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Sample records for 73-amino acids insert

  1. Novel Enzymatic Synthesis of 3-hydroxybutyric Acid Oligomerswith Inserted Lactobionic Acid Moieties

    Kakasi-Zsurka, S.; Todea, A.; But, A.; PAUL, C; Boeriu, C.G.; Nagv, A.; Davidescu, C.M.; Peter, F

    2011-01-01

    3-Hydroxybutyric acid and lactobionic acid yielded linear and cyclic oligomers in a lipase-catalyzedcondensation polymerization reaction, performed at 80°C in bulk and organic solvent systems. Novozyme435 was the most efficient biocatalyst, and a mixture of t-butanol and dimethylsulfoxide in 80:20 (v/v) ratioprovided the highest copolymer conversions. The highest degree of polymerization reached 7 in case ofcopolymers with inserted lactobionic acid moiety and 11 for the 3-hydroxybutyric acid ...

  2. Association of Lactobacillus crispatus with fructo-oligosaccharides and ascorbic acid in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose vaginal insert.

    Vitali, Beatrice; Abruzzo, Angela; Parolin, Carola; Palomino, Rogers Alberto Ñahui; Dalena, Francesco; Bigucci, Federica; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this work was to develop a synbiotic vaginal insert containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus crispatus BC5, the prebiotic substrate fructo-oligosaccharide and the antioxidant agent ascorbic acid, for the prophylaxis and therapy of vaginal infections. Mucoadhesive in situ gelling vaginal inserts based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were prepared by freeze-drying, stored at +2-8 °C for 90 days and characterized in terms of technological and functional properties. Complete survival of L. crispatus BC5 was found immediately after insert preparation (96.08%) as well as after 90 days of storage (95.82%) in the vaginal inserts containing fructo-oligosaccharide, ascorbic acid and skimmed milk. Synbiotic inserts showed improved mucoadhesion ability (from three- to five-fold) with respect to a standard formulation based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose alone. Moreover, inserts allowed to modulate lactobacilli release in virtue of the different amounts of fructo-oligosaccharide. Finally, antimicrobial activity was exerted by L. crispatus BC5 released from the vaginal formulation. PMID:26572459

  3. Insertion of fluorescent fatty acid probes into the outer membranes of the pathogenic spirochaetes Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Cox, D L; Radolf, J D

    2001-05-01

    The authors examined the ability of octadecanoyl (C(18)), hexadecanoyl (C(16)) and dodecanoyl (C(12)) fatty acid (FA) conjugates of 5-aminofluorescein (OAF, HAF and DAF, respectively) to insert into the outer membranes (OMs) of Treponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Escherichia coli. Biophysical studies have demonstrated that these compounds stably insert into phospholipid bilayers with the acyl chain within the hydrophobic interior of the apical leaflet and the hydrophilic fluorescein moiety near the phospholipid head groups. Consistent with the known poor intrinsic permeability of the E. coli OM to hydrophobic compounds and surfactants, E. coli was not labelled with any of the FA probes. OAF inserted more readily into OMs of B. burgdorferi than into those of T. pallidum, although both organisms were completely labelled at concentrations at or below 2 microg ml(-1). Intact spirochaetes were labelled with OAF but not with antibodies against known periplasmic antigens, thereby confirming that the probe interacted exclusively with the spirochaetal OMs. Separate experiments in which organisms were cooled to 4 degrees C (i.e. below the OM phase-transition temperatures) indicated that labelling with OAF was due to insertion of the probe into the OMs. B. burgdorferi, but not T. pallidum, was labelled by relatively high concentrations of HAF and DAF. Taken as a whole, these findings support the prediction that the lack of lipopolysaccharide renders T. pallidum and B. burgdorferi OMs markedly more permeable to lipophilic compounds than their Gram-negative bacterial counterparts. The data also raise the intriguing possibility that these two pathogenic spirochaetes obtain long-chain FAs, nutrients they are unable to synthesize, by direct permeation of their OMs. PMID:11320119

  4. Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid.

    Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Ye, Kaixiong; Gadgil, Maithili S; Carlson, Susan E; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Zhang, Ji Yao; Park, Hui Gyu; Ojukwu, Kinsley; Zou, James; Hyon, Stephanie S; Joshi, Kalpana S; Gu, Zhenglong; Keinan, Alon; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion-deletion within FADS2, is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro. Here, we determined rs66698963 genotype frequencies from 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals from the US. A much higher I/I genotype frequency was found in Indians (68%) than in the US (18%). Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product-precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice. PMID:27188529

  5. Jaw osteonecrosis management around a dental implant inserted 2 years before starting treatment with zoledronic acid

    Marín Fernández, A.B.; García Medina, Blas; Aguilar Salvatierra, Antonio; Jiménez Burkhardt, Alberto; Gómez Moreno, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP) are a type of drug known to inhibit bone resorption through complex interventions. Their primary mechanism of action is aimed at the cellular level, inhibiting osteoclast activity and so bone resorption. BPs are widely used, with many patients receiving continuous treatment for years. But it is well known that these drugs can produce osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an intravenous BP used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bone disease in patients ...

  6. Effects of deletion and insertion of amino acids on the activity of HelaTx1, a scorpion toxin on potassium channels.

    Peigneur, Steve; Esaki, Nao; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-03-01

    Four analogs of HelaTx1, a 25-mer peptide from scorpion venom, were synthesized by deleting its C-terminal hexapeptide fragment and N-terminal Ser residue and by inserting an amino acid in the middle part of the molecule. CD spectrum of HelaTx1(1-19) was almost superimposable to that of native HelaTx1. Functional characterization showed that HelaTx1(1-19) retained its inhibitory activity on Kv1.1 channel although 3 times less potent than HelaTx1, indicating that C-terminal part of HelaTx1 was not essential for its conformation and activity. Further deletion of N-terminal Ser residue and insertion of Ala in the middle part of the molecule affected the CD spectra and resulted in the decrease of activity. PMID:26724500

  7. Calorimeter insertion

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeter insertion between toroids in the ATLAS experiment detector Calorimeters are surrounding the inner detector. Calorimeters will absorb and measure the energies of the most charged and neutral particles after the collisions. The saved energy in the calorimeter is detected and converted to signals that are taken out with data taking electronics.

  8. Insertion sequences.

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, M.

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryoti...

  9. On the nature of the apparent free energy of inserting amino acids into membrane through the translocon.

    Rychkova, Anna; Warshel, Arieh

    2013-11-01

    The nature of the biological free energy scale (ΔGapp), obtained from translocon mediated insertion studies, has been a major puzzle and the subject of major controversies. Part of the problem has been the complexity of the insertion process that discouraged workers from considering the feasible kinetics schemes and left the possible impression that ΔGapp presents some simple partition. Here we extend and clarify our recent analysis of the insertion problem using well-defined kinetics schemes and a free energy profile. We point out that although the rate constants of some steps are far from being obvious, it is essential to consider explicitly such schemes in order to advance in analyzing the meaning of ΔGapp. It is then shown that under some equilibrium conditions the kinetics scheme leads to a simple formula that allows one to relate ΔGapp to the actual free energy of partitioning between the water, the membrane, and the translocon. Other options are also considered (including limits with irreversible transitions that can be described by linear free energy relationships (LFERs)). It is concluded that it is unlikely that a kinetics plus thermodynamic based analysis can lead to a result that identifies ΔGapp with the partition between the membrane and the translocon. Thus, we argue that unless such analysis is presented, it is unjustified to assume that ΔGapp corresponds to the membrane translocon equilibrium or to some other arbitrary definition. Furthermore, we point out that the presumption that it is sufficient to just calculate the PMF for going from the translocon (TR) to the membrane and then to assume irreversible diffusive motion to water and for further entrance to the membrane is not a valid analysis. Overall, we point out that it is important to try to relate ΔGapp to a well-defined kinetics scheme (regardless of the complication of the system) in order to determine whether the energies of inserting positively charged residues to the membrane are

  10. Amino acid substitutions at the major insertion loop of Candida albicans sterol 14alpha-demethylase are involved in fluconazole resistance.

    Nidia Alvarez-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, amino acid substitutions of 14alpha-demethylase (CaErg11p, CaCYP51 are associated with azole antifungals resistance. This is an area of research which is very dynamic, since the stakes concern the screening of new antifungals which circumvent resistance. The impact of amino acid substitutions on azole interaction has been postulated by homology modeling in comparison to the crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT-CYP51. Modeling of amino acid residues situated between positions 428 to 459 remains difficult to explain to date, because they are in a major insertion loop specifically present in fungal species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Fluconazole resistance of clinical isolates displaying Y447H and V456I novel CaErg11p substitutions confirmed in vivo in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Y447H and V456I implication into fluconazole resistance was then studied by site-directed mutagenesis of wild-type CaErg11p and by heterogeneously expression into the Pichia pastoris model. CLSI modified tests showed that V447H and V456I are responsible for an 8-fold increase in fluconazole MICs of P. pastoris mutants compared to the wild-type controls. Moreover, mutants showed a sustained capacity for producing ergosterol, even in the presence of fluconazole. Based on these biological results, we are the first to propose a hybrid homology structure-function model of Ca-CYP51 using 3 different homology modeling programs. The variable position of the protein insertion loop, using different liganded or non-liganded templates of recently solved CYP51 structures, suggests its inherent flexibility. Mapping of recognized azole-resistant substitutions indicated that the flexibility of this region is probably enhanced by the relatively high glycine content of the consensus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlight the potential role of the insertion loop in azole resistance in the human

  11. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays FatB reduces the palmitate content of fatty acids in maize grain

    Fatty acids in maize kernels are important for human and livestock health. We combined linkage and association analysis to fine-map the major QTL-Pal9 to a 90-kb region, in which only one candidate gene was identified. The gene was named ZmFatB and is orthologous to FatB in Arabidopsis, with a simil...

  12. Insertion of an aspartic acid moiety into cyclic pseudopeptides: synthesis and biological characterization of potent antagonists for the human Tachykinin NK-2 receptor.

    Fedi, Valentina; Altamura, Maria; Balacco, Giuseppe; Canfarini, Franca; Criscuoli, Marco; Giannotti, Danilo; Giolitti, Alessandro; Giuliani, Sandro; Guidi, Antonio; Harmat, Nicholas J S; Nannicini, Rossano; Pasqui, Franco; Patacchini, Riccardo; Perrotta, Enzo; Tramontana, Manuela; Triolo, Antonio; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2004-12-30

    A new series of monocyclic pseudopeptide tachykinin NK-2 receptor antagonists has been derived from the lead compound MEN11558. A synthesis for these molecules sharing the same intermediate was designed and performed. The replacement of the succinic moiety with an aspartic acid and the functionalization of its amino group with a wide variety of substituents led to very potent and selective NK-2 antagonists. Best results were obtained through the insertion in position 12 of an amino group with R configuration, linked by a short spacer to a saturated nitrogen heterocycle (morpholine, piperidine, or piperazine). The study led to compounds 54 and 57, endowed with high in vivo potency at very low doses and long duration of action in animal models of bronchoconstriction. In particular 54 and 57 completely inhibited NK-2 agonist induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pig after intratracheal administration at subnanomolar doses (ED(50) = 0.27 nmol/kg and 0.15 nmol/kg, respectively). PMID:15615542

  13. Insertion-deletions in a FADS2 intron 1 conserved regulatory locus control expression of fatty acid desaturases 1 and 2 and modulate response to simvastatin.

    Reardon, Holly T; Zhang, Jimmy; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Kim, Andrea J; Park, Woo Jung; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1 and FADS2) code for enzymes required for synthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) important in the central nervous system, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular health. SNPs in these genes are associated with numerous health outcomes, but it is unclear how genetic variation affects enzyme function. Here, lymphoblasts obtained from Japanese participants in the International HapMap Project were evaluated for association of expression microarray results with SNPs in the FADS gene cluster. Six SNPs in the first intron of the FADS2 gene were associated with FADS1 expression. A 10-SNP haplotype in FADS2 (rs2727270 to rs2851682) present in 24% of the population was associated with lower expression of FADS1. A highly conserved region coinciding with the most significant SNPs contained predicted binding sites for SREBP and PPARγ. Lymphoblasts homozygous for either the major or minor haplotype were treated with agonists for these transcription factors and expression of FADS1 and FADS2 determined. Simvastatin and the LXR agonist GW3965 both upregulated expression of FADS1 and FADS2; no response was found for PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. The minor haplotype homozygotes had 20-40% higher induction of FADS1 and FADS2 after simvastatin or GW3965 treatment. A 22 bp polymorphic insertion-deletion (INDEL) was found 137 bp downstream from the putative sterol response element, as well as a 3 or 1 bp INDEL 81-83 bp downstream. All carriers of the minor haplotype had deletions while all carriers of the major haplotype had insertions. Individuals carrying the minor haplotype may be vulnerable to alterations in diet that reduce LCPUFA intake, and especially responsive to statin or marine oil therapy. PMID:22748975

  14. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  15. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Sun, Xiangjie; Chung, Changik [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Whittaker, Gary R., E-mail: grw7@cornell.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-12-05

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  16. Improving the pH-response of pHLIP insertion at tumor acidity for targeted drug delivery against cancer: Biophysical studies in model membranes and evaluations in cells

    Onyango, Joab Otieno

    pH (Low) Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) possesses unique qualities that can be applied in cancer biology. It is a peptide that lives in three worlds: In State I, pHLIP exists as an unstructured monomer in solution at neutral pH; In State II, pHLIP partitions to the surface of a lipid bilayer at neutral pH; In State III, pHLIP inserts across the lipid bilayer by forming a transmembrane (TM) alpha helix under slightly acidic conditions (pH 6). These properties allow pHLIP to target acidosis (pH 6.5-7.0), a ubiquitous feature of solid tumors. Although pHLIP shows promise as a drug delivery vehicle, insertion properties such as pH50 (i.e. the pH at which 50% of pHLIP are inserted) and Hill coefficient must be tuned to improve tumor targeting and drug delivery in vivo. When TM region D14 and D25 residues were replaced with two glutamic acid residues as well as noncanonical amino acids such as alpha amino adipic acid (Aad) and gamma carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), we discovered pHLIP variants that possess a pH50 that can match tumor extracellular pH. pHLIP variants D25EE, Asp25Aad, and Asp14Gla/Asp25Aad, insert with pH50 of 6.60, 6.74, and 6.79, respectively. We also tuned pH-response (cooperativity of insertion) and we found that the Asp14Gla variant can insert into membrane with the sharpest transition observed so far for a pHLIP (i.e. over half pH unit vs. one pH unit for WT). Furthermore, we used turn-on fluorescence to evaluate the new variants in cancer cells. The most promising Asp25Aad pHLIP gave near theoretical maximum level of dequenching in cancerous A549 cells at pH 6.2 and 6.4, indicating a high level of plasma-membrane insertion. Under the same conditions, the `WT' and D25E pHLIP variants have low levels of plasma-membrane insertion in cells. Dequenching levels were low in non-cancerous HK2 cell line.

  17. A unique insertion of low complexity amino acid sequence underlies protein-protein interaction in human malaria parasite orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase

    Waranya Imprasittichai; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Sudaratana R Krungkrai; Jerapan Krungkrai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the multienzyme complex formation of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum) orotate phosphoribosyltransferase(OPRT) and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase(OMPDC), the fifth and sixth enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.Previously, we have clearly established that the two enzymes in the malaria parasite exist physically as a heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 complex containing two subunits each ofOPRT andOMPDC, and that the complex have catalytic kinetic advantages over the monofunctional enzyme.Methods:Both enzymes were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins.The protein-protein interaction in the enzyme complex was identified using bifunctional chemical cross-linker, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis and homology modeling.Results:The unique insertions of low complexity region at the α2 and α5 helices of the parasiteOMPDC, characterized by single amino acid repeat sequence which was not found in homologous proteins from other organisms, was located on theOPRT-OMPDC interface.The structural models for the protein-protein interaction of the heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 multienzyme complex were proposed.Conclusions:Based on the proteomic data and structural modeling, it is surmised that the human malaria parasite low complexity region is responsible for theOPRT-OMPDC interaction.The structural complex of the parasite enzymes, thus, represents an efficient functional kinetic advantage, which in line with co-localization principles of evolutional origin, and allosteric control in protein-protein-interactions.

  18. Single amino acid insertions in extracellular loop 2 of Bombyx mori ABCC2 disrupt its receptor function for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa toxins.

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells. After replacement of one or two of the five amino acid residues in loop 2 of the susceptible BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_S] with alanine, cells still showed susceptibility, retaining the receptor function. Five mutants with single amino acid insertions at position 234 in BmABCC2 were also generated, resulting in loop 2 having six amino acids, which corresponds to replacing the tyrosine insertion in the resistant BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y)] with another amino acid. All five mutants exhibited loss of function against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence in loop 2 is less important than the loop size (five vs. six amino acids) or loop structure for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activity. Several domain-swapped mutant toxins were then generated among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, which are composed of three domains. Swapped mutants containing domain II of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac did not kill Sf9 cells expressing BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y), suggesting that domain II of the Cry toxin is related to the interaction with the receptor function of BmABCC2. This also suggests that different reactions against Bt-toxins in some B. mori strains, that is, Cry1Ab resistance or Cry1Aa susceptibility, are attributable to structural differences in domain II of Cry1A toxins. PMID:26928903

  19. Enhanced replication of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in eggs, cell cultures and mice by a two-amino acid insertion in neuraminidase stalk.

