Grocery Council to 'Traffic Light Labelling', and its efforts to promote a non-interpretive, voluntary scheme, invite the interpretation that the food industry is resistant to any reforms that could destabilise current (unhealthy purchasing patterns and the revenues they represent. Discussion This article argues that although policies that aim to educate consumers about the nutritional content of food are welcome, they are only one part of a broader basket of policies that are needed to make progress on obesity prevention and public health nutrition. However, to the extent that food labelling has the capacity to inform and empower consumers to make healthier choices - and to be a catalyst for improving the nutritional quality of commercial recipes - it has an important role to play. Furthermore, given the dietary impact of meals eaten in fast food and franchise restaurants, interpretive labelling requirements should not be restricted to pre-packaged foods. Summary Food industry resistance to an interpretive food labelling scheme is an important test for government, and a case study of how self-interest prompts industry to promote weaker, voluntary schemes that pre-empt and undermine progressive public health regulation.

  16. An Effective Intrusion Detection Algorithm Based on Improved Semi-supervised Fuzzy Clustering

    Li, Xueyong; Zhang, Baojian; Sun, Jiaxia; Yan, Shitao

    An algorithm for intrusion detection based on improved evolutionary semi- supervised fuzzy clustering is proposed which is suited for situation that gaining labeled data is more difficulty than unlabeled data in intrusion detection systems. The algorithm requires a small number of labeled data only and a large number of unlabeled data and class labels information provided by labeled data is used to guide the evolution process of each fuzzy partition on unlabeled data, which plays the role of chromosome. This algorithm can deal with fuzzy label, uneasily plunges locally optima and is suited to implement on parallel architecture. Experiments show that the algorithm can improve classification accuracy and has high detection efficiency.

  17. Rapid in vitro labeling procedures for two-dimensional gel fingerprinting

    Improvements of existing in vitro procedures for labeling RNA radioactively, and modifications of the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system for making RNA fingerprints are described. These improvements are (a) inactivation of phosphatase with nitric acid at pH 2.0 eliminated the phenol-cholorform extraction step during 5'-end labeling with polynucleotide kinase and [γ-32P]ATP; (b) ZnSO4 inactivation of R Nase T1 results in a highly efficient procedure for 3'-end labeling with T4 ligase and [5'-32P]pCp; and (c) a rapid 4-min procedure for variable quantity range of 125I and RNA results in a qualitative and quantitative sample for high-molecular weight RNA fingerprinting. Thus, these in vitro procedures become rapid and reproducible when combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis which eliminates simultaneously labeled impurities. Each labeling procedure is compared, using tobacco mosaic virus, Brome mosaic virus, and polio RNA. A series of Ap-rich oligonucleotides was discovered in the inner genome of Brome mosaic Virus RNA-3

  18. Direct photoaffinity labeling of tubulin with colchicine

    Wolff, J.; Knipling, L.; Cahnmann, H.J.; Palumbo, G. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of the ({sup 3}H)colchicine-tubulin complex leads to direct photolabeling of tubulin with low but practicable efficiency. The bulk (70% to greater than 90%) of the labeling occurs on beta-tubulin and appears early after irradiation, whereas {alpha}-tubulin is labeled later. The labeling ratio of {beta}-tubulin to {alpha}-tubulin ({beta}/{alpha} ratio) is reduced by prolonged incubation, prolonged irradiation, urea, high ionic strength, the use of aged tubulin, dilution of tubulin, or large concentrations of colchicine or podophyllotoxin. Glycerol increases the {beta}/{alpha} ratio. Limited data with ({sup 3}H)podophyllotoxin show that it covalently bound with a similar {beta}/{alpha} distribution. Vinblastine, on the other hand, exhibits preferential attachment to {alpha}-tubulin. The possibilities that colchicine binds at the interface between {alpha}-tubulin and {beta}-tubulin, that the drug spans this interface, and that both subunits may contribute to the binding site are suggested.

