WorldWideScience

Sample records for 7-mev energy range

  1. Ranging energy optimization for robust sensor positioning

    Wang, T.; Leus, G.; Neirynck, D.; Shu, F.; Huang, L.

    2009-01-01

    We address ranging energy optimization for an unsynchronized localization system, which features robust sensor positioning, in the sense that specific accuracy requirements are fulfilled within a prescribed service area. Optimization problems related to the ranging energy of a sensor and beacons are

  2. Electret dosemeter response to electrons with energy of 3 Mev, 7 Mev, 11 Mev

    The preliminary results obtained when electret ionization chambers are irradiated with electron of 3, 7, 11 Mev, from 12 mevatron accelerators using a external cop of polyethylene and nylon are presented. (C.G.C.)

  3. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range

    Yvonne Roed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32 

  4. A novel method to determine the FOCAL energy range

    Dongqing Zhang; Xiangzhao Wang; Weijie Shi

    2005-01-01

    Determination of the energy range is an important precondition of focus calibration using alignment procedure (FOCAL) test. A new method to determine the energy range of FOCAL off-lined is presented in this paper. Independent of the lithographic tool, the method is time-saving and effective. The influences of some process factors, e.g. resist thickness, post exposure bake (PEB) temperature, PEB time and development time, on the energy range of FOCAL are analyzed.

  5. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  6. Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials

    Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

    2014-12-01

    We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

  7. VARIABLE RANGE ENERGY EFFICIENT LOCATION AIDED ROUTING FOR MANET

    Nivedita N. Joshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a temporary, infrastructure-less and distributed network having mobile nodes. MANET has limited resources like bandwidth and energy. Due to limited battery power nodes die out early and affect the network lifetime. To make network energy efficient, we have modified position based Location Aided Routing (LAR1 for energy conservation in MANET. The proposed protocol is known as Variable Range Energy aware Location Aided Routing (ELAR1-VAR. The proposed scheme controls the transmission power of a node according to the distance between the nodes. It also includes energy information on route request packet and selects the energy efficient path to route data packets. The comparative analysis of proposed scheme and LAR1 is done by using the QualNet simulator. ELAR1-VAR protocol improves the network lifetime by reducing energy consumption by 20% for dense and mobile network while maintaining the packet delivery ratio above 90%.

  8. The low-energy ion range in DNA.

    Yu, L D; Kamwanna, T; Brown, I G

    2009-08-21

    In fundamental studies of low-energy ion irradiation effects on DNA, calculation of the low-energy ion range, an important basic physical parameter, is often necessary. However, up to now a unified model and approach for range calculation is still lacking, and reported data are quite divergent and thus unreliable. Here we describe an approach for calculation of the ion range, using a simplified mean-pseudoatom model of the DNA target. Based on ion stopping theory, for the case of low-energy (cube-root energy dependence of the stopping (E(1/3)). Calculation formulas of the ion range in DNA are obtained and presented to unify the relevant calculations. The upper limits of the ion energy as a function of the atomic number of the bombarding ion species are proposed for the low-energy case to hold. Comparison of the results of this approach with the results of some widely used computer simulation codes and with results reported by other groups indicates that the approach described here provides convincing and dependable results. PMID:19652287

  9. Integral range, energy, residual range, and linear energy transfer distributions for Californium fission fragments in microelectronics materials

    This report discusses the advantages and limitations of using Cf-252 radiation sources for single event testing of microelectronics for space environments. Integral distributions for the range, energy, residual range, and linear energy transfer of Cf-252 fission fragments in absorber and microelectronic materials have been calculated. Techniques are suggested for determining when single event testing using Cf-252 is appropriate; also, techniques are given for estimating the saturation cross section and thresh old linear energy transfer from test data. 10 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection

    Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitationenergies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connectionlinks the non-interacting Kohn-Sham electronic system to the physicalinteracting system by progressively switching on theelectron-electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting aone-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-statedensity constant. The interactions are introduced in arange-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range,and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached,as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where theinteractions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction.Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H2molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potentialat the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb'sLegendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron-electroninteractions increases, the excitation energies, ...

  11. Long range energy transfer in graphene hybrid structures

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Bernardo, César; Moura, Cacilda; Ferreira, R. A. S.; André, P. S.; Stauber, Tobias; Belsley, Michael; Schellenberg, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this work we quantify the distance dependence for the extraction of energy from excited chromophores by a single layer graphene flake over a large separation range. To this end hybrid structures were prepared, consisting of a thin (2 nm) layer of a polymer matrix doped with a well chosen strongly fluorescent organic molecule, followed by an un-doped spacer layer of well-defined thicknesses made of the same polymer material and an underlying single layer of pristine, undoped graphene. The coupling strength is assessed through the variation of the fluorescence decay kinetics as a function of distance between the graphene and the excited chromophore molecules. Non-radiative energy transfer to the graphene was observed at distances of up to 60 nm a range much greater than typical energy transfer distances observed in molecular systems.

  12. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  13. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  14. Sampling the low-energy range of EEDF

    Dahl, Dominik A.; Franck, Christian M.

    2011-10-01

    Electron swarms are investigated by the classical Pulsed Townsend Method in mixtures of N2/CO2 with controlled traces of SF6. The electron swarms are released from a back- illuminated photocathode by 1.5 ns FWHM laser pulses and drift in the homogeneous field of Rogowski electrodes. From an analysis of displacement currents the coefficient of electron attachment to gas molecules η is obtained. The pronounced s-wave attachment of SF6 acts on the electron swarm energy distribution (EEDF) by reducing the number of electrons in the energy range below 0.2 eV. It will be investigated if, vice versa, the observed η can be used as a measure for the EEDF in the range below 0.2 eV. The effect of the N2/CO2 mixing ratio on η will be measured and put in relation to the difference between N2 and CO2 concerning their elastic and inelastic cross sections. The goal is to provide data about that range of the EEDF which are not accessible by optical emission spectroscopy or by Langmuir probes.

  15. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotubes in a wide energy range

    Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yzhang@njtech.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    The differential conductance of armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a wide energy range has been numerically calculated by using the tight-binding model and the Green’s function method. The effects of the contact coupling between CNTs and electrodes on conductance have been explored. The ballistic conductance is proportional to the band numbers and has a ladder-like feature. As the increase of the contact coupling, the conductance oscillations appear and they are robust against the coupling. More importantly, on the first step of the conductance ladder, the armchair CNTs have two quasi-periodic conductance oscillations, i.e. a rapid conductance oscillation superimposed on a slow fluctuation background; while the zigzag CNTs have only one conductance oscillation. But on the second conductance step, all CNTs have two quasi-periodic conductance oscillations. The physical origin of the conductance oscillations has been revealed.

  16. Passively-switched energy harvester for increased operational range

    This paper presents modeling and experimental validation of a new type of vibrational energy harvester that passively switches between two dynamical modes of operation to expand the range of driving frequencies and accelerations over which the harvester effectively extracts power. In both modes, a driving beam with a low resonant frequency couples into ambient vibrations and transfers their energy to a generating beam that has a higher resonant frequency. The generating beam converts the mechanical power into electrical power. In coupled-motion mode, the driving beam bounces off the generating beam. In plucked mode, the driving beam deflects the generating beam until the driving beam passes from above the generating beam to below it or vice versa. Analytical system models are implemented numerically in the time domain for driving frequencies of 3 Hz to 27 Hz and accelerations from 0.1 g to 2.6 g, and both system dynamics and output power are predicted. A corresponding switched-dynamics harvester is tested experimentally, and its voltage, power, and dynamics are recorded. In both models and experiments, coupled-motion harvesting is observed at lower accelerations, whereas plucked harvesting and/or mixed mode harvesting are observed at higher accelerations. As expected, plucked harvesting outputs greater power than coupled-motion harvesting in both simulations and experiments. The predicted (1.8 mW) and measured (1.56 mW) maximum average power levels are similar under measured conditions at 0.5 g. When the system switches to dynamics that are characteristic of higher frequencies, the difference between predicted and measured power levels is more pronounced due to non-ideal mechanical interaction between the beams’ tips. Despite the beams’ non-ideal interactions, switched-dynamics operation increases the harvester’s operating range. (paper)

  17. Scaling relations, virial theorem and energy densities for long-range and short-range density functionals

    Toulouse, Julien; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    International audience Decomposition of the Coulomb electron- electron interaction into a long-range and a short-range part is described within the framework of density functional theory, deriving some scaling relations and the corresponding virial theorem. We study the behavior of the local density approximation in the high-density limit for the long-range and the short-range functionals by carrying out a detailed analysis of the correlation energy of a uniform electron gas interacting vi...

  18. Application of long range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model for Thailand energy outlook 2030 : reference case

    Charusiri, W.; Eua-arporn, B.; Ubonwat, J. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Energy Research Inst.

    2008-07-01

    In 2004, the total energy consumption in Thailand increased 8.8 per cent, from 47,806 to 60,260 ktoe. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) is an accounting tool that simulates future energy scenarios. According to a Business As Usual (BAU) case, the overall energy demand in Thailand is estimated to increase from 61,262 to 254,200 ktoe between 2004 and 2030. Commercial energy consumption, which comprises petroleum products, natural gas, coal and its products, and electricity, increased by 9.0 per cent in Thailand in 2004, and new and renewable energy increased by 7.8 per cent. Nearly 60 per cent of the total commercial energy supply in Thailand was imported and increased for a fifth year in a row. The changes in energy consumption can be attributed to population growth and increase in economic activity and development. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  19. Application of long range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model for Thailand energy outlook 2030 : reference case

    In 2004, the total energy consumption in Thailand increased 8.8 per cent, from 47,806 to 60,260 ktoe. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) is an accounting tool that simulates future energy scenarios. According to a Business As Usual (BAU) case, the overall energy demand in Thailand is estimated to increase from 61,262 to 254,200 ktoe between 2004 and 2030. Commercial energy consumption, which comprises petroleum products, natural gas, coal and its products, and electricity, increased by 9.0 per cent in Thailand in 2004, and new and renewable energy increased by 7.8 per cent. Nearly 60 per cent of the total commercial energy supply in Thailand was imported and increased for a fifth year in a row. The changes in energy consumption can be attributed to population growth and increase in economic activity and development. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  20. Energy spectra of primary cosmic radiation in the 1013-1016 eV energy range

    Investigations of the primary cosmic radiation energy spectrum in the 1013-1016 eV energy range are performed using the Tien Shan complex device designed for the investigation of extensive air showers. On the basis of the analysis of experimental data, a conclusion is drawn that at present the energy spectrum of all particles is investigated for sure within the energy range up to (1-5)x1014 eV. In the framework of traditional models of hadron interaction and above experimental data on primary composition of cosmic rays at 1015-1016 eV energies, the energy spectrum of all primary particles in the first approximation is described with the power function of F (> E0) approximately Esub(0)sup(-#betta#sub(E)) with the power of #betta#sub(Esub(1))=1.63-1.68 at E0 15 eV and with #betta#sub(Esub(2))=2.0-2.1 in the 5x1015-5x1017 eV energy range

  1. Long-range energy level interaction in small metallic particles

    Beenakker, C. W. J.; Jalabert, R. A.; Pichard, J. -L.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the energy level statistics of non-interacting electrons which diffuse in a $ d $-dimensional disordered metallic conductor of characteristic Thouless energy $ E_c. $ We assume that the level distribution can be written as the Gibbs distribution of a classical one-dimensional gas of fictitious particles with a pairwise additive interaction potential $ f(\\varepsilon ). $ We show that the interaction which is consistent with the known correlation function of pairs of energy levels i...

  2. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  3. Long range forecasting of the demand for electrical energy

    Case study using Aoki method for forecasting the following magnitudes as a function of time: 1) annual energy generation; 2) annual peak demand; 3) seasonal variation of peak demand and 4) seasonal load duration curves. (HP)

  4. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  5. FEL based photon collider of TeV energy range

    Physical principles of operation of high energy photon linear colliders (PLC) based on the Compton backscattering of laser photons on high energy electrons are discussed. The main emphasis is put on the analysis of a possibility to construct the PLC with the center of mass energy 0.5-2 TeV. Free electron laser (FEL) is considered as a source of primary photons. Proposed FEL system consists of a tunable FEL oscillator (output power ∼ 1 - 10 MW) with subsequent amplification of the master signal in a FEL amplifier up to the power ∼ 3 x 1011 W. The FEL parameters are optimized, restrictions on the electron beam and FEL magnetic system parameters are formulated and problems of technical realization are discussed. It is shown that the FEL technique provides the most suitable way to construct photon linear collider on the base of future generation linear collider. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Green Codes: Energy-Efficient Short-Range Communication

    Grover, Pulkit

    2008-01-01

    A green code attempts to minimize the total energy per-bit required to communicate across a noisy channel. The classical information-theoretic approach neglects the energy expended in processing the data at the encoder and the decoder and only minimizes the energy required for transmissions. Since there is no cost associated with using more degrees of freedom, the traditionally optimal strategy is to communicate at rate zero. In this work, we use our recently proposed model for the power consumed by iterative message passing. Using generalized sphere-packing bounds on the decoding power, we find lower bounds on the total energy consumed in the transmissions and the decoding, allowing for freedom in the choice of the rate. We show that contrary to the classical intuition, the rate for green codes is bounded away from zero for any given error probability. In fact, as the desired bit-error probability goes to zero, the optimizing rate for our bounds converges to 1.

  7. Pulsed power inductive energy storage in the microsecond range

    During the past five years Maxwell has developed a series of inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generators; ACE 1, ACE 2, ACE 3, and ACE 4, to drive electron-beam loads. They are all based on a plasma opening switch (POS) contained in a single vacuum envelope operating at conduction times of around one microsecond. They all employ fast capacitor bank technology to match this conduction time without intermediate power conditioning. Oil or air filled transmission lines transfer capacitor bank energy to a vacuum section where the final pulse compression is accomplished. Development of the ACE series is described, emphasizing capacitor bank and the opening switch technology for delivering high voltage, multimegampere pulses to electron beam loads

  8. GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE CASCADE RANGE.

    Duffield, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes of the Cascade Range form a 1200-km-long belt from northern California to southwest British Columbia and lie above the subduction zone formed as the Juan de Fuca plate is consumed beneath North America. Volcanoes throughout this belt may have been active during Quaternary time, and many have erupted within Holocene time. Thermal springs are few and inconspicuous. Surface expression of hydrothermal systems possibly is masked by infiltration of abundant rainwater and snowmelt. Several geologic and geophysical features suggest that the Oregon and California parts of the Cascades are characterized by moderate east-west crustal extension, tectonic regime conducive to relatively widespread volcanism and to the formation of normal fault zones of potentially high permeability. Refs.

  9. Computation and measurement of differential ranges of low-energy alpha particles in matter

    The stopping power formula of Bethe is discussed and is used to compute differential ranges of low-energy alpha particles in air, argon, aluminium and copper. A single radioactive source containing three active elements is used in experiments to measure the differential ranges in these materials. Finally a range-energy relationship for the alpha particles in air is deduced. (author)

  10. Transcript of the proceedings of the first Albuquerque informal range/energy workshop

    An informal workshop was held to discuss aspects of the calculation of range and energy deposition distributions which are of interest in ion implantation experiments. Topics covered include: problems encountered in using published range and energy deposition tabulations; some limitations in the solutions of range/energy transport equations; the effect of the scattering cross section on straggle; Monte Carlo calculations of ranges and straggling; damage studies in aluminum; simulation of heavy-ion irradiation of gold using MARLOWE; and MARLOWE calculations of range distribution parameters - dependence on input data and calculational model

  11. Theoretical aspects of energy range relations, stopping power and energy straggling of protons

    Ulmer, W.

    2007-07-01

    The Bragg-Kleeman rule RCSDA=AE0p provides a connection between the initial energy E0 of a proton and the range RCSDA in a medium, if the continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) is assumed. The rule results from a generalized (nonrelativistic) Langevin equation; its integration also yields information on the residual energy E(z) or dE(z)/dz of a proton at position z. A relativistic extension of the generalized Langevin equation leads to the formula RCSDA=A(E0+E02/2Mc2)p. Since the initial energy E0 of therapeutic protons satisfies E0≪2Mc2, relativistic contributions can be treated as correction terms. Besides this phenomenological aspect, a complete integration of Bethe-Bloch equation (BBE) is presented, which provides the determination of RCSDA, E(z), dE(z)/dz and works without any empirical parameters. The results of these different methods are compared with Monte Carlo calculations (GEANT4). Since the energy transfer from proton to the environmental atomic electrons regarded in the CSDA-framework has to account for local fluctuations, an analysis of the Gaussian convolution and the Landau-Vavilov distribution function is performed on the basis of quantum-statistical mechanics. The Landau tail can be described as a Hermite polynomial correction of a Gaussian convolution.

  12. Long-Range Plasmon Assisted Energy Transfer Between Two Fluorescent Emitters

    Bouchet, D; Carminati, R; De Wilde, Y; Krachmalnicoff, V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmon assisted energy transfer between two fluorophores located at distances up to $7\\; \\mu$m on the top of a thin silver film. Thanks to the strong confinement and large propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons, the range of the energy transfer is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the values reported in the literature so far. The parameters driving the energy transfer range are thoroughly characterized and are in very good agreement with theoretically expected values. This work shows the potential of plasmonic structures for efficient long-range energy transfer and opens rich perspectives for the study of collective emission phenomena.

  13. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    Cornaton, Y.; Stoyanova, A.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fromager, E.

    2013-01-01

    An alternative separation of short-range exchange and correlation energies is used in the framework of second-order range-separated density-functional perturbation theory. This alternative separation was initially proposed by Toulouse and relies on a long-range-interacting wave function instead o...

  14. Analytical estimates of the nuclear reaction yields in the ultralow energy range

    Simple analytical expressions for estimation of yields from reactions between light nuclei in the ultralow collision energy range are given. It is shown that even in the case of total absorption targets and a large spread of incident beam energies these expressions can be factorized and define, in natural manner, the concepts of effective target thickness and the range of particle collision energies in the entrance channel that in turn define the yield of reaction products

  15. Analytical Energy Gradients in Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functional Theory with Random Phase Approximation

    Mussard, Bastien; Ángyán, János G

    2015-01-01

    Analytical forces have been derived in the Lagrangian framework for several random phase approximation (RPA) correlated total energy methods based on the range separated hybrid (RSH) approach, which combines a short-range density functional approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy with a Hartree-Fock-type long-range exchange and RPA long-range correlation. The RPA correlation energy has been expressed as a ring coupled cluster doubles (rCCD) theory. The resulting analytical gradients have been implemented and tested for geometry optimization of simple molecules and intermolecular charge transfer complexes, where intermolecular interactions are expected to have a non-negligible effect even on geometrical parameters of the monomers.

  16. Pair creation energy and Fano factor of silicon in the energy range of soft X-rays

    The pair creation energy and the Fano factor of silicon are examined experimentally in the energy range of soft X-rays. Both quantities are shown to be a function of the energy of the absorbed radiation and of the detector temperature. For the pair creation energy our experimental data are in accordance with theory. The observed behaviour of the Fano factor cannot be explained by existing models. (orig.)

  17. Theoretical study of cylindrical energy analyzers for MeV range heavy ion beam probes

    A cylindrical energy analyzer with drift spaces is shown to have a second order focusing for beam incident angle when the deflection angle is properly chosen. The analyzer has a possibility to be applied to MeV range heavy ion beam probes, and will be also available for accurate particle energy measurements in many other fields. (author)

  18. Long-ranged forces and energy non-conservation in (1+1)-dimensions

    Rubakov, V. A.

    1997-01-01

    We consider whether local and causal non-conservation of energy may occur in generally covariant theories with long-ranged fields (analogs of Newton's gravity) whose source is energy--momentum. We find that such a possibility exists in (1+1) dimensions.

  19. Energy loss of muons in the energy range 1-10000 GeV

    A summary is given of the most recent formulae for the cross-sections contributing to the energy loss of muons in matter, notably due to electro-magnetic interactions (ionization, bremsstrahlung and electron-pair production) and nuclear interactions. Computed energy losses dE/dx are tabulated for muons with energy between 1 GeV and 10,000 GeV in a number of materials commonly used in high-energy physics experiments. In comparison with earlier tables, these show deviations that grow with energy and amount to several per cent at 200 GeV muon energy. (orig.)

  20. Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil

    Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies three resonances are created: emitter-mediator (EM), mediator-receiver (MR) and emitter-receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the ER resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter-mediator-receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the ER resonance, then the energy flows directly fro...

  1. Mechanism of Long-Range Penetration of Low-Energy Ions in Botanic Samples

    刘峰; 王宇钢; 薛建明; 王思学; 杜广华; 颜莎; 赵渭江

    2002-01-01

    We present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100keV Ar+ ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 × 10-5. The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He+ ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples.

