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Sample records for 7-gev advanced photon

  1. Characteristics of the 7-GEV advanced photon source: A guide for users

    In this document we present the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation from various types of sources on the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The sources include bending magnets, undulators, and wigglers. The characteristics are compared with those of other synchrotron sources when operated at their design specifications. The influence of positron beam size on the on-axis brilliance is discussed, along with the power distribution from these sources. The goal of this document is to provide users with enough information on the characteristics of radiation from the APS storage ring so that experiments can be efficiently planned

  2. The advanced photon source

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996

  3. The Advanced LIGO Photon Calibrators

    Karki, S; Kandhasamy, S; Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Anders, E H; Berliner, J; Betzwieser, J; Daveloza, H P; Cahillane, C; Canete, L; Conley, C; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Kissel, J S; Izumi, K; Mendell, G; Quetschke, V; Rodruck, M; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Schwinberg, P B; Sottile, A; Wade, M; Weinstein, A J; West, M; Savage, R L

    2016-01-01

    The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitaional-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events, and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as Photon Calibrators. These systems, which were completely redesigned for Advanced LIGO, include several significant upgrades that enable them to meet the calibration requirements of second-generation gravitational wave detectors in the new era of gravitational-wave astronomy. We report on the design, implementation, and operation of these Advanced LIGO Photon Calibrators that are currently providing fiducial displacements on the order of $10^{-18}$ m/$\\sqrt{\\textrm{Hz}}$ with accuracy and precision of better ...

  4. Recent Advances of VCSEL Photonics

    Koyama, Fumio

    2006-12-01

    A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was invented 30 years ago. A lot of unique features can be expected, such as low-power consumption, wafer-level testing, small packaging capability, and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly in recent years, and they are now key devices in local area networks using multimode optical fibers. Also, long wavelength VCSELs are currently attracting much interest for use in single-mode fiber metropolitan area and wide area network applications. In addition, a VCSEL-based disruptive technology enables various consumer applications such as a laser mouse and laser printers. In this paper, the recent advance of VCSEL photonics will be reviewed, which include the wavelength extension of single-mode VCSELs and their wavelength integration/control. Also, this paper explores the potential and challenges for new functions of VCSELs toward optical signal processing.

  5. Photon energy tunability of the advanced photon source undulators

    At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or open-quote tunedclose quotes by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay-clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5-20 keV is discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and K-values are given for two typical classes of devices

  6. Beam Stability at the Advanced Photon Source

    Decker, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has been in operation since 1996. Since that time, extensive incremental improvements to orbit stabilization systems have been made. This includes the addition of 80 channels of narrowband rf beam position monitors (bpm's), 40 channels of bending magnet photon bpm's, and most recently the inclusion of 36 insertion device photon bpm's into the orbit correction response matrix. In addition, considerable improvements have been made in the area of power supply regulation, both for the main multipole magnets and the steering corrector magnets. The present status of overall performance will be discussed, including long term pointing stability, reproducibility, and AC beam motion.

  7. Photon CT scanning of advanced ceramic materials

    Advanced ceramic materials are being developed for high temperature applications in advanced heat engines and high temperature heat recovery systems. Small size flaws (10 - 200 μm) and small nonuniformities in density distributions (0.1 -2%) present as long-range density gradients, are critical in most ceramics and their detection is of crucial importance. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging provides a means of obtaining a precise two-dimensional density map of a cross section through an object from which accurate information about small flaws and small density gradients can be obtained. With the use of high energy photon sources high contrast CT images can be obtained for both low and high density ceramics. In the present paper we illustrate the applicability of the photon CT technique to the examination of advanced ceramics. CT images of sintered alumina tiles are presented from which data on high-density inclusions, cracks and density gradients have been extracted

  8. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    Dick, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this updated and expanded second edition of a well-received and invaluable textbook, Prof. Dick emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Materials and Photons can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. This second edition includes an additional 62 new problems as well as expanded sections on relativistic quantum fields and applications of�...

  9. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    Dick, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Quantum Mechanics: Materials and Photons is a textbook which emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. The textbook can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible, Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. Other special features include an introduction to Lagrangian field theory and an integrated discussion of transition amplitudes with discrete or continuous initial or final states. Once students have acquir...

  10. Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors.

    Passaro, Vittorio M N; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection. PMID:23202223

  11. Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors

    Francesco De Leonardis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection.

  12. The Advanced Photon Source main control room

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today's requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout

  13. The planned photon diagnostics beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    We present the planned photon diagnostics beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source. The photon diagnostics beamlines of the storage ring include two bending magnet sources and a dedicated diagnostic undulator. The bending magnet lines will employ the conventional UV/visible imaging techniques (resolution σ congruent 10 μm) and the x-ray pinhole camera (resolution σ congruent 15 μm) for the measurement of the positron beam-size (design value: σ congruent 100 μm). The opening angle of die undulator radiation will be around σ congruent 3 μrad for its first hamionic (23.2--25.8 keV), and σ congruent=1.7 μrad for its third harmonic (70--72 keV), providing a good resolution for measuring the positron beam divergence size (design values: σ congruent 9 μrad for 10% vertical coupling and 3 μrad for 1% coupling). The undulator and its x-ray, optics are specifically optimized for full emittance measurement of the positron beam. A major developmental effort will be in the area of detecting very fast phenomena (nanosecond and sub-nanosecond) in particle dynamics

  14. Advanced Photonic and Electronic Systems WILGA 2010

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    SPIE – PSP WILGA Symposium gathers two times a year in January and in May new adepts of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The event is oriented on components and applications. WILGA Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering is well known on the web for its devotion to “young research” promotion under the eminent sponsorship of international engineering associations like SPIE and IEEE and their Poland Sections or Counterparts. WILGA is supported by the most important national professional organizations like KEiT PAN and PSP-Photonics Society of Poland. The Symposium is organized since 1998 twice a year. It has gathered over 4000 young researchers and published over 2000 papers mainly internationally, including more than 900 in 10 published so far volumes of Proc. SPIE. This paper is a digest of WILGA Symposium Series and WILGA 2010 summary. Introductory part treats WILGA Photonics Applications characteristics over the period 1998-2010. Following part presents a short report on the XXVth and XXVI...

  15. ANL Advanced Photon Source crotch absorber design

    The ANL 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source storage ring crotch absorber will be subjected to a very high photon loading power density, approximately 750 W/mm2 at normal incidence. To accommodate this high heat load, two designs were studied: one is a V-type compound angle absorber and the other is a horizontally rotated plate absorber. For both models, thermal and structural analyses have been carried out using 3-D finite element analysis. The analysis indicates that the V-type compound angle absorber controlled the peak temperatures effectively within the given geometric constraints. Test samples made of GlidCop AL 15 (alumina dispersion strengthened copper) were evaluated with an electron beam welder. The predicted and measured temperatures were in reasonable agreement. The overall absorber design includes a perforated screen in the positron beam area of the storage ring vacuum chamber to reduce RF impedance and to provide pumping access for the high local gas load

  16. The Advanced Photon Source: A status report

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in early 1996. Both conventional facilities construction and technical fabrication is well underway. An update on the current state of civil construction as well as progress on storage ring and beamline technical component development will be presented. User activities have also proceeded at a rapid pace, particularly over the last year. In response to a call for Proposals for sectors, the APS received proposals for over twenty sectors from prospective Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). It is anticipated that beamline construction in the experiment hall could begin in approximately 18 months

  17. ANL Advanced Photon Source crotch absorber design

    The ANL 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source storage ring crotch absorber will be subjected to a very high photon loading power density, approximately 750 W/mm2 at normal incidence. To accommodate this high heat load, two designs were studied: one is a V-type compound angle absorber and the other is a horizontally rotated plate absorber. For both models, thermal and structural analyses have been carried out using 3-D finite element analysis. The analysis indicates that the V-type compound angle absorber controlled the peak temperatures effectively within the given geometric constraints. Test samples made of GlidCop Al 15 (alumina dispersion strengthened copper) were evaluated with an electron beam welder. The predicted and measured temperatures were in reasonable agreement. The overall absorber design includes a perforated screen in the positron beam area of the storage ring vacuum chamber to reduce rf impedance and to provide pumping access for the high local gas load. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. The Advanced Photon Source Metrology Laboratory

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Metrology Laboratory is now operational in its permanent location in a cleanroom environment on the Experiment Hall floor of the APS site. The Metrology Laboratory will provide characterization of the figure and finish of x-ray optical surfaces for the user community using visible light instrumentation. Three noncontact instruments are now available for measuring surface features with lateral resolution from less than a micron to lengths of 2 meters and with a vertical resolution as small as an Angstrom. This paper gives a brief description of the three instruments used to cover this spatial frequency range and other associated issues, such as the environment and cleanliness of the laboratory. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Status of the advanced photon source

    This report presents general information on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and then breaks down the APS project into three categories: accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities. The accelerator systems consist of the 7 GeV APS positron storage ring and a 7 GeV positron injector. The experimental facilities include 20 undulator radiation sources and the x-ray beamline components necessary to transport their extraordinarily intense x-ray beams outside the accelerator enclosure. Also included are x-ray beamline components for 20 bending magnet radiation sources. The conventional facilities consist of the accelerator enclosures, a 35,300 m2 experimental hall to house the x-ray beamlines, an office building for the APS staff and lab/office facilities for the research groups which will construct and operate the first 40 beamlines. APS users are described, and the properties of synchrotron radiation are discussed

  20. Nanoscience at the advanced photon source

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Photon Source (APS), located at Argonne National Laboratory, is a 3rd-generation synchrotron radiation source of hard X-rays. Also sited at Argonne is the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), one of the five Nanoscience Research Centers that have been created by the DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The APS and CNM are closely connected, both physically and intellectually, as the CNM building is attached to the APS experiment hall, and the APS and CNM jointly operate the nanoprobe beamline at APS Sector 26 that was constructed as part of the CNM project. Both the APS and CNM are user facilities and their synergy provides the research community with a unique suite of tools for the fabrication and characterization of nanomaterials. This talk will summarize the capabilities of the nanoprobe beamline and some of the recent nanoscience results from data collected at the APS.

  1. Injector Research at the Advanced Photon Source

    Lewellen, John

    2003-04-01

    During the past several years, various techniques for improving the operational capabilities of high-brightness electron beam sources have been explored at the Advanced Photon Source. Areas of particular emphasis include novel methods of longitudinal phase space control, reduced emittance via blunt-needle cathodes, and alternate cavity geometries for improved source reliability and fabrication. To date most of this work has been computationally based, and a sampling of the results is presented. The APS injector test stand, now undergoing commissioning, will allow the experimental exploration of these and other aspects of high-brightness beam production and preservation. The capabilities of the test stand, along with an initial experimental schedule, will also be presented.

  2. Environmental research at the Advanced Photon Source

    Because of the importance of probing molecular-scale chemical and physical structure of environmental samples in their natural and often hydrated state, synchrotron radiation has been a powerful tool for environmental scientists for decades. Thus, the crucial role that a highly coherent and high-brightness hard X-ray source such as the Advance Photon Source (APS) can play in addressing many of the outstanding questions in molecular environmental science (MES) was recognized even before 'first light' at the facility. No single synchrotron-based technique or experimental approach can adequately address the tremendous temporal and spatial heterogeneities of the chemistry, physics, and biology of natural environmental samples. Thus, it is common at the APS that multiple X-ray techniques and experimental systems are employed to investigate environmental samples, often chosen for their ability to focus on solute species, plants, microbes, organics, interfacial species, or solids.