    Lin, Yan; Xie, Xing; Zhao, Yanbing; Kalhoro, Dildar Hussain; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen in dogs. Recent studies indicate that avian-origin H3N2 CIV are circulating in Chinese dogs. To investigate the effects of a two-amino acid (2-aa) insertion naturally occurring at the distal end of the neuraminidase (NA) stalk found in Chinese isolates since 2010 on virus replication and virulence, we rescued the CIV strain, A/canine/Jiangsu/06/2011(H3N2) and its NA mutant without the 2-aa insertion using reverse genetics. The NA stalk length affected virus growth in cell culture. Compared to the short stalk strain (without 2-aa insertion), the long stalk strain (with 2-aa insertion) exhibited higher peak titers and greater yields in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, chicken embryo fibroblasts and canine bronchiolar epithelial cells, as well as much larger plaques in MDCK cell monolayers. Furthermore, mice inoculated with the long stalk strain showed more severe pathologic damage in lung and higher proportion of detectable viral RNA in tissues. The long stalk strain induced local IFN-γ production with faster kinetics and higher levels in mice. However, in chickens, the two viral strains showed no significant difference with nearly the same proportion of detectable viral RNA loads in tissues. These observations suggest that the 2-aa insertion in the NA stalk acquired by avian-origin H3N2 CIV helps to enhance viral replication and is likely a result of adaptive evolution in canine hosts. PMID:27160077

  20. Tie rod insertion test

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  1. [Suprapubic catheter insertion].

    Neumann, Eva; Schwentner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The suprapubic catheter enables a percutaneous drainage of urine. The insertion is made superior of the pubic bone through the abdominal wall into the bladder. It allows a permanent drainage of urine bypassing the urethra. The insertion of a suprapubic catheter requires knowledge and expertise. This paper summarizes the basic background and allows to follow the practical application step by step. PMID:26800072

  2. Synthesis of a new intercalating nucleic acid analogue with pyrenol insertions and the thermal stability of the resulting oligonucleotides towards DNA over RNA

    Osman, Amany M. A.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    A new intercalating nucleic acid monomer Y was obtained via alkylation of pyren-1-ol with (S)-(?)-2-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)ethanol under Mitsunobu conditions followed by hydrolysis with 80% aqueous acetic acid to give a diol which was tritylated with 4,40-dimethoxytrityl chloride followed...... nearly identical hybridization properties with those of intercalating nucleic acid (INA) where neighboring oxygen and carbon atoms are interchanged in the linker. The synthesis of monomer Y avoids the use of allergic intermediates which are a problem in the synthesis of INA....

  3. Insertion-Deletions In a FADS2 Intron 1 Conserved Regulatory Locus Control Expression Of Fatty Acid Desaturases 1 and 2 And Modulate Response To Simvastatin

    Reardon, Holly T; Zhang, Jimmy; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Kim, Andrea J.; Park, Woo Jung; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1 and FADS2) code for enzymes required for synthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) important in the central nervous system, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular health. SNPs in these genes are associated with numerous health outcomes, but it is unclear how genetic variation affects enzyme function. Here, lymphoblasts obtained from Japanese participants in the International HapMap Project were evaluated for asso...

  4. ALS insertion devices

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Insertion of 2-carboxysuccinate and tricarballylic acid fragments into cyclic-pseudopeptides: new antagonists for the human tachykinin NK-2 receptor.

    Harmat, Nicholas J S; Giannotti, Danilo; Nannicini, Rossano; Perrotta, Enzo; Criscuoli, Marco; Patacchini, Riccardo; Renzetti, Anna-Rita; Giuliani, Sandro; Altamura, Maria; Maggi, Carlo A

    2002-02-25

    A series of cyclic pseudopeptides were synthesized containing the sequence -Trp-Phe-(D)-PhePsiCH2NH-, the terminal ends of which were bound to 2-carboxy succinate or enantiomerically enriched tricarballylic acid to give the final cyclic structures. These two molecules and their subsequent derivatives were screened for h-NK2 receptor binding and functional antagonist activity on the rabbit urinary bladder. PMID:11844703

  6. Inserting the CMS solenoid

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The huge superconducting solenoid for CMS is inserted into the cryostat barrel. CMS uses the world's largest thin solenoid, in terms of energy stored, and is 12 m long, with a diameter of 6 m and weighing 220 tonnes. When turned on the magnet will produce a field strength of 4 T using superconducting niobium-titanium material at 4.5 K.

  7. Pixel detector insertion

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  8. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld;

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  9. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  10. ENDOSCOPIC GROMMET INSERTION OUR EXPERIENCE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Grommet insertion the commonest surgical procedure next only to circumcision is usually performed using an operating microscope 1. Authors have been using 4 mm 0 degree nasalendoscopes to perform this procedure during the last 5 years. This is a report of their experience in using endoscope inlieu of microscope in performing this surgery. This study makes a comparative analysis of Endoscopic Grommet insertion viz a viz Microscopic Grommet insertion. For this comparative analysis one year (2009 data base of Government Stanley Medical College Chennai India was used. This study reveals that Endoscopic Grommet insertion compared favorably with Microscopic Grommet insertion in all aspects with certain obvious advantages.

  11. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  12. Subjective Misidentification and Thought Insertion

    Parrott, Matthew Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This essay presents a new account of thought insertion. Prevailing views in both philosophy and cognitive science tend to characterize the experience of thought insertion as missing or lacking some element, such as a ‘sense of agency’, found in ordinary first-person awareness of one’s own thoughts. By contrast, I propose that, rather than lacking something, experiences of thought insertion have an additional feature not present in ordinary conscious experiences of one’s own thoughts. More spe...

  13. Endoscopic grommet insertion our experience

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan; Seethalakshmi Narashiman

    2012-01-01

    Grommet insertion the commonest surgical procedure next only to circumcision is usually performed using an operating microscope 1. Authors have been using 4 mm 0 degree nasal endoscopes to perform this procedure during the last 5 years. This is a report of their experience in using endoscope inlieu of microscope in performing this surgery. This study makes a comparative analysis of Endoscopic Grommet insertion viz a viz Microscopic Grommet insertion. For this comparative analysis one year (20...

  14. Post-CTS Delay Insertion

    Jianchao Lu; Baris Taskin

    2010-01-01

    A post-clock-tree-synthesis (post-CTS) optimization method is proposed that suggests delay insertion at the leaves of the clock tree in order to implement a limited version of clock skew scheduling. Delay insertion is limited on each clock tree branch simultaneous with a global monitoring of the total amount of delay insertion. The delay insertion for nonzero clock skew operation is performed only at the clock sinks in order to preserve the structure and the optimizations implemented in the c...

  15. A novel genotype encoding a single amino acid insertion and five other substitutions between residues 64 and 74 of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers high-level cross-resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Abacavir CNA2007 International Study Group.

    Rakik, A; Ait-Khaled, M; Griffin, P; Thomas, T A; Tisdale, M; Kleim, J P

    1999-10-01

    We investigated HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) polymorphisms of plasma isolates from 98 HIV-1-infected study subjects with >2 years of antiretroviral therapy who were failing their current protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen. In 1 patient, we detected a virus with a heavily mutated beta3-beta4 connecting loop of the HIV-1 RT fingers subdomain, consisting of a single aspartate codon insertion between positions 69 and 70 and five additional variations: 64N, K65, K66, 67G, 68Y, T69, Ins D, 70R, W71, R72, K73, 74I. Mutants with the recently described 2-aa insertions between codons 68 and 70 of RT were detected in another 3 patients. Among the four isolates with the 1- or 2-aa insertions, the novel genotype was the most refractory to therapy and displayed the highest level of phenotypic resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Follow-up samples demonstrated that the novel mutant represents a stable genetic rearrangement and that the amino acid insertions can coexist with nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) mutations resulting in phenotypic resistance to both NRTIs and NNRTIs. An increasing number of HIV-1 isolates containing various insertions in the beta3-beta4 hairpin of the HIV-1 RT fingers subdomain appear to emerge after prolonged therapy with different NRTIs, and these polymorphisms can confer multiple drug resistance against NRTIs. PMID:10843527

  16. ISR Superconducting High luminosity Insertion

    1981-01-01

    The picture shows two of the eight superconducting quadrupoles of the low-beta insertion at intersection I8.The increase of luminosity produced by this insertion was above a factor 7. At right one can also see the Open- Axial- Field Magnet. The person is Stephan Pichler. See also 7702690X, 8102123, 8010397, 8008332.

  17. Insertion device vacuum system designs

    Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented

  18. Insertion compounds of uranium oxides

    Insertion compounds are formed by the intercalation of an electropositive species, such as hydrogen or an alkali metal, with minimal structural rearrangement of the host oxide. In this report a review of the measured structural, thermodynamic and transport properties of the insertion compounds of α-U3O8, α-UO3, γ-UO3, δ-UO3 and related systems is given. (author)

  19. Fission density distribution measurement in vicinity of VVER-440 control assembly model in LR-0 reactor. Variant 4. Boron acid in moderator and control assembly coupler without Hf inserts

    The axial and radial fission product activity distributions in fuel assemblies surrounding a model of a partly inserted VVER-440 control rod (core fuelling variant 4) were measured on the LR-0 experimental reactor. The reactor core for the measurement consisted of 19 fuel assemblies of the VVER-440/LR-0 type

  20. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  1. Islet amyloid polypeptide inserts into phospholipid monolayers as monomer.

    Engel, Maarten F M; Yigittop, HaciAli; Elgersma, Ronald C; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J; de Kruijff, Ben; Höppener, Jo W M; Antoinette Killian, J

    2006-02-24

    Amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are thought to be a main factor responsible for death of the insulin-producing islet beta-cells in type 2 diabetes. It is hypothesized that beta-cell death is related to interaction of the 37 amino acid residue human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the major constituent of islet amyloid, with cellular membranes. However, the mechanism of hIAPP-membrane interactions is largely unknown. Here, we study the nature and the molecular details of the initial step of hIAPP-membrane interactions by using the monolayer technique. It is shown that both freshly dissolved hIAPP and the non-amyloidogenic mouse IAPP (mIAPP) have a pronounced ability to insert into phospholipid monolayers, even at lipid packing conditions that exceed the conditions that occur in biological membranes. In contrast, the fibrillar form of hIAPP has lost the ability to insert. These results, combined with the observations that both the insertion kinetics and the dependence of insertion on the initial surface pressure are similar for freshly dissolved hIAPP and mIAPP, indicate that hIAPP inserts into phospholipid monolayers most likely as a monomer. In addition, our results suggest that the N-terminal part of hIAPP, which is nearly identical with that of mIAPP, is largely responsible for insertion. This is supported by experiments with hIAPP fragments, which show that a peptide consisting of the 19 N-terminal residues of hIAPP efficiently inserts into phospholipid monolayers, whereas an amyloidogenic decapeptide, consisting of residues 20-29 of hIAPP, inserts much less efficiently. The results obtained here suggest that hIAPP monomers might insert with high efficiency in biological membranes in vivo. This process could play an important role as a first step in hIAPP-induced membrane damage in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16403520

  2. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Modeling Amyloid Beta Peptide Insertion into Lipid Bilayers

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Maddox, M W; Longo, M J; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Maddox, Michael W.; Longo, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by recent suggestions that the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (A-beta), can insert into cell membranes and form harmful ion channels, we model insertion of the peptide into cell membranes using a Monte Carlo code which is specific at the amino acid level. We examine insertion of the regular A-beta peptide as well as mutants causing familial Alzheimer's disease. We present our results and develop the hypothesis that partial insertion into the membrane, leaving the peptide in one leaflet, increases the probability of harmful channel formation. This hypothesis can partly explain why these mutations are neurotoxic simply due to peptide insertion behavior, and also explains why, normally, A-beta 42 is more toxic to some cultured cells than A-beta 40, but the E22Q mutation reverses this effect. We further apply this model to various artificial A-beta mutants which have been examined experimentally, and offer testable experimental predictions contrasting the roles of aggregation and insertion with regard ...

  4. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  5. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  6. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225". ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detector s /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  7. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 2000C

  8. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  9. Field Errors in Hybrid Insertion Devices

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  10. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  11. Does 'insertion' work? France's minimum income"

    Whitton, Timothy

    1993-01-01

    International audience France's Revenu Minimum d Insertion (RMI) received the approval of the French Parliament on 1st December1988, and came into effect shortly afterwardsi. In addition to a means test, the RMI is conditional upon signature of a contract (le contrat d'insertion) by which its recipients pledge themselves to take whatever action the RMI authorities recommend in order to re-insert themselves in main-stream society. Insertion is a difficult concept to translate into English. ...

  12. Delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion

    Mehta Ajay; Ahmed Shwan J; Rimington Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Complications of suprapubic catheter insertion are rare but can be significant. We describe an unusual complication of a delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion. Case presentation A gentleman presented with features of peritonitis and feculent discharge along a suprapubic catheter two months after insertion of the catheter. Conclusion Bowel perforation is the most feared complication of suprapubic catheter insertion especially in patients with low...

  13. Tetrahedral mesh for needle insertion

    Syvertsen, Rolf Anders

    2007-01-01

    This is a Master’s thesis in how to make a tetrahedral mesh for use in a needle insertion simulator. It also describes how it is possible to make the simulator, and how to improve it to make it as realistic as possible. The medical simulator uses a haptic device, a haptic scene graph and a FEM for realistic soft tissue deformation and interaction. In this project a tetrahedral mesh is created from a polygon model, and then the mesh has been loaded into the HaptX haptic scene graph. The object...

  14. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  15. Alternating Poly(ester-anhydride) by Insertion Polycondensation.

    Haim-Zada, Moran; Basu, Arijit; Hagigit, Tal; Schlinger, Ron; Grishko, Michael; Kraminsky, Alexander; Hanuka, Ezra; Domb, Abraham J

    2016-06-13

    We report on a synthetic method where polyanhydride is used as starting material and the ester monomers are inserted through complete esterification, leading to an alternating ester-anhydride copolymer. The molar ratio of ricinoleic acid (RA) and sebacic acid (SA) was optimized until polysebacic acid is completely converted to carboxylic acid-terminated RA-SA and RA-SA-RA ester-dicarboxylic acids. These dimers and trimers were activated with acetic anhydride, polymerized under heat and vacuum to yield alternating RA-SA copolymer. The resulting alternating poly(ester-anhydride) have the RA at regular intervals. The regular occurrences of RA side chains prevent anhydride interchange, enhancing hydrolytic stability, which allows storage of the polymer at room temperature. PMID:27198864

  16. PanoInserts: mobile spatial teleconferencing

    Pece, F.; Steptoe, W.; F. Wanner; Julier, S.; Weyrich, T.; Kautz, J.; Steed, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present PanoInserts: a novel teleconferencing system that uses smartphone cameras to create a surround representation of meeting places. We take a static panoramic image of a location into which we insert live videos from smartphones. We use a combination of marker- and image-based tracking to position the video inserts within the panorama, and transmit this representation to a remote viewer. We conduct a user study comparing our system with fully-panoramic video and conventional webcam vi...

  17. A HTS dipole insert coil constructed

    Ballarino, A; Rey, J M; Stenvall, A; Sorbi, M; Tixador, P

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.4.1 “A HTS dipole insert coil constructed“. The report has three parts: “Design report for the HTS dipole insert”, “One insert pancake prototype coil constructed with the setup for a high field test”, and “All insert components ordered”. The three report parts show that, although the insert construction will be only completed by end 2013, all elements are present for a successful completion and that, given the important investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment of all of them to finish the project

  18. Delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion

    Mehta Ajay

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complications of suprapubic catheter insertion are rare but can be significant. We describe an unusual complication of a delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion. Case presentation A gentleman presented with features of peritonitis and feculent discharge along a suprapubic catheter two months after insertion of the catheter. Conclusion Bowel perforation is the most feared complication of suprapubic catheter insertion especially in patients with lower abdominal scar. The risk may be reduced with the use of ultrasound scan guidance.

  19. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  20. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    Bereau, Tristan, E-mail: bereau@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bennett, W. F. Drew [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pfaendtner, Jim [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Deserno, Markus [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Karttunen, Mikko [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science & Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, MetaForum, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  1. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence

  2. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. PMID:27250950

  3. A Flip Turn for Membrane Protein Insertion

    Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane domains in a membrane protein must be recognized and correctly oriented before their insertion into the lipid bilayer. Devaraneni et al. (2011) generate snapshots at different stages of membrane protein biogenesis, revealing a dynamic set of steps that imply an unexpectedly flexible membrane insertion machinery.

