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Sample records for 8-inch isostatic press

  1. Hot isostatic pressing of ceramics

    Honma, K.

    1985-01-01

    A mixture containing glass 70 to 95 and BN or B4C powder (0.1-10 microns) 5 to 30 vol. % is used as a secondary pressure medium in hot isostatic pressing of ceramics. Thus, Pyrex beads were mixed with 15% vol. BN powder (average diameter 2 microns), fused at 1400 deg for 2 h, cooled, crushed, and put into a graphite crucible. A Si3N4 sintered body was embedded in the powder, heated in vacuum at 1200 deg for 2 h, treated in a hot isostatic press furnace at 1700 deg and 1000 atm. for 1 h, and cooled to give a Si3N4 ceramic. It was easily separated from the crucible.

  2. Hot isostatic pressing of nickel aluminide powders

    Powder processing of boron-microalloyed Ni3Al alloys followed by consolidation using hot isostatic pressing has been investiged. The influences of time, temperature, and pressure on HIP consolidation have been evaluated and the results are presented in the form of a consolidation map. Microstructural evolution during HIPping and subsequent heat treatment has been characterized and related to the mechanical properties. It has been found that processing parameters must be carefully controlled to suppress sulfur segregation to prior particle boundaries while promoting boron segregation to grain boundaries. Alloying with chromium has been found to promote densification and improve high temperature properties. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065

  4. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  5. Hot isostatic pressing of ceramic waste from spent nuclear fuel

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a process to immobilize waste salt containing fission products, uranium, and transuranic elements as chlorides in a glass-bonded ceramic waste form. This salt was generated in the electrorefining operation used in electrometallurgical treatment of spent Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel. The ceramic waste process culminated with a hot isostatic pressing operation. This paper reviews the installation and operation of a hot isostatic press in a radioactive environment. Processing conditions for the hot isostatic press are presented for non-irradiated material and irradiated material. Sufficient testing was performed to demonstrate that a hot isostatic press could be used as the final step of the processing of ceramic waste for the electrometallurgical spent fuel treatment process

  6. Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology for Defence and Space Applications

    G. Appa Rao; M. Sankaranarayana; Balasubramaniam, S

    2012-01-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology has been established for the development of AISI-304 stainless steel and nickel base superalloy Inconel 718 integral turbine rotors, for liquid propulsion engine of Prithvi missile, and cryoengine of geostationary satellite launch vehicle (GSLV), respectively. Before making the full size rotors, the structure – property relationships in hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) 304 stainless steel and superalloy 718 were established. The HIPed steel and superalloy ...

  7. Hot isostatic pressing of nanosized WC-Co hardmetals

    A new technique based on hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has been developed to produce dense nanosized WC-Co hardmetals without the addition of grain growth inhibitors. The glass encapsulation process is the key for the effective application of isostatic pressure at temperatures well below those usually required for reaching the closed porosity state in the WC-Co system. Fully dense WC-Co samples with cobalt contents ranging from 10 to 12 wt. % have been obtained by this technique at temperatures between 1000 oC and 1200 oC with 150 MPa of applied isostatic pressure for 30 minutes. The role of isostatic pressure on the activation of densification mechanisms is discussed. (author)

  8. MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF HOT ISOSTATICALLY PRESSED AL-SIC

    Bronsveld, P.M.; Hosson, J.Th. De; Sargent, M.A.; Alsem, W.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    The difference between extruded and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Al6061 both with a T6 final heat treatment and with a 30 wt.% SiC particulate reinforcement is one of densification. The higher density of the HIP material is not translated into a stronger material. The Mg2Si precipitation is favou

  9. Cermet fabrication by thermal spraying and hot isostatic pressing

    An assessment is made of the feasibility of fabricating high integrity cermets by means of thermal spraying and hot isostatic pressing. Such cermets are applicable in the form of erosion-resistant gun tube liners obviating the use of such strategic elements as Co and Cr. Al2O3-28 vol percent Ni disks and cylinders were prepared by plasma spraying and hot isostatic pressing at 1350 C and 103 MPa. Characterization consisted of immersion density measurements and microstructural analysis. Specimens machined from the disks were used for thermal and mechanical properties testing. While thermal properties were found to be comparable to those of highly developed cermet systems, moduli and strengths were lower due to residual pores, high metal content, and a coarse microstructure

  10. Hot isostatic pressing of copper canisters for nuclear waste disposal

    This paper describes the copper canisters designed by the Swedes for nuclear waste disposal. The canister is a large, plain, cylindrical can into which the spent nuclear fuel elements can be packed and sealed for final disposal. Two canister modifications are shown which have been developed, differing only in the method of packing the fuel elements into the canister. Both design approaches use a heavy-wall copper tube as the main body with forged end pieces machined to fit snugly on the tube. The favored approach today is the use of copper powder to surround the fuel elements, rather than lead. The canisters described were inserted into the chamber of a hot isostatic press machine. The result of subjecting the evacuated canister assembly to the combination of high temperature and pressure is compaction and densification of the entire mass and the conversion of the copper powder into a solid mass of copper. As a result of the hot isostatic pressing, the overall volume of the canister is reduced and the canister takes on a very moderate hourglass shape. These prototype canisters are sectioned and examined. The examination confirms that the process worked and that the result was of high quality

  11. Deformation Behavior of Hot Isostatic Pressing FGH96 Superalloy

    LIU Yuhong; LI Fuguo; YU Hongbo

    2006-01-01

    The deformation behavior of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) FGH96 superalloy was characterized in the temperature range of 1 000-1 100 ℃ and strain rate range of 0. 001-0.1 s-1 using hot compression testing. The flow curves of HIP FGH96 superalloy during hot deformation was analyzed systematically. The results show that deformation temperature, strain rate and strain are the main influence factors on flow stress of HIP FGH96 superalloy during hot deformation. The flow stress displays a peak at a critical strain and then decreases with further increase in strain. For a given strain, the flow stress decreases with the increase of deformation temperature, and increases with the increase of strain rate. A mathematical model of these flow curves was established through regression analysis and taking the strain as a modification factor. The calculated stress values agree well with the experimental values.

  12. Molybdenum and molybdenum alloys as materials for high temperature furnaces and hot isostatic presses

    Aschenbrenner, W.; Palme, R.

    1983-04-01

    Owing to their excellent high-temperature properties molybdenum and the molybdenum alloy TZM are used as materials for high-temperature furnaces and hot isostatic presses. The setup and the function of the high-temperature furnaces and hot isostatic presses and their applications are described.

  13. Effect of hot isostatic pressing on reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    Watson, G. K.; Moore, T. J.; Millard, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Specimens of nearly theoretical density have been obtained through the isostatic hot pressing of reaction-bonded silicon nitride under 138 MPa of pressure for two hours at 1850, 1950, and 2050 C. An amorphous phase that is introduced by the hot isostatic pressing partly accounts for the fact that while room temperature flexural strength more than doubles, the 1200 C flexural strength increases significantly only after pressing at 2050 C.

  14. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  15. Summary of Calcine Disposal Development Using Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Bateman, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wahlquist, Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCartin, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, has demonstrated the effectiveness of the hot isostatic press (HIP) process for treatment of hazardous high-level waste known as calcine that is stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at Idaho National Laboratory. HIP trials performed with simulated calcines at Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex and an Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization facility from 2007 to 2010 produced a dense, monolithic waste form with increased chemical durability and effective (storage) volume reductions of ~10 to ~70% compared to granular calcine forms. In December 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy signed an amended Record of Decision selecting HIP technology as the treatment method for the 4,400 m3 of granular zirconia and alumina calcine stored at INTEC. Testing showed that HIP treatment reduces the risks associated with radioactive and hazardous constituent release, post-production handling, and long-term (repository) storage of calcines and would result in estimated storage cost savings in the billions of dollars. Battelle Energy Alliance has the ability to complete pilot-scale HIP processing of INTEC calcine, which is the next necessary step in implementing HIP processing as a calcine treatment method.

  16. Consolidation of W–Ta composites: hot isostatic pressing and spark and pulse plasma sintering

    Dias, M.; Guerreiro, F.; Correia, J. Brito; Galatanu, A.; Rosinski, M.; M. A. Monge; Munoz, A.; E. Alves; Carvalho, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Composites consisting of tantalum fiber/powder dispersed in a nanostructured W matrix have been consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering as well as by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructural observations revealed that the tungsten–tantalum fiber composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering presented a continuous layer of Ta2O5 phase at the W/Ta interfaces, while the samples consolidated by spark plasma sintering evidenced a Ta + Ta2O5 eutectic mixtu...

  17. Hot isostatic pressing of plasma sprayed ceramic coating

    Post-spray treatment of atmospheric pressure plasma sprayed alumina, calcia and yttria-stabilised zirconia coatings was performed on a hot isostatic press (HIP) furnace. The three major variables in HIP: temperature, pressure and time, were varied during the experiments. The coatings were placed inside a steel capsule and compacted with fine yttria stabilised zirconia powder (45-80 μm). The temperature was varied between 1200-1300 deg C while pressures of 100-200 MPa were applied. Examination of the HIPed coatings was carried out using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with EDAX. The porosity level in the coatings was determined by an image analyser while phase analysis was done using X-ray diffraction. The results showed that HIP can effectively reduce the porosity level in the coatings to between ∼0.01-0.1% from initial values of 2-4%. More importantly, the cracks in the coatings were 'healed' after HIP. Hardness was found to improve particularly for the zirconia coatings, from an initial value of ∼ 700 VHN to 1300 VHN. For the alumina coatings, the hardness improved to 1900 VHN from an initial value of 1100 VHN. The HIP treatment also altered the microstructure of the coatings. In the as-sprayed state, alumina consists of the typical columnar type of lamellae layers; this, however, was converted to a grain type structure after HIP. These initial results showed that HIP can effectively improve the physical properties of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Removal of glass adhered to sintered ceramics in hot isostatic pressing

    1985-01-01

    In the hot isostatic pressing of ceramic materials in molten glass using an inert gas as a pressing medium, glass adhered to the sintered ceramics is heated to convert it to a porous glass and removed. Thus, Si3N4 powder was compacted at 5000 kg/sq cm, coated with a 0.5 mm thick BN, embedded in Pyrex glass in a graphite crucible, put inside a hot isostatic press containing Argon, hot pressed at 1750 C and 100 kg/sq cm; cooled, taken out from the crucible, heated at 1100 C for 30 minutes, cooled, and then glass adhered to the sintered body was removed.

  19. Dry bag isostatic pressing for improved green strength of surrogate nuclear fuel pellets

    Dry bag isostatic pressing is proposed for mass production of nuclear fuel pellets. Dry bag isostatically pressed rods of a fuel surrogate (95% CeO2-5% HfO2) 200 mm long by 8 mm diameter were cut into pellets using a wire saw. Four different binders and CeO2 powder obtained from two different sources were investigated. The strength of the isostatically pressed pellets for all binder systems measured by diametral compression was about 50% higher than pellets produced by uniaxial dry pressing at the same pressure. It was proposed that the less uniform density of uniaxially pressed pellets accounted for the lower strength. The strength of pellets containing CeO2 powder with significantly higher moisture content was five times higher than pellets containing CeO2 powder with a low moisture content even though they were 25% less dense. Capillary pressure of the moisture was thought to supply the added binding strength.

  20. Manufacturing near dense metal parts via indirect selective laser sintering combined with isostatic pressing

    Liu, J. H.; Shi, Y. S.; Lu, Z. L.; Huang, S. H.

    2007-11-01

    To fabricate metal parts via indirect selective laser sintering (SLS), isostatic pressing technology, including hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and cold isostatic pressing (CIP), are exploited to reform SLS green parts and make them near dense. The processes of SLS/HIP and SLS/CIP/HIP technologies are investigated respectively and the densification of AISI304 stainless steel specimens is mainly discussed. It is indicated that green parts made by indirect SLS can be pressed into near dense parts with the relative densities of 67.3% and more than 80% in SLS/HIP and SLS/CIP/HIP routes, respectively, and their densities rise if much higher CIP pressure is employed. Compared with SLS/HIP, SLS/CIP/HIP technology is regarded as a better method to manufactured dense parts, and it enlarges the application domain of indirect SLS simultaneously.

  1. Densification of boron carbide at relatively low temperatures by hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing

    The poor sinterability of B4C limits its widespread application because both high temperatures and high pressures are required for a complete densification. Moreover, B4C suffers from a low strength and fracture toughness, possesses, however, a high potential because of its extreme hardness. Reaction hot pressing of B4C-WC-TiC-Si-Co mixtures resulting in B4C-TiB2-W2B5 composites of high density exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. The influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on the microstructure and the mechanical properties is investigated in cooperation with participants of the COST 503 activities and related to the strengthening and toughening mechanisms. Difficulties during densification by HIP arise from the evaporation of adsorbed volatiles as well as from the strong swelling of the powder compact due to the sintering reaction. Several HIP cycle designs were tested in order to prevent the bloating of the capsule and to control internal stresses due to the misfit of the thermal expansion of the entire phases. In comparison to single phase B4C ceramics, bending strength was improved to 1030 MPa, KIc to 5.2 MPa/m, while hardness was comparable with HV1=38 GPa. Wear test were performed and related to the toughening mechanisms. (orig.) With 56 refs., 9 tabs., 64 figs

  2. Preparation of SiC-Based Composites by Cold Isostatic Press

    Harun, M. B.; Halim, M. H.; Yazid, H.; Selamat, Z.; Sattar, M. S.; Jali, M.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of polyvinyl alcohol binder on green strength of isostatic pressed silicon carbide was studied. A lab-top spray dryer was used to coat mixed powders with the binder. The resultant powders were pressed in a steel die to obtain pre-mold at the compaction pressures of 32, 63.5, 127, 190, 254 and 317 MPa. The pre-molds were pressed using a cold isostatic press at 276 MPa to produce the green compact specimens. The porosities and compression stress of the green compact specimens produced from laboratory powder were compared with compacted specimens produced with commercial powder. Density porosimetry and universal testing machine were used to determine porosity and compression stress; respectively. The morphology and fracture surface of the green compact specimens were observed under optical and electron microscopes.

  3. Propagation of nonequilibrium phonons in aluminum-oxide ceramics fabricated by cold isostatic pressing

    Propagation of slightly nonequilibrium phonons in aluminum-oxide ceramics fabricated by cold isostatic pressing has been studied. Assuming that phonon propagation in ceramic grains is ballistic, we have analyzed characteristics of the phonon scattering and drawn some conclusions about the nature of grain boundaries

  4. Densification of Ti-6Al-4V powder under hot isostatic pressing

    Sundaresan, R.; Raghuram, A.C.

    1984-10-01

    Consolidation of powder through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is being developed for many complex parts. The mechanisms that lead to the complete densification have not been experimentally studied. An attempt is made to study the densification of powders in hot isostatic pressing and compare it with the available theoretical models. For this study, a mini Hipper (2273 K, 200 MPa, 75 mm diameter x 110 mm long working volume) was used. An experiment was designed to continuously monitor the change in resistivity during densification. Ti-6Al-4V powder produced through Rotating Electrodes Process (REP) was studied after having been encapsulated in glass. The process was studied in the temperature range 1050-1300 K and pressures up to 100 MPa. The results are presented and analyzed in comparison with the models. 11 references.

  5. Effect of Surface Preparation on CLAM/CLAM Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints

    Surface preparation is essential for the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding of RAFM steels. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding experiments on China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel was performed to study the effect of surface preparation. A few approaches such as hand lapping, dry-milling and grinding etc., were used to prepare the faying surfaces of the HIP joints. Different sealing techniques were used as well. The HIP parameters were 150 MPa/3 h/1150 deg. C. After post HIP heat treatment (PHHT), the tensile and Charpy impact tests were carried out. The results showed that hand lapping was not suitable to prepare the faying surfaces of HIP diffusion bonding specimens although the surface roughness by hand lapping was very low.

  6. Effect of sintering and pressing parameters on the densification of cold isostatically pressed Al and Fe powders

    In this study, iron and aluminum powders have been pressed up to 600 MPa pressure in a cold isostatic pressing unit. Pressed specimens were sintered at 600, 620, and 640 deg. C for 20 min for aluminum and 1200 deg. C for 30, 60 and 90 min durations for iron under argon atmosphere in a tube furnace. In order to observe the effects of pressing pressure and sintering temperature and duration on sintering behavior of samples after and before sintering densification values of samples have been measured. All products were examined by scanning electron microscope in order to determine the morphological change of powders in block samples. Packing densities were initially 48% and 33 % and these values have reached to 98% and 89.2% under pressures of 600 MPa for Al and Fe powders, respectively. When these pressed specimens were sintered at 600 deg. C/20 min and 1200 deg. C/30 min, the maximum values of densification for Al and Fe powders reached to 99.3% and 91.5%, respectively

  7. Microstructure and Phase Composition of Cold Isostatically Pressed and Pressureless Sintered Silicon Nitride

    Lukianova, O. A.; Krasilnikov, V. V.; Parkhomenko, A. A.; Sirota, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and physical properties of new Y2O3 and Al2O3 oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics fabricated by cold isostatic pressing and free sintering were investigated. The phase composition of produced material was also studied by X-ray diffraction at room and elevated temperature. The fabricated ceramics featured a microstructure of Si5AlON7 grains with a fine-grained α-Si3N4 with a small amount of Y2SiAlON5. Described ceramics is attractive for many high-temperature structural app...

  8. Post-treatment of thermally sprayed composite materials by hot isostatic pressing

    The post-treatment of surface protective layers by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) always contains heat treatment of the whole composite material. In this way not only the quality of the coating but also the basic material can be affected. The HIP process technique depends mainly on the initial product, its type of manufacture, its gas content, its porosity and its chemical composition. Compact composite materials can be post-compressed for not too large an open pore volume and a low gas content. One must not only observe optimisation of the HIP parameters here, but also the atmosphere of the plant. (orig.)

  9. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    Eng, R. D.; Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using MERL 76, an advanced high strength direct hot isostatic pressed powder metallurgy superalloy, as a full scale component in a high technology, long life, commercial turbine engine were demonstrated. The component was a JT9D first stage turbine disk. The JT9D disk rim temperature capability was increased by at least 22 C and the weight of JT9D high pressure turbine rotating components was reduced by at least 35 pounds by replacement of forged Superwaspaloy components with hot isostatic pressed (HIP) MERL 76 components. The process control plan and acceptance criteria for manufacture of MERL 76 HIP consolidated components were generated. Disk components were manufactured for spin/burst rig test, experimental engine tests, and design data generation, which established lower design properties including tensile, stress-rupture, 0.2% creep and notched (Kt = 2.5) low cycle fatigue properties, Sonntag, fatigue crack propagation, and low cycle fatigue crack threshold data. Direct HIP MERL 76, when compared to conventionally forged Superwaspaloy, is demonstrated to be superior in mechanical properties, increased rim temperature capability, reduced component weight, and reduced material cost by at least 30% based on 1980 costs.

  10. Expanded Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressed Iodine-Loaded Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    Jubin, R. T. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Patton, K. K. [ORNL

    2014-09-30

    Reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z) is being evaluated as a potential material to control the release of radioactive iodine that is released during the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel into the plant off-gas streams. The purpose of this study was to determine if hot pressing could directly convert this iodine loaded sorbent into a waste form suitable for long-term disposition. The minimal pretreatment required for production of pressed pellets makes hot pressing a technically and economically desirable process. Initial scoping studies utilized hot uniaxial pressing (HUPing) to prepare samples of non-iodine-loaded reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). The resulting samples were very fragile due to the low pressure (~ 28 MPa) used. It was recommended that hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), performed at higher temperatures and pressures, be investigated. HIPing was carried out in two phases, with a third and final phase currently underway. Phase I evaluated the effects of pressure and temperature conditions on the manufacture of a pressed sample. The base material was an engineered form of silver zeolite. Six samples of Ag0Z and two samples of I-Ag0Z were pressed. It was found that HIPing produced a pressed pellet of high density. Analysis of each pressed pellet by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrophotometry (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that under the conditions used for pressing, the majority of the material transforms into an amorphous structure. The only crystalline phase observed in the pressed Ag0Z material was SiO2. For the samples loaded with iodine (I-Ag0Z) iodine was present as AgI clusters at low temperatures, and transformed into AgIO4 at high temperatures. Surface mapping and EDS demonstrate segregation between silver iodide phases and silicon dioxide phases. Based on the results of the Phase I study, an expanded test matrix was developed to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional

  11. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brucher, H.G. [Doehler-Jarvis, Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  12. Microstructure and Phase Composition of Cold Isostatically Pressed and Pressureless Sintered Silicon Nitride.

    Lukianova, O A; Krasilnikov, V V; Parkhomenko, A A; Sirota, V V

    2016-12-01

    The microstructure and physical properties of new Y2O3 and Al2O3 oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics fabricated by cold isostatic pressing and free sintering were investigated. The phase composition of produced material was also studied by X-ray diffraction at room and elevated temperature. The fabricated ceramics featured a microstructure of Si5AlON7 grains with a fine-grained α-Si3N4 with a small amount of Y2SiAlON5. Described ceramics is attractive for many high-temperature structural applications due to beneficial combination of fine-grained structure with improved mechanical properties and small weight loss. PMID:26979726

  13. Thermodynamic interactions in hot isostatic pressed graded structures of dissimilar heat resistant steels

    Prader, R. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Schweisstechnik; Buchmayr, B. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Schweisstechnik; Cerjak, H. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Schweisstechnik; Fleming, A. [Babcock Energy Ltd., Renfrew (United Kingdom); Peterseim, J. [Krupp Entwicklungszentrum GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for joining dissimilar metals by the adoption of a graded chemical composition joint. The welding of such a transition piece between two dissimilar materials replaced one dissimilar weld by two similar welds. The present article considers graded joints between the two ferritic materials 10 CrMo 9 10, P 91 and the austenitic type AISI 316 realised by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). The chemical gradient was obtained by blending the two parent powders in a certain ratio along the transition zone. Due to local thermodynamic interactions between different powder particles microstructure and hence the mechanical properties of the graded zone are not linearly dependent on the mixing ratio of the parent powders. A model was developed to describe the diffusion and the related microstructural changes. This theoretical model was verified by microstructural investigations. (orig.)

  14. Development and characterization of Be/Cu joint obtained by hot isostatic pressing

    Beryllium is one of the possible candidate for Plasma Facing Components (PFC) such as divertor or first wall in the ITER project. Due to its high thermal conductivity, copper alloys are used as heat sink material. So, in one way or another, beryllium will have to be fixed onto copper alloys. In this study, the joining of beryllium onto copper is achieved by Hot Isostatic Pressing (Solid HIP). This joining technique allows an homogeneous bonding. But, as direct bonding between Be and Cu induces intermetallics which are deleterious to the joint (interlayers are needed to avoid reaction between Be and Cu. This paper gives a description and the role of different associated interlayers used as diffusion barriers between copper and beryllium for a low in-service working temperature. Moreover, a mock-up was fabricated. Shear resistance of the junction was measured from test specimens machined from the mock-up. (authors)

  15. Microstructure and Phase Composition of Cold Isostatically Pressed and Pressureless Sintered Silicon Nitride

    Lukianova, O. A.; Krasilnikov, V. V.; Parkhomenko, A. A.; Sirota, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The microstructure and physical properties of new Y2O3 and Al2O3 oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics fabricated by cold isostatic pressing and free sintering were investigated. The phase composition of produced material was also studied by X-ray diffraction at room and elevated temperature. The fabricated ceramics featured a microstructure of Si5AlON7 grains with a fine-grained α-Si3N4 with a small amount of Y2SiAlON5. Described ceramics is attractive for many high-temperature structural applications due to beneficial combination of fine-grained structure with improved mechanical properties and small weight loss.

  16. Magnetic and magneto elastic properties of cobalt ferrite ceramic compacted through cold isostatic pressing

    Indla, Srinivas; Chelvane, Arout; Das, Dibakar

    2016-05-01

    Nano crystalline CoFe2O4 powder was prepared by combustion synthesis method. As synthesized powder was calcined at an appropriate condition to remove the impurities and to promote phase formation. Phase pure CoFe2O4 powder was pressed into cylindrical rod at an applied pressure of 200 MPa using a cold isostatic pressing. Sintering of the green compact at 1350°c for 12 hrs resulted in sintered cylindrical rod with ~85% of the theoretical density. Single phase cubic spinel structure was observed in the powder x-ray diffraction pattern of the sintered pellet. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the as sintered pellet revealed the microstructure to be composed of ferrite grains of average size ~4 µm. Saturation magnetization of 72 emu/g and coercivity of 355 Oe were observed for cobalt ferrite sample. The magnetostriction was measured on a circular disc (12mm diameter and 12mm length) with the strain gauge (350 Ω) mounted on the flat surface of the circular disc. Magnetostriciton of 180 ppm and strain derivative of 1 × 10-9 m/A were observed for the sintered CoFe2O4 sample.

  17. Grain-boundary cavitation and bloating of isostatically hot-pressed magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia on air annealing

    Commercially sintered magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia was densified to near theoretical density by isostatic hot-pressing at 200 MPa and 17000C in argon. Subsequent air annealing above 11000C resulted in bloating of the material due to grain-boundary cavitation. Mass spectrometry of crushed samples detected the evolution of CO2 and possibly CO on annealing; the hot-pressed material showed a sudden gas evolution above 14000C. Preliminary Auger and ESCA analysis identified the presence of carbon as graphite and an undefined carbide in both the sintered and the hot-pressed material

  18. High temperature mechanical performance of a hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.; Lin, C.K.J. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics are an attractive material of choice for designers and manufacturers of advanced gas turbine engine components for many reasons. These materials typically have potentially high temperatures of usefulness (up to 1400{degrees}C), are chemically inert, have a relatively low specific gravity (important for inertial effects), and are good thermal conductors (i.e., resistant to thermal shock). In order for manufacturers to take advantage of these inherent properties of silicon nitride, the high-temperature mechanical performance of the material must first be characterized. The mechanical response of silicon nitride to static, dynamic, and cyclic conditions at elevated temperatures, along with reliable and representative data, is critical information that gas turbine engine designers and manufacturers require for the confident insertion of silicon nitride components into gas turbine engines. This final report describes the high-temperature mechanical characterization and analyses that were conducted on a candidate structural silicon nitride ceramic. The high-temperature strength, static fatigue (creep rupture), and dynamic and cyclic fatigue performance were characterized. The efforts put forth were part of Work Breakdown Structure Subelement 3.2.1, {open_quotes}Rotor Data Base Generation.{close_quotes} PY6 is comparable to other hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides currently being considered for advanced gas turbine engine applications.

  19. Effect of reduced cobalt contents on hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy U-700 alloys

    Harf, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of reducing the cobalt content of prealloyed powders of UDIMET 700 (U-700) alloys to 12.7, 8.6, 4.3, and 0% was examined. The powders were hot isostatically pressed into billets, which were given heat treatments appropriate for turbine disks, namely partial solutioning at temperatures below the gamma prime solvus and four step aging treatments. Chemical analyses, metallographic examinations, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the materials. Minor effects on gamma prime content and on room temperature and 650 C tensile properties were observed. Creep rupture lives at 650 C reached a maximum at the 8.4% concentration, while at 760 C a maximum in life was reached at the 4.3% cobalt level. Minimum creep rates increased with decreasing cobalt content at both test temperatures. Extended exposures at 760 and 815 C resulted in decreased tensile strengths and rupture lives for all alloys. Evidence of sigma phase formation was also found.

  20. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of gamma-prime particles in a gamma matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest gamma-prime particles, and had the lowest gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650 gamma C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760 C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the gamma-prime particle size distribution and the gamma-gamma-prime mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  1. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) Model Developments for P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2}

    J.W. Sears; J. Xu

    2001-08-30

    Powder Metallurgy (P/M) Alloy 690N{sub 2}, the P/M derivative of Inconel 690 (IN 690), has been shown to have a higher elevated temperature yield strength and superior stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance than IN 690. The property improvements seen in P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} are due to interstitial nitrogen strengthening and precipitation hardening resulting from the formation of fine titanium/chromium--carbo-nitrides. The application of P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} has had limited use, because of the high costs involved in producing wrought products from powder. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) modeling to produce near net shapes should provide a more economical route for exploiting the benefits of Alloy 690N{sub 2}. The efforts involved in developing and verifying the P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} HIP model are disclosed. Key to the deployment of HIP modeling is the development of the method to fabricate HIP powder containers via laser powder deposition.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot isostatically pressed cermets with TiN coatings

    ZHENG Liyun; XIONG Weihao; YAN Xianmei; LI Guo'an

    2006-01-01

    To increase the adhesion strength between the coating and the substrate, sintered Ti(C,N)-based cermets were selected and deposited with monolayer TiN using a multiarc ion-plating technique; subsequently, hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) treatment was performed at 1000℃ using nitrogen pressure up to 110 MPa. The mechanical properties of cermets after a coating process and subsequent HIPing treatment have been evaluated with respect to the hardness, the residual stress, and the coating adhesion. The results show that after the HIPing process, there was a higher increase in critical load in the TiN-coated cermets with lower surface roughness compared with those with higher surface roughness. In all cases, the residual stress was found to be compressive. The effects of substrate surface roughness and posttreatment on the adhesion strength of the coatings were thus investigated. It was also found that the HIPing posttreatment process is well suited for increasing the adhesion strength between the coating and the substrate.

  3. A study on improving mechanical properties of porous HA tissue engineering scaffolds by hot isostatic pressing

    Various interconnected porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic scaffolds are universally used to induct the tissue growth for bone repair and replacement, and serve to support the adhesion, transfer, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Impregnation of polyurethane sponges with a ceramic slurry is adopted to produce highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds with a 3D interconnected structure. However, high porosity always accompanies a decrease in the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds. Therefore, it is significant to improve the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds with highly interconnected porosity so that they are more suitable in clinical applications. In this work, highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds are first produced by the polymer impregnation approach, and subsequently further sintered by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The phase composition, macro- and micro-porous structure, sintering and mechanical properties of the porous HA scaffolds are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation analysis and compressive test. The experimental results show that the nanohardness and compressive strength of HIP-sintered porous HA ceramics are higher than those of commonly sintered HA scaffolds. The HIP technique can effectively improve the sintering property and densification of porous HA ceramic scaffolds, so inducing an increase in the compression strength

  4. Optimisation of hot isostatic pressing bonded SS/SS joints conditions for ITER blanket shield

    In the engineering design activity of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), stainless steels are being considered as candidates materials for several module type structures. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique is expected for the fabrication of these modules. Stainless steel powders are simultaneously consolidated as mono-material block or/and joined in bi-material module. This paper reviews the manufacturing stages, non-destructive examination and the developments of the HIP bonded joints of 316L SS (powder and solid) for application to the ITER shield blanket. It is well known that the powder surface oxidation negatively influences the impact toughness of raw material and joints consolidated by this way. In order to get acceptable mechanical properties of materials, a study on the effect of reducing the powder oxygen content has been launched. To evaluate susceptibility to the oxygen content of HIPed joint specimens, tensile and toughness tests have been performed. From this study, optimal conditions of HIP were fitted and the influence of oxygen was mastered to obtain good mechanical properties of the consolidated powder material as well as for HIPed junction.

  5. Hot isostatic pressing of silicon nitride with boron nitride, boron carbide, and carbon additions

    Mieskowski, Diane M.; Sanders, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Si3N4 test bars containing additions of BN, B4C, and C, were hot isostatically pressed in Ta cladding at 1900 and 2050 C to 98.9 percent to 99.5 percent theoretical density. Room-temperature strength data on specimens containing 2 wt pct BN and 0.5 wt pct C were comparable to data obtained for Si3N4 sintered with Y2O3, Y2O3 and Al2O3, or ZrO2. The 1370 C strengths were less than those obtained for additions of Y2O3 or ZrO2 but greater than those obtained from a combination of Y2O3 and Al2O3. SEM fractography indicated that, as with other types of Si3N4, room-temperature strength was controlled by processing flaws. The decrease in strength at 1370 C was typical of Si3N4 having an amorphous grain-boundary phase. The primary advantage of nonoxide additions appears to be in facilitating specimen removal from the Ta cladding.

  6. Hot isostatic pressing of silicon nitride with boron nitride, boron carbide, and carbon additions

    This paper reports how Si3N4 test bars containing additions of BN, B4C, and C, were hot isostatically pressed in Ta cladding at 1900 degrees and 2050 degrees C to 98.9% to 99.5% theoretical density. Room-temperature strength data on specimens containing 2 wt% BN and 0.5 wt% C were comparable to data obtained for Si3N4 sintered with Y2O3, Y2O3 and Al2O3 or ZrO2. The 1370 degrees C strengths were less than those obtained for additions of Y2O3 or ZrO2 but greater than those obtained from a combination of Y2O3 and Al2O3. Scanning electron microscope fractography indicated that, as with other types of Si3N4, room-temperature strength was controlled by processing flaws. The decrease in strength at 1370 degrees C was typical of Si3N4 having an amorphous grain-boundary phase. The primary advantage of non-oxide additions appears to be in facilitating specimen removal from the Ta cladding

  7. Experiment study on Be|Ti/Cu|CuCrZr joints by hot isostatic pressing bonding

    Performances of Be/Cu joints fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding were studied by means of various test Methods, such as shearing test, scanning electron microscopy(SEM) observation, energy dispersion spectrometer(EDS) and X-ray Diffraction(XRD) analysis, when Ti (PVD-coated on Be)/Cu (PVD-coated on CuCrZr) interlayers were used. This study considered several diffusion surface treatments (such as chemical etching, polishing, etc.) for minimizing or eliminating the effects of the oxide film on beryllium to promote good diffusion bond between these materials. Experiments indicated that the joints HIPed at 580 degree C/145 MPa/2 h showed high shearing strength (up to 123 MPa) at room temperature and no defect such as cracks was observed at the bonding interface dut to the role of the etching with a dilute acid solution to remove native oxide films on beryllium surface prior to titanium coating. The strength moderately decreased when the diffusion holding time increased from 2 h to 4 h. The thin titanium diffusion barrier (∼10μm) which was coated on the beryllium surface have prevented the reaction between Be and Cu, but CuTi phase was formed at Ti/Cu interface. It is considered the phase limited the bonding strength to higher level. (authors)

  8. Joining of tungsten to ferritic/martensitic steels by hot isostatic pressing

    Tungsten (W) was joined to ferritic/martensitic steels (FMSs) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) with interlayers consisting of Ti or Cr coatings and inserted Ti and Cu films. The effects of interlayer type and post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT) on the joining properties of W/FMS were investigated by evaluating the joining strength and analyzing the interface microstructure. The W/FMS joint specimens with the inserted Ti films showed a higher shear strength than those with Cu films, irrespective of the coating layer type. The complicated interface microstructure with many diffusion layers in the W/FMS joint led to a decrease in the joining strength. The effect of PHHT was different depending on the interlayer type employed in the HIP joining. PHHT was beneficial especially for the HIP joined W/FMS with Ti(2 μm)/Ti(50 μm) interlayers when it was properly performed to avoid a split at the interface in an edge of the HIP joined block

  9. Interface strength measurement of hot isostatic pressed tungsten coatings on F82H substrates

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is a primary candidate as an armor material to protect the low activation ferritic steel wall chamber for IFE power reactors due to its low erosion rate and heat resistance. Two proposed techniques to apply tungsten coatings on F82H are vapor plasma spraying (VPS) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). In previous work (H. Kim et al., FS and T, 2007), the failure strength of the vapor plasma sprayed (VPS) tungsten coatings was investigated. Since the VPS process results in a non-negligible amount of pores in the tungsten coating, it was concluded that the mechanical reliability of the VPS tungsten coatings is a critical issue. In the current work, HIP process is adopted to deposit the tungsten coating on F82H substrates. The interface strength of the HIP tungsten/F82H samples is measured using Laser Spallation (LS) technique and the microstructure is analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Finally, the failure mechanisms of the HIP versus VPS tungsten coatings are compared. (authors)

  10. Cyclic fatigue resistance of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals with hot isostatic press processing.

    Koyama, Taku; Sato, Toru; Yoshinari, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of surface roughness and cyclic loading on fatigue resistance in Y-TZP subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Fifty Y-TZP cylinders 3.0 mm in diameter were divided into Group A (polished by centerless method; TZP-CP) or Group B (blasted and acid-etched: TZP-SB150E). Twenty five cp-titanium cylinders (Ti-SB150E) were used as a control. Static and cyclic tests were carried out according to ISO 14801. The cyclic fatigue test was performed in distilled water at 37°C. Surface morphology and roughness as well as crystal phase on the surfaces were also evaluated. Fracture force under the static test was 1,765N (TZP-CP), 1,220N (TZP-SB150E), and 850 N (yield force, Ti-SB150E). Fracture values under the cyclic test decreased to approximately 70% of those under the static tests. These results indicate that HIPed Y-TZP with a 3.0-mm diameter has sufficient durability for application to dental implants. PMID:23207222

  11. Age hardening in rapidly solidified and hot isostatically pressed beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    Three different alloys of beryllium, aluminum and silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight, 50% Be, 47.5% Al, 2.5% Ag, 50% Be, 47% Al, 3% Ag, and 50% Be, 46% Al, 4% Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which appeared to separate from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatically pressing at 550 C for one hour at 30,000 psi argon pressure. Samples of HIP material were solution treated at 550 C for one hour, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200 and 225 C for times ranging from one half hour to 65 hours. Hardness measurements were made using a diamond pyramid indenter with a load of 1 kg. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 hours at 175 C and 12--16 hours at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition

  12. The Effectiveness of Hot Isostatic Pressing for Closing Porosity in Titanium Parts Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Tammas-Williams, Samuel; Withers, Philip J.; Todd, Iain; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2016-05-01

    Ti-6Al-4V parts, produced by selective electron beam melting additive manufacturing, have been studied by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to track pore closure during a standard hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) cycle. Comparison of repeated XCT scans before and after HIPing, on worst-case samples with different geometries, confirmed that all internal porosity was shrunk to below the resolution limit of the equipment used (~5 µm) following the HIPing cycle, apart from defects with surface connected ligaments.

  13. Hot isostatic pressing process to rejuvenate serviced cast nickel base superalloy IN738 turbine blades

    Wangyao, P. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (TH). Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute (MMRI); Zrnik, J. [Technical Univ. of Kosice (Czech Republic). Dept. of Materials Science; Polsilapa, S. [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Materials Engineering, Engineering Faculty; Nisaratanaporn, E. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgy Engineering, Engineering Faculty; Homkrajai, W. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    2006-07-01

    Many of land base gas turbines for power plants are already long-time operating and lots of efforts were brought to evaluate the remnant life of turbine components. The aims is to assess the actual conditions of the material used for critical components are sustainable with respect to remaining life judgement. The present work provides information on land-base gas turbine first-stage turbine blade structure degradation due to long-term thermomechanical and environmental exposure. The virgin blade was of cast and heat treated nickel base superalloy IN 738 and prior examination it was exposed more than 70 000 hours at turbine inlet temperature, operating by Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) company. The pieces, differently localized along the blade, were cut off for microstructural analyses, which were performed using light and scanning electron microscopy. After long-term service the gamma prime coarsening, re-precipitation of finer gamma prime precipitates and grain boundary carbide precipitates dissolving were observed. The most degraded microstructure was found at top part of trailing edge and at the middle leading edge of blade where small cracks, pores and nests of voids were observed. In order to find proper condition to recover the microstructure the attempt of rejuvenation involving hot isostatic pressing (HIP) followed by standard heat treatment of IN 738 alloy was employed to pieces of the blade. The series of HIP treatments at two different temperatures and at different holds have been conducted. This process appeared to be successful in healing of micro voids and pores in interior of blade, but no restoration of surface defects was observed. Increasing the HIP temperature and extending the HIP time higher efficiency for micro voids and porosity closing were observed. (orig.)

  14. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of metal-free phthalocyanine films using cold isostatic pressing

    Matsushima, Toshinori, E-mail: tmatusim@opera.kyushu-u.ac.jp, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: tmatusim@opera.kyushu-u.ac.jp, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Esaki, Yu [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Spatial gaps between grains and other grains, substrates, or electrodes in organic electronic devices are one of the causes of the reduction in the electrical characteristics. In this study, we demonstrate that cold isostatic pressing (CIP) is an effective method to crush the gaps and enhance the electrical characteristics. CIP of metal-free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}PC) films induced a decrease in the film thickness by 34%–40% because of the gap crush. The connection of smaller grains into a larger grain and planarization of the film surface were also observed in the CIP film. The crystal axes of the H{sub 2}PC crystallites were rearranged from the a-axis to the c-axis of the α-phase crystal structure in a direction perpendicular to the substrate by CIP, indicating favorable hole injection and transport in this direction because of a better overlap of π orbitals. Thermally stimulated current measurements showed that deep hole traps disappeared and the total hole-trap density decreased after CIP. These CIP-induced changes of the film thicknesses, crystal axes and the hole traps lead to a marked increase in the hole mobility of the H{sub 2}PC films from 2.0 × 10{sup −7} to 4.0 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/V s by 2000 times in the perpendicular direction. We believe that these findings are important for unveiling the underlying carrier injection and transport mechanisms of organic films and for enhancing the performance of future organic electronic devices.