  2. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    Cornaton, Yann; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    An alternative separation of short-range exchange and correlation energies is used in the framework of second-order range-separated density-functional perturbation theory. This alternative separation was initially proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] and relies on a long-range interacting wavefunction instead of the non-interacting Kohn-Sham one. When second-order corrections to the density are neglected, the energy expression reduces to a range-separated double-hybrid (RSDH) type of functional, RSDHf, where "f" stands for "full-range integrals" as the regular full-range interaction appears explicitly in the energy expression when expanded in perturbation theory. In contrast to usual RSDH functionals, RSDHf describes the coupling between long- and short-range correlations as an orbital-dependent contribution. Calculations on the first four noble-gas dimers show that this coupling has a significant effect on the potential energy curves in the equilibrium region, improving the accurac...

  3. Range-separated density-functional theory for molecular excitation energies

    Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is nowadays a method of choice to compute molecular excitation energies. However, within the usual adiabatic semi-local approximations, it is not able to describe properly Rydberg, charge-transfer or multiple excitations. Range separation of the electronic interaction allows one to mix rigorously density-functional methods at short range and wave function or Green's function methods at long range. When applied to the exchange functional, it already corrects most of these deficiencies but multiple excitations remain absent as they need a frequency-dependent kernel. In this thesis, the effects of range separation are first assessed on the excitation energies of a partially-interacting system in an analytic and numerical study in order to provide guidelines for future developments of range-separated methods for excitation energy calculations. It is then applied on the exchange and correlation TDDFT kernels in a single-determinant approximation in which the long-range part of the correlation kernel vanishes. A long-range frequency-dependent second-order correlation kernel is then derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation and added perturbatively to the range-separated TDDFT kernel in order to take into account the effects of double excitations. (author)

  4. Energy-efficient algorithm for sensor networks with non-uniform maximum transmission range.

    Yu, Yimin; Song, Chao; Liu, Ming; Gong, Haigang

    2011-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the energy hole problem is a key factor affecting the network lifetime. In a circular multi-hop sensor network (modeled as concentric coronas), the optimal transmission ranges of all coronas can effectively improve network lifetime. In this paper, we investigate WSNs with non-uniform maximum transmission ranges, where sensor nodes deployed in different regions may differ in their maximum transmission range. Then, we propose an Energy-efficient algorithm for Non-uniform Maximum Transmission range (ENMT), which can search approximate optimal transmission ranges of all coronas in order to prolong network lifetime. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that ENMT performs better than other algorithms. PMID:22163950

  5. Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Sensor Networks with Non-Uniform Maximum Transmission Range

    Yimin Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the energy hole problem is a key factor affecting the network lifetime. In a circular multi-hop sensor network (modeled as concentric coronas, the optimal transmission ranges of all coronas can effectively improve network lifetime. In this paper, we investigate WSNs with non-uniform maximum transmission ranges, where sensor nodes deployed in different regions may differ in their maximum transmission range. Then, we propose an Energy-efficient algorithm for Non-uniform Maximum Transmission range (ENMT, which can search approximate optimal transmission ranges of all coronas in order to prolong network lifetime. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that ENMT performs better than other algorithms.

  6. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  7. Geographical and temporal differences in electric vehicle range due to cabin conditioning energy consumption

    Kambly, Kiran; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2015-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles that are propelled by electric motors powered by rechargeable battery. They are generally asserted to have GHG emissions, driveability and life cycle cost benefits over conventional vehicles. Despite this, EVs face significant challenges due to their limited on-board energy storage capacity. In addition to providing energy for traction, the energy storage device operates HVAC systems for cabin conditioning. This results in reduced driving range. The factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, duration and thermal soak have been identified to affect the cabin conditions. In this paper, the development of a detailed system-level approach to HVAC energy consumption in EVs as a function of transient environmental parameters is described. The resulting vehicle thermal comfort model is used to address several questions such as 1) How does day to day environmental conditions affect EV range? 2) How does frequency of EV range change geographically? 3) How does trip start time affect EV range? 4) Under what conditions does cabin preconditioning assist in increasing the EV range? 5) What percentage increase in EV range can be expected due to cabin preconditioning at a given location?

  8. Determination of the energy of cosmic ray nuclei in the range above 1 TeV

    Rapoport, I D; Shestoperov, V Y

    2002-01-01

    A new method of measuring the energy of particles in the range above 1 TeV is proposed. This method is based on registration of the specific energy absorption in the maximum of hadron showers generated by these particles in dense matter. The method allows to increase the accuracies of the energy measurement by thin ionization calorimeters in cosmic ray studies at high altitudes. The available accuracies of energy measurements are considered for protons and He nuclei. The comparison of simulation results and data of the experiment onboard the satellite Kosmos-1713 is presented

  9. Guidance Law Design for Terminal Area Energy Management of Reusable Launch Vehicle by Energy-to-Range Ratio

    Wen Jiang; Zhaohua Yang

    2014-01-01

    A new guidance scheme that utilizes a trajectory planning algorithm by energy-to-range ratio has been developed under the circumstance of surplus energy for the terminal area energy management phase of a reusable launch vehicle. The trajectory planning scheme estimates the reference flight profile by piecing together several flight phases that are defined by a set of geometric parameters. Guidance commands are readily available once the best reference trajectory is determined. The trajectory ...

  10. Energy dependence of some neutron dosimeter sensitivities in the 1 ev up to 4 kev energy range

    The sensitivities of DN-A-1 device and SNM-14 slow neutron counter with a combined moderator in the 1 eV up to 4 keV energy range has been experimentally determined. The IBR-30 reactor served as a neutron source, spectral distribution was performed by the time-of-flight method. The sensitivity constancy of a long counter in the 1 eV up to 4 keV energy range has been experimentally shown. The obtained sensitivity values and other data available could be used in determining energy dependencies of the device sensitivity in essential neutron energy range. It permits to evaluate their errors when using as dosimeters in radiation fields of nuclear physics installations

  11. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal; MABIT, Stefan Lindhard; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up to six months driving pattern data collected from 741 drivers, (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road characteristics; (iv) weather data. We found that the real-world driving range of BEVs is highly ...

  12. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe;

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...

  13. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal;

    This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up to...... six months driving pattern data collected from 741 drivers, (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road characteristics; (iv) weather data. We found that the real-world driving range of BEVs is highly sensitive to driving pattern and weather variables. The most important determinants of energy...

  14. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems including bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to ene...

  15. Long-range correlation energy calculated from coupled atomic response functions

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; DiStasio, Robert A; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    An accurate determination of the electron correlation energy is essential for describing the structure, stability, and function in a wide variety of systems, ranging from gas-phase molecular assemblies to condensed matter and organic/inorganic interfaces. Even small errors in the correlation energy can have a large impact on the description of chemical and physical properties in the systems of interest. In this context, the development of efficient approaches for the accurate calculation of the long-range correlation energy (and hence dispersion) is the main challenge. In the last years a number of methods have been developed to augment density functional approximations via dispersion energy corrections, but most of these approaches ignore the intrinsic many-body nature of correlation effects, leading to inconsistent and sometimes even qualitatively incorrect predictions. Here we build upon the recent many-body dispersion (MBD) framework, which is intimately linked to the random-phase approximation for the co...

  16. Energy System Expectations for Nuclear in the 21. Century: A Plausible Range

    This paper outlines a range of scenarios describing what the world's energy system might look like in the middle of the century, and what nuclear energy's most profitable role might be. The starting point is the 40 non-greenhouse-gas-mitigation scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2000). Given their international authorship and comprehensive review by governments and scientific experts, the SRES scenarios are the state of the art in long-term energy scenarios. However, they do not present the underlying energy system structures in enough detail for specific energy technology and infrastructure analyses. This paper therefore describes initial steps within INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles of the International Atomic Energy Agency) to translate the SRES results into a range of possible nuclear energy technology requirements for mid-century. The paper summarizes the four SRES scenarios that will be used in INPRO and the reasons for their selection. It provides illustrative examples of the sort of additional detail that is being developed about the overall energy system implied by each scenario, and about specific scenario features particularly relevant to nuclear energy. As recommended in SRES, the selected scenarios cover all four SRES 'story-line families'. The energy system translations being developed in INPRO are intended to indicate how energy services may be provided in mid-century and to delineate likely technology and infrastructure implications. They will indicate answers to questions like the following. The list is illustrative, not comprehensive. - What kind of nuclear power plants will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What energy forms and other products and services provided by nuclear reactors will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What would be their market shares? - How difficult will it be to site new nuclear

  17. N(+)-N long-range interaction energies and resonance charge exchange

    Stallcop, J. R.; Partridge, H.

    1985-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic studies of proposed space missions require atmospheric charge-transfer data. N2(+) eigenstate energies are calculated with use of the complete-active-space self-consistent-field method with an extended Gaussian basis set. The N(+)-N charge-exchange cross section, determined from these energies, agrees with merged-beam measurements. This contradicts the previous theoretical conclusion. A simple physical description of the long-range interaction is presented and should expedite future charge-transfer studies.

  18. Study on the energy dependence of spin-spin correlation in the range of diproton resonances

    Coefficients of polarization correlation Csub(NN) (90 deg) at 9 values of energy in the 550-950 MeV range with absolute error less than 0.05 are measured on the beams on JINR and LINP synchrocyclotrons. Csub(NN) values at the angles of 41 deg, 69 deg, 77 deg (T=550, 610, 630 MeV) and 50 deg at other energies have been obtained. The measurement results are presented together with predictions of the Arndt phase analysis and two variants of the Hoshizaki analysis conducted before and after publishing the results of the given experiment. Energy dependence of Csub(NN) (50 deg) does not reveal noticeable peculiarities and it well agrees with all the variants of the analysis. The considered total data do not substantiate certain conclusions on resonance character in pp interaction in the investigated energy range. The structure observed in respect to Csub(NN) (90 deg, p) is the consequence of different energy dependence of amplitudes of triplet and singlet scattering and it may be interpreted as a testify to presence of resonance or as a consequence of threshold phenomena in inelastic channels in the 550-750 MeV energy range

  19. Note on isotopic effects in range calculations of high-energy ion beams

    A simple analytical model that allows the calculation of the percent-level differences of the average ranges of isotopic ion beams slowing down in solid targets is extended to energies in the MeV region and to investigate isotopic effects due to small variations in the mass of the target species. The various contributions to the range in terms of ion stopping, both nuclear and electronic, and angular scattering, can be investigated separately. The model agrees with available experimental data, and predictions are made for a range of cases of interest. (orig.)

  20. Finite range effective interactions and temperature dependence of nuclear symmetry energy

    The temperature dependence of nuclear symmetry energy has become a subject of current research interest because of its role in the studies of isoscaling analyses of Heavy Ion reactions and the formation mechanism of neutron stars particularly the properties of proto neutron stars (PNS). While the temperature dependence of the kinetic part of the nuclear symmetry energy is well understood, the temperature dependence of its interaction part is not yet known to a satisfactory extent. In the present work, we have investigated the temperature dependence of nuclear symmetry energy using some finite range effective interactions proposed in some earlier works

  1. An extension of detectable energy-range of SXES spectrometer for electron microscopes

    Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) instrument for electron microscopes of EPMA/TEM with an energy range of 50-3800 eV has designed and constructed. For extend the lowest and the highest detection energy, an Au-coated new grating (50-200 eV) and a new multilayer-structure of W/B4C coated one (1500-4000 eV) were designed and manufactured. Energy resolutions were 0.2 eV for Mg-L and 27 eV for Te-Lα. Software for elemental and/or electronic structure (chemical) mappings is also developed. (author)

  2. Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil

    Rangelov, Andon A

    2012-01-01

    A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies three resonances are created: emitter-mediator (EM), mediator-receiver (MR) and emitter-receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the ER resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter-mediator-receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the ER resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust to noise, resonant constraints and external interferences.

  3. Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil

    A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies, three resonances are created: emitter–mediator (EM), mediator–receiver (MR) and emitter–receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the EM resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter–mediator–receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the EM resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust against noise, resonant constraints and external interferences. - Highlights: ► Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil. ► The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils.

  4. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    Jodice, PGR; Epperson, DM; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRS) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tort

  5. Range and energy loss rate of 118 MeV 28Si in some polymers

    In the present work, range and energy loss rate of 28Si in four dielectric track detectors viz: Makrofol-KG (MFKG), Makrofol-G (MFG), Triafol-BN (TBN) and LR-115 (cellulose nitrate) have been measured. To calculate these parameters, a curve fitting method was proved to be very useful and easier with more accuracy. (author)

  6. Low-Energy Parameters of Neutron-Neutron Interaction in the Effective-Range Approximation

    Babenko, V A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the mass difference between the charged and neutral pions on the low-energy parameters of nucleon-nucleon interaction in the $^{1}S_{0}$ spin-singlet state is studied in the effective-range approximation. On the basis of experimental values of the singlet parameters of neutron-proton scattering and the experimental value of the virtual-state energy for the neutron-neutron system in the $^{1}S_{0}$ state, the following values were obtained for the neutron-neutron scattering length and effective range: $a_{nn}=-16.59(117)$fm and $r_{nn}=2.83(11)$fm. The calculated neutron-neutron scattering length $a_{nn}$ is in good agreement with one of the two well known and differing experimental values of this quantity, and the calculated effective range $r_{nn}$ is also in good agreement with present-day experimental results.

  7. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  8. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  9. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  10. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Atomic and Molecular Physics Lab, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, JH (India)

    2015-09-15

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  11. Study of the elliptic flow and their energy dependence over pseudorapidity range at FAIR energies

    The major goal of high energy heavy ion collision experiments is to create extremely hot and dense matter with partons as its fundamental components called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The various observables have been studied, both in experiments, and in model calculations, so as to unravel the properties of the dense hot matter created in the collisions. Of particular interest is the elliptic flow which is considered as one of the most important signatures of the formation of QGP as it is sensitive to the very early stage of the collision. It has its origin in the initial spatial asymmetry of the system, which is then transformed into the momentum anisotropy of the particles. In this work we have studied the transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow v2 at 25 A GeV by the AMPT model with the default and the string melting versions and then the energy dependence of elliptic flow with the pseudorapidity is studied

  12. Energy Aware Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Variable Range Transmission

    Pinki Nayak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile n odes that dynamically forms networks temporarily without the need for any pre-existing infrastructur e. Today, one of the main issues in MANETs is the development of energy efficient protocols due to li mited bandwidth and battery life. The nodes in MANETs operate by a battery source which has limite d energy reservoir. Power failure of a node affects the node’s ability to forward packets on behalf of others, thus reducing the network lifetime. The conventional MANET routing protocols s. a. DSR and AODV use common transmission range for transfer of data and does not consider energy statu s of nodes. This paper discusses a new energy aware routing (EAR scheme which uses variable transmissi on range. The protocol has been incorporated along with the route discovery procedure of AODV as a cas e study. Both the protocols are simulated using Network Simulator-2 and comparisons are made to ana lyze their performance based on energy consumption, network lifetime and number of alive n odes metrics for different network scenarios. The results show that EAR makes effective node energy u tilization.

  13. High energy ion range and deposited energy calculation using the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck splitting of the Boltzmann transport equation

    We consider the splitting of the straight-ahead Boltzmann transport equation in the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, decomposing the differential cross-section into a singular part, corresponding to small energy transfer events, and in a regular one, which corresponds to large energy transfer. The convergence of implantation profile, nuclear and electronic energy depositions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, to the respective exact distributions, calculated from Monte-Carlo method, was exanimate in a large-energy interval for various values of splitting parameter and for different ion-target mass relations. It is shown that for the universal potential there exists an optimal value of splitting parameter, for which range and deposited energy distributions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, accurately approximate the exact distributions and which minimizes the computational expenses

  14. A dressing of zero-range potentials and electron-molecule scattering problem at low energies

    Leble, S B

    2002-01-01

    A dressing of a nonspherical potential, which includes $n$ zero range potentials, is considered. The dressing technique is used to improve ZRP model. Concepts of the partial waves and partial phases for non-spherical potential are used in order to perform Darboux transformation. The problem of scattering on the regular $\\hbox{X}_n$ and $\\hbox{YX}_n$ structures is studied. The possibilities of dressed ZRP are illustrated by model calculation of the low-energy electron-Silane ($\\hbox{SiH}_4$) scattering. The results are discussed. Key words: multiple scattering, silane, zero range potential.

  15. The relationship between professional operatic soprano voice and high range spectral energy

    Barnes, Jennifer J.; Davis, Pamela; Oates, Jennifer; Chapman, Janice

    2004-07-01

    Operatic sopranos need to be audible over an orchestra yet they are not considered to possess a singer's formant. As in other voice types, some singers are more successful than others at being heard and so this work investigated the frequency range of the singer's formant between 2000 and 4000 Hz to consider the question of extra energy in this range. Such energy would give an advantage over an orchestra, so the aims were to ascertain what levels of excess energy there might be and look at any relationship between extra energy levels and performance level. The voices of six operatic sopranos (national and international standard) were recorded performing vowel and song tasks and subsequently analyzed acoustically. Measures taken from vowel data were compared with song task data to assess the consistency of the approaches. Comparisons were also made with regard to two conditions of intended projection (maximal and comfortable), two song tasks (anthem and aria), two recording environments (studio and anechoic room), and between subjects. Ranking the singers from highest energy result to lowest showed the consistency of the results from both vowel and song methods and correlated reasonably well with the performance level of the subjects. The use of formant tuning is considered and examined.

  16. The energy range of drift effects in the solar modulation of cosmic ray electrons

    Nndanganeni, Rendani R.; Potgieter, Marius S.

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional modulation model is used to study the energy range of drift effects in the solar modulation of cosmic ray (galactic) electrons. Drift effects are defined as the difference between modulated spectra at a given position in the heliosphere computed for the two solar magnetic polarity cycles. The process of curvature, gradient and current sheet drifts in the heliosphere, together with convection, adiabatic energy losses and diffusion have profound effects on electron modulation. However, several reports indicated that the so-called weak-scattering drifts caused an overestimation of drift effects. It is illustrated that drift effects can be reduced in two ways, explicitly and implicitly; both influence the energy range where these effects are present but the implicit approach is more subtle to recognize and understand. A new very local interstellar spectrum for electrons is used. Electrons are most suitable for this type of study because they experience far less adiabatic energy losses than protons so that they respond directly with changes of the diffusion coefficients down to very low kinetic energy, E ∼ 1 MeV. In general, taking several modulation considerations into account, drift effects for electrons at the Earth are getting increasingly larger from above ∼10 MeV, with a maximum effect around 100 MeV, then gradually subsides to become less significant above ∼10 GeV.

  17. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. PMID:27288936

  18. Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Soufli, Regina;

    2013-01-01

    Traditional multilayer reflective optics that have been used in the past for imaging at x-ray photon energies as high as 200 keV are governed by classical wave phenomena. However, their behavior at higher energies is unknown, because of the increasing effect of incoherent scattering and the...... transport simulations to quantitatively determine that incoherent scattering takes place in the mirrors but it does not affect the performance at the Bragg angles of operation. Our results open up new possibilities of reflective optical designs in a spectral range where only diffractive optics (crystals and...

  19. Degrees of locality of energy transfer in the inertial range. [Kolmogoroff notion in turbulence theory

    Zhou, YE

    1993-01-01

    Measured raw transfer interactions from which local energy transfer is argued to result are summed in a way that directly indicates the scale disparity (s) of contributions to the net energy flux across the spectrum. It is found that the dependence upon s closely follows the s exp -4/3 form predicted by classical arguments. As a result, it is concluded that direct numerical simulation measurements lend support to the classical Kolmogorov phenomenology of local interactions and local transfer in an inertial range.

  20. Photon interaction measurements of certain compounds in the energy range 30-660 keV

    The total photon interaction cross sections at six energies in the energy range 30-660 keV are determined in ten compounds, (NaNO3, KNO3, Sr(NO3)2, NaCl, SrCl2-2H2), NaClO3, (NH4)SO4, MgSO4) using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in a good geometry setup. Analysis of the experimental data in terms of cross sections and effective atomic numbers is presented

  1. AGN Observations in the GeV/TeV Energy Range with the MAGIC Telescope

    Wagner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    MAGIC currently is the largest imaging atmospheric Cerenkov telescope world-wide. Since 2004, gamma-ray emission from several active galactic nuclei in the GeV/TeV energy range has been detected, some of which were newly discovered as very-high energy gamma-ray sources. The gamma-rays are assumed to originate from particle acceleration processes in the AGN jets. We give an overview of the AGN observed and detected by MAGIC, discuss spectral and temporal properties of these and show physics im...

  2. A geometrical approach to computing free energy landscapes from short-ranged potentials

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda; Brenner, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Particles interacting with short-ranged potentials have attracted increasing interest, partly for their ability to model mesoscale systems such as colloids interacting via DNA or depletion. We consider the free energy landscape of such systems as the range of the potential goes to zero. In this limit, the landscape is entirely defined by geometrical manifolds, plus a single control parameter. These manifolds are fundamental objects that do not depend on the details of the interaction potential, and provide the starting point from which any quantity characterizing the system -- equilibrium or non-equilibrium -- can be computed for arbitrary potentials. To consider dynamical quantities we compute the asymptotic limit of the Fokker-Planck equation, and show that it becomes restricted to the low-dimensional manifolds connected by "sticky" boundary conditions. To illustrate our theory, we compute the low-dimensional manifolds for n<=8 identical particles, providing a complete description of the lowest-energy pa...