  4. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  5. A fuel insert shuffle planner expert system

    During the refueling outage of a pressurized water reactor, the fuel assembly inserts must be moved from their current fuel assemblies to the proper fuel assemblies for the next cycle core design. The crane movement pattern, or shuffle plan, to perform this operation should be as efficient as possible because a less efficient plan could cause the power plant to be shut down for a longer period of time. The current method to develop this plan requires three to four man-weeks of a reactor engineer's time. This plan is developed by the reactor engineer who uses his expertise from previous insert shuffles. Further modifications to this plan are sometimes required due to either changes in the desired core load pattern or damaged fuel or inserts. These changes generally require two to four man-days during the plant outage time. A full-scale prototype of an insert shuffle advisor expert system has been developed to create the insert shuffle plan. This system substantially reduces the manpower requirements needed to develop this plan. It is also a vehicle for preserving the expertise needed to develop this plan. Since the plan can be developed more quickly with the insert shuffle advisor, several strategies can be tried. This gives the potential for a more efficient insert shuffle plan than could be found by the reactor engineer. A more efficient plan means that the power plant could be shut down for a shorter period of time. This would have considerable financial advantages

  6. Insertions and the emergence of novel protein structure: a structure-based phylogenetic study of insertions

    Blouin Christian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protein evolution, the mechanism of the emergence of novel protein domain is still an open question. The incremental growth of protein variable regions, which was produced by stochastic insertions, has the potential to generate large and complex sub-structures. In this study, a deterministic methodology is proposed to reconstruct phylogenies from protein structures, and to infer insertion events in protein evolution. The analysis was performed on a broad range of SCOP domain families. Results Phylogenies were reconstructed from protein 3D structural data. The phylogenetic trees were used to infer ancestral structures with a consensus method. From these ancestral reconstructions, 42.7% of the observed insertions are nested insertions, which locate in previous insert regions. The average size of inserts tends to increase with the insert rank or total number of insertions in the variable regions. We found that the structures of some nested inserts show complex or even domain-like fold patterns with helices, strands and loops. Furthermore, a basal level of structural innovation was found in inserts which displayed a significant structural similarity exclusively to themselves. The β-Lactamase/D-ala carboxypeptidase domain family is provided as an example to illustrate the inference of insertion events, and how the incremental growth of a variable region is capable to generate novel structural patterns. Conclusion Using 3D data, we proposed a method to reconstruct phylogenies. We applied the method to reconstruct the sequences of insertion events leading to the emergence of potentially novel structural elements within existing protein domains. The results suggest that structural innovation is possible via the stochastic process of insertions and rapid evolution within variable regions where inserts tend to be nested. We also demonstrate that the structure-based phylogeny enables the study of new questions relating to the

  7. Ninety-Nine Is Not Enough: Molecular Characterization of Inhibitor-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Mutants with Insertions in the Flap Region

    Koiek, Milan; Saskova, Klara Grantz; Rezaova, Pavlina; Brynda, Jii; van Maarseveen, Noortje M.; De Jong, Dorien; Boucher, Charles A.; Kagan, Ron M.; Nijhuis, Monique; Konvalinka, Jan (Quest); (Charles U); (Utrecht)

    2008-07-21

    While the selection of amino acid insertions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) is a known mechanism of resistance against RT inhibitors, very few reports on the selection of insertions in the protease (PR) coding region have been published. It is still unclear whether these insertions impact protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and/or viral replication capacity. We show that the prevalence of insertions, especially between amino acids 30 to 41 of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) PR, has increased in recent years. We identified amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 of the PR of HIV-1-infected patients who had undergone prolonged treatment with PIs, and we characterized the contribution of these insertions to viral resistance. We prepared the corresponding mutated, recombinant PR variants with or without insertions at positions 33 and 35 and characterized them in terms of enzyme kinetics and crystal structures. We also engineered the corresponding recombinant viruses and analyzed the PR susceptibility and replication capacity by recombinant virus assay. Both in vitro methods confirmed that the amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 contribute to the viral resistance to most of the tested PIs. The structural analysis revealed local structural rearrangements in the flap region and in the substrate binding pockets. The enlargement of the PR substrate binding site together with impaired flap dynamics could account for the weaker inhibitor binding by the insertion mutants. Amino acid insertions in the vicinity of the binding cleft therefore represent a novel mechanism of HIV resistance development.

  8. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  9. An Unusual Complication of Suprapubic Catheter Insertion

    Krishnan Ananthakrishnan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who had a small bowel mesentery perforation following insertion of a suprapubic catheter (SPC is described. He had no bowel complaints immediately following the procedure, but presented 10 weeks later with insidious onset bowel obstruction due to the kink caused by the catheter. This complication occurred despite cystoscopy control and adequate bladder distension prior to the procedure. This isolated case illustrates the fact that regardless of the ease and frequency of SPC insertion, complications do occur.

  10. Strength of inserts in titanium alloy machining

    Kozlov, V.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a stressed state of a non-worn cutting wedge in a machined titanium alloy (Ti6Al2Mo2Cr) is analyzed. The distribution of contact loads on the face of a cutting tool was obtained experimentally with the use of a ‘split cutting tool’. Calculation of internal stresses in the indexable insert made from cemented carbide (WC8Co) was carried out with the help of ANSYS 14.0 software. Investigations showed that a small thickness of the cutting insert leads to extremely high compressive stresses near the cutting edge, stresses that exceed the ultimate compressive strength of cemented carbide. The face and the base of the insert experience high tensile stresses, which approach the ultimate tensile strength of cemented carbide and increase a probability of cutting insert destruction. If the thickness of the cutting insert is bigger than 5 mm, compressive stresses near the cutting edge decrease, and tensile stresses on the face and base decrease to zero. The dependences of the greatest normal and tangential stresses on thickness of the cutting insert were found. Abbreviation and symbols: m/s - meter per second (cutting speed v); mm/r - millimeter per revolution (feed rate f); MPa - mega Pascal (dimension of specific contact loads and stresses); γ - rake angle of the cutting tool [°] α - clearance angle of the sharp cutting tool [°].

  11. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  12. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  13. An Insertion Mutation That Distorts Antibody Binding Site Architecture Enhances Function of a Human Antibody

    Krause, Jens C.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Smith, Patricia B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Crowe, Jr., James E. (Vanderbilt); (Scripps); (CDC)

    2011-09-02

    The structural and functional significance of somatic insertions and deletions in antibody chains is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a naturally occurring three-amino-acid insertion within the influenza virus-specific human monoclonal antibody 2D1 heavy-chain variable region reconfigures the antibody-combining site and contributes to its high potency against the 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. The insertion arose through a series of events, including a somatic point mutation in a predicted hot-spot motif, introduction of a new hot-spot motif, a molecular duplication due to polymerase slippage, a deletion due to misalignment, and additional somatic point mutations. Atomic resolution structures of the wild-type antibody and a variant in which the insertion was removed revealed that the three-amino-acid insertion near the base of heavy-chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 resulted in a bulge in that loop. This enlarged CDR H2 loop impinges on adjacent regions, causing distortion of the CDR H1 architecture and its displacement away from the antigen-combining site. Removal of the insertion restores the canonical structure of CDR H1 and CDR H2, but binding, neutralization activity, and in vivo activity were reduced markedly because of steric conflict of CDR H1 with the hemagglutinin antigen.

  14. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  15. AC loss performance of CS insert coil

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) model coil and the CS insert coil were fabricated, and the test was carried out. The AC loss measurement of the coil is one of the most important tests to determine coil performance. The AC loss of a short sample conductor for the CS insert coil was measured by using the calorimetric method, and the coupling time constants of the conductor were estimated to be 30 ms and 20 ms for pulse and discharge tests, respectively. The AC loss of the CS insert coil was measured by using the calorimetric method for pulse and discharge tests. The coupling time constant estimated from the result of the pulse tests was 34 ms and almost equal to that of the short sample. The coupling time constant for the discharge test was estimated to be 140 ms and about 4 times that of the pulse test. (author)

  16. Installation of the LHC experimental insertions

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the low-beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  17. INSTALLATION OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTAL INSERTIONS

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the Low-Beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  18. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  19. Active interlock for storage ring insertion devices

    The insertion devices in the NSLS x-ray ring produce such intense photon beams that passive measures alone are not adequate to protect the vacuum chamber. An active interlock is used to prevent thermal damage from improperly steered electron beams. The interlock system measures the position of the electron beam on both sides of the insertion devices using pick-up electrodes and interrupts the rf if the beam moves outside a safe window. The interlock features redundant circuitry as well as an automatic testing procedure. 1 ref., 4 figs

  20. Chicken models of retroviral insertional mutagenesis

    Pečenka, Vladimír; Karafiát, Vít; Dvořák, Michal

    New York : Springer, 2011 - (Dupuy, A.; Largaespada, D.), s. 77-112 ISBN 978-1-4419-7655-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/1727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : insertional mutagenesis * chicken model * MAV retroviruses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  2. Chicken models of retroviral insertional mutagenesis

    Pečenka, Vladimír; Karafiát, Vít; Dvořák, Michal

    New York: Springer, 2011 - (Dupuy, A.; Largaespada, D.), s. 77-112 ISBN 978-1-4419-7655-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/1727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : insertional mutagenesis * chicken model * MAV retroviruses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  4. Screw-Thread Inserts As Temporary Flow Restrictors

    Trimarchi, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Coil-spring screw-thread inserts found useful as temporary flow restrictors. Inserts placed in holes through which flow restricted, effectively reducing cross sections available for flow. Friction alone holds inserts against moderate upstream pressures. Use of coil-spring thread inserts as flow restrictors conceived as inexpensive solution to problem of adjusting flow of oxygen through orifices in faceplate into hydrogen/oxygen combustion chamber. Installation and removal of threaded inserts gentle enough not to deform orifice tubes.

  5. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...

  6. Intramolecular hydroxycarbene C–H-insertion: The curious case of (o-methoxyphenylhydroxycarbene

    Dennis Gerbig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The first C–H insertion of a hydroxycarbene species in the gas phase has been observed experimentally by means of high vacuum flash pyrolysis (HVFP and subsequent matrix isolation: (o-Methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid gives non-isolable (o-methoxyphenylhydroxycarbene upon pyrolysis at 600 °C, which rapidly inserts into the methyl C–H bond. The insertion product, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-ol, was trapped in an excess of Ar at 11 K and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The insertion process kinetically outruns the alternative [1,2]H-tunneling reaction to o-anisaldehyde, a type of reaction observed for other hydroxycarbenes. Traces of the dehydration product, benzo[b]furan, were also detected. The potential energy hypersurface including the insertion and hydrogen migration processes was computed at the all-electron coupled-cluster level of theory encompassing single and double substitutions and perturbatively included triple excitations [AE-CCSD(T] in conjunction with a correlation-consistent double-ζ basis set (cc-pVDZ by utilizing density functional theory (DFT optimized geometries (M06-2X/cc-pVDZ with zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE corrections. Exchange of the methoxy for a trifluoromethoxy group successfully prevents insertion and (o-trifluoromethoxybenzaldehyde is produced instead; however, the carbene cannot be observed under these conditions. Thermal decomposition of (o-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid in refluxing xylenes does not give the insertion product but yields o-anisaldehyde. This unanticipated outcome can be rationalized by protonation of the hydroxycarbene intermediate leading to the tautomeric formyl group. Thermochemical computations at M06-2X/cc-pVDZ in conjunction with a self-consistent solvent reaction field model support this suggested reaction pathway.

  7. A novel perfusion-based method for cochlear implant electrode insertion.

    Kale, Sushrut; Cervantes, Vanessa M; Wu, Mailing R; Pisano, Dominic V; Sheth, Nakul; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2014-08-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) restores partial hearing to profoundly deaf individuals. CI electrodes are inserted manually in the cochlea and surgeons rely on tactile feedback from the implant to determine when to stop the insertion. This manual insertion method results in a large degree of variability in surgical outcomes and intra-cochlear trauma. Additionally, implants often span only the basal turn. In the present study we report on the development of a new method to assist CI electrode insertion. The design objectives are (1) an automated and standardized insertion technique across patients with (2) more apical insertion than is possible by the contemporary methods, while (3) minimizing insertion trauma. The method relies on a viscous fluid flow through the cochlea to carry the electrode array with it. A small cochleostomy (∼100-150 um in diameter) is made in scala vestibuli (SV) and the round window (RW) membrane is opened. A flow of diluted Sodium Hyaluronate (also known as Hyaluronic Acid, (HA)) is set up from the RW to the SV opening using a perfusion pump that sets up a unidirectional flow. Once the flow is established an implant is dropped into the ongoing flow. Here we present a proof-of-concept study where we used this technique to insert silicone implants all the way to the cochlear apex in rats and gerbils. In light-microscopic histology, the implantation occurred without cochlear trauma. To further assess the ototoxicity of the HA perfusion, we measured compound action potential (CAP) thresholds following the perfusion of HA, and found that the CAP thresholds were substantially elevated. Thus, at this point the method is promising, and requires further development to become clinically viable. PMID:24882641

  8. MORPH INSERTION AND ALLOMORPHY IN OPTIMALITY THEORY

    Eulalia Bonet

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare two different hypotheses about the insertion of morphs and allomorphy in Optimality Theory. One of them, the Morphs through Constraifits Hypothesis (MCH) claims that the phonological realization of morphemes (morphs) is introduced through language-particular constraints. The other hypothesis, the Morphs in the Input Hypothesis (MIH) claims that the inputs to GEN contain al1 the relevant phonological information. It is shown that the MIH is clearly superior...

  9. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    Johnson, Michael C. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  10. Roles for retrotransposon insertions in human disease.

    Hancks, Dustin C; Kazazian, Haig H

    2016-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, the dynamic nature of a genome is driven, in part, by the activity of transposable elements (TE) such as retrotransposons. On a shorter time scale it has been established that new TE insertions can result in single-gene disease in an individual. In humans, the non-LTR retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous TE. In addition to mobilizing its own RNA to new genomic locations via a "copy-and-paste" mechanism, LINE-1 is able to retrotranspose other RNAs including Alu, SVA, and occasionally cellular RNAs. To date in humans, 124 LINE-1-mediated insertions which result in genetic diseases have been reported. Disease causing LINE-1 insertions have provided a wealth of insight and the foundation for valuable tools to study these genomic parasites. In this review, we provide an overview of LINE-1 biology followed by highlights from new reports of LINE-1-mediated genetic disease in humans. PMID:27158268

  11. Membrane Binding and Insertion of a pHLIP Peptide Studied by All-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Guanghong Wei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments in function mechanism study reported that a pH low-insertion peptide (pHLIP can insert into a zwitterionic palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC lipid bilayer at acidic pH while binding to the bilayer surface at basic pH. However, the atomic details of the pH-dependent interaction of pHLIP with a POPC bilayer are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the detailed interactions of pHLIP with a POPC bilayer at acidic and basic pH conditions as those used in function mechanism study, using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Simulations have been performed by employing the initial configurations, where pHLIP is placed in aqueous solution, parallel to bilayer surface (system S, partially-inserted (system P, or fully-inserted (system F in POPC bilayers. On the basis of multiple 200-ns MD simulations, we found (1 pHLIP in system S can spontaneously insert into a POPC bilayer at acidic pH, while binding to the membrane surface at basic pH; (2 pHLIP in system P can insert deep into a POPC bilayer at acidic pH, while it has a tendency to exit, and stays at bilayer surface at basic pH; (3 pHLIP in system F keeps in an α-helical structure at acidic pH while partially unfolding at basic pH. This study provides at atomic-level the pH-induced insertion of pHLIP into POPC bilayer.

  12. FRET-based localization of fluorescent protein insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1.

    Shweta A Raina

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein (FP insertions have often been used to localize primary structure elements in mid-resolution 3D cryo electron microscopic (EM maps of large protein complexes. However, little is known as to the precise spatial relationship between the location of the fused FP and its insertion site within a larger protein. To gain insights into these structural considerations, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements were used to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1, a large intracellular Ca(2+ release channel that plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling. A series of full-length His-tagged GFP-RyR1 fusion constructs were created, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T cells and then complexed with Cy3NTA, a His-tag specific FRET acceptor. FRET efficiency values measured from each GFP donor to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag acceptor site were converted into intermolecular distances and the positions of each inserted GFP were then triangulated relative to a previously published X-ray crystal structure of a 559 amino acid RyR1 fragment. We observed that the chromophoric centers of fluorescent proteins inserted into RyR1 can be located as far as 45 Å from their insertion sites and that the fused proteins can also be located in internal cavities within RyR1. These findings should prove useful in interpreting structural results obtained in cryo EM maps using fusions of small fluorescent proteins. More accurate point-to-point distance information may be obtained using complementary orthogonal labeling systems that rely on fluorescent probes that bind directly to amino acid side chains.

  13. Roles for retrotransposon insertions in human disease

    Dustin C Hancks; Kazazian, Haig H.

    2016-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, the dynamic nature of a genome is driven, in part, by the activity of transposable elements (TE) such as retrotransposons. On a shorter time scale it has been established that new TE insertions can result in single-gene disease in an individual. In humans, the non-LTR retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous TE. In addition to mobilizing its own RNA to new genomic locations via a “copy-and-paste” mechanism, LINE-1 is able...

  14. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development

    Crouch, Myscha R.; Carswell, William E.; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul H., II

    2000-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) are microgravity furnaces under development at Marshall Space Flight Center. The furnaces are being developed for the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), one of the first International Space Station (ISS) scientific payloads. QMI is a Bridgman furnace with quench capability for studying interface behavior during directional solidification of metallic and alloy materials. DMI will be a Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace to study diffusion processes in semiconductors. The design for each insert, both QMI and DMI, is driven by specific science, operations and safety requirements, as well as by constraints arising from resource limitations, such as volume, mass and power. Preliminary QMI analysis and testing indicates that the design meets these requirements.

  15. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) furnace development

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) are microgravity furnaces under development at Marshall Space Flight Center. The furnaces are being developed for the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), one of the first International Space Station (ISS) scientific payloads. QMI is a Bridgman furnace with quench capability for studying interface behavior during directional solidification of metallic and alloy materials. DMI will be a Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace to study diffusion processes in semiconductors. The design for each insert, both QMI and DMI, is driven by specific science, operations and safety requirements, as well as by constraints arising from resource limitations, such as volume, mass and power. Preliminary QMI analysis and testing indicates that the design meets these requirements

  16. Insertion and deletion processes in recent human history.

    Per Sjödin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although insertions and deletions (indels account for a sizable portion of genetic changes within and among species, they have received little attention because they are difficult to type, are alignment dependent and their underlying mutational process is poorly understood. A fundamental question in this respect is whether insertions and deletions are governed by similar or different processes and, if so, what these differences are. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use published resequencing data from Seattle SNPs and NIEHS human polymorphism databases to construct a genomewide data set of short polymorphic insertions and deletions in the human genome (n = 6228. We contrast these patterns of polymorphism with insertions and deletions fixed in the same regions since the divergence of human and chimpanzee (n = 10,546. The macaque genome is used to resolve all indels into insertions and deletions. We find that the ratio of deletions to insertions is greater within humans than between human and chimpanzee. Deletions segregate at lower frequency in humans, providing evidence for deletions being under stronger purifying selection than insertions. The insertion and deletion rates correlate with several genomic features and we find evidence that both insertions and deletions are associated with point mutations. Finally, we find no evidence for a direct effect of the local recombination rate on the insertion and deletion rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data strongly suggest that deletions are more deleterious than insertions but that insertions and deletions are otherwise generally governed by the same genomic factors.