  19. Medical device labeling and advertising: an overview.

    Basile, E M; Armentrout, E; Reeves, K N

    1999-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) to regulate the labeling of all medical devices. This statement, however, is not as simple as it appears. The regulation of medical device labels and labeling, closely linked to the advertisement of medical devices, is a dynamic area, and FDA is struggling to address the new issues that arise daily in this area. This article seeks to: 1) provide the background necessary to understand the current law and FDA's regulation of medical devices; 2) summarize the law and regulations governing medical devices; 3) define "intended use" and explain its importance; and 4) discuss several areas that are of particular interest to FDA, including promotion of uncleared or unapproved devices and uses, Internet promotion, press releases, and comparative claims. PMID:11824451

  20. Development of labelled biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy

    The scope of the co-ordinated research project (Dec 15 1997) included the following activities: 1) develop coupling techniques using bifunctional chelating agents for monoclonal antibodies and peptides, 2) optimised radiolabelling procedures and reaction parameters using Sm-153 and Re-188, 3) investigate direct methods of labelling monoclonal antibodies and peptides with Re-188. 4) initiate animal distribution studies. The modifications specified for the period 1999/02/15 to 2000/02/14 are as follows: a) continue with the optimisation of Re-188-peptide labelling, b) continue with the work to prepare a kit, c) in-vivo and in-vitro studies, d) lanreotide labelling. The group formed by researchers from several Mexican Institutions have worked together and in different aspects of the CRP in order to fulfil the proposed aims (our published work listed)

  1. Labelling and biological evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    The paper describes research aimed at developing radiolabelled agents using 'bone seeking' molecules and peptides as the target specific moieties. For the study of bone seeking molecules, hydroxyethylene diphosphonate (HEDP) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) (V) were labelled with 188Re. For peptide radiolabelling, 99mTc and 111In were used as the diagnostic radioisotopes, and 90Y was used as the therapeutic radioisotope. The labelling yielded agents with high radiochemical purity. The labelled compounds - 188Re- HEDP, 188Re-DMSA(V), 111In-DOTATOC, 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE, 90Y-DOTATOC and 90Y-DOTATATE - were evaluated in mice, rats and healthy beagle dogs. All compounds were also tested in dogs with spontaneous tumours as pathological models. Biodistribution studies showed that the molecules accumulated in their respective target cells. Spontaneous tumours in dogs offered a unique opportunity to investigate the diagnostic utility and therapeutic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  2. ECOLOGICAL CERTIFICATION AND LABELLING OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Mirela Stefanica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of ecological certification and labelling in the field of tourism. In a tourist company, the certification schemes evaluate the general approach of environmental problems, and impose to the tourist services the observance of pre-established principles and guiding lines concerning the environment. They become for the tourist companies a behavioural standard in the development of their activity. The requirements within such schemes are often flexible and open to interpretation, and generally less controversial than the eco-labelling schemes. As compared to the certification schemes, the eco-labels attributed to the tourist services emphasise the impact over the environment of the services of tourist companies, on the basis of certain European criteria. These criteria refer to the whole life cycle of these tourist services.

  3. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Simin Mehrabani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits. This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach.

  4. Does labelling frequency affect N rhizodeposition assessment using the cotton-wick method?

    Mahieu, S.; Fustec, J.; Jensen, Erik Steen;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test and improve the reliability of the 15N cotton-wick method for measuring soil N derived from plant rhizodeposition, a critical value for assessing belowground nitrogen input in field-grown legumes. The effects of the concentration of the 15N labelling...

  5. Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis.

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-08-01

    Automatic behavior analysis from video is a major topic in many areas of research, including computer vision, multimedia, robotics, biology, cognitive science, social psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. Two major problems are of interest when analyzing behavior. First, we wish to automatically categorize observed behaviors into a discrete set of classes (i.e., classification). For example, to determine word production from video sequences in sign language. Second, we wish to understand the relevance of each behavioral feature in achieving this classification (i.e., decoding). For instance, to know which behavior variables are used to discriminate between the words apple and onion in American Sign Language (ASL). The present paper proposes to model behavior using a labeled graph, where the nodes define behavioral features and the edges are labels specifying their order (e.g., before, overlaps, start). In this approach, classification reduces to a simple labeled graph matching. Unfortunately, the complexity of labeled graph matching grows exponentially with the number of categories we wish to represent. Here, we derive a graph kernel to quickly and accurately compute this graph similarity. This approach is very general and can be plugged into any kernel-based classifier. Specifically, we derive a Labeled Graph Support Vector Machine (LGSVM) and a Labeled Graph Logistic Regressor (LGLR) that can be readily employed to discriminate between many actions (e.g., sign language concepts). The derived approach can be readily used for decoding too, yielding invaluable information for the understanding of a problem (e.g., to know how to teach a sign language). The derived algorithms allow us to achieve higher accuracy results than those of state-of-the-art algorithms in a fraction of the time. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and datasets, including multimodal data. PMID:26415154