  3. Validation of capture yield calculations in the Resolved Resonance Energy Range with CONRAD code

    Litaize, Olivier; Archier, Pascal; Becker, Bjorn; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Kopecky, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the validation of the multiple scattering corrections developed in the CONRAD code for the capture yield calculations in the Resolved Resonance energy Range (RRR). In order to calculate the capture yields, analytic and stochastic calculation schemes implemented in CONRAD are described and compared with the analysis code SAMMY/SAMSMC. The results are in excellent agreement for a variety of samples. We concentrate the discussion here on 238U, 197Au and 55Mn.

  4. Validation of capture yield calculations in the Resolved Resonance Energy Range with CONRAD code

    Schillebeeckx Peter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the validation of the multiple scattering corrections developed in the CONRAD code for the capture yield calculations in the Resolved Resonance energy Range (RRR. In order to calculate the capture yields, analytic and stochastic calculation schemes implemented in CONRAD are described and compared with the analysis code SAMMY/SAMSMC. The results are in excellent agreement for a variety of samples. We concentrate the discussion here on 238U, 197Au and 55Mn.

  5. Coupling Emitters and Silver Nanowires to Achieve Long-Range Plasmon-Mediated Fluorescence Energy Transfer.

    de Torres, Juan; Ferrand, Patrick; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-04-26

    The development of quantum plasmonic circuitry requires efficient coupling between quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides. A major experimental challenge is to simultaneously maximize the surface plasmon propagation length, the coupling efficiency into the plasmonic mode, and the Purcell factor. Addressing this challenge is also the key to enabling long-range energy transfer between quantum nanoemitters. Here, we use a dual-beam scanning confocal microscope to carefully investigate the interactions between fluorescent nanoparticles and surface plasmons on single-crystalline silver nanowires. By exciting the fluorescent nanoparticles via nanowire surface plasmons, we maximize the light-matter interactions and reach coupling efficiencies up to 44% together with 24× lifetime reduction and 4.1 μm propagation lengths. This improved optical performance enables the demonstration of long-range plasmon-mediated fluorescence energy transfer between two nanoparticles separated by micrometer distance. Our results provide guidelines toward practical realizations of efficient long-range fluorescence energy transfer for integrated plasmonics and quantum nano-optics. PMID:27019008

  6. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  7. Dissociative photoionization of N2 in the 24-32 eV photon energy range

    Dissociative photoionization of N2 is studied with synchrotron radiation in the 24-32 eV photon energy range. Branching ratios between the different dissociation limits are measured from coincidence time of flight ion spectra threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence recorded for state-selected N2+ parent ions. In this energy range, N2+ molecular ions are observed to dissociate only towards the three lowest dissociation limits. Dissociations towards the second and third ones, which correspond to the formation of N+(1D) and N(2D) metastable states, respectively, occur right from their thermochemical onsets. From the second dissociation limit energy up to the third one, the N+(1D) + N(4S)/N+(3P) + N(4S) branching ratio is almost constant and equal to 0.6:0.4, except at the energy of the C 2 Σu+ (v = 12) state, where this branching ratio is found to be equal to 0.5:0.5. From the third dissociation limit onset, N2+ ions fragment only towards this limit. Possible dissociation mechanisms are discussed, involving a spin-orbit coupling between doublet and quartet states of N2+ to produce N+(1D) + N(4S) and a direct dissociation to produce N+(3P) + N(2D). No dissociation towards the other limits has been observed, in particular to produce the N+(1S), N+(5S) and N(2P) metastable states

  8. Research on simulation system with the wide range and high-precision laser energy characteristics

    Dong, Ke-yan; Lou, Yan; He, Jing-yi; Tong, Shou-feng; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2012-10-01

    The Hardware-in-the-loop(HWIL) simulation test is one of the important parts for the development and performance testing of semi-active laser-guided weapons. In order to obtain accurate results, the confidence level of the target environment should be provided for a high-seeker during the HWIL simulation test of semi-active laser-guided weapons, and one of the important simulation parameters is the laser energy characteristic. In this paper, based on the semi-active laser-guided weapon guidance principles, an important parameter of simulation of confidence which affects energy characteristics in performance test of HWIL simulation was analyzed. According to the principle of receiving the same energy by using HWIL simulation and in practical application, HWIL energy characteristics simulation systems with the crystal absorption structure was designed. And on this basis, the problems of optimal design of the optical system were also analyzed. The measured results show that the dynamic attenuation range of the system energy is greater than 50dB, the dynamic attenuation stability is less than 5%, and the maximum energy changing rate driven by the servo motor is greater than 20dB/s.

  9. Long-range energy transfer in self-assembled quantum dot-DNA cascades

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Siu, Albert; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient transport of energy across QD-DNA thin films.The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient

  10. Frontier applications of rf superconductivity for high energy physics in the TeV range

    The authors present understanding of the fundamental nature of matter is embodied in the standard theory. This theory views all matter as composed of families of quarks and leptons with their interactions mediated by the family of force-carrying particles. Progress in particle accelerators has been a vital element in bringing about this level of understanding. Although the standard theory is successful in relating a wide range of phenomena, it raises deeper questions about the basic nature of matter and energy. Among these are: why are the masses of the various elementary particles and the strengths of the basic forces what they are? It is expected that over the next decade a new generation of accelerators spanning the 100 Gev mass range will shed light on some of these questions. These accelerators, will provide the means to thoroughly explore the energy regime corresponding to the mass scale of the weak interactions to reveal intimate details of the force carrying particles, the weak bosons, Z0 and W+-. Superconducting rf technology will feature in a major way in the electron storage rings. Current theoretical ideas predict that to make further progress towards a more fundamental theory of matter, it will be necessary to penetrate the TeV energy regime. At this scale a whole new range of phenomena will manifest the nature of the symmetry breaking mechanism that must be responsible for the differences they observe in the familiar weak and electromagnetic forces. History has shown that unexpected discoveries made in a new energy regime have proven to be the main engine of progress. The experimental challenge to accelerator designers and builders is clear. 11 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  11. Theoretical photoionization spectra in the UV photon energy range for a Mg-like Al+ ion

    In the present work, we report the photoionization cross sections of the Al+ ion calculated for the photon energy range 20-26 eV and 30-50 eV. We have expanded our previous calculation (2007 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 014302) with an optimized admixture of the initial ground state 3s21S and exited states 3s3p1,3P, 3s3d1,3D and 3s4s1,3S, and obtained significantly improved predictions for the main background and autoionizing resonance structures of the reported experimental spectra. The absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the Al+ ion in these energy ranges have been performed by West et al (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 052719), and they reported that the prominent peaks around 21 eV were attributed to the effects of the significant influence of the small fraction of the fourth-order radiation with energies around 84 eV from the synchrotron source. In our previous work, the main shape for these cross sections was calculated assuming an admixture of initial 3s21S and 3s3p3P states, only with a rough overall estimate for the experimental spectra in the photon energy range 20-26 eV, and without these peaks around 21 eV. The report of the experimental assignment attributes these peaks to the excitation of a 2p electron from the core. However, our present results with the new admixture reveal similar peaks without considering the possibility of the core excitation

  12. Output power and efficiency of electromagnetic energy harvesting systems with constrained range of motion

    In some energy harvesting systems, the maximum displacement of the seismic mass is limited due to the physical constraints of the device. This is especially the case where energy is harvested from a vibration source with large oscillation amplitude (e.g., marine environment). For the design of inertial systems, the maximum permissible displacement of the mass is a limiting condition. In this paper the maximum output power and the corresponding efficiency of linear and rotational electromagnetic energy harvesting systems with a constrained range of motion are investigated. A unified form of output power and efficiency is presented to compare the performance of constrained linear and rotational systems. It is found that rotational energy harvesting systems have a greater capability in transferring energy to the load resistance than linear directly coupled systems, due to the presence of an extra design variable, namely the ball screw lead. Also, in this paper it is shown that for a defined environmental condition and a given proof mass with constrained throw, the amount of power delivered to the electrical load by a rotational system can be higher than the amount delivered by a linear system. The criterion that guarantees this favourable design has been obtained. (paper)

  13. Energy-dispersive phase plate for magnetic circular dichroism experiments in the X-ray range

    A 220 diamond phase plate was combined with an energy-dispersive absorption spectrometer to convert linearly polarized X-rays into circularly polarized photons and to detect circular magnetic X-ray dichroism (CMXD) from ferromagnetic samples. In these experiments, carried out at LURE, the energy-dispersive spectrometer was equipped with a bent Si (311) polychromator and vertically collimating slits accepting essentially a linearly polarized incident beam. The quarter-wave plate was operated in the Bragg geometry but well outside the range of quasi total reflection, with the consequence that the forward-diffracted beam was circularly polarized with a polarization rate approaching 80% over the whole energy bandpass of the polychromator. CMXD spectra of GdFe2 and GdCo2 intermetallic compounds were recorded at ca 7.2 keV near the Gd LIII absorption edge: they are essentially identical to the spectra commonly recorded with elliptically polarized X-ray photons collected out of the orbit plane of the storage ring. It is suggested that the energy-dispersive phase plate will be very useful to detect CMXD spectra with energy-dispersive spectrometers exploiting the well collimated linearly polarized emission of standard undulators installed on the storage rings of the third generation. (orig.)

  14. Calculations of the response of shielded detectors to gamma rays at MeV-range energies

    Nuclear instruments designed to detect gamma rays at energies from 0.1 to 10 MeV respond primarily to the electrons produced by gamma-ray scattering and absorption in either the instrument itself or in the surrounding materials. Although tabulated attenuation coefficients are very useful for estimating macroscopic quantities such as bulk energy depositions, such quantities are averages over several different phenomena at the microscopic level. For detectors with active elements that are thin compared with an electron range, the competing effects of inscattering and outscattering result in complicated responses, as evidenced by the strong energy dependence of the resulting pulse-height spectra. Thus, for some applications the macroscopic averages are entirely sufficient, but for others a full microscopic analysis is needed. The author first reviews the literature on the responses of several types of detectors to gamma rays at energies below 10 MeV, and then they use a series of simple Monte Carlo calculations to illustrate the important physics issues. These simple calculations are followed by thorough studies of the energy and angle responses of two proposed instruments, including their responses to instantaneous pulses of large numbers of simultaneous incident photons

  15. Calculations of the response of shielded detectors to gamma rays at MeV-range energies

    R. C. Byrd

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear instruments designed to detect gamma rays at energies from 0.1 to 10 MeV respond primarily to the electrons produced by gamma-ray scattering and absorption in either the instrument itself or in the surrounding materials. Although tabulated attenuation coefficients are very useful for estimating macroscopic quantities such as bulk energy depositions, such quantities are averages over several different phenomena at the microscopic level. For detectors with active elements that are thin compared with an electron range, the competing effects of inscattering and outscattering result in complicated responses, as evidenced by the strong energy dependence of the resulting pulse-height spectra. Thus, for some applications the macroscopic averages are entirely sufficient, but for others a full microscopic analysis is needed. The author first reviews the literature on the responses of several types of detectors to gamma rays at energies below 10 MeV, and then they use a series of simple Monte Carlo calculations to illustrate the important physics issues. These simple calculations are followed by thorough studies of the energy and angle responses of two proposed instruments, including their responses to instantaneous pulses of large numbers of simultaneous incident photons.

  16. Investigation of the sup 9 sup 3 Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range

    Grigoriev, Y V; Faikov-Stanchik, H; Ilchev, G; Kim, G N; Kitaev, V Ya; Mezentseva, Z V; Panteleev, T; Sinitsa, V V; Zhuravlev, B V

    2001-01-01

    The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for sup 9 sup 3 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% sup 9 sup 3 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of sup 9 sup 3 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of sup...

  17. The photofragmentation of naphthalene and azulene monocations in the energy range 7 22 eV

    Jochims, H. W.; Rasekh, H.; Rühl, E.; Baumgärtel, H.; Leach, S.

    1992-12-01

    Photoion mass spectrometry was used to study the fragmentation of naphthalene and azulene monocations over the excitation energy range 7-22 eV. Fifteen fragmentation processes in naphthalene and twelve in azulene have been examined in detail. The photoionization mass spectra at 20.58 eV are quasi-identical for the two isomers. This, and the constant value of the difference between the fragment appearance energies (AE) for naphthalene and azulene, equal to the difference in the heats of formations of the neutral parents, suggest that identical products are formed. The unimolecular dissociations fall mainly into (i) a "low energy" group, (AE 18 eV). The reactions in (i) have in common the bicyclic precursor C 10H +8 ion 18 which decays via rupture of one ring. The group (ii) reactions involve rupture of both rings to give an open chain precursor, the 1,6-bis-ethinyl-hexatriene radical cation 20. Thermodynamic and mechanistic arguments are given to propose specific reaction pathways and product structures. Two general schemes rationalize the low-energy and high-energy ionic decompositions.

  18. Long-range energy transport in single supramolecular nanofibres at room temperature

    Haedler, Andreas T.; Kreger, Klaus; Issac, Abey; Wittmann, Bernd; Kivala, Milan; Hammer, Natalie; Köhler, Jürgen; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Hildner, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Efficient transport of excitation energy over long distances is a key process in light-harvesting systems, as well as in molecular electronics. However, in synthetic disordered organic materials, the exciton diffusion length is typically only around 10 nanometres (refs 4, 5), or about 50 nanometres in exceptional cases, a distance that is largely determined by the probability laws of incoherent exciton hopping. Only for highly ordered organic systems has the transport of excitation energy over macroscopic distances been reported--for example, for triplet excitons in anthracene single crystals at room temperature, as well as along single polydiacetylene chains embedded in their monomer crystalline matrix at cryogenic temperatures (at 10 kelvin, or -263 degrees Celsius). For supramolecular nanostructures, uniaxial long-range transport has not been demonstrated at room temperature. Here we show that individual self-assembled nanofibres with molecular-scale diameter efficiently transport singlet excitons at ambient conditions over more than four micrometres, a distance that is limited only by the fibre length. Our data suggest that this remarkable long-range transport is predominantly coherent. Such coherent long-range transport is achieved by one-dimensional self-assembly of supramolecular building blocks, based on carbonyl-bridged triarylamines, into well defined H-type aggregates (in which individual monomers are aligned cofacially) with substantial electronic interactions. These findings may facilitate the development of organic nanophotonic devices and quantum information technology.

  19. Improving the range of UHF RFID transponders using solar energy harvesting under low light conditions

    Ascher, A.; Lehner, M.; Eberhardt, M.; Biebl, E.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of passive UHF RFID transponders (Radio Frequency Identification) is the key issue, which determines the maximum read range of an UHF RFID system. During this work the ability of improving the sensitivity using solar energy harvesting, especially for low light conditions, is shown. To use the additional energy harvested from the examined silicon and organic solar cells, the passive RFID system is changed into a semi-active one. This needs no changes on the reader hardware itself, only the used RFIC (Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit) of the transponder has to possess an additional input pin for an external supply voltage. The silicon and organic cells are evaluated and compared to each other regarding their low light performance. The different cells are examined in a shielded box, which is protected from the environmental lighting. Additionally, a demonstrator is shown, which makes the measurement of the extended read range with respect to the lighting conditions possible. If the cells are completely darkened, the sensitivity gain is ascertained using high capacity super caps. Due to the measurements an enhancement in range up to 70 % could be guaranteed even under low light conditions.

  20. Long-range correlation studies at the SPS energies in MC model with string fusion

    Kovalenko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the ultrarelativistic collisions of hadrons and nuclei at different centrality and energy enable to explore the QCD phase diagram in a wide range of temperature and baryon density. Long-range correlation studies are considered as a tool, sensitive to the observation of phase transition and the critical point. In the present work, a Monte Carlo model of proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions is applied to heavy and light ion collisions at the cms energy range from a few up to several hundred GeV per nucleon. The model describes the nuclear collisions at the partonic level through interaction of color dipoles and takes into account the effects of string fusion, which can be considered as an alternative to relativistic hydrodynamics way of describing the collective phenomena in heavy-ion collisions. The implementing of both the string fusion and the finite rapidity length of strings allowed to consider the particle production at non-zero baryochemical potential. We calculated th...

  1. Photoproduction in the Energy Range 70-200 GeV

    2002-01-01

    This experiment continues the photoproduction studies of WA4 and WA57 up to the higher energies made available by the upgrading of the West Hall. An electron beam of energy 200 GeV is used to produce tagged photons in the range 65-180 GeV; The photon beam is incident on a 60 cm liquid hydrogen target in the Omega Spectrometer. A Ring Image Cherenkov detector provides pion/kaon separation up to 150 GeV/c. The Transition Radiation Detector extends the charged pion identification to the momentum range from about 80 GeV/c upwards. The large lead/liquid scintillator calorimeter built by the WA70 collaboration and the new lead/scintillating fibre det (Plug) are used for the detection of the $\\gamma$ rays produced by the interactions of the primary photons in the hydrogen target. \\\\ \\\\ The aim is to make a survey of photoproduction reactions up to photon energies of 200 GeV. The large aperture of the Omega Spectrometer will particularly enable study of fragmentation of the photon to states of high mass, up to @C 9 G...

  2. Modified effective range analysis of low energy electron and positron scattering on CO{sub 2}

    Idziaszek, Z [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, 02668 Warszawa (Poland); Karwasz, G P [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland); Brusa, R S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy)], E-mail: zbyszek@cft.edu.pl

    2008-05-15

    Analytical solutions for the modified effective range problem have been applied to positron and electron scattering on carbon dioxide in the low (below 10 eV) energy range. For positrons, the solution with three partial waves reproduces very well experimental results up to the positronium formation threshold; the s-wave contribution rises in the limit of zero energy and the p-wave contribution reaches a very broad maximum at about 0.5 eV. For electron scattering, the present solution shows a sharp rise of the s-wave contribution in the limit of zero energy, explained by earlier calculations as a virtual negative ion state. The p-wave shows a resonant structure at about 5 eV corresponding to an experimentally well known {sup 2}II{sub u} shape resonance. An additional maximum in the p-wave contribution is observed at about 1-2 eV. The latter feature would explain resonant-like scattering observed recently in high-resolution vibrational excitation measurements.

  3. Implants of aluminum in the 50-120 MeV energy range into silicon

    Al ions in the 50-120 MeV energy range were implanted in Si substrates for fluences varying between 1 x 1014 and 3.5 x 1015 /cm2. The electrical and chemical Al distributions were obtained by spreading resistance profilometry and secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the two principal moments, Rp and ΔRp, were measured. On low resistivity samples, ρ = 0.01 Ω cm, the disorder profile induced by the 100 MeV Al implant was determined from the electrical measurement of the inactivated bulk dopant (boron) distribution. The diffusion coefficient of Al implanted into floating-zone silicon was extracted from the electrical profiles after thermal treatments in the 1000-1290degC temperature range with the result D = 7.4 exp[-3.42(eV)/kT](cm2/s). (orig.)

  4. Implants of aluminum in the 50-120 MeV energy range into silicon

    La Ferla, A.; Torrisi, L.; Galvagno, G.; Rimini, E. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Catania (Italy)); Ciavola, G. (Lab. Nazionale del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy)); Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Padova (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    Al ions in the 50-120 MeV energy range were implanted in Si substrates for fluences varying between 1 x 10[sup 14] and 3.5 x 10[sup 15] /cm[sup 2]. The electrical and chemical Al distributions were obtained by spreading resistance profilometry and secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the two principal moments, R[sub p] and [Delta]R[sub p], were measured. On low resistivity samples, [rho] = 0.01 [Omega] cm, the disorder profile induced by the 100 MeV Al implant was determined from the electrical measurement of the inactivated bulk dopant (boron) distribution. The diffusion coefficient of Al implanted into floating-zone silicon was extracted from the electrical profiles after thermal treatments in the 1000-1290degC temperature range with the result D = 7.4 exp[-3.42(eV)/kT](cm[sup 2]/s). (orig.).

  5. Implants of aluminum in the 50-120 MeV energy range into silicon

    La Ferla, A.; Torrisi, L.; Galvagno, G.; Rimini, E.; Ciavola, G.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1993-01-01

    Al ions in the 50-120 MeV energy range were implanted in Si substrates for fluences varying between 1 × 10 14 and 3.5 × 10 15/cm 2. The electrical and chemical Al distributions were obtained by spreading resistance profilometry and secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the two principal moments, Rp and ΔRp, were measured. On low resistivity samples, τ = 0.01 Ω cm, the disorder profile induced by the 100 MeV Al implant was determined from the electrical measurement of the inactivated bulk dopant (boron) distribution. The diffusion coefficient of Al implanted into floating-zone silicon was extracted from the electrical profiles after thermal treatments in the 1000-1290°C temperature range with the result D = 7.4 exp[ {-3.42( eV) }/{kT}] {( cm2}/{s) }.