  17. Construction of small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries.

    Simon, Carola; Daniel, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of the Earth's biological diversity is hidden in uncultured and yet uncharacterized microbial genomes. The construction of metagenomic libraries is a cultivation-independent molecular approach to assess this unexplored genetic reservoir. In the last few years, a high number of novel biocatalysts have been identified by function-based or sequence-based screening of metagenomic libraries. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the construction of metagenomic small-insert and large-insert libraries in plasmids and fosmids, respectively, from environmental DNA. PMID:20830554

  18. Horizontally separated 1-in-1 crossing insertions

    Syphers, M.J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Previous to this workshop, realistic lattices have been developed for vertically separated l-in-l (e.g., D.E. Johnson, A.A. Garren) and 2-in-1 (e.g., S. Heifets) magnets as well as for horizontally separated 2-in-l magnets (e.g., SSC RDS). Bringing together the widely separated ({approximately}60-70 cm) beams in a reasonable length of tunnel and keeping the dispersion zero at the interaction point has been difficult in the vertical l-in-l case. Most designs have required spacial 2-in-1 quadrupoles near the interaction point where the beams are separated by 15 cm or less. It is not clear that such magnets, as dictated by some of these lattice designs, can easily be built. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a crossing insertion for a realistic lattice which involves horizontally separated l-in-l magnets. The following horizontal crossing insertions, which incorporate the dispersion suppressors and phase trombones into the major arcs, need no special 2-in-1 magnets near the interaction point. The dispersion at the IP created by the horizontal crossing can be cancelled by the dispersion suppressor and one set of triplets.

  19. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  20. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock-up Facility using 3 ml inserts and 15 ml peanut vials. A number of the insert samples were analyzed by Cold Chem and compared with full peanut vial samples analyzed by the current methods. The remaining inserts were analyzed by

  1. Superconducting insertion devices with switchable period length

    Superconducting insertion devices (IDs) are very attractive for synchrotron light sources since they offer the possibility to enhance the tuning range and functionality significantly by period length switching. Period length switching can be realized by employing two or more individually powerable subsets of superconducting coils and reverse the current in a part of the winding. So far, the first demonstration mock-up coil allowing period length tripling was fabricated and tested successfully (A. Grau et al., accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity). Here, we report on the feasibility of a superconducting switch implemented as proposed by A. Madur et al., Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 2009, Melbourne, Australia.

  2. Superconducting insertion devices with switchable period length

    Holubek, Tomas; Baumbach, Tilo; Casalbuoni, Sara; Gerstl, Stefan; Grau, Andreas; Hagelstein, Michael; Saez de Jauregui, David [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Boffo, Cristian; Walter, Wolfgang [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Superconducting insertion devices (IDs) are very attractive for synchrotron light sources since they offer the possibility to enhance the tuning range and functionality significantly by period length switching. Period length switching can be realized by employing two or more individually powerable subsets of superconducting coils and reverse the current in a part of the winding. So far, the first demonstration mock-up coil allowing period length tripling was fabricated and tested successfully (A. Grau et al., accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity). Here, we report on the feasibility of a superconducting switch implemented as proposed by A. Madur et al., Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 2009, Melbourne, Australia.

  3. INSERTION DEVICE UPGRADE PLANS AT THE NSLS.

    TANABE, T.; BLEDNYKH, A.; HARDER, D.; LEHECKA, M.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2005-05-16

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices (IDs) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W120) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, undulator (MGU or SCU-X9), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both IDs will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement at low temperature, will be discussed.

  4. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  5. Cloning by insertional mutagenesis of a cDNA encoding Caenorhabditis elegans kinesin heavy chain.

    Patel, N; Thierry-Mieg, D.; Mancillas, J R

    1993-01-01

    An additional genetic locus in Caenorhabditis elegans, unc-116, was identified in a screen for mutations resulting in defective locomotion. unc-116 was cloned by use of a transposon insertion mutant and the physical and genetic map of the genome. The cDNA sequence predicts an 815-amino acid protein. Based upon sequence comparison and secondary structure predictions, unc-116 encodes all three domains of the kinesin heavy chain: the motor, stalk, and tail. While the motor and tail domains have ...

  6. Effect of pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality and adhesion of HFCVD diamond coating on cemented carbide inserts

    Sarangi, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    In the present investigation, diamond coating was deposited on cemented carbide substrate by hot filament chemical vapour deposition. The effect of substrate pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality, and adhesion of the diamond film were studied. The carbide inserts were pretreated with acid, Murakami's solution, and Murakami's solution followed by acid, respectively. The chamber pressure was set at 6.6, 13.2, 26.4, 39.6 and 66 mbar. Deposition carried out at pressure of 26.4 and 39.6 mbar on inserts pretreated with acid exhibited uniform crystal habit and provided coating-substrate adhesion adequate for machining application. Good coating morphology was obtained when deposition was done at 6.6 mbar on carbide inserts treated with Murakami's solution. Pretreatment with Murakami's solution followed by acid and deposition at 6.6 mbar also resulted in good morphology of diamond film. Indentation (Rockwell C scale) was done on diamond-coated inserts to assess coating-substrate adhesion under three loads of 294, 588 and 980 N. The diameter of the indentation crack at the coating-substrate interface was observed under SEM. The results suggested that diamond coating deposited at medium pressure of 26.4 mbar on carbide substrate treated with acid not only exhibited best morphology but also highest coating-substrate adhesion and improved machining performance.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Study of CO2 Insertion into Ruthenium Hydride Complexes.

    Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Waldie, Kate M; Warnke, Ingolf; De Crisci, Antonio G; Batista, Victor S; Waymouth, Robert M; Chidsey, Christopher E D

    2016-02-15

    The ruthenium hydride [RuH(CNN)(dppb)] (1; CNN = 2-aminomethyl-6-tolylpyridine, dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane) reacts rapidly and irreversibly with CO2 under ambient conditions to yield the corresponding Ru formate complex 2. In contrast, the Ru hydride 1 reacts with acetone reversibly to generate the Ru isopropoxide, with the reaction free energy ΔG°(298 K) = -3.1 kcal/mol measured by (1)H NMR in tetrahydrofuran-d8. Density functional theory (DFT), calibrated to the experimentally measured free energies of ketone insertion, was used to evaluate and compare the mechanism and energetics of insertion of acetone and CO2 into the Ru-hydride bond of 1. The calculated reaction coordinate for acetone insertion involves a stepwise outer-sphere dihydrogen transfer to acetone via hydride transfer from the metal and proton transfer from the N-H group on the CNN ligand. In contrast, the lowest energy pathway calculated for CO2 insertion proceeds by an initial Ru-H hydride transfer to CO2 followed by rotation of the resulting N-H-stabilized formate to a Ru-O-bound formate. DFT calculations were used to evaluate the influence of the ancillary ligands on the thermodynamics of CO2 insertion, revealing that increasing the π acidity of the ligand cis to the hydride ligand and increasing the σ basicity of the ligand trans to it decreases the free energy of CO2 insertion, providing a strategy for the design of metal hydride systems capable of reversible, ergoneutral interconversion of CO2 and formate. PMID:26835983

  8. Wear mechanisms of WC-Co drill bit inserts against alumina counterface under dry friction: Part 2 — Graded WC-Co inserts

    Yahiaoui, Malik; Paris, Jean-Yves; Denape, Jean; Colin, Christophe; Ther, Olivier; Dourfaye, Alfazazi

    2015-01-01

    The tribological behaviour of innovative graded cemented carbide inserts were studied by using a rotary tribometer and abrasive alumina counterfaces. This work completes the study made on commercial inserts with homogeneous cobalt content. Inserts with three types of graduation processes were considered: inserts with borides WCoB phases, imbibed inserts and inserts combining both processes (i.e. inserts with reactive imbibition). Physicochemical and mechanical measurements show that the WCoB ...

  9. Bimatoprost-loaded ocular inserts as sustained release drug delivery systems for glaucoma treatment: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Juçara Ribeiro Franca

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and assess a novel sustained-release drug delivery system of Bimatoprost (BIM. Chitosan polymeric inserts were prepared using the solvent casting method and characterized by swelling studies, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, drug content, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. Biodistribution of 99mTc-BIM eye drops and 99mTc-BIM-loaded inserts, after ocular administration in Wistar rats, was accessed by ex vivo radiation counting. The inserts were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous Wistar rats. Glaucoma was induced by weekly intracameral injection of hyaluronic acid. BIM-loaded inserts (equivalent to 9.0 µg BIM were administered once into conjunctival sac, after ocular hypertension confirmation. BIM eye drop was topically instilled in a second group of glaucomatous rats for 15 days days, while placebo inserts were administered once in a third group. An untreated glaucomatous group was used as control. Intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored for four consecutive weeks after treatment began. At the end of the experiment, retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping were evaluated in the histological eye sections. Characterization results revealed that the drug physically interacted, but did not chemically react with the polymeric matrix. Inserts sustainedly released BIM in vitro during 8 hours. Biodistribution studies showed that the amount of 99mTc-BIM that remained in the eye was significantly lower after eye drop instillation than after chitosan insert implantation. BIM-loaded inserts lowered IOP for 4 weeks, after one application, while IOP values remained significantly high for the placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were only effective during the daily treatment period. IOP results were reflected in RGC counting and optic nerve head cupping damage. BIM-loaded inserts provided sustained release of BIM and seem to be a

  10. The Effect of Windings on ADSL Transformer Insertion Losses

    JIANG Xiao-na; LAN Zhong-wen; CHEN Sheng-ming; ZHANG Huai-wu; SU Hua

    2007-01-01

    Insertion loss (IL) is one of the important parameters of asymmetrical digital subscriber loop (ADSL) transformers. In different frequency bands, the factors that affect insertion loss are different. Windings mainly affect insertion loss in mid and high frequency bands.The effects of winding ways, winding wire diameter and winding turns on insertion loss were discussed. The presented experiment shows that the insertion loss of an ADSL transformer could be under 0.4 dB in mid frequency band when the winding is 30 turns, in which the ADSL transformer satisfies the requirement of total harmonic distortion (THD). Our experiments also show that the sandwich winding structure is better than the side by side winding structure and the twisted-pair winding structure, and the increase of winding diameter is one means to reduce insertion losses of an ADSL transformer in mid frequency band.

  11. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  12. Insertion torque versus mechanical resistance of mini- implants inserted in different cortical thickness

    Renata de Faria Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure insertion torque, tip mechanical resistance to fracture and transmucosal neck of mini-implants (MI (Conexão Sistemas de PróteseT, as well as to analyze surface morphology. METHODS: Mechanical tests were carried out to measure the insertion torque of MIs in different cortical thicknesses, and tip mechanical resistance to fracture as well as transmucosal neck of MIs. Surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM before and after the mechanical tests. RESULTS: Values of mechanical resistance to fracture (22.14 N.cm and 54.95 N.cm were higher and statistically different (P 0.05 to torsional fracture in the tip of MI (22.14 N.cm when 3 mm cortical thickness (16.11 N.cm and dense bone (23.95 N.cm were used. Torsional fracture of the transmucosal neck (54.95 N.cm was higher and statistically different (P < 0.05 from insertion torsional strength in all tested situations. SEM analysis showed that the MIs had the same smooth surface when received from the manufacturer and after the mechanical tests were performed. Additionally, no significant marks resulting from the manufacturing process were observed. CONCLUSION: All mini-implants tested presented adequate surface morphology. The resistance of mini-implants to fracture safely allows placement in 1 and 2-mm cortical thickness. However, in 3-mm cortical thickness and dense bones, pre-drilling with a bur is recommended before insertion.

  13. Helix insertion into bilayers and the evolution of membrane proteins

    Renthal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Polytopic α-helical membrane proteins cannot spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers without assistance from polytopic α-helical membrane proteins that already reside in the membrane. This raises the question of how these proteins evolved. Our current knowledge of the insertion of α-helices into natural and model membranes is reviewed with the goal of gaining insight into the evolution of membrane proteins. Topics include: translocon-dependent membrane protein insertion, antibiotic peptides ...

  14. RNA-Editing with Combined Insertion and Deletion Preserves Regularity

    Vink, E.P.; Zantema, H.; Bosnacki, D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider two elementary forms of string rewriting called guided insertion/deletion and guided rewriting. The original strings are modified depending on the match with a given set of auxiliary strings, called guides. Guided insertion/deletion considers matching of a string and a guide with respect to a specific correspondence of strings. Guided rewriting considers matching of a string and a guide with respect to an equivalence relation on the alphabet. Guided insertion/deletion is inspired ...

  15. EXPLORATION ON SCALABILITY OF DATABASE BULK INSERTION WITH MULTITHREADING

    Boon-Wee Low; Boon-Yaik Ooi; and Chee-Siang Wong

    2011-01-01

    The advancement of database engine and multi-core processors technologies have enable database insertion to be implemented concurrently via multithreading programming. The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of using multithreading technique to perform database insertion of large data set with known size to enhance the performance of data access layer (DAL) particularly on the bulk-insertion operation. The performance evaluation includes techniques such as using single datab...

  16. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    Giulio Illuminati; Caliò, Francesco G.; Giulia Pizzardi; Francesco Vietri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case: A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arteria...

  17. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. PMID:27212209

  18. Clinical experience with the percutaneously inserted Amplatz vena caval filter

    The Amplatz filter is a 14-F vena caval filter designed for percutaneous insertion and retrieval. Thirty filters were inserted. The indications for placement were anticoagulant failure (four cases) and contraindication to anticoagulation (26 cases). Radiologic, pathologic, or clinical follow-up (average, 10 months) was available in 27 patients. Results include one case of recurrent pulmonary embolism (4%), nine cases of caval thrombosis (33%), and two cases of deep venous thrombosis in the insertion leg (7%). Filter migration did not occur in any case. The Amplatz filter is easily inserted and well tolerated by the patient. Although effective in preventing recurrent pulmonary embolism, it has a relatively high incidence of caval thrombosis

  19. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Project

    Miucci, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will upgrade its Pixel Detector with the installation of a new pixel layer in 2013-14. The new sub-detector, named Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been de- veloped. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size while a low material budget should be imposed. A new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system is used. An overview of the IBL project and the status of the production of staves and the qualification of the assembly procedure, the loaded module electrical integrity and the read-out chain will be presented.

  20. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    Alkire, S P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    During the first shutdown of LHC, the ATLAS detector is undergoing an upgrade of the Pixel Detector in preparation for high luminosity LHC. This upgrade consists of a new pixel layer, called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), which is positioned between the former inner layer of the Pixel Detector (B-Layer) and a new, smaller, beam pipe, at a radial distance of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. The realization of the IBL required the development of several new technologies and solutions in order to overcome the challenges introduced by the extreme environment and working conditions, such as the high radiation levels, the high pixel occupancy and the need of an exceptionally low material budget. Two silicon sensor technologies have been adopted for the IBL modules: planar n-in-n and 3D. Both of these are connected via bump bonding to the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 front-end read-out chip. An overview of the IBL project, module design, the qualification tests, data acquisition, results and performance is presente...

  1. APS insertion devices: Recent developments and results

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) now has a total of 23 insertion devices (IDs). Over two-thirds of them are installed on the storage ring. The installed devices include 18, 27 and 55 mm-period undulators; an 85 mm-period wiggler; a 16 cm-period elliptical multipole wiggler; and many 33 mm-period undulators. Most of the IDs occupy storage-ring straight sections equipped with 8 mm vertical-aperture vacuum chambers. All of the IDs were measured magnetically at the APS and, in most cases, underwent a final magnetic tuning in order to minimize variation in the various integrals of the field through the ID over the full gap range. Special shimming techniques to correct magnetic field parameters in appropriate gap-dependent ways were developed and applied. Measurements of the closed-orbit distortion as a function of the ID gap variation have been completed, and results are in a good agreement with magnetic measurements. Spectral diagnostics of the ID radiation, including measurements of the absolute spectral flux, brilliance and polarization, show excellent agreement between calculated and measured results. Studies of the sensitivity of IDs to radiation exposure and measurements of the dose rate received by the IDs are in progress

  2. Data insertion in volcanic ash cloud forecasting

    Kate Louise Wilkins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April and May 2010, the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre demonstrated the importance of infrared (IR satellite imagery for monitoring volcanic ash and validating the Met Office operational model, NAME. This model is used to forecast ash dispersion and forms much of the basis of the advice given to civil aviation. NAME requires a source term describing the properties of the eruption plume at the volcanic source. Elements of the source term are often highly uncertain and significant effort has therefore been invested into the use of satellite observations of ash clouds to constrain them. This paper presents a data insertion method, where satellite observations of downwind ash clouds are used to create effective ‘virtual sources’ far from the vent. Uncertainty in the model output is known to increase over the duration of a model run, as inaccuracies in the source term, meteorological data and the parameterizations of the modelled processes accumulate. This new technique, where the dis- persion model (DM is ‘reinitialized’ part-way through a run, could go some way to addressing this. 

  3. A comparative study of clinical outcomes of post placental insertion versus interval insertion of Copper T 380A intrauterine device

    Suchi Gupta; Shubha Sagar Trivedi; Ratna Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to study the safety and efficacy of PPIUCD insertion and to compare it with interval insertion. Methods: A prospective study was conducted enrolling 100 women as study group (PPIUCD) and 100 as control group (interval CuT insertion). All women were followed up for 6 months and clinical outcomes were measured in terms of safety, efficacy, effect on menstrual cycles and continuation rates. Chi square test was used to detect differences in the rate...