  3. Proceedings of the first symposium on advanced photon research

    This report consists of 76 contributed papers of the First Symposium on Advanced Photon Research, which was held at Keihanna Plaza and JAERI Advanced Photon Research Center in Kyoto on November 8-9, 1999. The numbers of oral presentations including a special invited talk and poster presentations were 14 and 68, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  4. Proceedings of the first symposium on advanced photon research

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report consists of 76 contributed papers of the First Symposium on Advanced Photon Research, which was held at Keihanna Plaza and JAERI Advanced Photon Research Center in Kyoto on November 8-9, 1999. The numbers of oral presentations including a special invited talk and poster presentations were 14 and 68, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  5. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  6. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status

  7. Biomedical photonics handbook therapeutics and advanced biophotonics

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents recent fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers,

  8. Status of the Advanced Photon Source

    Gerig, R. E.; Gibson, J. M.; Mills, D. M.; Ruzicka, W. G.; Young, L.; Zholents, A.

    2011-09-01

    In the fall of 2010, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will enter its fifteenth year of user operations. During fiscal year 2009, the APS delivered X-ray beam to the scientific community 97.7% of scheduled hours (availability) and with a mean time between faults of 77.5 h. The APS remains the most prolific source worldwide of structure deposits in the Protein Data Bank (1433 in 2009) and a leader in the field of high-pressure research, among others. However, to maintain its position as a state-of-the-art facility for hard X-ray science, it will be necessary to refresh and improve the APS X-ray source and beamlines. We are presently on the path to do that through the APS Upgrade Project. The US Department of Energy Office of Science has formally approved the start of this project with the issuance of Critical Decision-0, Approve of Mission Need. The APS staff, in collaboration with our user community, is now in the process of developing a Conceptual Design Report that documents the proposed scope of the APS Upgrade Project. Components of the Upgrade plan will be presented as well as science highlights from the past year.

  9. Status of the Advanced Photon Source

    In the fall of 2010, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will enter its fifteenth year of user operations. During fiscal year 2009, the APS delivered X-ray beam to the scientific community 97.7% of scheduled hours (availability) and with a mean time between faults of 77.5 h. The APS remains the most prolific source worldwide of structure deposits in the Protein Data Bank (1433 in 2009) and a leader in the field of high-pressure research, among others. However, to maintain its position as a state-of-the-art facility for hard X-ray science, it will be necessary to refresh and improve the APS X-ray source and beamlines. We are presently on the path to do that through the APS Upgrade Project. The US Department of Energy Office of Science has formally approved the start of this project with the issuance of Critical Decision-0, Approve of Mission Need. The APS staff, in collaboration with our user community, is now in the process of developing a Conceptual Design Report that documents the proposed scope of the APS Upgrade Project. Components of the Upgrade plan will be presented as well as science highlights from the past year.

  10. Nanoscience at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Mills, D. (OTD-PSC)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Photon Source (APS), located at Argonne National Laboratory, is a 3rd-generation synchrotron radiation source of hard X-rays. Also sited at Argonne is the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), one of the five Nanoscience Research Centers that have been created by the DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The APS and CNM are closely connected, both physically and intellectually, as the CNM building is attached to the APS experiment hall, and the APS and CNM jointly operate the nanoprobe beamline at APS Sector 26 that was constructed as part of the CNM project. Both the APS and CNM are user facilities and their synergy provides the research community with a unique suite of tools for the fabrication and characterization of nanomaterials. This talk will summarize the capabilities of the nanoprobe beamline and some of the recent nanoscience results from data collected at the APS.

  11. The Advanced Photon Source list of parameters

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that stores positrons in a storage ring. The choice of positrons as accelerating particles was motivated by the usual reason: to eliminate the degradation of the beam caused by trapping of positively charged dust particles or ions. The third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are designed to have low beam emittance and many straight sections for insertion devices. The parameter list is comprised of three basic systems: the injection system, the storage ring system, and the experimental facilities system. The components of the injection system are listed according to the causal flow of positrons. Below we briefly list the individual components of the injection system, with the names of people responsible for managing these machines in parentheses: the linac system; electron linac-target-positron linac (Marion White); low energy transport line from linac to the PAR (Michael Borland); positron accumulator ring or PAR (Michael Borland); low energy transport line from PAR to injector synchrotron (Michael Borland); injector synchrotron (Stephen Milton); high energy transport line from injector synchrotron to storage ring (Stephen Milton). The storage ring system, managed by Glenn Decker, uses the Chasman-Green lattice. The APS storage ring, 1104 m in circumference, has 40 periodic sectors. Six are used to house hardware and 34 serve as insertion devices. Another 34 beamlines emit radiation from bending magnets. The experimental facilities system's parameters include parameters for both an undulator and a wiggler

  12. Proceedings of the 11th symposium on advanced photon research

    The 11th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizugawa, Kyoto on June 24 - 25, 2010. This report consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the oral and poster sessions in the Symposium. The 29 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Proceedings of the 13th symposium on advanced photon research

    The 13th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto on November 15 - 16, 2012. This report consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the oral and poster sessions in the Symposium. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the 10th symposium on advanced photon research

    The 10th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizugawa, Kyoto on October 21 - 22, 2009. This report consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the oral and poster sessions in the Symposium. The 38 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Proceedings of the 15th symposium on advanced photon research

    The 15th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizugawa, Kyoto on November 13 - 14, 2014. This report consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the oral and poster sessions in the Symposium. All the 23 papers are indexed individually (J.P.N.)

  16. Proceedings of the 9th symposium on advanced photon research

    The 9th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizugawa, Kyoto on July 31- August 1, 2008. This report consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the oral and poster sessions in The Symposium. The 25 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Proceedings of the 6th symposium on advanced photon research

    The 6th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at JAERI-Kansai in Kyoto on November 4-5, 2004. The symposium has been held once a year since 1999, to promote the advanced photon research through speeches, information exchanges, discussion by researchers on the front line of advanced photon research in Japan and abroad, not only reports of latest research results and plans at Advanced Photon Research Center. The numbers of speeches were 16, including 5 invited speeches, and the numbers of poster presentations were 56, including the report of presentations and cooperative research and joint research performed in FY2003. The 56 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Advances in photon counting for bioluminescence

    Ingle, Martin B.; Powell, Ralph

    1998-11-01

    Photon counting systems were originally developed for astronomy, initially by the astronomical community. However, a major application area is in the study of luminescent probes in living plants, fishes and cell cultures. For these applications, it has been necessary to develop camera system capability at very low light levels -- a few photons occasionally -- and also at reasonably high light levels to enable the systems to be focused and to collect quality images of the object under study. The paper presents new data on MTF at extremely low photon flux and conventional ICCD illumination, counting efficiency and dark noise as a function of temperature.

  19. Advances in photonic bandgap fiber functionality

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian

    In order to take advantage of the many intriguing optical properties of photonic bandgap fibers, there are some technological challenges that have to be addressed. Among other things this includes transmission loss and the fibers ability to maintain field polarization. The work presented in this ...

  20. A photonics design tool for advanced CMOS nodes

    Alloatti, Luca; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos; Ram, Rajeev Jagga

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated large-scale integrated systems with several million transistors and hundreds of photonic elements. Yielding such large-scale integrated systems requires a design-for-manufacture rigor that is embodied in the 10000 to 50000 design rules that these designs must comply within advanced CMOS manufacturing. Here, we present a photonic design automation (PDA) tool which allows automatic generation of layouts without design-rule violations. Our tool is written in SKILL, the native language of the mainstream electric design automation (EDA) software, Cadence. This allows seamless integration of photonic and electronic design in a single environment. The tool leverages intuitive photonic layer definitions, allowing the designer to focus on the physical properties rather than on technology-dependent details. Removal of design-rule violations - based on Manhattan discretization, Boolean and sizing operations - occurs during data preparation from the initial photonic layers to the final mask...

  1. Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics

    Nagatsuma, Tadao; Ducournau, Guillaume; Renaud, Cyril C.

    2016-06-01

    Almost 15 years have passed since the initial demonstrations of terahertz (THz) wireless communications were made using both pulsed and continuous waves. THz technologies are attracting great interest and are expected to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity wireless communications. Here, we review the latest trends in THz communications research, focusing on how photonics technologies have played a key role in the development of first-age THz communication systems. We also provide a comparison with other competitive technologies, such as THz transceivers enabled by electronic devices as well as free-space lightwave communications.

  2. The Advanced Photon Source: Performance and results from early operation

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is now providing researchers with extreme-brilliance undulator radiation in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum. All technical facilities and components are operational and have met design specifications. Fourteen research teams, occupying 20 sectors on the APS experiment hall floor, are currently installing beamline instrumentation or actively taking data. An overview is presented for the first operational years of the Advanced Photon Source. Emphasis is on the performance of accelerators and insertion devices, as well as early scientific results and future plans

  3. Atomic physics at the advanced photon source

    Argonne's 7-GeV synchrotron light source (APS) is expected to commence operations for research early in FY 1996. The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Research Center (BESSRC) is likewise expected to start its research programs at that time. As members of the BESSRC CAT (Collaborative Access Team), we are preparing, together with atomic physicists from the University of Western Michigan, the University of Tennessee, and University of Notre Dame, to initiate a series of atomic physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of the APS, especially its high brilliance for photon energies extending from about 3 keV to more than 50 keV. Most of our early work will be conducted on an undulator beam line and we are thus concentrating on various aspects of that beam line and its associated experimental areas. Our group has undertaken responsibilities in such areas as hutch design, evaluation of undulator performance, user policy, interfacing and instrumentation, etc. Initial experiments will probably utilize existing apparatus. We are, however, planning to move rapidly to more sophisticated measurements involving, for example, ion-beam targets, simultaneous laser excitation, and the spectroscopy of emitted photons

  4. Sixth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source: Proceedings

    Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. The actions taken at the 1994 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented here

  5. Sixth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source: Proceedings

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. The actions taken at the 1994 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented here.

  6. Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization

    Busch, Kurt; Lölkes, Stefan; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.; Föll, Helmut

    2004-03-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 "Photonische Kristalle" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micro-lasers, and photonic crystal fibers. Illustrated in full color, this book is not only of interest to advanced students and researchers in physics, electrical engineering, and material science, but also to company R&D departments involved in photonic crystal-related technological developments.

  7. Beamline standard component designs for the Advanced Photon Source

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has initiated a design standardization and modularization activity for the APS synchrotron radiation beamline components. These standard components are included in components library, sub-components library and experimental station library. This paper briefly describes these standard components using both technical specifications and side view drawings

  8. Advanced photonic integrated technologies for optical routing and switching

    Masanovic, Milan L.; Burmeister, Emily; Dummer, Matthew M.; Koch, Brian; Nicholes, Steven C.; Jevremovic, Biljana; Nguyen, Kim; Lal, Vikrant; Bowers, John E.; Coldren, Larry A.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the latest advances in implementation of the photonic integrated circuits (PICs) required for optical routing. These components include high-speed, high-performance integrated tunable wavelength converters and packet forwarding chips, integrated optical buffers, and integrated mode-locked lasers.

  9. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    A 2856-MHz S-band, 450-MeV electron/positron linear accelerator is the first part of the injector for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. Construction of the APS linac is currently nearing completion, and commissioning will begin in July 1993. The linac and its current status are discussed in this paper

  10. Advances in Photonics Design and Modeling for Nano- and Bio-photonics Applications

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2010-01-01

    In this invited paper we focus on the discussion of two recent unique applications of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation method to the design and modeling of advanced nano- and bio-photonic problems. We will first discuss the application of a traditional formulation of the FDTD...... approach to the modeling of sub-wavelength photonics structures. Next, a modified total/scattered field FDTD approach will be applied to the modeling of biophotonics applications including Optical Phase Contrast Microscope (OPCM) imaging of cells containing gold nanoparticles (NPs) as well as its potential...