  6. High energy resolution electron beam spectrometer in the MeV range

    Two electron spectrometers have been developed for the characterisation of scintillating counters with MeV range electrons. These spectrometers offer a monoenergetic electron beam ranging from 0.4 to 1.8 MeV with an energy resolution (FWHM) of 1.0 ± 0.2% at 1 MeV and a linearity better than 2%. The transverse profile of the beams consists of a typical 3.0 mm Gaussian width. These electron beams can automatically scan surfaces up to 60 × 200 cm2 in 1 mm increments. They have been used in the calorimeter module development for the SuperNEMO experiment

  7. Annealing of implanted silicon by low-energy electrons within seconds range

    A possibility of utilizing low-energy electron flux for annealing phosphorus-implanted-silicon crystals in the seconds exposure range is shown experimentally. The exposure duration was 10 s at the electron current density on sample varying within the range of 0.5-0.8 A/cm2. The perfection of the silicon crystal structure was studied with implanted and annealed samples by the method of Retherford back scattering of 2 MeV helium ions under channeling conditions. Profiles of mobile current carriers in doped layers of annealed samples were measured by the method of differential resistance. It is shown that the pulse electron annealing provides better restoration of silicon crystal structure distorted by implantation as compared to a reference isothermal annealing

  8. Isomeric ratio analysis in (γ, n) and (γ, p) reactions at giant-resonance energy range

    The isomeric ratios are investigated in simple photonuclear reactions at maximum energies of the Bremsstrahlung photons of 20-40 MeV for the targets in the mass range 90-180 a.m.u. The measurement results are compared with the estimates in the framework of the statistical model of the compound nucleus de-excitation. The calculations were performed without free parameters, taking into account the character of the photonuclear reactions induced by Bremsstrahlung photons, and some details of the nuclear transitions of the residual nuclear states. Within experimental errors, the calculation results are in agreement with the experimental data

  9. Isomeric ratio analysis in (gamma, n) and (gamma, p) reactions at giant-resonance energy range

    Demekhina, N A; Karapetyan, G S

    2002-01-01

    The isomeric ratios are investigated in simple photonuclear reactions at maximum energies of the Bremsstrahlung photons of 20-40 MeV for the targets in the mass range 90-180 a.m.u. The measurement results are compared with the estimates in the framework of the statistical model of the compound nucleus de-excitation. The calculations were performed without free parameters, taking into account the character of the photonuclear reactions induced by Bremsstrahlung photons, and some details of the nuclear transitions of the residual nuclear states. Within experimental errors, the calculation results are in agreement with the experimental data

  10. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  11. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico); M.S. Student at CIMAV (Mexico); Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  12. Long range correlations in stochastic transport with energy and momentum conservation

    Kundu, Anupam; Hirschberg, Ori; Mukamel, David

    2016-03-01

    We consider a simple one-dimensional stochastic model of heat transport which locally conserves both energy and momentum and which is coupled to heat reservoirs with different temperatures at its two ends. The steady state is analyzed and the model is found to obey the Fourier law with finite heat conductivity. In the infinite length limit, the steady state is described locally by an equilibrium Gibbs state. However finite size corrections to this local equilibrium state are present. We analyze these finite size corrections by calculating the on-site fluctuations of the momentum and the two point correlation of the momentum and energy. These correlations are long ranged and have scaling forms which are computed explicitly. We also introduce a multi-lane variant of the model in which correlations vanish in the steady state. The deviation from local equilibrium in this model as expressed in terms of the on-site momentum fluctuations is calculated in the large length limit.

  13. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  14. Cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane in the intermediate-energy range

    Sugohara, R. T. [Departamento de Fisica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I. [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Souza, G. L. C. de [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, UFAM, 69100-000 Itacoatiara, AM (Brazil); Homem, M. G. P. [Departamento de Fisica, UFSC, 88010-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Organosilicon compounds are of current interest due to the numerous applications of these species in industries. Some of these applications require the knowledge of electron collision cross sections, which are scarce for such compounds. In this work, we report absolute values of differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane (TMS) measured in the 100-1000 eV energy range. The relative-flow technique is used to normalize our data. In addition, the independent-atom-model (IAM) and the additivity rule (AR), widely used to model electron collisions with light hydrocarbons, are also applied for e{sup -}-TMS interaction. The comparison of our measured results of cross sections and the calculated data shows good agreement, particularly near the higher-end of incident energies.

  15. Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range

    Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

  16. Range-energy relation, range straggling and response function of CsI(Tl), BGO and GSO(Ce) scintillators for light ions

    Avdeichikov, V; Jakobsson, B; Rodin, A M; Ter-Akopian, G M

    2000-01-01

    Range-energy relations and range straggling of sup 1 sup , sup 2 sup , sup 3 H and sup 4 sup , sup 6 He isotopes with the energy approx 50A MeV are measured for the CsI(Tl), BGO and GSO(Ce) scintillators with an accuracy better than 0.2% and 5%, respectively. The Si-Sci/PD telescope was exposed to secondary beams from the mass separator ACCULINNA. The experimental technique is based on the registration of the 'jump' in the amplitude of the photodiode signal for ions passing through the scintillation crystal. Light response of the scintillators for ions 1<=Z<=4 is measured in energy range (5-50)A MeV, the results are in good agreement with calculations based on Birks model. The energy loss straggling for particles with DELTA E/E=0.01-0.50 and mass up to A=10 in 286 mu m DELTA E silicon detector is studied and compared with theoretical prescriptions. The results allow a precise absolute calibration of the scintillation crystal and to optimize the particle identification by the DELTA E-E(Sci/PD) method.

  17. EVA space suit proton and electron threshold energy measurements by XCT and range shifting

    Moyers, M.F. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, 11234 Anderson St., Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)]. E-mail: MFMoyers@adelphia.net; Saganti, P.B. [Space Radiation Health Project, NASA-Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Road 1, Houston, Texas 77058 (United States); Department of Physics and NASA-Center for Applied Radiation Research, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Nelson, G.A. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, 11234 Anderson St., Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require more than 1000 h of extravehicular activity (EVA). Outside of the ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines and mitigation of risks requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the astronaut EVA suits at various locations. Measurements of the water equivalent thickness of both United States (US) and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scans. Selected regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a 'differential range shift' technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6 MeV electron and 155 MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was re-established. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This paper provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and the obtained results.

  18. EVA space suit proton and electron threshold energy measurements by XCT and range shifting

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require more than 1000 h of extravehicular activity (EVA). Outside of the ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines and mitigation of risks requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the astronaut EVA suits at various locations. Measurements of the water equivalent thickness of both United States (US) and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scans. Selected regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a 'differential range shift' technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6 MeV electron and 155 MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was re-established. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This paper provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and the obtained results

  19. GENEVE: a Monte Carlo generator for neutrino interactions in the intermediate energy range

    GENEVE is a MonteCarlo code developed during the last few years inside the ICARUS Collaboration. It describes neutrino interactions on nuclear target in the 'intermediate energy range' and therefore is well suited for simulation of atmospheric neutrino scattering. We provide here few indications about the models adopted for the simulation of quasi-elastic interactions and of scattering processes proceeding via nucleon resonances excitation and decay. The code has been tested with comparisons with available data and an overall agreement turns out to be achieved. A gradual upgrade of the code is indeed necessary, according to many indications, reviewed during this Workshop, from more recent theoretical developments and experimental hints. More in general, the definitive assessment of a canonical Monte Carlo code for neutrino physics (in the intermediate energy range) has been identified as one of the most urgent task for a fully comprehensive understanding of the neutrino oscillation phenomenon. We believe that the only way to proceed relies on the forthcoming results of present and future generations of experiments, performed with best suited, available technologies, aiming to precise neutrino cross section measurements

  20. Range prediction for tissue mixtures based on dual-energy CT

    Möhler, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    The use of dual-energy CT (DECT) potentially decreases range uncertainties in proton and ion therapy treatment planning via determination of the involved physical target quantities. For eventual clinical application, the correct treatment of tissue mixtures and heterogeneities is an essential feature, as they naturally occur within a patient’s CT. Here, we present how existing methods for DECT-based ion-range prediction can be modified in order to incorporate proper mixing behavior on several structural levels. Our approach is based on the factorization of the stopping-power ratio into the relative electron density and the relative stopping number. The latter is confined for tissue between about 0.95 and 1.02 at a therapeutic beam energy of 200 MeV u‑1 and depends on the I-value. We show that convenient mixing and averaging properties arise by relating the relative stopping number to the relative cross section obtained by DECT. From this, a maximum uncertainty of the stopping-power ratio prediction below 1% is suggested for arbitrary mixtures of human body tissues.

  1. Range prediction for tissue mixtures based on dual-energy CT

    Möhler, Christian; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The use of dual-energy CT (DECT) potentially decreases range uncertainties in proton and ion therapy treatment planning via determination of the involved physical target quantities. For eventual clinical application, the correct treatment of tissue mixtures and heterogeneities is an essential feature, as they naturally occur within a patient's CT. Here, we present how existing methods for DECT-based ion-range prediction can be modified in order to incorporate proper mixing behavior on several structural levels. Our approach is based on the factorization of the stopping-power ratio into the relative electron density and the relative stopping number. The latter is confined for tissue between about 0.95 and 1.02 at a therapeutic beam energy of 200 MeV/u and depends on the I-value. We show that convenient mixing and averaging properties arise by relating the relative stopping number to the relative cross section obtained by DECT. From this, a maximum uncertainty of the stopping-power ratio prediction below 1% is ...

  2. A dosimetry technique of high-energy x-ray in MGy range

    Possibility of a dosimetry method for high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation in the range up to MGy and higher by activation of a detector from indium via the 115In (gamma,gamma') 115mIn reaction with determination of absorbed dose on specific activity of the 115mIn isomer is investigated. To study such an approach, a method based on joint irradiation of a stack of thin targets is offered. Each target includes the foils from indium and molybdenum of natural isotopic composition, and also a standard dosimeter in the form of a plate from PMMA. Preliminary study of indium activation (with due regard to known data on the reaction cross section), detector thermal stability, yield of the reference reactions 92Mo(gamma,2n)90Mo and 100Mo(gamma,n)99Mo as well as absorbed dose in PMMA, was conducted by means of computer simulation. The measurement of specific activity of 115mIn, 90Mo and 99Mo was carried out jointly with the absorbed dose of in PMMA using the Harwell Red 4034 dosimeters. Sensitivity of the method against end-point energy of X-Ray in the range 8 to 71 MeV has been established

  3. The Old New Frontier: Studying the CERN-SPS Energy Range with NA61/SHINE

    Szuba Marek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the Large Hadron Collider entering its third year of granting us insight into the highest collision energies to date, one should nevertheless keep in mind the unexplored physics potential of lower energies. A prime example here is the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Using its large-acceptance hadronic spectrometer, SHINE aims to accomplish a number of physics goals: measuring spectra of identified hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions to provide reference for accelerator neutrino experiments and cosmic-ray observatories, investigating particle properties in the large transverse-momentum range for hadron+hadron and hadron+nucleus collisions for studying the nuclear modification factor at SPS energies, and measuring hadronic observables in a particularly interesting region of the phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter to study the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of stronglyinteracting matter with nucleus-nucleus collisions. This contribution shall summarise results obtained so far by NA61/SHINE, as well as present the current status and plans of its experimental programme.

  4. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  5. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  6. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  7. Calorimeter for detection of hadrons in the energy range 10-100 GeV

    The calorimeter for hadron detection in the energy range 10-100 GeV is described. It is used at CERN in the experiment NA58 (COMPASS) designed to study the nucleon structure and charmed particle spectroscopy. The calorimeter consists of 480 modules (15 x 15 cm in cross section, interaction length 4.8) assembled in matrix 4.2 x 3 m with a central hole of 1.2 x 0.6 m. The energy resolutions of the calorimeter for hadrons (σπ) and electrons (σe) as well as coordinate resolution (σx,y) have been determined in the test beams to be (σπ(E))/E = (59.4 ± 2.9)/√E O+(7.6 ± 0.4), (σe(E))/E = (24.6 ± 0.7)/√E O+ (0.7 ± 0.4), σx,y = (14 ± 2) mm, respectively. The average ratio, characterizing the amplitude responses of the calorimeter to electrons and pions, has been measured to be e/π = 1.2 ± 0.1. The calorimeter is used to measure hadron energy and as an element of the COMPASS trigger system. The calorimeter has been working stably during the long COMPASS runs with characteristics close to those determined in the test beams. (author)

  8. Range-Energy Relations for Heavy Charged Particles in Gases Using the Double-Gridded Ionization Chamber

    The application of the double-gridded pulse ionization chamber to measuring the range-energy relations for alpha particles, protons, and heavy recoils is discussed. Range-energy values for recoil protons and alpha particles in a gas mixture of Argon plus 10% Methane are presented to confirm the method. The chamber described has been designed primarily for the measurement of proton ranges in a tissue equivalent gas mixture of CO2 , CH4 and N, and for fast neutron spectroscopy. (author)

  9. Signal summing at energy output from superdimensional 3 cm-range resonators

    Results of experiments on summing signals from two synchronously operating resonance SHF compressors of 3 cm range with superdimensional resonators and energy output through interference switches are presented. The experiments were conducted in two compressors with cylindrical copper resonators 90 mm in diameter and 210 mm long. The resonators operated at frequency of 9.42 GHz on vibration type H01(12) and they had intrinsic quality factor of ∼ 105. Circuits of summation in a waveguide T-piece and three-decibel slot hybrid junction were considered. Amplification factor of ∼ 11 dB for summary signals was attained at the signal duration of ∼ 30 ns by level 0.5, peak power of ∼ 1 MW and the system efficiency of ∼ 30 %

  10. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  11. Calculation of Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer Response Functions in Energy Range up to 20 MeV

    Martinkovic, J

    2005-01-01

    Multisphere neutron spectrometer is a basic instrument of neutron measurements in the scattered radiation field at charged-particles accelerators for radiation protection and dosimetry purposes. The precise calculation of the spectrometer response functions is a necessary condition of the propriety of neutron spectra unfolding. The results of the response functions calculation for the JINR spectrometer with LiI(Eu) detector (a set of 6 homogeneous and 1 heterogeneous moderators, "bare" detector within cadmium cover and without it) at two geometries of the spectrometer irradiation - in uniform monodirectional and uniform isotropic neutron fields - are given. The calculation was carried out by the code MCNP in the neutron energy range 10$^{-8}$-20 MeV.

  12. Hadronization Scheme Dependence of Long-Range Azimuthal Harmonics in High Energy p+A Reactions

    Esposito, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    We compare the distortion effects of three popular final state hadronization schemes that modify the initial-state gluon azimuthal harmonic correlations in high energy p+A collisions. The three models considered are (1) LPH: local parton-hadron duality, (2) CPR: collinear parton-hadron resonance independent fragmenation, and (3) LUND: color string hadronization. Strong initial-state multi-gluon azimuthal correlations are generated using the non-abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung GLVB model, assuming a saturation scale Qsat = 2 GeV. Long-range final hadron pair elliptic and triangular harmonics are compared based on the three hadronization schemes. Our analysis shows that the hadron level harmonics are strongly hadronization scheme dependent in the low pT < 3 GeV domain.

  13. Calculation of multisphere neutron spectrometer response functions in energy range up to 20 MeV

    Multisphere neutron spectrometer is a basic instrument of neutron measurements in the scattered radiation field at charged-particles accelerators for radiation protection and dosimetry purposes. The precise calculation of the spectrometer response functions is a necessary condition of the propriety of neutron spectra unfolding. The results of the response functions calculation for the JINR spectrometer with LiI(Eu) detector (a set of 6 homogeneous and 1 heterogeneous moderators, 'bare' detector within cadmium cover and without it) at two geometries of the spectrometer irradiation - in uniform monodirectional and uniform isotropic neutron fields - are given. The calculation was carried out by the code MCNP in the neutron energy range 10-8 - 20 MeV

  14. The study of the photon structure function at the ILC energy range

    Krupa, B; Zawiejski, L

    2015-01-01

    At the future $e^{+}e^{-}$ linear collider ILC/CLIC it will be able to measure the photon structure functions in a wider range of kinematic variables x and $Q^{2}$ in comparison to the previous results of experiments at LEP. The classical way to measure the photon structure functions is the study of $e^{+}e^{-} \\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-} {\\gamma}{\\gamma} \\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}$ X process, where X is the leptonic or hadronic final state. For the study of the QED and hadronic photon structure functions the simulations of two-photon processes were performed at the ILC center-of-mass energy equal to 500 GeV using the PYTHIA and the ILCSoft package. The analysis used information related to the forward detectors, tracking detectors and calorimeters which are parts of the ILD detector concept.

  15. Hadronization scheme dependence of long-range azimuthal harmonics in high energy p + A reactions

    Esposito, Angelo; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2015-07-01

    We compare the distortion effects of three popular final-state hadronization schemes. We show how hadronization modifies the initial-state gluon correlations in high energy p + A collisions. The three models considered are (1) LPH: local parton-hadron duality, (2) CPR: collinear parton-hadron resonance independent fragmentation, and (3) LUND: color string hadronization. The strong initial-state azimuthal asymmetries are generated using the GLVB model for non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung, assuming a saturation scale Qsat = 2 GeV. Long-range elliptic and triangular harmonics for the final hadron pairs are compared based on the three hadronization schemes. Our analysis shows that the process of hadronization causes major distortions of the partonic azimuthal harmonics for transverse momenta at least up to pT = 3 GeV. In particular, they appear to be greatly reduced for pT < 1 ÷ 2 GeV.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Conventional Ranges, Conventional...

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Conventional Ranges, Conventional...,” Publication 705-1988 and Amendment 2—1993. (See 10 CFR 430.22) 1.6Normal nonoperating temperature means...

  17. A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer

    Hoshor, C. B.; Oakes, T. M.; Myers, E. R.; Rogers, B. J.; Currie, J. E.; Young, S. M.; Crow, J. A.; Scott, P. R.; Miller, W. H.; Bellinger, S. L.; Sobering, T. J.; Fronk, R. G.; Shultis, J. K.; McGregor, D. S.; Caruso, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Hand-held instruments that can be used to passively detect and identify sources of neutron radiation-either bare or obscured by neutron moderating and/or absorbing material(s)-in real time are of interest in a variety of nuclear non-proliferation and health physics applications. Such an instrument must provide a means to high intrinsic detection efficiency and energy-sensitive measurements of free neutron fields, for neutrons ranging from thermal energies to the top end of the evaporation spectrum. To address and overcome the challenges inherent to the aforementioned applications, four solid-state moderating-type neutron spectrometers of varying cost, weight, and complexity have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The motivation of this work is to introduce these novel human-portable instruments by discussing the fundamental theory of their operation, investigating and analyzing the principal considerations for optimal instrument design, and evaluating the capability of each of the four fabricated spectrometers to meet the application needs.

  18. Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range.

    Benevides, Luis A; Huston, Alan L; Justus, Brian L; Falkenstein, Paul; Brateman, Libby F; Hintenlang, David E

    2007-06-01

    Fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent (FOC) dosimeters are members of a new family of dosimeters that are finding increased clinical applications. This study provides the first characterization of a Cu doped quartz FOC dosimeter at diagnostic energies, specifically across the range of x-ray energies and intensities used in mammographies. We characterize the calibration factors, linearity, angular dependence, and reproducibility of the FOC dosimeters. The sensitive element of each dosimeter was coupled to a photon counting photomultiplier module via 1 m long optical fibers. A computer controlled interface permitted real-time monitoring of the dosimeter output and rapid data acquisition. The axial-angular responses for all dosimeter models show nearly uniform response without any marked decrease in sensitivity. However, the normal-to-axial angular response showed a marked decrease in sensitivity of about 0 degrees C and 180 degrees C. In most clinical applications, appropriate dosimeter positioning can minimize the contributions of the varying normal-to-axial response. The FOC dosimeters having the greatest sensitive length provided the greatest sensitivity, with greatest to lowest sensitivity observed for 4.0, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.1 mm length sensitive elements. The average sensitivity of the dosimeters varies linearly with sensitive volume (R2=95%) and as a function of tube potential and target/filter combinations, generally exhibiting an increased sensitivity for higher energies. The dosimeter sensitivity as a function of tube potential had an average increase of 4.72 +/- 2.04% for dosimeter models and three target-filter combinations tested (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, and Rh/Rh) over a range of 25-31 kVp. All dosimeter models exhibited a linear response (R2 > or = 0.997) to exposure for all target-filter combinations, tube potentials, and tube current-time product stations evaluated and demonstrated reproducibility within 2%. All of the dosimeters examined in this study provided a

  19. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory

    Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Toulouse, Julien; Helgaker, Trygve; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] is explored in the context of multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory. The new decomposition of the short-range exchange-correlation energy relies on the auxiliary long-range interacting wavefunction rather than the Kohn-Sham (KS) determinant. The advantage, relative to the traditional KS decomposition, is that the wavefunction part of the energy is now computed with the regular (fully-interacting) Hamiltonian. One potential drawback is that, because of double counting, the wavefunction used to compute the energy cannot be obtained by minimizing the energy expression with respect to the wavefunction parameters. The problem is overcome by using short-range optimized effective potentials (OEPs). The resulting combination of OEP techniques with wavefunction theory has been investigated in this work, at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and multi-configuration self-consistent-f...

  20. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  1. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework c...