  4. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

    Shivkar Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  5. The activation of cellular oncogenes by retroviral insertion

    Replication-competent retroviruses can induce a variety of tumors by insertional activation of cellular oncogenes. Transposon tagging techniques have uncovered many novel cellular genes implicated in tumorigenesis. Activation of these genes can occur by insertion of viral promoters, transcriptional enhancement over large distances, or the generation of novel chimeric proteins

  6. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  7. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    2010-04-01

    ... recent revision of the patient package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515 Section 310.515 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing Abstract

    Rhodes, RIchard; Graziosi, Dave; Jones, Bobby; Ferl, Jinny; Scarborough, Steve; Sweeney, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z series of spacesuits. The Z-2 is another step in the NASA's technology development roadmap leading to human exploration of the Martian surface. To meet a more challenging set of requirements than previous suit systems standard design features, such as threaded inserts, have been re-analyzed and improved. NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement NASA levied on the suit composites was the ability to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. The design of the interface flanges of the composites allowed some of the inserts to be a "T" style insert that was installed through the entire thickness of the laminate. The flange portion of the insert provides a mechanical lock as a redundancy to the adhesive aiding in the pullout load that the insert can withstand. In some locations it was not possible to utilize at "T" style insert and a blind insert was used instead. These inserts rely completely on the bond strength of the adhesive to resist pullout. It was determined during the design of the suit that the inserts did not need to withstand loads induced from pressure cycling but instead tension induced from torqueing the screws to bolt on hardware which creates a much higher stress on them. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper

  9. Report on converging insert moulding with µ-IM

    Islam, Aminul

    Task 5.2.1 deals with the technical feasibility of converging the state-of-the-art µ IM process with insert moulding to offer a wide range of multi-material µ components. The main objective of this deliverable is to summarize state-of-the-art information and to make the guideline needed for the...... convergence. In particular the following aspects are summed up in the deliverable:  Need for converging insert moulding with µ-IM  Objectives and expected outcome from task 5.2.1  State-of-the-art micro insert moulding and different scenario of micro insert moulding  Challenges ahead of converging insert......-IM. Besides this fact current deliverable will provide state-of-the-art information for technology convergence and ways to overcome challenges to use convergent technologies in industrial productions....

  10. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation

    Miller, William John; Predmore, Daniel Ross; Placko, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  11. Definition of Metrics to Evaluate Cochlear Array Insertion Forces Performed with Forceps, Insertion Tool, or Motorized Tool in Temporal Bone Specimens

    Yann Nguyen; Guillaume Kazmitcheff; Daniele De Seta; Mathieu Miroir; Evelyne Ferrary; Olivier Sterkers

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In order to achieve a minimal trauma to the inner ear structures during array insertion, it would be suitable to control insertion forces. The aim of this work was to compare the insertion forces of an array insertion into anatomical specimens with three different insertion techniques: with forceps, with a commercial tool, and with a motorized tool. Materials and Methods. Temporal bones have been mounted on a 6-axis force sensor to record insertion forces. Each temporal bone has...

  12. Utility of T-DNA insertion mutagenesis in arabidopsis for crop improvement

    T-DNA insertion mutagenesis in Arabidopsis is an efficient and expedient method for isolating genes that may have agronomic importance in crop plants. More than 14,000 transformants, with an average of 1.5 inserts per transformant, have been generated in the laboratory at the University of Arizona, Tucson, United States of America. Assuming that the genome of Arabidopsis is 100 Mb and that insertion is random, there is a greater than 50% probability that any particular gene has been tagged in this population. These transformed lines have been screened for any visible alteration in phenotype. In addition, they have been screened under numerous selective regimes such as cold tolerance, auxin and ethylene resistance or sensitivity, and nitrate utilization, among many others. Twenty per cent of these transformants segregate for some type of mutation. Approximately 40% of these are due to T-DNA insertion. Genes have already been cloned from various developmental and biochemical pathways, including flower, root and trichome morphology, light and ethylene regulated growth, fatty acid desaturation and epicuticular wax (EW) production. Some of the isolated genes are being introduced into agronomic species in an attempt to improve specific traits. For example, two genes important in EW production have been introduced into Brassica oleracea (broccoli) to modify the nature of the EW such that engineered plants will show greater resistance to herbivorous insects. Similarly, genes involved in fatty acid desaturation, male sterility, height or nitrogen metabolism, to mention only a few, could also be utilized to improve certain crop traits via genetic engineering. Several of these examples are described. (author). 57 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Immediate post-placental IUD insertion: the expulsion problem.

    Thiery, M; Van Kets, H; Van der Pas, H

    1985-04-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of immediate post-placental insertion of a non-copper (Lippes Loop D) and several copper-bearing IUD models (TCu200, TCu220C, MLCu375, MLCu250, Nova T-PP, DimélysR). Based on the analysis of a total of 2,646 insertions and 55,794 woman-months of experience, we conclude that placement of an IUD within ten minutes of delivery of the placenta is a valuable alternative to interval insertion, because this method is safe and effective. Effectiveness was significantly lower for the Lippes Loop D than for the T- and ML-IUD models tested, the latter showing roughly comparable pertinent event rates. Pertinent event rates for copper IUDs were influenced by the skill of the operator; age of the recipient only had a significant effect on effectiveness, whereas parity had no significant effect on pertinent event rates. The single and still unsolved problem associated with immediate postpartum insertion is the greater likelihood of expulsion compared with interval insertion, and this hazard is significantly much greater for the Loop than for the copper-bearing devices assessed. The evolution of the expulsion rates shows a constant time-relationship. This pattern makes it obvious why follow-up of recipients, at least during the first trimester following insertion, is mandatory if immediate post-placental IUD insertion is to be optimally effective. PMID:4006467

  14. Reactivity insertion assumptions used in safety analysis calculations

    The report discusses the basis for selection of the trip reactivity insertion curve used by B and W in the safety analysis of its nuclear steam supply systems. The implementation of new three-dimensional calculational techniques and test results from operating plants now allow derivation of reactivity insertion curves that vary about the previously symmetric insertion curve used in the safety analysis. The report is generically applicable to all operating or nearly operating 177-FA (fuel assembly) plants in its evaluation of the impact of these new trip reactivity insertion curves. In conjunction with the TMI-2 FSAR review, the NRC expressed concern over the scram times defined by the Technical Specifications and how they were related to the safety analysis presented in Chapter 15. This concern is discussed in the report, and a proposed Technical Specification change is presented that is responsive to the staff's concern. The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is discussed, and the results of on-site tests are presented. Calculated integral rod worth data are compared to measured data. Also discussed are factors that influence the shape of this curve, such as flux redistribution and initial off-set. The trip reactivity insertion curve used in the safety analysis is discussed. This curve is a composite of the rod velocity curve and the integral rod worth curve. The synthesis of two curves to produce the reactivity insertion curve is illustrated. The impact of the resultant trip reactivity insertion curve on the safety analysis is also described

  15. Knot Insertion Algorithms for ECT B-spline Curves

    SONG Huan-huan; TANG Yue-hong; LI Yu-juan

    2013-01-01

    Knot insertion algorithm is one of the most important technologies of B-spline method. By inserting a knot the local prop-erties of B-spline curve and the control flexibility of its shape can be further improved, also the segmentation of the curve can be re-alized. ECT spline curve is drew by the multi-knots spline curve with associated matrix in ECT spline space;Muehlbach G and Tang Y and many others have deduced the existence and uniqueness of the ECT spline function and developed many of its important properties .This paper mainly focuses on the knot insertion algorithm of ECT B-spline curve.It is the widest popularization of B-spline Behm algorithm and theory. Inspired by the Behm algorithm, in the ECT spline space, structure of generalized Pólya poly-nomials and generalized de Boor Fix dual functional, expressing new control points which are inserted after the knot by linear com-bination of original control vertex the single knot, and there are two cases, one is the single knot, the other is the double knot. Then finally comes the insertion algorithm of ECT spline curve knot. By application of the knot insertion algorithm, this paper also gives out the knot insertion algorithm of four order geometric continuous piecewise polynomial B-spline and algebraic trigonometric spline B-spline, which is consistent with previous results.

  16. Development of ITER toroidal field insert. International collaboration with Russia

    The Central Solenoid (CS) model coil programme was performed since 1992 as one of the projects in the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor(ITER). The CS model coil programme involves a plan to develop the Toroidal Field (TF) insert to demonstrate the conductor performance of ITER TF coils under a magnetic flux density of 13T. The TF insert was fabricated by Russia and tested by Japan under the framework of the ITER-EDA. The TF insert developed a single-layer solenoid with nine turns. It is wound with a cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor which consists of 1,152 Nb3Sn strands, a thin titanium jacket and a central channel. The outer diameter, height and weight of the TF insert are 1.56 m, 3.2 m and 3.1 ton, respectively. Fabrication of the TF insert was completed in May 2001 at the D.V.Efremov Scientific Research Institute for Electrophysical Apparatus (Efremov institute) in St. Petersburg, Russia. The TF insert was then transported to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Installation of the TF insert to CS model coil test facility was completed in August, 2001. Experiments including the cooldown and warmup processes, were completed in November 2001. The TF insert was charged to 13T with 46 kA without any instability under a back up magnetic field from the CS model coil. This report introduces an overview of the fabrication, installation and experiments for the TF insert conducted under collaboration between Japan and Russia. (author)

  17. Effect of methylene group insertions on the structural rigidity of Aib containing helices.

    Duley, Anju; Gowda, Vasantha; Ganjiwale, Anjali; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Ramanathan, Gurunath

    2015-11-01

    Nonprotein amino acids are being extensively used in the design of synthetic peptides to create new structure mimics. In this study we report the effect of methylene group insertions in a heptapeptide Boc-Ala1-Leu2-Aib3-Xxx4-Ala5-Leu6-Aib7-OMe which nicely folds into a mixed 310 -/α-helical structure when Xxx= Ala. Analogs of this peptide have been made and studied by replacing central Xxx4 residue with Glycine (α-residue), β-Alanine (β-Αla), γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), and ε-aminocaproic acid (ε-Aca). NMR and circular dichroism were used to study the solution structure of these peptides. Crystals of the peptides containing alanine, β-Αla, and Gaba reveal that increasing the number of central methylene (-CH2 -) groups introduces local perturbations even as the helical structure is retained. PMID:26152771

  18. Study on Visually Design of Indexable Insert Tip

    YAO Ji-quan; ZHAO Shu-qiang; ZHANG Shen-hou; CHEN Xin; GUO Xian-yang

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the development efficiency of the indexable insert tip, three-dimensional parametric and visualization applications program of indexable insert tip was developed in AutoCAD VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). The software could significantly improve the modeling efficiency of indexable insert tip and the model could also be used to static analysis, dynamic analysis and thermodynamic analysis. All aspects of performance could be fully understood by the finite element analysis. The ref-erence for the blade parameters preferred is also provided.

  19. Cutting inserts effect on heat generation in turning process

    Ján Žitňanský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on confirmation of an effect of cutting materials and cutting inserts geometry on cutting forces and temperature, quality and accuracy of machined surface in turning. The main part is devoted to description of advanced turning tools and cutting materials. The experimental part is focused on cutting forces and temperature measurement and machined surface quality in turning of steel grade 11 523 samples with one feed and depth of cut value and varying spindle speed. Measurements were performed with various types of indexable cutting inserts used. Measured values were evaluated in terms of the effect of different properties of cutting inserts and various spindle speed values.

  20. The effect of ventilation tube insertion or trans-tympanic silicone plug insertion on a patulous Eustachian tube.

    Endo, Shiori; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Goro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Yamatodani, Takashi; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Hosokawa, Seiji; Mineta, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions This study suggests that long-term ventilation tube insertion is the first-choice surgical treatment for a 'sniff-type' patulous Eustachian tube (PET). When treating a refractory PET, it is important to determine whether the patient had a habitual sniff. Objectives PET patients were divided into two groups: patients with a habitual sniff (sniff-type PET) and those without a habitual sniff (non-sniff-type PET). This study examined the effects of ventilation tube insertion or silicone plug insertion in each group. Methods Surgical procedures such as ventilation tube insertion or trans-tympanic silicone plug insertion were performed for these patients. Tubotympanoaero-dynamic graphy (TTAG) was also performed to determine the mechanisms underlying these treatments. Results There were 11 cases (17 ears) of sniff-type PET and 20 cases (27 ears) of non-sniff-type PET. An improvement in symptoms was found in 72.7% of the patients who underwent silicone plug insertion (66.7% for sniff-type PET and 74.1% for non-sniff-type PET) and in 90.9% of the patients who underwent ventilation tube insertion for sniff-type PET. In TTAG assessments, many sniff-type PET patients showed significant synchronous changes at high levels of pressure (over 40 daPa) in the external auditory meatus and nasopharynx when performing a slight Valsalva manoeuvre (below 200 daPa). PMID:26903085

  1. Insertion device magnet measurements for the Advanced Light Source

    Allowable magnetic field errors for the 4.6 m long insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) are extremely small and are driven by electron beam and radiation requirements. Detailed measurements and adjustments of each insertion device are performed to qualify them for installation in the ALS. To accomplish this, a high speed, precision magnetic measurement facility has been designed and built. Hall probe mapping equipment, capable of completing a 2500 sample, 6 m scan with precision axial position monitoring using a laser interferometer in under one minute, is used to obtain both local and integrated field information. A 5.5 m long, 1 cm wide coil is used to measure the field integral through an entire insertion device. This paper describes magnetic measurement equipment, and results of measurements on IDA, the first of the ALS insertion devices

  2. A new insertion sequence for incremental Delaunay triangulation

    Jian-Fei Liu; Jin-Hui Yan; S.H.Lo

    2013-01-01

    Incremental algorithm is one of the most popular procedures for constructing Delaunay triangulations (DTs).However,the point insertion sequence has a great impact on the amount of work needed for the construction of DTs.It affects the time for both point location and structure update,and hence the overall computational time of the triangulation algorithm.In this paper,a simple deterministic insertion sequence is proposed based on the breadth-first-search on a Kd-tree with some minor modifications for better performance.Using parent nodes as search-hints,the proposed insertion sequence proves to be faster and more stable than the Hilbert curve order and biased randomized insertion order (BRIO),especially for non-uniform point distributions over a wide range of benchmark examples.

  3. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E; Newman, Blake J; Thummel, Jason M; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2008-01-01

    At present, transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans are generated by injecting DNA into the germline. The DNA assembles into a semistable extrachromosomal array composed of many copies of injected DNA. These transgenes are typically overexpressed in somatic cells and silenced in the germline. We have...... developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double-strand break in noncoding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DNA from an extrachromosomal template into the chromosomal site. Homozygous single-copy insertions can be...... obtained in less than 2 weeks by injecting approximately 20 worms. We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single-copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines....

  4. Hardening device, by inserts, of electronic component against radiation

    The hardening device includes at least two materials, one with high atomic number with respect to the other. One of these materials is set as inserts in a layer of the other material. The hardening device is then made by stacking of such layers, the insert density varying from one layer to the other, making thus vary the atomic number resulting from the hardening device along its thickness, following a predefined law

  5. Insertion and Deletion Processes in Recent Human History

    Per Sjödin; Thomas Bataillon; Schierup, Mikkel H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although insertions and deletions (indels) account for a sizable portion of genetic changes within and among species, they have received little attention because they are difficult to type, are alignment dependent and their underlying mutational process is poorly understood. A fundamental question in this respect is whether insertions and deletions are governed by similar or different processes and, if so, what these differences are. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use publishe...

  6. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    Ramezanpour, H.; H. Yousefi; M. Rezaei; M Rostami

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load...

  7. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between...

  8. Insertion Loss Analysis of the Acoustic Panels with Composite Construction

    Vasile Ovidiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce noise pollution, under European legislation in our country need to align, a special attention has the tests carried out on acoustic panels. The most eloquent attempts, defining traffic noise attenuation are tests that can determine the insertion loss of an acoustic screen. In this paper, it briefly shows the method of determining the insertion loss in octave bands and some real results in the case of acoustic panel in a composite construction.

  9. Posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions: topographic anatomy and morphometric study

    Julio Cesar Gali; Hector Campora de Sousa Oliveira; Bruno Cesar Bracher Lisboa; Bruno DiSerio Dias; Fabiana de Godoy Casimiro; Edie Benedito Caetano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide anatomical and morphometric basis of the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions in order to assist the creation of anatomical tibial tunnels, in the ligament surgical reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The topographic anatomy and morphometry of the posterior cruciate ligament's anterolateral and posteromedial bundles' tibial insertions were analyzed in 24 anatomical knee pieces. The pieces were photographed by a digital camera and the images obtained wer...

  10. Generating Novel Allelic Variation Through Activator Insertional Mutagenesis in Maize

    Bai, Ling; Singh, Manjit; Pitt, Lauren; Sweeney, Meredith; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    The maize transposable element Activator (Ac) has been exploited as an insertional mutagen to disrupt, clone, and characterize genes in a number of plant species. To develop an Ac-based mutagenesis platform for maize, a large-scale mutagenesis was conducted targeting the pink scutellum1 locus. We selected 1092 Ac transposition events from a closely linked donor Ac, resulting in the recovery of 17 novel ps1 alleles. Multiple phenotypic classes were identified corresponding to Ac insertions in ...

  11. Impediments to rapid insertion of innovative displays and peripherals

    Nicholson, Gail

    2012-06-01

    In order to optimize system performance and minimize cost for a system to fill capability gaps, an improvement to rapid insertion of innovative display and peripheral technology is required to take advantage of human-machine intersections. Current approaches to testing and integration impedes successful rapid insertion of innovative technology for new systems and incremental upgrades. Considerations to innovative displays and peripherals must occur further to the left of the lifecycle to be successful and key integration areas must be address for success.

  12. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    Duggan, SN

    2009-12-01

    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  13. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Using Different Types of Inserts

    Tabatabaeikia, S.; Mohammed, H.A.; Nik-Ghazali, N.; Shahizare, B.

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer enhancement has been always a significantly interesting topic in order to develop high efficient, low cost, light weight, and small heat exchangers. The energy cost and environmental issue are also encouraging researchers to achieve better performance than the existing designs. Two of the most effective ways to achieve higher heat transfer rate in heat exchangers are using different kinds of inserts and modifying the heat exchanger tubes. There are different kinds of inserts emp...