  15. Preliminary Study on Hot Isostatic Pressing Diffusion Bonding for CLAM Steel

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is being developed in ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) since three years ago. CLAM is selected as the major candidate structure materials for the FDS series design of fusion reactors and for China liquid metal LiPb Test Blanket Module (TBM) for ITER i.e. DFLL-TBM, which are being carried out in ASIPP. Since the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding technique is one of the main candidate bonding techniques for manufacturing of the first wall of a fusion reactor, research of the HIP technique on CLAM/CLAM is greatly needed. Preliminary HIP diffusion bonding experiments on CLAM steel have been performed. A few machining approaches such as dry-milling, turnery and grounding etc. were used to prepare the sample surfaces and then they were degreased with a mixture of alcohol, ether and acetone in an ultrasonic bath. The samples were joined by HIP diffusion bonding with the compression pressure of 150 MPa and the holding time of 2 ∼ 3 hours under different temperatures between 950 deg. and 1100 deg.. Different seal techniques of the capsules were studied as well. Then appropriate post heat treatment was done. Tests on mechanical properties of the joints such as tensile strength and impact toughness have been performed. The preliminary results show that the tensile properties are roughly the same as those of the base material. The absorbed energy of the joints at present is a little low and further research is needed to increase it. Microstructure of the joints was studied by optical microscope, SEM and TEM. Compositions of the defects on the joining line were analyzed by EDS. Through analysis of the results, optimized parameters for HIP are given. (author)

  16. MONITORING STRESSES ON THE PV-4 ISOSTATIC PRESS FROM 1960 TO 1997

    ADAMSKI, R.E.; FRAZIER, J.L.; HORAK, J.A.; HOWARD, D.C.; KELLEY, D.K.

    1998-12-01

    The PV-4 isostatic press has a very large working volume (98 ft{sup 3}) that was designed for routine operations at internal pressures up to 30 ksi and is, therefore, a unique and valuable component of the U.S. DOE Y-12 manufacturing capability. More than 13,000 pressing operations have been conducted since initiation of operations in September 1960. The pressure vessel portion consists of three concentric cylinders of high-strength steel with the outer two cylinders shrink-fitted on the imermost cylinder to minimize tensile stresses on the inner surface of the vessel. The third, outermost cylinder consists of two sections; each section is one-half the length of the pressure vessel. The vessel is contained within a large frame which is made of T-1 steel. In 1982 and 1983 precision strain gauges were mounted at selected locations on the frame and the outer surface of the pressure vessel to monitor the operating stresses. Where possible, locations of the gauges mounted in 1982 and 1983 were at or near the same locations as the strain gauges mounted in 1960 to monitor stresses on the frame and vessel during preoperational testing and design verification of the press. This report presents the information obtained with these strain gauges for tests conducted in September 1960 prior to any operation of the press and for the period July 1983 to August 1997. On September 8 and 9, 1960, Sturm & Krouse used 120 strain gauges on the frame and 20 strain gauges on the outer surface of the pressure vessel to measure strains in PV-4 as a function of operating pressure from O to 33 ksi. Although the design maximum operating pressure of the press was 30 ksi, to provide a safety factor for operations at 30 ksi and to assure totally elastic behavior of the steel components of the frame and pressure vessel at pressures above the design pressure, strains were also measured at operating pressures of 32 and 33 ksi. Sturm & Krouse observed that the stresses on the frame and vessel were a

  17. Formation of stacked luminescent complex of 8-hydroxyquinoline molecules on hydroxyapatite coating by using cold isostatic pressing.

    Matsuya, Takehiko; Otsuka, Yuichi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Motozuka, Satoshi; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Cold isostatic pressing successfully formed a chelate complex of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8 Hq) molecules on plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating by solid-state reaction. The complex emits a fluorescence peak at approximately 500 nm by UV irradiation. The red shift of the fluorescence was newly observed in the cases of highly compressed complex due to π - π stacking of aromatic ring in the molecular structure of 8 Hq. The immersed complex coating in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) demonstrated amorphous apatite precipitation and kept its fluorescence property. PMID:26478295

  18. Development of Be/Glidcop joint obtained by hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding for high in-service temperature

    Saint-Antonin, F.; Bucci, P.; Burlet, H.; Le Marois, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France); Barberi, D.; Laille, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some aspects of the beryllium-Glidcop joining by Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion Bonding. The quality of a joint is mainly dependent on the interface microstructure. Thus, as Be/copper direct bonding is not recommended, the choice of interlayers is a critical point. The joining process parameters, i.e. temperature, pressure and time, must take into account the in-service requirements, the mechanical and metallurgical properties of each material. The Be/Glidcop joining process developed at CEA/Grenoble is presented here. (author)

  19. Warm isostatic pressing (WIP'ing) of GS44 Si3N4 FDC parts for defect removal

    Fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) is one of the developing solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques. The successful production of high performance ceramics by the FDC process requires that no defects exist in the green parts. However, build defects, such as missing roads, poorly bonded layers or sub-perimeter voids can be encountered in improperly built FDC parts. In this study, a method known as WIP'ing (warm isostatic pressing) was evaluated for its ability to eliminate existing defects in GS44 Si3N4 green FDC parts. Analogous to CIP'ing (cold isostatic pressing), the green FDC parts were rubber bagged and loaded into a pressure chamber filled with water soluble oil at different temperatures, ranging from 30 to 90 deg. C, at pressures of up to 35 MPa. X-Ray radiography results indicated that at temperatures above 70 deg. C, WIP'ing was effective in closing the gaps of the intentionally placed void defects in FDC parts. However, WIP'ing above 70 deg. C was not effective in healing the defects completely. The fracture strengths of FDC parts with intentional added defects, WIP'ed above 70 deg. C were substantially lower than control samples

  20. Tensile and fracture characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe─12Cr produced by hot isostatic pressing

    De Castro, Vanessa; Garces Usan, José María; Leguey, Teresa; Pareja Pareja, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical characteristics of a model oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe─12 wt%Cr─0.4 wt%Y₂O₃ were investigated by means of microhardness measurements, tensile tests up to fracture in the temperature range of 298─973 K, and fracture surface analyses. A non-ODS Fe─12 wt%Cr alloy was also studied to assess the real capacity of the oxide dispersion for strengthening the alloy. The materials were produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pres...

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Hot Isostatically Pressed-Produced Stainless Steel/High Alloy Tool Steel Compound Materials

    Lindwall, Greta; Flyg, Jesper; Frisk, Karin; Sandberg, Odd

    2011-05-01

    Consolidation of tool steel powders and simultaneous joining to a stainless 316L steel are performed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two tool steel grades are considered: a high vanadium alloyed carbon tool steel, and a high vanadium and chromium alloyed nitrogen tool steel. The boundary layer arising during diffusion bonding is in focus and, in particular, the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen over the joint. Measurements of the elemental concentration profiles and corrosion tests by the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method are performed. Comparative calculations with the DICTRA software are performed and are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the carbon tool steel grade has a more critical influence on the corrosion resistance of the stainless 316L steel in comparison to the nitrogen tool steel grade.

  2. An infrared pyroelectric detector improved by cool isostatic pressing with cup-shaped PZT thick film on silicon substrate

    Peng, Q. X.; Wu, C. G.; Luo, W. B.; Chen, C.; Cai, G. Q.; Sun, X. Y.; Qian, D. P.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we presented a new pyroelectric detector with back to back silicon cups and micro-bridge structure. The PZT thick film shaped in the front cup was directly deposited with designed pattern by electrophoresis deposition (EPD). Pt/Ti Metal film, which was fabricated by standard photolithography and lift-off technology, was sputtered to connect the top electrode and the bonding pad. The cold isostatic press (CIP) treatment could be applied to improve the pyroelectric properties of PZT thick film. The infrared (IR) properties the CIP-optimized detector were measured. The voltage responsivity (RV) was 4.5 × 102 V/W at 5.3 Hz, the specific detectivity (D*) was greater than 6.34 × 108 cm Hz1/2 W-1 (frequency > 110 Hz), and the thermal time constant was 51 ms, respectively.

  3. HVOF Spraying of Fe-Based MMC Coatings with In Situ Formation of Hard Particles by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Röttger, A.; Weber, S. L.; Theisen, W.; Rajasekaran, B.; Vaßen, R.

    2012-03-01

    Thick (2-3 mm) Fe-base coatings with admixed ferrotitanium (Fe30Ti70) were applied to austenitic steel by a high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF). Hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) was carried out to the decrease porosity and to increase the material strength, wear resistance, and adhesive bond strength of the deposited coating to the substrate material. SEM and XRD investigations confirmed the formation of hard titanium carbide (TiC) particles during HIP treatment as a result of strong carbon diffusion out of the metal matrix and into the Fe30Ti70 particles. The mechanical and wear properties of the densified coatings were investigated by means of shear tests, hardness measurements, and abrasive wear tests. A comparison of the coatings in the as-sprayed and the HIPed state showed a large increase in the wear resistance due to in situ TiC formation.

  4. Effect of hot isostatic pressing nitrogen on the microstructure and properties of a Ti(C, N)-based cermet

    YAN Xianmei; XIONG Weihao; YANG Yong; ZHENG Liyun

    2006-01-01

    The high-temperature, high-pressure hot isostatic pressing technology was used for depositing hard coatings on Ti(C, N)-based cermets. The microstructure and properties of the sample were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and microhardness tester. The results showed that the rich titanium and nitrogen in surface zone were induced by the heat treatment. The high nitrogen activity of the surface region was the driving force for outward transport of titanium and inward transport of tungsten in the cobalt binder. The toughness and hardness were improved and a hardness gradient was formed. It is the high-temperature, high-pressure N2that enables closure of holes, thereby alleviating defects and prolonging tool life.

  5. Verification of the effect of surface preparation on Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding with CLAM steel is the primary candidate fabrication technique for the first wall (FW) of DFLL-TBM. Surface state is one of the key factors for the joints quality. The effect of surface state prepared with grinder and miller on HIP diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel was investigated. HIP diffusion bonding was performed at 140 MPa and 1373 K within 3 h. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated with instrumented Charpy V-notch impact tests and the microstructures of the joints were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the milled samples with fine surface roughness were more suitable for CLAM steel HIP diffusion bonding

  6. Dynamic recrystallization of the hot isostatically pressed P/M superalloy FGH4096 in hot working process

    Ning Yongquan, E-mail: ningke521@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yao Zekun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Guo Hongzhen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Three new nucleation sites were firstly found in PM materials. {yields} As Bulk billet with 4.0 {mu}m in grain size was obtained. {yields} The grain size was obviously refined since repeated DRX occurenced. - Abstract: The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of the hot isostatically pressed P/M superalloy FGH4096 in isothermal working process was characterized and investigated by using optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. The P/M superalloy was first prepared by hot isostatically pressing. The isothermal compression tests of the P/M superalloy were then conducted in a Gleeble-1500D simulator at the temperature ranging from 1080 to 1140 deg. C and the strain rate from 0.02 to 1.0 s{sup -1}. The microstructure observation of the deformed samples showed that the necklace microstructure was obtained under the strain of 0.51 or below. The necklace microstructure is an intermediate microstructure for the complete recrystallized microstructure, which could be finally generated when the strain was about 0.69. In addition, it was found that the complete recrystallized grain quantity was increased with the increase of temperature and the decrease of strain rate. The DRX nucleation sites are classified into three regions, viz., (i) previous particle boundaries (PPBs), (ii) recrystallized grain boundaries, and (iii) twin sources. As the repeated DRX took place, the grain size was eventually refined from 30.0 to 4.0 {mu}m after the multiaxially forging and the homogeneous bulk billet with fine DRX grains was finally obtained.

  7. Dynamic recrystallization of the hot isostatically pressed P/M superalloy FGH4096 in hot working process

    Research highlights: → Three new nucleation sites were firstly found in PM materials. → As Bulk billet with 4.0 μm in grain size was obtained. → The grain size was obviously refined since repeated DRX occurenced. - Abstract: The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of the hot isostatically pressed P/M superalloy FGH4096 in isothermal working process was characterized and investigated by using optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. The P/M superalloy was first prepared by hot isostatically pressing. The isothermal compression tests of the P/M superalloy were then conducted in a Gleeble-1500D simulator at the temperature ranging from 1080 to 1140 deg. C and the strain rate from 0.02 to 1.0 s-1. The microstructure observation of the deformed samples showed that the necklace microstructure was obtained under the strain of 0.51 or below. The necklace microstructure is an intermediate microstructure for the complete recrystallized microstructure, which could be finally generated when the strain was about 0.69. In addition, it was found that the complete recrystallized grain quantity was increased with the increase of temperature and the decrease of strain rate. The DRX nucleation sites are classified into three regions, viz., (i) previous particle boundaries (PPBs), (ii) recrystallized grain boundaries, and (iii) twin sources. As the repeated DRX took place, the grain size was eventually refined from 30.0 to 4.0 μm after the multiaxially forging and the homogeneous bulk billet with fine DRX grains was finally obtained.

  8. Hot isostatic pressing of silicon nitride Sisub3n4 containing zircon, or zirconia and silica

    Somiya, S.; Yoshimura, M.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, H.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrothermal synthesis apparatus with a 10 KB cylinder was used to obtain a sintered body of silicon nitride. The sintering auxiliary agents used were zircon (ZrSiO4) and a mixture of zirconia (ZrO2) and silica (SiO2). Experiments were conducted with the amounts of ZrSi04 or ArO2 and SiO2 varying over a wide range and the results compared to discover the quantity of additive which produced sintering in silicon nitride by the hot pressing method.

  9. Interior graphitization of furan resin-derived carbon by hot isostatic pressing

    This paper reports the investigation of morphological, textural and structural changes for furan resin-derived glass-like carbons, and the formation of spherical graphite in the carbon by hot isotropic pressing (HIP) at a temperature 2500 deg. C and under pressure 200 MPa even though the changed area took place at interior parts. We characterized the changed area by using Raman spectroscopy and XRD. It was found that the interior changes into graphite after HIP. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images the interior part consisted of spheres, whose dimensions were about 20-150 μm. This graphitization is far from the previously reported ones on hard carbons even though the changed area was limited to interior

  10. Mechanical properties of hot isostatic pressed type 316LN steel after irradiation to 2.5 dpa

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of powder is considered as a tentative manufacturing method for primary wall components of ITER. The mechanical properties of unirradiated specimens and specimens irradiated to a dose of 0.7 dpa at 290 degree sign C from HIPed powder and from wrought, reference, type 316 LN ITER grade steel have been reported earlier. Complementary tensile, low cycle fatigue and fracture toughness tests of the materials were performed after neutron irradiation to a dose of 2.5 dpa at 290 degree sign C. The results of these tests compared to those reported previously indicate that at the lower dose the HIPed steel shows more irradiation hardening and less elongation compared to the wrought material but after 2.5 dpa the properties are almost identical again. No significant difference in fatigue endurance (at a single strain range of 0.8%) was observed at a dose of 0.7 dpa. After 2.5 dpa the HIPed steel has a shorter average life, but the variation in the results was less compared to the wrought reference steel. The wrought steel behaved noticeably tougher than the HIPed after 0.7 and 2.5 dpa (JQ∼3xJQHIP). The two steels fractured in a ductile mode. Valid J1c data could not be obtained owing to specimen size limitations

  11. Thermal Shock and Ablation Behavior of Tungsten Nozzle Produced by Plasma Spray Forming and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Wang, Y. M.; Xiong, X.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xie, L.; Min, X. B.; Yan, J. H.; Xia, G. M.; Zheng, F.

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten nozzle was produced by plasma spray forming (PSF, relative density of 86 ± 2%) followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing, 97 ± 2%) at 2000 °C and 180 MPa for 180 min. Scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, Archimedes method, Vickers hardness, and tensile tests have been employed to study microstructure, phase composition, density, micro-hardness, and mechanical properties of the parts. Resistance of thermal shock and ablation behavior of W nozzle were investigated by hot-firing test on solid rocket motor (SRM). Comparing with PSF nozzle, less damage was observed for HIPed sample after SRM test. Linear ablation rate of nozzle made by PSF was (0.120 ± 0.048) mm/s, while that after HIPing reduced to (0.0075 ± 0.0025) mm/s. Three types of ablation mechanisms including mechanical erosion, thermophysical erosion, and thermochemical ablation took place during hot-firing test. The order of degree of ablation was nozzle throat > convergence > dilation inside W nozzle.

  12. Microstructure and properties of diffusion bonded Ti-6Al-4V parts using brazing-assisted hot isostatic pressing

    Highlights: → A low cost method of diffusion bonding has been developed for complex-shaped components of Ti6Al4V. → Vacuum brazing has been used to seal the periphery to allow encapsulation-free HIPping. → The tensile properties of the bonds are comparable with those of the bulk material, but the fatigue life was slightly reduced. - Abstract: Ti-6Al-4V couples have been diffusion bonded by hot isostatic pressing (HIPping) after vacuum brazing was used to seal the periphery of the bonding samples so that no encapsulation was required during HIPping. Analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the microstructure of the HIPped interface and tensile and fatigue properties of bonded samples were compared with those of the bulk starting material. The tensile properties of the bonds were shown to be comparable with those of the bulk material, but the fatigue life was slightly downgraded. The fatigue fractures were initiated by inclusions on the bonding interface, caused by contamination before bonding, but the fatigue cracks did not propagate along the bonding interface indicating a strong bond. It is concluded that this technique of vacuum brazing plus HIPping could be used for encapsulation-free HIPping to produce complex-shaped components.

  13. Effect of cold isostatic pressing on the transport current of filamentary MgB2 wire made by the IMD process

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Pachla, W.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Rosová, A.; Kopera, L.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the effect of cold isostatic pressing applied to as-drawn filamentary wires in a GlidCop and/or Cu sheath made by the internal magnesium diffusion process. Critical currents of as-drawn and isostatically pressed wires at high pressures up to 2.0 GPa followed by heat treatment at 640 °C for 40 min were measured. The obtained results show an improvement in boron powder density resulting in an increase of the critical current of MgB2 layers. The engineering current density increases by 4–13 times after the high-pressure treatment, and is influenced by the density of the boron powder and by the mechanical strength of the outer sheath.

  14. Inversion defects in MgAl2O4 elaborated by pressureless sintering, pressureless sintering plus hot isostatic pressing, and spark plasma sintering

    The distribution of inversion defects of Al was investigated in dense magnesium-aluminate spinel elaborated by pressureless sintering, pressureless sintering plus hot isostatic pressing, and spark plasma sintering. This study was conducted by energy electron loss spectroscopy analyses and more particularly by energy loss near edge structure investigations of the Al-L2,3 edge. Several aspects are discussed with the purpose of understanding why charged defects dispersal reveals a special configuration.

  15. Influence of Lubricants and Attrition Milling Parameters on the Quality of Zirconolite Ceramics, Consolidated by Hot Isostatic Pressing, for Immobilization of Plutonium

    Squire, J.; Maddrell, E.R; Hyatt, N. C.; Stennett, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of attrition milling on the processing of precursor oxides was investigated, with reference to the fabrication of titanate ceramics for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides, consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Difficulties encountered during the lubricant removal step masked any correlation between the milling conditions and the final product. Four lubricants were investigated zinc stearate, Ceridust™, polyethylene glycol and oleic acid. The precursor blends were added...

  16. Justification and manufacturing quality assurance for the use of hot Isostatically pressed, reactor coolant system components in PWR plant

    This paper presents an overview of the work undertaken by Rolls-Royce to introduce Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) components into Pressurised Water Reactor plant. It presents the work from a design justification and manufacturing quality assurance perspective, rather than from a pure metallurgical perspective, although some metallurgical and mechanical property comparisons with the traditional forged material are presented. Although the HIP process is not new, it was new in its application to Rolls-Royce designed nuclear reactor plant. In order to satisfy the regulatory requirement of 'Proven Engineering Practices' with regard to the introduction of new material processes, and to provide a robust manufacturing substantiation leg of a multi-legged safety case, Rolls-Royce has implemented an evolving, staged approach, starting with HIP bonding of solid valve seats into small bore valve pressure boundaries. This was followed by powder HIP consolidation of leak-limited, thin-walled toroids, and has culminated in the powder HIP consolidation of components, such as steam generator headers, large bore valves and pipe sections. The paper provides an overview of each of these stages and the approach taken with respect to justification. The paper describes the benefits that Rolls-Royce has realised so far through the introduction of HIPed components, and improvements planned for the future. Structural integrity benefits are described, such as improved grain structure, mechanical properties, and ultrasonic inspection. Project-based benefits are also described, such as provision of an alternative strategic sourcing route, cost and lead-time reduction. A full description is provided of key quality assurance steps applied to the process to ensure a high quality product is delivered commensurate with a high integrity nuclear application. 2008 Rolls-Royce plc. (authors)

  17. Sintering by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) of silicon carbide (SiC) nano-particles synthesized by laser pyrolysis pilot scale

    Pure or with sintering additives (Al2O3 + Y2O3) SiC nano-particles (20 nm) synthesised by laser pyrolysis at pilot scale were first cold pressed under 1 GPa and then sintered by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Pure SiC samples densified by HIP have a higher density (95%) than SPS ones (80%). With help of sintering additives, both HIP and SPS samples are near theoretical density. Smaller grain size were observed for HIP pellets (pure ∼35 nm and with additives ∼100 to 200 nm). Whereas SPS samples grain size were between 100 nm and 1 m. A primary mechanical properties study demonstrates a hardness (28 GPa) and a toughness (6.5 MPa m1/2) optimum when crystallite size is around 200 nm. (authors)

  18. Warm isostatic pressing (WIP'ing) of GS44 Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} FDC parts for defect removal

    Wu Suxing; Rangarajan, Sriram; Dai Cheng; McCuiston, Ryan; Langrana, Noshir A.; Safari, Ahmad; Danforth, Stephen C.; Clancy, Richard B.; Whalen, Philip J

    2003-12-15

    Fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) is one of the developing solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques. The successful production of high performance ceramics by the FDC process requires that no defects exist in the green parts. However, build defects, such as missing roads, poorly bonded layers or sub-perimeter voids can be encountered in improperly built FDC parts. In this study, a method known as WIP'ing (warm isostatic pressing) was evaluated for its ability to eliminate existing defects in GS44 Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} green FDC parts. Analogous to CIP'ing (cold isostatic pressing), the green FDC parts were rubber bagged and loaded into a pressure chamber filled with water soluble oil at different temperatures, ranging from 30 to 90 deg. C, at pressures of up to 35 MPa. X-Ray radiography results indicated that at temperatures above 70 deg. C, WIP'ing was effective in closing the gaps of the intentionally placed void defects in FDC parts. However, WIP'ing above 70 deg. C was not effective in healing the defects completely. The fracture strengths of FDC parts with intentional added defects, WIP'ed above 70 deg. C were substantially lower than control samples.

  19. Effect of hot isostatic pressing on the structure and properties of cast polycrystalline gas-turbine blades made of nickel superalloys

    Beresnev, A. G.

    2012-05-01

    A concept of a two-stage hot isostatic pressing (HIP) cycle is developed for castings made of nickel superalloys in order to minimize plastic deformation and the recrystallization ability of their structure. At the first stage of the cycle, diffusion pore dissolution is predominant due to the motion of vacancies toward grain boundaries in a polycrystal; at the second stage, retained coarse pores are filled during plastic deformation. The effect of uniform compression pressure during HIP and microstructure defects on the vacancy diffusion in nickel superalloys is estimated. A two-stage HIP regime is developed for processing of cast gas-turbine engine blades made of a ZhS6U alloy in order to substantially decrease the shrinkage porosity and to increase the high-temperature characteristics, including the creep and fatigue resistance.

  20. Comparative study: sensitization development in hot-isostatic-pressed cast and wrought structures type 316L(N)-IG stainless steel under isothermal heat treatment

    This work focuses on the relative sensitization resistance of type 316L(N)-IG stainless steel (SS). Cast and wrought structures SS after solid hot-isostatic pressing (solid-HIP) operation are investigated under isothermal heat treatment. Wrought SS/SS solid-HIP joint sensitization is taken also into consideration. These experiments employed the quantitative double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) and oxalic acid etch screening tests. A copper-copper sulfate-16% sulfuric acid test applied for strongly sensitized cast SS to reinforce the results were received by the methods mentioned above. Results from all employed methods correlate well. Sensitization was detected neither in cast nor in wrought SS in as-HIPed condition excluding wrought SS/SS solid-HIP joints. Significant difference between sensitization development rates was determined in cast and wrought SS structures when annealing at 675 deg. C for a duration up to 50 h

  1. Compressive behavior of NiAl/(Cr,Mo)Hf alloy prepared by high-pressure die casting and hot isostatic pressing

    DU Xing-hao; GUO Jian-ting; WU Bao-lin

    2006-01-01

    The NiAl-28Cr-5.85Mo-0.15Hf alloy was prepared by high-pressure die casting (HPDC) and subsequent hot isostatic pressing(HIP), and tested for compressible strength and fracture behavior at 300-1 373 K. The results show that the elevated temperature 0.2% compressible yield strength as well as the room-temperature compressible fracture strain of as-HIP alloy are larger than those of the same alloy prepared by directional solidification (DS). It suggests that the fine structures with a homogeneous distribution of fine Cr(Mo)and Hf-rich phase created by high-pressure die casting lead to these improvements.

  2. Formation of ultra-fine grained TiC-dispersed SUS316L by ball-milling and their consolidation by hot isostatic pressing

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass%TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316-TiC powder mixtures for 125h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperature between 700-1000degC, and the bulk materials with crystallite size ranging between 100-400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles for pinning grain boundaries and thereby to maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. (author)

  3. Understanding the Role of Hot Isostatic Pressing Parameters on the Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting

    Peter, William H [ORNL; Nandwana, Peeyush [ORNL; Kirka, Michael M [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Sames, William [Texas A& M University; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Eklund, Anders [Avure Technologies, Inc.; Howard, Ron [Avure Technologies, Inc.

    2015-04-01

    In this project, Avure and ORNL evaluated the influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and thermal cycling as standalone post processing techniques on the microstructure of electron beam powder bed deposited Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 alloys. Electron beam powder bed deposition is an effective technology for fabricating complex net shape components that cannot be manufactured with conventional processes. However, material deposited by this technology results in columnar grain growth which is detrimental for many applications. For Ti-6Al-4V, it has been found that thermal cycling alone is not sufficient to breakdown the columnar microstructure that is typical of electron beam powder bed technology. HIP, on the other hand, has the potential to be an effective technique to break down the columnar microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V into a more equiaxed and refined β grain structure, and provide a more homogeneous microstructure compared to the thermally cycled samples. Overall, the project showed that hot isostatic pressing reduced/eliminated porosity in both Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 However, based on the unique thermal cycle and the application of pressure in the HIP vessel, Ti-6Al-4V e-beam deposited microstructures were modified from columnar grain growth to equiaxed microstructures; a significant outcome to this collaboration. Inconel 718, on the other hand, shows no change in the macrostructure as a result of the current HIP cycle based on the thermal history, and would require further investigation. Though the results of HIP cycle were very good at changing the microstructure, further development in optimizing the post heat treatments and HIP cycles is required to improve mechanical properties.

  4. Manufacture and Cytotoxicity of a Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramic as a Bone Substitute—Consolidation of Porous Lithium Sodium Potassium Niobate by Cold Isostatic Pressing

    Wang, Qi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Wu; Khoie, Roxanne; Li, Yi-ming; Zhu, Jian-guo; Chen, Zhi-qing

    2009-01-01

    Aim The piezoelectric properties and cytotoxicity of a porous lead-free piezoelectric ceramic for use as a direct bone substitute were investigated. Methodology Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was applied to fabricate porous lithium sodium potassium niobate (Li0.06Na0.5K0.44) NbO3 specimens using a pore-forming method. The morphologies of the CIP-processed specimens were characterized and compared to those of specimens made by from conventional pressing procedures. The effects of the ceramic on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts isolated from the cranium of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were examined by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Results The results showed that CIP enhanced piezoelectricity and biological performance of the niobate specimen, and also promoted an extracellular matrix-like topography of it. In vitro studies showed that the CIP-enhanced material had positive effects on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts. Conclusion Niobate ceramic generated by CIP shows a promise for being a piezoelectric composite bone substitute. PMID:20687302

  5. Isostatic hot-pressing mechanism maps for pure and natural sodium chloride - applications to nuclear waste isolation in bedded and domal salt formations

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy research and development facility which is intended to demonstrate the safe geologic disposal of transuranic wastes. In this paper, the model for isostatic hot-pressing which was developed by Helle et al. is applied to the problem of compaction of both pure NaCl and natural (WIPP) salt to develop a model capable of predicting densification rates as a function of temperature and applied pressure. Calculations for pure dry NaCl suggest that under conditions in situ, the contribution to densification by diffusional processes is negligible; all compaction will occur by dislocation creep. Assuming then that compaction will occur only by dislocation processes, the model is extended to nominally dry, WIPP rock salt. Model predictions are shown to agree favourably with available test data, and the kinds of laboratory tests that may be done to validate the model are discussed. Hot-pressing mechanism maps for dry WIPP salt under anticipated repository conditions indicate that fractional densities in excess of 0.95 are attained in about 30 yr. At this density, connected porosity , and hence permeability, diminish rapidly, and the recompacted salt can begin to serve as an effective seal material. This prediction underestimates consolidation rates in situ, because moist salt will compact even more rapidly. It will be shown how the model may be extended to include the effects of brine on densification rates. (author)

  6. Hot-isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by grain boundary diffusion and creep cavitation. Part 2: Theory and data analysis

    Uranium-10 wt % zirconium (U-10Zr) is a fuel alloy that has been used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The high burnup that was desired in this fuel system made high demands on the mechanical compatibility between fuel and cladding both during normal operation and during safety-related transients when rapid differential expansion may cause high stresses. In general, this mechanical stress can be reduced by cladding deformation if the cladding is sufficiently ductile at high burnup, and/or by fuel hot-pressing. Fortunately, the fuel is very porous when it contacts the cladding, but this porosity gradually fills with solid fission products (primarily lanthanides) that may limit the fuel's compressibility. If the porosity remains open, gaseous fission products are released and the porous fuel creeps rather than hot-presses under contact stresses. If the pores are closed by sintering or by solid fission products, the porous fuel will hot-isostatic press (HIP), as represented by the models to be discussed. HIP experiments performed at 700 C on U-10Zr samples with different impurity phase contents (Part 1) are analyzed in terms of several creep cavitation models. The coupled diffusion/creep cavitation model of Chen and Argon shows good quantitative agreement with measured HIP rates for hydride- and metal-derived U-10Zr materials, assuming that pores are uniformly distributed on grain boundaries and are of modal size, and that far-field strain rates are negligible. The analysis predicts, for the first time, an asymmetry between HIP and swelling at identical pressure-induced driving forces due to differences in grain boundary stresses. The differences in compressibility of hydride- and metal-derived U-10Zr can be partially explained by differences in pore size and spacing. The relevance of the experiments to description of in-reactor densification under external pressure or contact stress due to fuel/cladding mechanical interaction is discussed

  7. Afterglow performance enhancement and mechanism studies on Y2O2S:Eu,Mg,Ti prepared via cold isostatic pressing

    Highlights: • The long-afterglow material is process-dependent. • We adopt a modified sulphide-fusion route to synthesise Y2O2S:Eu,Mg,Ti. • The afterglow results from Ti-related defects and Ti also creates harmful defects. • The Mg2+ ions effectively modulate the depth and concentration of the traps. • The codoping of Mg2+–Ti4+ ion pairs reduces the harmful defects. -- Abstract: A Y2O2S:Eu,Mg,Ti material was prepared via a modified sulphide-fusion route. Compared with the traditional solid-state reaction method, the obtained Y2O2S:Eu,Mg,Ti showed smaller, more uniform particles with higher brightness. The afterglow mechanism study indicated that the long-afterglow material is process-dependent and that its performance is determined by recipe, preparation technology and process used. The luminescence centres of Y2O2S:Ti; Y2O2S:Eu,Ti and Y2O2S:Eu,Mg,Ti are Ti4+ ions, Ti4+ + Eu3+ ions and Ti4+ + Eu3+ ions, respectively. The afterglow decay curve cannot be fitted using the exponential equation or first-, second-, third-order exponential decay multiple equations beyond 30 min. The afterglow luminescence of the materials resulted from Ti-related defects that make up two new trap levels. Ti doping created numerous harmful companying defects that decrease luminescence efficiency. Doping of Mg2+ ions facilitated the introduction of Ti4+ ions into the Y2O2S lattice to effectively modulate the depth and concentration of the trap. Doping of Mg2+–Ti4+ ion pairs reduced the number of harmful defects through the formation of a compensation-type hetero-valent substitution solid solution that greatly enhance the afterglow performance. Cold isostatic pressing promoted the entry of Ti ions into the Y2O2S crystal lattice and eliminated defects, such as preferred orientation. In addition, cold isostatic pressing reduced the E2 to 0.9 eV, which is beneficial to the long afterglow of the resulting material at room temperature

  8. Development of ultra high strength nano-Y2O3 dispersed ferritic steel by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing

    Highlights: → Nano-Y2O3 dispersed FeCrTiAl ferritic alloys developed by mechanical alloying. → Over 99% density (7.32-7.38 Mg/m3) achieved by hot isostatic pressing. → Dispersion of nanometric Y2Ti2O7, Y2O3, Fe11TiY or Al9.22Cr2.78Y is uniform. → Extremely high compressive strength, modulus, fracture toughness, hardness achieved. → Compressive strength is 2-3 times higher with lower density than similar ODS steel. - Abstract: The present investigation aims to develop ultra high strength ferritic steels through consolidation of mechanically alloyed powders of 1.0 wt% nano-Y2O3 dispersed 83.0Fe-13.5Cr-2.0Al-0.5Ti (alloy A), 79.0Fe-17.5Cr-2.0Al-0.5Ti (alloy B), 75.0Fe-21.5Cr-2.0Al-0.5Ti (alloy C) and 71.0Fe-25.5Cr-2.0Al-0.5Ti (alloy D) alloys (all in wt%) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 600, 800 and 1000 deg. C using 1.2 GPa pressure for 1 h. Following this mechano-chemical synthesis and consolidation, extensive effort has been undertaken to characterize the microstructural evolution by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Mechanical properties including hardness, compressive strength, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were determined using nano-indentation and universal testing machine. The present ferritic alloys record extraordinary levels of compressive strength (2012-3325 MPa), Young's modulus (230-295 GPa), fracture toughness (4.6-21.8 MPa √m) and hardness (15.5-19.7 GPa), and measure up to 2-3 times greater strength with a lower density (∼7.4 Mg/m3) than that of other oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (2O3 (ex situ) or Y2Ti2O7 (in situ) particles in higher volume fraction in high-Cr ferritic matrix.

  9. Combining Aluminum Heat Treat with Hot Isostatic Pressing:A Comparison of Structure, Properties, and Processing Routes for a Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy

    Stephen J. Mashl

    2004-01-01

    Bodycote researchers have successfully demonstrated that a T6 heat treatment can be integrated with Densal(R), a proprietary, aluminum specific, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. In this combined operation, at least a portion of the solution heat treatment is conducted at elevated pressure. During development, two issues, adiabatic cooling during depressurization and a possible variation in the kinetics of homogenization resulting from conducting the solution heat treat at elevated pressure were perceived as factors which could alter the heat treat response fiom that seen in conventional processing.This paper reviews the results of experiments performed to A1-Si-Mg (A356.0) castings subjected to both combined and conventional processing routes. Results indicate that the combined HIP and heat treat process is an efficient means of achieving a microstructure characteristic of a conventionally T6 processed material while eliminating porosity within the casting. Further, the fatigue life of an A356.0 casting processed using the combined cycle can be improved by more than an order of magnitude over the as-cast and T6 treated component.

  10. Development of manufacturing technology of radial plate in superconducting coil for fusion reactor by diffusion bonding by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)

    The radial plates (RPs), which is used in Toroidal field (TF) coil in ITER, are quite large, such as 13 m tall and 9 m wide, but thin, such as 10 cm thick, and are made of stainless steel. Even though they are very large structures, they require very high manufacturing tolerances and high mechanical strength at 4 K. The similar requirements will be required in the next generation fusion reactor. Therefore, the authors intend to develop efficient manufacturing methods in parallel with ITER TF coil RP manufacture. The authors therefore performed trial manufacture of the RP segments using a diffusion bonding method, namely Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). As a result of trials, it was clarified that even when HIPping is applied, the mechanical characteristic of base metal is not deteriorated. The machining period can be reduced by about 1/3 compared with the traditional manufacturing method. On the other hand, mechanical strength at 4 K is degraded due to weak bonding, that is no grain growth through joint, by HIPping. However, additional test indicates promising possibility of much better joint by higher temperature and joint surface treated HIPpings. These results justified that RP segment manufacturing is not only possible, but it is a technically valid manufacturing method that satisfies all requirements. (author)

  11. Isostatic hot-pressing mechanism maps for pure and natural sodium chloride: Applications to nuclear waste isolation in bedded and domal salt formations

    The mechanical behavior of crushed rock salt is of interest to the WIPP Project because the mined WIPP salt is a candidate material for use as backfill around the waste packages and in the underground openings during and after the operational phase. It is anticipated that in response to the convergence of the mine openings, the crushed salt will compact sufficiently to serve as an effective component in WIPP seal systems. In this report, the model for isostatic hot-pressing is applied to the problem of compaction of both pure sodium chloride and natural (WIPP) salt to develop a model capable of predicting densification rates as a function of temperature and applied pressure. Calculations for pure dry salt suggest that under conditions in situ, the contribution to densification by diffusional processes is negligible; all compaction will occur by dislocation creep. Assuming then that compaction will occur only by dislocation processes, the model is extended to nominally dry, WIPP salt. Model predictions are shown to agree favorably with limited test data, and the kinds of laboratory tests that may be done to validate the model are discussed. 78 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Effect of Oxygen Content Upon the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Type 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Manufactured by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Cooper, Adam J.; Cooper, Norman I.; Dhers, Jean; Sherry, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Although hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has been shown to demonstrate significant advances over more conventional manufacture routes, it is important to appreciate and quantify the detrimental effects of oxygen involvement during the HIP manufacture process on the microstructural and material properties of the resulting component. This paper quantifies the effects of oxygen content on the microstructure and Charpy impact properties of HIP'd austenitic stainless steel, through combination of detailed metallographic examination and mechanical testing on HIP'd Type 316L steel containing different concentrations (100 to 190 ppm) of oxygen. Micron-scale pores were visible in the microstructure of the HIP'd materials postmetallographic preparation, which result from the removal of nonmetallic oxide inclusions during metallographic preparation. The area fraction of the resulting pores is shown to correlate with the oxygen concentration which influences the Charpy impact toughness over the temperature range of 77 K to 573 K (-196 °C to 300 °C), and demonstrates the influence of oxygen involved during the HIP manufacture process on Charpy toughness. The same test procedures and microstructural analyses were performed on commercially available forged 316L. This showed comparatively fewer inclusions and exhibited higher Charpy impact toughness over the tested temperature range.

  13. Properties of 8-inch photomultiplier tubes for a large volume imaging water Cerenkov detector; Untersuchung der Eigenschaften hemisphaerischer 8-inch Photomultiplier fuer einen grossvolumigen Wasser-Cerenkov-Detektor

    Oehler, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the Institut fuer Kernphysik I conceptional studies for a possible succession project for the KARMEN-{nu}-detector are performed. This design studies propose to build a large volume 1300 t imaging water Cerenkov detector. The main goal of this experiment will be the investigation of {nu}-e{sup -}-scattering in the medium energy range up to 50 MeV. The sensitive surface of this detector will be instrumented with about 3000 8-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMT) providing a coverage of 20%. In the framework of this detector design, studies of the properties of hemispherical 8-inch phototubes have been investigated in this work. The topic was to optimise the quality of the important PMT properties like time- and energy-resolution which are crucial to achieve the required spatial and angular resolutions. A second task of this work was to construct a test facility for the PMT, with the possibility to test large quantities. Monte Carlo calculations show that the required detector resolutions of {sigma}{sub E}/E(E{sub e}{<=}50 MeV)=5.2%+47%/{radical}E, {sigma}{sub t}(E{sub e}{approx}30 MeV)=0.6 ns, {sigma}{sub x}(E{sub e}{approx}30 MeV)=13 cm, {sigma}{sub {Theta}}(E{sub e}{approx}30 MeV)=20 , can be achieved if the phototubes have a transit-time spread less than 1 ns. Up to now, two different 8-inch tubes are available and have been tested, the HAMAMATSU R5912 and the EMI 9353. (orig.)