  2. Study of the Low-Energy Characteristics of Neutron-Neutron Scattering in the Effective-Range Approximation

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the mass difference between the charged and neutral pions on the low-energy characteristics of nucleon-nucleon interaction in the $^{1}S_{0}$ spin-singlet state is studied within the framework of the effective-range approximation. By making use of the experimental singlet neutron-proton scattering parameters and the experimental value of neutron-neutron virtual-state energy, the following values were obtained for the neutron-neutron scattering length and effective range: $a_{...

  3. Short-range exchange-correlation energy of a uniform electron gas with modified electron-electron interaction

    Toulouse, Julien; Savin, Andreas; Flad, Heinz-Juergen

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the short-range exchange-correlation energy of the uniform electron gas with two modified electron-electron interactions. While the short-range exchange functionals are calculated analytically, coupled-cluster and Fermi hypernetted-chain calculations are carried out for the correlation energy and the results are fitted to an analytical parametrization. These data enable us to construct the local density approximation corresponding to these modified interactions.

  4. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors in the 10--30 MeV energy range

    A central problem in fast neutron research is that of finding the absolute efficiency of neutron detectors. Using the associated particle method for this purpose, we have designed a chamber to count He particles from the D(d,n)3He or the T(d,n)4He reaction in coincidence with neutron events. The reactions take place in deuterium or tritium gas and a ΔE solid state counter at 800, 650, or 430 to the 2-10 MeV deuteron beam direction detects the He particles with 100 percent efficiency. To reduce background we allow the deuterons to pass out of the gas chamber through a Ni window and stop the beam approximately 150 cm from the counters. With the D(d,n)3He reaction we have obtained approximately 2 percent efficiency calibration of the central portion of a liquid scintillator in the 9-10 MeV energy range. With the T(d,n) reaction this calibration can be extended to approximately 27 MeV and the efficiency can be mapped out as a function of position in the scintillator

  5. Inelastic processes in K^(+)- He collisions in energy range 0.7 - 10 keV

    Lomsadze, R A; Kezerashvili, R Ya; Mosulishvili, N O; Phaneuf, R

    2013-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge exchange, ionization, stripping and excitation in K^(+) - He collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.7 - 10 keV. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. The increase of the excitation probability of inelastic channels with the angle of scattering is revealed. An exceptionally highly excited state of He is observed and a peculiarity for the excitation function of the resonance line is explained. The intensity ratio for the excitation of the K II \\lambda = 60.1 nm and \\lambda = 61.2 nm lines is 5:1 which indicates the high probability for excitation of the singlet resonance level $^{1}$P$_{1}$ compared to the triplet level $^{3}$P$_{1}$. The similarity of the population of the 4p state of the potassium ion and atom as well as the anomalously small values of the excitation cross sections are explained.

  6. The effect of x-ray summing in calibration of extended energy range GE detectors

    Gamma spectrometric analyses of low-level samples are usually performed using close measuring geometry. In this measuring set-up the effect of the true coincidence summing (TCS) has to be taken into account. The detection of true coincidence sum pulse is possible when a nuclide emits two or more cascading photons within the resolving time of a spectrometer. The magnitude of summing depends strongly on the total and full energy peak efficiencies of the detector and on the decay scheme of the nuclide. In addition to summing of gamma rays, other radiation, especially X-rays, can be in true coincidence with the gamma rays. X-rays in cascade with gamma rays can originate from electron capture, positron decay, or internal conversion. The summing effects with most of the X-rays can be ignored for the p-type Ge detectors having thick dead layer. On the contrary, the detectors with a thin entrance window, e.g. n-type detectors and new extended range p-type detectors, can experience severe summing of X-rays and gamma rays. (au)

  7. The effect of x-ray summing in calibration of extended energy range GE detectors

    Klemola, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-04-01

    Gamma spectrometric analyses of low-level samples are usually performed using close measuring geometry. In this measuring set-up the effect of the true coincidence summing (TCS) has to be taken into account. The detection of true coincidence sum pulse is possible when a nuclide emits two or more cascading photons within the resolving time of a spectrometer. The magnitude of summing depends strongly on the total and full energy peak efficiencies of the detector and on the decay scheme of the nuclide. In addition to summing of gamma rays, other radiation, especially X-rays, can be in true coincidence with the gamma rays. X-rays in cascade with gamma rays can originate from electron capture, positron decay, or internal conversion. The summing effects with most of the X-rays can be ignored for the p-type Ge detectors having thick dead layer. On the contrary, the detectors with a thin entrance window, e.g. n-type detectors and new extended range p-type detectors, can experience severe summing of X-rays and gamma rays. (au)

  8. X-ray experiments for Space applications in intermediate energy range

    Yadav, Vipin K; Nandi, Anuj; Palit, Sourav

    2009-01-01

    X-ray experiments in the intermediate energy range (1-50 keV) are carried out at the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP), Kolkata for space application. The purpose is to carry out developmental studies of space instruments to observe energetic phenomena from compact objects (black hole and compact stars) and active stars and their testing and evaluation. The testing/evaluation setup primarily consists of an X-ray generator, various X-ray imaging masks, an X-ray imager (CMOS) and an X-ray spectrometer (Si-PIN photo-diode). The X-ray generator (Mo target) operates in 1-50 kV anode voltage, and 1-30 mA beam current. A 45 feet long shielded collimator is used to collimate the beam which leads to the detector chamber having a 30 arc-sec angular diameter. Two types of imaging masks are used - conventional Coded Aperture Masks (CAM) and Tungsten Fresnel half-period zone-plates (ZPs) having angular resolutions of a few tens of arc-sec. The Moire fringe pattern produced by the composite shadows of two ZPs is inver...

  9. An improved energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams based on multiple accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data sets

    A theoretically based analytical energy-range relationship has been developed and calibrated against well established experimental and Monte Carlo calculated energy-range data. Only published experimental data with a clear statement of accuracy and method of evaluation have been used. Besides published experimental range data for different uniform media, new accurate experimental data on the practical range of high-energy electron beams in water for the energy range 10-50 MeV from accurately calibrated racetrack microtrons have been used. Largely due to the simultaneous pooling of accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data for different materials, the fit has resulted in an increased accuracy of the resultant energy-range relationship, particularly at high energies. Up to date Monte Carlo data from the latest versions of the codes ITS3 and EGS4 for absorbers of atomic numbers between four and 92 (Be, C, H2O, PMMA, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U) and incident electron energies between 1 and 100 MeV have been used as a complement where experimental data are sparse or missing. The standard deviation of the experimental data relative to the new relation is slightly larger than that of the Monte Carlo data. This is partly due to the fact that theoretically based stopping and scattering cross-sections are used both to account for the material dependence of the analytical energy-range formula and to calculate ranges with the Monte Carlo programs. For water the deviation from the traditional energy-range relation of ICRU Report 35 is only 0.5% at 20 MeV but as high as - 2.2% at 50 MeV. An improved method for divergence and ionization correction in high-energy electron beams has also been developed to enable use of a wider range of experimental results. (Author)

  10. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies

  11. Ranges of Iodine and Bromine Isotopes Produced in the Interaction of High-Energy Protons with Uranium

    Conventional range experiments using a thick uranium foil together with aluminium catchers and monitors are carried out at the two CERN accelerators with 0.55-GeV and 18.2-GeV protons. Iodine (or bromine) is chemically isolated and separated in the CERN radioisotope separator. This gives carrier-free samples containing essentially only one pure radioactive isotope. The chemical yield is determined also. The analysis of the data gives directly the range for each isotope in uranium. All iodine isotopes have the same range at 0.55-GeV proton energy, i.e. they are all produced in a fission process. It was known previously that neutron-rich iodine isotopes have about the same range whether the proton energy is above or below I GeV, and that neutron-deficient iodine isotopes show a drastic decrease of about one half when the proton energy increases above 1 GeV. It is shown that this decrease in range occurs rather suddenly, giving a step-function in the range - versus - iodine isotopic mass curve. The neutron-deficient isotopes having a decreased range above 1-GeV proton energy are the same as those for which a strong increase in their excitation function above 1 GeV has been observed. Bromine isotopes show essentially the same range behaviour. The strong increase in the production of neutron.-deficient isotopes is again observed at high bombarding energies. The discussion will concentrate on these neutron-deficient isotopes. They are produced essentially only above 1 GeV and have at the higher combarding energy only about one half the range of normal fission products, indicating that they are produced by a process other than fission. These findings will be discussed in the light of ''spallation'' and ''fragmentation'' models, both terms being redefined. (author)

  12. Differential measurements on Ne*(2p 53s 3P 0.2)-Ne collisions in the hyperthermal energy range

    Feron, P.; Perales, F.; Decomps, B.; Robert, J.; Reinhardt, J.; Baudon, J.; Haberland, H.

    1989-08-01

    Differential cross sections for collisions of metastable neon atoms with ground state neon atoms have been measured in the energy range 0.247-0.551 eV in a crossed nozzle beam experiment using heating and seeding techniques. At large angle, the cross sections exhibit a rainbow feature due to a hump in the 0 u- and 1 u potentials. The present data are in good agreement with calculations based on potential energy curves deduced from previous experiments at thermal energy.

  13. Neutron production in the energy range 7 to 12 MeV using a gas-target

    A gas-target for operation at a tandem-accelerator is described. Using the DD-reaction, an energy range of neutrons between 7 and 12 MeV can be realised. Construction and operation are described in detail. For neutron energies below 9 MeV the neutron source is almost monoenergetic; above this energy the deuteron break-up limits the monoenergetic behaviour. (author)

  14. Range effects of the Coulombic forces on structures, thermodynamic properties and potential energy landscapes: (KCl)32 and related systems

    Graphical abstract: The caloric curve (T vs. E), heat capacity (C) (per ion), and relative rms fluctuation in the interatomic distances (δ) of the 64-atom binary cluster for three different sets of values of the (γ, B) shielding parameters (0.000, 1.000), (0.350, 5.230), and (0.500, 9.723) (see the text for details). As the range of the Coulomb part of the interaction potential becomes shorter, the energy of the most preferred structure of the cluster decreases, and the structure itself changes from rocksalt cubic, which is the native form of (KCl)32, through an amorphous, to a hollow cage type. The energy segment in which the heat capacity is negative narrows and eventually vanishes. Highlights: ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on structures of binary systems. ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on dynamics of binary systems. ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on energy landscapes. ► We explain changes in structures and dynamics through changes in energy landscapes. - Abstract: By introducing two shielding parameters into the Coulombic part of the Coulomb plus Born–Mayer potential originally developed for (KCl)n systems, we study the effects of the range of the Coulombic interactions on the structures, thermodynamic properties and the potential energy landscapes of binary ionically bonded systems as illustrated by the case of n = 32. Our calculations show that shortening of the Coulomb interaction range leads to a decrease in the energy of the most stable structure, and the structure itself changes from the rocksalt cubic to a hollow cage type. The energy range, in which the heat capacity exhibits a negative value, gradually narrows and eventually disappears. The number of stationary points on the potential energy surface increases, and their energies get spread over a larger interval. The extent of the Coulombic interaction also affects the energy difference (gap) between the most stable structure and the

  15. WATER SPOTTERS: Water, energy, isotopes and experiential learning in the Colorado Front Range

    Noone, D. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Buhr, S. M.; Smith, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    Providing students with tangible examples of the two-way interaction between human society and the climate system is a pressing challenge. Water is at the core of many issues in environmental change from local to global scales. In climate research, there are significant uncertainties in the role water plays in the climate system. "Water" can also act as a central theme that provides opportunities for science education at all levels. WATER SPOTTERS takes advantage of the prominent agricultural landscape of the region, which is a poignant example of how society influences the climate through irrigation, evaporation/transpiration and run-off and whose productivity is influenced by the climate system. Both natural grasslands and alpine ecosystems in the surrounding regions serve as examples of the native landscape. The centerpiece of this project is a 300m tower that is fully implemented with gas sampling lines and micrometeorological equipment to study the energy and water budgets of the region. Middle Schools that surround this site, many of which exist in visual contact with the tall tower, are provided with meteorological stations, which provide rainfall rates, temperature, humidity and radiation data. In coordination with the St Vrain Valley School District MESA (Math Engineering Science Achievement) program, students collect rain water samples that are analyzed and used as a core component of the research goals. The students use the weather stations as a way to directly explore their local climatology and provide data that is needed in research. We present an overview of the curriculum goals and associated physical infrastructure designed for middle school students in the Colorado Front Range to explore their local water cycle using water isotopes. The fixed infrastructure at the schools and tall tower are supplemented by mobile instruments such as an automated precipitation collector and snowflake photography system, which both fulfill science needs and provide

  16. Finite Range Effects in Energies and Recombination Rates of Three Identical Bosons

    Sørensen, Peder Klokmose; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate finite-range effects in systems with three identical bosons. We calculate recombination rates and bound state spectra using two different finite-range models that have been used recently to describe the physics of cold atomic gases near Feshbach resonances where the scattering length...... is large. The models are built on contact potentials which take into account finite range effects; one is a two-channel model and the other is an effective range expansion model implemented through the boundary condition on the three-body wave function when two of the particles are at the same point...... at negative scattering length for creation of a bound trimer moves to higher or lower values depending on the sign of the effective range compared to the location of the threshold for the single-parameter zero-range model. Large effective ranges, corresponding to narrow resonances, are needed for the...

  17. Gamma Ray Buildup Factor for Finite Media in Energy Range (4-10) MeV for Al and Pb

    A computer program based on Monte Carlo method had been designed and written in visual basic computer language and utilized for simulating the classic problem of gamma ray beam incident on finite plane slabs of absorbing materials.The source geometry adopted in this program is plane normal source. Dose buildup factor of gamma photons in the absence and presence pair production effect have been calculated in the energy range (4-10) MeV for Aluminum and Lead up to 5 mean free path thickness.Dose buildup factor in the presence of pair production is higher than dose buildup factor in the absence of pair production effect.The deviation between the values of dose buildup factor in the presence and absence pair production is increased when the energy is increased within the studied energy range because the cross section for pair production is increased within the studied energy range

  18. The effects of electron binding energy corrections on Monte Carlo models in the diagnostic x-ray energy range

    Full text: The effects of incorporating electron binding energy corrections for incoherent scatter (BEC) into Monte Carlo models of X-ray transport in the diagnostic energy range have been examined. The inclusion of BEC can significantly increase computing overhead both in terms of data storage and execution time. In a modern PC application, data storage is unlikely to be a significant problem. However, execution time is a major consideration when assessing the relative usefulness of Monte Carlo systems. If the effectiveness of including BEC is barely more than equivocal, as is the case in some of the studies reported here, then a decision to include them requires consideration of the photon energy being modelled and the data being sought. This work seeks to clarify the real significance of inclusion of BEC by examining their effects without the confounding influence of coherent scattering effects. A Monte Carlo computer code has been developed to study a variety of X-ray transport phenomena. Models of radiation dose deposition in a semi-infinite medium, a similar model in tissue using a realistic source spectrum and diverging beam geometry, a simulation of pencil beam bone densitometry measurements, models of barrier penetration by X-rays and models of the angular distribution of scattered radiation have been undertaken. Results of previous studies have been confirmed. Models of radiation dose deposition for 10 keV, 30 keV and 100 keV photons have shown that inclusion of BEC has only a small effect upon values of total depth dose. Differences are of the same order of magnitude as the standard deviation of the results. A larger effect was noted for the values of dose due to scattered photons. This effect reached a maximum of 7% at 30 keV. Similar results were obtained from a model using a realistic source spectrum and diverging beam geometry. In the simulation of bone densitometry measurements the effects are significant (i.e. of the order of 10%). The angular

  19. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  20. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    Karamatskou, Antonia

    2015-11-15

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  1. Low-energy modes and medium-range correlated motions in Pd79Ge21 alloy glass

    It is well known that there are excess modes over the sound wave in low energy region below about 10 meV in glass materials, which do not exist in corresponding crystalline materials. We examined the low energy modes in a Pd79Ge21 alloys glass by means of inelastic neutron scattering. Measurements were performed on the crystal analyzer type time-of-flight spectrometer LAM-40 with PG(002) and Ge(311) analyzer mirror, which is installed at KENS. The dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) was obtained over the wide momentum range from 0.5 to 5.2A-1. The measured S(Q,ω)'s have almost same momentum (Q) dependence at each energy (ℎω) in the energy range from 2.0 to 8.0 meV. In the energy region below 3 meV, we found a small shoulder peak at Q = 1.7A-1 in the momentum dependence of S(Q,ω). It corresponds to a prepeak in S(Q). Therefore it is concluded that the low energy modes in Pd79Ge21 alloy glass is mainly contributed from medium-range correlated motions in the cluster consisting of a few chemical short-range structure units of Pd6Ge trigonal prism. (author)

  2. Search for Long-Range Correlations in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions at SPS Energies

    Long-range correlations are searched for by analysing the experimental data on 16O-AgBr and 32S-AgBr collisions at 200 A GeV/c and the results are compared with the predictions of a multi phase transport (AMPT) model. The findings reveal that the observed forward-backward (F-B) multiplicity correlations are mainly of short range in nature. The range of F-B correlations are observed to extend with increasing projectile mass. The observed extended range of F-B correlations might be due to overall multiplicity fluctuations arising because of nuclear geometry. The findings are not sufficient for making any definite conclusions regarding the presence of long-range correlations

  3. Analysis of Long-range Clean Energy Investment Scenarios forEritrea, East Africa

    Van Buskirk, Robert D.

    2004-05-07

    We discuss energy efficiency and renewable energy investments in Eritrea from the strategic long-term economic perspective of meeting Eritrea's sustainable development goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are potentially important contributors to national productive capital accumulation, enhancement of the environment, expansion of energy services, increases in household standard of living, and improvements in health. In this study we develop a spreadsheet model for calculating some of the national benefits and costs of different levels of investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy. We then present the results of the model in terms of investment demand and investment scenario curves. These curves express the contribution that efficiency and renewable energy projects can make in terms of reduced energy sector operating expenses, and reduced carbon emissions. We provide demand and supply curves that show the rate of return, the cost of carbon emissions reductions vs. supply, and the evolution of the marginal carbon emissions per dollar of GDP for different investment levels and different fuel-type subsectors.

  4. The calculation of mean energy for electron beam in the energy range of radio therapy in light media

    A Gaussian distribution for electron energy is deduced by Fokker-Planck approximation to the Boltzmann equation for high-energy electrons penetrating in multi-constituents media, then a recursion-iteration algorithm for the mean energy calculation of high-energy electron beam is obtained after introducing the modified CSDA mean energy and using Yang's multiple scattering theory. Some calculational results of this algorithm are also given in the article, and compared with corresponding data of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements. The comparison shows that the algorithm can precisely predict the mean energy of high-energy electron beam penetrating in light media. Furthermore, two common formulae for electron beam mean energy calculation in radiotherapy dose algorithms. i.e., the Harder formula and Brahme formula, are discussed, and a more accurate semi-empirical formula is recommended as well

  5. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Extended Temperature Range

    Xu, R.; Borregaard, L.M.; Lei, A.;

    2012-01-01

    In this work a batch of MEMS-based vibration energy harvesters consisting of a silicon/PZT thick film ntilever with integrated proof mass is characterized. The purpose of a vibration energy harvester is to convert low grade vibrations to useful electrical power. Optimally, the natural frequency o...

  6. Nuclear correlation and finite interaction-range effects in high-energy $(e,e'p)$ nuclear transparency

    Seki, Ryoichi; Shoppa, T. D.; Kohama, Akihisa; Yazaki, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is calculated for high-energy, semi-inclusive $(e,e'p)$ reactions, by accounting for all orders of Glauber multiple-scattering and by using realistic finite-range $p N$ interaction and (dynamically and statistically) correlated nuclear wave functions. The nuclear correlation effect is reduced due to the $p N$ finite-range effect. The net effect is small, and depends sensitively on details of the nuclear correlations in finite nuclei, which are poorly known at present.

  7. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    Mussard, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.mussard@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut du Calcul et de la Simulation, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Reinhardt, Peter; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Ángyán, János G. [CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France); CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS, F-54506 Vandoevre-lés-Nancy (France)

    2015-04-21

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Szabo and Ostlund [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms range-separated RPAx-SO2 as a promising method for general chemical applications.

  8. Calculation of strong and weak interactions in TDA1 and RangDP52 by the kernel energy method

    HUANG, LULU; Massa, Lou; Karle, Isabella; Karle, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Using the Kernel Energy Method we apply ab initio quantum mechanics to study the relative importance of weak and strong interactions (including hydrogen bonds) in the crystal structures of the title compounds TDA1 and RangDP52. Perhaps contrary to widespread belief, in these compounds the weak interaction energies, because of their large number and cooperativity, can be significant to the binding energetics of the crystal, and thus also to its other properties.