  14. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2010-09-08

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a challenge, and as a result, understanding of the fundamental interaction and microscopic dynamics during lithium insertion is still lacking. This paper focuses on the study of single Li atom insertion into SiNWs with different sizes and axis orientations by using full ab initio calculations. We show that the binding energy of interstitial Li increases as the SiNW diameter grows. The binding energies at different insertion sites, which can be classified as surface, intermediate, and core sites, are quite different. We find that surface sites are energetically the most favorable insertion positions and that intermediate sites are the most unfavorable insertion positions. Compared with the other growth directions, the [110] SiNWs with different diameters always present the highest binding energies on various insertion locations, which indicates that [110] SiNWs are more favorable by Li doping. Furthermore, we study Li diffusion inside SiNWs. The results show that the Li surface diffusion has a much higher chance to occur than the surface to core diffusion, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the Li insertion in SiNWs is layer by layer from surface to inner region. After overcoming a large barrier crossing surface-to-intermediate region, the diffusion toward center has a higher possibility to occur than the inverse process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    Grkovski, Milan, E-mail: milan.grkovski@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Brzezinski, Karol [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Cindro, Vladimir [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Clinthorne, Neal H. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kagan, Harris [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lacasta, Carlos [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Mikuž, Marko [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Solaz, Carles [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Studen, Andrej [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Weilhammer, Peter [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Žontar, Dejan [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-07-11

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm{sup 2} pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2–4.8 mm) filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm)

  16. RNA-Editing with Combined Insertion and Deletion Preserves Regularity

    E.P. de Vink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two elementary forms of string rewriting called guided insertion/deletion and guided rewriting. The original strings are modified depending on the match with a given set of auxiliary strings, called guides. Guided insertion/deletion considers matching of a string and a guide with respect to a specific correspondence of strings. Guided rewriting considers matching of a string and a guide with respect to an equivalence relation on the alphabet. Guided insertion/deletion is inspired by {RNA}-editing, a biological process by which the original genetic information stored in DNA is modified before its final expression. The formalism here allows for simultaneous insertion and deletion of string elements. Guided rewriting, based on a letter-to-letter relation, is technically more appealing than guided insertion/deletion. We prove that guided rewriting preserves regularity: for every regular language its closure under guided rewriting is regular too. In the proof we will rely on the auxiliary notion of a slice sequence. We establish a correspondence of slice sequences and guide rewrite sequences. Because of their left-to-right nature, slice sequences are more convenient to deal with than guided rewrite sequences in the construction of the finite automata that we encounter in the proofs of regularity. Based on the result for guided rewriting we establish that guided insertion/deletion preserves regularity as well.

  17. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    Andrews, Emmet

    2012-02-03

    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  18. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm2 pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2–4.8 mm) filled with 18F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm)

  19. Improving protein crystal quality by selective removal of a Ca2+-dependent membrane-insertion loop

    Protein engineering dramatically enhances the quality of crystals of a Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding protein. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the regiospecific and stereospecific dioxygenation of polyunsaturated membrane-embedded fatty acids. A Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding function was localized to the amino-terminal C2-like domain of 8R-lipoxygenase (8R-LOX) from the soft coral Plexaura homomalla. The 3.2 Å crystal structure of 8R-LOX and spectroscopic data suggested that Ca2+ stabilizes two membrane-insertion loops. Analysis of the protein packing contacts in the crystal lattice indicated that the conformation of one of the two loops complicated efforts to improve the resolution of the X-ray data. A deletion mutant of 8R-LOX in which the corresponding membrane-insertion loop is absent (Δ41–45:GSLOX) was engineered. Removal of the membrane-insertion loop dramatically increases the protein yield from bacterial cultures and the quality of the crystals obtained, resulting in a better than 1 Å improvement in the resolution of the diffraction data

  20. Urethral catheter insertion forces: a comparison of experience and training

    Benjamin K. Canales

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the insertion forces utilized during simulated placement of a urethral catheter by healthcare individuals with a variety of catheter experience. Materials and Methods: A 21F urethral catheter was mounted to a metal spring. Participants were asked to press the tubing spring against a force gauge and stop when they met a level of resistance that would typically make them terminate a catheter placement. Simulated catheter insertion was repeated fives times, and peak compression forces were recorded. Healthcare professionals were divided into six groups according to their title: urology staff, non-urology staff, urology resident/ fellow, non-urology resident/ fellow, medical student, and registered nurse. Results: A total of fifty-seven healthcare professionals participated in the study. Urology staff (n = 6 had the lowest average insertion force for any group at 6.8 ± 2.0 Newtons (N. Medical students (n = 10 had the least amount of experience (1 ± 0 years and the highest average insertion force range of 10.1 ± 3.7 N. Health care workers with greater than 25 years experience used significantly less force during catheter insertions (4.9 ± 1.8 N compared to all groups (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We propose the maximum force that should be utilized during urethral catheter insertion is 5 Newtons. This force deserves validation in a larger population and should be considered when designing urethral catheters or creating catheter simulators. Understanding urethral catheter insertion forces may also aid in establishing competency parameters for health care professionals in training.

  1. Some physical and chemical indices of clique-inserted lattices

    The operation of replacing every vertex of an r-regular lattice H by a complete graph of order r is called clique-insertion, and the resulting lattice is called the clique-inserted lattice of H. For any given r-regular lattice, applying this operation iteratively, an infinite family of r-regular lattices is generated. Some interesting lattices including the 3-12-12 lattice can be constructed this way. In this paper, we recall the relationship between the spectra of an r-regular lattice and that of its clique-inserted lattice, and investigate the graph energy and resistance distance statistics. As an application, the asymptotic energy per vertex and average resistance distance of the 3-12-12 and 3-6-24 lattices are computed. We also give formulae expressing the numbers of spanning trees and dimer coverings of the kth iterated clique-inserted lattices in terms of those of the original one. Moreover, we show that new families of expander graphs can be constructed from the known ones by clique-insertion. (paper)

  2. Clinical outcome of narrow diameter implants inserted into allografts

    Maurizio Franco

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narrow diameter implants (NDI (i.e. diameter <3.75 mm are a potential solution for specific clinical situations, such as reduced interradicular bone, thin alveolar crest and replacement of teeth with small cervical diameter. NDI have been available in clinical practice since the 1990s, but only few studies have analyzed their clinical outcome and no study have investigated NDI inserted in fresh-frozen bone (FFB grafts. Thus, a retrospective study on a series of NDI placed in homologue FFB was designed to evaluate their clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period between December 2003 and December 2006, 36 patients (22 females and 14 males, mean age 53 years with FFB grafts were selected and 94 different NDI were inserted. The mean follow-up was 25 months. To evaluate the effect of several host-, surgery-, and implant-related factors, marginal bone loss (MBL was considered an indicator of success rate (SCR. The Kaplan Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used. RESULTS: Only 5 out of 94 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR 95.7% and no differences were detected among the studied variables. On the contrary, the Cox regression showed that the graft site (i.e. maxilla reduced MBL. CONCLUSIONS: NDI inserted in FFB have a high SVR and SCR similar to those reported in previous studies on regular and NDI inserted in non-grafted jaws. Homologue FFB is a valuable material in the insertion of NDI.

  3. Insertion of nanoparticles into polymer brush under variable solvent conditions

    Egorov, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, two-dimensional lattice-based self-consistent field theory is used to study the free energy cost associated with the insertion of a nanoparticle into a polymer brush. The nanoparticle is modeled as a cylinder and the self-consistent field equations are formulated on a cylindrical lattice. The use of two-dimensional formalism makes it possible to take into account the distortion of the brush density profile due to the embedded nanoinclusion. The insertion free energy penalty is analyzed as a function of the particle size, the brush grafting density, and the solvent quality. In agreement with the earlier simulation work, we find that the insertion free energy cost increases both with the particle size and the brush grafting density and decreases with deteriorating solvent quality. For nanoparticles located deep inside the brush, the insertion free energy is shown to scale with either squared (good solvent) or cubed (poor solvent) monomer volume fraction profile, in agreement with the earlier theoretical results. For shallow nanoinclusions located close to the brush surface, the insertion free energy is shown to scale linearly with the monomer volume fraction profile under both good and theta solvent conditions, again in agreement with the earlier work.

  4. Some physical and chemical indices of clique-inserted lattices

    Zhang, Zuhe

    2013-10-01

    The operation of replacing every vertex of an r-regular lattice H by a complete graph of order r is called clique-insertion, and the resulting lattice is called the clique-inserted lattice of H. For any given r-regular lattice, applying this operation iteratively, an infinite family of r-regular lattices is generated. Some interesting lattices including the 3-12-12 lattice can be constructed this way. In this paper, we recall the relationship between the spectra of an r-regular lattice and that of its clique-inserted lattice, and investigate the graph energy and resistance distance statistics. As an application, the asymptotic energy per vertex and average resistance distance of the 3-12-12 and 3-6-24 lattices are computed. We also give formulae expressing the numbers of spanning trees and dimer coverings of the kth iterated clique-inserted lattices in terms of those of the original one. Moreover, we show that new families of expander graphs can be constructed from the known ones by clique-insertion.

  5. Characterization and performance of alumina inserts reinforced with zirconia

    Alumina-based ceramics reinforced with zirconia were produced as inserts to be used as cutting tools. The objective of this work was to characterize and to evaluate the inserts as well as their performance in service. Additions of zirconia varying from 0.05 up to 0.20 wt% were done in alumina in order to select that composition presenting the best mechanical behavior. To do this, four-point bending mechanical strength, hardness and fracture toughness measurements were carried out. The best performance was found for alumina processing 0.010 wt.% of zirconia addition. The addition of zirconia was made with the objective of giving higher toughness to the insert throughout the microcracking reinforcing mechanism. The alumina reinforced inserts were compared with inserts of alumina without zirconia. It was accomplished by performing machining tests onto a SAE 1045 steel. The obtained results indicated that the zirconia reinforcement was able to improve the performance of the alumina cutting tools considerably. (author)

  6. Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3

    Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K. [Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

  7. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. PMID:26732049

  8. Overview of insertion device controls at the Advanced Photon Source

    Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Grimmer, John; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron with major emphasis on insertion device (ID) sources. Currently, there are 25 sectors instrumented out of a possible 35 ID sources. Most of the insertion devices are undulators. Beamlines have been using the ID radiation at the APS for more than five years. The control system of choice at the APS is the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) (http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics). Based on operational experience, the ID control system has been completely revamped. During user operations, the beamline user has complete control of the insertion device. Various interfaces, from RS-232 to EPICS channel access, have been provided for the users to control the IDs. The control system software has been designed to accommodate scanning of the insertion device synchronized to each user's beamline monochromator. The users have the option of operating the device in a tapered mode. The control software allows the users to control the undulators in energy space from the fundamental to the seventh harmonic. The design philosophy of the insertion device control system will be discussed. The implementation and operational experience will be presented in detail.

  9. Effect of delayed insertion of composite resin on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems

    Edson Alves de CAMPOS; SAAD, José Roberto Cury; Sizenando Toledo PORTO NETO; Campos, Lucas Arrais; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems are characterized bythe dental acid etching previously to the monomer application. Thesematerials can be classified as 3-step (when primer and bond are applied separately) or 2-step (when the primer and bond functions are carried out by a single component). Objective: To determine the influence of immediate or delayed insertion of restorative material on the values of bond strength of 2-step and 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems using the mic...

  10. Structure, dynamics, and insertion of a chloroplast targeting peptide in mixed micelles.

    Wienk, H L; Wechselberger, R W; Czisch, M; de Kruijff, B

    2000-07-18

    Nuclear-encoded, chloroplast-destined proteins are synthesized with transit sequences that contain all information to get them inside the organelle. Different proteins are imported via a general protein import machinery, but their transit sequences do not share amino acid homology. It has been suggested that interactions between transit sequence and chloroplast envelope membrane lipids give rise to recognizable, structural motifs. In this study a detailed investigation of the structural, dynamical, and topological features of an isolated transit peptide associated with mixed micelles is described. The structure of the preferredoxin transit peptide in these micelles was studied by circular dichroism (CD) and multidimensional NMR techniques. CD experiments indicated that the peptide, which is unstructured in aqueous solution, obtained helical structure in the presence of the micelles. By NMR it is shown that the micelles introduced ill-defined helical structures in the transit peptide. Heteronuclear relaxation experiments showed that the whole peptide backbone is very flexible. The least dynamic segments are two N- and C-terminal helical regions flanking an unstructured proline-rich amino acid stretch. Finally, the insertion of the peptide backbone in the hydrophobic interior of the micelle was investigated by use of hydrophobic spin-labels. The combined data result in a model of the transit peptide structure, backbone dynamics, and insertion upon its interaction with mixed micelles. PMID:10889029

  11. Assessment of plutonium and minor actinides insertions in HTR

    Based in the specifications of the high temperature reactor - HTR developed by H. J. Ruetten and K. Haas (Nucl. Eng. and Design: 195, 353-360, 2000), it was studied the possibility of insertion of minor actinides in this type of reactor. In this first study, carried out with the WIMSD5 code, the effective multiplication factor and the temperature reactivity coefficient had been evaluated. The behavior of the multiplication factor with fuel burnup for the standard fuel composition (with PuO2) as well as for the case with the insertion of minor actinides originated from a PWR spent fuel, was as expected. The results suggest the possibility of insertion of joint plutonium and minor actinides in the fuel composition. (author)

  12. The strategic use of inserts in the Brazilian presidential elections

    Felipe Borba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the communication strategies of presidential candidates during the elections held in 2006 and 2010. The focus is on the strategic component of electoral inserts and the methodology consists of investigating how candidates choose to distribute these inserts in the programming of television networks. The results indicate that the candidates pursue different strategies influenced basically by three variables: electoral legislation, their standing in polls and the difference of resources available. In parallel, the article debates the role of the regulation of electoral advertising and how this set of rules influences the level of information of campaigns, the occurrence of attacks, and party strategies. Overall, 2,993 electoral inserts were examined.

  13. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured

  14. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube

    Narjis AL Saif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  15. Rectal fist insertion. An unusual form of sexual behavior.

    Shook, L L; Whittle, R; Rose, E F

    1985-12-01

    Rectal fist insertion (fist fucking) is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. One known death has been reported associated with rectal fist insertion, in which the complications of anal and colonic tears and bleeding had occurred (see Editor's note). The possibility of drug overdose is also probable, as drugs and alcohol are commonly introduced into the rectum to promote sphincter relaxation and to ease the discomfort of anal dilatation. PMID:4072987

  16. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube

    AL Saif, Narjis; Hammodi, Adel; Al-Azem, M. Ali; Al-Hubail, Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement. PMID:26448883

  17. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-11-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite.

  18. Magnetic ripple correction in tandem mirrors by ferromagnetic inserts

    Magnetic ripple of 1% or more caused by discrete solenoid coils in the central cells of tandem mirrors may severely affect the MHD stability. The ripple amplitude can be reduced by an order of magnitude by ferromagnetic annuli inserted within the coils at the regions of ripple maxima. The inserts need not affect the accessibility, coil diameter, or capital cost, since large quantities of steel are required within the coils for the neutron blanket and shield. Design of the ripple correction is simplified and linearized by the cylindrical geometry and by the saturation of the ferromagnetic steel

  19. Shield Insertion to Minimize Noise Amplitude in Global Interconnects

    Kalpana.A.B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shield insertion is an effective technique for minimise crosstalk noise and signal delay uncertainty .To reduce the effects of coupling uniform or simultaneous shielding may be used on either or both sides of a signal line. Shields are ground or power lines placed between two signal wires to prevent direct coupling between them as the shield width increases, the noise amplitude decreases, in this paper inserting a shield line between two coupled interconnects is shown to be more effective in reducing crosstalk noise for different technology nodes .

  20. Improving the chromatic effects of storage rings with antisymmetric insertions

    High luminosity storage rings require good chromatic behavior for beams with large momentum spreads. This requires that the effects of half-integer structure resonances for off-momentum particles be minimized. We show that a lattice with antisymmetric insertions can be so designed that the driving term for the half-integer structure resonance is suppressed by cancellation of successive pairs of high-beta multiplets. Hence, even though the periodicity is half that of a lattice with symmetric insertions, the chromatic properties are similar

  1. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  2. Ultrasonic airborne insertion loss measurements at normal incidence (L).

    Farley, Jayrin; Anderson, Brian E

    2010-12-01

    Transmission loss and insertion loss measurements of building materials at audible frequencies are commonly made using plane wave tubes or as a panel between reverberant rooms. These measurements provide information for noise isolation control in architectural acoustics and in product development. Airborne ultrasonic sound transmission through common building materials has not been fully explored. Technologies and products that utilize ultrasonic frequencies are becoming increasingly more common, hence the need to conduct such measurements. This letter presents preliminary measurements of the ultrasonic insertion loss levels for common building materials over a frequency range of 28-90 kHz using continuous-wave excitation. PMID:21218864

  3. The supermodule insertion tool of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and the first trial insertion of a supermodule.

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first trial insertion of a complete Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) "supermodule" (1700 lead-tungstate crystals, with support structures, light detectors (avalanche photodiodes), readout electronics and cooling system) was performed on 1st March. This delicate operation - sliding a 2-tonne 3m-long object onto support rails (in real life these are attached to the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL)) - made use of a custom designed "squirrel cage". The rotatable squirrel cage allows the insertion of any supermodule into any of the 18 positions, including very fine (sub-mm) adjustments. The first supermodule will be inserted into the real HCAL later this month in preparation for the "magnet test and cosmic-ray challenge" (MTCC). In the first image the supermodule is in the centre and the alignment disks are highlighted by the flash.

  4. How does the Shift-insertion sort behave when the sorting elements follow a Normal distribution?

    Pal, Mita; Mahanti, N C

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the behavior of Shift-insertion sort (insertion sort with shifting) for normal distribution inputs and is in continuation of our earlier work on this new algorithm for discrete distribution inputs, namely, negative binomial. Shift insertion sort is found more sensitive for main effects but not for all interaction effects compared to conventional insertion sort.