  14. Sintering of ZrC by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Effect of impurities

    Allemand, Alexandre [CEA Saclay, DRT/DTEN/S3ME/LTMEx, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Flem - Dormeval, Marion [CEA Saclay, DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guillard, Francois [CNRS-CEMES-CMI, 29 rue J.Marving, 31000 Toulouse (France)

    2005-07-01

    Carbides are generally used as structural materials for high temperature applications. Particularly, ZrC because of low activation, neutronic transparency, cubic structure (isotropic behaviour) and good thermal conductivity, is one of the candidates under consideration for structural materials in the core of new high temperature nuclear reactors (Generation IV). Just a few studies about densification of monolithic ZrC exist. They mainly involve natural sintering or hot pressing at high temperature (until 2700 deg. C). Unfortunately those processes induce grain growth and do not lead to fully densified ZrC. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and the properties of ZrC sintered by HIP and by SPS. Fully dense ZrC can be reached either by HIP or by SPS, grain size being more or less controlled. Microstructural observations and mechanical testing of several ZrC grades shows that powder impurities play an important role in the quality of the grain boundaries and consequently in the mechanical properties. In particular, the porosity falls from 17% to 3 % just by reducing the free carbon content in starting ZrC powder. The densification process of dense monolithic ZrC was improved by combining a HIP at 1600 deg. C (titanium canning) followed by a post-HIP at 1900 deg. C (no canning required). Four-point bending tests are in progress to confirm the improvement of fracture strength. (authors)

  15. Sintering of ZrC by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Effect of impurities

    Carbides are generally used as structural materials for high temperature applications. Particularly, ZrC because of low activation, neutronic transparency, cubic structure (isotropic behaviour) and good thermal conductivity, is one of the candidates under consideration for structural materials in the core of new high temperature nuclear reactors (Generation IV). Just a few studies about densification of monolithic ZrC exist. They mainly involve natural sintering or hot pressing at high temperature (until 2700 deg. C). Unfortunately those processes induce grain growth and do not lead to fully densified ZrC. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and the properties of ZrC sintered by HIP and by SPS. Fully dense ZrC can be reached either by HIP or by SPS, grain size being more or less controlled. Microstructural observations and mechanical testing of several ZrC grades shows that powder impurities play an important role in the quality of the grain boundaries and consequently in the mechanical properties. In particular, the porosity falls from 17% to 3 % just by reducing the free carbon content in starting ZrC powder. The densification process of dense monolithic ZrC was improved by combining a HIP at 1600 deg. C (titanium canning) followed by a post-HIP at 1900 deg. C (no canning required). Four-point bending tests are in progress to confirm the improvement of fracture strength. (authors)

  16. Manufacturing and mechanical property test of the large-scale oxide dispersion strengthened martensitic mother tube by hot isostatic pressing and hot extrusion process

    Mass production capability of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding (9Cr) is evaluated in the Phase II of the Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. The cost for manufacturing mother tube is a dominant factor in the total cost for manufacturing ODS ferritic cladding. In this study, the large-scale 9Cr-ODS martensitic mother tube was produced by overseas supplier with mass production equipments for commercialized ODS steels. The process of manufacturing the ODS mother tube consists of raw material powder production, mechanical alloying by high energy ball mill, hot isostatic pressing(HIP), and hot extrusion. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Micro structure of the ODS steels is equivalent to that of domestic products, and fine oxides are uniformly distributed. The mechanical alloying by large capacity (1 ton) ball mill can be satisfactorily carried out. (2) A large scale mother tube (65 mm OD x 48 mm ID x 10,000 mm L), which can produce about 60 pieces of 3 m length ODS ferritic claddings by four times cold rolling, have been successfully manufactured through HIP and Hot Extrusion process. (3) Rough surface of the mother tubes produced in this study can be improved by selecting the reasonable hot extrusion condition. (4) Hardness and tensile strength of the manufactured ODS steels are lower than domestic products with same chemical composition. This is owing to the high aluminum content in the product, and those properties could be improved by decreasing the aluminum content in the raw material powder. (author)

  17. Growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during hot isostatic pressing of U-10 wt.% Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 cladding with Zr diffusion barrier

    Phase constituents and microstructure changes in RERTR fuel plate assemblies as functions of temperature and duration of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) during fabrication were examined. The HIP process was carried out as functions of temperature (520, 540, 560 and 580 °C for 90 min) and time (45–345 min at 560 °C) to bond 6061 Al-alloy to the Zr diffusion barrier that had been co-rolled with U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) fuel monolith prior to the HIP process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed to examine the phase constituents, microstructure and layer thickness of interaction products from interdiffusion. At the interface between the U10Mo and Zr, following the co-rolling, the UZr2 phase was observed to develop adjacent to Zr, and the α-U phase was found between the UZr2 and U10Mo, while the Mo2Zr was found as precipitates mostly within the α-U phase. The phase constituents and thickness of the interaction layer at the U10Mo-Zr interface remained unchanged regardless of HIP processing variation. Observable growth due to HIP was only observed for the (Al,Si)3Zr phase found at the Zr/AA6061 interface, however, with a large activation energy of 457 ± 28 kJ/mole. Thus, HIP can be carried to improve the adhesion quality of fuel plate without concern for the excessive growth of the interaction layer, particularly at the U10Mo-Zr interface with the α-U, Mo2Zr, and UZr2 phases

  18. Properties of 8-inch photomultiplier tubes for a large volume imaging water Cerenkov detector

    In the Institut fuer Kernphysik I conceptional studies for a possible succession project for the KARMEN-ν-detector are performed. This design studies propose to build a large volume 1300 t imaging water Cerenkov detector. The main goal of this experiment will be the investigation of ν-e--scattering in the medium energy range up to 50 MeV. The sensitive surface of this detector will be instrumented with about 3000 8-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMT) providing a coverage of 20%. In the framework of this detector design, studies of the properties of hemispherical 8-inch phototubes have been investigated in this work. The topic was to optimise the quality of the important PMT properties like time- and energy-resolution which are crucial to achieve the required spatial and angular resolutions. A second task of this work was to construct a test facility for the PMT, with the possibility to test large quantities. Monte Carlo calculations show that the required detector resolutions of σE/E(Ee≤50 MeV)=5.2%+47%/√E, σt(Ee∼30 MeV)=0.6 ns, σx(Ee∼30 MeV)=13 cm, σΘ(Ee∼30 MeV)=20 , can be achieved if the phototubes have a transit-time spread less than 1 ns. Up to now, two different 8-inch tubes are available and have been tested, the HAMAMATSU R5912 and the EMI 9353. (orig.)

  19. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; König, A.; Hacker, J.; Bartl, U.

    2016-09-01

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  20. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  1. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5 x 8 inches LaBr3:Ce Detectors

    Giaz, A; Riboldi, S; Camera, F; Blasi, N; Boiano, C; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Ceruti, S; Coelli, S; Crespi, F C L; Csatlòs, M; Frega, S; Gulyàs, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Lodetti, S; Million, B; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Stuhl, L; Wieland, O

    2013-01-01

    The properties of large volume cylindrical 3.5 x 8 inches (89 mm x 203 mm) LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL photo-multiplier tube were investigated. These crystals are among the largest ones ever produced and still need to be fully characterized to determine how these detectors can be utilized and in which applications. We tested the detectors using monochromatic gamma-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing gamma rays up to 22.6 MeV; we acquired PMT signal pulses and calculated detector energy resolution and response linearity as a function of gamma-ray energy. Two different voltage dividers were coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL PMT: the Hamamatsu E1198-26, based on straightforward resistive network design, and the LABRVD, specifically designed for our large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors, which also includes active semiconductor devices. Because of the extremely high light yield of LaBr3:Ce crystals we observed that, depending on the choice of PMT, v...

  2. Design evaluation of the 20-cm (8-inch) secondary burner system

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing 20-cm (8-inch) engineering-scale secondary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) secondary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype secondary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling subsystems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes internal gas cooling of the burner, retains the existing heating subsystem for design compatibility, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated.

  3. Performance of new 8-inch photomultiplier tube used for the Tibet muon-detector array

    Huang, Ying Zhangm Jing; Zhai, Liu-Ming; Chen, Xu; Hu, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Feng, Cun-Feng; Jia, Huan-Yu; Zhou, Xun-Xiu; Dan-Zen, Luo-bu; Chen, Tian-Lu; Laba, Ci-Ren; Mao-Yuan,; Gao, Qi; Zha-xi, Ci-ren

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid experiment has been constructed to measure the chemical composition of cosmic rays around the "knee" in the wide energy range by the Tibet AS$\\gamma$ collaboration at Tibet, China, since 2014. They consist of a high-energy air-shower-core array (YAC-II), a high-density air-shower array (Tibet-III) and a large underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector array (MD). In order to obtain the primary proton, helium and iron spectra and their "knee" positions in the energy range lower than $10^{16}$ eV, each of PMTs equipped to the MD cell is required to measure the number of photons capable of covering a wide dynamic range of 100 - $10^{6}$ photoelectrons (PEs) according to Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we firstly compare the characteristic features between R5912-PMT made by Japan Hamamatsu and CR365-PMT made by Beijing Hamamatsu. This is the first comparison between R5912-PMT and CR365-PMT. If there exists no serious difference, we will then add two 8-inch-in-diameter PMTs to meet our requirem...

  4. Performance of new 8-inch photomultiplier tube used for the Tibet muon-detector array

    Zhang, Y.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Zhai, L.-M.; Chen, X.; Hu, X.-B.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jin, H.-B.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Feng, C.-F.; Jia, H.-Y.; Zhou, X.-X.; Danzengluobu; Chen, T.-L.; Labaciren; Liu, M.-Y.; Gao, Q.; Zhaxiciren

    2016-06-01

    Since 2014, a new hybrid experiment consisting of a high-energy air-shower-core array (YAC-II), a high-density air-shower array (Tibet-III) and a large underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector array (MD) has been continued by the Tibet ASγ collaboration to measure the chemical composition of cosmic rays in the wide energy range including the ``knee''. In this experiment, YAC-II is used to select high energy core events induced by cosmic rays in the above energy region, while MD is used to estimate the type of nucleus of primary particles by measuring the number of muons contained in the air showers. However, the dynamic range of each MD cell is only 5 to 2000 photoelectrons (PEs) which is mainly designed for observation of high-energy celestial gamma rays. In order to obtain the primary proton, helium and iron spectra and their ``knee'' positions with energy up to 1016 eV, each of PMTs equipped to the MD cell is required to measure the number of photons capable of covering a wide dynamic range of 100–106 PEs according to Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we firstly compare the characteristic features between R5912-PMT made by Japan Hamamatsu and CR365-PMT made by Beijing Hamamatsu. If there exists no serious difference, we will then add two 8-inch-in-diameter PMTs to meet our requirements in each MD cell, which are responsible for the range of 100–10000 PEs and 2000–1000000 PEs, respectively. That is, MD cell is expected to be able to measure the number of muons over 6 orders of magnitudes.

  5. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  6. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  7. Effect of Hot Isostatic Pressing on Corrosion-Resistant Property of Aluminum Coating on Uranium Surface%热等静压处理对铀表面铝镀层耐腐蚀性能的影响

    王庆富; 张羽廷; 谢东华; 张鹏程; 刘婷婷

    2011-01-01

    采用热等静压(HIP)技术对铀表面铝镀层进行处理,利用电化学测试技术、扫描电镜(SEM)及X射线能谱(EDS)对样品在50 μL/L Cl的KC1水溶液中的电化学腐蚀行为进行研究.结果表明:200℃,0.5 h,60 MPa HIP处理的铝镀层耐腐蚀性能优于未处理镀层;480℃,1.0 h,60MPa HIP处理镀层的耐腐蚀性能下降较为明显;HIP处理后样品的腐蚀特征为典型的局部腐蚀,在腐蚀过程中会出现镀层的破裂、剥落.%Aluminum coating on the uranium surface was treated with hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Then the electrochemical corrosion behavior of samples in SO Μl/L Cl- K.C1 solution were investigated by electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results indicate that the corrosion-resistant property of the aluminum coating HIPed at 200 °C, 0.S h, 60 Mpa is better than that of the untreated coating, while the corrosion-resistant property is decreased for the coating with HIP at 480 °C, 1.0 h, 60 Mpa. The corrosion characteristics of the HIPed aluminum coating is typical local corrosion, and the coating presents cracking and flaking off during corrosion process.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Zirconia Parts via Selective Laser Sintering Combined with Cold Isostatic Pressing%氧化锆零件激光选区烧结/冷等静压复合成形技术

    史玉升; 刘凯; 李晨辉; 魏青松; 刘洁; 夏思婕

    2014-01-01

    氧化锆陶瓷材料以其优异的性能在工业生产中具有极大的应用前景,但由于脆性大、硬度高等原因,复杂形状氧化锆零件往往难以成形和加工。为了获得复杂形状氧化锆陶瓷零件,通过溶剂沉淀法将粘接剂尼龙12覆膜至纳米氧化锆粉末的表面,然后对覆膜后的粉体进行激光选区烧结(Selective laser sintering, SLS)成形,并通过传统的冷等静压(Cold isostatic pressing, CIP)技术对SLS零件进行致密化处理,同时满足氧化锆初坯成形时形状复杂度和密度的要求。通过试验得出在激光能量密度为0.415 J/mm2时,获得的SLS陶瓷件密度较大,对不同激光能量密度制备的SLS陶瓷件进行保压压力为200 MPa的冷等静压致密化处理,根据热脱脂机理以及粘接剂的TG曲线,分别制定了SLS/CIP试样的热脱脂工艺,最后对脱脂试样进行高温烧结,在后续处理的各环节,氧化锆零件的密度仍受SLS成形的影响,但该影响逐渐减弱,SLS/CIP/FS成形件最大相对密度和维氏硬度分别达到了97%和1180 HV1,已接近“模压-烧结”的致密氧化锆陶瓷的性能,在试样断口的扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析基础上,对氧化锆复合成形的微观演变进行了研究。虽然最终烧结件密度和硬度仍有待提高,但是提出了一种极具潜力的氧化锆零件近净成形工艺方法,为制造高性能复杂形状的陶瓷零件奠定了基础。%Zirconia has great application prospect for its excellent properties in the industrial production. But due to high brittleness and hardness, complex shape zirconia parts are often difficult to form and machine. To obtain complex zirconia parts, nano-zirconia powder is coated by the binder nylon 12 by solvent precipitation method. Coated powder is then formed via selective laser sintering (SLS) combined with cold isostatic pressing (CIP). Through the experiment, when laser energy density is 0

  9. 氧化锆零件激光选区烧结/冷等静压复合成形技术%Additive Manufacturing of Zirconia Parts via Selective Laser Sintering Combined with Cold Isostatic Pressing

    史玉升; 刘凯; 李晨辉; 魏青松; 刘洁; 夏思婕

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia has great application prospect for its excellent properties in the industrial production. But due to high brittleness and hardness, complex shape zirconia parts are often difficult to form and machine. To obtain complex zirconia parts, nano-zirconia powder is coated by the binder nylon 12 by solvent precipitation method. Coated powder is then formed via selective laser sintering (SLS) combined with cold isostatic pressing (CIP). Through the experiment, when laser energy density is 0.415 J/mm2, SLS ceramics had the biggest density. The subsequent 200 MPa CIP process is carried out on SLS parts with different laser energy density. According to the thermal debinding mechanism and TG curve of the binder, the reasonable thermal debinding process is formulated respectively. After furnace sintering (FS), with the steps of subsequent processing increased, parts affected by the SLS forming process gradually weakened, the largest relative density and Vickers hardness of SLS/CIP/FS parts are respectively 97%and 1180 HV1, radial and axial shrinkage rate were 58.1% and 67.8% respectively, and fracture of specimens are analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Although the final density and hardness of the ZrO2 are still to be improved, a potential technical method for manufacturing complex zirconia parts with high performance is provided.%氧化锆陶瓷材料以其优异的性能在工业生产中具有极大的应用前景,但由于脆性大、硬度高等原因,复杂形状氧化锆零件往往难以成形和加工。为了获得复杂形状氧化锆陶瓷零件,通过溶剂沉淀法将粘接剂尼龙12覆膜至纳米氧化锆粉末的表面,然后对覆膜后的粉体进行激光选区烧结(Selective laser sintering, SLS)成形,并通过传统的冷等静压(Cold isostatic pressing, CIP)技术对SLS零件进行致密化处理,同时满足氧化锆初坯成形时形状复杂度和密度的要求。通过试验得出在激光能量密度为0.415 J

  10. Sintering and hot isostatic post-densification of silicon carbide

    Silicon carbide has been mixed with additives of boron and/or aluminium with simultaneous addition of carbon, then it has been formed to bending bars by cold isostatic pressing. In point of density, microstructure and strength, the hot densification by pressureless sintering and hot isostatic post-densification showed comparable results as sintering and hot isostatic pressing in the same cycle (Sinter/HIP). For all chosen additives for SiC the obtained sintered density was sufficient for a post-densification. The boron additive caused increased grain growth during sintering and hot isostatic post-densification, which had a negative result on the bending strength. A too high post-densification temperature causes a decrease in strength while considerably coarsening the grain, too. By hot isostatic post-densification with argon as a pressure gas normally the strength level is increased, while the scattering of the data decreases simultaneously. A post-densification in nitrogen as pressure gas shows no advantage; however, surface defects seem to heal by a long-term annealing in N2-gas. If the Sinter/HIP process is controlled, this procedure offers economic advantages compared with sintering and post-densification in separate units. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of various isostatic marine gravity disturbances

    Robert Tenzer; Mohammad Bagherbandi; Lars E Sjöberg

    2015-08-01

    We present and compare four types of the isostatic gravity disturbances compiled at sea level over the world oceans and marginal seas. These isostatic gravity disturbances are computed by applying the Airy–Heiskanen (AH), Pratt–Hayford (PH) and Vening Meinesz–Moritz (VMM) isostatic models. In addition, we compute the complete crust-stripped (CCS) isostatic gravity disturbances which are defined based on a principle of minimizing their spatial correlation with the Moho geometry. We demonstrate that each applied compensation scheme yields a distinctive spatial pattern in the resulting isostatic marine gravity field. The AH isostatic gravity disturbances provide the smoothest gravity field (by means of their standard deviation). The AH and VMM isostatic gravity disturbances have very similar spatial patterns due to the fact that the same isostatic principle is applied in both these definitions expect for assuming a local (in the former) instead of a global (in the latter) compensation mechanism. The PH isostatic gravity disturbances are highly spatially correlated with the ocean-floor relief. The CCS isostatic gravity disturbances reveal a signature of the ocean-floor spreading characterized by an increasing density of the oceanic lithosphere with age.

  12. U.S. Isostatic Residual Gravity Grid

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isores.bin - standard grid containing isostatic residual gravity map for U.S. Grid interval = 4 km. Projection is Albers (central meridian = 96 degrees West; base...

  13. Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-04-01

    The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating masses remains the same. We compare two alternative models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which cannot be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also, the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from existing seismic observations. The second isostatic model includes the Moho, which is based on seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). According to this model, the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield is less dense than under the Platform. In the Arabian platform, the maximum density coincides with the Rub' al Khali, one of the richest oil basin in the world. This finding agrees with previous studies, showing that such basins are often underlain by dense mantle, possibly related to an eclogite layer that has caused their subsidence. The mantle density variations might be also a result of variations of the lithosphere thickness. With the combined isostatic model, it is possible to minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies correspond well to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies, showing isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere, are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  14. Idaho Batholith Study Area Isostatic Gravity Grid

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer isostatic gravity grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  15. Anchored boundary conditions for locally isostatic networks

    Theran, Louis; Nixon, Anthony; Ross, Elissa; Sadjadi, Mahdi; Servatius, Brigitte; Thorpe, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    Finite pieces of locally isostatic networks have a large number of floppy modes because of missing constraints at the surface. Here we show that by imposing suitable boundary conditions at the surface the network can be rendered effectively isostatic. We refer to these as anchored boundary conditions. An important example is formed by a two-dimensional network of corner sharing triangles, which is the focus of this paper. Another way of rendering such networks isostatic is by adding an external wire along which all unpinned vertices can slide (sliding boundary conditions). This approach also allows for the incorporation of boundaries associated with internal holes and complex sample geometries, which are illustrated with examples. The recent synthesis of bilayers of vitreous silica has provided impetus for this work. Experimental results from the imaging of finite pieces at the atomic level need such boundary conditions, if the observed structure is to be computer refined so that the interior atoms have the perception of being in an infinite isostatic environment.

  16. Uncertainty in Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment

    Milne, G. A.; Lecavalier, B.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjaer, K. H.; Wolstencroft, M.; Wake, L. M.; Ross Simpson, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    It is well known that the interpretation of geodetic data in Greenland to constrain recent ice mass changes requires knowledge of isostatic land motion associated with past changes in the ice sheet. In this talk we will consider a variety of factors that limit how well the signal due to past mass...... changes (commonly referred to as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)) can be defined. Predictions based on a new model of Greenland GIA will be shown. Using these predictions as a reference, we will consider the influence of plausible variations in some key aspects of both the Earth and ice load components...... periods of the ice history with a focus on the past few thousand years. In particular, we will show predictions of contemporary land motion and gravity changes due to loading changes following the Little Ice Age computed using a new reconstruction of ice thickness changes based largely on empirical data...

  17. 2.5-min Isostatic Gravity Grid for the United States

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2.5-min isostatic gravity data set was produced by regridding the 4-km residual isostatic gravity grid of the U.S. The isostatic residual gravity grid was...

  18. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, σ, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (≈ 2 -5 μm grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 μm diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 μm thick granular dolomite layer

  19. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps

    Mey, Juergen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D.; Egholm, David L.; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-04-01

    Present-day vertical movements of the Earth's surface are mostly due to tectonic deformation, volcanic processes, and crustal loading/unloading. In tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia, vertical movements are almost entirely attributable to glacial isostatic rebound after the melting of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets. In contrast, the Pleistocene Alpine icecap grew on a younger mountain belt that formed by collision of the European and African plates, still subject to shortening. Therefore, measured uplift is potentially a composite signal of tectonic shortening and unloading after deglaciation and concomitant erosion. Deciphering the contributions of tectonics and crustal unloading to present-day uplift rates in formerly-glaciated mountain belts is a prerequisite to using uplift data to estimate the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle, a key variable in geodynamics. We evaluate the post-LGM glacial-isostatic rebound of the Alps following a 4-tiered procedure. First, we estimated the thickness distribution of sedimentary valley fills to create a bedrock map of the entire mountain belt. Second, this map was used as topographic basis for the reconstruction of the Alpine icecap using a numerical ice-flow model. Third, we estimated the equilibrium deflection of the Alpine lithosphere, using the combined loads of ice and sediments with a variable effective elastic thickness. Finally, we used an exponential decay function to infer the residual deflection and the present-day uplift rate for a range of upper mantle viscosities. Our analysis shows that virtually all of the geodetically measured surface uplift in the Swiss and the Austrian Alps can be attributed to glacial unloading and redistribution of sediments, assuming an upper-mantle viscosity lower than that inferred for an old craton (e.g., Fennoscandia), but higher than that for a region with recent crustal thinning (e.g., Basin and Range province).

  20. Mechanical Properties from PBX 9501 Pressing Study

    Graff Thompson, Darla; Wright, Walter J.

    2004-07-01

    A PBX 9501 pressing study was conducted by researchers in ESA-WMM, LANL, to identify the hydrostatic pressing parameters most important in fabricating high-density parts with uniform density. In this study, 31 charges were pressed using a full permutation of six pressing parameters. Five charges from the set of 31 were selected for an evaluation of their mechanical properties, specifically uniaxial compression and tension. Charges were selected to 1) span the density range of the study, and 2) allow two direct comparisons of pressing parameters independent of bulk density (density has a well-established affect on some material properties). Three PBX 9501 charges pressed isostatically at Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX were also included in the study. The tensile properties of the 8 charges varied significantly. Careful evaluation of the results suggests that an increase in pressing temperature may correlate with an increase in tensile stress (strength) and a decrease in strain (ductility). Trends in compression exist but are less pronounced. In an effort to explore the relationship between pressing temperature and tensile strength, four sheets of Estane polymer (a component of the PBX 9501 binder) were compression molded at 70, 90, 110 and 130°C. The tensile strength of Estane was observed to increase by a factor of nearly 20 when the molding temperature was increased from 70 to 90°C (strength increase was negligible beyond 90°C). We present an outline of ongoing work that will irrefutably quantify the mechanical property affects of both pressing temperature and dwell time on PBX 9501.(LA-UR 03-4842).

  1. La presse

    Bret, Patrice; Chappey, Jean-Luc; Conforti, Maria; Kury, Lorelai; Laboulais, Isabelle; Lacour, Pierre-Yves; Marcil, Yasmine; Martin, Virginie; Weiss, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Organisée en novembre 2009 par l’Institut d’histoire de la Révolution française (Université de Paris I / Ea 127) en collaboration avec le Centre de recherche en histoire des sciences et des techniques (Centre Alexandre Koyré / CNRS-EHESS-MNHN / UMR 8560) et le département CIM Communication Information Médias / Ea 1484 (Université de Paris III), la rencontre sur les usages de l’encyclopédisme dans la presse savante autour de la Révolution française marque une nouvelle étape dans une réflexion ...

  2. Isostatic residual gravity anomaly data grid for the conterminous US

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grid of isostatic residual gravity anomaly data was produced from the grid of Bouguer gravity anomaly data (see Bouguer gravity metadata) by using an...

  3. Numerical simulation of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    Miglio, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the Earth's crust, stress can be subdivided into tectonic background stress, overburden pressure, and pore-fluid pressure. The superposition of the first two and the variation of the third part are key factors in controlling movement along faults. Furthermore, stresses due to sedimentation and erosion contribute to the total stress field. In deglaciated regions, an additional stress must be considered: the rebound stress, which is related to rebounding of the crust and mantle after deglaciation. During the growth of a continental ice sheet, the lithosphere under the iceload is deformed and the removal of the ice load during deglaciation initiates a rebound process. The uplift is well known in formerly glaciated areas, e.g.North America and Scandinavia, and in currently deglaciating areas, e.g.Alaska, Antarctica, and Greenland. The whole process of subsiding and uplifting during the growth and melting of an iceload and all related phenomena is known as glacial isostatic adjustment. During the process of glaciation, the surface of the lithosphere is depressed underneath the ice load and compressional flexural stresses are induced in the upper lithosphere, whereas the bottom of the lithosphere experiences extensional flexural stresses; an additional vertical stress due to the ice load is present and it decreases to zero during deglaciation. During rebound, flexural stresses relax slowly. These stresses are able to change the original stress directions and regime.In this work we aim to study the effect of the GIA process in the context of petroleum engineering. The main aspect we will focus on is the mathematical and numerical modeling of the GIA including thermal effects. We plan also to include a preliminary study of the effect of the glacial erosion. All these phenomena are of paramount importance in petroleum engineering: for example some reservoir have been depleted due to tilting caused by both GIA, erosion and thermal effects.

  4. Press Start

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  5. Micrometer size grains of hot isostatically pressed alumina and its characterization

    A K Mallik; S Gangadharan; S Dutta; D Basu

    2010-08-01

    Alumina samples were prepared from two different particle size powders. Finer particle compacts when heated along with coarser particle compacts at same processing temperatures produce bigger grain microstructures due to higher grain growth. An unconventional method of etching by molten V2O5 was adopted to look at the microstructure for accuracy in reported data. On an average starting with finer particles give microstructure with a grain size of 5.5 m and starting with coarser particles, give microstructure with 2.2 m average grain size. The flexural strength is around 400 MPa for alumina samples prepared from finer powder in comparison with about 550 MPa for alumina samples prepared from coarser powder. The Vickers hardness in 5.5 m grain microstructure is around 20 GPa in comparison to about 18 GPa in microstructure with smaller grains of 2.2 m size.

  6. Structural behaviour of monolithic fuel plates during hot isostatic pressing and annealing

    This article presents thermo-mechanical analysis of the monolithic fuel plates and their structural behavior during fabrication and thermal annealing performed by commercial FE solver COMSOL Multiphysics. The detailed 3D non-linear FEM analysis of the monolithic fuel plates has been useful not only for benchmarking the new model, but also for obtaining an in-depth understanding of fuel-cladding stress/strain characteristics. In particular, the 3D FEM analysis has revealed existence of stress gradients at the fuel/cladding interface region which could lead to structural failure. Large difference in the coefficient of thermal expansions between the U-10Mo foil and AL6061-TO cladding is the main reason for these gradients. During the thermal transient, thermo-mechanical behavior of the plate is driven by the significant mismatch between thermal expansion and basic mechanical properties of the foil and the cladding materials. By using elasto-thermo-perfectly plastic material models, it was shown that cladding material exceeds its yield limit; and therefore, deforms plastically; while the fuel foil remains below its elastic limit. In addition, it was observed that fabrication-induced residual stresses play major role in overall performance of monolithic fuel plates. The simulation results show existence of the critical temperature at which the normal and shear components of stresses change from compressive to tensile on both cladding and fuel. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical analysis of dispersion fuel mini-plates was presented. In order to properly identify three dimensional stress states over the dispersion particles and cladding material, micro-structure based finite element simulation was performed. It was shown that residual stresses in dispersion fuels cannot be neglected and should be included in proceeding simulations. (author)

  7. Kinetics and mechanisms of creep in hot isostatically pressed niobium carbide

    Constant compressive stress creep experiments in the temperature and stress ranges of 1730K - 2100K and 16 MN/m2 - 70 MM/m2 on HIPed NbC0.74 have revealed stress exponents of 2.0 under stress levels of 16-54 MN/m2 at all temperatures investigated and 3.2 under stress levels of 54-70 MN/m2 at 1830K. The activation energy of steady state creep is approximately 230 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 1730K - 1930K under 48-54 MN/m2 and 470 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 1900K - 2100K under 64 MN/m2. TEM of the annealed but uncrept material reveals grown-in dislocation subboundaries. At 1730K and under 34-54 MN/m2, these subboundaries become single dislocations and dipoles. At 1830K and under 54-70 MN/m2 the subboundaries evolve into simple tilt boundaries which are occasionally knitted, indicating more glide activity at higher stresses. At 1930K and under 34-54 MN/m2, hexagonal subboundaries form, but are not as well defined as in the annealed material. At 2100K and under 16-30 MN/m2, the subboundaries are well-defined hexagonal networks which become polygonized under higher stresses on 64 MN/m2. The experimental and TEM results indicate that at low temperatures (below 0.5 Tm = 2073K) and at all stresses, creep occurs by dislocation glide which is accompanied by subgrain and high angle boundary interaction. At high temperature (above 0.5 Tm), strain occurs by glide and subboundary movement; recovery occurs by climb in the subboundary

  8. Professional WordPress

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  9. News/Press Releases

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  10. Supersymmetry "protected" topological phases of isostatic lattices and kagome antiferromagnets

    Lawler, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs and its connection to local constraints satisfied by ground states. The Witten index of the SUSY model demands the Maxwell-Calladine index of mechanical structures. "Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking" is identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the...

  11. The complex isostatic equilibration of Australia's deep crust.

    Aitken, Alan; Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan

    2016-04-01

    A recent study, using a new finite-element based gravity inversion method has modelled in high-resolution the density and pressure fields for the Australian continent. Here we analyse the pressure results to consider how Australia's lower-crust and Moho contribute to the isostatic equilibration of topography and crustal masses. We find that the situation is more complex than the commonly applied model of isostatic compensation through crustal thickness variations. Key differences include low pressure-variability at ca. 30-35 km, suggesting that the thickness of the felsic-intermediate crust equilibrates most of the upper-crustal loads; increasing pressure-variability between 30-50 km, suggesting that positively buoyant deep-crustal roots generate disequilibrium. These large roots have previously been inferred to represent mafic underplates. Pressure-variability in the uppermost lithospheric mantle reduces to a minimum at ~125 km depth, suggesting that these loads are compensated by dense mantle at ~100 km depth, rather than by crustal loads or topography. This raises the notion that Australia's lithosphere is isostatically compensated at two levels: Crustal compensation involving topography and the felsic to intermediate crust; and deep-lithosphere compensation involving the mafic lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Rather than its traditional role of compensating for crustal masses, the Moho in this case appears to be a source of isostatic disequilibrium, acting in a separate cell with lithospheric mantle density sources. These results imply that, for cratonised continents like Australia, the notion of crustal isostasy is a poor descriptor of the system.

  12. The Global University Press

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  13. Growth of yttrium orthovanadate by LHPG in isostatic oxygen atmosphere

    Reyes Ardila, D.; de Camargo, A. S. S.; Andreeta, J. P.; Nunes, L. A. O.

    2001-11-01

    The growth of undoped and Nd 3+-doped YVO 4 crystals in isostatic oxygen atmosphere by the laser-heated pedestal growth technique was investigated. Absorption, photoluminescence, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman shift spectra were used to characterize the grown crystals. Differences in Y-V and oxygen stoichiometries were identified and discussed in terms of the starting materials processing, crystal growth dynamics and post-growth thermal treatment. The experimental results indicate that single crystal fibers with general optical and spectroscopic properties close to those of the best respective available bulk single crystals were grown.

  14. Afterpulse measurement for 8-inch candidate PMTs for LHAASO

    Zhao, X.; Tang, Z.; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Zhang, Y.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y.; Zha, W.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-05-01

    An afterpulse occurs within a short time after the main pulse and cannot be directly distinguished from the true physical signals. In cosmic ray experiments, a large number of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are used, which means the occurrence of afterpulses leads to a significant background. Therefore, before PMTs are employed, their afterpulse characteristics need to be evaluated to make sure they perform as expected. To evaluate the impact of afterpulses, we investigate the afterpulses for the Hamamatsu PMT R5912 (a candidate of the WCDA and MD for LHAASO) using two different electronic testing systems. First, we measured the characteristics of afterpulses in detail using a frequency-tunable flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a time window of up to 15 μ s after a laser signal. We measured the time delay with respect to the main pulse, the amplitude, and the rate of the afterpulse dependence, on the main signal amplitude and the applied high voltage. Second, we developed a system that uses a multi-hit time-to-digital converter (multi-hit TDC), which allows for much faster measurement of the afterpulse rates, in order to make it possible to test up to 5000 large-sized PMTs.

  15. WordPress Bible

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  16. Isostatic compaction of beaker shaped bentonite blocks on the scale 1:4

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Nord, Sven [Ifoe Ceramics AB, Bromoella (Sweden ); Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present work is to test, on a scale of 1:4, the feasibility of manufacturing bentonite blocks by isostatic compaction for application as a buffer material in a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In order for the tests to be sensitive to any weaknesses of the method, the blocks were shaped as beakers. The scope included the following: 1. Preparation of powder: a. mixing of the bentonite and addition of water in predetermined amounts, b. sieving to remove any lumps generated; 2. Isostatic compaction: a. establishment of a separate laboratory for the handling of bentonite powder (weighing, mixing, filling, sampling and machining), b. development and design of equipment and procedures for compaction of bentonite to beaker-shaped specimens, c. compaction process operation, d. visual inspection; 3. Sampling and characterisation: a. extraction of samples from the blocks made, b. determination of water content, c. determination of density, d. determination of strain at maximum stress by means of bending tests, e. determination of tensile strength by means of bending tests, f. determination of geometries of the blocks prepared; 4. Post-treatment by means of machining: a. machining of blocks made, b. visual inspection; 5. Evaluation. The work went very smoothly. No significant obstacles or unexpected events were encountered. The conclusions are as follows: The conclusions drawn in this report from work on the (linear)scale of one to four are very relevant to the full scale. Mixing of bentonite powder as well as moistening can be carried out on a pilot scale with a good homogeneity and with maintained good quality of the press powder. The compaction of bentonite can be carried out in a similar manner to the present operation at Ifoe Ceramics AB. This implies a very efficient handling as well as a very efficient use of the time in the press which may account for a large proportion of the total cost. The blocks could readily be produced to reproducible

  17. Design and analysis of isostatic mounts on a spaceborne lightweight primary mirror

    Chan, C. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Chang, S. T.; Huang, T. M.; Hsu, M. Y.

    2013-09-01

    The paper is aimed at obtaining the optimum isostatic mount configuration for a ZERODUR® primary mirror with a predesigned lightweight configuration on the back for a space Cassegrain telescope. The finite element analysis and Zernike polynomial fitting based on the Taguchi method are applied to the whole optimization process. Under the integrated optomechanical analysis, three isostatic mounts are bonded to the center of gravity of the mirror. Geometrical control factors and levels have been selected to minimize the optical aberrations under self-weight loading. The optimum isostatic mount with the least induced astigmatism value is finally attained under the Taguchi method.

  18. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment - a hot topic in cold regions

    Whitehouse, Pippa

    2016-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling tackles the classic geodynamical problem of determining the solid Earth response to surface load changes by ice and ocean water whilst at the same time solving for the gravitationally-consistent redistribution of ice sheet meltwater across the global ocean. Understanding this process is important for quantifying both present-day ice mass balance and the response of ice sheets to past and future climatic change. The two fundamental unknowns in this problem are (i) the rheology of the solid Earth, and (ii) the history of global ice sheet change. In this talk I will discuss the myriad of approaches that are used to constrain these two components. In particular, I will focus on Antarctica, where the presence of a continuously-evolving ice sheet, situated on top of one of the most rheologically-diverse regions of the planet, provides us with a challenge that can only be resolved by drawing on knowledge from across the fields of geodynamics, glaciology, geology, geodesy and seismology.

  19. Prediction of maximum casting defect size in MAR-M-247 alloy processed by hot isostatic pressing

    Šmíd, Miroslav; Fintová, Stanislava; Kunz, Ludvík; Hutař, Pavel; Hrbáček, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 25-32. ISSN 1335-0803 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/030; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : MAR-M 247 * Superalloys * Fatigue * Casting defects * Elevated temperatures Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/160/249

  20. Microstructural anomalies in hot-isostatic pressed U—10wt.% Mo fuel plates with Zr diffusion barrier

    Microstructural anomalies in the co-rolled-and-HIP'ed U—10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) metallic fuel plate with Zr diffusion barrier assembly were examined as a function of HIP temperature (from 520 to 580 °C) and duration (45, 60, 90, 180 and 345 min) by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The anomalies observed in this study are carbide/oxide inclusions within the U10Mo fuel alloy, and regions of limited interaction between the U10Mo alloy and Zr barrier, frequently associated with carbide/oxide inclusions. In the U10Mo alloy, the cF8, Fm3m (225) UC phase (a=4.955 Å) and cF12, Fm3m (225) UO2 phase (a=5.467 Å) were observed throughout the U10Mo alloy with an approximate volume percent of 0.5 to 1.8. The volume percent of the UC—UO2 inclusions within the U10Mo alloy did not change as functions of HIP temperature and time. These inclusion phases, located near the surface of the U10Mo alloy, were frequently observed to impede the development of interdiffusion and reaction between the U10Mo alloy and Zr diffusion barrier. The regions of limited interaction between the U10Mo and Zr barrier decreased with an increase in HIP temperature, however no noticeable trend was observed with an increase in HIP duration at constant temperature of 560 °C.

  1. La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-reinforced W and W-V alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Munoz, A., E-mail: angel.munoz@uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Monge, M.A., E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Savoini, B., E-mail: bsavoi@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Rabanal, M.E., E-mail: eugenia@ing.uc3m.es [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Garces, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Melaturgicas, CENIM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pareja, R., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    W and W-V alloys reinforced with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles have been produced by MA and subsequent HIP at 1573 K and 195 MPa. The microstructure of the consolidated alloys has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses and X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation measurements. The results show that practically full dense billets of W-V, W-V-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and W-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys can be produced. The microstructure analysis has shown that islands of V are present in W-V and W-V-1La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. In W-1La{sub 2}O{sub 3} islands of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} are also present. The nanohardness of the W matrix increases with the addition of V, while decreases with the addition of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    Mendoza, L.; A. Richter; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Cogliano, D.; R. Dietrich; Fritsche, M.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA ef...

  3. bbPress complete

    Wynne, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    A concise guide, written in an easy-to-follow format.This book is aimed at ambitious website or blog owners looking to add a forum to their site quickly and easily. Basic experience in WordPress and with managing a website is expected. Knowledge of HTML and PHP will be a bonus, though it isn't necessary.

  4. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    2010-01-01

    On March 14, Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People’s Congress. Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  5. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    2010-01-01

    @@ March 14.Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 1 lth National People's Congress.Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  6. Press-On Optics

    Thorson, Jon C.

    1972-01-01

    The article discusses the design, application, and clinical uses of press-on optics which are descirbed as 1 millimeter thick, flexible lenses or prisms that may be produced in virtually any desired plus or minus dioptric power as ophthalmic lenses, or in any range of usable prism diopter power. (GW)

  7. Worldwide complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2011-12-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface "free air", Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The free air and Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, submitted). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) (Pavlis

  8. A benchmark study for glacial isostatic adjustment codes

    Spada, G.; Barletta, V. R.; Klemann, V.; Riva, R. E. M.; Martinec, Z.; Gasperini, P.; Lund, B.; Wolf, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; King, M. A.

    2011-04-01

    The study of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is gaining an increasingly important role within the geophysical community. Understanding the response of the Earth to loading is crucial in various contexts, ranging from the interpretation of modern satellite geodetic measurements (e.g. GRACE and GOCE) to the projections of future sea level trends in response to climate change. Modern modelling approaches to GIA are based on various techniques that range from purely analytical formulations to fully numerical methods. Despite various teams independently investigating GIA, we do not have a suitably large set of agreed numerical results through which the methods may be validated; a community benchmark data set would clearly be valuable. Following the example of the mantle convection community, here we present, for the first time, the results of a benchmark study of codes designed to model GIA. This has taken place within a collaboration facilitated through European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0701. The approaches benchmarked are based on significantly different codes and different techniques. The test computations are based on models with spherical symmetry and Maxwell rheology and include inputs from different methods and solution techniques: viscoelastic normal modes, spectral-finite elements and finite elements. The tests involve the loading and tidal Love numbers and their relaxation spectra, the deformation and gravity variations driven by surface loads characterized by simple geometry and time history and the rotational fluctuations in response to glacial unloading. In spite of the significant differences in the numerical methods employed, the test computations show a satisfactory agreement between the results provided by the participants.