  6. HOW SOY LABELING INFLUENCES PREFERENCE AND TASTE

    Wansink, Brian; Park, Sea Bum; Sonka, Steven T.; Morganosky, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    Using a “Phantom Ingredient” taste test, this article demonstrates how the use of soy labels and health claims on a package negatively biased taste perceptions and attitudes toward a food erroneously thought to contain soy. Consumers who ate products which mentioned soy on the package described the taste more grainy, less flavorful, and as having a strong aftertaste compared to those who ate the product but saw no soy label. Yet, while putting “soy” on a package negatively influenced tast...

  7. Fluorescent labels and their use in separations

    Mathies, Richard A.; Glazer, Alexander; Ju, Jingyue

    1997-01-01

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids.

  8. NMR studies of isotopically labeled RNA

    Pardi, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In summary, the ability to generate NMR quantities of {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs has led to the development of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques for simplifying the resonance assignment and structure determination of RNAs. These methods for synthesizing isotopically labeled RNAs are only several years old, and thus there are still relatively few applications of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques to RNA. However, given the critical role that RNAs play in cellular function, one can expect to see an increasing number of NMR structural studies of biologically active RNAs.

  9. Electrochemical Label-Free Nucleotide Sensors.

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Numerous researchers have devoted a great deal of effort over the last few decades to the development of electrochemical oligonucleotide detection techniques, owing to their advantages of simple design, inherently small dimensions, and low power requirements. Their simplicity and rapidity of detection makes label-free oligonucleotide sensors of great potential use as first-aid screening tools in the analytical field of environmental measurements and healthcare management. This review article covers label-free oligonucleotide sensors, focusing specifically on topical electrochemical techniques, including intrinsic redox reaction of bases, conductive polymers, the use of electrochemical indicators, and highly ordered probe structures. PMID:26227073

  10. Large margin filtering for signal sequence labeling

    Flamary, Rémi; Rakotomamonjy, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Signal Sequence Labeling consists in predicting a sequence of labels given an observed sequence of samples. A naive way is to filter the signal in order to reduce the noise and to apply a classification algorithm on the filtered samples. We propose in this paper to jointly learn the filter with the classifier leading to a large margin filtering for classification. This method allows to learn the optimal cutoff frequency and phase of the filter that may be different from zero. Two methods are proposed and tested on a toy dataset and on a real life BCI dataset from BCI Competition III.

  11. Synthesis of carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor'

    Carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor' (2-chloro-N-ethoxymethyl-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)acetamide) was prepared by chlorination of acetic-1-14C acid obtained from barium radiocarbonate to monochloroacetic-1-14C acid which was further chlorinated to monochloroacetyl-1-14C chloride. The addition reaction of this latter with 2-ethyl-6-methylene aniline gave a chloromethyl derivative the ethanolysis of which resulted in 'acetochlor' labelled in its carbonyl carbon. The overall radiochemical yield is 51%. (author)

  12. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides

  13. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  14. 99mTechnetium labelled Escherichia coli

    Samples of a culture of unlabeled Escherichia coli were incubated with different concentrations of stannous chloride for various time periods. 99mTc (26.0 MBq) was added to each preparation and the results showed a labelling yield of 98% for E. coli. Since the bacterial viability of 99mTc-E. coli and E. coli did not show any statistical differences, these results demonstrate that labelling of E. coli with 99mTc does not modify the bacterial viability, and the radiolabelled bacteria may be a good model to study bacterial translocation

  15. Conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements

    The South African Medical Research Council presented this conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements with application in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The conference was held in Bloemfontein from 3-6 February 1986. This work only consists of the abstracts of the seminars that were delivered on the conference. The radioisotopes that occur most of the time in the abstracts include Indium 111, Indium 114, Chromium 51, Iodine 125, Iodine 131 and Carbon 14. Especially Indium 111 seems to be the method of choice for all labelling

  16. The effect of Store Image and Service Quality on Private Label Brand Image and Purchase Intention. Case Study: Lotte Mart Gandaria City

    Nosica Rizkalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Retailers produce their own private label brand as a strategy to distinguish their products from competitors’. Based on previous research, store image and service quality can be used to improve private label brand image and purchase intention. A Research is conducted at Lotte Mart, Gandaria City Mall in Jakarta to find out whether store image and service quality could influence private label brand image and purchase intention. This research adopts Wu et.al.'s framework (2010. Data processing uses Structure Equation Modeling. Research outcome reveals that service quality is a significant factor in influencing private label brand image and purchase intention.