  5. Preliminary Analysis on Reactivity Insertion Transient of Natural Circulation Reactor

    When a malfunction of the reactor control system occurs, there's a chance that the positive reactivity is inserted into the core, resulting in the increase of the core power. With the combination of the failure of the related safety features, this may raise the temperature of the core material beyond the design limit to break its integrity. For the fast nuclear reactors like FFTF and CRBRP, the overpower trip is initiated when the power reaches 115% of rated value to keep the fuel from melting. In this study, the system response to the reactivity insertion transient on a liquid metal cooled natural circulation reactor is analyzed utilizing an in-house code based on a momentum integral model. Utilizing an in-house system analysis code, a set of numerical simulation is carried out on the reactivity ramp insertion transients which showed that the role of reactivity feedback is significant in mitigating the time to failure, and the evolution of the natural circulation mass flow is rather slow to generate meaningful feedback effect. It is also observed that in terms of the peak cladding temperature, smaller reactivity insertion transient generated more severe outcome owing to increased accumulation of the thermal energy within fuel pins. Thus, it may require an extra attention to carefully monitor and capture the mild transients to avoid potential drastic results

  6. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  7. Engine valve and seat insert wear study with a simulator

    Y.S.Wang; S.Narasimhan

    2001-01-01

    The demands on higher performance and the increasing use of alternative fuels chal-lenge engine valves now with greater wear problems than before. A seat wear simulator was builtto evaluate the compatibility and wear of valve and seat insert. The rig test results have been suc-cessfully correlated with engine test results. In this study, intake valves made from Sil 1 materialwere treated with salt bath nitride processes and tested against six different insert materials. Wearresistance of these combinations was ranked and compared to the Sil 1 valve without nitriding.The test results demonstrate that nitriding improved valve seat wear resistance. In the total valveseat recession ranking, the combination of nitrided Sil 1 valve against T 400 insert exhibited theleast total recession among the nineteen combinations of valve and insert tested. The results indi-cate that the valve seat wear mechanisms are a complex combination of adhesion and shearstrain. The nitrides in the compound layer of nitrided valves gave strong atomic bonding, higherhardness, compressive residual stresses, and possible low friction, thus resulted in the superiorwear performance.

  8. Chemo-port insertion: A cause of vocal cord palsy.

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Hindi, Khalid; Malik, Ausama; Wee, Chong Aun; Prepageran, Narayanan

    2015-11-01

    We describe extremely rare cases of vocal cord palsy following surgical insertion of a chemo port. Our cohort consisted of patients with cancer who developed hoarseness immediately after central venous line placement for the administration of chemotherapy, with vocal cord palsy confirmed with flexible laryngoscopy. Given the timing, central venous line placement appears to be the most likely cause. PMID:26108861

  9. Insertion of lithium in Nb2O5

    The electrode process during the reduction and oxidation of Nb sub(2) O sub(5) by cyclic voltametry was characterized. The surface analysis by X-ray photo electronic spectroscopy allowed characterize the surface processes, that happening during the insertion reaction. (author)

  10. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  11. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    Xu, Wen [Department of Physics, Centre for Advanced 2D Material and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Zhang, Gang, E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Li, Baowen [Department of Physics, Centre for Advanced 2D Material and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 119620 (Singapore); Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 200092 Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-27

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  12. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  13. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms

  14. Modeling of Porous Insertion Electrodes with Liquid Electrolyte

    West, Keld; Jacobsen, Torben; Atlung, Sven

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of porous insertion electrodes during charge or discharge is described by a simplified mathematicalmodel, accounting for the coupled transport in electrode and electrolyte phases. A numerical method to evaluate theresponse of this model to either controlled potential or controlled cu...

  15. ArcGIS Tool: Inserts file name into attribute table

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This ArcGIS model inserts a file name into a feature class attribute table. The tool allows an user to identify features by a field that reference the name of the...

  16. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace, which will fly in the Materials Science Research Facility. The QMI provides high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. This paper will describe the capabilities and present of on-going analysis and development testing.

  17. Otological Findings Ten Years after Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the long-term complications of tympanostomy tube insertion in young children 10 years after surgery.   Materials and Methods: In September 2011, the medical records of all patients who had undergone myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion between February 2000 and March 2001 at the two general hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Of the 98 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 82 patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in the study. The complications of the operation were evaluated in these patients.   Results: Of the 164 ears that were operated on, myringosclerosis was found in 17.1%, atrophy of the tympanic membrane in 1.2%, permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane in 0.6% and tympanic membrane atelectasis in 0.6%. None of the patients developed cholesteatoma as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion.   Conclusion:  Considering the low risk of serious complications after 10 years, tympanostomy tube insertion is a safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of otitis media with effusion.

  18. Prototype ISR Superconducting Quadrupole for the low beta insertion.

    1976-01-01

    The four coils are provisionally kept together by aluminium clamps while epoxy-glass bands are wrapped around them to form a number of spacer rings.Stainless steel spacers were then inserted between these rings and the yoke quadrants. The persons are Michel Bouvier(left) and Pierre Pugin. See also7702690X.

  19. Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations.

    Wildschutte, Julia Halo; Williams, Zachary H; Montesion, Meagan; Subramanian, Ravi P; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Coffin, John M

    2016-04-19

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently active with members that remain nearly intact, a subset of which is present as insertionally polymorphic loci that include approximately full-length (2-LTR) and solo-LTR alleles in addition to the unoccupied site. Several 2-LTR insertions have intact reading frames in some or all genes that are expressed as functional proteins. These properties reflect the activity of HERV-K and suggest the existence of additional unique loci within humans. We sought to determine the extent to which other polymorphic insertions are present in humans, using sequenced genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project and a subset of the Human Genome Diversity Project panel. We report analysis of a total of 36 nonreference polymorphic HERV-K proviruses, including 19 newly reported loci, with insertion frequencies ranging from 0.75 that varied by population. Targeted screening of individual loci identified three new unfixed 2-LTR proviruses within our set, including an intact provirus present at Xq21.33 in some individuals, with the potential for retained infectivity. PMID:27001843

  20. Computer Modeling of Protocellular Functions: Peptide Insertion in Membranes

    Rodriquez-Gomez, D.; Darve, E.; Pohorille, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lipid vesicles became the precursors to protocells by acquiring the capabilities needed to survive and reproduce. These include transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls and capture of energy and its conversion into a chemically usable form. In modem organisms these functions are carried out by membrane-bound proteins (about 30% of the genome codes for this kind of proteins). A number of properties of alpha-helical peptides suggest that their associations are excellent candidates for protobiological precursors of proteins. In particular, some simple a-helical peptides can aggregate spontaneously and form functional channels. This process can be described conceptually by a three-step thermodynamic cycle: 1 - folding of helices at the water-membrane interface, 2 - helix insertion into the lipid bilayer and 3 - specific interactions of these helices that result in functional tertiary structures. Although a crucial step, helix insertion has not been adequately studied because of the insolubility and aggregation of hydrophobic peptides. In this work, we use computer simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics) to characterize the energetics of helix insertion and we discuss its importance in an evolutionary context. Specifically, helices could self-assemble only if their interactions were sufficiently strong to compensate the unfavorable Free Energy of insertion of individual helices into membranes, providing a selection mechanism for protobiological evolution.

  1. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  2. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  3. Description and characterization of IS994, a putative IS3 family insertion sequence from the salmon pathogen, Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    Rhodes, L D; Grayson, T H; Alexander, S M; Strom, M S

    2000-02-22

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a slowly growing, Gram-positive bacterium, is responsible for bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fishes world-wide. To date, no mobile genetic elements have been reported for this pathogen. Here, we describe the first insertion sequence (IS) identified from R. salmoninarum. This element, IS994, has a significant predicted amino acid sequence homology (64.8 and 71.9%) to the two open reading frames encoding the transposase of IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Protein parsimony and protein distance matrix analyses show that IS994 is a member of group IS51 of the IS3 family. From a conservative estimate, there are at least 17 chromosomal insertions of IS994 or closely related elements. Sequence analysis of seven of these loci reveals single nucleotide polymorphisms throughout the element (including the terminal inverted repeats), a 15bp insertion in three of the seven loci, and an absence of flanking direct repeats or conserved insertion site. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA shows variations among European and North American isolates, indicating that IS994 may be a useful molecular marker for epizootiological studies. PMID:10689192

  4. Severe neonatal marfan syndrome resulting from a De Novo 3-bp insertion into the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15

    Milewicz, D.M.; Duvic, M. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Severe neonatal Marfan syndrome has features of the Marfan syndrome and congenital contractural arachnodactyly present at birth, along with unique features such as loose, redundant skin and pulmonary emphysema. Since the Marfan syndrome and congenital contractural arachnodactyly are due to mutations in different genes, it has been uncertain whether neonatal Marfan syndrome is due to mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 or in another gene. The authors studied an infant with severe neonatal Marfan syndrome. Dermal fibroblasts were metabolically labeled and found to secrete fibrillin inefficiently when compared with control cells. Reverse transcription and amplification of the proband's fibroblast RNA was used to identify a 3-bp insertion between nucleotides 480-481 or 481-482 of the fibrillin cDNA. The insertion maintains the reading frame of the protein and inserts a cysteine between amino acids 160 and 161 in an epidermal growth-factor-like motif of fibrillin. This 3-bp insertion was not found in the fibrillin gene in 70 unrelated, unaffected individuals and 11 unrelated individuals with the Maran syndrome. The authors conclude that neonatal Marfan syndrome is the result of mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 and is part of the Marfan syndrome spectrum. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Choice of Tevatron tune with matched low-β insertions

    The Tevatron lattice, following closely the Main Ring lattice, is made up of approximately 90 FODO cells with six straight sections equally spaced. The straight sections are identical (neglecting the special high-β straight section used for resonant extraction) providing six-fold symmetry. Each straight section is comprised mainly of a pair of doublets, one at each end, in an antisymmetric configuration. The β-functions are matched to the building block cells but the dispersion function is not. The β-function matching implies that the structure is not sensitive to the tune of the sextant (i.e., structure resonances); however, the dispersion mismatch excites off-momentum dipole resonances and the dispersion structure of the ring is therefore sensitive to sextant tunes near an integer. The introduction of low-β insertions can be accomplished by replacing a standard insertion (expanded somewhat from the doublet pair straight section) with a low-β insertion. By matching the ends of the replacement units with respect to β-functions and dispersion function, the full lattice is made insensitive to linear structure resonances. Procedures are described here for introducing into the idealized Tevatron lattice considered here a single matched low-β insertion at BO, and two matched low-β insertions at BO and DO. The main consequence is the need for a significant number of independently powered quadrupoles. Another conclusion is related to the choice of tune, where it is found that the arbitrary rule of maintaining a fixed tune for all configurations should be modified

  6. Study of pH (low) insertion peptides (pHLIPs) interaction with lipid bilayer of membrane

    Weerakkody, Dhammika

    The pH-dependent interactions of pHLIPsRTM (pH (Low) Insertion Peptides) with lipid bilayer of membrane provides an opportunity to study and address fundamental questions of protein folding/insertion into membrane and unfolding/exit, as well as develop novel approach to target acidic diseased tissue such as cancer, ischemic myocardium, infection and others. The main goal of the work presented here is to answer the following questions: - What is the molecular mechanism of spontaneous insertion and folding of a peptide in a lipid bilayer of membrane; - What is the molecular mechanism of unfolding and exit of a peptide from a lipid bilayer of membrane; - How polar cargo attached to a peptide's inserting end might affect the process of insertion into a lipid bilayer of membrane; How sequence variation will affect a peptide's interactions with a lipid bilayer of membrane (partitioning into bilayer at neutral and low pH; apparent pK of insertion) with the main goal to identify the best pHLIP variants for imaging and therapy of pathological states such as cancer and others. It has been demonstrated that pHLIP insertion into a membrane is associated with the protonation of Asp/Glu residues, which leads to an increase of hydrophobicity that triggers the folding and insertion of the peptide across a lipid bilayer. The insertion of the pHLIP is unidirectional and it is accompanied by the release of energy. Therefore, the energy of membrane associated-folding can be used to favor the movement of cell-impermeable polar cargo molecules across the hydrophobic membrane bilayer when they are attached to the inserting end of pHLIP. Both pH-targeting behavior and molecular translocation have been demonstrated in cultured cells and in vivo. Thus, there is an opportunity to develop a novel concept in drug delivery, which is based on the use of a monomeric, pH-sensitive peptide molecular transporter, to deliver agents that are significantly more polar than conventional drugs

  7. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  8. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  9. Molecular evaluation of a novel missense mutation & an insertional truncating mutation in SUMF1 gene

    Udhaya H Kotecha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Multiple suphphatase deficiency (MSD is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting the post translational activation of all enzymes of the sulphatase family. To date, approximately 30 different mutations have been identified in the causative gene, sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1. We describe here the mutation analysis of a case of MSD. Methods: The proband was a four year old boy with developmental delay followed by neuroregression. He had coarse facies, appendicular hypertonia, truncal ataxia and ichthyosis limited to both lower limbs. Radiographs showed dysostosis multiplex. Clinical suspicion of MSD was confirmed by enzyme analysis of four enzymes of the sulphatase group. Results: The patient was compound heterozygote for a c.451A>G (p.K151E substitution in exon 3 and a single base insertion mutation (c.690_691 InsT in exon 5 in the SUMF1 gene. The bioinformatic analysis of the missense mutation revealed no apparent effect on the overall structure. However, the mutated 151-amino acid residue was found to be adjacent to the substrate binding and the active site residues, thereby affecting the substrate binding and/or catalytic activity, resulting in almost complete loss of enzyme function. Conclusions: The two mutations identified in the present case were novel. This is perhaps the first report of an insertion mutation in SUMF1 causing premature truncation of the protein.

  10. Insert engineering and solubility screening improves recovery of virus-like particle subunits displaying hydrophobic epitopes.

    Abidin, R S; Lua, L H L; Middelberg, A P J; Sainsbury, F

    2015-11-01

    The Polyomavirus coat protein, VP1 has been developed as an epitope presentation system able to provoke humoral immunity against a variety of pathogens, such as Influenza and Group A Streptococcus. The ability of the system to carry cytotoxic T cell epitopes on a surface-exposed loop and the impact on protein solubility has not been examined. Four variations of three selected epitopes were cloned into surface-exposed loops of VP1, and expressed in Escherichia coli. VP1 pentamers, also known as capsomeres, were purified via a glutathione-S-transferase tag. Size exclusion chromatography indicated severe aggregation of the recombinant VP1 during enzymatic tag removal resulting from the introduction the hydrophobic epitopes. Inserts were modified to possess double aspartic acid residues at each end of the hydrophobic epitopes and a high-throughput buffer condition screen was implemented with protein aggregation monitored during tag removal by spectrophotometry and dynamic light scattering. These analyses showed that the insertion of charged residues at the extremities of epitopes could improve solubility of capsomeres and revealed multiple windows of opportunity for further condition optimization. A combination of epitope design, pH optimization, and the additive l-arginine permitted the recovery of soluble VP1 pentamers presenting hydrophobic epitopes and their subsequent assembly into virus-like particles. PMID:26401641

  11. Variables associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection in high risk newborn infants

    Uesliz Vianna Rangel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to relate the variables from a surveillance form for intravenous devices in high risk newborn infants with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection.METHODOLOGY: approximately 15 variables were studied, being associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection, this being defined by blood culture results. The variables analyzed were obtained from the surveillance forms used with intravenous devices, attached to the medical records of newborn infants weighing between 500 and 1,499 g. The statistical association was defined using the Chi-squared and Student t tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira under process N. 140.703/12.RESULTS: 63 medical records were analyzed. The infection rate observed was 25.4%. Of the variables analyzed, only three had a statistically-significant relationship with the blood culture - the use of drugs capable of inhibiting acid secretion, post-natal steroid use, and undertaking more than one invasive procedure (p-value of 0.0141, 0.0472 and 0.0277, respectively.CONCLUSION: the absence of significance of the variables of the form may be related to the quality of the records and to the absence of standardization. It is recommended that the teams be encouraged to adhere to the protocol and fill out the form.

  12. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors

  13. First two barrel ECAL supermodules inserted in CMS HCAL

    K.Bell

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. The barrel ECAL will consist of 36 supermodules, many of which have already been produced (see CERN Bulletin 17-18, 2006). Team from CMS ECAL, CMS Integration and CEA-DAPNIA were involved in the insertion, with the production/integration of the supermodules themselves involving many technicians, engineers and physicists from many institutes. From left to right: Olivier Teller, Maf Alidra and Lucien Veillet.

  14. Evaluation of coated fuel particle temperature during reactivity insertion events

    In the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), no adiabatic increase of fuel temperature occurs unless extremely large reactivity is added within a short time even at abnormal condition. Then, in the acceptance criteria of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the maximum fuel temperature is restricted instead of the fuel enthalpy. As one of the studies of fuel behavior under abnormal conditions, temperature transient in coated fuel particle is calculated during reactivity insertion events, and the following results are obtained. (1) Since there is thermal diffusion from fuel kernel to coating layers, the fuel kernel temperature does not increase excessively even under the event of large reactivity insertion rate such as rapid control rod withdrawal accident of HTTR. (2) The maximum fuel kernel temperature is affected by the gap width between the buffer and the inner PyC layers, the composition of gas contained in the gap and the surface area of gap. (author)

  15. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  16. Research of Insertion Mechanism of Flexible Search and Rescue Robot

    Shen Linyong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to various factors, the global scope disaster events occur inevitably every year. Terrorism, natural disasters or destructive earthquakes tend to cause a large number of people buried in the ruins of buildings. The research of search and rescue instruments research is mainly focused on snake-like robot and life detector both at home and abroad. The endoscopic search and rescue robot in this paper combines the characteristics of these two kinds of search and rescue equipment. This thesis mainly studies the insertion mechanism of endoscopic flexible search and rescue robot. Based on the mechanics characteristics of the flexible robot body, this paper analyzes several common failure modes during the insertion into the ruins. This article puts forward the scheme of segmented gradual pulling-pushing, which plays an important role in promoting search and rescue work.