  9. ISS Expedition 15 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 15 from 04/2007-10/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  10. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  11. ISS Expedition 03 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 03 from 08/2001-12/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  12. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  13. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  14. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  15. ISS Expedition 40 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 40 from 03/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  16. ISS Expedition 01 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 01 from 10/2000-03/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  17. ISS Expedition 33 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 33 from 07/2012-11/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  18. ISS Expedition 32 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 32 from 05/2012-09/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  19. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  20. ISS Expedition 23 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 23 from 12/2009-09/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  1. ISS Expedition 37 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 37 from 05/2013-11/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  2. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  3. ISS Expedition 17 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 17 from 04/2008-10/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  4. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  5. ISS Expedition 13 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 13 from 03/2006-09/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  6. ISS Expedition 19 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 19 from 03/2009-05/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  7. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. ISS Expedition 39 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 39 from 11/2013-05/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  10. ISS Expedition 34 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 34 from 12/2012-03/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  11. ISS Expedition 35 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 35 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  12. ISS Expedition 02 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 02 from 03/2001-08/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  13. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  14. ISS Expedition 41 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 41 from 05/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  15. ISS Expedition 31 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 31 from 12/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  16. ISS Expedition 25 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 25 from 06/2010-03/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  17. ISS Expedition 26 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 26 from 10/2010-05/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  18. ISS Expedition 05 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 05 from 06/2002-12/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  19. ISS Expedition 20 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 20 from 05/2009-10/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  20. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  1. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  2. ISS Expedition 18 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 18 from 10/2008-04/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  3. ISS Expedition 10 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 10 from 10/2004-04/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  4. ISS Expedition 30 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 30 from 11/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  5. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  6. ISS Expedition 24 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 24 from 04/2010-11/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  7. ISS Expedition 27 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 27 from 12/2010-09/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. WordPress multisite administration

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  10. Which Freedom of the Press?

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2010-01-01

     privileged freedom of the organised press to gather and report on information of public interest. These two conceptions have very different answers to the question of whether the press should enjoy some privilege to be exempt from ordinary legislation when such legislation restricts the access of the press to inform...

  11. The alignment and isostatic mount bonding technique of the aerospace Cassegrain telescope primary mirror

    Lin, Wei Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chang, Yu-Ting; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet both optical performance and structural stiffness requirements of the aerospace Cassegrain telescope, iso-static mount is used as the interface between the primary mirror and the main plate. This article describes the alignment and iso-static mount bonding technique of the primary mirror by assistance of CMM. The design and assembly of mechanical ground support equipment (MGSE) which reduces the deformation of primary mirror by the gravity effect is also presented. The primary mirror adjusting MGSE consists of X-Y linear translation stages, rotation stage and kinematic constrain platform which provides the function of decenter, orientation, tilt and height adjustment of the posture sequentially. After CMM measurement, the radius of curvature, conic constant, decenter and tilt, etc. will be calculated. According to these results, the posture of the mirror will be adjusted to reduce the tilt by the designed MGSE within 0.02 degrees and the distance deviation from the best fitted profile of mirror to main plate shall be less than 0.01 mm. After that, EC 2216 adhesive is used to bond mirror and iso-static mount. During iso-static mount bonding process, CMM is selected to monitor the relative position deviation of the iso-static mount until the adhesive completely cured. After that, the wave front sensors and strain gauges are used to monitor the strain variation while the iso-static mount mounted in the main plate with the screws by the torque wrench. This step is to prevent deformation of the mirror caused from force of the iso-static mount during the mounting process. In the end, the interferometer is used for the optical performance test with +1G and -1G to check the alignment and bonding technique is well or not.

  12. WordPress for dummies

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  13. Hot pressing aluminum nitride

    Experiment was performed on the hot pressing of aluminum nitride, using three kinds of powder which are: a) made by electric arc method, b) made by nitrifying aluminum metal powder, and c) made from alumina and carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. The content of oxygen of these powders was analyzed by activation analysis using high energy neutron irradiation. The density of hot pressed samples was classified into two groups. The high density group contained oxygen more than 3 wt. %, and the low density group contained about 0.5 wt %. Typical density vs. temperature curves have a bending point near 1,5500C, and the sample contains iron impurity of 0.5 wt. %. Needle crystals were found to grow near 1,5500C by VLS mechanism, and molten iron acts a main part of mechanism as a liquid phase. According to the above-mentioned curve, the iron impurity in aluminum nitride prevents densification. The iron impurity accelerates crystal growth. Advance of densification may be expected by adding iron impurity, but in real case, the densification is delayed. Densification and crystal growth are greatly accelerated by oxygen impurity. In conclusion, more efforts must be made for the purification of aluminum nitride. In the present stage, the most pure nitride powder contains about 0.1 wt. % of oxygen, as compared with good silicon carbide crystals containing only 10-5 wt. % of nitrogen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Del Cogliano, D.; Dietrich, R.; Fritsche, M.

    2010-09-01

    Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  15. Variations in Crustal Structure, Lithospheric Flexural Strength, and Isostatic Compensation Mechanisms of Mars

    Ding, M.; Lin, J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze gravity and topography of Mars to investigate the spatial variations in crustal thickness, lithospheric strength, and mechanisms of support of prominent topographic features on Mars. The latest gravity model JGMRO110c (released in 2012) from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission has a spatial block size resolution of ~97 km (corresponding to degree-110), enabling us to resolve crustal structures at higher spatial resolution than those determined from previous degree-80 and 85 gravity models [Zuber et al., 2000; McGovern et al., 2002, 2004; Neumann et al., 2004; Belleguic et al., 2005]. Using the latest gravity data, we first inverted for a new version of crustal thickness model of Mars assuming homogeneous crust and mantle densities of 2.9 and 3.5 g/cm3. We calculated "isostatic" topography for the Airy local isostatic compensation mechanism, and "non-isostatic" topography after removing the isostatic part. We find that about 92% of the Martian surface is in relatively isostatic state, indicating either relatively small lithospheric strength and/or small vertical loading. Relatively isostatic regions include the hemispheric dichotomy, Hellas and Argyre Planitia, Noachis and Arabia Terra, and Terra Cimmeria. In contrast, regions with significant amount of non-isostatic topography include the Olympus, Ascraeus, Arsia, Pavonis, Alba, and Elysium Mons, Isidis Planitia and Valles Marineris. Their relatively large "non-isostatc topography" implies relatively strong lithospheric strength and large vertical loading. Spectral analysis of the admittance and correlation relationship between gravity and topography were conducted for the non-isostatic regions using the localized spectra method [Wieczorek and Simons, 2005, 2007] and thin-shell lithospheric flexural approximation [Forsyth, 1985; McGovern et al., 2002, 2004]. The best-fitting models reveal significant variations in the effective lithospheric thickness with the greatest values for the Olympus Mon

  16. Australia's lithospheric density field, and its isostatic equilibration

    Aitken, A. R. A.; Altinay, C.; Gross, L.

    2015-12-01

    subdivisions within each. The lithospheric static pressure field was resolved in 3D from the gravity and density fields. The pressure field model also highlights the fundamental difference between the oceanic and continental domains, with the former possessing lower pressure through most of the model. Overall pressure variability is large in the upper crust (60 MPa) but reduces significantly by -30 km elevation (20-30 MPa). By -50 km elevation, thick lower-crust generates further disequilibria (25-35 MPa) that are not compensated until -125 km elevation (10-20 MPa). Beneath -125 km elevation higher pressure is observed in the continental domain, extending to the base of the model. This indicates a lithosphere that is to a large degree isostatically compensated near the base of the felsic-intermediate continental crust, and again near the theoretical base of mature oceanic lithosphere.

  17. WordPress For Dummies

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  18. Absolute sea levels and isostatic changes of the eastern North Sea to central Baltic region during the last 900 years

    Hansen, Jens Morten; Aagaard, Troels; Binderup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    confirms that ice-cap growth can be faster than ice-cap melting. By comparison with 29 long-term tide gauge measurements of the region we show that the isostatic implications of the sea-level curve are in nearly perfect agreement with Peltier's global isostatic VM2 model (applied by IPCC and PSMSL) and...

  19. Beginning WordPress 3

    Leary, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  20. WordPress Top Plugins

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  1. Separation of dynamic and isostatic components of the Venusian gravity and topography and determination of the crustal thickness of Venus

    Yang, An; Huang, Jinshui; Wei, Daiyun

    2016-09-01

    Assuming that the long-wavelength geoid and topography of Venus are supported by both mantle convection and Airy isostasy, we propose a method to separate the dynamic and isostatic components of the Venusian gravity and topography with the aid of the dynamic admittance from numerical models of mantle convection and the isostatic admittance from an Airy isostatic model. The global crustal thickness is then calculated based on the isostatic component of the gravity and topography. The results show that some highland plateaus such as Ishtar Terra and Ovda Regio have thick crust, which are largely supported by isostatic compensation. Other highland plateaus such as Thetis and Phoebe Regiones appear to have superimposed contributions from crustal thickening and dynamic support. Volcanic rises such as Atla and Beta Regiones have thin crust, which is consistent with the postulation that these volcanic rises are mainly the products of dynamic uplift caused by mantle plumes.

  2. BuddyPress theme development

    Lister, Tammie

    2013-01-01

    This book is a hands-on tutorial guide to using BuddyPress.This book is great for designers and developers who are looking to learn how to develop BuddyPress themes. It's assumed that the reader has some understanding of Wordpress and is familiar with CSS and HTML.

  3. Head First WordPress

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  4. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; As (m), the download factor and Bs (y-1 ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity

  5. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Paasse, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A{sub s} (m), the download factor and B{sub s} (y{sup -1} ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity.

  6. On Gravity Inversion by No-Topography and Rigorous Isostatic Gravity Anomalies

    Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Tenzer, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We discuss some theoretical aspects and practical consequences of using traditional versus "new"/rigorous formulations of the Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies/disturbances. In principle, the differences between these two concepts are in the definition of the so-called secondary indirect topographic effect (SITE) on the gravity data. Although we follow the tradition to call this effect SITE, we show that it is formally a direct topographic effect (DITE), needed to remove all topographic signal, but in practice not regarded as such. Consequently, there is a need for a no- topography gravity anomaly, which removes all topographic effects, leaving the below-crust Earth transparent for gravity inversion. Similarly, a rigorous isostatic gravity anomaly includes also a compensation effect for the SITE. By using a simple topographic model, we confirm a theoretically found ratio of 2/( n + 1) between the magnitudes of the SITE and DITE by wavelength (spherical harmonic degree n), both for the Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies. Finally, global gravity inversions are applied by utilizing the Vening Meinesz-Moritz isostatic model to determine the Moho geometry using the Bouguer gravity disturbances/anomalies and the no-topography gravity anomalies, and the results are compared. The numerical results confirm our theoretical findings that the Bouguer gravity disturbances and the no-topography gravity anomalies provide very similar results. A comparison of these gravimetrically computed Moho depths with the CRUST1.0 seismic model shows rms agreements of 4.3 and 4.5 km, respectively. This is a significant improvement when compared to the Moho result obtained by using the Bouguer gravity anomalies, yielding the rms difference of 7.3 km for the CRUST1.0 model. These results confirm a theoretical deficiency of the classical definition of the Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, which do not take into consideration the SITE effects on the topography and its

  7. Smashing WordPress Themes Making WordPress Beautiful

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress Themes - one of the hottest topics on the web today WordPress is so much more than a blogging platform, and Smashing WordPress Themes teaches readers how to make it look any way they like - from a corporate site, to a photography gallery and moreWordPress is one of the hottest tools on the web today and is used by sites including The New York Times, Rolling Stone, flickr, CNN, NASA and of course Smashing MagazineBeautiful full colour throughout - web designers expect nothing lessSmashing Magazine will fully support this book by by promoting it through their webs

  8. The development of processes of pressing of articles from powders on the bases of metals, ceramics and graphite

    In the article we offer technological circuits of dry isostatic pressing at the compression in sealed volume and sequential cyclical loading. We represent original process equipment and appropriate technological processes of pressure handling of materials of different properties and compression nature. The offered technologies are designed for the manufacture of a broad spector of articles: porous permeable, constructional, hea-resistant, tools etc on the bases of metals, ceramics and graphite. There are examples of producing of some powder articles and new compositional materials with given properties in manufactured products. (author)

  9. Hot-pressing steatite bodies

    Requirements for some special nuclear engineering ceramic shapes are: big size, impervious, dimensional accuracy and good mechanical and dielectric properties. Limitations of te conventional methods and advantages of te hot pressing techniques for the manufacturing of these shapes are discussed. Hot pressing characteristics of a certain steatite powder are studied. Occurrence of an optimum densification temperature just above the tale decomposition range is found. Experimental data show that the height/diameter ratio of the specimen has no effect on the sintering conditions. Increasing darkness from the graphite mould is detected above the optimum temperature. The hot-pressed steatite is compared with a fired dry-pressed sample of the same composition. (Author) 13 refs

  10. Press Coverage and Political Accountability

    Snyder, James; Strömberg, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the impact of press coverage on citizen knowledge, politicians' actions, and policy. We find that a poor fit between newspaper markets and political districts reduces press coverage of politics. We use variation in this fit due to redistricting to identify the effects of reduced coverage. Exploring the links in the causal chain of media effects -- voter information, politicians' actions and policy -- we find statistically significant and substantively important effec...

  11. Optimization of a Pressing Diagram in OSB Pressing

    Jaroslav Hrázský

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of a pressing diagram optimization based on changes in pressure, temperature and distance between frames of a continuous press during Oriented Strand Boards (OSB pressing. Tests of selected mechanical properties were carried out on OSB/3 boards with a nominal thickness of 18 mm - a basic type with urea-formaldehyd (UF glue in surface layers and isocyanate glue (PMDI in the central layer and further an ECO type with PMDI glue in all layers produced by a prominent manufacturer of OSB boards in the Czech Republic. OSB/3 boards are intended for structural purposes for use in wet environments. Changes in the pressing diagram were carried out at the stage of “press opening”, which signifi cantly affects mechanical and physical properties of OSB boards. In order to be able to compare the effects of changes in the pressing curve, the same setting of production parameters was used with all tested boards. The results of laboratory tests were compared with the values given in the ČSN EN 300 Standard. Optimization of the pressing process ranks among the most effective measures to increase the quality of particle boards at zero or minimum costs. The control of production processes is increasingly perfect thanks to the development of electronics, control and computer technology. At present, not only in our country but also worldwide, marked development of wooden constructions occurs thanks to the development of new types of wood-based composite materials and to the development of technologies in building industry. OSB boards are an important representative of wood-based composite materials for wooden constructions. As compared to natural material, OSB boards show a homogenous structure not including natural defects typical of solid wood. From the point of view of physical and mechanical properties, OSB boards are of orthotropic character.

  12. Study of bonding positions of isostatic mounts on a lightweight primary mirror

    Chan, C. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Chang, S. T.; Huang, T. M.; Hsu, M. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The bonding positions of three isostatic mounts on the primary mirror of a Cassegrain telescope under self-weight loading have both been studied in the paper. Finite element method and Zernike polynomial fitting are complementarily applied to the ZERODUR® primary mirror with a pre-designed lightweight configuration on the back. Eight bonding positions of isostatic mounts with respect to the center of gravity of the mirror have been chosen to investigate the mirror surface deforms as well as the induced optical aberrations. It is found that astigmatism becomes remarkably higher than other optical aberrations under self-weight loading. The optimum bonding position with the least astigmatism value has also been obtained.

  13. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    L. Mendoza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  14. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    Gunter, B.C.; Didova, O.; Riva, R. E. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; J. T. M. Lenaerts; King, M.A.; M. R. van den Broeke; T. Urban

    2014-01-01

    This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes as well as reprocessed data sets over a slightly longer period of time. A range of different Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity ...

  15. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps - Application to Gorda Plate and Sierra Nevada regions

    K Mallick; K K Sharma

    2001-03-01

    A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual maps exhibit a close match both in their anomaly patterns and magnitudes with previously computed residual maps based on the theory of isostasy.

  16. On the isostatic gravity anomaly and disturbance and their applications to Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric inverse problem

    Sjöberg, Lars E.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we show that the traditionally defined Bouguer gravity anomaly needs a correction to become `the no-topography gravity anomaly' and that the isostatic gravity anomaly is better defined by the latter anomaly plus a gravity anomaly compensation effect than by the Bouguer gravity anomaly plus a gravitational compensation effect. This is because only the new isostatic gravity anomaly completely removes and compensates for the topographic effect. F. A. Vening Meinesz' inverse problem in isostasy deals with solving for the Moho depth from the known external gravity field and mean Moho depth (known, e.g. from seismic reflection data) by a regional isostatic compensation using a flat Earth approximation. H. Moritz generalized the problem to that of a global compensation with a spherical mean Earth approximation. The problem can be formulated mathematically as that of solving a non-linear Fredholm integral equation. The solutions to these problems are based on the condition of isostatic balance of the isostatic gravity anomaly, and, theoretically, this assumption cannot be met by the old definition of the isostatic gravity anomaly. We show how the Moho geometry can be solved for the gravity anomaly, gravity disturbance and disturbing potential, etc., and, from a theoretical point of view, all these solutions are the same.

  17. A new approach to determine press stiffness

    Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    deflections are designed. The press stiffness is presented as a 6 by 6 flexibility matrix. The approach has been tested by measuring the stiffness of a 5000 kN O-frame, ring element, hydraulic press, a 10000 kN O-frame, pillar element, hydraulic press and a 10000 kN O-frame, ring element mechanical press......A new procedure is proposed for measuring press stiffness, including separated horizontal and vertical loading of the press frame. The load can be eccentrically positioned for measuring rotational stiffnesses. Two loading devices and corresponding measuring equipment for registration of press...

  18. Oxide formation and precipitation behaviors on interface of F82H steel joints during HIPing and hot pressing

    Joining technologies for F82H steels are important issues for the development of fusion energy. The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method is appropriate for consolidating the first wall of the blanket because of the flexibility of the shape of HIPed products. The HIP method is planned for fabricating a complex-shaped first wall component with built-in cooling channels; thus, accumulation of studies of microstructural and mechanical property changes, especially lower toughness of the HIPed joints, is essential. Present research aims to reveal the microstructural evolution of F82H joints fabricated by the HIP method compared with joints fabricated by hot pressing, focusing on the formation of oxides on the interface. F82H joints were characterized using 1/3-scale Charpy V-notch impact test, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe analysis to survey the microstructural characteristics of the interface

  19. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  20. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WEB SITE

    The National Academy Press is the publisher for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. Through this web site, you have access to a virtual treasure trove of books, reports and publicatio...

  1. Recrystallization of pressed technical uranium

    The objective of this task was to study changes originating from heat treatment of uranium by metallographic methods and by measuring the hardness. Correlation of previously determined textures with the present study would improve the knowledge on the recrystallization process of pressed uranium

  2. Local and international press digest

    2008-01-01

    The following are the top stories in the Maltese and the international press today. The Times gives prominence to the Prime Minister's flying visit to Geneva yesterday, where he signed a research cooperation agreement with CERN, the European nuclear research organisation.

  3. Scheme of 3 interfaces with local isostatic compensation on the Argentine continental margin

    Pedraza De Marchi, A. C.; Ghidella, M. E.; Tocho, C.

    2013-05-01

    The segment of Argentine continental margin located between 39°S and the Malvinas platform (~49°S) is of passive type and volcanic characteristics revealed by seaward-dipping seismic reflectors sequences (SDRs). The free air gravity edge-effect associated with passive continental margins is one of the most distinctive characteristics of gravity in marine regions. This effect is in large part due to the transition between continental and oceanic crusts, because of their different thicknesses. In this presentation we investigate the Airy type isostatic compensation scheme by using three interfaces in a forward calculation with different approximations of Parker's expression to obtain the isostatic anomaly. After that we perform the inversion of the anomaly thus obtained in order to find the Moho's deflection necessary to compensate it (or minimize it) by using the same scheme of interfaces and the iterative Parker-Oldenburg method (Oldenburg, D., 1974) with more terms in the inversion. The crust-mantle interface (Moho) thus calculated represents a more realistic surface than the one calculated using one term in the inversion and the surface estimated with topographic data and sediment thickness. Even considering that the experiment constitutes a schematic assumption just to test the numerical methods involved, we find that in the comparison with the only available digitized refraction profile, the inverted Moho interface reproduces fairly well the Moho that the seismic profile yields, for the case of the iterative method. This suggests that the inverse calculation with the iterative method is sensible to the presence of the SDRS, at least for this sole profile. Keywords: isostatic anomaly, Moho, passive continental margins Oldenburg, D., 1974. The inversion and interpretation of gravity anomalíes, Geophysics, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 526-536.

  4. Teach yourself visually WordPress

    Majure, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Get your blog up and running with the latest version of WordPress WordPress is one of the most popular, easy-to-use blogging platforms and allows you to create a dynamic and engaging blog, even if you have no programming skills or experience. Ideal for the visual learner, Teach Yourself VISUALLY WordPress, Second Edition introduces you to the exciting possibilities of the newest version of WordPress and helps you get started, step by step, with creating and setting up a WordPress site. Author and experienced WordPress user Janet Majure shares advice, insight, and best practices for taking full

  5. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress, from the world's most popular resource for web designers and developers As one of the hottest tools on the web today for creating a blog, WordPress has evolved to be much more that just a blogging platform and has been pushed beyond its original purpose. With this new edition of a perennially popular WordPress resource, Smashing Magazine offers you the information you need so you can maximize the potential and power of WordPress. WordPress expert Thord Daniel Hedengren takes you beyond the basic blog to show you how to leverage the capabilities of WordPress to

  6. Effect of isostatic rebound on modelled ice volume variations during the last 200 kyr

    M. Crucifix; Loutre, M. F.; Lambeck, K.; Berger, A.

    2001-01-01

    Deformation of the lithosphere under an ice load can be approximated using the hypothesis of local damped isostasy. This simple formulation has been systematically compared with a three-dimensional model of the crust-mantle system for simple ice-load scenarios with a period in the range 20-100 kyr. The comparison enables us to introduce the concepts of effective upper mantle density and effective relaxation time into the isostatic model for the response of the Earth to the ice sheets. These p...

  7. Density Structure, Isostatic Balance and Tectonic Models of the Central Tien Shan

    M. K. Kaban; T. Reiza Yuanda

    2014-01-01

    A new combined satellite-terrestrial model of the gravity field is used together with seismic data for construction of a density model of the lithosphere of the Central Tien Shan and for estimation of its isostatic balance. The Tien Shan is one of the most active intraplate orogens in the world, located about 1,500 km north of the convergence between Indian and Eurasian plate, and surrounded by stable Kazakh platform to the north and the Tarim block to the south. Although this area was extens...

  8. Modularity of Pressing Tools for Screw Press Producing Solid Biofuels

    Miloš Matúš; Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of the newly-patented structure of a screw briquetting machine for compacting biomass into a solid biofuel. The design of the machine is based on the results of a comprehensive study of the complicated process of biomass compaction. The patented structure meets two main goals: the elimination of axial forces, leading to increased lifetime of the bearings, and the new modular design of a pressing chamber and tools with their geometry based on the applicati...

  9. ISS Expedition 21/22 Press Kit

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 21/22 from 10/2009-03/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  10. Theory of supersymmetry ``protected'' topological phases of isostatic lattices and highly frustrated magnets

    Lawler, Michael

    I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to highly frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs which also applies to geometrically frustrated magnets. The Witten index of the SUSY model, when restricted to the single body problem (meaningful for linearized phonons), is then shown to be the Calladine-Kane-Lubensky index of mechanical structures that forms the cornerstone of the phonon topological band structure theory. ``Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking'' is then identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the topological state. The many-body SUSY formulation shows that the topology is not restricted to a band structure problem but extends to systems of coupled bosons and fermions that are in principle also realizable in solid state systems. The analogus supersymmetry of the magnon problem turns out to be particularly useful for highly frustrated magnets with the kagome family of antiferromagnets an analog of topological isostatic lattices. Thus, a solid state realization of the theory of phonon topological band structure may be found in highly frustrated magnets. However, our results show that this topology is protected not

  11. A Conversation with Frank Press

    Goodstein, Judith R.

    Geophysicist Frank Press was director of Caltech's Seismological Laboratory from 1957 to 1965. In this interview, he recalls his work with Maurice Ewing at Columbia's Lamont Geological Observatory; his directorship of Caltech's Seismological Laboratory and colleagues Charles Richter, Beno Gutenberg, and Hugo Benioff; his work on the free oscillations of the earth; and his part in establishing the worldwide network of seismographs for the detection of nuclear weapons testing.

  12. Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge

    2001-01-01

    A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.

  13. Simultaneous veneers incising and lower pressing temperatures?the effect on the plywood pressing time

    Kurowska, A; Borysiuk, P.; Mamiński, M. Ł.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It was shown that incising of veneers (60?15 m/m2) prior to plywood bonding allowed reduction of pressing time by 8?9% for a pressing temperature of 90?C when compared to the controls. Nevertheless, with pressing temperatures lower than normal and shortened pressing times the shear strengths of the plywood met the requirements of the respective standards.

  14. Modularity of Pressing Tools for Screw Press Producing Solid Biofuels

    Miloš Matúš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of the newly-patented structure of a screw briquetting machine for compacting biomass into a solid biofuel. The design of the machine is based on the results of a comprehensive study of the complicated process of biomass compaction. The patented structure meets two main goals: the elimination of axial forces, leading to increased lifetime of the bearings, and the new modular design of a pressing chamber and tools with their geometry based on the application of a mathematical model.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPACTING PRESSURE AND CONDITIONS IN PRESSING CHAMBER DURING BIOMASS PRESSING

    Peter Križan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conditions in pressing chambers during the pressing of wooden briquettes. The conditions in pressing chambers can significantly impact the resulting compacting pressure required for the pressing of briquettes. In the introduction, we show which parameters of the pressing chamber during pressing can impact the resulting compacting pressure. The experiment results which are shown in this paper described the detected impact of some important pressing chamber parameters. This experiment aims to detect the pressing chamber length impact and the impact of the way of pressing. By setting the pressing conditions, we will be able to achieve the suitable resulting compacting pressure with respect to the required final briquettes quality.

  16. Professional WordPress design and development

    Williams, Brad; Stern, Hal

    2014-01-01

    The highest rated WordPress development and design book on the market is back with an all new third edition. Professional WordPress is the only WordPress book targeted to developers, with advanced content that exploits the full functionality of the most popular CMS in the world. Fully updated to align with WordPress 4.1, this edition has updated examples with all new screenshots, and full exploration of additional tasks made possible by the latest tools and features. You will gain insight into real projects that currently use WordPress as an application framework, as well as the basic usage a

  17. Dissoluzione Elettrochimica del Can per la Produzione di Manufatti 'Near Net Shape' in Ti6Al4V ottenuti mediante Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Scherillo, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Il seguente lavoro di tesi si inserisce all'interno del progetto di ricerca "TitaForm", inserito nella costellazione "Titanium", che rappresenta un'iniziativa industriale italiana per le tecnologie del titanio ad uso aeronautico. L'utilizzo sempre crescente della percentuale di composito a matrice polimerica richiede, parimenti, una percentuale di titanio sempre crescente nelle strutture aeronautiche primarie, non solo dei motori ed asservimenti. L'industria aeronautica moderna deve ris...

  18. The influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing and alternate heat treatment on the structure and properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    A development program has been conducted to improve the cyclic properties of the PWA 1480 single-crystal superalloy by reducing or entirely eliminating casting porosity at fatigue-initiation sites, through the use of improved casting process parameters and HIPing; potential mechanical property improvements in a high-pressure hydrogen environment were also sought in alternatives to the standard coating and heat-treatment cycle. High thermal gradient casting was found to yield a reduction in overall casting porosity density and pore sizes. The most dramatic mechanical property improvement resulted from HIPing.

  19. Internal stresses and breakup of rigid isostatic aggregates in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence

    De Bona, Jeremias; Vanni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    By characterising the hydrodynamic stresses generated by statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in rigid aggregates, we estimate theoretically the rate of turbulent breakup of colloidal aggregates and the size distribution of the formed fragments. The adopted method combines Direct Numerical Simulation of the turbulent field with a Discrete Element Method based on Stokesian dynamics. In this way, not only the mechanics of the aggregate is modelled in detail, but the internal stresses are evaluated while the aggregate is moving in the turbulent flow. We examine doublets and cluster-cluster isostatic aggregates, where the failure of a single contact leads to the rupture of the aggregate and breakup occurs when the tensile force at a contact exceeds the cohesive strength of the bond. Due to the different role of the internal stresses, the functional relationship between breakup frequency and turbulence dissipation rate is very different in the two cases. In the limit of very small and very large valu...

  20. Incomplete separability of Antarctic plate rotation from glacial isostatic adjustment deformation within geodetic observations

    King, Matt A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van der Wal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Geodetic measurements of Antarctic solid Earth deformation include signals from plate rotation and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Through simulation, we investigate the degree to which these signals are separable within horizontal GPS site velocities that commonly define plate rotation estimates and that promise new constraints on models of GIA. Using a suite of GIA model predictions that incorporate both 1-D and 3-D Earth rheologies, we show that, given the present location of GPS sites within East Antarctica, unmodelled or mismodelled GIA signal within GPS velocities produces biased estimates of plate rotation. When biased plate rotation is removed from the GPS velocities, errors as large as 0.8 mm yr-1 are introduced; a value commonly larger than the predicted GIA signal magnitude. In the absence of reliable forward models of plate rotation or GIA then Antarctic geodetic velocities cannot totally and unambiguously constrain either process, especially GIA.

  1. Towards Constraining Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Greenland Using ICESat and GPS Observations

    Nielsen, Karina; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas;

    2014-01-01

    . We find, that the temporal behavior of the ICESat-based modeled elastic response agrees well with the GPS observations at the sites KELY, QAQ1, and SCOR. This suggests, that our elastic models are able to resolve the temporal changes in the observed uplift, which indicates that the elastic uplift......Constraining glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) i.e. the Earth’s viscoelastic response to past ice changes, is an important task, because GIA is a significant correction in gravity-based ice sheet mass balance estimates. Here, we investigate how temporal variations in the observed and modeled...... pattern of elastic crustal displacements shows pronounced variation during the observation period, where an increase in elastic displacement is found at the northwest coast of Greenland, while a decrease is found at the southeast coast. This pattern of temporal changes is supported by the GPS observations...

  2. An isostatic study of the Karoo basin and underlying lithosphere in 3-D

    Scheiber-Enslin, Stephanie E.; Ebbing, Jörg; Webb, Susan J.

    2016-08-01

    A 3-D density model of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Karoo basin is presented here. The model is constrained using potential field, borehole and seismic data. Uplift of the basin by the end of the Cretaceous has resulted in an unusually high plateau (>1000 m) covering a large portion of South Africa. Isostatic studies show the topography is largely compensated by changes in Moho depths (˜35 km on-craton and >45 km off-craton) and changes in lithospheric mantle densities between the Kaapvaal Craton and surrounding regions (˜50 kg m-3 increase from on- to off-craton). This density contrast is determined by inverted satellite gravity and gravity gradient data. The highest topography along the edge of the plateau (>1200 m) and a strong Bouguer gravity low over Lesotho, however, can only be explained by a buoyant asthenosphere with a density decrease of around 40 kg m-3.

  3. Insights into the Crustal Structure and Geodynamic Evolution of the Southern Granulite Terrain, India, from Isostatic Considerations

    Kumar, Niraj; Singh, A. P.; Singh, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Southern Granulite Terrain of India, formed through an ancient continental collision and uplift of the earth's surface, was accompanied by thickening of the crust. Once the active tectonism ceased, the buoyancy of these deep crustal roots must have supported the Nilgiri and Palani-Cardamom hills. Here, the gravity field has been utilized to provide new constraints on how the force of buoyancy maintains the state of isostasy in the Southern Granulite Terrain. Isostatic calculations show that the seismically derived crustal thickness of 43-44 km in the Southern Granulite Terrain is on average 7-8 km more than that required to isostatically balance the present-day topography. This difference cannot be solely explained applying a constant shift in the mean sea level crustal thickness of 32 km. The isostatic analysis thus indicates that the current topography of the Southern Granulite Terrain is overcompensated, and about 1.0 km of the topographic load must have been eroded from this region without any isostatic readjustment. The observed gravity anomaly, an order of magnitude lower than that expected (-125 mGal), however, shows that there is no such overcompensation. Thermal perturbations up to Pan-African, present-day high mantle heat flow and low Te together negate the possible resistance of the lithosphere to rebound in response to erosional unloading. To isostatically compensate the crustal root, compatible to seismic Moho, a band of high density (2,930 kg m-3) in the lower crust and low density (3,210 kg m-3) in the lithospheric mantle below the Southern Granulite Terrain is needed. A relatively denser crust due to two distinct episodes of metamorphic phase transitions at 2.5 Ga and 550 Ma and highly mobilized upper mantle during Pan-African thermal perturbation reduced significantly the root buoyancy that kept the crust pulled downward in response to the eroded topography.

  4. Pengaruh Tekanan Pada Screw Press Terhadap Persentase Kehilangan Minyak Kelapa Sawit Yang Terdapat Pada Ampas Press

    Saragih, Nataniel

    2010-01-01

    Percentage loss of palm oil from the pulp press influence the quality of palm oil. Pressing process is influenced by the type of the screw press, screw press working pressure, and water dilution. Percentage loss of palm oil from the pulp press is 3,12 – 2,90 % where the value is taken from the percentage of oil that had not dry the air. Percentage loss of palm oil from the pulp press fit standard factory that is 3,0 – 3,7 %. 072409001

  5. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

  6. Damping test results for straight sections of 3-inch and 8-inch unpressurized pipes

    EG and G Idaho is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Pressure Vessel Research Committee in supporting a final position on revised damping values for structural analyses of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a series of vibrational tests on unpressurized 3-in. and 8-in. Schedule 40 carbon steel piping was conducted to determine the changes in structural damping due to various parametric effects. The 33-ft straight sections of piping were supported at the ends. Additionally, intermediate supports comprising spring, rod, and constant-force hangers, as well as a sway brace and snubbers, were used. Excitation was provided by low-force-level hammer impacts, a hydraulic shaker, and a 50-ton overhead crane for snapback testing. Data was recorded using acceleration, strain, and displacement time histories. This report presents test results showing the effect of stress level and type of supports on structural damping in piping

  7. 8-inch Reflange Inlet and Two 6-inch 600# Flange Outlets Relief Valve Description and Specifications

    2005-01-01

    In the past, an Anderson Greenwood (AG) pilot operated relief valve was used to protect the E-1 rocket engine test facility. It was found that the AG valve is destroyed and discharges internal parts at a great velocity on opening. This is a major safety and cost issue. The solution is a relief valve to match present Anderson Greenwood pilot valve A 8z B dimensions. The valve is to use a precise buckling pin obeying Euler s Law to act as the pressure sensor and actuator. The valve must not self destruct on opening.

  8. WordPress 3.7 complete

    Król, Karol

    2013-01-01

    WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition is a comprehensive and step-by-step tutorial packed with screenshots and examples to make it easy and quick to pick it up.This WordPress book is a guide to WordPress for online publishers and web developers. If you are new to blogging and want to create your own blog or website from scratch, then ""WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition"" is for you. No prior knowledge of HTML/CSS or PHP is required.

  9. Activation of Selected Core Muscles during Pressing

    Thomas W. Nesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unstable surface training is often used to activate core musculature during resistance training. Unfortunately, unstable surface training is risky and leads to detraining. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine core muscle activation during stable surface ground-based lifts. Methods: Fourteen recreational trained and former NCAA DI athletes (weight 84.2 ± 13.3 kg; height 176.0 ± 9.5 cm; age 20.9 ± 2.0 years volunteered for participation. Subjects completed two ground-based lifts: overhead press and push-press. Surface EMG was recorded from 4 muscles on the right side of the body (Rectus Abdominus (RA, External Oblique (EO, Transverse Abdominus (TA, and Erector Spinae (ES. Results: Paired sample T-tests identified significant muscle activation differences between the overhead press and the push-press included ES and EO. Average and peak EMG for ES was significantly greater in push-press (P<0.01. Anterior displacement of COP was significantly greater in push-press compared to overhead press during the eccentric phase. Conclusion: The push-press was identified as superior in core muscle activation when compared to the overhead pressing exercise.Keywords: torso, stability, weight lifting, resistance training

  10. IDEAL: ACADEMIC PRESS JOURNALS ONLINE

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    All Academic Press journals are available online to CERN users for a test period which will last until the end of July. The service 'IDEALIBRARY' includes 174 scientific journals that cover several domains, ranging from engineering to mathematics, computing and physics. Titles covered are among others 'Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables', 'Nuclear Data Sheets', 'Annals of Physics', 'Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing'. Reference citations present in each article are linked to the corresponding full text, when the latter is published by a member of the CrossRef consortium (members are: Elsevier, APS, AIP and others). Therefore, the navigation between articles and references is uninterrupted. A search engine allows queries by author, title and publication year. See http://www.idealibrary.com. At present the Library is evaluating a site license offer proposed by the publisher.

  11. Anomalous secular sea-level acceleration in the Baltic Sea caused by glacial isostatic adjustment

    Spada, Giorgio; Galassi, Gaia; Olivieri, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Observations from the global array of tide gauges show that global sea-level has been rising at an average rate of 1.5-2 mm/yr during the last ˜ 150 years (Spada & Galassi, 2012). Although a global sea-level acceleration was initially ruled out, subsequent studies have coherently proposed values of ˜1 mm/year/century (Olivieri & Spada, 2012). More complex non-linear trends and abrupt sea-level variations have now also been recognized. Globally, they could manifest a regime shift between the late Holocene and the current rhythms of sea-level rise, while locally they result from ocean circulation anomalies, steric effects and wind stress (Bromirski et al. 2011). Although isostatic readjustment affects the local rates of secular sea-level change, a possible impact on regional acceleration have been so far discounted (Woodworth et al., 2009) since the process evolves on a millennium scale. Here we report a previously unnoticed anomaly in the long-term sea-level acceleration of the Baltic Sea tide gauge records, and we explain it by the classical post-glacial rebound theory and numerical modeling of glacial isostasy. Contrary to previous assumptions, our findings demonstrate that isostatic compensation plays a role in the regional secular sea-level acceleration. In response to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), tide gauge records located along the coasts of the Baltic Sea exhibit a small - but significant - long-term sea-level acceleration in excess to those in the far field of previously glaciated regions. The sign and the amplitude of the anomaly is consistent with the post-glacial rebound theory and with realistic numerical predictions of GIA models routinely employed to decontaminate the tide gauges observations from the GIA effects (Peltier, 2004). Model computations predict the existence of anomalies of similar amplitude in other regions of the globe where GIA is still particularly vigorous at present, but no long-term instrumental observations are available to

  12. Optimal locations of sea-level indicators in glacial isostatic adjustment investigations

    Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Wang, Hansheng

    2015-04-01

    This poster presents the results of Steffen et al. (2014). Fréchet (sensitivity) kernels are an important tool in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) investigations to understand lithospheric thickness, mantle viscosity and ice-load model variations. These parameters influence the interpretation of geologic, geophysical and geodetic data, which contribute to our understanding of global change. We discuss global sensitivities of relative sea-level (RSL) data of the last 18 000 years. This also includes indicative RSL-like data (e.g., lake levels) on the continents far off the coasts. We present detailed sensitivity maps for four parameters important in GIA investigations (ice-load history, lithospheric thickness, background viscosity, lateral viscosity variations) for up to nine dedicated times. Assuming an accuracy of 2 m of RSL data of all ages (based on analysis of currently available data), we highlight areas around the world where, if the environmental conditions allowed its deposition and survival until today, RSL data of at least this accuracy may help to quantify the GIA modeling parameters above. The sensitivity to ice-load history variations is the dominating pattern covering almost the whole world before about 13 ka (calendar years before 1950). The other three parameters show distinct patterns, but are almost everywhere overlapped by the ice-load history pattern. The more recent the data are, the smaller the area of possible RSL locations that could provide enough information to a parameter. Such an area is mainly limited to the area of former glaciation, but we also note that when the accuracy of RSL data can be improved, e.g., from 2 m to 1 m, these areas become larger, allowing better inference of background viscosity and lateral heterogeneity. Although the patterns depend on the chosen models and error limit, our results are indicative enough to outline areas where one should look for helpful RSL data of a certain time period. Our results also

  13. The Pedagogical Press: Problems and Trends.

    Soviet Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a discussion by journalists, scientists, and writers on educational problems in the Soviet Union. Focuses on the the role of the pedagogical press in restructuring public education in light of perestroika. Calls for press involvement in defining and developing public education. Lists questions for consideration and invites responses. (NL)

  14. The Mythology of the Penny Press.

    Nerone, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines common scholarly characterizations of the American penny press of the 1830s and 40s that together provide a myth of origins of the contemporary U.S. press. Criticizes inaccuracies and misleading elements in this mythology and its implications for subsequent debate about U.S. journalism. (JK)

  15. Fabrication of lithium ceramics by hot pressing

    Wilson, C.N.