  11. Status of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source optimized for production of high-brilliance undulator radiation in the hard x-ray portion of the spectrum. A user community representing all major centers of synchrotron research, including universities, industry, and federal laboratories, will utilize these x-ray beams for investigations across a diverse range of disciplines. All technical facilities and components required for operations have been completed and installed, and are well along in the commissioning process. Major design goals and Department of Energy milestones have been met or exceeded. Project funds have been maximized to construct a number of beamline components and user facilities over and above those called for in the original project scope. Research teams preparing experimental apparatus at the Advanced Photon Source have procured strong funding support. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is a remarkable technique for recording low-level light signals with extremely high precision and picosecond-time resolution. TCSPC has developed from an intrinsically time-consuming and one-dimensional technique into a fast, multi-dimensional technique to record light signals. So this reference and text describes how advanced TCSPC techniques work and demonstrates their application to time-resolved laser scanning microscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, photon correlation experiments, and diffuse optical tomography of biological tissue. It gives practical hints about constructing suitable optical systems, choosing and using detectors, detector safety, preamplifiers, and using the control features and optimising the operating conditions of TCSPC devices. Advanced TCSPC Techniques is an indispensable tool for everyone in research and development who is confronted with the task of recording low-intensity light signals in the picosecond and nanosecond range.

  13. Advanced modeling of high-contrast photonic structures

    Čtyroký, Jiří; Prkna, Ladislav; Hubálek, Milan

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2006 - (Janz, S.; Čtyroký, J.; Tanev, S.), s. 71-100. (NATO Science Series. Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Sub Series II. 216). ISBN 1-4020-4164-0. [NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology . Ottawa (CA), 21.09.2004-25.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical waveguide theory * photonic crystals * integrated optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  14. Photothermal cathode measurements at the Advanced Photon Source

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) ballistic bunch compression (BBC) gun in the Injector Test Stand (ITS) presently uses an M-type thermionic dispenser cathode as a photocathode. This photothermal cathode offers substantial advantages over conventional metal photocathodes, including easy replacement and easy cleaning via the cathode's built-in heater. We present the results of photoemission measurements as a function of cathode heater power, laser pulse energy, and applied rf field strength.

  15. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  16. Advances in FDTD computational electrodynamics photonics and nanotechnology

    Oskooi, Ardavan; Johnson, Steven G

    2013-01-01

    Advances in photonics and nanotechnology have the potential to revolutionize humanity s ability to communicate and compute. To pursue these advances, it is mandatory to understand and properly model interactions of light with materials such as silicon and gold at the nanoscale, i.e., the span of a few tens of atoms laid side by side. These interactions are governed by the fundamental Maxwell s equations of classical electrodynamics, supplemented by quantum electrodynamics. This book presents the current state-of-the-art in formulating and implementing computational models of these interactions. Maxwell s equations are solved using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, pioneered by the senior editor, whose prior Artech books in this area are among the top ten most-cited in the history of engineering. You discover the most important advances in all areas of FDTD and PSTD computational modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions. This cutting-edge resource helps you understand the latest develo...

  17. Elliptical multipole wiggler beamlines at the advanced photon source

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team has built three independent beamlines, which simultaneously utilize the X-ray radiation from an elliptical multipole wiggler, located at Sector 11 of the Advanced Photon Source. This insertion device produces circularly polarized X-rays on-axis and linearly polarized X-rays above and below the ring plane. The lower linearly polarized radiation is used in the monochromatic 11ID-D station for scattering and spectroscopy experiments in the 5-40 keV range. The on-axis circularly polarized photons are used for magnetic Compton scattering experiments in the 11ID-B station. The upper linearly polarized radiation is utilized by the high-energy diffraction station, 11ID-C. We report here on the beamline optics and experimental station equipment

  18. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    2012-04-02

    ... Technologies Corporation, 4C Controls, Inc., and 2-Track Global, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 29... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic... Research Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30, 2008....

  19. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured

  20. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.;

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...... during thermomechanical loading. Case studies demonstrate the mapping of grain boundary topology, the evaluation of stress tensors of individual grains during tensile deformation and comparison to a finite element modeling simulation, and the characterization of evolving dislocation structure...

  1. Automated tuning of the advanced photon source booster synchrotron

    Biedron, S.G.; Milton, S.V.

    1997-08-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 223 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. Unless properly corrected, transverse and longitudinal injection errors can lead to inefficient booster performance. In order to simplify daily operation, automated tuning methods have been developed. Through the use of beam position monitor (BPM) reading, transfer line corrector magnets, magnet ramp timing, and empirically determined response functions, the injection process is optimized by correcting the first turn trajectory to the measured closed orbit. These tuning algorithms and their implementation are described here along with an evaluation of their performance.

  2. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    A 2856-MHz S-band, electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) has been constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is the source of particles and the injector for the other APS accelerators, and linac commissioning is well underway. The linac is operated 24 hours per day to support linac beam studies and rf conditioning, as well as positron accumulator ring and synchrotron commissioning studies. The design goal for accelerated positron current is 8-mA, and has been met. Maximum positron energy to date is 420-MeV, approaching the design goal of 450-MeV. The linac design and its performance are discussed

  3. Vibration analysis of the photon shutter designed for the advanced photon source

    The photon shutter is a critical component of the beamline front end for the 7 GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) project, now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The shutter is designed to close in tens of milliseconds to absorb up to 10 kW heat load (with high heat flux). Our shutter design uses innovative enhanced heat transfer tubes to withstand the high heat load. Although designed to be light weight and compact, the very fast movement of the shutter gives rise to concern regarding vibration and dynamic sensitivity. To guarantee long-term functionality and reliability of the shutter, the dynamic behavior should be fully studied. In this paper, the natural frequency and transient dynamic analysis for the shutter during operation are presented. Through analysis of the vibration characteristics, as well as stress and deformation, several options in design were developed and compared, including selection of materials for the shutter and structural details

  4. Front end support systems for the Advanced Photon Source

    The support system designs for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends are complete and will be installed in 1994. These designs satisfy the positioning and alignment requirements of the front end components installed inside the storage ring tunnel, including the photon beam position monitors, fixed masks, photon and safety shutters, filters, windows, and differential pumps. Other components include beam transport pipes and ion pumps. The designs comprise 3-point kinematic mounts and single axis supports to satisfy various multi-direction positioning requirements from course to ultra-precise. The confined space inside the storage ring tunnel has posed engineering challenges in the design of these devices, considering some components weigh as much as 500 kg. These challenges include designing for mobility during commissioning and initial alignment, mechanical and thermal stability, and precise low profile vertical and horizontal positioning. As a result, novel stages and kinematic mounts have emerged with modular and standard designs. This paper will discuss the diverse group of support systems, including specifications and performance data of the prototypes

  5. Poster session: Fifth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is currently under construction as a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, one of only three in the world. It is expected to produce x-rays that are 10,000 times brighter than any currently produced elsewhere for use in research in a wide range of scientific areas. Users from industry, national laboratories, universities, and business will be able to come to the APS to conduct research either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators. Principal users will be members of CATS, which will be building and operating all of the beamlines present in the first phase of APS beamline development. The first set of CATs has been selected through a competitive proposal process involving peer scientific review, thorough technical evaluation, and significant management oversight by the APS. This document is a compilation of posters presented at the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source, held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 14--15, 1992. All CATs whose scientific cases were approved by the APS Proposal Evaluation Board are included. In addition, this document contains a poster from the Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Research and Instrumentation at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

  6. Status report on the Advanced Photon Source, Spring 1990

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory has been designed as a national user facility for synchrotron-radiation researchers from industry, universities, and national laboratories. In fact, the APS user community has been an important source of guidance and expertise throughout the project's planning cycle. By providing x-ray beams more brilliant than those currently available, the APS promises to play a substantial role in any discipline where knowledge of the structure of matter is important, from basic research in materials and chemistry to condensed-matter physics, biology, and medical applications. The science now in progress at existing synchrotron-radiation facilities, and the science being proposed for the APS, underlie virtually all modern technologies. In February of 1986, a conceptual design report (CDR) was issued detailing plans for a next-generation synchrotron-radiation machine, the 6-GeV Synchrotron X-ray Source. In April of 1987, a second CDR formalized the design of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source. That design has been refined and carried forward to its current level of construction readiness. On the eve of ground-breaking ceremonies, a review of APS status is appropriate

  7. Poster session: Fifth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is currently under construction as a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, one of only three in the world. It is expected to produce x-rays that are 10,000 times brighter than any currently produced elsewhere for use in research in a wide range of scientific areas. Users from industry, national laboratories, universities, and business will be able to come to the APS to conduct research either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators. Principal users will be members of CATS, which will be building and operating all of the beamlines present in the first phase of APS beamline development. The first set of CATs has been selected through a competitive proposal process involving peer scientific review, thorough technical evaluation, and significant management oversight by the APS. This document is a compilation of posters presented at the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source, held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 14--15, 1992. All CATs whose scientific cases were approved by the APS Proposal Evaluation Board are included. In addition, this document contains a poster from the Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Research and Instrumentation at the Illinois Institute of Technology

  8. Atomic physics at the Advanced Photon Source: Workshop report

    The first Workshop on Atomic Physics at the Advanced Photon Source was held at Argonne National Laboratory on March 29--30, 1990. The unprecedented brightness of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the hard X-ray region is expected to make possible a vast array of new research opportunities for the atomic-physics community. Starting with discussions of the history and current status of the field, presentations were made on various future directions for research with hard X-rays interacting with atoms, ions, clusters, and solids. Also important were the discussions on the design and status of the four next-generation rings coming on line during the 1990's: the ALS 1.6 GeV ring at Berkeley; the ESRF 6.0-GeV ring at Grenoble (1993); the APS 7.0-GeV ring at Argonne (1995); and the SPring-8 8.0-GeV ring in Japan (1998). The participation of more than one hundred scientists from domestic as well as foreign institutions demonstrated a strong interest in this field. We plan to organize follow-up workshops in the future emphasizing specific research topics

  9. Advancing the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator

    Md Zain, A.R.; Sorel, M.; De La Rue, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    We present new results that demonstrate advances in the performance achievable in photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities. In one example, a quality-factor value as high as 147,000 has been achieved experimentally at a useful transmission level.

  10. Proceedings of the Advanced Photon Source renewal workshop.

    Gibson, J. M.; Mills, D. M.; Kobenhavns Univ.; Northwestern Univ.; Stony Brook Univ.; Univ. of Pennsylvania; Notre Dame Univ.; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Connecticut; Diamond Light Source Ltd.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; North Dakota State Univ.; Washington State Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of Illinois; NIH

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in March 2008, Advanced Photon Source (APS) management engaged users, facility staff, the distinguished members of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, and other outside experts in crafting a renewal plan for this premier synchrotron x-ray research facility. It is vital that the investment in the APS renewal begin as soon as possible in order to keep this important U.S. facility internationally competitive. The APS renewal plan encompasses innovations in the beamlines and the x-ray source that are needed for major advances in science - advances that promise to further extend the impact of x-ray science on energy research, technology development, materials innovation, economic competitiveness, health, and far-reaching fundamental knowledge. A planning milestone was the APS Renewal Workshop held on October 20-21, 2008. Organized by the APS Renewal Steering Committee, the purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum where leading researchers could present the broad outlines of forward-looking plans for science at the APS in all major disciplines serviced by x-ray techniques. Two days of scientific presentations, discussions, and dialogue involved more than 180 scientists representing 41 institutions. The scientific talks and breakout/discussion sessions provided a forum for Science Team leaders to present the outlines of forward-looking plans for experimentation in all the major scientific disciplines covered by photon science. These proceedings comprise the reports from the Science Teams that were commissioned by the APS Renewal Steering Committee, having been edited by the Science Teams after discussion at the workshop.