  9. Positron and electron backscattering from elemental solids in the 1-10 keV energy range

    Electron and positron backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated for a number of selected atomic targets in the energy range 1-10 keV and for incident angles between 0 deg. and 80 deg. The dependence of the backscattering coefficient on the material, on the projectile primary energy and on the incidence angle has been examined and discussed. Our results are found to be in better agreement with experiment than earlier Monte Carlo simulations

  10. UV/IR Mixing In Non-Fermi Liquids: Higher-Loop Corrections In Different Energy Ranges

    Mandal, Ipsita

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the Ising-nematic quantum critical point with an $m$-dimensional Fermi surface by applying a dimensional regularization scheme. We compute the contribution from two-loop and three-loop diagrams in the intermediate energy range controlled by a crossover scale. We find that for $m=2 $, the corrections continue to be one-loop exact for both the infrared and intermediate energy regimes.

  11. Development of a picture of the van der Waals interaction energy between clusters of nanometer-range particles

    The importance of the long-range Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction energy between condensed bodies is well known. However, its implementation for interacting bodies that are highly irregular and separated by distances varying from contact to micrometers has received little attention. As part of a study of collisions of irregular aerosol particles, an approach based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals interaction has been developed to compute the interaction energy between a sphere and an aggregate of spheres at all separations. In the first part of this study, the iterated sum-over-dipole interactions between pairs of approximately spherical molecular clusters are compared with the Lifshitz and Lifshitz-Hamaker interaction energies for continuum spheres of radii equal to those of the clusters' circumscribed spheres and of the same masses as the clusters. The Lifshitz energy is shown to converge to the iterated dipolar energy for quasispherical molecular clusters for sufficiently large separations, while the energy calculated by using the Lifshitz-Hamaker approach does not. Next, the interaction energies between a contacting pair of these molecular clusters and a third cluster in different relative positions are calculated first by coupling all molecules in the three-cluster system and second by ignoring the interactions between the molecules of the adhering clusters. The error calculated by this omission is shown to be very small, and is an indication of the error in computing the long-range interaction energy between a pair of interacting spheres and a third sphere as a simple sum over the Lifshitz energies between individual, condensed-matter spheres. This Lifshitz energy calculation is then combined with the short-separation, nonsingular van der Waals energy calculation of Lu, Marlow, and Arunachalam, to provide an integrated picture of the van der Waals energy from large separations to contact. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Investigation of single event upset subject to protons of intermediate energy range

    Takami, Y.; Shiraishi, F. (Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy); Goka, T.; Shimano, Y. (Tsukuba Space Center, NASDA, 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305 (JP)); Sekiguchi, M.; Shida, K. (Inst. for Nuclear Energy, Univ. of Tokyo, 3-2-1 Midoricho, Tanashi, Tokyo 188 (JP)); Kishida, N.; Kadotani, H. (Century Research Center Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kikuchi, T. (NEC Corp., 4035 Ikebecho, Midoriku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226 (JP)); Hoshino, N. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)); Murakami, S. (Fujitsu Labs. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)); Anayama, H.; Morio, A. (Reliability Center for Electonic Components of Japan, 3-4-13 Nihonbashi, Chuoku, Tokyo 103 (JP))

    1990-12-01

    Nuclear reaction models to reproduce p + Si nuclear reactions precisely in the incident proton energy region of below 50 MeV were investigated, and a computer code based on exciton models was developed. Si irradiation experiments in the intermediate energy region were performed to measure energy deposit by p + Si nuclear reactions, with two totally depleted Si detectors in face-to-face arrangement. Coincident signals were analyzed by a two dimensional pulse height analyzer. This method is shown to be effective in discriminating signals of contaminating particles.

  13. Effective atomic number of human enamel and dentin within a photo energy range from 10 to 200 KeV

    The Z and μ/p were determined regarding the total and partial photon interactions within the biological materials of human enamel and dentin, within the low photon energy range from 10 to 200 keV, which is of medical interest in terms of radiology. The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated by means of WinXCOM. The Z for total and partial photon interactions in the biological materials of human enamel and dentin have been determined within a radiological low photon energy range from 10 to 200 keV. The total Z values presented a similar behavior in both the enamel and dentin. The Z values decreased 23% in the enamel and by 32% in the dentin in direct proportion to the increase energy levels. The Z for all partial processes increased slightly and in direct proportion to the increase in energy levels. The value for photoelectric interaction proved to be the highest, whereas the value for incoherent scattering was the lowest. The total Z becomes a contribution due these three partial processes at any energy level. The value of the Z is quite sensitive to the weight fractions of the elements and the applied interpolation method. Concerning the importance of Z values to medical dosimetry, it is expected that the new data regarding Z values presented here in will be useful, particularly as regards the energy range of interest. (author)

  14. Electron inelastic interactions in bioorganic compounds in the energy range of 20 10000 eV

    Tan, Z.; Xia, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Ji, Y.; Li, F.; Huang, B.

    2005-09-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping powers (SPs) and mean free paths (MFPs) for 10 bioorganic compounds have been performed for electrons with energies lower than 10 keV, based on dielectric response theory and Penn’s statistical approximation. The exchange effect is also taken into account in the calculations. An empirical approach to obtain an optical energy loss function is presented for those organic compounds without available optical data. Using this method, the calculated values of the optical energy loss function are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparisons of SP and MFP values derived in this study with other published values are presented. Using the described model, the calculated mean ionization potentials agree well with the predictions from Bragg’s rule and the calculated SPs have also been compared with the Bethe Bloch results at an energy of 10 keV.

  15. The Old New Frontier: Studying the CERN-SPS Energy Range with NA61/SHINE

    Szuba Marek

    2012-01-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider entering its third year of granting us insight into the highest collision energies to date, one should nevertheless keep in mind the unexplored physics potential of lower energies. A prime example here is the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Using its large-acceptance hadronic spectrometer, SHINE aims to accomplish a number of physics goals: measuring spectra of identified hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions to provide reference for a...

  16. Energy dissipation of nanoconfined hydration layer: Long-range hydration on the hydrophilic solid surface

    Kim, Bongsu; Kwon, Soyoung; Mun, Hyosik; An, Sangmin; Jhe, Wonho

    2014-01-01

    The hydration water layer (HWL), a ubiquitous form of water on the hydrophilic surfaces, exhibits anomalous characteristics different from bulk water and plays an important role in interfacial interactions. Despite extensive studies on the mechanical properties of HWL, one still lacks holistic understanding of its energy dissipation, which is critical to characterization of viscoelastic materials as well as identification of nanoscale dissipation processes. Here we address energy dissipation ...

  17. Equation of state for tungsten over a wide range of densities and internal energies

    Khishchenko, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    A caloric model, which describes the pressure--density--internal-energy relationship in a broad region of condensed-phase states, is applied for tungsten. As distinct from previously known caloric equations of state for this material, a new form of the cold-compression curve at $T = 0$~K is used. Thermodynamic characteristics along the cold curve and shock Hugoniots are calculated for the metal and compared with some theoretical results and experimental data available at high energy densities.

  18. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  19. Deformation Effect on the Center-of-Mass Correction Energy in Nuclei Ranging from Oxygen to Calcium

    ZHAO Peng-Wei; SUN Bao-Yuan; MENG Jie

    2009-01-01

    The microscopic c.m. correction energies for nuclei ranging from oxygen to calcium are systematically calculated by both spherical and axially deformed relativistic mean-field (RMF) models with the effective interaction PK1. The microscopic c.m. correction energies strongly depend on the isospin as well as deformation and deviate from the phenomenological ones. The deformation effect is discussed in detail by comparing the deformed with the spherical RMF calculation. It is found that the direct and exchange terms of the c.m. correction energies are strongly correlated with the density distribution of nuclei and are suppressed in the deformed case.

  20. Analysis of long-range clean energy investment scenarios for Eritrea, East Africa

    We discuss energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) investments in Eritrea from the strategic long-term economic perspective of meeting Eritrea's sustainable development goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. EE/RE are potentially important contributors to national productive capital accumulation, enhancement of the environment, expansion of energy services, increases in household standard of living, and improvements in health. In this study, we develop a spreadsheet model for calculating some of the national benefits and costs of different levels of investment in EE/RE. We then present the results of the model in terms of investment demand and investment scenario curves. These curves express the contribution that efficiency and renewable energy projects can make in terms of reduced energy sector operating expenses, and reduced carbon emissions. We provide demand and supply curves that show the rate of return, the cost of carbon emissions reductions vs. supply, and the evolution of the marginal carbon emissions per dollar of GDP for different investment levels and different fuel-type subsectors

  1. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20 to 250 MeV

    Mclean, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, S Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olsher, Richard H [RP-2; Devine, Robert T [RP-2

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom.

  2. A satellite-borne ion mass spectrometer for the energy range 0 to 16 keV

    The Ion Composition Experiment (ICE) on GEOS represents the first comprehensive attempt to measure the positive ion composition at high altitudes in the magnetosphere. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the magnetospheric plasma a novel mass spectrometer has been developed to cover the mass per charge range from 1H+ to beyond 138Ba+ and the energy per charge range from 0 to 16 keV/e. The ICE consists primarily of a cylindrical electrostatic analyzer followed by a curved analyzer incorporating crossed magnetic and electric fields. This combination has limited angular and energy focussing properties, but it maintains a mass resolution of about 4 over a wide range in energy and mass, sufficient for the objectives of measuring plasmas of both solar and terrestrial origin. High sensitivity and low background should allow measurements of rarer ion constituents, such as 3He2+ and 16O6+, down to flux levels of 10-2 ions (cm2 sec ster eV)-1. The unusually large mass range offers the possibility of identifying Li+ or Ba+ tracer ions which may be injected into the magnetosphere by active experiments. A sophisticated electronics combined with powerful ground computer and telecommand systems allow for very efficient scanning of the mass-energy space. Based on survey measurements a variety of special modes can be commanded, either manually or automatically by means of the ground station computer. (Auth.)

  3. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos; Toulouse, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Sz-abo and Ostlund [A. Szabo and N. S. Ostlund, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse, W. Zhu, A. Savin, G. Jansen, and J. G. {\\'A}ngy{\\'a}n, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms...

  4. Scaling and charge ratio in the energy range 1-10 TeV

    The purpose of the investigation was to study the spectra of generation of neutral and charged pions in the upper atmosphere in order to establish the scaling behaviour of the multiple birth of particles at primary particle energies above the acceleration energies. The study of the spectrum gamma-quanta in the atmosphere and the muon spectrum at the sea level made it possible to adjust the pion generation spectrum. In experiments with emulsion chambers the spectra of gamma-quanta and electrons at different zenith angles at two levels in the atmosphere (225 and 700 gxcm-2) and the muon spectrum at the sea level were determined. The obtained data on pion birth in the atmosphere pointed to the conservation of scale and charge invariance in pion birth at nucleon energies of 1012-1014 eV

  5. Reaction cross sections for protons in the energy range 220-570 MeV

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton reaction cross sections have been measured for targets of natural isotopic abundance of the following elements and compounds: He, Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, Sn, Pb, H/sub 2/O, B/sub 4/C and NaI. Data for proton energies between 220 and 570 MeV have been obtained with two types of transmission-counter assembly. The total errors are of the order of +or-3%. A slight increase of the reaction cross sections with energy is observed for most of the elements studied. The results interpreted in terms of the semi-classical theory of reaction cross section as function of energy clearly demonstrate the onset of pion- production above 250 MeV. (32 refs).

  6. Nuclear stopping for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy range: from 1-Body to 2-Body dissipation

    In this study, we are looking at the global energy dissipation achieved in heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy domain. We are using the large experimental dataset available in this energy range for symmetric systems recorded with the 4π array INDRA. We are looking at central collisions, i.e. collisions corresponding to the maximal overlap and thus leading to the maximal dissipation. We have extracted information concerning the stopping encountered in such collisions and have related it to the nucleon mean free path and cross section in the nuclear medium. We have found a minimal stopping around incident energy E = 30*A MeV connected to the crossover between 1-Body to 2-Body dissipation regime. For the latter, we have estimated the nucleon mean free path in the nuclear medium from the degree of stopping achieved in central collisions. The mean free path decreases from λNN ∼ 10 fm at E/A = 30 MeV to λNN = 5 fm at E/A = 100 MeV. These values are in agreement with recent theoretical findings using microscopic approaches. The large value relative to the nuclear size (λNN > R) around the Fermi energy suggests that full thermalization is not achieved in such central collisions. In-medium effects, namely Pauli blocking and high-order correlations, have also been evaluated and are found to be large in the Fermi energy range; it is clear that this energy/density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section has to be properly taken into account in any microscopic transport model used in the Fermi energy range

  7. Extension of the α particle energy range in polycarbonate using multiple step chemical and/or electrochemical etching

    For ten years polycarbonate has been widely used for the detection of α particles in radon dosimetry. Compared with CR-39 material, the detectable α energy range of about 0.5 to 3 MeV is, however, small after using a chemical pre-etching and electrochemical etching. In order to extend the α energy range the authors investigated: (a) a step-wise combination of chemical and ECE etching, and (b) a two-step ECE technique at low and high frequency. The results of this study show that α particle tracks can be revealed ranging from 0.5 to 5 MeV. For the two-step ECE technique a constant α registration efficiency has been found. (author)

  8. Evaluation of energy requirements for all-electric range of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    Recently plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as one of the promising alternative to improve the sustainability of transportation energy and air quality especially in urban areas. The all-electric range in PHEV design plays a significant role in sizing of battery pack and cost. This paper presents the evaluation of battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler for different all-electric ranges. An analytical vehicle model and MATLAB simulation analysis has been discussed. The MATLAB simulation results estimate the impact of driving cycle and all-electric range on energy capacity, additional mass and initial cost of lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. This paper also focuses on influence of cycle life on annual cost of battery pack and recommended suitable battery pack for implementing in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers. -- Research highlights: → Evaluates the battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. → Simulation results reveal that the IDC demand more energy and cost of battery compared to ECE R40. → If cycle life is considered, the annual cost of Ni-MH battery pack is lower than lead-acid and Li-ion.

  9. Design of a polarised light beamline in the energy range of 30-4000 eV

    Chaudhari, S M; Phase, D M; Dasannacharya, B A

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the design of a possible polarised light beamline for magnetic circular dichroism and photoemission experiments on a bending magnet source of 2.5 GeV storage ring, Indus-2. It will have an energy range of 30-4000 eV and will deliver circular as well as linearly polarised light to perform absorption and photoemission experiments covering relevant L and M edges of most of the elements. The beamline optics consists of a vertically moveable aperture for polarisation selection. It has three spherical gratings and a double crystal monochromator necessary for energy selection in low and high-energy ranges respectively. Corresponding pre- and post-mirror optics, which is common for both the monochromators is the highlight of this design. Detailed ray-tracing calculations, which were carried out to evaluate and optimise the performance of the proposed beamline, are presented in this article.

  10. Pseudopotential calculations of photoionization of atoms in the x-ray photon energy range and FEL beam monitor development

    A pseudopotential model for calculation of atomic processes under interaction with hard x-ray photons is applied to calculation of Krypton photoionization cross sections by photons with energy in the 20–25 keV range. These cross sections, as well as the mean charge of the resulting ions calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation scheme, are in good agreement with the other theoretical calculations and with the experiment. The obtained results open the doors for new techniques in the design of gas-monitor detectors to control the intensity, coordinates and energy of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beams in the hard x-ray photon energy range. First, Monte Carlo simulations of a scintillation detector application for gas-monitors have been performed. (letter)

  11. Terminological dictionary of electrical power industry in range of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy

    The dictionary contains about 5000 terms about conventional and nuclear power plants, energy sources, transmission lines, automation, power systems, environment protection, statistics etc. Each term is given with definition and its equivalents in English, French, German and Russian. Indexes of Polish, English, French, German and Russian terms are provided at the back of dictionary. (A.S.)

  12. Simulation of wire-compensation of long range beam beam interaction in high energy accelerators

    Full text: We present weak-strong simulation results for the effect of long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interaction in LHC as well as for proposed wire compensation schemes or wire experiments, respectively. In particular, we discuss details of the simulation model, instability indicators, the effectiveness of compensation, the difference between nominal and PACMAN bunches for the LHC, beam experiments, and wire tolerances. The simulations are performed with the new code BBTrack. (author)

  13. Correlation of Resonance Charge Exchange Cross-Section Data in the Low-Energy Range

    Sheldon, John W.

    1962-01-01

    During the course of a literature survey concerning resonance charge exchange, an unusual degree of agreement was noted between an extrapolation of the data reported by Kushnir, Palyukh, and Sena and the data reported by Ziegler. The data of Kushnir et al. are for ion-atom relative energies from 10 to 1000 ev, while the data of Ziegler are for a relative energy of about 1 ev. Extrapolation of the data of Kushnir et al. was made in accordance with Holstein's theory, 3 which is a combination of time-dependent perturbation methods and classical orbit theory. The results of this theory may be discussed in terms of a critical impact parameter b(sub c).

  14. CN molecule collisions with H+ at a wide range of astrophysical energies

    Sultanova, Madina R.; Guster, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the quantum-mechanical rotational excitation/de-excitation spectrum and cross sections of CN molecules during low and high-energy collisions with protons, H+. The problem is of significant importance in astrophysics of the early Universe, specifically connected with the problems of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A quantum-mechanical close-coupling method is applied in this work. The cyanide molecule (CN) is treated as a rigid rotor, i.e. the distance between the carbo...

  15. Energy dependence of muon charge ratio for incident momentum range < 1 GeV/c

    Full text: The charge ratio of the atmospheric muons is a quantity sensitive to hadronic interactions of cosmic rays and to the influence of the geomagnetic field. Experimental information is of current interest for tuning models used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino fluxes. We are performing measurements of the charge ratio based on the observation of the lifetime of the muons stopped in the absorber layers (aluminum support) of the detector WILLI, mounted in a rotatable frame and installed at IFIN-HH Bucharest (vertical geomagnetic cut-off rigidity of 5.6 GV). Our method to determine the muon charge ratio by measuring the lifetime of muons stopped in the matter, overcomes the uncertainties appearing in measurements based on magnetic spectrometers, which are affected by systematic effects at low muon energies, due to problems in the particle and trajectory identification. The results obtained with the rotatable WILLI detector, inclined at 45 angle (i.e. a mean zenith angle of detected muons of 35 angle), relevant to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, show a pronounced east-west effect. The energy dependence of the muon charge ratio indicates an increasing asymmetry of the muon charge ratio with decreasing incident energy. (author)

  16. Energy Analysis of Road Accidents Based on Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Alejandro Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and low-cost approach for energy analysis of road accidents using images obtained using consumer-grade digital cameras and smartphones. The developed method could be used by security forces in order to improve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of traffic accidents. This role of the security forces is crucial to settle arguments; consequently, the remote and non-invasive collection of accident related data before the scene is modified proves to be essential. These data, taken in situ, are the basis to perform the necessary calculations, basically the energy analysis of the road accident, for the corresponding expert reports and the reconstruction of the accident itself, especially in those accidents with important damages and consequences. Therefore, the method presented in this paper provides the security forces with an accurate, three-dimensional, and scaled reconstruction of a road accident, so that it may be considered as a support tool for the energy analysis. This method has been validated and tested with a real crash scene simulated by the local police in the Academy of Public Safety of Extremadura, Spain.

  17. Conjugated Polymer Blend Microspheres for Efficient, Long-Range Light Energy Transfer.

    Kushida, Soh; Braam, Daniel; Dao, Thang Duy; Saito, Hitoshi; Shibasaki, Kosuke; Ishii, Satoshi; Nagao, Tadaaki; Saeki, Akinori; Kuwabara, Junpei; Kanbara, Takaki; Kijima, Masashi; Lorke, Axel; Yamamoto, Yohei

    2016-05-24

    Highly luminescent π-conjugated polymeric microspheres were fabricated through self-assembly of energy-donating and energy-accepting polymers and their blends. To avoid macroscopic phase separation, the nucleation time and growth rate of each polymer in the solution were properly adjusted. Photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that efficient donor-to-acceptor energy transfer takes place inside the microspheres, revealing that two polymers are well-blended in the microspheres. Focused laser irradiation of a single microsphere excites whispering gallery modes (WGMs), where PL generated inside the sphere is confined and resonates. The wavelengths of the PL lines are finely tuned by changing the blending ratio, accompanying the systematic yellow-to-red color change. Furthermore, when several microspheres are coupled linearly, the confined PL propagates the microspheres through the contact point, and a cascade-like process converts the PL color while maintaining the WGM characteristics. The self-assembly strategy for the formation of polymeric nano- to microstructures with highly miscible polymer blends will be advantageous for optoelectronic and photonic device applications. PMID:27135760

  18. Damage growth in Si during self-ion irradiation: A study of ion effects over an extended energy range

    Damage nucleation/growth in single-crystal Si during ion irradiation is discussed. For MeV ions, the rate of growth as well as the damage morphology are shown to vary widely along the track of the ion. This is attributed to a change in the dominant, defect-related reactions as the ion penetrates the crystal. The nature of these reactions were elucidated by studying the interaction of MeV ions with different types of defects. The defects were introduced into the Si crystal prior to high-energy irradiation by self-ion implantation at a medium energy (100 keV). Varied damage morphologies were produced by implanting different ion fluences. Electron microscopy and ion-channeling measurements, in conjunction with annealing studies, were used to characterize the damage. Subtle changes in the predamage morphology are shown to result in markedly different responses to the high-energy irradiation, ranging from complete annealing of the damage to rapid growth. These divergent responses occur over a narrow range of dose (2--3 times 1014 cm-2) of the medium-energy ions; this range also marks a transition in the growth behavior of the damage during the predamage implantation. A model is proposed which accounts for these observations and provides insight into ion-induced growth of amorphous layers in Si and the role of the amorphous/crystalline interface in this process. 15 refs, 9 figs

  19. Acceleration of atomic clusters in the MeV energy range by the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator

    Atomic clusters of Bn, Cn, Aln, Sin and Cun can be accelerated in the MeV energy range by using the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator at the University of Tsukuba. The negative cluster ions are generated by a Cesium sputtering ion source and extracted by the energy of 20 keV. The charge exchange from negative to positive cluster ion is achieved by collision with stripper gas in a gas cell at the high voltage terminal. It is necessary to accelerate cluster ions as the same energy ratio (MeV/atom) for the interaction experiment between cluster ions and the target. The terminal voltage of the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator is possible to be varied from 0.1 to 1.0 MV. We select the accelerating energy to 0.24 MeV/atom for small cluster ions (n ≤ 8). Experimental results obtained with accelerating Cn cluster ions are reported. (author)

  20. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  1. Remainder estimates for the Long Range Behavior of the van der Waals interaction energy

    Anapolitanos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The van der Waals-London's law, for a collection of atoms at large separation, states that their interaction energy is pairwise attractive and decays proportionally to one over their distance to the sixth. The first rigorous result in this direction was obtained by Lieb and Thirring [LT], by proving an upper bound which confirms this law. Recently the van der Waals-London's law was proven under some assumptions by I.M. Sigal and the author [AS]. Following the strategy of [AS] and reworking th...