    1982-03-01

    Controlled density LiA10/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/Zr0/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/ and Li/sub 2/O pellets were fabricated by hot pressing for irradiation testing as candidate tritium breeding materials. Pellet specifications, characterization data, and procedures for hot pressing, pellet grinding and halide removal are discussed.

  16. Towards a more responsible press

    Taimur ul Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Pakistan’s newspapers’ performance with regard to civil society in2003 by using content analysis approach. There is no gainsaying that a strong civil society guaranteesa strong democracy. In Pakistan, spells of military rule have stunted the growth of democracy,adversely affecting civil society. Media too has suffered as a result. Normative theories of media callfor laying down norms and conventions for media. In democracy, all sections of society should berepresented in media. In Pakistan’s case, due to military regimes and quasi democratic governments,combined with the demands of market economy, the media have largely not been able to fulfill thisresponsibility towards society. Social Responsibility demands that the media must fulfill itsresponsibility towards society, while giving a free space to all voices of society. In Pakistan, whethernewspapers played that role in 2003 when civil society had accelerated its campaign to end honorkillings and crimes against women is investigated. The findings show that newspapers did supportcivil society, showing a gradual movement towards a more responsible press.

  17. Glacial isostatic adjustment on the Northern Hemisphere - new results from GRACE

    Mueller, J.; Steffen, H.; Gitlein, O.; Denker, H.; Timmen, L.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth's gravity field mapped by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission shows variations due to the integral effect of mass variations in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. The Earth's gravity field is provided in form of monthly solutions by several institutions, e.~g. GFZ Potsdam, CSR and JPL. During the GRACE standard processing of these analysis centers, oceanic and atmospheric contributions as well as tidal effects are reduced. The solutions of the analysis centers differ slightly, which is due the application of different reduction models and center-specific processing schemes. We present our investigation of mass variations in the areas of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North America and Northern Europe from GRACE data. One key issue is the separation of GIA parts and the reduction of the observed quantities by applying dedicated filters (e.~g. isotropic, non-isotropic, and destriping filters) and global models of hydrological variations (e.~g. WGHM, LaDWorld, GLDAS). In a further step, we analyze the results of both regions regarding their reliability, and finally present a comparison to results of a geodynamical modeling and absolute gravity measurements. Our results clearly show that the quality of the GRACE-derived gravity- change signal benefits from improved reduction models and chosen analysis techniques. Nevertheless, the comparison to results of geodynamic models still reveals differences, and thus further studies are in progress.

  18. A model of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet, using observations of glacial isostatic adjustment

    Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; McClusky, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a new numerical model of the late glacial western Laurentide Ice Sheet, constrained by observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), including relative sea level indicators, uplift rates from permanent GPS stations, contemporary differential lake level change, and postglacial tilt of glacial lake level indicators. The later two datasets have been underutilized in previous GIA based ice sheet reconstructions. The ice sheet model, called NAICE, is constructed using simple ice physics on the basis of changing margin location and basal shear stress conditions in order to produce ice volumes required to match GIA. The model matches the majority of the observations, while maintaining a relatively realistic ice sheet geometry. Our model has a peak volume at 18,000 yr BP, with a dome located just east of Great Slave Lake with peak thickness of 4000 m, and surface elevation of 3500 m. The modelled ice volume loss between 16,000 and 14,000 yr BP amounts to about 7.5 m of sea level equivalent, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a large portion of Meltwater Pulse 1A was sourced from this part of the ice sheet. The southern part of the ice sheet was thin and had a low elevation profile. This model provides an accurate representation of ice thickness and paleo-topography, and can be used to assess present day uplift and infer past climate.

  19. ISOSTATICALLY DISTURBED TERRAIN OF NORTHWESTERN ANDES MOUNTAINS FROM SPECTRALLY CORRELATED FREE-AIR AND GRAVITY TERRAIN DATA

    Hernández P Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently revised models on global tectonics describe the convergence of the North Andes, Nazca, Caribbean and South American Plates and their seismicity, volcanism, active faulting and extreme
    topography. The current plate boundaries of the area are mainly interpreted from volcanic and seismic datasets with variable confidence levels. New insights on the isostatic state and plate boundaries of
    the northwestern Andes Mountains can be obtained from the spectral analysis of recently available gravity and topography data.
    Isostatically disturbed terrain produces free-air anomalies that are highly correlated with the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain gravity effects (TGE and free air gravity anomalies (FAGA of the
    Andes mountains spectral correlation data confirms that these mountains are isostatically disturbed. Strong negative terrain-correlated FAGA along western South America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles are consistent with anomalously deepened mantle displaced by subducting oceanic plates.

    Inversion of the compensated terrain gravity effects (CTGE reveals plate subduction systems with alternating shallower and steeper subduction angles. The gravity modeling highlights crustal
    deformation from plate collision and subduction and other constraints on the tectonism of the plate boundary zones for the region.

  20. Effects of pressing method on pore structure of tungsten matrix used in high property Ba-W cathodes%成型方法对高性能钡钨阴极基体孔结构的影响

    刘昊; 卢平; 沈春英; 丘泰

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of pore structure of the tungsten green body and the tungsten matrix prepared by compression molding and isostatic pressing method were researched by mercury instrusion porosimeter (MIP). The results show that the average pore size of tungsten green body prepared by compression molding is 1.02 μm, of tungsten matrix is 1.41μm. The distribution of pore size is uneven. There are many small and big pores in tungsten matrix. The tungsten green body prepared by isostatic pressing method has narrow pore size distribution, with average pore size of 1.18 μm. The average pore size of tungsten matrix prepared by isostatic pressing method is 1.55 μm, and the pore size of 1.0~2.2 μm is account for 68.15% of the total pore size.%采用全自动压汞仪对传统的模压成型和等静压成型的钨坯和钨基孔结构分布进行了研究.结果表明:模压成型的钨坯平均孔径为1.02μm,钨基平均孔径1.41μm,孔径分布不均匀,钨基中小孔径与大孔径的量较多;等静压成型的钨坯平均孔径为1.18μm,孔径分布范围窄,钨基平均孔径为1.55μm,1.00-2.20 μm的孔径占总孔径的68.15%.

  1. WordPress web application development

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2013-01-01

    An extensive, practical guide that explains how to adapt WordPress features, both conventional and trending, for web applications.This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who have the desire to go beyond conventional website development to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Experienced web developers who are looking for a framework for rapid application development will also find this to be a useful resource. Prior knowledge with of WordPress is preferable as the main focus will be on explaining methods for adapting WordPres

  2. Teach yourself visually complete WordPress

    Majure, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Take your WordPress skills to the next level with these tips, tricks, and tasks Congratulations on getting your blog up and running with WordPress! Now are you ready to take it to the next level? Teach Yourself VISUALLY Complete WordPress takes you beyond the blogging basics with expanded tips, tricks, and techniques with clear, step-by-step instructions accompanied by screen shots. This visual book shows you how to incorporate forums, use RSS, obtain and review analytics, work with tools like Google AdSense, and much more.Shows you how to use mobile tools to edit a

  3. Powder pressing in a macrosonic field

    Protipopescu, A.; Dragan, O.; Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to extend the technology of powder product manufacturing to new forms and sizes, to improve their quality as well as pressing efficiency and to reduce waste. In the course of metal and nonmetal powder briquette pressing, macrosounds were associated with the external static pressing force, which led to an increase in the relative height, density and physicomechanical characteristics of the briquettes. This method permits the extension of the range of products that can be manufactured from powders and the improvement of their quality.

  4. Professional WordPress Plugin Development

    Williams, Brad; Tadlock, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Taking WordPress to the next level with advanced plugin developmentWordPress is used to create self-hosted blogs and sites, and it's fast becoming the most popular content management system (CMS) on the Web. Now you can extend it for personal, corporate and enterprise use with advanced plugins and this professional development guide. Learn how to create plugins using the WordPress plugin API: utilize hooks, store custom settings, craft translation files, secure your plugins, set custom user roles, integrate widgets, work with JavaScript and AJAX, create custom post types. You'll find a practic

  5. WordPress 24-Hour Trainer

    Plumley, George

    2011-01-01

    The eagerly anticipated second edition, completely updated for WordPress 3.1 As an open source content management system, WordPress allows users to easily build feature-rich web sites with no programming experience. This unique book-and-video package is a friendly, self-paced beginners guide to the latest release of WordPress. Lessons are focused on practical, everyday tasks that users will need to create and maintain their sites: entering new content, creating new pages, managing menus, making content search-engine friendly. Plus you'll find lots of tips based on years of experience teaching

  6. WordPress web design for dummies

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Updated, full-color guide to creating dynamic websites with WordPress 3.6 In this updated new edition, bestselling For Dummies author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson makes it easy for anyone with a basic knowledge of the WordPress software to create a custom site using complementary technologies such as CSS, HTML, PHP, and MySQL. You'll not only get up to speed on essential tools and technologies and further advance your own design skills, this book also gives you pages of great case studies, so you can see just how other companies and individuals are creating compelling, customized, a

  7. Study on the mechanical properties, microstructure and corrosion behaviors of nano-WC–Co–Ni–Fe hard materials through HIP and hot-press sintering processes

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw; Chang, Po-Yu

    2014-11-17

    This study aims to explore a series of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and hot-press sintering processes in order to examine the effects on the mechanical properties, microstructures and corrosion behaviors of micro- and nano-WC materials. The experimental results showed that the transverse rupture strength (TRS) values of micro- and nano-WC increased to 1627.3 and 1842.7 MPa after 1250 °C, 125 MPa, 100 min HIP treatments, respectively. Meanwhile, the porosity decreased slightly. The corrosion test results also showed that HIP-treated micro- and nano-WC effectively improved corrosion resistance in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, the lowest porosity (0.21%), highest hardness (91.7 HRA) and highest K{sub IC} (14.7 MPa√m) values appeared in nano-WC after 1250 °C, 15 MPa, 1 h hot-press sintering. Moreover, the hot-press sintering procedure significantly inhibited the grain growth of the tungsten carbide materials.

  8. Thermal Conductances of Pressed Copper Contacts

    Salerno, L.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes investigation of thermal conductivities of smooth copper contacts pressed together at liquid-helium temperatures. Investigation prompted by need for accurate thermal models for infrared detectors and other cryogenic instruments.

  9. World Gravity Map: a set of global complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps and grids

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Kuhn, M.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2012-04-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface free air, Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) with support of UNESCO and other institutions. The Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, 2011). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy-Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial

  10. Vacuum isostatic micro molding of microfluidic structures into polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) materials

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2008-04-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is an ideal material for use in microfluidic applications, such as industrial inkjet and biomedical analysis devices. PTFE has outstanding physical properties; such as chemical inertness and resistance to chemical corrosion, even when exposed to a strong acid, alkali and oxidants. Its properties provide for superior electrical insulation and thermal stability, which is not affected by wide ranges in temperature and frequency. Its non-absorption of moisture makes it a perfect material for consideration in micro-fluidic devices used in chemical analysis, fluidic photonic sensors and biomedical diagnostics. This paper presents an overview of a unique fabrication method that incorporates a variety of elements to establish a processing technique that can form micro channels, complex filter arrays and reflective micro mirror structures into PTFE materials for such applications. Using a modified isostatic compression molding process, this new technique incorporates the addition of a vacuum to assist in the reliable molding of micron structures and further densification of the fused or semi-fused PTFE. Various micro-structured electroformed and micro-machined shims are demonstrated to form small microstructures into the surface of the PTFE material. The combination of the vacuum and the electroformed shim within the molding process noticeably increases the precision, reproducibility and resolution of microstructures that can be realized. The paper will describe the molding hardware involved, process parameters and the resulting microfluidic channels and complex filter and capillary structures formed. Function testing and metrology of the micro-structure geometry formed on each sample will be compared to the original design mandrel geometry.

  11. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment as a Source of Noise for the Interpretation of GRACE Data

    Wahr, J.; Velicogna, I.; Paulson, A.

    2009-05-01

    Viscoelastic relaxation in the Earth's mantle caused by wide-spread deglaciation following the last glacial maximum (LGM), can appear as a secular trend in measurements of the Earth's time-variable gravity field. The presence of this trend can provide an opportunity to use gravity observations to constrain models of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process. But it can also be a nuisance for people who are using the gravity observations to learn about other things. Gravity observations, whether from satellites or from ground-based gravimeters, can not distinguish between the gravitational effects of water/snow/ice variations on or near the surface, and those caused by density variations deep within the mantle. Unmodeled or mismodeled GIA signals can sometimes make it difficult to use gravity observations to learn about secular changes in water/snow/ice from such places as northern Canada, Scandinavia, Antarctica, and Greenland: places where there was considerable long-term deglaciation following the LGM. These issues have become particularly important since the 2002 launch of the GRACE gravity satellite mission. GIA signals in northern Canada and Scandinavia are clearly evident in the GRACE data. But the presence of GIA signals in these and other regions has sometimes caused problems for long-term hydrological and, especially, cryospheric studies with GRACE. GIA model errors, for example, are by far the largest source of uncertainty when using GRACE to estimate present-day thinning rates of the Antarctic ice sheet. This talk will discuss the contributions of the GIA signal to GRACE time-variable gravity measurements; partly as an opportunity to study the GIA process, but mostly as a source of uncertainty for other applications.

  12. Glacial isostatic adjustment as a key for understanding the neotectonics of northern Germany

    Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Steffen, H. [Lantmaeteriet (IGR), Gaevle (Sweden); Plenefisch, T.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Northern Germany is regarded as a typical low strain intraplate area, but historic sources report significant earthquakes during the last 500 years (Leydecker, 2009). The trigger mechanism for the seismic events is not well understood so far. In a pilot project we analysed the Mesozoic Osning Thrust, which is located at the southern margin of the Lower Saxony Basin. The Osning Thrust underwent a polyphase tectonic evolution in the Mesozoic, which ranged from extensional movements in the Jurassic to reverse faulting and thrusting during inversion in the Late Cretaceous. New outcrop data give evidence for Lateglacial tectonic activity along the Osning Thrust (Brandes et al., 2012). In the vicinity of the fault trace, several complex metre-scale faults and related fold structures are developed in Pleniglacial to Lateglacial alluvial-aeolian sediments of the Upper Senne. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of the fault-related growth strata (Roskosch et al., 2012) imply that the faults were active between 16-13 ka. Independent numerical simulations of the deglaciation seismicity related to the glacial isostatic adjustment also point to the probability of seismic events with a thrust mechanism in the study area between 15.5-12.3 ka. The association of soft-sediment deformation structures implies that the Pleniglacial to Late Glacial earthquake had a Richter magnitude of at least 5. In the autumn of 1612, an earthquake took place in this area that caused distinct damage (Leydecker, 2009). It is the first time in northern Germany, that repeated seismicity over a time span of c. 16 000 years can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial together with the 17{sup th} century seismicity indicates ongoing crustal movements along the Osning Thrust and sheds new light on the seismic activity of northern Germany. (orig.)

  13. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    B. C. Gunter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating reprocessed data sets over a longer period of time, and now include a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes. A range of different GRACE gravity models were evaluated, as well as a new ICESat surface height trend map computed using an overlapping footprint approach. When the GIA models created from the combination approach were compared to in-situ GPS ground station displacements, the vertical rates estimated showed consistently better agreement than existing GIA models. In addition, the new empirically derived GIA rates suggest the presence of strong uplift in the Amundsen Sea and Philippi/Denman sectors, as well as subsidence in large parts of East Antarctica. The total GIA mass change estimates for the entire Antarctic ice sheet ranged from 53 to 100 Gt yr−1, depending on the GRACE solution used, and with an estimated uncertainty of ±40 Gt yr−1. Over the time frame February 2003–October 2009, the corresponding ice mass change showed an average value of −100 ± 44 Gt yr−1 (EA: 5 ± 38, WA: −105 ± 22, consistent with other recent estimates in the literature, with the mass loss mostly concentrated in West Antarctica. The refined approach presented in this study shows the contribution that such data combinations can make towards improving estimates of present day GIA and ice mass change, particularly with respect to determining more reliable uncertainties.

  14. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    Gunter, B. C.; Didova, O.; Riva, R. E. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; King, M. A.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Urban, T.

    2014-04-01

    This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes as well as reprocessed data sets over a slightly longer period of time. A range of different Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity models were evaluated and a new Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) surface height trend map computed using an overlapping footprint approach. When the GIA models created from the combination approach were compared to in situ GPS ground station displacements, the vertical rates estimated showed consistently better agreement than recent conventional GIA models. The new empirically derived GIA rates suggest the presence of strong uplift in the Amundsen Sea sector in West Antarctica (WA) and the Philippi/Denman sectors, as well as subsidence in large parts of East Antarctica (EA). The total GIA-related mass change estimates for the entire Antarctic ice sheet ranged from 53 to 103 Gt yr-1, depending on the GRACE solution used, with an estimated uncertainty of ±40 Gt yr-1. Over the time frame February 2003-October 2009, the corresponding ice mass change showed an average value of -100 ± 44 Gt yr-1 (EA: 5 ± 38, WA: -105 ± 22), consistent with other recent estimates in the literature, with regional mass loss mostly concentrated in WA. The refined approach presented in this study shows the contribution that such data combinations can make towards improving estimates of present-day GIA and ice mass change, particularly with respect to determining more reliable uncertainties.

  15. An assessment of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    Purcell, A.; Tregoning, P.; Dehecq, A.

    2016-05-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a), is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology, and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this paper we make an assessment of some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and show that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Furthermore, the published spherical harmonic coefficients—which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)—contain excessive power for degree ≥90, do not agree with physical expectations and do not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. We show that the excessive power in the high-degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. (2011) is applied, but when correct Stokes coefficients are used, the empirical relationship produces excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. (2011). Using the Australian National University (ANU) groups CALSEA software package, we recompute the present-day GIA signal for the ice thickness history and Earth rheology used by Peltier et al. (2015) and provide dimensionless Stokes coefficients that can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals. We denote the new data sets as ICE6G_ANU.

  16. A new glacial isostatic adjustment model of the Innuitian Ice Sheet, Arctic Canada

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Dyke, A. S.

    2015-07-01

    A reconstruction of the Innuitian Ice Sheet (IIS) is developed that incorporates first-order constraints on its spatial extent and history as suggested by regional glacial geology studies. Glacial isostatic adjustment modelling of this ice sheet provides relative sea-level predictions that are in good agreement with measurements of post-glacial sea-level change at 18 locations. The results indicate peak thicknesses of the Innuitian Ice Sheet of approximately 1600 m, up to 400 m thicker than the minimum peak thicknesses estimated from glacial geology studies, but between approximately 1000 to 1500 m thinner than the peak thicknesses present in previous GIA models. The thickness history of the best-fit Innuitian Ice Sheet model developed here, termed SJD15, differs from the ICE-5G reconstruction and provides an improved fit to sea-level measurements from the lowland sector of the ice sheet. Both models provide a similar fit to relative sea-level measurements from the alpine sector. The vertical crustal motion predictions of the best-fit IIS model are in general agreement with limited GPS observations, after correction for a significant elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass change. The new model provides approximately 2.7 m equivalent contribution to global sea-level rise, an increase of +0.6 m compared to the Innuitian portion of ICE-5G. SJD15 is qualitatively more similar to the recent ICE-6G ice sheet reconstruction, which appears to also include more spatially extensive ice cover in the Innuitian region than ICE-5G.

  17. The discourse of neutrality in the press

    Melo, Sandra Helena Dias de

    2010-01-01

    The goal here is to show how writing and style handbooks for journalists make a neutral image of news text and the press. Considering that language is not transparent nor simply a tool for communication (FAIRCLOUGH, 2001), I analyzed here how information, the prime object of the press, tends to be seen as an impartial product, based on techniques for standardizing journalistic language. For that purpose, an analysis was made of the handbooks produced by the newspapers Folha de S. Paulo and O ...

  18. Visualization Simulations for Cold Press Die

    2002-01-01

    Pressing process is a manufacturing method that obtained work piece with certain dimension, shape and capability through die forcing roughcast to produce plastic deformation or separate. This paper focuses on the key problems of visualization simulation in pressing die. The final aim is that numerical simulation system can simulate the process of processing forming technique, which can supply some necessary and accurate key parameters for die design. The detail description of mechanical characteristic an...

  19. CSR-communication in the business press

    Mette MORSING; Langer, Roy

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the construction of corporate social responsibility in the business press as an act of strategic ambiguity. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally evokes positive associations in public opinion, this paper demonstrates that these associations are based on a broadly encompassing and ambiguous definition of CSR. Our empirical data shows how the business press in its discourse on CSR provides no clarity on the definition of CSR in terms of a coherent motiv...

  20. WordPress 3 For Business Bloggers

    Thewlis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on book based around a fictitious case study blog, which you will build on a development server using WordPress. The case study grows chapter by chapter, from installing your local development server, right up to the finished blog. This book is for anybody running or starting a business blog using WordPress, whether you plan to use your blog for PR and marketing, or want to profit directly from blogging.

  1. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  2. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the religion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  3. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues. Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert.

  4. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Peter Križan; Miloš Matúš; Jaan Kers; Djordje Vukelić

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressi...

  5. Press Consumption in the Digital Age: Habits and Needs Regarding Online Press

    Fernandes, Filipe; Alturas, Bráulio

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the topic of Online Press and the challenge that the press faces to maintain its predominance as a communication media, before a public with new aptitudes, access to new technologies and, above all, to a wider and more dynamic range of alternative communication sources. This study is based on the principle that the solution for a sustainable and attractive marketing strategy for the press, starts with the comprehension of the way its public perceives the products made ...

  6. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica.

    Nield, G.A.; Whitehouse, P.L.; King, M. K.; Clarke, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might con...

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia from GRACE data and comparison with geodynamical models

    Steffen, Holger; Denker, Heiner; Müller, Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    The Earth's gravity field observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission shows variations due to the integral effect of mass variations in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. Several institutions, such as the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) Potsdam, the University of Texas at Austin, Center for Space Research (CSR) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, provide GRACE monthly solutions, which differ slightly due to the application of different reduction models and centre-specific processing schemes. The GRACE data are used to investigate the mass variations in Fennoscandia, an area which is strongly influenced by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Hence the focus is set on the computation of secular trends. Different filters (e.g. isotropic and non-isotropic filters) are discussed for the removal of high frequency noise to permit the extraction of the GIA signal. The resulting GRACE based mass variations are compared to global hydrology models (WGHM, LaDWorld) in order to (a) separate possible hydrological signals and (b) validate the hydrology models with regard to long period and secular components. In addition, a pattern matching algorithm is applied to localise the uplift centre, and finally the GRACE signal is compared with the results from a geodynamical modelling. The GRACE data clearly show temporal gravity variations in Fennoscandia. The secular variations are in good agreement with former studies and other independent data. The uplift centre is located over the Bothnian Bay, and the whole uplift area comprises the Scandinavian Peninsula and Finland. The secular variations derived from the GFZ, CSR and JPL monthly solutions differ up to 20%, which is not statistically significant, and the largest signal of about 1.2 μGal/year is obtained from the GFZ solution. Besides the GIA signal, two peaks with positive trend values of about 0.8 μGal/year exist in central eastern Europe, which are not GIA-induced, and

  8. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    Whitehouse, Pippa (Durham Univ., Dept. of Geography, Durham (United Kingdom))

    2009-04-15

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the

  9. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the effects 3-D Earth structure upon GIA processes

  10. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment with Paleo Sea Level Records using Bayesian Framework and Burgers Rheology

    Caron, L.; Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Rouby, H.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models most often assume a mantle with a viscoelastic Maxwell rheology and a given ice history model. Here we use a Bayesian Monte Carlo with Markov Chains formalism to invert the global GIA signal simultaneously for the mechanical properties of the mantle and for the volume of the various ice-sheets using as starting ice models two distinct previously published ice histories. Burgers as well as Maxwell rheologies are considered.The fitted data consist of 5720 paleo sea level records from the last 35kyrs, with a world-wide distribution. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data, and thus reveal the trade-off effects and range of uncertainty affecting the parameters. Our a posteriori probality maps exhibit in all cases two distinct peaks: both are characterized by an upper mantle viscosity around 5.1020Pa.s but one of the peaks features a lower mantle viscosity around 3.1021Pa.s while the other indicates lower mantle viscosity of more than 1.1022Pa.s. The global maximum depends upon the starting ice history and the chosen rheology: the first peak (P1) has the highest probability only in the case with a Maxwell rheology and ice history based on ICE-5G, while the second peak (P2) is favored when using ANU-based ice history or Burgers rheology, and is our preferred solution as it is also consistent with long-term geodynamics and gravity gradients anomalies over Laurentide. P2 is associated with larger volumes for the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice-sheets and as a consequence of total ice volume balance, smaller volumes for the Antactic ice-sheet. This last point interfers with the estimate of present-day ice-melting in Antarctica from GRACE data. Finally, we find that P2 with Burgers rheology favors the existence of a tectosphere, i.e. a viscous sublithospheric layer.

  11. THE ROLE OF PRESS FABRIC PRESSURE UNIFORMITY AND PORE SIZE ON DEWATERING AND REWET DURING PRESSING

    Xiaolin Fan; Mary Toney; Jorgen Gullbrand; Fawaad Qamar

    2004-01-01

    New procedures for measuring the pressure uniformity and pore size of press fabrics have been developed to study their role in the dewatering efficiency of a wet paper sheet and fabric system during pressing. The press nip profile of a single nip can be simulated in the laboratory using a custom built Servo-hydraulic Press Nip Simulator (SPNS) and is used to evaluate the final dryness and rewet of a handsheet with press fabric(s). Pressure uniformity can be measured with a flexible high-resolution transducer and pore size; both tests measured using water as the fluid are performed on compressed press fabric samples. A strong correlation is found between pressure uniformity parameters, mean flow pore size and final dryness for different sheets. Rewet is measured "directly" using a tracer fluid in the press fabric in our SPNS tester. Preliminary results indicate a significant reduction in rewet for some sheets with the use of an anti-rewet layer in combination withcertain press fabric designs.

  12. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  13. SHAPE OF PRESSING CHAMBER FOR WOOD BIOMASS COMPACTING

    Peter Krizan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this contribution is to present results of analyse of mathematical models of wood biomass compacting. Doesn't exist a lot of models which describes real state in pressing chamber and amount of factors impact at compacting process and thereby on briquette quality. According to our suggestion have also constructional parameters of pressing chamber (pressing spout and pressing ram expressive impact on result briquette quality. We did theoretical analyses which showed us that impact on briquette quality have also change of pressing chamber length, change of friction coefficient, change of pressing chamber conicalness and also change of pressing chamber diameter.

  14. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  15. Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press

    Peter Biath; Juraj Ondruška

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured ...

  16. Irene Reti and HerBooks Lesbian Feminist Press

    Reti, Irene

    2001-01-01

    This volume, Irene Reti and HerBooks Feminist Press, is one of a trio of oral histories published by the Regional History Project documenting the history and archives of second-wave feminist presses on deposit in the University Library's Special Collections. They include Alta's history of Shameless Hussy Press and Sandra Kay Martz's, of Papier-Mache Press. The archives are part of the University of California/Stanford University History and Women's Studies Consortium California Feminist Press...

  17. Determination of 6 stiffnesses for a press

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    2000-01-01

    The industry is increasingly demanding for better tolerances at cold forged products caused by the tough competition at the market. Near net-shape or net-shape production save resources for machining and reduce therefore also the material costs. During the forming process, the reaction forces from...... the workpiece will result in deflections of the press, which will decrease the tolerances of the component. At present, it is possible to measure the reaction forces from the workpiece, for instance by use of the model material technique as described in [1-2]. If the stiffness and clearances of the...... press is known too, the final dimensions can be predicted by divide the force by the stiffness and add the clearance. If the stiffness of the press is known, it is possible to optimize the orientation of the workpiece too, so the direction, in which the best tolerances is demanded, is equal to the...

  18. CSR-communication in the Business Press

    Morsing, Mette; Langer, Roy

    In this paper we analyze the construction of corporate social responsibility in the business press as an act of strategic ambiguity. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally evokes positive associations in public opinion, this paper demonstrates that these associations are based on a...... broadly encompassing and ambiguous definition of CSR. Our empirical data shows how the business press in its discourse on CSR provides no clarity on the definition of CSR in terms of a coherent motive, a dominant stakeholder or a consistent issue, but rather maintains ambiguity and imprecision about the...

  19. Internet Marketing with WordPress

    Mercer, David

    2011-01-01

    The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

  20. Discourse of Mobbing in Turkish Press

    Ece Karadoğan Doruk

    2011-01-01

    Mobbing (Psychological violence in working place) has been researched especially by the scientists making researches in organizational communication for last 20-25 years. In Turkey, mobbing concept is a newer research field. In this study, how the news regarding mobbing has been given in Turkish press will be analyzed with Van Dijk‟s discourse analysis.How the news regarding mobbing has taken place in Turkish press will be analyzed by applying Van Dijk‟s discourse analysis. From the year of 1...

  1. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  2. Long term gravity change and rapid uplifting caused by glacial isostatic adjustment in southeastern Alaska

    Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Sun, W.; Sugano, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Fujimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    Glaciers at high latitudes are considered to be extremely sensitive to climate change and thus monitoring of glaciers is a clue to evaluate the future effect of global warming and the related phenomena. Ice mass changes also produce a time-variable surface load and give us useful data to investigate subsurface structure of the earth, especially to constrain the flow characteristics of the mantle. Larsen et al. (EPSL05) have extensively studied on vertical crustal movement in SE Alaska by means of raised shorelines, tide gauge measurements, and GPS to reveal the world¡¦s fastest glacial isostatic uplifting, which can be attributed to the response associated with glacier retreat. Displacement data, however, can only be used to constrain the sum of the elastic response to present-day ice melting (PDIM) and the viscoelastic one to past changes in ice. A Japan-US joint research project, ISEA (International geodetic research project in SouthEast Alaska), was initiated in 2005 to add new geodetic data sets and to refine the viscoelastic model derived by the previous studies. The outline of the project and some results are presented in this paper. In June, 2006, three kinds of field work were carried out. Absolute gravity (AG) surveys were performed at five sites in and around Glacier Bay using a Micro-g LaCoste absolute gravimeter, FG5#111 (Bilham and Sasagawa, EOS94). Gravity tide (GT) observation using a Scintrex¡¦s CG3M gravimeter was started in the campus of University of Alaska, Southeast (Sato et al., this meeting) to give precise corrections for the effect of ocean tide loading, which are the keys to increase the observation accuracy of AG and GPS. New continuous GPS (CGPS) sites were also established to examine not only the secular uplifting but the possible seasonal variation due to snow loading in the winter and ice loss in the summer. In December, 2006, another gravimeter, LaCoste and Romberg G-type #578, for GT observation with an electrostatic feedback

  3. Glacial isostatic adjustment model with composite 3-D Earth rheology for Fennoscandia

    van der Wal, Wouter; Barnhoorn, Auke; Stocchi, Paolo; Gradmann, Sofie; Wu, Patrick; Drury, Martyn; Vermeersen, Bert

    2013-07-01

    Models for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) can provide constraints on rheology of the mantle if past ice thickness variations are assumed to be known. The Pleistocene ice loading histories that are used to obtain such constraints are based on an a priori 1-D mantle viscosity profile that assumes a single deformation mechanism for mantle rocks. Such a simplified viscosity profile makes it hard to compare the inferred mantle rheology to inferences from seismology and laboratory experiments. It is unknown what constraints GIA observations can provide on more realistic mantle rheology with an ice history that is not based on an a priori mantle viscosity profile. This paper investigates a model for GIA with a new ice history for Fennoscandia that is constrained by palaeoclimate proxies and glacial sediments. Diffusion and dislocation creep flow law data are taken from a compilation of laboratory measurements on olivine. Upper-mantle temperature data sets down to 400 km depth are derived from surface heatflow measurements, a petrochemical model for Fennoscandia and seismic velocity anomalies. Creep parameters below 400 km are taken from an earlier study and are only varying with depth. The olivine grain size and water content (a wet state, or a dry state) are used as free parameters. The solid Earth response is computed with a global spherical 3-D finite-element model for an incompressible, self-gravitating Earth. We compare predictions to sea level data and GPS uplift rates in Fennoscandia. The objective is to see if the mantle rheology and the ice model is consistent with GIA observations. We also test if the inclusion of dislocation creep gives any improvements over predictions with diffusion creep only, and whether the laterally varying temperatures result in an improved fit compared to a widely used 1-D viscosity profile (VM2). We find that sea level data can be explained with our ice model and with information on mantle rheology from laboratory experiments

  4. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  5. When International Press Rights "Are" the News

    Freedman, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In many countries, reporters and editors face criminal prosecution, censorship, self-censorship, exile, tax audits, loss of broadcast and publication licenses, loss of jobs, assault, and even assassination based on how they practice their profession. Press rights and human rights advocacy groups try to draw media and official attention to those…

  6. A Journalist's Guide to the Free Press.

    Ingelhart, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the content of the federal constitution and various state constitutions regarding freedom of the press. Examines certain borderline issues, including actions and expressions, pornography, defamation, libel, and copyrighted material. States that regulation of unprotected material must be reasonable, specific, and clear. Discusses what…

  7. World Press Photo'98 / Priit Brennel

    Brennel, Priit

    1998-01-01

    Pressifoto ülemaailmsest konkursist ja aastaringselt järgnevatest üritustest, mida korraldab World Press Photo Foundation (peakorter Amsterdamis) 1955. aastast. 1998. a. peapreemia - France Pressi fotograafi Hocine'i töö 23. septembri ööl toimunud massimõrvast Alžeerias, Benthalas. Eestist osalesid Tiit Räis, Viktor Vesterinen.

  8. Press freight and shipping guide: Sochi 2014

    2014-01-01

    This "Press freight and shipping guide" is intended for accredited members of the media. This guide provides a practical insight about how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia, for use in connection with the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

  9. TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOUR IN PARTICLEBOARD DURING PRESSING

    Leandro Calegari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the behaviour of core and face temperatures of particleboard glued with 8% tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. The boards were manufactured with three replication per treatment, with density of 0,7 g/cm³ and 27 kgf/cm² of pressing specific pressure. Pine flakes (40, 75 and 110 mm long and 0,5 and 1,0 mm thick and eucalypt particles were used and two pressing temperatures (140 and 180ºC along with two mat moisture content (17 and 21% were employed. The curves of temperature rise with pressing time indicated a fast temperature rise during the first 100 seconds of pressing, remaining at a plateau possible after reaching water boiling temperature. The temperature increased again, but on a more gradual form, after the lost mat moisture. It was possible to observe that mat formed by flakes of larger thicknesses showed faster initial temperature rise. The main factor that influenced the temperature behaviour at the board core was the mat moisture content. The higher the mat moisture content, the faster the temperature rise.

  10. Press service of the Ukrainian Galician Army

    Vovk, Nataliya

    2013-01-01

    The article the author analyzes the major periodicals of UGA issued with the support of the front-line troops and other military units.The author also gives a brief description of the major press services of state organs of the time.

  11. Trial access to Cambridge University Press ebooks

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    From 1 August till 31 October, CERN users are invited to enjoy a trial access to all Cambridge University Press electronic books: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/. Please don't hesitate to send feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  12. WordPress all-in-one for dummies

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Top WordPress guide, now fully updated for the latest WordPress release! This updated new edition comprises one of the largest collections of practical intermediate to advanced information on WordPress. Fully updated for the latest WordPress release, this in-depth book covers it all, from setting up your software to publishing your site, using SEO and social media, developing and using plug-ins, running multiple sites with WordPress, and more. Veteran author Lisa Sabin-Wilson is a top authority on WordPress, and she and her co-authors pack this book with essential and easy-to-follo

  13. Analysis of Institutional Press Releases and its Visibility in the Press

    José Antonio Alcoceba-Hernando, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between institutional communication and media communication influence the shaping of social representations of public issues. This research article analyses these relationships based on the case study of the external communication of a public institution, the press releases of Spain’s Youth Institute (Instituto de la Juventud, aka, Injuve, during three years and their repercussion in the press during the same period of time. The results obtained in this research allowed drawing conclusions on the types of communication production of the aforementioned institution and the news treatment of such pieces of information by the printed and digital media. The press releases and the news items were studied using quantitative media content analysis which focused, especially, in referential issues like the information treatment, the thematic analysis, youth representations in the case of the releases; and the visibility of the press releases in the making of news

  14. The influence of furnish composition, sheet structure and pressing conditions on wet pressing performance of newsprint

    Hii, Collin Ching Tyn

    2012-01-01

    The choice of furnish in newsprint production is dictated by the raw material costs, production cost and the final quality demanded by printers. In addition to the raw material costs, energy cost is a major factor in papermaking economy. Modern newsprint machines have combinations of roll and shoe presses to increase web dryness to approximately 50% after wet pressing and thus keeping drying cost as low as possible. Thermomechanical pulp and deinked pulp are commonly used for producing newspr...

  15. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  16. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Markus Meckl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  17. Press Freedom on the Media Agenda

    Terezinha Maria de Carvalho Cruz Pires

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to present a refl ection on the meanings constructed by the Brazilian written press regarding media and democracy. For this, it was necessary to recompose a specifi c journalistic event: the submission to the Brazilian Congress of a bill to create the Federal Journalism Council by the Brazilian President, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, at the request of the National Journalists Federation in August, 2004. This procedure gave rise to something rarely seen: the media were in the spotlight and thus it caused a controversial debate to emerge on the public scene regarding the journalist profession, journalism and press freedom, involving a diversity of political subjects.

  18. Power Cycle Testing of Press-Pack IGBT Chips

    Frank, Øyvind Bjerke

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the power cycling capability of individual press-pack IGBT chips is investigated. Press-pack is a packaging technology used for power semiconductors. For press-packs, both thermal and electrical contact to the semiconductor chip is obtained by the application of force on the package. Press-pack IGBTs is claimed by the manufacturers to be especially suitable for high-power applications with large variations in power output. Power cycle testing is an accelerated lifetime stress t...

  19. NKG201xGIA - first results for a new model of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia

    Steffen, Holger; Barletta, Valentina; Kollo, Karin; Milne, Glenn A.; Nordman, Maaria; Olsson, Per-Anders; Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Tarasov, Lev; Ågren, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is a dominant process in northern Europe, which is observed with several geodetic and geophysical methods. The observed land uplift due to this process amounts to about 1 cm/year in the northern Gulf of Bothnia. GIA affects the establishment and maintenance of reliable geodetic and gravimetric reference networks in the Nordic countries. To support a high level of accuracy in the determination of position, adequate corrections have to be applied with dedicated models. Currently, there are efforts within a Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) activity towards a model of glacial isostatic adjustment for Fennoscandia. The new model, NKG201xGIA, to be developed in the near future will complement the forthcoming empirical NKG land uplift model, which will substitute the currently used empirical land uplift model NKG2005LU (Ågren & Svensson, 2007). Together, the models will be a reference for vertical and horizontal motion, gravity and geoid change and more. NKG201xGIA will also provide uncertainty estimates for each field. Following former investigations, the GIA model is based on a combination of an ice and an earth model. The selected reference ice model, GLAC, for Fennoscandia, the Barents/Kara seas and the British Isles is provided by Lev Tarasov and co-workers. Tests of different ice and earth models will be performed based on the expertise of each involved modeler. This includes studies on high resolution ice sheets, different rheologies, lateral variations in lithosphere and mantle viscosity and more. This will also be done in co-operation with scientists outside NKG who help in the development and testing of the model. References Ågren, J., Svensson, R. (2007): Postglacial Land Uplift Model and System Definition for the New Swedish Height System RH 2000. Reports in Geodesy and Geographical Information Systems Rapportserie, LMV-Rapport 4, Lantmäteriet, Gävle.

  20. Press conference of the 15 october 2002

    Facing the public hostile purposes of october 2002, concerning the renewable energies, Andre Antolini, President of the renewable energies syndicate, proposed a press conference to give information, data and realizations on the renewable energies. The text of the conference is presented, as data on employment, biofuels, the wind energy, the hydro-electricity the greenhouse effect fight, the public opinion, the solar heating, the photovoltaic and the future projects and electric power supply for 2010. (A.L.B.)

  1. ACTIVATED HOT PRESSING BEHAVIOR OF WC NANOPOWDERS

    Edwin GEVORKYAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions of consolidation of nanopowders concerning hot compaction by pressing activated by electric current action are considered. Mechanisms of grain boundary creep-sliding which are sequentially prevalent in a forming of compacted structures under influence of temperature factor and in the presence of a direct electric heating are discussed. Structural-transformational sources and conditions of forming of high physical-mechanical properties of nanopowder refractory solid-state products are described.

  2. Andean Archaeological History and the Popular Press

    David L. Browman

    1995-01-01

    The only available published reports on many archaeological sites in theAndes often are found solely in the popular press, in the daily or weekly papers of the local region where the sites occur, or in the science and culture sections of the larger dailies in departmental or national capitals. Dog-eared, faded xeroxes are passed from one generation of students to the next. Each serious scholar has a few dozen of these ...