  11. Design considerations for mirrors at the Advanced Photon Source

    Detailed ray-tracing studies and preliminary thermal analysis are presented for two mirrors that will be installed at the Advanced Photon Source. The first mirror is designed to accept white radiation from a bending magnet. This radiation is 5 mrad in the horizontal direction and 73 μrad in the vertical. A 1.5 m long toroidal mirror is planned. The second mirror accepts radiation from an undulator. This radiation is 55 μrad and 25 μrad in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. A 70-cm toroidal mirror is planned. Both mirrors are optimized for 1:1 focusing in order to minimize optical aberrations. Design specifications are presented. Suitable materials for the mirror substrates and reflective surfaces are discussed as well

  12. Some results of the advanced photon source beam lifetime studies

    Total beam lifetime consists of two components: the residual-gas-scattering lifetime and Touschek lifetime. The residual-gas lifetime is comprised of the elastic and inelastic scattering on electrons and elastic and inelastic scattering on nuclei. Touschek scattering involves scattering of particles within the bunch. One usually calculates only the elastic scattering on nuclei (single Coulomb scattering) and inelastic scattering on nuclei (bremsstrahlung) of the residual-gas-scattering lifetime component. Experience gained from computing the beam lifetime in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring shows that the electron scattering should not be neglected, particularly the inelastic contribution. Given the measured quantities from the APS storage ring, one can compare theoretical predictions with experimental results. Uncertainties in calculating the various contributions to lifetime will be discussed

  13. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  14. The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System

    MacLean, J F

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

  15. [Overview of RF systems for the advanced photon source

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is being built by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Chicago. The APS is a 7-GeV positron storage ring from which x-ray beams of energies from a few keV to hundreds of keV are emitted as the positrons pass through ring bending magnets and also through special magnets called wigglers and undulators. The present schedule is to be operational in 1995. The energy emitted from the positron beam as x-rays is replaced through a radio-frequency accelerating system operating at 352 MHz at a maximum power level of 3 MW. The RF system will be described as well as several lower-power systems at frequencies of 0.8 MHz, 117 MHz and 2.8 GHz. The associated control electronics (phase shifters amplitude control, automatic tuning control, etc.) as well as the computer control architecture will also be described

  16. Fundamental limits on beam stability at the Advanced Photon Source

    Orbit correction is now routinely performed at the few-micron level in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Three diagnostics are presently in use to measure and control both AC and DC orbit motions: broad-band turn-by-turn rf beam position monitors (BPMs), narrow-band switched heterodyne receivers, and photoemission-style x-ray beam position monitors. Each type of diagnostic has its own set of systematic error effects that place limits on the ultimate pointing stability of x-ray beams supplied to users at the APS. Limiting sources of beam motion at present are magnet power supply noise, girder vibration, and thermal timescale vacuum chamber and girder motion. This paper will investigate the present limitations on orbit correction, and will delve into the upgrades necessary to achieve true sub-micron beam stability

  17. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems

  18. Commissioning software tools at the Advanced Photon Source

    A software tool-oriented approach has been adopted in the commissioning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, particularly in the commissioning of the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR). The general philosophy is to decompose a complicated procedure involving measurement, data processing, and control into a series of simpler steps, each accomplished by a generic toolkit program. The implementation is greatly facilitated by adopting the SDDS (self-describing data set protocol), which comes with its own toolkit. The combined toolkit has made accelerator physics measurements easier. For instance, the measurement of the optical functions of the PAR and the beamlines connected to it have been largely automated. Complicated measurements are feasible with a combination of tools running independently

  19. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  20. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  1. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs

  2. Advances in Solid Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifiers

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner;

    2012-01-01

    We present recent development of photonic crystal fiber amplifiers containing photonic bandgap structures for enhanced spectral and modal filtering functionality.......We present recent development of photonic crystal fiber amplifiers containing photonic bandgap structures for enhanced spectral and modal filtering functionality....

  3. Advances in integrated photonic circuits for packet-switched interconnection

    Williams, Kevin A.; Stabile, Ripalta

    2014-03-01

    Sustained increases in capacity and connectivity are needed to overcome congestion in a range of broadband communication network nodes. Packet routing and switching in the electronic domain are leading to unsustainable energy- and bandwidth-densities, motivating research into hybrid solutions: optical switching engines are introduced for massive-bandwidth data transport while the electronic domain is clocked at more modest GHz rates to manage routing. Commercially-deployed optical switching engines using MEMS technologies are unwieldy and too slow to reconfigure for future packet-based networking. Optoelectronic packet-compliant switch technologies have been demonstrated as laboratory prototypes, but they have so far mostly used discretely pigtailed components, which are impractical for control plane development and product assembly. Integrated photonics has long held the promise of reduced hardware complexity and may be the critical step towards packet-compliant optical switching engines. Recently a number of laboratories world-wide have prototyped optical switching circuits using monolithic integration technology with up to several hundreds of integrated optical components per chip. Our own work has focused on multi-input to multi-output switching matrices. Recently we have demonstrated 8×8×8λ space and wavelength selective switches using gated cyclic routers and 16×16 broadband switching chips using monolithic multi-stage networks. We now operate these advanced circuits with custom control planes implemented with FPGAs to explore real time packet routing in multi-wavelength, multi-port test-beds. We review our contributions in the context of state of the art photonic integrated circuit technology and packet optical switching hardware demonstrations.

  4. Recent advancement of slow light in microwave photonics applications

    Chin, Sanghoon; Thévenaz, Luc

    2010-01-01

    A complete realization of an optically tunable true time delay, generated through the combination of a photonic RF phase shifter and a Brillouin slow light element is presented. Illustration through a dynamic microwave photonic filter is demonstrated.

  5. Overview of insertion device controls at the Advanced Photon Source

    Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Grimmer, John; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron with major emphasis on insertion device (ID) sources. Currently, there are 25 sectors instrumented out of a possible 35 ID sources. Most of the insertion devices are undulators. Beamlines have been using the ID radiation at the APS for more than five years. The control system of choice at the APS is the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) (http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics). Based on operational experience, the ID control system has been completely revamped. During user operations, the beamline user has complete control of the insertion device. Various interfaces, from RS-232 to EPICS channel access, have been provided for the users to control the IDs. The control system software has been designed to accommodate scanning of the insertion device synchronized to each user's beamline monochromator. The users have the option of operating the device in a tapered mode. The control software allows the users to control the undulators in energy space from the fundamental to the seventh harmonic. The design philosophy of the insertion device control system will be discussed. The implementation and operational experience will be presented in detail.

  6. Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.

  7. Proceedings of the fourth users meeting for the advanced photon source

    The Fourth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on May 7--8, 1991 at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project; critical issues for APS operation; advances in synchrotron radiation applications; users perspectives, and funding perspectives. The actions taken at the 1991 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented

  8. Multi-photon excitation microscopy for advanced biomedical imaging

    Gadella, B.M.; van Haeften, T.W.; Bavel, Kees van; Valentijn, Jack A.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy (FM) is a technique traditionally used for determining biological structures [33]; its basic concept is summarised in Figure 1a. The biological specimen under examination is labelled with one or more fluorescent probes before being placed in the microscope. A single photon from the light source (usually a Hg lamp) has sufficient energy to excite an electron in the fluorescence moiety of the specimen-bound probe, taking it from an un-excited 'ground' state to an excited...

  9. Advanced Electronics and Photonics for High Energy Physics Experiments

    Linczuk, M.; Pozniak, K.; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    WILGA Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering is well known on the web for its devotion to “young research” promotion under the promotorship of international engineering associations like IEEE and SPIE and their Poland Sections or Counterparts. The Symposium is organized since 1998 twice a year, gathered nearly 4000 young researchers and published over 1500 papers mainly internationally. Here a short report on the XXVth Symposium is presented. The event took place on 29-30 January at the F...

  10. Proceedings of JAEA-KPSI 8th symposium on advanced photon research

    JAEA-KPSI-APRC 8th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at Kansai Photon Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizu, Kyoto on June 4th - 5th, 2007. This report consists of contributed papers for the speeches and poster presentations in JAEA-KPSI-APRC 8th Symposium. The 33 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Status report on the Advanced Photon Source Project at Argonne National Laboratory

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is designed as a national synchrotron radiation user facility which will provide extremely bright, highly energetic x-rays for multidisciplinary research. When operational, the Advanced Photon Source will accelerate positrons to a nominal energy of 7 GeV. The positrons will be manipulated by insertion devices to produce x-rays 10,000 times brighter than any currently available for research. Accelerator components, insertion devices, optical elements, and optical-element cooling schemes have been and continue to be the subjects of intensive research and development. A call for Letters of Intent from prospective users of the Advanced Photon Source has resulted in a substantial response from industrial, university, and national laboratory researchers

  12. Advances in multi-photon processes and spectroscopy v.22

    Lin, S H; Fujimura, Y

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the recent progress and perspective in multi-photon processes and spectroscopy of atoms, ions, molecules and solids. The subjects in the series cover the experimental and theoretical investigations in the interdisciplinary research fields of natural science including chemistry, physics, bioscience and material science. Contents:Theoretical Foundations for Exploring Quantum Optimal Control of Molecules (Tak-San Ho, Herschel Rabitz and Shih-I Chu)Intramolecular Nuclear Flux Densities (I Barth, C Daniel, E Gindensperger, J Manz, J F Pérez-To

  13. Front end designs for the 7-GeV advanced photon source

    The conceptual designs for the insertion device (ID) and bending magnet (BM) front ends have been completed for the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. These designs satisfy the generic front end functions. However, the high power and high heat fluxes imposed by the X-ray sources of the 7-GeV APS have presented various design engineering challenges for the front end. Consideration of such challenges and their solutions have led to novel and advanced features including modularized systems, enhanced heat transfer concepts in the fixed mask and the photon shutter designs, a radiation safety philosophy based on multiple photon shutters for a fail-safe operation, a sub-micron resolution beam position monitor for beam monitoring and ring feedback information, and minimal beam filtering concepts to deliver maximized beam power and spectra to the experimenters. The criteria and special features of the front end design are discussed in this paper

  14. Selected publications related to the experimental facilities of the Advanced Photon Source, 1987--1991

    This report contain papers on work related to the experimental facilities of the Advanced Photon Source. The general topics of these papers are: insertion devices; front ends; high heat load x-ray optics; novel optics and techniques; and radiation safety, interlocks, and personnel safety

  15. Photonics

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  16. Photonics

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  17. Photonics

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  18. Photonics

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  19. Advances in multi-photon processes and spectroscopy, v.5

    Lin, Sheng H

    1989-01-01

    In view of the rapid growth in both experimental and theoretical studies of multiphoton processes and multiphoton spectroscopy of atoms, ions and molecules in many interdisciplinary fields, an Advanced Series that contains review papers readable not only to active researchers in these areas but also to those who are not experts in the field but intend to enter the field is very necessary. This series attempts to serve this purpose. Each review article is written in a self-contained manner by the experts in the area so that the readers can grasp the knowledge in the area without too much prepar

  20. Proceedings of the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    1992-12-01

    The Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on October 14--15, 1992, at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, funding opportunities, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. In addition, the 15 Collaborative Access Teams that have been approved to date participated in a poster session, and several vendors displayed their wares. The actions taken at the 1992 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  1. Proceedings of the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    The Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on October 14--15, 1992, at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, funding opportunities, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. In addition, the 15 Collaborative Access Teams that have been approved to date participated in a poster session, and several vendors displayed their wares. The actions taken at the 1992 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented

  2. Advanced photonic, electronic, and web engineering systems: WILGA Symposium, January 2013

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycle of WILGA Symposia [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of SPIE, IEEE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Multi-Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The January conference was attended by around 100 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical photonics, electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced photonic, electronic circuits and systems. The 32 nd WILGA Symposium took place on 27 May - 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. These two editions of WILGA Conferences - January and May have generated more than 250 articles, from which around 100 were chosen by the Symposium and Conference Committees to be published in this volume of Proc.SPIE. WILGA Symposium papers are traditionally submitted via the WILGA web page [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] to the SPIE Proceedings publishing system [spie.org]. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. All Wilga papers are published in journals Elektronika, IJET-PAN and in Proc.SPIE. Topical tracks of the symposium usually embrace, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium In its two editions a year is a summary of the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country and this geographical region in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also

  3. Advances in InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems for quantum communication

    Zhang, Jun; Zbinden, Hugo; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the most sensitive instruments for light detection. In the near-infrared range, SPDs based on III-V compound semiconductor avalanche photodiodes have been extensively used during the past two decades for diverse applications due to their advantages in practicality including small size, low cost and easy operation. In the past decade, the rapid developments and increasing demands in quantum information science have served as key drivers to improve the device performance of single-photon avalanche diodes and to invent new avalanche quenching techniques. This Review aims to introduce the technology advances of InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems in the telecom wavelengths and the relevant quantum communication applications, and particularly to highlight recent emerging techniques such as high-frequency gating at GHz rates and free-running operation using negative-feedback avalanche diodes. Future perspectives of both the devices and quenching techniques are summarized.