  2. Elastic and rotational excitation cross-sections for electron-water collisions in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    We present a theoretical study on electron-H2O collisions in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. More specifically, we report calculated elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross-sections as well as rotational excitation cross-sections in the (2-500)-eV range. In our calculations, an optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction. The Schwinger variational method combined with the distorted-wave approximation is used to solve the scattering equations. The comparison of our calculated results with other theoretical and/or experimental data available in the literature is very encouraging. (authors)

  3. Development and characterization of real-time wide-energy range personal neutron dosimeter

    The authors developed a real-time personal neutron dosimeter which could give neutron dose equivalent over wide energy region from thermal to 10 odd MeV by using 2 silicon detectors, fast neutron sensor and slow neutron sensor. The energy response of this dosimeter was evaluated under thermal neutron field, monoenergetic neutron field between 200 keV and 15 MeV, and moderated 252Cf neutron field. The neutron dose equivalent was estimated by adding neutron dose equivalent below 1 MeV given by slow neutron sensor and that above 1 MeV by fast neutron sensor. It was verified from various field tests that this dosimeter is able to give neutron dose equivalent within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy in reactor, accelerator, fusion research and nuclear fuel handling facilities. This dosimeter has more than one order higher sensitivity than conventional personal neutron dosimeters and is insensitive to γ-rays up to about 500 mSv/h. This dosimeter will soon be commercially available as a personal dosimeter which gives neutron and γ-ray dose equivalents simultaneously by installing γ-ray silicon sensor. (author)

  4. The NUCLEON space experiment for direct high energy cosmic rays investigation in TeV–PeV energy range

    Atkin, E. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Bulatov, V.; Dorokhov, V. [SDB Automatika, Ekaterinburg 620075 (Russian Federation); Gorbunov, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Filippov, S. [SDB Automatika, Ekaterinburg 620075 (Russian Federation); Grebenyuk, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Karmanov, D.; Kovalev, I.; Kudryashov, I.; Merkin, M.; Pakhomov, A.; Podorozhny, D. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Polkov, D. [SDB Automatika, Ekaterinburg 620075 (Russian Federation); Porokhovoy, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Shumikhin, V. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sveshnikova, L. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Turundaevskiy, A., E-mail: torn@front.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, O. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); and others

    2015-01-11

    The NUCLEON satellite experiment is designed to investigate directly, above the atmosphere, the energy spectra of cosmic-ray nuclei and the chemical composition from 100 GeV to 1000 TeV as well as the cosmic-ray electron spectrum from 20 GeV to 3 TeV. NUCLEON is planned to be launched in 2014. This mission is aimed at clarifying the essential details of cosmic-ray origin in this energy interval: number and types of sources, identification of actual nearby sources, and the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the knee. Specific features of the NUCLEON instrument are relatively small thickness and small weight. A special method of energy determination by the silicon tracker was developed for this case. In this paper we describe a design of the instrument and the results of accelerator beam tests in terms of charge and energy resolution. The overall evidences of the capability of the apparatus to achieve the declared aims are also presented.

  5. Evaluation of 242Pu data for the incident neutron energy range 5-20 MeV

    Models, procedures and parameters are presented for the calculation of neutron cross sections, the neutron angular distributions and the neutron energy distributions of 242Pu in the energy range 5-20 MeV. The interaction takes place through direct interaction and compound nucleus mechanism. For heavy deformed nucleus the direct interaction was treated with the coupled channel process, using the ECIS code. For the compound nucleus mechanism, a statistical treatment was used for fission, neutron elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture, (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,4n) cross section calculations, using the GNASH code. (R.P.)

  6. Long-range effect and self-organization processes induced by low-energy ion irradiation in solids

    The modification of materials subjected to the bombardment with low-energy ions was investigated. The increase of dislocation density in metal samples was observed up to a depth of 10 mm from the irradiated surface. It is described as a long-range effect. The low-energy ion irradiation leads to the change of physical and mechanical properties of irradiated materials. This is, actually, a bulk modification. To explain this modification of materials the authors suggest a hypothesis based on the idea of nonlinear oscillation excitations in crystals, which leads to active self-organizing processes in the ion subsystem

  7. Performance of Geant4 in simulating semiconductor particle detector response in the energy range below 1 MeV

    Geant4 simulations play a crucial role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments providing low energy precision tests of the Standard Model. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the description of the electron processes in the energy range between 100 and 1000 keV. The effect of the different simulation parameters and multiple scattering models on the backscattering coefficients is investigated. Simulations of the response of HPGe and passivated implanted planar Si detectors to β particles are compared to experimental results. An overall good agreement is found between Geant4 simulations and experimental data

  8. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator

  9. Performance analysis and experimental verification of mid-range wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling

    Peng, Liang; Wang, Jingyu; Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, L.;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency analysis of a mid-range wireless energy transfer system is performed through non-resonant magnetic coupling. It is shown that the self-resistance of the coils and the mutual inductance are critical in achieving a high efficiency, which is indicated by our theoretical...... and show that careful design of the de-tuned system can intrinsically minimize the power dissipated in the source part. Our non-resonant scheme presented in this paper allows flexible design and fabrication of a wireless energy transfer systems with transfer distance being several times of the coils...

  10. Neutron cross-sections for 55Mn in the energy range from 0.2 to 22 MeV

    RAHMAN, Abul Khaer Mohammad Rezaur

    2012-01-01

    Neutron total and differential elastic scattering cross-sections for 55Mn nucleus was calculated from different global spherical optical potential (SOP) sets for different neutron energies ranging from 0.2 MeV to 22 MeV using the well known computer program SCAT-2 on an IBM PC-AT. In addition, the angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons at different neutron energies were calculated. The results were compared with those of the experimental data obtained from the EXFOR d...

  11. Observation of short range three-particle correlations in e+e- annihilations at LEP energies

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Barão, F; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brunet, J M; Brückman, P; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buys, A; Bärring, O; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Da Silva, W; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dijkstra, H; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Dönszelmann, M; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Föth, H; Fürstenau, H; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Guy, J; Guz, Yu; Górski, M; Günther, M; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Królikowski, J; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Kuznetsov, O; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; La Vaissière, C de; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; López-Fernandez, A; Lörstad, B; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martí i García, S; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Maréchal, B; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myagkov, A; Myatt, Gerald; Mönig, K; Møller, R; Müller, H; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Némécek, S; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rídky, J; Rückstuhl, W; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Stäck, H; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Sánchez, J; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van Eldik, J; Van der Velde, C; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Wehr, A; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; de Boer, Wim; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Åsman, B; Österberg, K; Überschär, B; Überschär, S

    1995-01-01

    \\def\\tpc{three-particle correlation} \\def\\twopc{two-particle correlation} Measurements are presented of short range three-particle correlations in e^+ e^- annihilations at LEP using data collected by the DELPHI detector. %The jet structure is studied using three-particle correlation functions. At small values of the four-momentum difference, strong three-particle correlations are observed for like-sign (+++ and ---) and for unlike-sign (++- and +--) pion combinations which are not a consequence of two-particle correlations. A possible explanation of the observed effects in like-sign combinations is the existence of higher order Bose-Einstein interference, which significantly changes the particle distributions in jets.

  12. CO2. Separation, storage, use. Holistic assessment in the range of energy sector and industry

    The technology for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and CO2 usage (CCR) is illuminated in this reference book comprehensively and from different perspectives. Experts from research and industry present the CCS and CCR technology based on the scientific and technical foundations and describe the state-of-the-art. They compare energy balances for different techniques and discuss legal, economic and socio-political aspects. In scenario analyzes they demonstrate the future contribution of the technologies and present the views of the different stakeholder groups. The authors claim to inform value-free. They disclose the criteria for the assessment of individual perspectives. An important work on a current and controversial discussed technology.

  13. Multi-mode wide range subsynchronous resonance stabilization using superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    Rabbani, M.G.; Devotta, J.B.X.; Elangovan, S. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy to stabilize the torsional oscillations due to subsynchronous resonance (SSR) of a capacitor compensated power system through control of firing angles of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The control strategy of SMES is based on artificial neural network (ANN). The gain of the controller is generated on-line depending on the operating conditions and the type of the disturbance. The proposed method of control of SMES for power system stabilization has been tested on the IEEE first benchmark model for subsynchronous resonance studies. Dynamic simulations are performed using the non-linear system model. It has been found that the SMES unit is very effective to eliminate the slowly growing transients resulting from the unstable modes. (author)

  14. CN molecule collisions with H+ at a wide range of astrophysical energies

    Sultanova, Madina R

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the quantum-mechanical rotational excitation/de-excitation spectrum and cross sections of CN molecules during low and high-energy collisions with protons, H+. The problem is of significant importance in astrophysics of the early Universe, specifically connected with the problems of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A quantum-mechanical close-coupling method is applied in this work. The cyanide molecule (CN) is treated as a rigid rotor, i.e. the distance between the carbon and nitrogen atoms is fixed at an average equilibrium value. The new results of the excitation/de-excitation cross-sections and corresponding thermal rate coefficients are compared with the results of few previous calculations performed on the basis of few approximate semiclassical frameworks. The interaction potential between CN and H+ is taken in the following form: proton induced polarization potential + proton-dipole potential + proton-quadrupole potential.

  15. Optical model analysis of p + 6He scattering over a wide range of energy

    Optical model analysis of proton elastic scattering from 6He has been carried out for eight sets of elastic scattering data at energies of 24.5, 25.0, 36.2, 38.3, 40.9, 41.6, 71.0 and 82.3 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The vector analyzing power and differential cross section for the elastic scattering of 6He nucleus from polarized protons at 71 MeV have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model potential. The data are, first, analyzed in terms of phenomenological potentials using the Woods-Saxon form for the real and imaginary parts supplemented by a spin-orbit potential of Thomas form. The analysis has been then performed using microscopic single folded complex potentials.

  16. A phenomenological model to study the energy discrimination potential of GEM detectors in the X-ray range

    Causa, F., E-mail: federica.causa@enea.it; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Claps, G.; Gabellieri, L.

    2015-11-01

    An empirical model is presented to study the operational characteristics of GEM detectors in the X-ray range and, in particular, its energy discrimination potential. Physical processes are modelled from a macroscopic point of view, to provide a simple but effective simulation tool. Experimental data from monochromatic and combined, two-line fluorescence sources, are used to validate the model and provide realistic estimates of the empirical parameters used in the description. The model is instrumental in understanding the role of threshold, gain and operational conditions to achieve energy-discriminating response. Appropriate choices of gas mixtures, threshold and gain will permit to best utilise this new functionality of the GEM to improve the efficiency of image detectors in applications ranging from in-situ imaging in harsh environments, such as tokamaks, to composite materials analysis and medical imaging of tissues.

  17. Characterisation of a detector based on microchannel plates for electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV

    Moldovan, G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxon OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: grigore.moldovan@materials.ox.ac.uk; Matheson, J.; Derbyshire, G. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kirkland, A. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxon OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-11

    As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detectors for an X-ray photoelectron emission microscope (XPEEM), we have characterised a detector based on microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD camera. For XPEEM, an imaging detector is required for electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. This type of detector is a standard fitment on commercial instruments and we have studied its performance in some detail in order to provide a baseline against which to evaluate future detector technologies. We present detective quantum efficiency (DQE), noise power spectrum (NPS) and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements of a commercial detector, in the energy range of interest, as a function of the detector bias voltage.

  18. The MAGIC telescope project for gamma ray astronomy in the 15 to 300 GeV energy range

    In gamma ray astronomy the energy range between 15 and 300 GeV is up to now inaccessible for both satellite borne γ detectors and ground based air Cherenkov telescopes. It is expected that in this energy range the universe is highly transparent and sources such as active galactic nuclei at red shifts of up to ∝2.8 can be observed. The detection of gamma ray bursts would allow one to place a limit on their distance. A short description of a project to build a new, high sensitivity, 17 m, air Cherenkov telescope, dubbed the MAGIC telescope, and an overview of its physics potential will be given. The telescope is based upon a 17 m decommissioned solar concentrator. (orig.)

  19. Limitations for Measuring the Low-Energy Range of the Electron Spectrum by Probes

    J'' ≡ ∂2J/∂V2 (J = probe current, V = probe voltage) has four components: J''er, J''ea, J''ir, and J''ia (e = electron, i = ion, r = repulsion, a = attraction). For ''ideal'' probes in ''ideal'', collisionless, ambi-Maxwellian plasmas, J''er = Aere-V/Ue (V ≥ 0 e-repelling, Ue = kTe/e); J''er = 0 for V er is J''ia which is ''ill behaved'' and hence is an unavoidable limitation for measuring J''er which yields the e-spectrum. (However, J''ea → 0 and J''ia → 0 for λD/rp → ∞; λD = Debye length, rp = radius of spherical probe.) In practice, for i-energy « e-energy ''secondary effects'' (SE) in ''ordinary'' probes make J''ia undetectable. The small planar guard-sleeve (G) probe (PGP) with VG = VS (VS = space potential) is least affected by the usual SE's and hence seems to yield traces of J''ia, even in Hg plasmas with their small Ji's; VG = VS makes J'' extremal and thus indicates the space potential point in J(V). The real JPGP can be expressed as the sum of ideal contributions, shifted from a most probable position along the V-axis and weighted by a Gaussian with a certain half-width (fluctuations in Vg and/or inhomogeneous work function?). The J''s and J's for a PGP, for a spherical and a hemispherical GP, and for a cylindrical probe in Hg plasmas are compared. (author)

  20. Collision Cross Sections for O + Ar(+) Collisions in the Energy Range 0.03-500 eV.

    Sycheva, A A; Balint-Kurti, G G; Palov, A P

    2016-07-14

    The interatomic potentials of the a(2)Π and b(2)Π states of the OAr(+) molecule are calculated using the relativistic complete-active space Hartree-Fock method followed by a multireference configuration interaction calculation with an aug-cc-pwCVNZ-DK basis sets where N is 4 and 5. The calculations were followed by an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. An avoided crossing between the two potential energy curves is found at an internuclear separation of 5.75 bohr (3.04 Å). As the transition probability between the curves is negligible in the relative collision energy range 0.03-500 eV of interest here, collisions on the lower adiabatic a(2)Π potential may be treated without reference to the upper state. For low energies and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers, the one-dimensional radial Schrödinger equation is solved numerically using a Numerov algorithm method to determine the phase shift. The semiclassical JWKB approximation was employed for relative energies greater than 5 eV and orbital angular quantum numbers higher than 500. Differential, integral, transport (diffusion), and viscosity cross sections for elastic collisions of oxygen atoms with argon ions are calculated for the first time for the range of relative collision energies studied. The calculated cross sections are expected to be of utility in the fields of nanotechnology and arc welding. The combination of an Ar(+)((2)P) ion and a O((3)P) atom gives rise to a total of 12 different molecular electronic states that are all coupled by spin-orbit interactions. Potential energy curves for all 12 states are computed at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level and scattering calculations performed. The results are compared with those obtained using just the lowest potential energy curve. PMID:26741565

  1. Compton scattering from 12C using tagged photons in the energy range 65 - 115 MeV

    Myers, L S; Preston, M F; Anderson, M D; Annand, J R M; Boselli, M; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Capone, J I; Feldman, G; Fissum, K G; Hansen, K; Henshaw, S S; Isaksson, L; Jebali, R; Kovash, M A; Lewis, K; Lundin, M; MacGregor, I J D; Middleton, D G; Mittelberger, D E; Murray, M; Nathan, A M; Nutbeam, S; O'Rielly, G V; Schröder, B; Seitz, B; Stave, S C; Weller, H R

    2014-01-01

    Elastic scattering of photons from 12C has been investigated using quasi-monoenergetic tagged photons with energies in the range 65 - 115 MeV at laboratory angles of 60 deg, 120 deg, and 150 deg at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. A phenomenological model was employed to provide an estimate of the sensitivity of the 12C(g,g)12C cross section to the bound-nucleon polarizabilities.

  2. DM2 results on e+e- annihilation into multihadrons in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range

    We present preliminary results on the study of e+e- annihilation into π+π-π+π-, π+π-π0π0, π+π-π0, π+π-π+π-π0, K+K-π+π- and Ks0K±π-+ in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range. Data have been collected with the DM2 detector at DCI, the Orsay colliding ring, and refer to about 2 pb-1 integrated luminosity

  3. 4.5 Tesla magnetic field reduces range of high-energy positrons -- Potential implications for positron emission tomography

    The authors have theoretically and experimentally investigated the extent to which homogeneous magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla reduce the spatial distance positrons travel before annihilation (positron range). Computer simulations of a noncoincident detector design using a Monte Carlo algorithm calculated the positron range as a function of positron energy and magnetic field strength. The simulation predicted improvements in resolution, defined as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the line-spread function (LSF) for a magnetic field strength up to 7 Tesla: negligible for F-18, from 3.35 mm to 2.73 mm for Ga-68 and from 3.66 mm to 2.68 mm for Rb-82. Also a substantial noise suppression was observed, described by the full-width at tenth-maximum (FWTM) for higher positron energies. The experimental approach confirmed an improvement in resolution for Ga-68 from 3.54 mm at 0 Tesla to 2.99 mm FWHM at 4.5 Tesla and practically no improvement for F-18 (2.97 mm at 0 Tesla and 2.95 mm at 4.5 Tesla). It is concluded that the simulation model is appropriate and that a homogeneous static magnetic field of 4.5 Tesla reduces the range of high-energy positrons to an extent that may improve spatial resolution in positron emission tomography

  4. A Constant Energy-Per-Cycle Ring Oscillator Over a Wide Frequency Range for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Lee, Inhee; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient oscillator for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). It avoids short-circuit current by minimizing the time spent in the input voltage range from Vthn to [Vdd − |Vthp|]. A current-feeding scheme with gate voltage control enables the oscillator to operate over a wide frequency range. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that the proposed oscillator achieves a constant energy-per-cycle (EpC) of 0.8 pJ/cycle over the 21–60 MHz frequency range and is more efficient than a conventional current-starved ring oscillator (CSRO) below 300 kHz at 1.8 V supply voltage. As an application example, the proposed oscillator is implemented in a switched-capacitor DC–DC converter. The converter is 11%–56% more efficient for load power values ranging from 583 pW to 2.9 nW than a converter using a conventional CSRO.

  5. Surface ionization mass spectrometry of drugs in the thermal and hyperthermal energy range -- a comparative study

    Dagan, Shai; Amirav, Aviv; Fujü, Toshihiro

    1995-12-01

    Thermal and hyperthermal surface ionization (SI) mass spectra of nicotine, caffeine and lidocaine were obtained using a rhenium oxide surface. Thermal surface ionization was studied on an oxidized surface positioned inside an electron impact ion source, while hyperthermal surface ionization (HSI) was obtained upon seeding the compounds into a hydrogen or helium supersonic molecular beam that scattered from the rhenium oxide surface. Both HSI and SI provide rich, informative and complementary mass spectral information. The results indicate that SI follows thermal dissociation processes on the surface prior to the desorption of the ion, while in HSI no thermal equilibrium is established and the ionization process is impulsive, followed by mostly unimolecular ion dissociation. HSI mass spectra are similar to electron impact mass spectra in the fragment ion masses, but the observed relative intensities are different. HSI is a softer ionization method compared to SI, and enables the degree of ion fragmentation to be tuned so that it can be minimized to a low level at low molecular kinetic energy. In SI, limited control over the degree of fragmentation is possible through the surface temperature. The analytical mass spectrometric applications of SI and HSI are briefly mentioned.