  3. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    Monika Skwarek; Zbigniew Józef Dolatowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature). Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production al...

  4. MADRAS PRESS AND AGE OF CONSENT ISSUE

    Malliga Begum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to A.R. Desai , the Press in India was an effective weapon in the hands of social reform groups to expose social evils. The Press in the Colonial Tamil Nadu richly contributed to the growth of the social reforms movement also, which, to a large extent, was part of the national movement. Sita Ram Singh observed, that nationalism and social reform 'went hand in glove' during the national movement in India. What he said about the close alliance between nationalism and social reform in India was true of the Colonial Tamil Nadu also. Majority of the nationalist press in the Colonial Tamil Nadu, supported the various issues connected with social reform. However, a few papers, like the The Hindu, Swadesamitan , New India, Indian Patriot, Tamil Nadu, Swarjya highlighted nationalist ideas and expressed very conservative opinions on aspects connected with the social reform. The Hindu, under G.Subramania Iyer gave equal importance to the political and social issues while The Hindu, under Kasturi Renga Iyengar, concentrated only on national movement and freedom struggle. These newspapers created political awareness among the people in Colonial Tamil Nadu. Another noteworthy feature was that pro- British papers like the Madras Mail , Andhra Prakasika, Justice, Non-Brahman, Dravidian, Kudi Arasu, Puratchi, Revolt, also supported various social reforms like abolition of child marriages, uplift of women and the improvement of the condition of women .

  5. Sealing device for extrusion or compression press

    A sealing device for an extrusion or compression press is presented. It consists of two parts fitting one inside the other play along a common axis, separated peripherally by a deformable tightness joint. The two parts forming the press chamber are subjected to an axial thrust which compresses an element in the chamber kept under hydrostatic pressure of a liquid or a lubricant. One of the parts is provided with a narrow flange resting against the joint and extending perpendiculary to the axis. The other has an inclined surface pressing against the joint and directed towards the outside of this part. When thrust is applied on the parts the joint is first deformed under pressure. The part in contact with the liquid under hydrostatic pressure in the chamber is equipped to balance the pressures in the chamber on the one hand and in the gap between the two parts on the other. This pressure equilibrium is set up immediately after deformation of the joint sealing the parts from the inner surface of the chamber. The means employed to balance the pressures consist of at least one narrow channel passing through the part in contact with the liquid in the chamber and associated with a calibrated valve

  6. Living Dangerously--Changing Press Law in India.

    Ryan, Timothy

    An examination of the changes in press laws after India gained its independence in 1947 shows how a free press is shaped mostly by the structure and evolution of the democratic society that it is intended to serve. The most salient features that have characterized the Indian press, from the early nineteenth century to the present day, are…

  7. Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press

    Peter Biath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured values are substituted into the formula for the compression ratio, and the resulting evaluations are presented in the diagram in the conclusion of this paper.

  8. Thermal Test on Target with Pressed Disks

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gromov, Roman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lowden, Rick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-27

    A thorough test of the thermal performance of a target for Mo99 production using solid Mo100 target to produce the Mo99 via a gamma-n reaction has previously been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results are reported in “Zero Degree Line Mo Target Thermal Test Results and Analysis,” LANL report Number LA-UR-15-23134 dated 3/27/15. This target was comprised of 25 disks 1 mm thick and 12 mm in diameter, separated by helium coolant gaps 0.5 mm wide. The test reported in the above referenced report was conducted with natural Mo disks all cut from commercial rod. The production plant will have Mo100 disks pressed and sintered using a process being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural integrity of press-and-sinter disks is of some concern. The test reported herein included 4 disks made by the ORNL process and placed in the high heat, and therefore high thermal stress, region of the target. The electron beam energy was 23 MeV for these tests. Beam spot size was 3.5 mm horizontal and 3 mm vertical, FWHM. The thermal stress test of pressed-and-sintered disks resulted in no mechanical failures. The induced thermal stresses were below yield stress for natural Mo, indicating that up to that stress state no inherent deficiencies in the mechanical properties of the fabricated disks were evident.

  9. Tjekkoslovakisk presse år 2

    Rudolf Prevratil

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Danske teleselskaber overvejer at etablere sig som kabeloperatører i Polen, mens et amerikansk selskab allerede er igang i Warszawa og Krakow. Franske lokalradionetworks opretter filialer i Polen og Tjekko- slovakiet. Den tjekkiske statsradio stiller sendenet til rådighed for Radio Free Europe. Springer-koncernen opretter en "østtysk" pendant til Bild, hvis redaktionelle hovedlinje lægger sig op ad de dybe sociale frustrati- oner, der fulgte med DDR's indlemmelse i BDR. Maxwell, Hersant og Berlusconi m.fl. etablerer sig alene eller med lokale konstellationer inden for trykt presse i flere øst- og mellemeuropæiske stater. Samtidig for- søger den tidligere undergrundspresse at vinde økonomisk og politisk fodfæste inden for markedets og "det legale samfunds" rammer, i kon- kurrence med fortidens mediemutanter og vestlige mediekoncerner. Rudolf Prevratils artikel er en refleksion over en del af de problemer, primært af økonomisk og politisk art, som har tårnet sig op for den tjek- koslovakiske presse efter fløjlsrevolutionen i november 1989. Den giver et billede af dagens situation og får gennem sine analyser påvist, at etab- lingen af en demokratisk presse i Tjekkoslovakiet ikke alene er afhængig af "hjælp udefra", men i nok så høj grad forudsætter et net af sociale og kulturelle udviklingsprocesser, som både anerkender opgøret med for- tiden og vedkender sig den historiske arv. Artiklen er oversat fra engelsk af Per Jauert.

  10. Bad press impact on consumer behavior

    Marica, Florian Gabriel; Rendemann, Michael; Scappaticci, Andrea; Fijas, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a bad press image of a company on consumer’s behavior, the motives and commitments of customer’s attitudes towards the CSR message of that company and his ability to influence the chain of events. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods and theories was used to analyze and compare the empirical secondary data gathered from reports, articles and books, and primary data collected through a set of interviews and a focus group session. An initi...

  11. STS-99 / Endeavour: Launch Postponement Press Conference

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows Ron Dittemore, the Shuttle Program Manager from Johnson Space Center (JSC), participating in a Launch Postponement Press Conference disclosing the status of the STS-99 flight. He addresses the weather condition which caused the postponement and the erroneous response from one of the Master Events Controllers (MEC). The moderator of this conference is Bruce Buckingham from NASA's Public Affairs Office. Ron answers questions from the audience about the MEC responsible for sending commands for launch, and the implications that it might have on the launch schedule.

  12. Abstracts of Suburban Press Critique Series Papers Produced by the Suburban Press Research Center from April 1966 to May 1973. Suburban Press Research Series No. 15.

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Suburban Press Research Center.

    Abstracts of 28 articles, collected by the Suburban Press Research Center, are provided in this paper. The articles discuss various aspects of the suburban press: pretrial coverage; news coverage for adolescents, the family, and the aged; editorials; education news; business news; crime coverage; consumer information; the formation of policies…

  13. Pre-Brazed Casting and Hot Radial Pressing: A Reliable Process for the Manufacturing of CFC and W Monoblock Mockups

    ENEA association is involved in the European International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R-and-D activities and in particular for the manufacturing of high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC), such as the divertor targets, the baffles and the limiters: During the last years ENEA has manufactured actively cooled mock-ups by using different technologies, namely brazing, diffusion bonding and hot isostatic pressing (HIPping). A new manufacturing process has been set up and tested. It was successfully applied for the manufacturing of W armoured monoblock mockups. This technique is the HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) based on performing a radial diffusion bonding between the cooling tube and the armour tile by pressurizing only the internal tube and by keeping the joining zone in vacuum and at the required bonding temperature. The heating is obtained by a standard air furnace. The next step was to apply the HRP technique for the manufacturing of CFC armoured monoblock components. For this purpose some issues have to be solved like as the low CFC tensile strength, the pure copper interlayer between the heat sink and the armour necessary to mitigate the stress at the joint interface and the low wettability of the pure copper on the CFC matrix. This paper reports the research path followed to manufacture a medium scale vertical target CFC and W armoured mockup by HRP. An ad hoc rig able to maintain the CFC in a compressive constant condition was also designed and tested. The casting of a soft copper interlayer between the tube and the tile was performed by a new technique: the Pre-Brazed Casting (PBC, ENEA patent). Some mock-ups with three NB31 CFC tiles were successfully manufactured and tested to thermal fatigue using electron beam facilities. They all reached at least 1000 cycles at 20 MW/m2 without suffering any damage. The manufactured medium scale vertical target mock-up is now under testing at the FE2000 (France) facility. (author)

  14. Consolidation of crushed rock salt: Part 1, Experimental results for dry salt analyzed using a hot-pressing model

    Mechanical properties of granulated rock salt are of interest in the underground disposal of nuclear waste because native salt from the excavations will be used as part of the backfill around the waste packages and in storage rooms, shafts and other openings. Backfill properties will be important in controlling room closure rates and local permeability. To obtain data on instantaneous and time-dependent compaction of crushed salt, we have done tests to measure the compaction as a function of time, temperature and pressure. Tests were done for a range of temperatures from 21 to 100/degree/C and pressures from 1.72 to 21 MPa, under quasistatic and creep conditions. All tests were done under hydrostatic loading, and also under nominally dry conditions, which means the only water present was the ∼0.2% water content of the salt. We found that: (1) Volumetric creep consolidation under hydrostatic stress proceeds at a rate of approximately 0.01t/sup /minus/1/, where t is the time in seconds. Creep consolidation is a function of log(t) and is slow. (2) Consolidation is not very temperature dependent in the range 21/degree/C to 100/degree/C. (3) Results can be fit reasonably well by a model developed to describe isostatic hot-pressing. 42 refs., 14 figs

  15. A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH ON PRESS CONFERENCE

    Ioana Olariu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A press conference is an important tool of public relations. The primary role of public relations is to manage a company’s reputation and help build public consent for its enterprises. The goal of PR is to develop and maintain goodwill with most, if not all, of its publics. Failure to do so may mean loss of customers and revenues, time lost dealing with complaints or lawsuits, and loss of esteem. A company’s publics change constantly. Well-executed public relations is an ongoing process that molds good long-term relationships and plays an important role in relationship marketing and integrated communications. Companies often call press conference when they have significant news to announce, such as the introduction of a new product or advertising campaign. Although used less often by organizations and corporations, this form of delivery can be very effective. The topic must be of major interest to a specific group before it is likely to gain coverage.

  16. The press media and the risk perception

    In this study it was identified the frequency of negative and positive news on the nuclear question in the press media. Due to the complexity of the matter, we opt to perform a study case that could illustrate the theoretical discussion presented in this research. Thus, due to the constant presence of news related to IPCC meeting, in the national and foreign press, we opt to focus our study on one year period just after the release of the 4th IPCC Report, in February of 2007. The research was centered only in the printed matters, since there is significant differences between the printed media and others, like TV, radio or web, restricting the use of the same bibliographical reference. In this study it was collected journalistic material involving the nuclear energy and was verified the predominant speech of the vehicles of communication and the sources of information. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in the paper. The negative approach almost always was assumed by the ONGs in general, as expected, due to the its well known position in the treatment of matters related to the nuclear energy. Also it is important to point out that all the tracked vehicles of information mixed positive and negative news articles on the subject; and evidences of hegemonic speech by official sources had been observed. (author)

  17. Press Conference: LHC Restart, Season 2

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    PRESS BRIEFING ON THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC) RE-START, SEASON 2 AT CERN, GLOBE OF SCIENCE AND INNOVATION Where :   http://cern.ch/directions   at the Globe of Science and Innovation When : Thursday, 12 March from 2.30 to 3.30pm - Open seating as from 2.15pm Speakers : CERN’s Director General, Rolf Heuer and Director of Accelerators, Frédérick Bordry, and representatives of the LHC experiments Webcast : https://webcast.web.cern.ch/webcast/ Dear Journalists, CERN is pleased to invite you to the above press briefing which will take place on Thursday 12 March, in the Globe of Science and Innovation, 1st floor, from 2.30 to 3.30pm. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is ready to start up for its second three-year run. The 27km LHC is the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world operating at a temperature of -217 degrees Centigrade and powered to a current of 11,000 amps. Run 2 of the LHC follows a two-year technical s...

  18. A metaphor corpus in business press headlines

    Honesto Herrera Soler

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In linguistics a corpus typically involves a finite body of texts which are considered to be representative of a particular variety of language at a specific time (McEnery & Wilson, 2001. Those are the assumptions we have had in mind in this metaphor corpus based on business press headlines. Our body of texts is a finite number of headlines drawn from the specific field of the business sections of three newspapers: Financial Times, El País and El Mundo, published over a period running from January to July 2003. Compiling a small corpus of non-literal instantiations as different authors have done (Cortés de los Ríos, 2001; Kövecses, 2002; Charteris-Black, 2003; Koller, 2004; Deignan, 2005; and others will enable us first to identify whether the contextual meaning of a word or a multiword unit of headline contrasts with its basic meaning and whether the contextual meaning can be understood by comparison with that basic meaning, and then to categorize, both in the Spanish and in the British press, the different linguistic realizations of a headline in terms of their syntactic structure, metaphor foci and source domains.

  19. Direct drive digital servo press with high parallel control

    Murata, Chikara; Yabe, Jun; Endou, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Direct drive digital servo press has been developed as the university-industry joint research and development since 1998. On the basis of this result, 4-axes direct drive digital servo press has been developed and in the market on April of 2002. This servo press is composed of 1 slide supported by 4 ball screws and each axis has linearscale measuring the position of each axis with high accuracy less than μm order level. Each axis is controlled independently by servo motor and feedback system. This system can keep high level parallelism and high accuracy even with high eccentric load. Furthermore the 'full stroke full power' is obtained by using ball screws. Using these features, new various types of press forming and stamping have been obtained by development and production. The new stamping and forming methods are introduced and 'manufacturing' need strategy of press forming with high added value and also the future direction of press forming are also introduced.

  20. Hot pressing of B4C/SiC composites

    B4C/SiC ceramic composites containing 10-20-30 vol % SiC were prepared by hot pressing method. The effect of SiC addition and hot pressing temperature on sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of hot pressed composites were investigated. Microstructures of hot pressed samples were examined by SEM technique. Three different temperatures (2100 deg. C, 2200 deg. C and 2250 deg. C) were used to optimize hot pressing temperature applying 100 MPa pressure under argon atmosphere during the sintering procedure. The highest relative density of 98.44 % was obtained by hot pressing at 2250 deg. C. However, bending strengths of B4C/SiC composite samples were lower than monolithic B4C in all experimental conditions. (authors)

  1. An Estimate of Global Mean Sea-level Rise Inferred from Tide-gauge Measurements Using Glacial-isostatic Models Consistent with the Relative Sea-level Record

    Jan Hagedoorn; D. Wolf; Z. Martinec;  

    2007-01-01

    This study is concerned with the influence of the glacial-isostatic adjustment caused by the last Pleistocene deglaciation on the present-day sea level. The viscoelastic deformation caused by the time-variable ice and ocean loads is simulated by computing the resulting perturbations for a spherical, self-gravitating, incompressible, Maxwell-viscoelastic earth model. The associated variation of the earth rotation is described in terms of the Liouville equation, which is solved by means of the ...

  2. Comparing a thermo-mechanical Weichselian Ice Sheet reconstruction to reconstructions based on the sea level equation: aspects of ice configurations and glacial isostatic adjustment

    Schmidt, P.; Lund, B; Näslund, J-O.; Fastook, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compare a recent reconstruction of the Weichselian Ice Sheet as simulated by the University of Maine ice sheet model (UMISM) to two reconstructions commonly used in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling: ICE-5G and ANU (Australian National University, also known as RSES). The UMISM reconstruction is carried out on a regional scale based on thermo-mechanical modelling, whereas ANU and ICE-5G are global models based on the sea level equation. The three ...

  3. Improvement of nuclear reactor component materials by application of hot isostatic processing (HIP). Survey report on Phase 1

    The report summarizes the results of an EPRI-sponsored state-of-the-art survey of hot isostatic processing (HIP). The purpose of the study was to identify potential nuclear plant applications of HIP with high pay-off through improvement in component quality and reliability. The survey shows that HIP will reduce cost and manufacturing time and improve quality and ease of nondestructive examination of all castings for which porosity is a problem. Nuclear valves are a prime example. Tubing, pipe, and sheet and bar present other possibilities of somewhat less immediate promise. This report includes a review of some of the EPRI motivations for undertaking this research; a brief explanation of HIP, the survey methodology exployed; the basic operations in the processes studied; a review of the historical applications of HIP to problem areas consistent with those addressed in the survey; the results of the survey and associated analyses of the problems; and the recommendations and justifications for the Phase II program

  4. The Multianvil Press Research Facility at GSECARS

    Wang, Y.; Uchida, T.; Rivers, M. L.; Sutton, S. R.; Weidner, D. J.; Durham, W. B.

    2002-12-01

    The multianvil press high pressure synchrotron research facility at the GSECARS beamlines consists of two large-volume presses (LVP): a 2.5 MN (250 ton) system at the bending magnet beamline (13-BM-D) and a 10 MN system at the insertion device beamline (13-ID-D). Both systems are now fully operational, with steadily increasing annual usage from ~70 days in 1998 to ~120 days in 2001. Here we present a system overview with brief scientific highlights illustrating the breadth of research and achievements made using this facility. Construction and operation of the facility are supported by the NSF Geosciences Instrumentation and Facilities Program. A DIA-type cubic-anvil apparatus and a split-cylinder apparatus (T-Cup) with 10 mm WC cubes are used to generate pressures and temperatures up to 24 GPa and 2400 K, on millimeter-sized samples, at 13-BM-D. In 13-ID-D, a large T-Cup apparatus with 25 mm anvils is used to reach pressure and temperature conditions of 25 GPa and 2500K simultaneously. Both high-pressure apparatus are mounted in die-sets, which can be easily transported in and out of the hydraulic press. Therefore all pressure generating apparatus can be used at any beamline, depending on research needs. A new deformation DIA (DDIA) was commissioned in August, 2002. This apparatus is capable of generating 30% strain on a 1 mm sample at pressures to ~15 GPa, allowing quantitative triaxial deformation experiments. Close to 400 runs have been carried out at our facility in a wide range of research areas: (1) P-V-T equation of state measurements on important mantle minerals, Fe alloys, and pressure standards, (2) in situ determination of phase relations of silicates, Fe alloys, and semiconductors using X-ray diffraction, (3) falling sphere measurements using radiography to determine viscosity of the silicate and metallic melts, (4) ultrasonic velocity measurements on mantle minerals, especially non-quenchable high pressure phases (e.g., high-pressure clinoenstatite

  5. Comparative analysis of Vening-Meinesz Moritz isostatic models using the constant and variable crust-mantle density contrast – a case study of Zealandia

    Mohammad Bagherbandi; Robert Tenzer

    2013-04-01

    We compare three different numerical schemes of treating the Moho density contrast in gravimetric inverse problems for finding the Moho depths. The results are validated using the global crustal model CRUST2.0, which is determined based purely on seismic data. Firstly, the gravimetric recovery of the Moho depths is realized by solving Moritz’s generalization of the Vening-Meinesz inverse problem of isostasy while the constant Moho density contrast is adopted. The Pratt-Hayford isostatic model is then facilitated to estimate the variable Moho density contrast. This variable Moho density contrast is subsequently used to determine the Moho depths. Finally, the combined least-squares approach is applied to estimate jointly the Moho depths and density contract based on a priori error model. The EGM2008 global gravity model and the DTM2006.0 global topographic/bathymetric model are used to generate the isostatic gravity anomalies. The comparison of numerical results reveals that the optimal isostatic inverse scheme should take into consideration both the variable depth and density of compensation. This is achieved by applying the combined least-squares approach for a simultaneous estimation of both Moho parameters. We demonstrate that the result obtained using this method has the best agreement with the CRUST2.0 Moho depths. The numerical experiments are conducted at the regional study area of New Zealand’s continental shelf.

  6. Legal Protection To The Infotainment Of Press Development In Indonesia

    Anwar Fuadi; S.M. Noor; Badriyah Rifai; Farida Pattitingi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the socio-political life the press has become an integral part in democratic life. The press has become one of the means for citizens to bring their thoughts and opinions. Nowadays there is a tendency to increase the quantity of press publications sharp but not accompanied by a statement of the quality of journalism. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the infotainment liability as a mass media in order to construct a freedom of the press principle which...

  7. Legal Protection To The Infotainment Of Press Development In Indonesia

    Anwar Fuadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the socio-political life the press has become an integral part in democratic life. The press has become one of the means for citizens to bring their thoughts and opinions. Nowadays there is a tendency to increase the quantity of press publications sharp but not accompanied by a statement of the quality of journalism. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the infotainment liability as a mass media in order to construct a freedom of the press principle which has legitimacy within the legal system of the press in Indonesia. The type of research used in this paper is normative research or also known as doctrinal research by reviewing the legal protection to the infotainment as a mass media in Indonesia. The outcomes of the research indicate that the role of infotainment in the legal system of the press in Indonesia refers to the legal construction of institutional and infotainment organizers itself. Legal liability of Infotainment essentially can be seen from the press obligations stipulated in the Law No. 40 of 1999 regarding the Press Law No. 32 of 2002 regarding Broadcasting as well as the Journalists Code of Ethics which support freedom of the press and expression.

  8. Structure of Al-Ni alloy after equichannel angular pressing

    The structural-phase state of the Al-Li alloy rods, obtained under different conditions of the equichannel angular (ECA) pressing is studied. The fine-grained structure is formed in the ECA-pressing process, whereby the more fine grains correspond to the lower pressing temperatures. The dislocation substructure, including the subgrains, limited by the dislocation boundaries, is formed in the majority of the grains. The most developed substructure is formed in the process of pressing at the increased temperatures, when the largest grains are formed. Only the samples with such a structure manifested the superplasticity

  9. WordPress all-in-one for dummies

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa; Palmer, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A convenient how-to guide for maximizing your WordPress experience. WordPress is a state-of-the-art blog publishing platform with nearly ten million active installations. Eight minibooks provide you with expanded coverage of the most important topics to the WordPress community, such as WordPress basics, theme designs, plug-in development, social media integration, SEO, customization, and running multiple sites. Veteran author Lisa Sabin-Wilson leads an authoritative team of authors who offer their unique knowledge and skillset while sharing invaluable advice for maximizing your site's potentia

  10. STS-114: Discovery Launch Postponement Press Briefing

    2005-01-01

    This press briefing addresses the problem that occurred prior to the launch of the STS-114. Dean Acosta, Deputy Assistant Administrator of Public Affairs, introduces the panel which consists of Dr. Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator, William Readdy, Associate Administrator for Space Operations, Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Deputy Manager, Steve Poulas, Orbiter Project Manager, Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director, and Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager. Wayne Hale expresses that a problem occurred with one of the low level sensors in the hydrogen tank and that the cause of the problem must be identified and rectified. Steve Poulos talks about establishing a troubleshooting plan as a part of the scrub effort and Mike Leinbach describes the process of draining the external tank. Wayne Hale answers questions about the sensors and if the Space Shuttle Discovery is safe to fly and Steve Poulos answers questions about the possible suspects for this problem.

  11. Publishing Outside the Box: Popular Press Books.

    Vyse, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Writing and publishing popular press books requires a set of skills, not natural to basic and applied researchers trained to publish in peer-referred behavior analytic journals or to practice behavior analysis in applied settings. This article provides suggestions and examples. These include finding a distinctive idea, securing a contract, hiring an agent (or not), deciding on a publisher, and writing engagingly for a broad audience. The last is the greatest challenge. Among my recommendations are to read good prose, good models, and good books about publishing; talk to experienced colleagues; read aloud to judge the appropriateness of your vocabulary and style; and interject humor, imagery, and drama. Book publishing is a long and difficult process, but it is possible. It has a great potential for bringing behavior analytic research, practice and theory to the attention of the general public. PMID:27274959

  12. Effects of pressing temperature and initial microstructure on the equal channel angular pressing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    The effects of pressing temperature and initial microstructure on the equal channel angular (ECA) pressing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were investigated in this study. The ECA pressing was carried out isothermally with route C at 500 C, 600 C and 700 C for two typical microstructures, i.e., the Widmanstaetten microstructure and the equiaxed microstructure. The results showed that ECA pressing at 600 C and 700 C was successful without producing any noticeable segment at the specimen surfaces, while a large amount of surface segments were produced at 500 C. After 1 pass pressing at 600 C, the equiaxed microstructure showed more uniform material flow at the surface than the Widmanstaetten microstructure. However, this microstructural influence was diminished with increase of the number of the ECA pressing. A flow-localization parameter that quantifies the flow non-uniform tendency in case of flow softening materials was used to explain the different results in each microstructure. (orig.)

  13. Structural and Electrical Properties of PZT/PVDF Piezoelectric Nanocomposites Prepared by Cold-Press and Hot-Press Routes

    The 0-3 PZT/PVDF piezoelectric composites are prepared separately by hot-press and cold-press processes. The effects of the PZT content and the shaping-process on the composites are studied. The experimental results indicate that composites with 70% PZT nanopowders prepared by the hot-press method exhibit excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties. The maxima of dss and e of the composites prepared by hot-press method are about 30% and 65% higher than those prepared by the cold-press method, respectively. This is mainly attributed to the favourable coupling of the two materials in the process of the hot press and the formation of the β-type PVDF, which possesses better electric properties

  14. Upaya Memperkecil Kehilangan Minyak (Losses) Dengan Pengaturan Tekanan Screw Press Pada Ampas Press Pada Stasiun Pressing Di Pabrik Kelapa Sawit PTPN III Kebun Rambutan Tebing Tinggi

    Pinem, Sri Rejeki

    2011-01-01

    Many factors that influences loses the oil process of TBS’s processing of bunch fresh becoming the oil of CPO. The most imfortant factor is the pressure at stasion of screw press until influencing the extraction efficiency. Use of small screw press pressure will produce rate losses large palm oil, while the use pressure of large screw press will produce rate losses small palm oil in fiber. This matter can be carried out by paying attention to maximum pressure of equipment and percentage loses...

  15. Design of a Servo Mechanical Press with Redundant Actuation

    GUO Weizhong; GAO Feng

    2009-01-01

    A servo press is a new type of mechanical press that is driven by programmable motors and offers superior performance such as low noise, excellent efficiency and high precision for metal forming operations. Similar to multi-link mechanical presses, a servo mechanical press tends to grow in size as the tonnage increases that calls for larger, heavy duty servo motors, which could be expensive and may not even be available. In this paper, a new concept of servo mechanical press with redundant actuation is proposed firstly using two servo motors driving one input shaft, i.e. one-point-two-motor mode that makes it possible to produce a larger press with available servomotors. Then the punching mechanism design is detailed. The performance indices are set up including mechanical advantage reciprocal and link force ratios. A bounded feasible solution space is constructed for dimensional synthesis based on non-dimensional link lengths and assembly conditions. The performance atlases are depicted over the bounded feasible solution space that lead to a visual solution of the punching mechanism with global optimization. Finally, case studies are given to illustrate the design method with visual global optimization, and a prototype with 200 t punching force is being developed in our laboratory to demonstrate efficacy of the new concept for servo mechanical press. The presented research provides a feasible solution to the development of heavy-duty servo mechanical presses and finds potential applications in the development of other types of heavy equipments with electric drive.

  16. Simulation Model of Automated Peat Briquetting Press Drive

    A. Marozka; Y. Petrenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the developed fully functional simulation model of an automated peat briquetting press drive. The given model makes it possible to reduce financial and time costs while developing, designing and operating a double-stamp peat briquetting press drive.

  17. Simulation Model of Automated Peat Briquetting Press Drive

    A. Marozka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed fully functional simulation model of an automated peat briquetting press drive. The given model makes it possible to reduce financial and time costs while developing, designing and operating a double-stamp peat briquetting press drive.

  18. Letting The Nasa Press Engine Work For You

    Weaver, Kimberly A.

    2006-09-01

    You have an amazing result based on NASA data or a NASA mission, you have written your seminal paper and submitted it to your favorite journal. You believe it has press potential and maybe you've even gotten help from your PR folks in writing a press release. Now you would really like NASA to issue this as a press release. But how do you do that? This presentation will illustrate the steps required to engage NASA in helping promote your story. What are NASA's requirements for newsworthiness? Should your news be released as a web feature story or in the local media? Does your news rise to the level of a full-blown press conference or will it be a media teleconference? How do you obtain approval for a NASA press event? Once your result is scheduled to be issued as a press release, how can you improve your chances of getting the best possible coverage for your story? I will discuss the NASA press process and suggest how to consider factors like timing, working with your collaborating institutions in an efficient way, and not letting the cat out of the bag until the press event.

  19. Multiple Measures in the Study of Press Response.

    Charlebois, Carol

    1979-01-01

    Surveys measures of press behavior; reports on the testing of J. Galtung and M. Ruge's theory about the structure of news. Concludes that there are three major dimensions to press response to events: the decision to record the event, and considerations regarding space allocation and reader attention. (GT)

  20. New Realities for Scholarly Presses in Trying Economic Times

    Blakesley, David

    2014-01-01

    The author explains that Parlor Press is an independent publisher and distributor of scholarly and trade books in print and digital formats. It was founded in 2002 to address the need for an alternative scholarly, academic press attentive to emergent ideas and forms while maintaining the highest possible standards of quality, credibility, and…

  1. Review of Bothnian Sea shore-level displacement data and use of a GIS tool to estimate isostatic uplift

    The aim and approach of the study were to produce source data estimates necessary for modelling the future biosphere. The study updated the list of 14 C datings of sea-level index points, which show when lakes and mires were isolated from the Baltic Sea due to isostatic uplift. The study concentrated on the Bothnian Sea, especially the Olkiluoto area. The older Finnish datings (a list of 260 sea-level index points determined in 1995) were checked and revised as needed. New data was available for 56 Finnish and 41 Swedish index points. State-of-the-art 14 C calibration methods were applied. Various available data were used to estimate the parameters of the glacio-isostatic uplift model's slow component. The component describes the uplift in relation to time using parameters Bs, which is related to the uplift's total duration, and As, which is half of the total uplift possible in the period lasting from the Last Glacial Maximum to the distant future. The Bs values were estimated by means of 1) crustal thickness and 2) shoreline displacement curves. In applying method 1, this study revised the function describing the relationship between crustal thickness and Bs and created a new derivative-based method that also estimates the parameter As without radiocarbon datings and using only crustal thickness and current uplift maps. In method 2, sea-level index point subsets along the Finnish and Swedish coasts of the Bothnian Sea were selected from the revised database, and their datings and elevations were used to determine the corresponding land uplift parameters. The parameter value distributions were used to produce maps. The values of the inertia factor Bs are on average 6% higher than those calculated in 2001 but they are 10% lower in the Olkiluoto region. According to the interpolations of the new and old data, the estimated uplift at Olkiluoto for AD 12000 is 2.8 m (7%) less than calculated previously. The derivative-based method predicts an uplift for AD 12000 at

  2. Glacial isostatic adjustment and Holocene to contemporary source-to-sink fluxes in valley-fjord systems in western Norway

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja; Liermann, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this Norwegian Research Council (NFR) funded Norwegian Individual Project (http://www.ngu.no/sedymont) within the European Science Foundation (ESF) SedyMONT (as part of EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE) Programme (http://www.esf.org/topoeurope) is on Holocene, subrecent and contemporary sedimentary fluxes and budgets in selected valley-fjord systems (Erdalen and Bødalen) in Nordfjord, western Norway. The following main aims can be pointed out: - Analyse in which way glacial isostatic adjustment and surface denudational processes have been interacting over the Holocene - Analyse how the inheritance of the landscape due to the influence of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has affected surface process rates over time - Document changes in surface process rates over different timescales by combining knowledge on Holocene surface process rates with data on subrecent and contemporary surface process rates High-resolution monitoring of denudational surface processes in the Erdalen and Bødalen drainage basin systems, in combination with repeated analyses of surface water chemistry, atmospheric solute inputs and granulometric as well as shape analyses of suspended sediments provide high-resolution data to analyse and quantify present-day sedimentary and solute fluxes as well as sediment sources, denudation rates, and meteorological and topographical / landscape morphometric controls of denudational surface processes. In addition to standard methods for monitoring bedload transport, innovative techniques like impact sensors and biofilm analysis are applied in combination with advanced flume experiments (for calibration of field data) to analyse channel stability / mobility and to estimate bedload transport rates in both drainage basin systems. Lakes are functioning as significant sediment traps within both drainage basins and the volume and composition of lake sediments are studied using echo-sounder, georadar and different coring techniques. Investigations on volumes and

  3. Lifting shoeprints using gelatin lifters and a hydraulic press.

    Shor, Yaron; Tsach, Tsadok; Vinokurov, Asya; Glattstein, Baruch; Landau, Eliezer; Levin, Nadav

    2003-03-01

    A method for lifting two-dimensional dust footwear marks on rough or porous surfaces, such as cardboard or cloth, using a hydraulic press, was examined. It was found that exerting pressure on the lifter by the press usually improves the quality of the results. When the shoeprints were on rough or soft surfaces, the prints transferred to the gelatin lifters were better than those obtained by the conventional method. In other cases, using the press did not improve the results but was much simpler to apply. Based on the results of this study, the hydraulic press/gelatin lifter method (the "press method") is used at the authors' laboratory, depending on the surface from which the shoeprint is to be lifted. It is the authors' intention to apply the method to other surfaces after finding the optimal pressure for surfaces with loose fibers. PMID:12664996

  4. News from the Library: PressDisplay on mobile devices!

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    You are probably already using PressDisplay to read newspapers online, but for those of you who are not yet aware of this service, PressDisplay is an online portal where you can browse and read online articles from more than 1,900 newspapers from 95 countries, as soon as they are published.   Whether you are an experienced user or a beginner, we have good news concerning PressDisplay: our license now permits you to download complete newspaper issues to your mobile devices and read them offline wherever you like. To do that, you have to use the mobile app PressReader. Instructions on how to install the PressReader app are available here: For Ipad For Android smartphone For Android tablet For Windows 8 devices For BlackBerry Playbook For Android eReader Your feedback is welcome! Please contact us by e-mail.

  5. Jonathan Schlefer, The Assumptions Economists Make (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012

    Stuart Winchester

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book by Jonathan Schlefer: The Assumptions Economists Make (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012, €26,10 / £21.95 / US$28.95, 356pp HBK (English, ISBN: 9780674052260.

  6. Compressive creep of hot pressed silicon carbide

    Silicon carbide has a good match of chemical, mechanical and thermal properties and therefore is considered an excellent structural ceramic for high temperature applications. The aim of the present work is compressive creep evaluation of liquid phase sintered silicon carbide with aluminum and rare earth oxide as sintering aids. Rare earth oxides are possible additives considering their highly refractory remnant grain-boundary phase and lower synthesis costs compared to high purity rare earth. Samples were prepared with silicon carbide powder (90 wt%) and aluminum oxide (5 wt%) plus rare earth oxide (5 wt%) additions. Powders were mixed, milled and hot pressed at 1800 deg. C in argon atmosphere. Compressive creep tests were carried out under stress from 150 to 300 MPa and temperatures from 1300 to 1400 deg. C. At lower creep test temperatures, the obtained stress exponent values were correlated to mechanisms based on diffusion. At intermediate temperatures, grain-boundary sliding becomes operative, accommodated by diffusion. At higher temperatures cavities are discernible. Oxidation reactions and ionic diffusion result on surface oxidized layer, grain-boundary amorphous and intergranular crystalline Al6Si2O13, δ-Y2Si2O7 and YAG phases. In this case cavitation and amorphous phases redistribution enhance grain-boundary sliding, not accommodated by diffusion. Coalescence occurs at triple point and multigrain-junctions, with subsequent strain rate acceleration and cavitational creep.

  7. [Work disability in public press professions].

    Akermann, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study more than 1,000 cases of long-term disability among members of the press and media were evaluated. Mental disorders were the main cause of disability in almost every fourth case. In women psychiatric illnesses were even more important. The most common diagnosis was that of a depressive disorder which accounted for more than half of all psychiatric cases. The causes of disability of other insurance systems such as the German social security scheme and the pension and disability plan for the medical profession were compared. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in white collar workers and orthopaedic illnesses, especially disorders of the vertebral column, are the leading cause in blue collar workers, as one might have expected. In females mental disorders are even more common than in men whereas men tend to have more cardiovascular problems than women. In this study also some interesting features regarding disability caused by various illnesses after long-term follow-up were found. This opens unknown perspectives allowing new assessment of diseases and eventually will enable the actuary to price medical diagnoses for disability insurance. PMID:12242775

  8. [Gender and health in the daily press].

    Revuelta, Gemma; Alonso, Inma; Tomás, Sonia; Guerrero, Marcela; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2004-05-01

    To have a better understanding on the role of the press in the communication of gender and health issues, the content of the five most spread newspapers in Spain was studied (El País, ABC, El Mundo, La Vanguardia and El Periódico de Catalunya) for five years (1997-2001) and the electronic version of The New York Times of the period 1990-1999. An unequal distribution was observed in the responsibility as for the information related to three aspects: positions of responsibility in the newspapers (out of 71 main posts, 67 were men and 4 women); the authors of the articles on health issues (61.2% men and 38,8% women, among the articles that include the author) and the mentioned information sources (81.43% men and 17.77% women). Among the 120 health issues that were covered during the period of the study, only 20 explicitly mentioned a woman (16.67%). Those subjects that included more frequently explicit references were: ablation, iatrogenics, sterilization, sexual and reproductive health, incontinence, beauty and domestic violence. The analysis of the approach to these subjects helped to identify the stereotypes of gender inequality, in the language as well as in the approach. PMID:15171880

  9. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    Monika Skwarek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature. Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production all oils were characterised by a high quality and fatty acid composition suitable for each type of oil. Among the examined oils, the highest content of saturated fatty acids characterised flax oil, the lowest canola oil. Oils: camelina, poppy and flax compared with canola oil, contained approximately twice the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fastest rate of oxidative changes, both in the room temperature conditions and cooling, showed poppy oil. Among the oils stored in room temperature, canola oil was the most oxidatively stable.

  10. Zinc coated sheet steel for press hardening

    Ghanbari, Zahra N.

    Galvanized steels are of interest to enhance corrosion resistance of press-hardened steels, but concerns related to liquid metal embrittlement have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the soak time and temperature conditions relevant to the hot-stamping process during which Zn penetration did or did not occur in galvanized 22MnB5 press-hardening steel. A GleebleRTM 3500 was used to heat treat samples using hold times and temperatures similar to those used in industrial hot-stamping. Deformation at both elevated temperature and room temperature were conducted to assess the coating and substrate behavior related to forming (at high temperature) and service (at room temperature). The extent of alloying between the coating and substrate was assessed on undeformed samples heat treated under similar conditions to the deformed samples. The coating transitioned from an α + Gamma1 composition to an α (bcc Fe-Zn) phase with increased soak time. This transition likely corresponded to a decrease in availability of Zn-rich liquid in the coating during elevated temperature deformation. Penetration of Zn into the substrate sheet in the undeformed condition was not observed for any of the processing conditions examined. The number and depth of cracks in the coating and substrate steel was also measured in the hot-ductility samples. The number of cracks appeared to increase, while the depth of cracks appeared to decrease, with increasing soak time and increasing soak temperature. The crack depth appeared to be minimized in the sample soaked at the highest soak temperature (900 °C) for intermediate and extended soak times (300 s or 600 s). Zn penetration into the substrate steel was observed in the hot-ductility samples soaked at each hold temperature for the shortest soak time (10 s) before being deformed at elevated temperature. Reduction of area and elongation measurements showed that the coated sample soaked at the highest temperature and longest soak time

  11. Multiproxy assessment of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the western Mediterranean: sea-level variability and improvements in the definition of the isostatic signal

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Spada, Giorgio; Fontana, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the review of 918 radiocarbon dated Relative Sea-Level (RSL) data-points we present here the first quality-controlled database constraining the Holocene sea-level histories of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta and Tunisia). We reviewed and standardized the geological RSL data-points using a new multi-proxy methodology based on: (1) modern taxa assemblages in Mediterranean lagoons and marshes; (2) beachrock characteristics (cement fabric and chemistry, sedimentary structures); and (3) the modern distribution of Mediterranean fixed biological indicators. These RSL data-points were coupled with the large number of archaeological RSL indicators available for the western Mediterranean. We assessed the spatial variability of RSL histories for 22 regions and compared these with the ICE-5G VM2 GIA model. In the western Mediterranean, RSL rose continuously for the whole Holocene with a sudden slowdown at ~7.5 ka BP and a further deceleration during the last ~4.0 ka BP, after which time observed RSL changes are mainly related to variability in isostatic adjustment. The sole exception is southern Tunisia, where data show evidence of a mid-Holocene high-stand compatible with the isostatic impacts of the melting history of the remote Antarctic ice sheet. Our results indicate that late-Holocene sea-level rise was significantly slower than the current one. First estimates of GIA contribution indicate that, at least in the northwestern sector, it accounts at least for the 25-30% of the ongoing sea-level rise recorded by Mediterranean tidal gauges. Such contribution is less constrained at lower latitudes due to the lower quality of the late Holocene index points. Future applications of spatio-temporal statistical techniques are required to better quantify the gradient of the isostatic contribution and to provide improved context for the assessment of 20th century acceleration of Mediterranean sea-level rise.