  4. A closed-loop photon beam control study for the Advanced Light Source

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) will produce extremely bright photon beams using undulators and wigglers. In order to position the photon beams accurate to the micron level, a closed-loop feedback system is being developed. Using photon position monitors and dipole corrector magnets, a closed-loop system can automatically compensate for modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The following paper will present a dynamics model for the perturbations of the closed orbit of the electron beam in the ALS storage ring including the vacuum chamber magnetic field penetration effects. Using this reference model, two closed-loop feedback algorithms will be compared -- a classical PI controller and a two degree-of-freedom approach. The two degree-of-freedom method provides superior disturbance rejection while maintaining the desired performance goals. Both methods will address the need to gain schedule the controller due to the time varying dynamics introduced by changing field strengths when scanning the insertion devices

  5. Advances in explosives analysis--part II: photon and neutron methods.

    Brown, Kathryn E; Greenfield, Margo T; McGrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S

    2016-01-01

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245-246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. This part, Part II, will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons. PMID:26446898

  6. Proceedings of the third users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    The Third Users Meetings for the Advanced Photon Source, held on October 12--13, 1989, at Argonne National Laboratory, brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to review the status of the facility and make plans for its use. The presentations documented in these proceedings include overviews of the project status and the user access policy; updates on several fundamental research efforts that make use of synchrotron radiation; reports on insertion-device R ampersand D and beam line design activities; cost and manpower estimates for beam line construction; and a panel discussion on strategies for developing and managing Collaborative Access Teams. The actions taken at the 1989 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented

  7. Development of grating-based x-ray Talbot interferometry at the advanced photon source

    We report on the ongoing effort to develop hard x-ray Talbot interferometry at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, USA. We describe the design of the interferometer and preliminary results obtained at 25 keV using a feather and a phantom sample lithographically fabricated of gold. We mention the future developmental goals and applications of this technique as a metrology tool for x-ray optics and beam wavefront characterization.

  8. Development of grating-based x-ray Talbot interferometry at the advanced photon source

    Marathe, Shashidhara; Xiao Xianghui; Wojcik, Michael J.; Divan, Ralu; Butler, Leslie G.; Ham, Kyungmin; Fezzaa, Kamel; Erdmann, Mark; Wen, Han H.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Macrander, Albert T.; De Carlo, Francesco; Mancini, Derrick C.; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, IL 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); CAMD / Louisiana State University, 6890 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); NHLBI / National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Photon Sciences Directorate, Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY 11973 (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-07-31

    We report on the ongoing effort to develop hard x-ray Talbot interferometry at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, USA. We describe the design of the interferometer and preliminary results obtained at 25 keV using a feather and a phantom sample lithographically fabricated of gold. We mention the future developmental goals and applications of this technique as a metrology tool for x-ray optics and beam wavefront characterization.

  9. Support systems for optics in the experiment stations at the Advanced Photon Source

    Support systems have been designed for optics in the experiment stations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. These systems utilize modular precision positioning slides and stages arranged in 3-point kinematic mount fashion for optimum mechanical stability. Through the use of novel configurations, these systems can achieve large linear motions, six degree-of-freedom motion, and large load capacities without sacrificing valuable experimental station space. This paper will discuss the designs and specifications of the positioning systems developed

  10. Chamber Surface Roughness and Electron Cloud for the Advanced Photon Source Superconducting Undulator

    Boon, Laura; Harkay, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The electron cloud is a possible heat source in the superconducting undulator (SCU) designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 7-GeV electron synchrotron radiation source at Argonne National Laboratory. In electron cloud generation extensive research has been done, and is continuing, to understand the secondary electron component. However, little work has been done to understand the parameters of photoemission in the accelerator environment. To better understand the primary electron gen...

  11. Retarded/Advanced Correlation Functions and Soft Photon Production in the Hard Loop Approximation

    Aurenche, P.; Becherrawy, T.; Petitgirard, E.

    1994-01-01

    We apply the retarded/advanced formalism of real time field theory to the QED or QED like case. We obtain a general expression for the imaginary part of the two-point correlation function in terms of discontinuities. The hard loop expansion is derived. The formalism is used to extract the divergent part of the soft fermion loop contribution to the real soft photon production.

  12. Photon neutron mixed-beam radiotherapy of locally advanced prostate cancer

    Purpose: In this article we present the results of mixed-beam, photon/neutron radiation therapy in 45 patients with locally advanced, bulky, or postoperative recurrent prostate cancer treated at the University of Chicago between 1978 and 1991. Survival, disease-free survival, local control, and long-term complications are analyzed in detail. Methods and Materials: Between 1978 and 1991, 45 patients with locally advanced (> 5 cm Stage B2, Stage C, or Stage D1) prostate cancer underwent mixed-beam (photon/neutron) radiation therapy. Forty percent of the treatment was delivered with neutron irradiation at either the University of Chicago or Fermilab. Sixty percent of treatment was delivered with photons at the University of Chicago. Initially, the whole pelvis was irradiated to 50 photon Gy equivalent. This was followed by a boost to the prostate for an additional 20 photon Gy equivalent. Results: The median follow-up for patients in this series is 72 months. The overall 5-year actuarial survival was 72%, and the 5-year disease-free survival was 45%. Thus far, 18 patients have died. Eleven patients have died from prostate cancer and 7 from other medical illness. Twenty-seven patients are alive, and 12 of these patients have recurrent and or metastatic disease. The local control rate was 89% (40 out of 45). Histologic material was available on 18 patients following treatment (i.e., prostate biopsy in 16 patients and autopsy in 2 patients) and was negative for carcinoma in 13 (72%). Significant Grade 3-5 complications occurred in 36% (16 out of 45) of the patients treated with mixed-beam radiation therapy and were related to dose and beam quality. Factors related to survival, disease-free survival, local control, and complications are analyzed. Conclusions: The survival and local control results of mixed-beam radiation therapy at the University of Chicago appear to be superior to those series using photon radiation in patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma

  13. Vacuum tests of a beamline front-end mock-up at the Advanced Photon Source

    A mock-up has been constructed to test the functioning and performance of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends. The mock-up consists of all components of the APS insertion-device beamline front end with a differential pumping system. Primary vacuum tests have been performed and compared with finite element vacuum calculations. Pressure distribution measurements using controlled leaks demonstrate a better than four decades of pressure difference between the two ends of the mock-up. The measured pressure profiles are consistent with results of finite element analyses of the system. The safety-control systems are also being tested. A closing time of ∼20 ms for the photon shutter and ∼7 ms for the fast closing valve have been obtained. Experiments on vacuum protection systems indicate that the front end is well protected in case of a vacuum breach

  14. Vacuum system development status for the APS [Advanced Photon Source] storage ring

    The status of the design and fabrication of a prototype sector of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source is described. The 26.5-m-long prototype sector will be assembled within a full-scale magnet and tunnel mockup to study interspacial component relationships for maintenance, as well as the vacuum system operational performance. Each completed vacuum section is mounted as an integral part of the modular structure that contains the magnets and magnet power supplies on a common base. Unique automatic machine welding designs and techniques are employed in the fabrication of the aluminium vacuum chambers from extrusions. Special chamber bending procedures and measurements checks are used to maintain the required flatness of the insider chamber light gap surfaces. Photo-electron yields due to low-energy photons in the narrow channel gap of the vacuum chamber and their potential effects on the overall outgassing rate are found to be negligible. 9 refs., 5 figs

  15. Vacuum tests of a beamline front-end mock-up at the Advanced Photon Source

    A-mock-up has been constructed to test the functioning and performance of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends. The mock-up consists of all components of the APS insertion-device beamline front end with a differential pumping system. Primary vacuum tests have been performed and compared with finite element vacuum calculations. Pressure distribution measurements using controlled leaks demonstrate a better than four decades of pressure difference between the two ends of the mock-up. The measured pressure profiles are consistent with results of finite element analyses of the system. The safety-control systems are also being tested. A closing time of ∼20 ms for the photon shutter and ∼7 ms for the fast closing valve have been obtained. Experiments on vacuum protection systems indicate that the front end is well protected in case of a vacuum breach

  16. Recent Advances in Programmable Photonic-Assisted Ultrabroadband Radio-Frequency Arbitrary Waveform Generation

    Rashidinejad, Amir; Weiner, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in photonic-assisted radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation (RF-AWG), with emphasis on programmable ultrabroadband microwave and millimeter-wave waveforms. The key enabling components in these techniques are programmable optical pulse shaping, frequency-to-time mapping via dispersive propagation, and high-speed photodetection. The main advantages and challenges of several different photonic RF-AWG schemes are discussed. We further review some proof-of-concept demonstrations of ultrabroadband RF-AWG applications, including high-resolution ranging and ultrabroadband non-line-of-sight channel compensation. Finally, we present recent progress toward RF-AWG with increased time aperture and time-bandwidth product.

  17. Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source

    We report the basic beamline design and current status of a new full-field X-ray imaging facility at Sector 32 of the Advanced Photon Source. The beamline consists of an existing hutch at 40 m and a new experiment enclosure at 77 m from the source, with both monochromatic and white-beam undulator X-ray capabilities. Experimental programs being planned for the beamline include high-speed time-resolved imaging, phase-contrast and coherent imaging, diffraction-enhanced imaging, ultra-small-angle scattering imaging, and phase- and absorption-contrast transmission X-ray microscopy

  18. Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source

    Shen Qun [Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: qshen@aps.anl.gov; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Chu, Yong S.; De Carlo, Francesco; Jemian, Peter; Ilavsky, Jan; Erdmann, Mark; Long, Gabrielle G. [Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We report the basic beamline design and current status of a new full-field X-ray imaging facility at Sector 32 of the Advanced Photon Source. The beamline consists of an existing hutch at 40 m and a new experiment enclosure at 77 m from the source, with both monochromatic and white-beam undulator X-ray capabilities. Experimental programs being planned for the beamline include high-speed time-resolved imaging, phase-contrast and coherent imaging, diffraction-enhanced imaging, ultra-small-angle scattering imaging, and phase- and absorption-contrast transmission X-ray microscopy.