  17. Operation of synchrotron light sources with multiple insertion devices

    The stability requirements of the next generation of synchrotron radiation facilities have been achieved on insertion device beamlines of existing rings. However, one insertion device (ID) affects the stored beam and hence the performance of all the other beamlines. Since the effects of the undulators are cumulative, higher levels of performance are required of the accelerator in order to meet and exceed present day standards in rings with many undulators. This paper will report experience to date in the areas mentioned above at several multi-undulator facilities and efforts to address these problems at facilities in the planning and construction phase. Section II will treat orbit control and feedback. Section III will describe work on linear and nonlinear effects of ideal undulators in accelerators. Section IV will mention undulator imperfections and the demands they make on the accelerator control system

  18. Superconformal Ward Identities for Green Functions with Multiple Supercurrent Insertions

    Erdmenger, J; Erdmenger, Johanna; Rupp, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Superconformal Ward identities for N=1 supersymmetric quantum field theories in four dimensions are convenienty obtained in the superfield formalism by combining diffeomorphisms and Weyl transformations on curved superspace. Using this approach we study the superconformal transformation properties of Green functions with one or more insertions of the supercurrent to all orders in perturbation theory. For the case of two insertions we pay particular attention to fixing the additional counterterms present, as well as to the purely geometrical anomalies which contribute to the transformation behaviour. Moreover we show in a scheme-independent way how the quasi-local terms in the Ward identities are related to similar terms which contribute to the supercurrent two and three point functions. Furthermore we relate our superfield approach to similar studies which use the component formalism by discussing the implications of our approach for the components of the supercurrent and of the supergravity prepotentials.

  19. Calculation of magnetic error fields in hybrid insertion devices

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory requires insertion devices with fields sufficiently accurate to take advantage of the small emittance of the ALS electron beam. To maintain the spectral performance of the synchrotron radiation and to limit steering effects on the electron beam these errors must be smaller than 0.25%. This paper develops a procedure for calculating the steering error due to misalignment of the easy axis of the permanent magnet material. The procedure is based on a three dimensional theory of the design of hybrid insertion devices developed by one of us. The acceptable tolerance for easy axis misalignment is found for a 5 cm period undulator proposed for the ALS. 11 refs., 5 figs

  20. Transients analysis by reactivity insertion in research reactors

    PARET code was used to simulate accidental situations arising from positive reactivity insertions, in order to analyze the behavior of RP-10 reactor. The simulations considered three different cases: First is for the reactor operating at 10 Mw nominal power with 3 pumps in use, the second, at 6.6 Mw with only one pump working. In all cases the reactor trip was assumed when a 12 Mw power level is reached. An additional simulation for the reactor operating at 50w before the reactivity insertion, showed to be the worst accidental situation of all cases because of the higher temperature and power rise. Hot channel thermohydraulic and kinetic parameters have been evaluated at each axial mesh point and transient time step. None of the cases showed melting of fuel plates

  1. Construction of targeted insertion mutations in Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida.

    Liu, Jirong; Zogaj, Xhavit; Barker, Jeffrey R; Klose, Karl E

    2007-10-01

    Francisella tularensis is one of the most deadly bacterial agents, yet most of the genetic determinants of pathogenesis are still unknown. We have developed an efficient targeted mutagenesis strategy in the model organism F. tularensis subsp. novicida by utilizing universal priming of optimized antibiotic resistance cassettes and splicing by overlap extension (SOE). This process enables fast and efficient construction of targeted insertion mutations in F. tularensis subsp. novicida that have characteristics of nonpolar mutations; optimized targeted mutagenesis strategies will promote the study of this mysterious bacterium and facilitate vaccine development against tularemia. Moreover the general strategy of gene disruption by PCR-based antibiotic resistance cassette insertion is broadly applicable to many bacterial species. PMID:18019340

  2. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. CUDA accelerated simulation of needle insertions in deformable tissue

    Patriciu, Alexandru

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a stiff needle-deformable tissue interaction model. The model uses a mesh-less discretization of continuum; avoiding thus the expensive remeshing required by the finite element models. The proposed model can accommodate both linear and nonlinear material characteristics. The needle-deformable tissue interaction is modeled through fundamental boundaries. The forces applied by the needle on the tissue are divided in tangent forces and constraint forces. The constraint forces are adaptively computed such that the material is properly constrained by the needle. The implementation is accelerated using NVidia CUDA. We present detailed analysis of the execution timing in both serial and parallel case. The proposed needle insertion model was integrated in a custom software that loads DICOM images, generate the deformable model, and can simulate different insertion strategies.

  4. Description of popular Science texts inserted in biology textbooks

    Pedro Henrique Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Popularisation of Science texts are used in Science Education for contextualizing the curriculum content and relating it to the daily lives of students. Textbooks insert popular science texts, mostly adapted, which can interfere in its original content. This work identified the popular science texts in nine teaching collections of high school Biology, approved by PNLD/2015. 398 texts were found, highlighting the collection of Favaretto. Most of them were adapted and were in Ecology, Zoology and Evolution chapters. The books used texts from various sources, but stand out newspapers and popular science magazines, such as Ciência Hoje, which indicates the choice of more accessible texts to the students language. It is important to analyze these texts and understand what changes were made in inserting them in textbooks.

  5. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There...

  6. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  7. ISR Superconducting High-Luminosity (low beta ) insertion

    1981-01-01

    The photograph shows two of the 8 Superconducting Quadrupoles installed in ISR intersection I8 with their helium supply flexible lines,vacuum equipment,power and signal cables. The increase of luminosity produced by this insertion was above a factor 7. On the right one can see part of Open-Axial-Field Magnet. The person on the left side is Stephan Pichler. See also photo 7702690 and its abstract.

  8. On the use of plastic inserts in prestressed railway components.

    Coombs, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of such plastic inserts (such as Vossloh dowels and other soft fastening solutions) in pre-stressed concrete sleepers and crossing bearers has become widespread within the United Kingdom, Europe and the rest of the world. This paper uses a bespoke finite-element analysis tool to, for the first time, investigate the stress state around these plastic inclusions specifically focusing on the likelihood of discontinuity development. Most continuum stress analysis methods are over simplisti...

  9. Strain measurement at the knee ligament insertion sites

    Hinterwimmer, S; Baumgart, R.; Plitz, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the modification of an existing method of ligament strain measurement at the knee joint in detail. At ten fresh joint specimens we used that technique where strain gauges are attached to the ligamentous insertions and origins. We both improved the preparation of the attachment site and the application of the strain gauges. In a special apparatus the specimens were moved from 0degrees extension to 100degrees flexion while simulating muscle strength and axial force. Testing was perf...

  10. Ferromagnetic inserts for the ripple correction in NET

    The possibility of generating large plasmas in NET might be limited by the high values of the toroidal field ripple. A possible means of ripple reduction is to include pieces of ferromagnetic material in the shielding structure. This paper presents the results of 3-D calculations that show how inserts of reasonable size can reduce the ripple to acceptable levels. The influence of the different dimensions of the ferromagnetic sectors is also shown. (author). 2 refs.; 7 figs

  11. Power distribution from insertion device x-ray sources

    Insertion device (ID) synchrotron x-ray sources on present day and next-generation synchrotron facilities have very attractive spectral properties. In addition however, they are capable of producing x-ray beams with large powers and in some cases, unprecedented power densities. An overview of the spatial and frequency distributions of these sources including the effects of synchrotron particle beam emittance is presented

  12. Insertion of cations into WO3 investigated by QCM techniques

    Vondrák, Jiří; Sedlaříková, M.; Velická, Jana; Špičák, P.; Svoboda, V.; Kazelle, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2007), s. 1459-1462. ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/3/171/05; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB208130604; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : tungsten trioxide * insertion of cations * quartz crystal microbalance Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.535, year: 2007

  13. Cytoplasmic Organelle DNA Preferentially Inserts into Open Chromatin

    Wang, Dong; Timmis, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    DNA transfer from chloroplasts and mitochondria to the nucleus is ongoing in eukaryotes but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA was observed to integrate into the nuclear genome through DNA double-strand break repair in Nicotiana tabacum. Here, 14 nuclear insertions of chloroplast DNA (nupts) that are unique to Oryza sativa subsp. indica were identified. Comparisons with the preinsertion nuclear loci identified in the related subspecies, O. sativa subsp. japonica,...

  14. Magnetic resonance urography in duplex kidney with ectopic ureteral insertion.

    Thambidorai, Conjeevaram Rajendrarao; Anuar, Zulfiqar

    2011-07-01

    This is a report on the use of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in a 6-year-old girl who presented with urinary incontinence. She had a left duplex kidney with poorly functioning upper moiety and ectopic insertion of the dilated upper pole ureter. MRU has been shown to be superior to conventional imaging techniques in delineating poorly functioning moieties of duplex kidneys and ectopic ureters. PMID:21897576

  15. Magnetic resonance urography in duplex kidney with ectopic ureteral insertion

    Thambidorai, Conjeevaram Rajendrarao; Anuar, Zulfiqar

    2011-01-01

    This is a report on the use of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in a 6-year-old girl who presented with urinary incontinence. She had a left duplex kidney with poorly functioning upper moiety and ectopic insertion of the dilated upper pole ureter. MRU has been shown to be superior to conventional imaging techniques in delineating poorly functioning moieties of duplex kidneys and ectopic ureters.

  16. Magnetic resonance urography in duplex kidney with ectopic ureteral insertion

    Conjeevaram Rajendrarao Thambidorai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the use of magnetic resonance urography (MRU in a 6-year-old girl who presented with urinary incontinence. She had a left duplex kidney with poorly functioning upper moiety and ectopic insertion of the dilated upper pole ureter. MRU has been shown to be superior to conventional imaging techniques in delineating poorly functioning moieties of duplex kidneys and ectopic ureters.

  17. Graph Grammars, Insertion Lie Algebras, and Quantum Field Theory

    Marcolli, Matilde; Port, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Graph grammars extend the theory of formal languages in order to model distributed parallelism in theoretical computer science. We show here that to certain classes of context-free and context-sensitive graph grammars one can associate a Lie algebra, whose structure is reminiscent of the insertion Lie algebras of quantum field theory. We also show that the Feynman graphs of quantum field theories are graph languages generated by a theory dependent graph grammar.

  18. Tumor track seeding: A new complication of fiducial marker insertion

    Zeal Patel, MD; Michele Retrouvey, MD; Harlan Vingan, MD; Scott Williams, MD

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Candidates for tumor ablation using CyberKnife® require fiducial placement in or near the target tumor to achieve precision. Placing these reference points may lead to complications including pneumothorax and/or hemorrhage. We report a new complication: the appearance of metastatic foci along the track of the fiducial marker. Since the marker was inserted by traversing the original primary tumor, we hypothesize th...

  19. Insertion DNA Accelerates Meiotic Interchromosomal Recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Sun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ding-Hong; Xue, Jia-Yu; Yang, Si-Hai; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Li, Mi-Mi; Hang, Yue-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide insertions/deletions are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, and the resulting hemizygous (unpaired) DNA has significant, heritable effects on adjacent DNA. However, little is known about the genetic behavior of insertion DNA. Here, we describe a binary transgenic system to study the behavior of insertion DNA during meiosis. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines were generated to carry two different defective reporter genes on nonhomologous chromosomes, designated as "recipient" and "donor" lines. Double hemizygous plants (harboring unpaired DNA) were produced by crossing between the recipient and the donor, and double homozygous lines (harboring paired DNA) via self-pollination. The transfer of the donor's unmutated sequence to the recipient generated a functional β-glucuronidase gene, which could be visualized by histochemical staining and corroborated by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. More than 673 million seedlings were screened, and the results showed that meiotic ectopic recombination in the hemizygous lines occurred at a frequency  >6.49-fold higher than that in the homozygous lines. Gene conversion might have been exclusively or predominantly responsible for the gene correction events. The direct measurement of ectopic recombination events provided evidence that an insertion, in the absence of an allelic counterpart, could scan the entire genome for homologous counterparts with which to pair. Furthermore, the unpaired (hemizygous) architectures could accelerate ectopic recombination between itself and interchromosomal counterparts. We suggest that the ectopic recombination accelerated by hemizygous architectures may be a general mechanism for interchromosomal recombination through ubiquitously dispersed repeat sequences in plants, ultimately contributing to genetic renovation and eukaryotic evolution. PMID:27189569

  20. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  1. A training simulator for ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrostomy insertion

    Rock, B G; Leonard, A P; Freeman, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing trainee numbers and changes to working patterns have resulted in a scarcity of training opportunities for training-grade doctors wishing to learn nephrostomy tube insertion techniques. A method of introducing trainees to the skills required to perform percutaneous nephrostomy in a safe, non-threatening environment, without risk to patients, is desirable. Commercial and biological nephrostomy phantoms are available, but they are expensive and not widely available, and a cheap, safe,...

  2. Description of popular Science texts inserted in biology textbooks

    Pedro Henrique Ribeiro de Souza; Marcelo Borges Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Popularisation of Science texts are used in Science Education for contextualizing the curriculum content and relating it to the daily lives of students. Textbooks insert popular science texts, mostly adapted, which can interfere in its original content. This work identified the popular science texts in nine teaching collections of high school Biology, approved by PNLD/2015. 398 texts were found, highlighting the collection of Favaretto. Most of them were adapted and were in Ecolog...

  3. The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections

    Winick, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

  4. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion.

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the "central venous oxygen saturation"), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  5. Coaxial needle insertion assistant with enhanced force feedback.

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; Koseki, Yoshihiko; De Momi, Elena; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Okamura, Allison M

    2013-02-01

    Many medical procedures involving needle insertion into soft tissues, such as anesthesia, biopsy, brachytherapy, and placement of electrodes, are performed without image guidance. In such procedures, haptic detection of changing tissue properties at different depths during needle insertion is important for needle localization and detection of subsurface structures. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties deep inside the tissue are difficult for human operators to sense, because the relatively large friction force between the needle shaft and the surrounding tissue masks the smaller tip forces. A novel robotic coaxial needle insertion assistant, which enhances operator force perception, is presented. This one-degree-of-freedom cable-driven robot provides to the operator a scaled version of the force applied by the needle tip to the tissue, using a novel design and sensors that separate the needle tip force from the shaft friction force. The ability of human operators to use the robot to detect membranes embedded in artificial soft tissue was tested under the conditions of 1) tip force and shaft force feedback, and 2) tip force only feedback. The ratio of successful to unsuccessful membrane detections was significantly higher (up to 50%) when only the needle tip force was provided to the user. PMID:23193302

  6. ANATOMICAL VARIATION OF PALMARIS LONGUS: TENDINOUS ORIGIN AND FLESHY INSERTION

    Buddhadeb Ghosh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tendinous origin and fleshy insertion of palmaris longus muscle was observed in the left forearm during routine dissection which was performed on adult male cadaver in the department of Anatomy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College. It was having long tendinous origin from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and the surrounding deep fascia. It was fusiform at the lower middle of the forearm. The fleshy muscular insertion was noted to the flexor retinaculum and few muscular fibers interdigitate with flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and palmar aponeurosis. The length of tendon was 19 inches and fleshy muscular length was 11inches. The median nerve and ulnar nerve was covered by this fleshy insertion. This palmaris longus variation is helpful for the surgeon and the radiologist, orthopaedic, plastic surgeon during any diagnosis of the forearm because this fleshy part of muscle can compress the median nerve and ulnar nerve or it can be mistaken as a tumor or ganglion during radiological or clinical examination.

  7. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    Muhammad Farooq Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insertion sort are presented. Bi-directional Selection Sort and MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort are the enhancement on basic selection sort while Bidirectional bubble sort and MIDBidirectional bubble sort are the enhancement on basic bubble sort by changing the selection and swapping mechanism of data for sorting. Enhanced sorting algorithms reduced the iteration by half and quarter times respectively. Asymptotically complexities of these algorithms are reduced to O (n2/2 and O (n2/4 from O (n2. Linear insertion sort is the enhancement of insertion sort by changing the design of algorithm (convert two loops to one loop. So asymptotically this algorithm is converted to linear time complexity from quadratic complexity. These sorting algorithms are described using C. The proposed algorithms are analyzed using asymptotic analysis and also using machine-running time and compared with their basic sorting algorithms. In this study we also discuss how the performance and complexity can be improved by optimizing the code and design.

  8. Soft Tissue Phantoms for Realistic Needle Insertion: A Comparative Study.

    Leibinger, Alexander; Forte, Antonio E; Tan, Zhengchu; Oldfield, Matthew J; Beyrau, Frank; Dini, Daniele; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-08-01

    Phantoms are common substitutes for soft tissues in biomechanical research and are usually tuned to match tissue properties using standard testing protocols at small strains. However, the response due to complex tool-tissue interactions can differ depending on the phantom and no comprehensive comparative study has been published to date, which could aid researchers to select suitable materials. In this work, gelatin, a common phantom in literature, and a composite hydrogel developed at Imperial College, were matched for mechanical stiffness to porcine brain, and the interactions during needle insertions within them were analyzed. Specifically, we examined insertion forces for brain and the phantoms; we also measured displacements and strains within the phantoms via a laser-based image correlation technique in combination with fluorescent beads. It is shown that the insertion forces for gelatin and brain agree closely, but that the composite hydrogel better mimics the viscous nature of soft tissue. Both materials match different characteristics of brain, but neither of them is a perfect substitute. Thus, when selecting a phantom material, both the soft tissue properties and the complex tool-tissue interactions arising during tissue manipulation should be taken into consideration. These conclusions are presented in tabular form to aid future selection. PMID:26666228

  9. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    Bereau, Tristan; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum---in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even tho...

  10. Modeling and characterization of partially inserted electrical connector faults

    Tokgöz, ćaǧatay; Dardona, Sameh; Soldner, Nicholas C.; Wheeler, Kevin R.

    2016-03-01

    Faults within electrical connectors are prominent in avionics systems due to improper installation, corrosion, aging, and strained harnesses. These faults usually start off as undetectable with existing inspection techniques and increase in magnitude during the component lifetime. Detection and modeling of these faults are significantly more challenging than hard failures such as open and short circuits. Hence, enabling the capability to locate and characterize the precursors of these faults is critical for timely preventive maintenance and mitigation well before hard failures occur. In this paper, an electrical connector model based on a two-level nonlinear least squares approach is proposed. The connector is first characterized as a transmission line, broken into key components such as the pin, socket, and connector halves. Then, the fact that the resonance frequencies of the connector shift as insertion depth changes from a fully inserted to a barely touching contact is exploited. The model precisely captures these shifts by varying only two length parameters. It is demonstrated that the model accurately characterizes a partially inserted connector.