  12. THE HISTORY OF THE PRESS BEFORE FREEDOM MOVEMENT IN KARNATAKA

    Yogeesh . A

    2016-01-01

    Broadly speaking the functions of the press is to convey government policies to the public keep government informed of public needs and reaction to government policies and keep the public and government informed of events and happenings at home and abroad. Each of these functions developed and the need or it was felt. The history of the Indian press begins with the coming of Europeans. The Portuguese were the first European nations who brought a printing press to India and the first book publ...

  13. DESIGN OF A BUSH PRESSING MACHINE FOR PUMPS

    AMITH KALEKAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearings are among the most important components in the vast majority of machines. Bush is an independent plain bearing that is inserted into a housing to provide a bearing surface for rotary applications. Bushes are fitted either by pressing for less interference or by heating the frame or cooling the bushes using dry ice or liquid nitrogen. In the present case, due to uneven cooling using liquid nitrogen or other problems, bush is not fitting easily in some of the pump frames. So there is a need of a bush pressing machine. A ‘C’ frame type hydraulic bush pressing machine is designed in this work.

  14. Hot pressing of oxides of M2O3 composition

    The effect of the temperature, pressure and holding time upon the mechanism and the kinetics of packing of Sc2O3, Y2O3 powders in hot pressing in argon has been investigated. Conditions are stated for obtaining compact materials, and their strangth characteristics are given. The activation energies of hot pressing, creep and sintering of Sc2O3 and Y2O3 are determined. The activation energies and the effective diffusion coefficients of hot pressing process of Sc2O3 and Y2O3 are comparable to the activation energies and the effective diffusion coefficients of the sintering and the creep processes

  15. Shear Strength of Exterior Plywood Panels Pressed at Low Temperature

    Jan Sedliacik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plywood manufactured from thin veneer sheets of different species is one of the most traditional structural composite panels. The objective of this study was to produce experimental plywood panels using a temperature of 100 °C, which is 10 to 30% lower than typical press temperature of plywood manufacture. It was determined that shear strength characteristics of the samples were not adversely influenced as function of reduced press temperature. This process can be considered as a promising way to save substantial amounts of energy during pressing processes, which results in a major reduction in overall production costs.

  16. Press problem related to nuclear energy news reporting

    Since the event of Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the subsequent press reports on damage of nuclear power station after it, a stance of media is being questioned. In order to clear this problem, basic organizational structure of the press related to nuclear energy news was analyzed. Local news department, social news department, science news department and economical news department involve in nuclear energy news the accordance with their own situations and concerns. This structure makes problem of nuclear energy news reporting complicated. Changing this system is required but very difficult. It is concluded that the press problem around nuclear energy news is strange. (author)

  17. Hot-press fabrication and joining of boron carbide

    A method has been developed for fabricating long, cylindrical rubber-mill rolls of boron carbide for use with abrasive materials. The technique consisted of initially hot pressing the boron carbide (to 90% of the theoretical density) to short, hollow cylinders having a length-to-diameter ratio of about one. This initial hot-press operation was followed by a second hot press to join or bond, and further densify, the short sections into a final compact having a length-to-diameter ratio of three. Flexural-strength data show that the integrity of the bond is comparable to that of the base material

  18. Rates of Holocene isostatic uplift and relative sea-level lowering of the Baltic in SW Finland based on studies of isolation contacts

    Eronen, M; Gluckert, G; Hatakka, L; Plassche, O. van de; Plicht, J. van der; Rantala, P.

    2001-01-01

    Southwestern Finland was covered by the Weichselian ice sheet and experienced rapid glacio-isostatic rebound after early Holocene deglaciation. The present mean overall apparent uplift rate is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr, but immediately after deglaciation the rate of crustal rebound was several times higher. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea level in the Baltic basin during the past more than 8000 years was also strongly affected by the eustatic changes in sea level. There is ample e...

  19. Holocene sea-level changes along the North Carolina Coastline and their implications for glacial isostatic adjustment models

    Horton, B.P.; Peltier, W.R.; Culver, S.J.; Drummond, R.; Engelhart, S.E.; Kemp, A.C.; Mallinson, D.; Thieler, E.R.; Riggs, S.R.; Ames, D.V.; Thomson, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    We have synthesized new and existing relative sea-level (RSL) data to produce a quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive database from the North Carolina coastline. The RSL database consists of 54 sea-level index points that are quantitatively related to an appropriate tide level and assigned an error estimate, and a further 33 limiting dates that confine the maximum and minimum elevations of RSL. The temporal distribution of the index points is very uneven with only five index points older than 4000 cal a BP, but the form of the Holocene sea-level trend is constrained by both terrestrial and marine limiting dates. The data illustrate RSL rapidly rising during the early and mid Holocene from an observed elevation of -35.7 ?? 1.1 m MSL at 11062-10576 cal a BP to -4.2 m ?? 0.4 m MSL at 4240-3592 cal a BP. We restricted comparisons between observations and predictions from the ICE-5G(VM2) with rotational feedback Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model to the Late Holocene RSL (last 4000 cal a BP) because of the wealth of sea-level data during this time interval. The ICE-5G(VM2) model predicts significant spatial variations in RSL across North Carolina, thus we subdivided the observations into two regions. The model forecasts an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in Region 1 (Albemarle, Currituck, Roanoke, Croatan, and northern Pamlico sounds) compared to Region 2 (southern Pamlico, Core and Bogue sounds, and farther south to Wilmington). The observations show Late Holocene sea-level rising at 1.14 ?? 0.03 mm year-1 and 0.82 ?? 0.02 mm year-1 in Regions 1 and 2, respectively. The ICE-5G(VM2) predictions capture the general temporal trend of the observations, although there is an apparent misfit for index points older than 2000 cal a BP. It is presently unknown whether these misfits are caused by possible tectonic uplift associated with the mid-Carolina Platform High or a flaw in the GIA model. A comparison of local tide gauge data with the Late Holocene RSL

  20. Christopher Peters wins 2010 Reference Service Press Award

    Purcell, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Peters, stacks manager at Virginia Tech's University Libraries, is the co-recipient of the Reference Service Press Award, granted by the American Library Association's Reference and User Services Association (RUSA).

  1. Recreational Sports Announces 4th Annual Bench Press Competition

    Kropff, Catherine L.

    2004-01-01

    Virginia Tech Recreational Sports Fitness Department is hosting its Fourth Annual Bench Press Competition sponsored by GNC and MET-Rx on Saturday, Nov. 6 on the Virginia Tech campus in 125 War Memorial Hall.

  2. HYBRID CONTROL OF HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE BASED ON ROBUST CONTROL

    FANG Yu; YANG Jian; CHAI Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    A robust control algorithm is proposed to focus on the non-linearity and variables of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve. The proposed robust controller does not need to design stable compensator in advance, which is simple in design and has large scope of uncertainty applications. The feedback gains of the proposed robust controller are small, so it is easily implemented in engineering applications. The theoretical and experimental research on the position and speed control of the hydraulic press machine is carried out. The control requirements of the hydraulic press machine during the working process are met in the position and speed at the same time. Experimental results show that the proposed controller has better robustness subject to load variables and adaptability of parameter variations of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve.

  3. Fabrication and properties of hot pressed bismuth tungstate

    Streicher, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Bi/sub 2/WO/sub 6/ is a synthetic polar material that is a possible candidate for energy conversion and detection systems. Previous research on this material has been concerned with crystal growth and sintering characteristics of polycrystalline compacts. This study involves itself with the fabrication of polycrystalline compacts by hot pressing techniques. Densities approaching theoretical crystal density were achieved by hot pressing at 850/sup 0/C for one hour with pressures exceeding 35 MPa. Before hot pressing, the sintering range was determined by high temperature dilatometry of unfired Bi/sub 2/WO/sub 6/ ceramics. Hot pressed discs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction. Electrical properties were determined by dc resistivity, capacitance, and conductance measurements, ac poling, dc poling, and current-voltage measurements.

  4. Fabrication and properties of hot pressed bismuth tungstate

    Bi2WO6 is a synthetic polar material that is a possible candidate for energy conversion and detection systems. Previous research on this material has been concerned with crystal growth and sintering characteristics of polycrystalline compacts. This study involves itself with the fabrication of polycrystalline compacts by hot pressing techniques. Densities approaching theoretical crystal density were achieved by hot pressing at 8500C for one hour with pressures exceeding 35 MPa. Before hot pressing, the sintering range was determined by high temperature dilatometry of unfired Bi2WO6 ceramics. Hot pressed discs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction. Electrical properties were determined by dc resistivity, capacitance, and conductance measurements, ac poling, dc poling, and current-voltage measurements

  5. Press releases — the new trend in science communication

    Autzen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    releases from trustworthy scientific institutions into free and easily copied content for the editors. In this commentary I investigate and discuss the communicative ecosystem of the university press release. I especially take a close look at the role of the critical and independent science journalist......Scientific institutions have for a long time known the importance of framing and owning stories about science They also know the effective way of communicating science in a press release This is part of the institution’s public relations. Enhanced competition among research institutions has led...... to a buildup of communicative competences and professionalization of public relations inside the institutions and the press release has become an integrated part of science communication from these institutions. Changing working conditions in the media, where fewer people have to publish more, have made press...

  6. Viietärni sisekujundaja Meelis Press / Kristjan Arunurm

    Arunurm, Kristjan

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Tornimäe kaksiktornides asuva Swissotel'i sisekujundusest. Sisekujundaja Meelis Press, tema ja hoone arhitekti Meeli Truu kommentaarid. Swissotel'i kett otsustas Meelis Pressile teha pakkumise kujundada peagi Türgi Swissotel. 8 ill

  7. The LNG industry in 2011. Press revue

    The outlook of the LNG industry in 2011 is presented as a revue of press articles: The role of LNG as a flexible and secure energy source as well as the prompt response to provide back-up through additional supplies and cargo diversions to compensate for the sudden loss of nuclear capacity in Japan - with sellers exercising due price restraint in view of the human tragedy - has been a credit to the industry. The increase in production capacity in 2009 and 2010, in particular from Qatar, had permitted the necessary buffer to cope much better with the demand surge than during past disruptions (such as the aftermath of the Chuetsu earthquake in late 2007). Undoubtedly, the marked shift over the last decade in the industry's prevailing business model towards global trade, destination flexibility and portfolio play has also facilitated the rapid response. As the total volume of LNG trade is very much determined by the availability of supply, 2011 has seen a growth of 9.4% over 2010, mainly as a result of the full availability of the six Qatar mega-trains over the past year. On the demand side the two traditional basins have shown very contrasting trends: 15% higher LNG off-take in Asia (the five major markets all increasing between 37.4% and 8.9%), versus a 1.7% decrease in the Atlantic Basin. Cargo diversions and an increasing number of reloads have boosted the exports from the Atlantic Basin to Asia in 2011 to more than 14 million tons (equivalent to more than 200 large size cargoes). Remarkable is also the fast growth in new markets in Latin America and in the Middle East - albeit from a small base - with counter-seasonal but varying demand, offering attractive arbitrage opportunities to portfolio play. Not surprising then that 2011 has seen another hike in spot and short-term trade, not just in absolute terms but also as a percentage of total trade (50% over 2010, 25.4% of total trade). The outlook for LNG is strong and its global demand prospects further

  8. Corporate governance and impression management in annual press releases

    Beatriz García Osma; Encarna Guillamón Saorín

    2009-01-01

    We study the association between corporate governance and impression management in annual results press releases (ARPRs). Press releases constitute a timely vehicle to communicate firm performance to third parties. However, oftentimes, managers provide self-serving disclosures that attempt to distort readers¿ perceptions of corporate achievements. Corporate governance mechanisms actively monitor managerial disclosures, improving firm transparency. Thus, we predict that strong governance (i) i...

  9. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspa...

  10. Company press sites as online media relations tools

    Turku, Friida

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990's, the internet has fundamentally changed the ways in which companies communicate and interact with their audiences. Today, international companies widely utilize web-based media centers i.e. company press sites as online media relations tools to offer the media different kinds of materials and information about the company. These online press sites work as centralized, easy access hubs to company-related information and digital assets, and offer companies a way to centra...

  11. The digital press archives of the leading Spanish online newspapers

    Guallar, Javier; Abadal, Ernest (Ed.)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. This paper analyses the level of development of the press archives of the thirteen Spanish newspapers with the largest digital circulations. Method. This is evaluative research based on twenty indicators divided into four main sections: general features, the query system, presentation of results and other features. The benchmarks for all the indicators were the Lexis-Nexis, Factiva and My News databases. Analysis. The press archives of online newspapers were analysed to d...

  12. Rancang Bangun Mesin Pemeras Santan Sistem Screw Press

    Sinaga, Febrina Medyanti Br

    2015-01-01

    Until now,obtain coconut milk was still obtain using conventional method which is handpressed. Later on, manual coconut milk extractor is develop using hydrolic press system. With the development of science and technology in this modern age, people trying to create or make a new, more efficient and practical equipment.Therefore, in this research, the author tried to ease theextraction of coconut milk by designing coconut milk extractor with screw press system which has larger capacity which b...

  13. Shear Strength of Exterior Plywood Panels Pressed at Low Temperature

    Jan Sedliacik; Olga Potapova; Pavlo Bekhta; Salim Hiziroglu

    2009-01-01

    Plywood manufactured from thin veneer sheets of different species is one of the most traditional structural composite panels. The objective of this study was to produce experimental plywood panels using a temperature of 100 °C, which is 10 to 30% lower than typical press temperature of plywood manufacture. It was determined that shear strength characteristics of the samples were not adversely influenced as function of reduced press temperature. This process can be considered as a promising wa...

  14. New renewable and biodegradable fiberboards from a coriander press cake

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Nguyen, Quang Hung; Merah, Othmane; Stevens, Chris; Talou, Thierry; Rigal, Luc; Evon, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the thermo-pressing conditions (mold temperature, applied pressure and molding time) on the mechanical properties, the thickness swelling and the water absorption of fiberboards made from a coriander press cake produced in a single-screw extruder. In regard to the mechanical properties of the optimal board and its water-sensitivity, such a fiberboard would be applicable as inter-layer sheets for pallets, for the manufacture of containers or furnit...

  15. Speech freedom and press freedom in human security in Rwanda

    Niyonzima, Oswald

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari Internacional en Estudis de Pau, Conflictes i Desenvolupament. Codi: SAA074. Curs: 2013/2014 Freedom of speech and press freedom are key foundations of all human rights as stipulated in human rights declaration of 1948. Denying people the right to free speech is keeping them away from what is happening in this world, thus, hindering them from participating in decision making. While speech freedom and press freedom are key tools to measure if a country ...

  16. Optimization of Soybean Press Cake Treatments and Processing

    Dumitru Tucu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results given by a systemic study of methods used in soybeans press cake treatment and processing. The influence of raw materials on soybean pressing system and the parameters of extrusion process are analyzed. Principally, the experiments confirm the influences of heat process parameters in case of soybean press cakes production using classic solutions and microwave energy. These experiments start up by manufacturing soybean press cake in industrial conditions at “S.C. International romoster srl” –Dudestii Vechi, Timis County. For ensuring the best conditions, the experimental stand included an extruder, a system for toasting the soybeans press cake, a system for parameters’ control and the system for ensuring the processing of water. The following possibilities were analyzed: (1 Soybeans press cake obtained by the classical method without toasting at pressure of extrusion p1 = 75 kgf cm-2 and flow Q1 = 800 kg h-1; (2 Soybeans press cake obtained at pressure of extrusion head p2 = 85 kgf cm-2 and flow Q2 = 600 kg h-1; (3 Soybeans press cake obtained at pressure of extrusion head p3 = 95 kgf cm-2 and fl ow Q3 = 300 kg h-1; Using this application we tested a new method for treatment and studied the special systems which can be applied in industrial practice at “S.C. International romoster srl” – Dudestii Vechi, Timis County. During the testings and researches the variation of electrical permeability was observed. Differences between theoretical equation and practical results in calculus and energy measurement in the workspace were noticed.

  17. THE SOLITUDE OF LATIN AMERICA IN THE GREAT PRESS

    Alexandre Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    In this article, it is investigated the reasons why Latin America has a little qualitative and quantitative space in great press. This study is based on sociohistorical and journalistic aspects. This research demonstrates that the Latin-American continent is separated, because of historical processes, in the “official Latin America” and the “popular Latin America”. While the great press represents the “official Latin America”, the “popular Latin America” is represented by the alternative pres...

  18. Design Optimization of Hydraulic Press Plate using Finite Element Analysis

    Akshay Vaishnav

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal forming is a process which is done by deforming metal work pieces to the desired shape and size using pressing or hammering action. Hydraulic presses are being used for forming and pressing operations with wide range of capacities. Hydraulic press machine works under continuous impact load. Because of this continuous load, tensile and compressive stresses are experienced in various parts of machine. These stresses cause permanent deformation in some parts of machine. This work is based on optimization of a 250-ton four pillar type hydraulic press considering constraints like design, weight and cost. The work is focused on design and optimization of top plate of the press machine. Top plate holds the hydraulic cylinder and is one of the most critical parts of the machine. The design is based on sizing optimization method and the results are validated by Finite Element method with proper boundary conditions. The CAD modelling has been carried out by PTC CREO and for FEA, ANSYS software is used.

  19. Glacial isostatic adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica

    Nield, Grace A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; King, Matt A.; Clarke, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might contribute to GIA and associated present-day bedrock uplift rates. This is important because accurate modelling of GIA is necessary to determine the rate of present-day ice-mass change from satellite gravimetry. Recently-published reconstructions of ice-stream variability were used to create a suite of kinematic models for the stagnation-related thickening of Kamb Ice Stream since ˜1850 AD, and a GIA model was used to predict present-day deformation rates in response to this thickening. A number of longer-term loading scenarios, which include the stagnation and reactivation of ice streams across the Siple Coast over the past 2000 yr, were also constructed, and used to investigate the longer term GIA signal in the region. Uplift rates for each of the ice loading histories, based on a range of earth models, were compared with regional GPS-observed uplift rates and an empirical GIA estimate. We estimate Kamb Ice Stream to have thickened by 70-130 m since stagnation ˜165 years ago. Modelled present-day vertical motion in response to this load increase peaks at -17 mm yr-1 (i.e. 17 mm yr-1 subsidence) for the weakest earth models tested here. Comparison of the solid Earth response to ice load changes throughout the last glacial cycle, including ice stream stagnation and reactivation across the Siple Coast during the last 2000 yr, with an empirical GIA estimate suggests that the upper mantle viscosity of the region is greater than 1 × 1020 Pa s. When upper mantle viscosity values of

  20. The forward and adjoint sensitivity methods of glacial isostatic adjustment: Existence, uniqueness and time-differencing scheme

    Martinec, Zdenek; Sasgen, Ingo; Velimsky, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    In this study, two new methods for computing the sensitivity of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) forward solution with respect to the Earth's mantle viscosity are presented: the forward sensitivity method (FSM) and the adjoint sensitivity method (ASM). These advanced formal methods are based on the time-domain,spectral-finite element method for modelling the GIA response of laterally heterogeneous earth models developed by Martinec (2000). There are many similarities between the forward method and the FSM and ASM for a general physical system. However, in the case of GIA, there are also important differences between the forward and sensitivity methods. The analysis carried out in this study results in the following findings. First, the forward method of GIA is unconditionally solvable, regardless of whether or not a combined ice and ocean-water load contains the first-degree spherical harmonics. This is also the case for the FSM, however, the ASM must in addition be supplemented by nine conditions on the misfit between the given GIA-related data and the forward model predictions to guarantee the existence of a solution. This constrains the definition of data least-squares misfit. Second, the forward method of GIA implements an ocean load as a free boundary-value function over an ocean area with a free geometry. That is, an ocean load and the shape of ocean, the so-called ocean function, are being sought, in addition to deformation and gravity-increment fields, by solving the forward method. The FSM and ASM also apply the adjoint ocean load as a free boundary-value function, but instead over an ocean area with the fixed geometry given by the ocean function determined by the forward method. In other words, a boundary-value problem for the forward method of GIA is free with respect to determining (i) the boundary-value data over an ocean area and (ii) the ocean function itself, while the boundary-value problems for the FSM and ASM are free only with respect to

  1. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of expression and press freedom is the embodiment of the recognition of human rights. Freedom of expression is also the existence of press to disclose the news with honesty and do not get a pressure to deliver the news to the public space, which in news production is known as a work of journalism. Now the  press has gained freedom of expression in the news production process which is guaranteed in the state constitution. Although Article 28 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 does not point directly at the press, However, Article 28 F emphasis on processing and storage as well as ownership, excavations to information. It also contains provisions on the freedom of expression of others, which should be valued and respected. It shows equality for everyone in his position before the law in accordance with Article 27 1945 Constitution, which emphasizes the recognition of constitutional rights that belong to every person in the state of law in the Republic of Indonesia. Thus the press, which have freedom of expression in the writings of journalistic works are required to be responsible for the published news. So as not to face the legal issues and criminalization, then press should perform tasks and functions to enforce ethics as the precautionary principle when processing the news and broadcast it to the public space, as well as upholding human rights. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2014. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 101-118. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.96

  2. Small-size hydraulic press for application in high-pressure installations for neutron investigations

    Stishov, S M

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes design of small-size hydraulic press enabling to minimize shielding of neutron beam by press substantial elements. Press frame and power cylinder are made of alloyed steel. The performances of hydraulic press are as follows: rotated gain - 200 t, maximum piston run - 10 mm, height - 305 mm, maximum diameter - 210 mm, weight - 60 kg

  3. 22 CFR 9b.1 - Press access to the Department of State.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Press access to the Department of State. 9b.1 Section 9b.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.1 Press access to the Department of State. (a) Media correspondents without valid Department of State press building...

  4. Bilberry and bilberry press cake as sources of dietary fibre

    Anna-Marja Aura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary recommendations for Nordic countries urge the use of plant foods as a basis for healthy nutrition. Currently, the level of dietary fibre (DF intake is not adequate. Berries are an elementary part of the recommended Nordic healthy diet and could be consumed in higher amounts. Materials and methods: Finnish bilberries and a bilberry press cake from juice processing were studied for DF content, carbohydrate composition, and non-carbohydrate fibre content, which was analysed as sulphuric acid insoluble and soluble material. The microstructure of all samples was also studied using light microscopy and toluidine blue O, calcofluor, and acid fuchsin staining. Results: The total DF contents of fresh and freeze-dried bilberries and the press cake were 3.0, 24.1, and 58.9%, respectively. Most of the DF was insoluble. Only about half of it was carbohydrate, the rest being mostly sulphuric acid–insoluble material, waxy cutin from skins, and resilient seeds. Bilberry seeds represented over half of the press cake fraction, and in addition to skin, they were the major DF sources. Microscopy revealed that skins in the press cake were intact and the surface of the seeds had thick-walled cells. Conclusions: Bilberry press cake is thus a good source of insoluble non-carbohydrate DF, and could be used to provide DF-rich foods to contribute to versatile intake of DF.

  5. Quality parameters for cold pressed edible argan oils.

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Argan oil belongs to the high-price vegetable oils on the market. Therefore, consumers have the right to purchase a high-quality product. The quality of edible vegetable oils is defined in food standards in which sensory quality is the most important feature. Additional parameters are defined to assess the identity of oils or to evaluate their oxidative state. The sensory quality of cold pressed argan oil is altered if the production has not been performed with reasonable care regarding raw material and extraction. Only oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press had a sufficient sensory quality over a period of 20 weeks without unacceptable sensory attributes. Under accelerated storage conditions oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press remained below the limits given by the Codex Alimentarius or the German guideline for Edible Fats and Oils for peroxide and totox value. Oil from unroasted seeds or oil from goat-digested roasted seeds and extracted by a screw-press, as well as oil from roasted seeds traditionally extracted, exceeded these limits. Initial oxidative stability of oil from unroasted seeds was significantly lower than that of the other oils. After 35 days under accelerated storage, oil from roasted seeds obtained using a screw-press showed the highest oxidative stability. Moreover, tocopherol and phytosterol compositions are useful features of argan oil. PMID:23472455

  6. Press freedom, law and politics in Indonesia: a socio-legal study

    Wiratraman, Herlambang Perdana

    2014-01-01

    Without press freedom a constitutional democracy cannot function properly, to the extent that the degree of press freedom becomes an indicator of the level of democracy in a particular country. This socio-legal study aims to clarify how the concepts of freedom of expression and press freedom have evolved in Indonesian law; how press freedom as one of the main pillars of constitutional democracy has been guaranteed or curbed by the Indonesian legal system; how press freedom has been shaped in ...

  7. Natural Hazards and the press in the western Mediterranean region

    M. Llasat-Botija

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses press articles published between 1982 and 2005 in an attempt to describe the social perception of natural hazards in Catalonia. The articles included in the database have been classified according to different types of risk. In addition, the study examines the evolution of each type of risk in the press coverage during the study period. Finally, the results have been compared to data provided by insurance companies with respect to compensations paid out for damages. Conclusions show that floods are the most important natural hazard in the region, but that the number of headlines for each event is greater in the case of snowfalls and forest fires. Factors such as the season of the year, the proximity of the affected region to the capital, the topical issues at the time, and the presence of other important news must be considered when the impact in the press is analysed.

  8. Advertising presence on the visual configuration of the digital press

    Belinda de Frutos Torres

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual strength is responsible for one of the mayor changes undergone by the digital press with Internet explosion and the increase of the Informational and Communicational Technologies. The present study analyzes the structure the digital press has taken and the role of the digital advertisement in the composition of their textual and iconic elements. The paper quantifies the picture representations volume and compares their presence on the digital natives papers with those coming from the traditional paper support. The results reveal that there is a mayor contribution of adverts on the native on-line press compare to the on-line paper arriving from the traditional media decreasing the information volume. At the same time the visual volume is boosted on the former compare to the digital media with a paper support. Altogether it can be said that visual component prompted the digital papers first page, being this effect enhanced on the native digital papers.

  9. Thermal conductance of pressed contacts at liquid helium temperatures

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the optimum design of cryogenic instruments requires accurate thermal models. The present models are limited by a lack of knowledge of the low temperature thermal conductance of the bolted joints which are typically used in the instrument-to-system interface. In connection with studies of pressed contacts, it has been found that the thermal conductance does not obey the Wiedemann-Franz law. The present investigation is concerned with the characterization of the thermal conductance of pressed contacts at liquid helium-4 temperatures, taking into account the dependence of thermal contact conductance on applied force and temperature. It is shown that for the 0.4 micron OFHC copper pressed contact pair, the thermal conductance varies roughly as the second power of the temperature, and increases with increasing applied force.

  10. PRESS FORMABILITY OF YAG LASER WELDED TRIP STEEL SHEETS

    A.Nagasaka

    2002-01-01

    The effects of YAG laser welding conditions on mechanical properties and pressformability (bendability, stretch-formability and deep drawability) of high-strengthtransformation-induced plasticity-aided dual-phase (TDP) steel were investigated.Tensile tests and press forming tests have been conducted for laser butt welded jointsbetween two pieces of the same steel. The tensile property and press formability wereaffected by the welding speed of 100 to 1100mm/min and the energy of 6 to 9J/pulse.Excellent press formability was obtained with the energy of 6J/pulse and the weldingspeed of 300mm/min. It was concluded that the excellent weldability of the TDP steelcan be ascribed to the weld joint formation.

  11. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-01

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  12. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  13. 以聚碳硅烷包覆B4C为原料温压-烧结原位制备SiC/B4C复相陶瓷%SiC/B4C Multiphase Ceramics Using Polycarbosilane-Coating B4C as Raw Materials Prepared In-suit by Warm Pressing and Sintering

    林文松; 何亮

    2011-01-01

    B4 C/SiC pellets were prepared by warm pressing of polycarbosilane-coating boron carbide powder at the temperature of 300 ℃ under the pressure of 50 Mpa, and cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 800 Mpa, respectively. The samples were then kept warm at 1 200 ℃ for 2 h in flowing Ar, with subsequent sintering for 3 h between 1 800 and 2 000 ℃ in vacuum. Relative densities, phases and microstructures of the multiphase ceramics were investigated. The results show that the multiphase ceramics prepared by warm pressing (WP) had higher density than that by cold isostatic pressing (CIP). The multiphase ceramics with maximum relative density was achieved after the warm pressing green bodies containing 15% SiC sintered for 3 h, and its relative density was more than 93%. The multiphase ceramics consisted of B4C and SiC and SiC phases distributed uniformly on the B1C particles interface.%以聚碳硅烷(PCS)包覆B4C粉为原料,分别在300℃、50 MPa下温压成型和800MPa下冷等静压成型,而后将压坯置于氩气气氛保护下在1 200℃保温2 h,再在1 800~2 000℃下真空烧结3 h,原位反应制备出SiC/B4C复相陶瓷;研究了它的相对密度、物相组成和显微结构。结果表明:温压工艺比冷等静压工艺能得到更高密度的复相陶瓷;合15%SoC的温压压坯在烧结3 h后得到复相陶瓷的相对密度大于93%;复相陶瓷由B4C和SiC相组成,SiC相均匀分布在B4C颗粒界面上。

  14. Modernisation de la commande d'une presse hydraulique verticale

    Bienz, Samuel; Marcuard, Jean-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Novelis a déménagé une presse hydraulique verticale lors du déplacement de son laboratoire de R&D.Cette presse n 'a pas été remise en fonction sur le site de Sierre. L 'objectif de ce projet est de faire un état des lieux de I'installation et de comprendre son fonctionnement. Par la suite, les schémas électriques de la nouvelle installation seront à dessiner avec toutes les modernisations nécessaires.

  15. The Social Theories of the press: journalism and society

    Beatriz Marocco

    2005-01-01

    For a short period of time, between the end of the 19th century and the middle of the 20th, newspapers and journalists were under the spotlight as never before. However, the comprehensive reviews of the theories of the press do not acknowledge the thought of this period and its development into “the social theories of the press” (H. Hardt, 1979). This article is positioned in this gap of press studies, and it uses as a starting point the foucaultian description of the diff erent thresholds tha...

  16. Kinematical analysis on the several linkage drives for mechanical presses

    Ham, Kyung Chun; Jang, Dong Hwan [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    In this paper, a kinematical analysis is preformed to see mechanical characteristics of various linkage drives for a mechanical press. Mechanical characteristics of conventional and newly designed drives are investigated and compared in terms of slide velocity, productivity, load capacity and possible work-piece size. A crank-slider mechanism with arc crank-pin guide is introduced and analyzed particularly for kinematical performance using kinematical analysis software. The new linkage drive turns out to be effective in terms of load and velocity characteristics and productivity. Kinematical performance also provides a basis for the proper selection of mechanical presses

  17. The Full Repertoire: News and Press Management vs. Media Watchdog

    Novais, Rui Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with a rare event of an overt government attempt to manage the news in response to the political crisis caused by the 2007 media coverage of the Portuguese Prime Minister’s academic degree. The ‘Unigate’ controversy marked the end of the honeymoon period between the press and José Sócrates, as well as the first failure of the spinning and propaganda apparatus of the Cabinet. Apart from describing the full repertoire of action of both news and press management by the Prime M...

  18. Tilting of Lake Pielinen, eastern Finland – an example of extreme transgressions and regressions caused by differential post-glacial isostatic uplift

    Heikki Seppä

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tilting of large lakes due to differential isostatic uplift in the glaciated regions of the Northern Hemisphere is a well-documented process. With the help of accurate digital elevation models and spatial GIS analysis techniques, the resulting hydro­logical changes, including shifts in the outlets and changes in the size and configuration of lakes, can now be mapped and calculated more precisely than before. As a case study to highlight the magnitude of such changes in Fennoscandia, we investigated and reinterpreted the Holocene palaeogeography and palaeohydrology of Lake Pielinen in eastern Finland. This lake is currently 99 km long and located parallel to the direction of land uplift, being thus particularly sensitive to the impacts of tilting. Our results show that the lake was formed at the end of the regional deglaciation, following drainage of a local ice-dammed lake. In its initial stage until 10 200 cal yr BP, the outlet of the newly-formed lake was located in its northwestern end, but the tilting led to a major water level transgression in the basin, eventually causing formation of a new outlet over the southeastern threshold. The lake area was 143 km long and its area was 1998 km2 at the time of formation of the southeastern outlet at 10 200 cal yr BP. The lake level has been regressive throughout the basin during the last 10 200 years. This regression will continue for approximately another 10 000 years until all the glacial isostatic adjustment has occurred, after which Lake Pielinen will be only 89 km long and 565 km2 in area.

  19. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Dorin Ţibulcă; Mirela Jimborean; Dan Sălăgean; Ariana Caraba

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  20. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  1. Heat-transfer process during hot-pressing of flakeboard

    WU Juan; YU Zhiming; CHEN Tianquan

    2006-01-01

    Hot-pressing is the main process in flakeboard manufacture.Studies in this field also emphasize the effect on the heat-transfer process of the following factors:hot-pressing temperature,original moisture content (MC),target thickness and target density.In this experiment,dynamic data of changes in temperature in mats can be logged through temperature transducers and a computer data log system.The results of the experiment indicate that the core temperature-time curve can be divided into three stages:a stage of a rapidly rising temperature,a stage of moisture vaporizing and a stage of a slowly increasing temperature.If the hot-pressing temperature or the original MC increases during the first stage,the temperature will increase at an accelerated rate.This rate of acceleration in thin or low-density boards is very high.During the second stage,increasing the hot-pressing temperature or decreasing the original MC can shorten the time used to vaporize moisture.In thin or low-density board,this time period is short.In the third stage the original MC does not affect the rate of temperature increase,while the effect of the other factors is the same as that at the first stage.Given different conditions,vaporization temperature in the mat changes.

  2. THE RECENT DECLINE IN PRESS FREEDOM IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Lianne van Leeuwen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of the 2008 Protection of the Information Bill and the 2010 proposed Media Appeals Tribunal, it is often argued that these two developments may affect the country’s press freedom problematically. The research question of this paper is: how has press freedom in South Africa developed since 1994? Firstly, two discourse analyses of presidential public speeches that refer to press freedom were carried out in order to gain an understanding of presidential discourse. Secondly, two content analyses of the Mail / Guardian were conducted in which the articles that refer to press freedom were analysed to examine the way in which they cover this issue. The time periods for the content analyses match those of the discourse analyses so the results of the comparisons can be compared safely. The content analyses show that journalistic rhetoric has changed while the political rhetoric seems to have remained the same. As an alternative to the Media Appeals Tribunal, the present writer suggests the appointment of an independent regulatory body which will be able to solve issues between the two opposing discourses in an easy and fair manner, and the media will be able to maintain its function as the ‘fourth estate’ while political figures can object to defamation.

  3. EVALUATION OF SPECTRAL SELECTED PRESS SEQUENCE IN BREAST LESION CHARACTERIZATION

    Hong Lu; Pei-fang Liu; Run-xian Bao; Fei Sun

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of 1H spetral selected point-resolved spectroscopy (SS-PRESS) sequence in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions by the malignancy marker of choline peak and to investigate the factors influencing the diagnosis.Methods A total of 131 patients (aged 24-83 years,average 44.8 years) were enrolled in this study.The examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner with four-channel phased array breast coil.Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was acquired by SS-PRESS sequence in these patients referred to surgical or biopsy consultation.Results Among these patients,74 were proved to have breast carcinomas and 57 have benign lesions by histopathological examinations.Thirty-one elevated choline peaks were observed in these 74 confirmed malignant lesions,and 5 detectable choline peaks were demonstrated in the 57 benign lesions.The sensitivity and specificity of 1H SS-PRESS MRS were 41.9% and 91.2%,respectively.The main factors influencing the diagnosis were signal-to-noise ratio and pathological type.Conclusions 1H SS-PRESS MRS can provide a noninvasive,biochemical measurement of metabolism and improve the specificity of breast magnetic resonance imaging.Choline peak in vivo is a specific but not sensitive marker of malignancy.Technique factors and histopathological characterization of lesions influence the detection rate.

  4. Press Release: NPS Professor Awarded NASA Distinguished Service Medal

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2003-01-01

    Press release taken from the wayback machine internet archive. Dr. Rudolph Panholzer, Professor, Naval Postgraduate School, and Chairman, Space Systems Group, has been awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for many years of distinguished service to NASA and the Nation's space program. The medal is the highest honor that NASA confers on a non-governmental individual.

  5. Process considerations for hot pressing ceramic nuclear waste forms

    Spray calcined simulated ceramic nuclear waste powders were hot pressed in graphite, nickel-lined graphite and ZrO2-lined Al2O3 dies. Densification, initial off-gas, waste element retention and pellet-die interactions were evaluated. Indicated process considerations and limitations are discussed. 15 figures

  6. Analysis of velocity fields during refractory metals pressing

    The technique of the experiment to investigate the process of refractory metal pressing using protective coatings and special coatings is presented. The possibilities of forecasting places of future defects due to plastic strain on the basis of analyzing certain kinematic parameters of the process investigated is shown

  7. University Press Meeting Dominated by Donor Proposal and Digital Publishing

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    A surprise request for proposals from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and a forthcoming report on university publishing in the digital age were among topics discussed at the annual meeting of the Association of American University Presses. The offer from the Mellon Foundation concerns support for collaborative, monograph-centered projects in…

  8. Nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide

    Highlights: → The load-displacement indentation response of hot-pressed B6O is measured and analysed. → The nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide is reported. → An approach is developed to simulate multi-cycling loading load-displacement curves. → A comprehensive model inter-comparison study of the ISE in hot-pressed B6O is also presented. → The fractal dimension is a better measure of ISE than the Meyer's index. - Abstract: The existence of the indentation size effect implies the absence of a single hardness value for the material under investigation especially at low applied loads. In this paper we present an investigation of the indentation size dependence behaviour of nanoindentation hardness in boron suboxide ceramic compacts prepared by uniaxial hot-pressing. Berkovich nanohardness indentations were conducted and analyzed accordingly. In addition to the ordinary Oliver and Pharr method of nanoindentation data analysis, a quantitative approach for the loading curve analysis is proposed. Using the proposed approach, the description and characterization of the observed indentation size effect through the application of the Meyer's law, and the classical and the modified proportional specimen resistance models as well as the multi-fractal scaling law was conducted and is reported. The load-independent hardness values deduced from our quantitative approach are comparable to the results calculated with conventional methods, especially with the multi-fractal scaling law.

  9. The ignitor radial electromagnetic press system (new concept)

    Cucchiaro, A. E-mail: cucchiar@frascati.enea.it; Capriccioli, A.; Celentano, G.; Crescenzi, C.; Gasparotto, M.; Rita, C.; Roccella, M.; Bianchi, A.; Ferrari, G.; Parodi, B.; Sanguinetti, G.P.; Galasso, G.; Coppi, B

    2001-11-01

    A new concept of radial passive and active press, to replace the previous axial design is presented in this paper. This solution reduces the stresses in the components concerned and at the same time it improves the assembly, operation and maintenance of the machine.

  10. The ignitor radial electromagnetic press system (new concept)

    A new concept of radial passive and active press, to replace the previous axial design is presented in this paper. This solution reduces the stresses in the components concerned and at the same time it improves the assembly, operation and maintenance of the machine

  11. Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press

    McCandless, Phyra M.; Yerger, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. Methods. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. Results. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. Conclusions. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries. PMID:21852652

  12. Between the Popular and the Mass. Approaches to Contemporary Press

    Lic. Belén Alonso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to make a necessary introduction through the systematization of clasical readings that make to history and debates on the modern press in the swing of the definitions on the popular and the massive culture.

  13. A Review on Design of Compaction Press Tool

    Mr. R. B. Phadatare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The real advantage of PM is to cost effectively produce large volume, highly tolerance metal components & widely applied to produce mainly automotive parts such as bearings cap, cams, synchronisation hub, sprocket and toothed components. The ongoing debate has always centred on properties, such as strength, size and life of Tool. Tool material selection and material characteristics are being engineered to specific applications and requirements. Flexibility and knowledge of process variables is the key for both the end-user and the component manufacturer. We, as an industry, see challenging new horizons that only require a little inspiration, ingenuity and persistence. There is little repetitive failure during production of Compaction (Forming press tool found in manufacturing process. Each failure causes very high Economical cost to manufacturer in terms of production loss due to down time as well as commitments to the customer. The failure analysis of this compaction press tool was found most interesting. During these work modes of failures of tool was studied to conclude and recommend the solution. Design of compaction press tool was the methodology used to analysis the problem. Reviewed the history of the compaction tool compared the capacity of the pressing various possible design conditions, results and conclusion of the study will be very useful for compaction in future planning process.