  19. Crab Cavity and Cryomodule Prototype Development for the Advanced Photon Source

    We review the single-cell, superconducting crab cavity designs for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The 'on-cell' waveguide scheme is expected to have a more margin for the impedance budget of the APS storage ring, as well as offering a more compact design compared with the original design consisting of a low order mode damping waveguide on the beam pipe. We will report recent fabrication progress, cavity test performance on original and alternate prototypes, and concept designs and analysis for various cryomodule components.

  20. A double-multilayer monochromator using a modular design for the Advanced Photon Source

    A novel double-multilayer monochromator has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source X-ray undulator beamline at Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator consists of two ultra high-vacuum (UHV) compatible modular vessels, each with a sine-bar driving structure and a water-cooled multilayer holder. A high precision Y-Z stage is used to provide compensating motion for the second multilayer from outside the vacuum chamber so that the monochromator can fix the output monochromatic beam direction and angle during the energy scan in a narrow range. The design details for this monochromator are presented in this paper

  1. Professional development in photonics: the advanced technology education projects of the New England Board of Education

    Donnelly, Judith; Hanes, Fenna; Massa, Nicholas

    2007-09-01

    Since 1995, the New England Board of Education (NEBHE) has been providing curriculum and professional development as well as laboratory improvement in optics/photonics to middle school and high school teachers and college faculty across the United States. With funding from the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technology Education program, NEBHE's optics/photonics education projects have created a national network of educational and industry alliances resulting in opportunities in optics and photonics for students at participating schools and colleges. The cornerstone of NEBHE projects is collaboration among educational levels, career counselors and teachers/faculty, and industry and academia. In such a rich atmosphere of cooperation, participants have been encouraged to create their own regional projects and activities involving students from middle school through four-year universities. In this paper we will describe the evolution of teacher/faculty professional development from a traditional week-long summer workshop to a collaborative distance learning laboratory course based on adult learning principles and supported by a national network of industry mentors.

  2. The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar: an Advanced Technology Airborne Laser Altimeter

    Dabney, P.; Harding, D. J.; Huss, T.; Valett, S.; Yu, A. W.; Zheng, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is an airborne laser altimeter developed through the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program with a focus on cryopshere remote sensing. The SIMPL instrument incorporates a variety of advanced technologies in order to demonstrate measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved airborne laser swath mapping and spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL incorporates beam splitting, single-photon ranging and polarimetry technologies at green and near-infrared wavelengths in order to achieve simultaneous sampling of surface elevation, slope, roughness and scattering properties, the latter used to differentiate surface types. The transmitter is a 1 nsec pulse width, 11 kHz, 1064 nm microchip laser, frequency doubled to 532 nm and split into four plane-polarized beams using birefringent calcite crystal in order to maintain co-alignment of the two colors. The 16 channel receiver splits the received energy for each beam into the two colors and each color is split into energy parallel and perpendicular to the transmit polarization plane thereby proving a measure of backscatter depolarization. The depolarization ratio is sensitive to the proportions of specular reflection and surface and volume scattering, and is a function of wavelength. The ratio can differentiate, for example, water, young translucent ice, older granular ice and snow. The solar background count rate is controlled by spatial filtering using a pinhole array and by spectral filtering using temperature-controlled narrow bandwidth filters. The receiver is fiber coupled to 16 Single Photon Counting Modules (SPCMs). To avoid range biases due to the long dead time of these detectors the probability of detection per laser fire on each channel is controlled to be below 30%, using mechanical irises and flight altitude. Event timers with 0.1 nsec resolution in combination the narrow transmit pulse yields single

  3. The Short-Pulse X-ray Facility at the Advanced Photon Source

    Young, Linda; Evans, Paul

    2013-05-01

    The Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) Facility will extend time-resolved x-ray scattering and spectroscopy to the picosecond time scale while retaining the powerful characteristics of synchrotron radiation, i.e., user-controlled continuous tunability of energy, polarization, and bandwidth combined with exquisite x-ray energy and pulse-length stability over a wide energy range. Experiments at the SPX facility will produce 1-ps stroboscopic snapshots of molecular rotations, molecular excited-state transient structures, stress/strain wave propagation, magnetic domain wall dynamics, phase transitions, and the coupling between electronic, vibrational, and magnetic degrees of freedom in condensed matter systems. Time-resolved studies of transient dynamics will be possible with simultaneous picosecond time resolution and picometer structural precision for a variety of atomic, molecular, supramolecular, nanoscale, and bulk material systems. Pump-probe experiments using high-average-power, sub-picosecond, high-repetition-rate laser systems will make efficient use of the MHz x-ray rates of the SPX. Five end stations for x-ray scattering, diffraction, spectroscopy, imaging, and microscopy can be developed as part of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade project. The Advanced Photon Source is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Dept of Energy Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)

    This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation

  5. Large-scale photonic integration for advanced all-optical routing functions

    Nicholes, Steven C.

    Advanced InP-based photonic integrated circuits are a critical technology to manage the increasing bandwidth demands of next-generation all-optical networks. Integrating many of the discrete functions required in optical networks into a single device provides a reduction in system footprint and optical losses by eliminating the fiber coupling junctions between components. This translates directly into increased system reliability and cost savings. Although many key network components have been realized via InP-based monolithic integration over the years, truly large-scale photonic ICs have only recently emerged in the marketplace. This lag-time has been mostly due to historically low device yields. In all-optical routing applications, large-scale photonic ICs may be able to address two of the key roadblocks associated with scaling modern electronic routers to higher capacities---namely, power and size. If the functions of dynamic wavelength conversion and routing are moved to the optical layer, we can eliminate the need for power-hungry optical-to-electrical (O/E) and electrical-to-optical (E/O) data conversions at each router node. Additionally, large-scale photonic ICs could reduce the footprint of such a system by combining the similar functions of each port onto a single chip. However, robust design and manufacturing techniques that will enable high-yield production of these chips must be developed. In this work, we demonstrate a monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) chip consisting of an array of eight 40-Gbps wavelength converters and a passive arrayed-waveguide grating router that functions as the packet-forwarding switch fabric of an all-optical router. The device represents one of the most complex InP photonic ICs ever reported, with more than 200 integrated functional elements in a single chip. Single-channel 40 Gbps wavelength conversion and channel switching using 231-1 PRBS data showed a power penalty as low as 4.5 dB with less than 2 W drive power

  6. Apparent superluminal advancement of a single photon far beyond its coherence length

    Cialdi, S; Boscolo, I.; CASTELLI, F.; Petrillo, V.

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental results relative to superluminal propagation based on a single photon traversing an optical system, called 4f-system, which acts singularly on the photon's spectral component phases. A single photon is created by a CW laser light down{conversion process. The introduction of a linear spectral phase function will lead to the shift of the photon peak far beyond the coherence length of the photon itself (an apparent superluminal propagation of the photon). Superluminal gro...

  7. Visual outcome of accelerated fractionated radiation for advanced sinonasal malignancies employing photons/protons

    Purpose: To investigate the visual outcomes of patients with advanced sinonasal malignancies treated with proton/photon accelerated fractionated radiation (AFR). Patients and methods: Between 1991 and 2001, AFR was used to treat 36 patients with advanced stage primary (n = 33) or recurrent (n = 3) nasal or paranasal malignant tumors. Full ophthalmologic follow-up was documented. The median dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) was 69.6 CGE (range 60.8-77). Visual complications were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and the late effects of normal tissue (LENT) scoring systems. The median follow-up was 52.4 months (range 17-122.8). Results: Thirteen patients developed late visual/ocular toxicity. Cataracts were LENT grade 1 and 3 in 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. One LENT grade 1 vascular retinopathy and 1 optic neuropathy were also observed. Three and five patients presented with nasolacrimal duct stenosis (CTC grade 2, 2 patients; CTC grade 3, 1 patient) and dry-eye syndrome (CTC grade 1, 1 patient; CTC grade 2, 4 patients), respectively. The 3- and 5-year probability of LENT/CTC grade ≥2 visual toxicity were 15.8 ± 6.7% and 20.7 ± 7.8%, respectively. Conclusions: AFR for locally advanced nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors enables delivery of 70 CGE to the tumor with acceptable ophthalmologic complications

  8. Tailoring the Optical Properties of Silicon with Ion Beam Created Nanostructures for Advanced Photonics Applications

    Akhter, Perveen

    In today's fast life, energy consumption has increased more than ever and with that the demand for a renewable and cleaner energy source as a substitute for the fossil fuels has also increased. Solar radiations are the ultimate source of energy but harvesting this energy in a cost effective way is a challenging task. Si is the dominating material for microelectronics and photovoltaics. But owing to its indirect band gap, Si is an inefficient light absorber, thus requiring a thickness of solar cells beyond tens of microns which increases the cost of solar energy. Therefore, techniques to increase light absorption in thin film Si solar cells are of great importance and have been the focus of research for a few decades now. Another big issue of technology in this fast-paced world is the computing rate or data transfer rate between components of a chip in ultra-fast processors. Existing electronic interconnects suffering from the signal delays and heat generation issues are unable to handle high data rates. A possible solution to this problem is in replacing the electronic interconnects with optical interconnects which have large data carrying capacity. However, optical components are limited in size by the fundamental laws of diffraction to about half a wavelength of light and cannot be combined with nanoscale electronic components. Tremendous research efforts have been directed in search of an advanced technology which can bridge the size gap between electronic and photonic worlds. An emerging technology of "plasmonics'' which exploits the extraordinary optical properties of metal nanostructures to tailor the light at nanoscale has been considered a potential solution to both of the above-mentioned problems. Research conducted for this dissertation has an overall goal to investigate the optical properties of silicon with metal nanostructures for photovoltaics and advanced silicon photonics applications. The first part of the research focuses on achieving enhanced

  9. Measurement of gas bremsstrahlung from the insertion device beamlines of the advanced photon source

    High energy electron storage rings generate energetic bremsstrahlung photons through radiative interaction of the electrons (or positrons) with the residual gas molecules inside the storage ring. The resulting radiation exits at an average emittance angle of (m0c2/E) radian with respect to the electron beam path, where m0c2 is the rest mass of E the electron and E its kinetic energy. Thus, at straight sections of the storage rings, moving electrons will produce a narrow and intense monodirectional photon beam. At synchrotron radiation facilities, where beamlines are channeled out of the storage ring, a continuous gas bremsstrahlung spectrum, with a maximum energy of the electron beam, will be present. There are a number of compelling reasons that a measurement of the bremsstrahlung characteristics be conducted at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although the number of residual gas molecules present in the storage ring at typical nTorr vacuum is low, because of the long straight paths of the electrons in the storage ring at APS, significant production of bremsstrahlung will be produced. This may pose a radiation hazard. It is then imperative that personnel be shielded from dose rates due to this radiation. There are not many measurements available for gas bremsstrahlung, especially for higher electron beam energies. The quantitative estimates of gas bremsstrahlung from storage rings as evaluated by Monte Carlo codes also have several uncertainties. They are in general calculated for air at atmospheric pressure, the results of which are then extrapolated to typical storage ring vacuum values (of the order of 10-9 Torr). Realistically, the actual pressure profile can vary inside the narrow vacuum chamber. Also, the actual chemical composition of the residual gas inside the storage ring is generally different from that of air

  10. Measurement of gas bremsstrahlung from the insertion device beamlines of the advanced photon source

    Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Magill, S. [and others

    1997-03-01

    High energy electron storage rings generate energetic bremsstrahlung photons through radiative interaction of the electrons (or positrons) with the residual gas molecules inside the storage ring. The resulting radiation exits at an average emittance angle of (m{sub 0}c{sub 2}/E) radian with respect to the electron beam path, where m{sub 0}c{sup 2} is the rest mass of E the electron and E its kinetic energy. Thus, at straight sections of the storage rings, moving electrons will produce a narrow and intense monodirectional photon beam. At synchrotron radiation facilities, where beamlines are channeled out of the storage ring, a continuous gas bremsstrahlung spectrum, with a maximum energy of the electron beam, will be present. There are a number of compelling reasons that a measurement of the bremsstrahlung characteristics be conducted at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although the number of residual gas molecules present in the storage ring at typical nTorr vacuum is low, because of the long straight paths of the electrons in the storage ring at APS, significant production of bremsstrahlung will be produced. This may pose a radiation hazard. It is then imperative that personnel be shielded from dose rates due to this radiation. There are not many measurements available for gas bremsstrahlung, especially for higher electron beam energies. The quantitative estimates of gas bremsstrahlung from storage rings as evaluated by Monte Carlo codes also have several uncertainties. They are in general calculated for air at atmospheric pressure, the results of which are then extrapolated to typical storage ring vacuum values (of the order of 10{sup -9} Torr). Realistically, the actual pressure profile can vary inside the narrow vacuum chamber. Also, the actual chemical composition of the residual gas inside the storage ring is generally different from that of air.