  17. Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment

    Aims: This paper aims to evaluate local enforcement of China's mandatory appliance and equipment energy efficiency standards and labeling programs, two increasingly important policies for meeting national energy and carbon reduction targets. The expected energy savings of efficiency standards and labels can be fully realized only with strong enforcement to ensure compliance for all products sold. This paper provides comprehensive retrospective evaluation of the methodologies, results, progress and remaining challenges in pilot enforcement projects initiated in the absence of consistent national check-testing focused on energy efficiency. Scope: This paper's scope is focused on 2006–2009 pilot local check-tests conducted to verify appliance and equipment compliance with China's mandatory energy label and efficiency standards. Conclusions: This paper finds both improvement and some backsliding in compliance rates over time. Compared to earlier efforts, 2009 check-tests covered a wider regional and product scope but demonstrated greater variation in compliance rates. Labeling display and energy efficiency compliance was generally high across regions and most products, but lower compliance rates were observed in less economically developed regions and for lighting and industrial products. Based on these findings, areas for improvement in local awareness, product sampling methodology, check-testing tools and procedures are identified. - Highlights: • China's mandatory standards and labeling crucial to national energy saving goals. • China's 2006–2009 pilot efficiency check-testing for standards and labeling evaluated. • Wider geographic and product scope in 2009, but greater variation in compliance. • Generally high compliance, but lower rates for less economically developed region. • Local check-test capacity improving but methodological challenges remain

  18. Short, synthetic and selectively 13C-labeled RNA sequences for the NMR structure determination of protein–RNA complexes

    Wenter, Philipp; Reymond, Luc; Auweter, Sigrid D.; Allain, Frédéric H.-T.; Pitsch, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We report an optimized synthesis of all canonical 2′-O-TOM protected ribonucleoside phosphoramidites and solid supports containing [13C5]-labeled ribose moieties, their sequence-specific introduction into very short RNA sequences and their use for the structure determination of two protein–RNA complexes. These specifically labeled sequences facilitate RNA resonance assignments and are essential to assign a high number of sugar–sugar and intermolecular NOEs, which ultimately improve the precis...

  19. Study of tritium labeling of complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls

    The method for tritium labeling of technical mixture (commercial mark - SOVOL, USSR) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The influence of procedure of labeling by thermally activated tritium on the nativity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied. The method of labeling by thermally activated tritium has some factors, which are able to destroy organic compounds - photodegradation, thermo-degradation and degradation caused by reaction of substitution of organic compounds hydrogen atoms by activated tritium atoms. To develop a method of labeling of every organic compound by thermally activated tritium it is necessary to determine and optimize the conditions of labeling. In our case procedure of labeling is complicated because of technical mixture of PCBs consist from more than 20 isomers, chlorinated with different degree. We studied the dependence of appearance of products of degradation PCBs from duration of labeling procedure. It was found that some part of PCBs and product of its degradation were evaporated under vacuum and were collected on the glass flask cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that correlation between labeled of PCBs and products of degradation did not changed with increasing time of labeling, and radiochemical yield of tritium labeled of PCBs was stable - about 15-20 %. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. It was found that purification of labeled PCBs by TLC on silica gel with hexane allows obtaining tritium-labeled PCBs purified from by-products. Thus, TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled PCBs

  20. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    M. van der Merwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review of the relevant literature of mostly quantitative research, but also includes qualitative and mixed method studies. The article examines such aspects as the trustworthiness of claims on food labels, intelligibility of label information, listing of food additives on labels, and labelling of genetically modified foods. As negative perspectives on food labelling are likely to affect consumers’ decision making regarding the purchasing of food products, the food industry must realise their responsibility to provide ethical food labels. The food industry and regulators should aim to provide risk communication and intelligible information through ethical food labels and consumer education programmes on food labelling. Consumers need to be aware of their right to know what they are purchasing through ethical food labels and take a stand in this regard.