  6. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Sjue, S. K. L., E-mail: sjue@lanl.gov; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  7. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  8. Characterisation of a counting imaging detector for electron detection in the energy range 10-20 keV

    Moldovan, G., E-mail: grigore.moldovan@materials.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Sikharulidze, I. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Matheson, J.; Derbyshire, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kirkland, A.I. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Abrahams, J.P. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-21

    As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detector for X-ray photoelectron emission microscopes (XPEEM) and related methods, we have characterised the imaging performance of a counting Medipix 2 readout chip bump bonded to a Silicon diode array sensor and directly exposed to electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Noise Power Spectra (NPS) are presented, demonstrating very good performance for the case of electrons with an energy of 20 keV. Significant reductions in DQE are observed for electrons with energy of 15 keV and less, down to levels of 20% for electrons of 10 keV.

  9. Model Predictive Speed and Headway Control with Energy Optimization for a Series Hybrid Vehicle with Range Extender

    Lu Liting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model predictive speed and headway control (MPSHC with multi-input and multi-output (MIMO is developed for a series hybrid vehicle with range extender (BEVx. The MPSHC calculates the optimal solutions of the efficient driving strategy and the efficient power supply, with the vehicle longitudinal dynamics and battery dynamics. It takes the driver’s demand, the legal speed limit, the driving behavior of the preceding object vehicle, the topography and the state of charge (SoC into account. The energy consumption as the objective is minimized in the predictive horizon. The simulation results show that the proposed MPSHC algorithm has a good energy saving potential, compared with the conventional Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC and the simple energy supply strategy.

  10. Measurements of the charge exchange and dissociation cross-sections of the H2+ ion in a wide energy range

    The dissociation, ionisation, and charge exchange cross-sections of molecular hydrogen ions H2+ passing through various gases, have been measured as a function of the energy of the ions. The energy range studied was from 25 to 250 keV. The reaction products, analysed by a magnetic field according to their e/m ratio, are collected on scintillation detectors. Two methods have made it possible to separate the various reactions leading to the formation of particles having the same e/m ratio. The first separates the particles according to their energy, the other selects those arriving simultaneously on two different detectors. The results show a large variation in the charge exchange cross-section with the energy of the H2+ ions. The variations in the dissociation and ionisation cross-sections are less pronounced. For a given energy, the values of the cross-sections increase with the atomic weight of the target particles. These measurements have been extended to the case of H2+ ions passing through a target of charged particles. Preliminary results show an increase in the cross-sections as compared to the preceding case. Finally the scattering of the reaction products has been studied; this scattering is due to the fact that the molecules formed during a reaction are in an unstable state and the nuclei or atoms diverge from each other. (author)

  11. Short- and long-range energy strategies for Japan and the world after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in 2011 has caused profound effects on energy policies in Japan and worldwide. This is particularly because it occurred at the time of the growing awareness of global warming forcing measures towards decarbonised energy production, namely the use of fossil fuels has to be drastically reduced from the present level of more than 80% by 2050. A dilemma has now emerged because nuclear power, a CO2-free technology with proven large-scale energy production capability, lost confidence in many societies, especially in Japan and Germany. As a consequence, there is a world-wide effort now to expand renewable energies (REs), specifically photo-voltaic (PV) and wind power. However, the authors conjecture that PV and wind power can provide only up to a 40% share of the electricity production as long as sufficient storage is not available. Beyond this level, the technological (high grid power) and economic problems (large surplus production) grow. This is the result of the analysis of the growing use of REs in the electricity systems for Germany and Japan. The key element to overcome this situation is to develop suitable energy storage technologies. This is particularly necessary when electricity will become the main energy source because also transportation, process heat and heating, will be supplied by it. Facing the difficulty in replacing all fossil fuels in all countries with different technology standards, a rapid development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) might also be necessary. Therefore, for the short-range strategy up to 2050, all meaningful options have to be developed. For the long-range strategy beyond 2050, new energy sources (such as thermonuclear fusion, solar fuels and nuclear power—if inherently safe concepts will gain credibility of societies again), and large-scale energy storage systems based on novel concepts (such as large-capacity batteries and hydrogen) is required. It is acknowledged

  12. Short- and long-range energy strategies for Japan and the world after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Muraoka, K.; Wagner, F.; Yamagata, Y.; Donné, A. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in 2011 has caused profound effects on energy policies in Japan and worldwide. This is particularly because it occurred at the time of the growing awareness of global warming forcing measures towards decarbonised energy production, namely the use of fossil fuels has to be drastically reduced from the present level of more than 80% by 2050. A dilemma has now emerged because nuclear power, a CO2-free technology with proven large-scale energy production capability, lost confidence in many societies, especially in Japan and Germany. As a consequence, there is a world-wide effort now to expand renewable energies (REs), specifically photo-voltaic (PV) and wind power. However, the authors conjecture that PV and wind power can provide only up to a 40% share of the electricity production as long as sufficient storage is not available. Beyond this level, the technological (high grid power) and economic problems (large surplus production) grow. This is the result of the analysis of the growing use of REs in the electricity systems for Germany and Japan. The key element to overcome this situation is to develop suitable energy storage technologies. This is particularly necessary when electricity will become the main energy source because also transportation, process heat and heating, will be supplied by it. Facing the difficulty in replacing all fossil fuels in all countries with different technology standards, a rapid development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) might also be necessary. Therefore, for the short-range strategy up to 2050, all meaningful options have to be developed. For the long-range strategy beyond 2050, new energy sources (such as thermonuclear fusion, solar fuels and nuclear power—if inherently safe concepts will gain credibility of societies again), and large-scale energy storage systems based on novel concepts (such as large-capacity batteries and hydrogen) is required. It is acknowledged

  13. Measurement of Fission Cross-Sections for Neutrons of Energies in the Range 40-500 keV

    Measurements have been made of the fission cross-section of U233, U234 , U236, Np237, Pu239 and Pu241 at several neutron energies between 40 keV and 500 keV. Measurements in this energy range are of importance in reactor calculations especially in fast dilute systems where the neutron flux is high in the 10- 100-keV energy range. Recent measurements at this laboratory of the U235 fission cross-section gave absolute values slightly lower than previous data. The present series of measurements are made relative to the new values of the U235 fission cross-section using back-to-back ionization chambers. The fissile foils were assayed by α-assay, direct weighing and coulometry. Good agreement was obtained between these assays. The fission measurements have an estimated accuracy of between 1 % and.2% and,combined with the, error on the U235 fission cross-section,give a final error of about 3% in the fission cross-sections. The present results together with those of previous measurements are given, and the corrections for fission- fragment absorption, backgrounds and scattering are discussed. (author)

  14. Change of primary cosmic radiation nuclear composition in the energy range 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV

    Barnaveli, A T; Chubenko, A P; Eristavi, N A; Khaldeeva, I V; Nesterova, N M; Verbetsky, Yu G; Verbetsky, Yu.G.

    2002-01-01

    The dependence E_h (N_e) of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadronic component energy flux on the number N_e of particles in EAS is investigated in the primary energy range of the order of 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV. The work was aimed at checking the existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior at these energies in several independent experiments. The investigation is carried out using large statistical material obtained at different configurations of experimental apparatus and under different triggering conditions. The existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the region Ne > 2*10^6 is confirmed. These irregularities have the character of sharp deeps and are located near the same values of N_e regardless of the experimental material and selection conditions used. So, at recent stage of research the existence of these irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the range of N_e > 2*10^6 may be regarded as reliably established. This fact supports our earlier conclusion on the existence of primary...

  15. Analysis of transmission properties of plastic scintillating fiber linear array in low X-ray energy range

    Background: Plastic scintillating fiber is a common imaging detector in the field of industrial CT and Digital Radiography (DR) imaging. Because of lack of detailed theoretical guidance and experiment data, the practical works are still going on to perfect detector design and optimization. Purpose: The purpose is to track the interaction of incident particle with scintillating fiber, obtain the fiber transmission properties of the incident particles with different energies and intensities, and provide theoretical basis for optimization design of imaging detector. Methods: We studied the fundamental information transmission character of the plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) linear array, which is an imaging detector for industrial purpose in some X-rays energy range. Results: By using Monte Carlo simulation method, we analyzed the responses of the PSF array under various low energies and luminosities of X-rays, and evaluated the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Detector Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and Detector Efficiency (DE), which described the image quality of the PSF array detector. Conclusions: From the simulation results, we obtained the following three conclusions: (1) If the incident photons are of low energy and high intensity, the DQE of PSF and the obtained contrast of image would be better. (2) The DE of scintillating fiber generally goes down with the increment of incident energy, except in the middle energy region (about 60 keV) where DE goes up with the energy increment due to the influence of the μen value of the scintillating fiber material. (3) Because DE of scintillating fiber is low and the output visible photon number is small, which is fixed by the fiber characteristics itself, image intensifier must be added to detector system to enhance the image signal when scintillating fiber is used for image detector. (authors)

  16. Conformers of Kojic Acid and Their Near-IR-Induced Conversions: Long-Range Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Transfer.

    Halasa, Anna; Reva, Igor; Lapinski, Leszek; Rostkowska, Hanna; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J

    2016-05-01

    Conformational transformations were investigated for molecules of kojic acid trapped in low-temperature argon and nitrogen matrixes. Two conformers, differing from each other by 120° rotation of the hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH) moiety, were found to be populated in freshly deposited matrixes, prior to any irradiation. Matrixes containing isolated monomers of kojic acid were irradiated with narrowband, tunable near-infrared (near-IR) laser light. Excitations at wavenumbers corresponding to the overtone of the stretching vibration of the OH bond of the hydroxymethyl group led to conversion of one of the observed conformers into another. The direction of this conformational transformation depended on the wavenumber (within the 7126-7115 cm(-1) range) used for irradiation. The same conformational photoconversion was also observed to occur upon narrowband irradiation at much lower wavenumbers (from the 6468-6447 cm(-1) range). Near-IR light from this range selectively excites overtone vibrations of the OH group directly attached to the heterocyclic ring. Such an observation provides a convincing evidence of a long-range vibrational energy transfer from the initially excited OH group (directly attached to the ring) to the remote hydroxymethyl fragment which changes its orientation. Structural changes, occurring in matrix-isolated molecules of kojic acid upon near-IR excitation, were monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:27070389

  17. A calculation on n-D scattering cross sections in the energy range 0 to 20 MeV

    A calculation on n-D scattering cross sections with phase shift analysis is carried out in the neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV. An optimum set of parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental data which include total, (n,2n) and differential cross section of n-D scattering. The comparisons were made between this calculated results and previous works. It was showed that the obtained differential elastic cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental values

  18. Calibration of an UTW Si(Li) detector in the 0.28-22.1 keV energy range

    Uzonyi, I; Borbely-Kiss, I; Kiss, A Z

    2003-01-01

    The application of such detectors in the sub-keV region has been quite limited supposedly due to the lack of well-established calibration methods and the difficulties associated with their operation. The aim of this study has been twofold: first to check the applicability of the (micro)PIXE method for efficiency measurement of an UTW detector in the C K-Ag K subalpha energy region using thick targets, allowing a simple and low-cost solution for this problem; second: to test the new version of the PIXEKLM program down to the sub-keV range. (R.P.)

  19. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  20. The examinations of fatigue durability in the range of low cycle number of 13HMF steel used for energy pipes

    The paper deals with the fatigue tests in the range of low number of cycles, for the materials used in energy pipelines. The tests are performed both for the initial and after the long-term operating period. The paper presents the evaluation of fatigue durability of 13HMF steel at room temperature and 550oC on the basis of the performed metallurgical studies 'the degree of depletion' of the material after operating period has been determined according to the adapted quality for criteria for structure class evaluation. (author)

  1. Measurement of neutron capture cross section of 75As in the energy range from 29 to 1100 keV

    The cross sections for the 75As(n,γ)76As reaction were measured relatively to that of 197Au in neutron energy range from 29 to 1100 keV, using the activation technique. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be and T(p,n)3He reactions with a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at Sichuan University. The activities after irradiation were measured with a calibrated high resolution HPGe detector. The errors of the measurements are 6.7%-7.8%. The experiment results were compared with existing data

  2. Characterization of extended range Bonner Sphere Spectrometers in the CERF high-energy broad neutron field at CERN

    Agosteo, S.; Bedogni, R.; Caresana, M.; Charitonidis, N.; Chiti, M.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Severino, C.; Silari, M.

    2012-12-01

    The accurate determination of the ambient dose equivalent in the mixed neutron-photon fields encountered around high-energy particle accelerators still represents a challenging task. The main complexity arises from the extreme variability of the neutron energy, which spans over 10 orders of magnitude or more. Operational survey instruments, which response function attempts to mimic the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficient up to GeV neutrons, are available on the market, but their response is not fully reliable over the entire energy range. Extended range rem counters (ERRC) do not require the exact knowledge of the energy distribution of the neutron field and the calibration can be done with a source spectrum. If the actual neutron field has an energy distribution different from the calibration spectrum, the measurement is affected by an added uncertainty related to the partial overlap of the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion curve and the response function. For this reason their operational use should always be preceded by an "in-field" calibration, i.e. a calibration made against a reference instrument exposed in the same field where the survey-meter will be employed. In practice the extended-range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only device which can serve as reference instrument in these fields, because of its wide energy range and the possibility to assess the neutron fluence and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) values with the appropriate accuracy. Nevertheless, the experience gained by a number of experimental groups suggests that mandatory conditions for obtaining accurate results in workplaces are: (1) the use of a well-established response matrix, thus implying validation campaigns in reference monochromatic neutrons fields, (2) the expert and critical use of suitable unfolding codes, and (3) the performance test of the whole system (experimental set-up, elaboration and unfolding procedures) in a well

  3. Mass Attenuation Coefficients of Binderless and Polylactic Acid Added Oil Palm Trunk Particleboard in the Diagnostic Energy Range

    Mohana Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of oil palm trunk particleboards namely binderless and polylactic acid (PLA added board were manufactured with a target density of 1.0 g/cm3. The mass attenuation coefficients of the binderless and PLA added particleboards were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF photons emanating from high purity metal plates. The energies of the XRF emitted from those metal plates were in the range of 16.59 keV– 25.26 keV. The experimental values of the mass attenuation coefficients of the binderless particleboards and the XCOM calculated values for water are comparable. These results suggest that binderless particleboards have the potential to be a phantom material at diagnostic photon energies.

  4. Characterization of extended range Bonner Sphere Spectrometers in the CERF high-energy broad neutron field at CERN

    The accurate determination of the ambient dose equivalent in the mixed neutron–photon fields encountered around high-energy particle accelerators still represents a challenging task. The main complexity arises from the extreme variability of the neutron energy, which spans over 10 orders of magnitude or more. Operational survey instruments, which response function attempts to mimic the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficient up to GeV neutrons, are available on the market, but their response is not fully reliable over the entire energy range. Extended range rem counters (ERRC) do not require the exact knowledge of the energy distribution of the neutron field and the calibration can be done with a source spectrum. If the actual neutron field has an energy distribution different from the calibration spectrum, the measurement is affected by an added uncertainty related to the partial overlap of the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion curve and the response function. For this reason their operational use should always be preceded by an “in-field” calibration, i.e. a calibration made against a reference instrument exposed in the same field where the survey-meter will be employed. In practice the extended-range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only device which can serve as reference instrument in these fields, because of its wide energy range and the possibility to assess the neutron fluence and the ambient dose equivalent (H⁎(10)) values with the appropriate accuracy. Nevertheless, the experience gained by a number of experimental groups suggests that mandatory conditions for obtaining accurate results in workplaces are: (1) the use of a well-established response matrix, thus implying validation campaigns in reference monochromatic neutrons fields, (2) the expert and critical use of suitable unfolding codes, and (3) the performance test of the whole system (experimental set-up, elaboration and unfolding procedures) in a well

  5. Emulsion chamber observations of primary cosmic-ray electrons in the energy range 30-1000 GeV

    Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Taira, T.; Aizu, E.; Hiraiwa, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Niu, K.; Ohta, I.; Golden, R. L.; Koss, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a series of emulsion exposures, beginning in Japan in 1968 and continued in the U.S. since 1975, which have yielded a total balloon-altitude exposure of 98,700 sq m sr s, are presented. The data are discussed in terms of several models of cosmic-ray propagation. Interpreted in terms of the energy-dependent leaky-box model, the spectrum results suggest a galactic electron residence time of 1.0(+2.0, -0.5) x 10 to the 7th yr, which is consistent with results from Be-10 observations. Finally, the possibility that departures from smooth power law behavior in the spectrum due to individual nearby sources will be observable in the energy range above 1 TeV is discussed.

  6. Defect formation energies and homogeneity ranges of rock salt-, pyrite-, chalcopyrite- and molybdenite-type compound semiconductors

    Fiechter, S. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, Berlin D-14109 (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Employing the generalisation of Van Vechten's cavity model, formation energies of neutral point defects in pyrites (FeS{sub 2}, RuS{sub 2}), chalcopyrites (II-IV-V{sub 2} and I-III-VI{sub 2}) as well as molybdenites (MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}) have been estimated. As input parameters the fundamental band gaps, work functions, electron affinities, surface energies, coordination numbers, covalent or ionic radii and unit cell parameters were used. The values calculated for tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated compounds agreed well with measured values. The data obtained can be used to calculate point defect concentrations and homogeneity ranges as a function of partial pressure and temperature. Introducing charged vacancies, the conductivity type can be predicted.

  7. Characterisation of a TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter in the Energy Range from 150 to 1800 eV Using an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator

    Gottardi, Luciano; Takei, Yoh; van der Kuur, Jan; de Korte, Piet A. J.; Hoevers, Henk F.C.; Boersma, Dirk; Bruijn, Marcel; Mels, Wim; Ridder, Marcel L.; Takken, Dick; van Weers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We characterised a TES-based X-ray microcalorimeter in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator (ADR) using synchrotron radiation. The detector response and energy resolution was measured at the beam-line in the PTB radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in the range from 200 to 1800 eV. We present and discuss the results of the energy resolution measurements as a function of energy, beam intensity and detector working point. The measured energy resolution ranges between...

  8. HESS J1427-608: an unusual hard unbroken $\\gamma-$ray spectrum in a very wide energy range

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; Gao, Wei-Hong; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a GeV $\\gamma$-ray source which is likely associated with the unidentified very-high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray source HESS J1427-608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power-law with an index of $1.85\\pm0.17$ in the energy range of $3-500$ GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427-608 at a few hundred GeV. This source shows no significant extended morphology and time variation. The broadband GeV-TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427-608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss possible nature of HESS J1427-608 according to the multi-wavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multi-wavelength data from radio to ...

  9. SU-E-CAMPUS-J-06: The Impact of CT-Scan Energy On Range Uncertainty in Proton Therapy Planning

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of tube potential (kVp) on the CTnumber (HU) to proton stopping power ratio (PSPR) conversion table; the range uncertainty and the dosimetric change introduced by a mismatch in kVp between the CT and the HU to PSPR table used to calculate dose are analyzed. Methods: A CIRS CT-ED phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64-slice scanner under 90kVp and 120kVp tube potentials. Two HU to PSPR curves were then created. Using Eclipse (Varian) a treatment plan was created for a single beam in a water phantom (HU=0) passing through a wedge-shaped heterogeneity (HU=1488). The dose was recalculated by changing only the HU to PSPR table used in the dose calculation. The change in range (the distal 90% isodose line) relative to a distal structure was recorded as a function of heterogeneity thickness in the beam. To show the dosimetric impact of a mismatch in kVp between the CT and the HU to PSPR table, we repeated this procedure using a clinical plan comparing DVH data. Results: The HU to PSPR tables diverge for low-density bone and higher density structures. In the phantom plan, the divergence of the tables results in a change in range of ~1mm per cm of bone in the beam path for the HU used. For the clinical plan, a mismatch in kVp showed a 28% increase in mean dose to the brainstem along with a 10% increase in maximum dose to the brainstem center. Conclusion: A mismatch in kVp between the CT and the HU to PSPR table can introduce significant uncertainty in the proton beam range. For dense bone, the measured range uncertainty is about 1mm per cm of bone in the beam. CT-scan energy verification should be employed, particularly when high-density media is in the proton beam path

  10. The Cosmic Ray p+He energy spectrum in the 3-3000 TeV energy range measured by ARGO-YBJ

    Mari, S. M.; Montini, P.

    2016-07-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage air shower detector operated at the Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory. The detector has been in stable data taking in its full configuration since November 2007 to February 2013. The high altitude and the high segmentation and spacetime resolution offer the possibility to explore the cosmic ray energy spectrum in a very wide range, from a few TeV up to the PeV region. The high segmentation allows a detailed measurement of the lateral distribution, which can be used in order to discriminate showers produced by light and heavy elements. In this work we present the measurement of the cosmic ray light component spectrum in the energy range 3-3000 TeV. The analysis has been carried out by using a two-dimensional unfolding method based on the Bayes' theorem.