  11. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    Closed orbit feedback for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring employs unified global an local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing (DSP). Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm. application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware, including the DSPS, is distributed in 20 VNE crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically-networked reflective memories

  12. The PNC-CAT insertion device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    The PNC-CAT is a consortium of Pacific Northwest institutions formed to instrument a sector (number 20) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Research is planned in a variety of areas, with an emphasis on environmentally based problems. The insertion device beamline is based on the APS undulator A and will be optimized for producing microbeams as well as for applications requiring energy scanning capabilities. This paper describes the basic layout and some special features of the beamline. Two experimental stations are planned: one general purpose and one dedicated to MBE and surface science problems. Both tapered capillaries and Kirkpatrick-Baez optics will be used for producing microbeams, and a large optical bench is planned for the main station to allow for easy accommodation of new optics developments. Design calculations and initial capillary tests indicate that flux densities exceeding 1011 photons/sec/mm2 should be achievable. All major components are under construction or in procurement, and initial testing is planned for late 1996. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A.J. [Accelerator Systems Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Closed orbit feedback for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware, including the digital signal processor (DSPs), is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically networked reflective memories. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the advanced photon source storage ring

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a dedicated third-generation synchrotron light source with a nominal energy of 7 GeV and a circumference of 1104 m. The closed orbit feedback system for the APS storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing (DSP). Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described in this paper. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware including the DSPs is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically-networked reflective memories.

  15. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A. J.

    1996-09-01

    Closed orbit feedback for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware, including the digital signal processor (DSPs), is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically networked reflective memories.

  16. Front-end equipment protection system at the Advanced Photon Source

    The front-end Equipment Protection System (FE-EPS) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a high reliability, fail-safe single-chain interlock and control system. It consists of an Allen-Bradley PLC-5/30 processor, local and remote I/O racks, monitoring and control panels, serial communication links, and field devices. Each front end is equipped with a dedicated EPS. The system monitors a variety of sensors (e.g., vacuum, cooling water, temperature, pneumatic pressure), and controls front-end (FE) photon shutters and UHV valves. The main functions of the FE-EPS are to guard the integrity of the storage ring vacuum against vacuum excursions in the FE and beam transport line, as well as to protect the front-end and beamline components from being damaged by synchrotron radiation. The FE-EPS interfaces to six other APS interlock and control systems. Information about FE interlocks and devices is displayed on UNIX machines using the EPICS software tool kit. The system design is presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the advanced photon source storage ring

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a dedicated third-generation synchrotron light source with a nominal energy of 7 GeV and a circumference of 1104 m. The closed orbit feedback system for the APS storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing (DSP). Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described in this paper. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware including the DSPs is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically-networked reflective memories

  18. UHV seal studies for the advanced photon source storage ring vacuum system

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 6063-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150 degrees C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. UHV seal studies for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring vacuum system

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 60603-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150 C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported

  20. Microgel photonics and lab on fiber technology for advanced label-free fiber optic nanoprobes

    Giaquinto, M.; Micco, A.; Aliberti, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Ruvo, M.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel optical fiber label free optrode platform resulting from the integration between two rapidly emerging technologies such as Lab-on-Fiber Technology (LOFT) and Microgel Photonics (MPs). The device consists of a microgel (MG) layer painted on a metallic slabs supporting plasmonic resonances, directly integrated on the optical fiber tip. A molecular binding event induces significant changes in the MG layer thickness (and consequently in its 'equivalent' refractive index) resulting in an evident wavelength shift of the resonant feature. As a case of study, glucose-responsive MGs have been synthesized by incorporating into the gel matrix boronic acid moieties, whose interaction with glucose rules the driving forces for gel swelling. Our results pave the way for new technological routes aimed to develop advanced label free fiber optic nanoprobes.

  1. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  2. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  3. Annex to 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    The Annex to the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report updates the Conceptual Design Report of 1987 (CDR-87) to include the results of further optimization and changes of the design during the past year. The design changes can be summarized as affecting three areas: the accelerator system, conventional facilities, and experimental systems. Most of the changes in the accelerator system result from inclusion of a positron accumulator ring (PAR), which was added at the suggestion of the 1987 DOE Review Committee, to speed up the filling rate of the storage ring. The addition of the PAR necessitates many minor changes in the linac system, the injector synchrotron, and the low-energy beam transport lines. 63 figs., 18 tabs

  4. Proceedings of the first users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    1988-02-01

    The first national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory - held November 13-14, 1986, at Argonne - brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to exchange information on the design of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and potential participating research team (PRT) plans are documented in these proceedings. Topics covered include the current status of the project, an overview of the APS conceptual design, scientific opportunities offered by the facility for synchrotron-radiation-related research, current proposals and funding mechanisms for beam lines, and user policies. A number of participants representing universities and private industry discussed plans for the possible formation of PRTs to build and use beam lines at the APS site. The meeting also provided an opportunity for potential users to organize their efforts to support and guide the facility's development.

  5. Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future

  6. Advanced Photon Source RF Beam Position Monitor System Upgrade Design and Commissioning

    Lill, R; Singh, O

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring mono-pulse rf beam position monitor (BPM) system upgrade. The present rf BPM system requires a large dead time of 400 ns between the measured bunch and upstream bunch. The bunch pattern is also constrained by the required target cluster of six bunches of 7 mA minimum necessary to operate the receiver near the top end of the dynamic range. The upgrade design objectives involve resolving bunches spaced as closely as 100 ns. These design objectives require us to reduce receiver front-end losses and reflections. An improved trigger scheme that minimizes systematic errors is also required. The upgrade is in the final phases of installation and commissioning at this time. The latest experimental and commissioning data and results will be presented.

  7. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National laboratory, has many advantages. A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows one to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper

  8. Results of prototype particle-beam diagnostics tests for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation source (hard x-rays) based on 7-GeV positrons circulating in a 1,104-m circumference storage ring. In the past year a number of the diagnostic prototypes for the measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the facility (ranging from 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats) have been built and tested. Results are summarized for the beam position monitor (BPM), current monitor (CM), loss monitor (LM), and imaging systems (ISYS). The test facilities ranged from the 40-MeV APS linac test stand to the existing storage rings at SSRL and NSLS

  9. Results of prototype particle-beam diagnostics tests for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation source (hard x-rays) based on 7-GeV positrons circulating in a 1104-m circumference storage ring. In the past year a number of the diagnostic prototypes for the measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the facility (ranging from 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats) have been built and tested. Results are summarized for the beam position monitor (BPM), current monitor (CM), loss monitor (LM), and imaging systems (ISYS). The test facilities ranged from the 40-MeV APS linac test stand to the existing storage rings at SSRL and NSLS

  10. Status of the Advanced Photon Source and its accelerator control system

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  11. Development and application of general purpose data acquisition shell (GPDAS) at Advanced Photon Source

    An operating system shell GPDAS (General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell) on MS-DOS-based microcomputers has been developed to provide flexibility in data acquisition and device control for magnet measurements at the Advanced Photon Source. GPDAS is both a command interpreter and an integrated script-based programming environment. It also incorporates the MS-DOS shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. Features include: alias definition, virtual memory, windows, graphics, data and procedure backup, background operation, script programming language, and script level debugging. Data acquisition system devices can be controlled through IEEE488 board, multifunction I/O board, digital I/O board and Gespac crate via Euro G-64 bus. GPDAS is now being used for diagnostics R and D and accelerator physics studies as well as for magnet measurements. Their hardware configurations are also discussed

  12. Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Undulator Sector at the Advanced Photon Source

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) has designed and built a multipurpose undulator beamline at Sector 12 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The first optical enclosure contains all the white light components including a high performance thin, cryogenically cooled Si (1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. All the experimental stations are equipped with an exhaust for reactive gases that allows in-situ studies of chemical reactions. The monochromatic windowless beamline is used for elastic and inelastic X-ray scattering, surface scattering, small-angle scattering, and spectroscopy research. Each of these activities is in general confined to one of the three experimental stations. The end station (12-ID-D) is a monochromatic enclosure that is used for surface scattering and includes MOCVD equipment for in-situ measurements

  13. Development and application of General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell (GPDAS) at advanced photon source

    An operating system shell GPDAS (General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell) on MS-DOS-based microcomputers has been developed to provide flexibility in data acquisition and device control for magnet measurements at the Advanced Photon Source. GPDAS is both a command interpreter and an integrated script-based programming environment. It also incorporates the MS-DOS shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. Features include: alias definition, virtual memory, windows, graphics, data and procedure backup, background operation, script programming language, and script level debugging. Data acquisition system devices can be controlled through IEEE488 board, multifunction I/O board, digital I/O board and Gespac crate via Euro G-64 bus. GPDAS is now being used for diagnostics R ampersand D and accelerator physics studies as well as for magnet measurements. Their hardware configurations will also be discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  14. Proceedings of the first users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    The first national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory - held November 13-14, 1986, at Argonne - brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to exchange information on the design of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and potential participating research team (PRT) plans are documented in these proceedings. Topics covered include the current status of the project, an overview of the APS conceptual design, scientific opportunities offered by the facility for synchrotron-radiation-related research, current proposals and funding mechanisms for beam lines, and user policies. A number of participants representing universities and private industry discussed plans for the possible formation of PRTs to build and use beam lines at the APS site. The meeting also provided an opportunity for potential users to organize their efforts to support and guide the facility's development

  15. Proceedings of the second users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    The second national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory -- held March 9--10, 1988, at Argonne -- brought scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories together to review the status of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and status reports in these proceedings include the current status of the APS with respect to accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities; scientific papers on frontiers in synchrotron applications summaries of reports on workshops held by users in certain topical groups; reports in research and development activities in support of the APS at other synchrotron facilities; and noted from a discussion of APS user access policy. In addition, actions taken by the APS Users Organization and its Executive Committee are documented in this report

  16. Proceedings of the second users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    1988-11-01

    The second national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory -- held March 9--10, 1988, at Argonne -- brought scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories together to review the status of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and status reports in these proceedings include the current status of the APS with respect to accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities; scientific papers on frontiers in synchrotron applications summaries of reports on workshops held by users in certain topical groups; reports in research and development activities in support of the APS at other synchrotron facilities; and noted from a discussion of APS user access policy. In addition, actions taken by the APS Users Organization and its Executive Committee are documented in this report.