  14. Metonymie dans la presse ecrite: entre discours et langue (Metonymies in the Press: Between Discourse and Language).

    Lecolle, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes certain metonymies that are often employed in the daily French press. In such metonymies, a human being or a set of individuals are referred to by means of the name of an institutional location (i.e., a capital city, a ministry in a western country, the name of a country). These metonymic patterns do not seem to be used by…

  15. Finite element modelling and associated experimentations to optimize and predict the pressing cycle of a future AMBB manufacturing press

    This study presents an approach based on the use of pellet forming numerical digital simulation which enables optimization of the die pressing cycle. Semi-empirical mechanical models were used in an FEM code, CAST3M. Specific powder characterizations were also performed to supply the mechanical parameters of compaction model. The methodology for the identification of five main coefficients (index flow, elastic and plastic parameters) was used with two different powders. The results show that the axial distribution of frictional forces may be changed during die pressing by a modification of the sequence of punch displacements. According to these results and the literature, the pressing cycle can be considered to have an influence on the shape of a sintered pellet through the axial distribution of green density. The process used for the identification of the Cam-Clay model coefficients seems to be in good agreement, even if the changes in certain parameters remain rather unclear and will require follow-up studies to confirm some of the results. The experimental device used produces good quality pellets, and the Radial Open Die Modulus remains the first choice for reduced pellet damage. Much work still remains to be done to fully define the identification process and create the most representative simulations possible before launching an industrial version of a nuclearized press, planned for the last quarter of year 2014. (authors)

  16. Coverage of Jamaica in the U.S. and Canadian Press in 1976: A Study of Press Bias and Effect.

    Cuthbert, Marlene; Sparkes, Vernone

    In 1976, Jamaican government officals claimed that their island had received an especially negative press in the United States during 1975 and 1976 with serious consequences for the economy and tourist trade. This accusation was not made about Canadian coverage, with one major exception, and Canadian tourism to Jamaica increased during those years…

  17. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  18. 22 CFR 9b.2 - Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations.

    2010-04-01

    ... media organizations. In order to obtain a Department of State press building pass, press correspondents... news media organizations; (3) Date of birth; (4) Place of birth; (5) Sex; (6) Citizenship; (7)...

  19. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  20. Stress and Deformation Analysis of Cylinder-Crown Integrated Hydraulic Press with Large Capacity

    Weiwei Zhang; Xiaosong Wang; Zhongren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Cylinder⁃crown integrated hydraulic press ( CCIHP ) is a new press structure. The hemispherical hydraulic cylinder also functions as a main portion of crown, which has lower weight and higher section modulus compared with the conventional hydraulic cylinder and press crown. In order to design cylinder⁃crown integrated hydraulic press with large capacity, the theoretical design of hemispherical hydraulic cylinder was first proposed, and the structural parameters of 150 MN CCIHP were listed. Then the simulation was carried out to analyze the stress and deformation of CCIHP , and weight comparison was conducted between CCIHP and conventional press. It is shown that the weight reduction for hydraulic cylinder and press crown is about 20%compared with that for conventional press, and the stress and deformation are both within the range of constraints including strength and stiffness conditions. It is possible to manufacture cylinder⁃crown integrated hydraulic press with large capacity.

  1. Sea level and shoreline reconstructions for the Red Sea: isostatic and tectonic considerations and implications for hominin migration out of Africa

    Lambeck, Kurt; Purcell, Anthony; Flemming, Nicholas. C.; Vita-Finzi, Claudio; Alsharekh, Abdullah M.; Bailey, Geoffrey N.

    2011-12-01

    The history of sea level within the Red Sea basin impinges on several areas of research. For archaeology and prehistory, past sea levels of the southern sector define possible pathways of human dispersal out of Africa. For tectonics, the interglacial sea levels provide estimates of rates for vertical tectonics. For global sea level studies, the Red Sea sediments contain a significant record of changing water chemistry with implications on the mass exchange between oceans and ice sheets during glacial cycles. And, because of its geometry and location, the Red Sea provides a test laboratory for models of glacio-hydro-isostasy. The Red Sea margins contain incomplete records of sea level for the Late Holocene, for the Last Glacial Maximum, for the Last Interglacial and for earlier interglacials. These are usually interpreted in terms of tectonics and ocean volume changes but it is shown here that the glacio-hydro-isostatic process is an additional important component with characteristic spatial variability. Through an iterative analysis of the Holocene and interglacial evidence a separation of the tectonic, isostatic and eustatic contributions is possible and we present a predictive model for palaeo-shorelines and water depths for a time interval encompassing the period proposed for migrations of modern humans out of Africa. Principal conclusions include the following. (i) Late Holocene sea level signals evolve along the length of the Red Sea, with characteristic mid-Holocene highstands not developing in the central part. (ii) Last Interglacial sea level signals are also location dependent and, in the absence of tectonics, are not predicted to occur more than 1-2 m above present sea level. (iii) For both periods, Red Sea levels at 'expected far-field' elevations are not necessarily indicative of tectonic stability and the evidence points to a long-wavelength tectonic uplift component along both the African and Arabian northern and central sides of the Red Sea. (iv) The

  2. Social Representations of the Environment in Press Media

    Gislei Mocelin Polli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are given prominence in the media and scientific circles. From the 60’s until early 2010 there were changes in the way people related to the environment, with a paradigm shift occurring regarding the environment. This study sought to identify the representational content disseminated by the press media on the environment in different periods. A qualitative survey was therefore conducted of documents, and data were obtained through texts published in a magazine with national circulation. The data were analyzed using the ALCESTE program with a Lexicographic Analysis. It was identified that the press media reflects the paradigm shifts, and publications dating from the late 60’s are compatible with the old paradigm, evolving over time, and are now compatible with the new environmental paradigm. The results indicate that currently the environment needs care in all its aspects and lack of care creates global impacts.

  3. News from the Library: newspapers anyone? Try PressDisplay!

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    PressDisplay is an online portal where you can browse and read online articles from more than 1,900 newspapers from 95 countries, as soon as they are published. With Pressdisplay, the time when newspapers were nicely displayed on wooden rods in libraries has passed...   Le Monde, International Herald Tribune and many more titles are displayed in their original layout including text and images, and you can print and e-mail the articles you are interested in. You even have the possibility to create rss feeds, so that the news reaches you directly.   The CERN Library has now activated a trial version of PressDisplay valid till 31 December; it is open to everyone at CERN. This trial doesn't offer the possibility to create personalised alerts based on specific search criteria. In case you need such features - or if you have any comments or questions - please contact us.

  4. Main roll for an air press of a papermaking machine

    Beck, David A.

    2004-03-09

    A roll for use in an air press assembly of a papermaking machine has a pair of ends associated therewith. The roll includes a pair of edge portions with each edge portion extending to one of the pair of ends. Each edge portion has an edge surface portion composed of a first material, the first material having a first hardness. The roll further includes a middle portion located between the pair of edge portions, the middle portion having a middle surface portion composed of a second material. The second material has a second hardness, the second material being harder than the first material. The first material is preferably a soft, seal material which promotes reduced air leakage from the air press assembly.

  5. Effect of equal channel angular pressing on aging treatment of Al-7075 alloy

    M.H. Shaeri; M. Shaeri; M.T. Salehi; S. H Seyyedein; M.R. Abutalebi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aging treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed Al-7075 alloy was examined. Commercial Al-7075 alloy in the solid solution heat-treated condition was processed by equal channel angular pressing through route BC at both the room temperature and 120 °C. Only three passes of equal channel angular pressing was possible due to the low ductility of the alloy at both temperatures. Followed by equal channel angular pressing, the specimens hav...

  6. Pressing and tubes rolling out of tungsten of gas phase deposition

    The possibility of increasing ductility of tubes of tungsten fluoride using heat treatment and plastic deformation- pressing and thermal rolling are studied. When designing the processes of treatment it should be necessarily taken into account that structural state of initial blanks as well as the ratio of deformations in radial and tangential directions under pressing with a rigid needle strongly affects technological properties of pressed tubes. The columnar structure of blanks is undesirable for its embrittlement affects the pressed tubes

  7. THE IMPACT OF A MECHANICAL PRESS ON THE ACCURACY OF PRODUCTS IN COLD FORGING

    Krusic, V.; Arentoft, Mogens; Rodic, T.

    2005-01-01

    Cold extrusion is an economic production process for the production of elements of complex forms and accurate dimensions. The first part of the article explains the impact that a mechanical press has on the accuracy of products. It describes the mechanical press main characteristics and in addition...... has at different press rigidities. In addition, an example of measuring dynamic rigidity of 1000-ton mechanical press during the process of starter barrel cold extrusion is given....

  8. A new Holocene relative sea-level curve for western Brittany (France): Insights on isostatic dynamics along the Atlantic coasts of north-western Europe

    Goslin, Jérôme; Van Vliet Lanoë, Brigitte; Spada, Giorgio; Bradley, Sarah; Tarasov, Lev; Neill, Simon; Suanez, Serge

    2015-12-01

    This study presents new Relative Sea Level (RSL) data that were obtained in the Finistère region (Western tip of Brittany, France) and the implications those data have for the understanding of the isostatic dynamics across north-western Europe, and more specifically along the Atlantic and Channel coasts. New stratigraphic sequences were obtained and analyzed to derive 24 new Sea-level Index Points, in which 6 are basal. These new data considerably increase the knowledge we have of the RSL evolution along the coasts of Western Brittany since the last 8 kyr B.P. From this new dataset, RSL was estimated to rise continuously over the last 8 kyr with a major inflection at ca. 6 kyr cal. BP. Our results show large vertical discrepancies between the RSL records of Brittany and South-Western UK, with the latter plotting several meters below the new data. From this comparison we suggest that the two regions underwent a very different pattern and/or amplitude of subsidence during the last 8 kyr which has implications for the spatial and temporal pattern of the peripheral bulge of the European ice sheets. We compared our data against predictions from Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment models (GIA models). There are large misfits between RSL observations and the predictions of the global (ICE-5G (VM2a) - Peltier, 2004, GLAC1-b - Tarasov and Peltier, 2002; Tarasov et al., 2012, Briggs et al., 2014) and regional UK models ("BIIS" - Bradley et al., 2009; Bradley et al., 2011; "Kuchar"- Kuchar et al., 2012), which can't be resolved through significant changes to the deglaciation history and size of the British-Irish Ice sheet. Paleo-tidal modelling corrections indicate regional changes in the tidal ranges played a negligible role in the data-model misfits. Hence, we propose that the misfits are due to some combination of: (i) unaccounted mass-loss of far-field ice-sheets (Antarctic ice-Sheet or Laurentide Ice-Sheet), (ii) unresolved differences in the deglaciation history and size of

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Dorin Ţibulcă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  10. Social Representations of the Environment in Press Media

    Gislei Mocelin Polli; Brigido Vizeu Camargo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are given prominence in the media and scientific circles. From the 60’s until early 2010 there were changes in the way people related to the environment, with a paradigm shift occurring regarding the environment. This study sought to identify the representational content disseminated by the press media on the environment in different periods. A qualitative survey was therefore conducted of documents, and data were obtained through texts published in a magazine with nation...

  11. Latest Progress in Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    2013-01-01

    <正>Four journals including Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD), Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM), Drugs & Clinic (DC), and Drug Evaluation Research (DER) are edited and published by Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. CTHD was first published in 1970 and has been playing a great role for Chinese materia medica (CMM), especially in its present modernization. CTHD has successively won several honors in recent years, such as the 2nd State

  12. ExPRESS : extraction pattern recognition engine and specification suite

    Piskorski, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of information extraction (IE) oriented pattern engines has been observed during the last decade. Most of them exploit heavily finite-state devices. This paper introduces ExPRESS – a new extraction pattern engine, whose rules are regular expressions over flat feature structures. The underlying pattern language is a blend of two previously introduced IE oriented pattern formalisms, namely, JAPE, used in the widely known GATE system, and the unificationbased XTDL formalism used in...

  13. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  14. Rancang Bangun Alat Pengupas Kulit Nanas Sistem Press Manual

    Lingga, Nando Edi Pramono

    2015-01-01

    The handling of pineapple after harvest in skin peeling on farmer level generally are done manually by knife. Therefore, to overcome this weaknesses and disadvantages, a semi mechanic pineapple skin peeler was design that could peels the pineapple skin faster than manually, so it could made the work capacity increased, more neat peeling results, reducing the labor and can be used by anyone. The research was done by study of literature and observing the pineapple skin peeler with press manua...

  15. Volatile profile and flavor of cold pressed Citrus essential oils

    Kostadinovik, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    HRGC-MS technique was used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of volatile flavour compounds of different varieties of cold pressed mandarin oils. Multivariate analysis techniques aided in the interpretation of chemical data obtained for volatile components of mandarin oils. Differences among individual components provided less useful information, mainly because there is often a wide variation in the volatile fraction composition from different samples of the same oils; since mul...

  16. Sports journalism and impartiality: the case Fla-Press

    Fausto Amaro Ribeiro Picoreli Montanha; Carmelo Silva

    2012-01-01

    Concisely, one can define the Fla-Press as the belief of the supporters of the big soccer clubs of Rio de Janeiro (Botafogo, Fluminense e Vasco da Gama) that Flamengo has more space and is shown in a positive bias on media, what delineates almost a “mediatic conspiracy”. In this article, we started from this supposed “social mith” to investigate some questions like journalistic imparciality, mediatic skepticism and the perception of the public about the news.

  17. Production of press moulds by plasma spray forming process

    Plasma spray forming process for production of press moulds which are used for manufacture of articles from plastics was developed. The press moulds were produced by plasma spraying of Cu-Al-Fe-alloy powder on surface of a master model. The master models were made from non-metallic materials with heat resistance below 70 C (wood, gypsum etc). Double cooling system which provides for a control of surface model temperature and quenching conditions of sprayed material was designed. It made possible on the one hand to support model surface temperature below 70 C and on the other hand to provide for temperature conditions of martensite transformation in Cu-Al-system with a fixation of metastable ductile α + β1 -phase. This allowed to decrease residual stresses in sprayed layer (up to 0,5-2,5 MPa), to increase microhardness of the coating material (up to 1200-1800 MPa) and its ductility (σB = 70-105 MPa, δ = 6-12 %). This plasma spray forming process makes possible to spray thick layers (5-20 mm and more) without their cracking and deformation. The process is used for a production of press moulds which are applied in shoes industry, for fabrication of toys, souvenirs etc. (author)

  18. The Social Theories of the press: journalism and society

    Beatriz Marocco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For a short period of time, between the end of the 19th century and the middle of the 20th, newspapers and journalists were under the spotlight as never before. However, the comprehensive reviews of the theories of the press do not acknowledge the thought of this period and its development into “the social theories of the press” (H. Hardt, 1979. This article is positioned in this gap of press studies, and it uses as a starting point the foucaultian description of the diff erent thresholds that establish the levels of discourse elaboration (Foucault, 1995. It aims at exploring the theoretical production that approximates German and American scholars such as Albert Schäffle (1831-1903; Karl Knies (1821-1898; Karl Bücher (1847-1930; Ferdinand Tönnies (1835-1936; Albion Small (1854-1926; Edward Ross (1856-1951; Max Weber (1864-1920; Robert Park (1864-1944 and Walter Lippmann (1889-1974, rescuing this production from the pre-history of the press to materialize evidence that this production coincides, in its external origin, with the modern newspaper practices, although there seemed to be no dependence between them at the time.

  19. Noise reduction of punch press mechanical clutch engagement

    CHEN Wei; SUN Chang-qing; LI Yun-liang

    2005-01-01

    Among the noises of the punch press, blanking noise and engaging noise of the clutch should be paid most attention to. The latter is generated by the engagement impacts of the rotating key on the spline bush. In order to absorb the pressing energy and reduce the noise radiated, polyurethane cushions were added to the spline bush keyways and the clutch running noise reduction has reached 10.7 dB(A). Considering such factors as the running characteristics of the punch press clutch, the demand for cushioning performance and the demand of the clutch temperature field for damping materials, the temperature field of the rigid clutch spline bush was simulated to find out whether the temperature of polyurethane go beyond its critical application temperature, using the finite element method. According to the characteristic that the deforming memory alloy can restore the remembered shape with the temperature rising, the actual temperature of the spline bush was measured. Consequently, the theoretical temperature turned out to be close to the measured temperature.

  20. Press freedom, law and politics in Indonesia : a socio-legal study

    Wiratraman, Herlambang Perdana

    2014-01-01

    Without press freedom a constitutional democracy cannot function properly, to the extent that the degree of press freedom becomes an indicator of the level of democracy in a particular country. This socio-legal study aims to clarify how the concepts of freedom of expression and press freedom have ev

  1. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of......

  2. Type synthesis for 4-DOF parallel press mechanism using GF set theory

    He, Jun; Gao, Feng; Meng, Xiangdun; Guo, Weizhong

    2015-07-01

    Parallel mechanisms is used in the large capacity servo press to avoid the over-constraint of the traditional redundant actuation. Currently, the researches mainly focus on the performance analysis for some specific parallel press mechanisms. However, the type synthesis and evaluation of parallel press mechanisms is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) press mechanisms. The type synthesis of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms is carried out based on the generalized function(GF) set theory. Five design criteria of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms are firstly proposed. The general procedure of type synthesis of parallel press mechanisms is obtained, which includes number synthesis, symmetrical synthesis of constraint GF sets, decomposition of motion GF sets and design of limbs. Nine combinations of constraint GF sets of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms, ten combinations of GF sets of active limbs, and eleven combinations of GF sets of passive limbs are synthesized. Thirty-eight kinds of press mechanisms are presented and then different structures of kinematic limbs are designed. Finally, the geometrical constraint complexity( GCC), kinematic pair complexity( KPC), and type complexity( TC) are proposed to evaluate the press types and the optimal press type is achieved. The general methodologies of type synthesis and evaluation for parallel press mechanism are suggested.

  3. Response Induction during the Acquisition and Maintenance of Lever Pressing with Delayed Reinforcement

    Escobar, Rogelio; Bruner, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of lever pressing by rats and the occurrence of unreinforced presses at a location different from that of the reinforced response were studied using different delays of reinforcement. An experimental chamber containing seven identical adjoining levers was used. Only presses on the central (operative) lever produced food pellets.…

  4. The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements.

    Tyler, John

    This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian.…

  5. 25 CFR 307.5 - Hand seal press and certificates to be furnished.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hand seal press and certificates to be furnished. 307.5... FABRICS; USE OF GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.5 Hand seal press and certificates to be... § 307.6 one hand seal press and a supply of blank Government certificates, which shall be used only...

  6. Coating of pellet pressing tool with 12C by ion beam deposition

    The pressing tools, used in the preparation of the samples needed for example for such nuclear elemental analysis methods as PIXE, PIGE and RBS, have been coated with a diamond-type 12C-layer by ion beam deposition. Using carbon-coated pressing tools prepared in this way contamination of the sample surfaces during the pill pressing operation is avoided. (orig.)

  7. 22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A media correspondent or technician who meets all...

  8. Limits of the Press as an Agent of Reform: Minneapolis, 1900-1905.

    Kielbowicz, Richard B.

    The limited effectiveness of the press as an agent of reform is considered in this paper in view of the role of the Minneapolis press in the rise and decline of a corrupt city administration from 1900 to 1905. The paper first posits a continuum along which press effects on reform may be pinpointed; it then discusses the muckraking era, which…

  9. Press Release Dan Citra Pemerintah (Studi Korelasional Pengaruh Press Release Bagian Hubungan Masyarakat (Humasy) Sekretariat Daerah (Setda) Kota Medan Terhadap Citra Pemerintah Kota Medan Di Masyarakat Kota Medan)

    Sari, Elta Mala

    2015-01-01

    This research is titled Press Release and Government Image ( Correlational Study Of Effect The Press Release From Public Relations Sekretariat Daerah (Setda) Of Medan City in Government Image at Public Of Medan City. The purpose of this research is to determine the extent of relationship between the press release from public relations Setda of Medan City with Government Image. This research use correlational method, which purpose to find the relationship, how the relationship, and means or n...

  10. Rice Bran Oil Extraction by Screw Press Method: Optimum Operating Settings, Oil Extraction Level and Press Cake Appearance

    Supakit SAYASOONTHORN; Sudsaisin KAEWRUENG; Pannatorn P A THARASA TH APORNK UL

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of rice bran ‘cake' or discharge from a screw press corresponds to the level of oil produced in the extraction process.The relationships between operating settings,oil extraction level and cake appearance were studied.Cake characteristics reliably indicate the expected oil recovery extraction level.These conclusions applyed to both Chainat 1 rice bran and parboiled rice bran.Variables were the speed of the screw press (set at five levels from 85 to 198 r/min) and corresponding clearance distances between the screw and barrel (set between 1.0 and 1.9 cm).Results showed that the maximum levels of extraction were 4.17% for the rice bran and 8.20% for the parboiled rice bran.At the maximum extraction level,the apparatus continuously discharged cake that were hard,crispy,flaky,shiny and polished on one side but dull and coarse on the other.

  11. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast; Effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants. Petit dejeuner de presse

    Flury-Herard, A. [CEA, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 75 - Paris (France); Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 92 (France); Toledano, M. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  12. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (pMoringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (pmoringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  13. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  14. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  15. Hot pressed piezo-electric ceramic elements for ultrasonic transducers

    Piezoelectric ceramics (PZT4, PZT5, PZT7 and SPN) were investigated for development of high frequency (30-100 MHz) normal and focussed transducers. Hot pressed piezoelectric materials with a controlled grain size of ∼ 2 μm and approaching theoretical density can be lapped down to 30 μm thickness without structural damage whereas conventional sintered piezoelectric material with gram sizes ranging from 2-15 μm and at least 3% porosity can only be lapped down to 100 μm. Hot pressed piezoelectric ceramics when compared with conventional piezoelectric ceramics, show higher values of coupling coefficient (10-20%), elastic compliance ∼ 12% and moderate increases in mechanical quality factor (Qm) and dielectric constant. The compressional sound velocity measured along the poling direction is very sensitive to the switching of dipoles other than 180o ones. The velocity increases as the polarization increases and this constitutes a useful method for quality control of the piezoelectric ceramic as it gives the correct thickness resonant frequency. By accurately measuring the change by a comparison method, the dipole behaviour can be better understood and the degree of polarization and depolarization can be established. Temperature dependent polarization and depolarization is also discussed in the light of dipole switching. Hot pressed SPN and PZT5 are sufficiently transparent to be considered for use in opto-ultrasonic applications such as in medicine. Because of the high value of the thickness-frequency constant and low Qm, SPN seems a better choice as a high frequency transducer material. The signal spectra of a high frequency transducer constructed from these materials is presented

  16. NIC (Nuclear Industry in China) exhibition. Press file

    Framatome participated to the NIC exhibition which took place in Beijing (China) on March 1998. This press dossier was distributed to visitors. It presents in a first part the activities of the Framatome group in people's republic of China (new constructions (Daya Bay, Ling Ao project), technological cooperation and contracts in the nuclear domain, technology transfers in the domain of nuclear fuels, activities and daughter companies in the domain of industrial equipments, Framatome Connectors International (FCI) daughter company in the domain of connectors engineering). Then, the general activities of Framatome in the nuclear, industrial equipment, and connectors engineering domains are summarized in the next 3 parts. (J.S.)

  17. A Process Positioning System for Sheet-Fed Offset Press

    Ma, Li E.; Zhang, Hai Yan; Li, Wei

    Sheet positioning time is one of the main influence factors to improve the printing velocity of offset printing press. In the process positioning system, stepping motor, transducer and roller wheels replace the traditional mechanical front and side guide system. Front and side guiding is finished while the paper is moving in the feeding table. The paper position signal detected by transducer is transferred to the stepping motors which control the wheels above the paper. Then the paper moves in the longitudinal and side direction. So the front and side position of the printing paper is definite.

  18. Den Hemmelige (medie) Krig - repolitisering af den danske trykte presse?

    Gindin, Lea Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    Specialet sætter ud for at undersøge, om Stig Hjarvards tese om repolitisering af den danske trykte presse, kan siges at være underbygget i dækningen af dokumentarfilmen "Den Hemmelige Krig" The media - ever changing – play a key role in democratic societies. Not least, because they serve as a line of communication between politicians and citizens. Thus, it is of great interest how the media function and to what standard they hold themselves. Professor and media scientist Stig Hjarvard p...

  19. Quality evaluation of cold-pressed edible oils from Macedonia

    Kostadinovic Velickovska, Sanja; Bruhl, Ludger; Mitrev, Sasa; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Matthaus, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and quality of eight pure cold-pressed oils and two blend oils from Macedonia were examined in this work. The highest level of oleic acid was determined in apricot kernel oil and rapeseed oil with abundance of 70.9 and 59.2%, respectively. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen for flaxseed and hemp seed oil with abundance of a-linolenic acid of 55.1% for flaxseed oil and linoleic acid of 57.4% for hemp seed oil. Apricot kernel oil and r...

  20. Pressing behaviour of spray dried alumina-zirconia granules

    In this study, spray drying of alumina-zirconia slurries on a pilot scale, and their pressing behaviour were investigated. Slurries were prepared at 50 wt-% solid loading. An acrylic polymer emulsion, polyethylene glycol, and stearic acid were used as a binder, plasticizer, and lubricant, respectively. Granules produced had a mean size of 85 μm with spherical morphology and smooth surfaces with considerably good flow behaviour. When polyethylene glycol was not used, granules were rather hard such that it was very difficult to break down the granule structure even at a pressure of 195 MPa. (orig.)

  1. Representations of handicaped in the portuguese press: hegemony and emancipation

    Patrícia Neca; Paula Castro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze what are the representations that three Portuguese general-interest newspapers - Diário de Notícias, Jornal de Notícias and Público - construct and convey about people with disabilities. The analysis was guided by the perspective of social representations, on the assumption that the views conveyed by the press are shared by society and affect the public opinion. A total of 220 articles about disabilities, published in November and December ...

  2. Different Visions of Framing Violence in International Press News

    Ramirez, Jacobo

    Mass media can play an important role in capturing the dynamic between social groups and institutional environments. This paper presents a quantitative content analysis of international news to determine and analyze the themes covered by the international news press in relation to violence in Mex...... on the dynamic between informal and formal institutions (North, 1990) in the context of organized crime and violence in Mexico....... in Mexico and to explore entrepreneurs’ reaction to the covered news. We also analyze journalists’ treatment of this news (Semetko & Valkendurg, 2000) and differences among newspapers from the U.S., Mexico and the European Union (EU). A sample of 200 news histories was constructed by integrating...

  3. Precision Force Control for an Electro-Hydraulic Press Machine

    Hong-Ming Chen; Guo-Wei Yang; Chong-Cyuan Liao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is primarily intended to design a PC-based control system to control the force of an electro-hydraulic servo press system for implementing precision force control. The main feature is to develop a composite control by using the relief valve and the flow servo valve. Using feedback from a force sensor, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW software as the system control core for achieving a precision force control for the hydraulic cylinder on its travel and output. The weak...

  4. The Violence of Others: 'Eastern' and 'Western' Press Discourses

    Kovács, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates distinctions in press discourse about violence. It compares ‘The Economist’ and ‘Heti Világgazdaság’ (HVG), a Hungarian publication very similar to The Economist. The investigation focuses on the discourses of violence in the coverage of the two publications. To avoid discourses where either publication would be talking about its own milieu, the analysis involves only articles about the Middle East and Africa in January 2008. The method of analysis involves Atlas.ti,...

  5. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    1997-01-01

    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  6. Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact with Jupiter Press Briefing

    1994-01-01

    A press briefing about the impact of the G fragment of Comet Shoemaker-Levy on the planet Jupiter is presented. The briefing occurred on July 18, 1994 just hours after the impact. Still black and white pictures taken from the Hubble Space Telescope are presented. Eugene Shoemaker, co-discoverer of the Comet, and Heidi Hammel, Principal Investigator for the Hubble Imaging team at MIT present preliminary results of the study of images and answer questions about the impact and the results of the impact on Jupiter.

  7. An Overview of Project Planning for Hot-Isostatic Pressure Treatment of High-Level Waste Calcine for the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12289

    The Calcine Disposition Project is responsible for retrieval, treatment by hot-isostatic pressure, packaging, and disposal of highly radioactive calcine stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeast Idaho. In the 2009 Amended Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement the Department of Energy documented the selection of hot-isostatic pressure as the technology to treat the calcine. The Record of Decision specifies that the treatment results in a volume-reduced, monolithic waste form suitable for transport outside of Idaho by a target date of December 31, 2035. That target date is specified in the 1995 Idaho Settlement Agreement to treat and prepare the calcine for transport out of Idaho in exchange for allowing storage of Navy spent nuclear fuel at the INL Site. The project is completing the design of the calcine-treatment process and facility to comply with Record of Decision, Settlement Agreement, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, and Department of Energy requirements. A systems engineering approach is being used to define the project mission and requirements, manage risks, and establish the safety basis for decision making in compliance with DOE O 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets'. The approach draws heavily on 'design-for-quality' tools to systematically add quality, predict design reliability, and manage variation in the earliest possible stages of design when it is most efficient. Use of these tools provides a standardized basis for interfacing systems to interact across system boundaries and promotes system integration on a facility-wide basis. A mass and energy model was developed to assist in the design of process equipment, determine material-flow parameters, and estimate process emissions. Data generated from failure modes and effects analysis and reliability, availability

  8. Human Rights and Consership in the Portuguese Press

    Isabel Salema Morgado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the censorship system existing in Portugal in the XVIII century, when a rigid jurisdiction with respect to press freedom was instituted by Portuguese State and how “Gazeta de Lisboa” succeeded in informing its public about the revolutionary events that took place in France during the year of 1789. Many years after that, in 1948, other important event – the Universal Declaration of Human Rights approved by the United Nations General Assembly, did not receive the attention of Portuguese Press. Of the 15 newspapers and magazines with wider circulation that were consulted, only three published the news of the approval. Also I did not fi nd in any of the archives documents which proved the exercising of censorship or punishment, by the dictatorial regime of Salazar, in the form of disciplinary processes against the newspapers with relation to the publication of news referring to the Declaration. I am inclined toward the theory of the act of self-censorship imposed by the editor on himself, in both events.

  9. Thermal conductance of a pressed Al-Al contact

    Wanner, M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal conductance of a screw-fastened joint between two blocks of Al-alloys has been measured. An AlMg4.5Mn-block, the end of which is cooled by liquid helium, constitutes the upper part of the sample and the contact is formed at the face surface of a cylindrical extension of that block onto which a cylinder, made of AlMgSi1, is pressed by means of a copper-nickel screw. Pressing of the contact was carried out at room temperature by applying a defined torque, M, to the fastening screw. Three samples of the same shape but with differently treated surfaces of contact (machined flat, electro-chemically polished, with gold plated contacts) were studied. The results showed that the machined flat surfaces yield the best contact and that the contact conductance (measured in the range 4.2 K to 1.8 K) of all samples increased with increasing torque. In addition to thermal measurements, a study of the electrical conductance would be very interesting to determine the different contributions of phonon and electron heat conduction by means of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The work is useful for the GIRL (German Infra-Red Laboratory) space experiment.

  10. Precision Force Control for an Electro-Hydraulic Press Machine

    Hong-Ming Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is primarily intended to design a PC-based control system to control the force of an electro-hydraulic servo press system for implementing precision force control. The main feature is to develop a composite control by using the relief valve and the flow servo valve. Using feedback from a force sensor, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW software as the system control core for achieving a precision force control for the hydraulic cylinder on its travel and output. The weakness of hydraulic systems is that hydraulic oil is compressible and prone to leaking, and its characteristics can vary with oil temperature, thus making it difficult for a general linear controller to achieve accurate control. Therefore, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW along with a NI-PCI_6221 interface card and a load cell to control the servo valve flow and the relief valve to control the pressure source. The testing results indicate that accurate force control output of an electro-hydraulic servo press system can be obtained.

  11. Diachronic changes in word probability distributions in daily press

    Stanković Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in probability distributions of individual words and word types were investigated within two samples of daily press in the span of fifty years. Two samples of daily press were used in this study. The one derived from the Corpus of Serbian Language (CSL /Kostić, Đ., 2001/ that covers period between 1945. and 1957. and the other derived from the Ebart Media Documentation (EBR that was complied from seven daily news and five weekly magazines from 2002. and 2003. Each sample consisted of about 1 million words. The obtained results indicate that nouns and adjectives were more frequent in the CSL, while verbs and prepositions are more frequent in the EBR sample, suggesting a decrease of sentence length in the last five decades. Conspicuous changes in probability distribution of individual words were observed for nouns and adjectives, while minimal or no changes were observed for verbs and prepositions. Such an outcome suggests that nouns and adjectives are most susceptible to diachronic changes, while verbs and prepositions appear to be resistant to such changes.

  12. Mold temperature measurement for glass-pressing processes

    The largest use of radiation thermometers within Corning Glass Works is for mold temperature measurement for the glass-pressing process. Pressing television panels at today's high quality would be very difficult without a mold temperature measurement system and the computer manipulation of the quality control data to supervise the mold temperature control loop. The most critical part of a television panel is the inside surface curvature. The ideal surface is usually defined as a spherical surface. The tolerance for a normal TV panel is +-0.30 mm (+-0.012 in.). High resolution display panels are more critical, having a dimensional tolerance only one half as large as TV panels. Panel curvature is a direct (but negative) function of mold temperature. Every 10C increase in mold temperature results in the panel center being 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) shorter (flatter). Random dimensional variations within a panel take up most of the dimensional tolerance. The result is that each mold is controlled to its own individual temperature set point, +-10C. Hot panel and cold panel curvature measurements are correlated by a process computer and used to update the mold temperature set points. The same computer adjusts the mold cooling air to maintain the required mold temperatures. From the temperature measurement standpoint, the significant problem is the changing emissivity of the mold surface when the mold is new or reconditioned. The selection of a radiation thermometer with a short wavelength was an obvious choice to minimize the effect of emissivity variations

  13. LSA glass-ceramic tiles made by powder pressing

    A low cost alternative for the production of glass-ceramic materials is the pressing of the matrix glass powders and its consolidation simultaneously with crystallization in a single stage of sintering. The main objective of this work was to obtain LSA glass ceramics with low thermal expansion, processed by pressing and sintering a ceramic frit powder. The raw materials were homogenized and melted (1480 deg C, 80min), and the melt was poured in water. The glass was chemically (XRF and AAS) and thermally (DTA, 10 deg C/min, air) characterized, and then ground (60min and 120min). The ground powders were characterized (laser diffraction) and compressed (35MPa and 45MPa), thus forming four systems. The compacts were dried (150 deg C, 24h) and sintered (1175 deg C and 1185 deg C, 10 deg C/min). Finally, the glass-ceramics were characterized by microstructural analysis (SEM and XRD), mechanical behavior (σbending) and thermal analysis (α). The best results for thermal expansion were those for the glass-ceramics processed with smaller particle size and greater compaction pressure. (author)

  14. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  15. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impact Press Conference

    1994-01-01

    A Press conference held on July 20, 1994 is presented. Leading off the press conference was an announcement about a major discovery that was made possible from the study of the impact. The participants in the panel were: (1) Roger Yelle from the University of Arizona, (2) Renee Prange of the Institute Astrophysique Spatiale, (3) Lucy McFadden of the University of California, and the University of Maryland, (4) David Levy, the co-discoverer of the Shoemaker-Levy comet. The moderator for this conference was Steven Maran of the Goddard Space Flight Center. Roger Yelle, who had been working on analyzing spectrographic evidence, made the announcement that sulfur in the form of S2 had been discovered. There was also discussion about the interactions of the atmosphere with the fragments. This interaction had caused a shift in the aurora of Jupiter. The observations of the impact sites made by amatuers were discussed. A summary of the observations from different observatories was also given. Included in these observations were reports from the airborne Kuiper Observatory Telescope and the McDonald observatory.

  16. Climate change and daily press : Italy vs Usa parallel analysis

    Among ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment) activities, one deals with analysis and strategies of environmental information. A survey of four daily newspaper coverage, on an issue (Global Climate Change) belonging to this area, has been realized. The involved newspapers are: two Italian ones, namely 'La Repubblica' and 'Il Corriere della Sera', two North-American ones, namely 'New York Times' and 'Washington Post'. Purpose of the work was that of detecting the qualitative and quantitative level of consciousness of the Italian press via a comparison with the North-American press, notoriously sensible and careful on environmental issues. The number of articled analyzed is partitioned in the following numerical data: 319 for the 'New York Times', 309 for the 'Washington Post', 146 for the 'Corriere della Sera', 81 articles for 'La Repubblica'. The time period covered for the analysis spans from 1989, initiatic year for the organization of the 1992 Rio Conference, to December 1994, deadline date for the submission of national

  17. NIC (Nuclear Industry in China) exhibition. Press file; Exposition NIC (Nuclear Industry in China). Dossier de presse

    NONE

    1998-03-27

    Framatome participated to the NIC exhibition which took place in Beijing (China) on March 1998. This press dossier was distributed to visitors. It presents in a first part the activities of the Framatome group in people`s republic of China (new constructions (Daya Bay, Ling Ao project), technological cooperation and contracts in the nuclear domain, technology transfers in the domain of nuclear fuels, activities and daughter companies in the domain of industrial equipments, Framatome Connectors International (FCI) daughter company in the domain of connectors engineering). Then, the general activities of Framatome in the nuclear, industrial equipment, and connectors engineering domains are summarized in the next 3 parts. (J.S.)

  18. Antarctic ice-mass balance 2002 to 2011: regional re-analysis of GRACE satellite gravimetry measurements with improved estimate of glacial-isostatic adjustment

    I. Sasgen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present regional-scale mass balances for 25 drainage basins of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS from satellite observations of the Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE for the years 2002–2011. Satellite gravimetry estimates of the AIS mass balance are strongly influenced by mass movement in the Earth interior caused by ice advance and retreat during the last glacial cycle. Here, we develop an improved glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA estimate for Antarctica using newly available GPS uplift rates, allowing us to more accurately separate GIA-induced trends in the GRACE gravity fields from those caused by current imbalances of the AIS. Our revised GIA estimate is considerably lower than previous predictions, yielding an (upper estimate of apparent mass change of 48 ± 18 Gt yr−1. Therefore, our AIS mass balance of −103 ± 23 Gt yr−1 is considerably less negative than previous GRACE estimates. The Northern Antarctic Peninsula and the Amundsen Sea Sector exhibit the largest mass loss (−25 ± 6 Gt yr−1 and −126 ± 11 Gt yr−1, respectively. In contrast, East Antarctica exhibits a slightly positive mass balance (19 ± 16 Gt yr−1, which is, however, mostly the consequence of compensating mass anomalies in Dronning Maud and Enderby Land (positive and Wilkes and George V Land (negative due to interannual accumulation variations. In total, 7% of the area constitute more than half of the AIS imbalance (53%, contributing −151 ± 9 Gt yr−1 to global mean sea-level change. Most of this imbalance is caused by long-term ice-dynamic speed up expected to prevail in the future.

  19. Hot pressing of B{sub 4}C/SiC composites

    Sahin, F.C.; Turhan, E.; Yesilcubuk, S.A.; Addemir, O. [Ystanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgy, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Dept., Maslak-Ystanbul (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    B{sub 4}C/SiC ceramic composites containing 10-20-30 vol % SiC were prepared by hot pressing method. The effect of SiC addition and hot pressing temperature on sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of hot pressed composites were investigated. Microstructures of hot pressed samples were examined by SEM technique. Three different temperatures (2100 deg. C, 2200 deg. C and 2250 deg. C) were used to optimize hot pressing temperature applying 100 MPa pressure under argon atmosphere during the sintering procedure. The highest relative density of 98.44 % was obtained by hot pressing at 2250 deg. C. However, bending strengths of B{sub 4}C/SiC composite samples were lower than monolithic B{sub 4}C in all experimental conditions. (authors)

  20. Fabrication of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel by hot pressing

    Lee, H. G.; Kim, D. J; Park, J. Y.; Kim, W. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. J [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fully ceramic microencapsulated(FCM) nuclear fuel is one of the recently suggested concept to enhance stability nuclear fuel itself. The requirements to increase the accident tolerance of nuclear fuel are mainly two parts: First, the performance has to be maintained compared to the existing UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel and zircaloy cladding system under the normal operation condition. Second, under the severe accident condition, the high temperature structural integrity has to be kept and the generation rate of hydrogen has to be decrease largely. FCM nuclear fuel consists of tristructural isotropic(TRISO) fuel particle and SiC matrix. The relative thermal conductivity of the SiC matrix as compared to UO{sub 2} is quite good, yielding as-irradiated fuel centerline temperature compared to high temperature for the existing fuel leading to reduced stored energy in the core and reduced operational release of fission products from the fuel. Generally SiC ceramics are fabricated via liquid phase sintering due to strong covalent bonding property and low self-diffusivity coefficient. Hot pressing is very effective method to conduct sintering of SiC powder including different second phase. In this study, SiC-matrix composite including TRISO particles were sintered by hot pressing with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive system. Various sintering condition were investigated to obtain high relative density above 95%. The internal distribution of TRISO particles within SiC-matrix composite was observed by x-ray radiograph. From the analysis of the cross-section of SiC-matrix composite, the fracture of TRISO particles was investigated. In order to uniform distribution of TRISO particle embedded in the SiC matrix, SiC powder overcoating is considered. SiC matrix composite including TRISO was fabricated by hot pressing. FCM pallets with full density were obtained with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive system. From the microstructure image, the effect of the sintering