  17. Canted Undulator Upgrade for GeoSoilEnviroCARS Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source

    Sutton, Stephen

    2013-02-02

    Support for the beamline component of the canted undulator upgrade of Sector 13 (GeoSoilEnviroCARS; managed and operated by the University of Chicago) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory) was received from three agencies (equally divided): NASA-SRLIDAP (now LARS), NSF-EAR-IF (ARRA) and DOE-Single Investigator Small Group (SISGR). The associated accelerator components (undulators, canted front end) were provided by the APS using DOE-ARRA funding. The intellectual merit of the research enabled by the upgrade lies in advancing our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials; the processes they control; and the processes that produce them. The upgrade will facilitate scientific advances in the following areas: high pressure mineral physics and chemistry, non-crystalline and nano-crystalline materials at high pressure, chemistry of hydrothermal fluids, reactions at mineral-water interfaces, biogeochemistry, oxidation states of magmas, flow dynamics of fluids and solids, and cosmochemistry. The upgrade, allowing the microprobe to operate 100% of the time and the high pressure and surface scattering and spectroscopy instruments to receive beam time increases, will facilitate much more efficient use of the substantial investment in these instruments. The broad scientific community will benefit by the increase in the number of scientists who conduct cutting-edge research at GSECARS. The user program in stations 13ID-C (interface scattering) and 13ID-D (laser heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press) recommenced in June 2012. The operation of the 13ID-E microprobe station began in the Fall 2012 cycle (Oct.-Dec 2012). The upgraded canted beamlines double the amount of undulator beam time at Sector 13 and provide new capabilities including extended operations of the X-ray microprobe down to the sulfur K edge and enhanced brightness at high energy. The availability of the upgraded beamlines will advance the

  18. High-resolution X-ray imaging for microbiology at the Advanced Photon Source

    Exciting new applications of high-resolution x-ray imaging have emerged recently due to major advances in high-brilliance synchrotrons sources and high-performance zone plate optics. Imaging with submicron resolution is now routine with hard x-rays: the authors have demonstrated 150 run in the 6--10 keV range with x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons radiation facility. This has fueled interest in using x-ray imaging in applications ranging from the biomedical, environmental, and materials science fields to the microelectronics industry. One important application they have pursued at the APS is a study of the microbiology of bacteria and their associated extracellular material (biofilms) using fluorescence microanalysis. No microscopy techniques were previously available with sufficient resolution to study live bacteria (∼1 microm x 4 microm in size) and biofilms in their natural hydrated state with better than part-per-million elemental sensitivity and the capability of determining g chemical speciation. In vivo x-ray imaging minimizes artifacts due to sample fixation, drying, and staining. This provides key insights into the transport of metal contaminants by bacteria in the environment and potential new designs for remediation and sequestration strategies

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the vacuum performance of differential pumps at the Advanced Photon Source

    Monte Carlo computer simulations have been successfully applied in the design of vacuum systems. These simulations allow the user to check the vacuum performance without the need of making a prototype of the vacuum system. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness and aptitude of these simulations in the design of differential pumps for synchrotron radiation beamlines. Eventually a good number of the beamline front ends at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will use differential pumps to protect the synchrotron storage ring vacuum. A Monte Carlo computer program is used to calculate the molecular flow transmission and pressure distribution across the differential pump. A differential pump system, which consists of two 170 l/s ion pumps with three conductance-limiting apertures, was previously tested on an APS insertion-device beamline front end. Pressure distribution measurements using controlled leaks demonstrated a pressure difference of over two decades across the differential pump. A new differential pump utilizes a fixed mask between two 170 l/s ion pumps. The fixed mask, which has a conical channel with a small cross section of 4.5x4.5 mm2 in the far end, is used in the beamline to confine the photon beam. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this configuration with the fixed mask significantly improves the pressure reduction capability of the differential pump, to ∼3x10-5, within the operational range from ∼10-4 to 10-10 Torr. The lower end of pressure is limited by outgassing from front-end components and the higher end by the pumping ability of the ion pump. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Design and analysis of a photon/safety shutter for CARS sector 14 ID beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    A photon/safety shutter capable of stopping bremsstrahlung, white, pink, and monochromatic radiation from the APS wiggler and undulator sources is described. The shutter consists of two individually actuated but redundant block assemblies. Each block consists of a water-cooled, OFHC block thermal absorber followed by a tungsten block to stop both synchrotron and bremsstrahlung rays. The design presented here is inexpensive and spatially compact. Fatigue analysis and ANSYS thermal and stress analysis are presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Report of the evaluation by the ad hoc review committee on advanced photon and synchrotron radiation research. In-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2001

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Photon and Synchrotron Radiation Research in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the adequacy of the R and D programs to be implemented for five years starting in Fiscal Year 2002 at Advanced Photon Research Center and at Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Kansai Research Establishment of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of ten specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advanced and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 21, 2001, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on July 12, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Photon and Synchrotron Radiation Research. (author)

  2. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  3. Sensitivity and offset calibration for the beam position monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    The beam position monitors (BPMs) play a critically important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. Accurate determination of the offsets relative to the magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPMs is thus needed. We will describe in this paper the schemes for calibrating all of the 360 BPMs for sensitivity and offset in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and the results. For the sensitivity calibration, a 2-dimensional map of the BPM response in the aluminum vacuum chamber is obtained theoretically, which is combined with the measured nonlinear response of the BPM electronics. A set of 2-dimensional polynomial coefficients is then obtained to approximate the result analytically. The offset calibration of the BPMs is done relative to the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles using the beam. This avoids the problem arising from various mechanical sources as well as the offset in the processing electronics. The measurement results for the resolution and long-term drift of the BPM electronics shows 0.06-μm/√Hz resolution and 2-μm/hr drift over a period of 1.5 hrs

  4. Fiber diffraction using the BioCAT undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    Irving, T C; Rosenbaum, G; Bunker, G B

    2000-01-01

    The BioCAT undulator-based beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA is designed to be a state-of-the-art instrument for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The optics consist of double crystal monochromators with sagitally focussing second crystals followed by a vertically focussing mirror which allow independent focussing of the beam in the vertical and horizontal directions virtually anywhere along the length of the 12 m experimental enclosure. When configured for a 2 m fiber diffraction camera, a focal spot of less than 40x200 mu m (FWHM) has been observed which contained essentially all of the 1.5-2.5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ph/s delivered by the cryogenically-cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. This combination of highly demagnifying optics and the very low divergence of the very small source have yielded excellent quality patterns from various muscle specimens and collagen-containing tissues. Detectors available include a Fuji BAS2500 image plate sc...

  5. Review of window and filter requirements for commissioning of the Advanced Photon Source insertion device beamlines

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is building 16 insertion device (ID) front ends for the first phase of the project. Eleven of these are to be equipped with the APS Undulator A and the other five with a Wiggler-A-type source. The Undulator A front ends are designed to operate in a ''windowless'' mode using an APS-designed differential pump. However, during beamline commissioning and early operations of the storage ring, it is prudent to install windows to ensure storage ring vacuum safety before easing into windowless operation. However, the window designed for this interim period may not meet all the needs of a user's scientific program. In the early phases of the project through commissioning and start of operations, such a window will permit the user to prepare for his program, while allowing both the user and the facility operators to gain experience for safe phasing into eventual windowless operations. In this report, we will present analysis and design options for a variety of windows particularly suited to either the APS Undulator A front ends or as user windows located in the first optics enclosure (FOE)

  6. Performance of the beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source

    Performance measurement and analysis of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics are reported. The results indicate a BPM resolution of 0.16 μm·mA/√Hz in terms of the single-bunch current and BPM bandwidth. For the miniature insertion device (ID) BPM, the result was 0.1 μm·mA/√Hz. The improvement is due to the 3.6 times higher position sensitivity (in the vertical plane), which is partially canceled by the lower button signal by a factor of 2.3. The minimum single-bunch current required was roughly 0.03 mA. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Implications of the BPM resolution limit on the global and local orbit feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed

  7. Spectral characteristics of insertion device sources at the advanced photon source

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory will be a powerful source of hard x-rays with energies above 1 keV. In addition to the availability of bending magnet radiation, the storage ring will have 35 straight sections for insertion device (ID) x-ray sources. The unique spectral properties and flexibility of these devices open new possibilities for scientific research in essentially every area of science and technology. Existing and new techniques utilizing the full potential of these sources, such as the enhanced coherence, unique polarization properties, and high spectral brilliance, will permit experiments not possible with existing sources. In the following presentation, the spectral properties of ID sources are briefly reviewed. A summary of the specific properties of sources planned for the APS storage ring is then presented. Recent results for APS prototype ID sources are discussed, and finally some special x-ray sources under consideration for the APS facility are described

  8. Insertion device and beam line plans for the advanced photon source

    In the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) Conceptual Design Report (CDR), fifteen complete experimental beam lines were specified in order to establish a representative technical and cost base for the components involved. In order to optimize the composition of the insertion devices and the beam line, these funds are considered a open-quote Trust Fund.close quotes The present report evaluates the optimization for the distribution of these funds so that the short- and long-term research programs will be most productive, making the facility more attractive from the user's point of view. It is recommended that part of the open-quote Trust Fundclose quotes be used for the construction of the insertion devices, the front-end components, and the first-optics, minimizing the cost to potential users of completing a beam line. In addition, the possibility of cost savings resulting from replication and standardization of high multiplicity components (such as IDs, front ends, and first-optics instrumentation) is addressed

  9. Environmental assessment of the proposed 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source

    The potential environmental impacts of construction and operation of a 6- to 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source known as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory were evaluated. Key elements considered include on- and off-site radiological effects; socioeconomic effects; and impacts to aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, wetlands, water and air quality, cultural resources, and threatened or endangered species. Also incorporated are the effects of decisions made as a result of the preliminary design (Title I) being prepared. Mitigation plans to further reduce impacts are being developed. These plans include coordination with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and other responsible agencies to mitigate potential impacts to wetlands. This mitigation includes providing habitat of comparable ecological value to assure no net loss of wetlands. These mitigation actions would be permitted and monitored by COE. A data recovery plan to protect cultural resources has been developed and approved, pursuant to a Programmatic Agreement among the US Department of Energy, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Illinois State Historic Preservation Office. Applications for National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and air emissions permits have been submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), respectively. 71 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs

  10. The vacuum system for insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    A vacuum system for the insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source was designed, and chambers of this design were successfully manufactured and tested. Three different versions of the vacuum chamber have been developed with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8mm, and 5 mm, respectively. The chambers are fabricated by extruding 6063 aluminum alloy to form a tube with the desired internal shaped and machining the exterior to finish dimensions. The wall thickness of the completed chamber at the beam orbit position is 1 mm. The design utilizes a rigid strongback that limits deflection of the chamber under vacuum despite the thin wall. Chambers with lengths of 2.2m and 5.2 m have been fabricated. Pumping is accomplished by a combination of lumped and distributed non-evaporable getters and ion pumps. An ultimate pressure of 5.1·-11 torr was achieved with the 12-mm vertical aperture prototype. Alignment of the vacuum chamber on its support can be made with a precision of ± 25 μm in the vertical plane, which allows minimum insertion device pole gaps of 14.5 mm, 10.5 mm, and 7.5 mm

  11. Spectral properties of segmented undulators for the 7-GeV advanced photon source

    The effect of nonzero particle beam emittance and magnetic field errors on the on-axis spectral brightness (BTo) of long undulators is discussed. It is shown that the quadratic dependence of BTo on the number of undulator periods, N, is reduced by emittance to N-x with 1 ≤x < 2. Further reductions in the intensity result from random magnetic field errors present in the undulator. An approximate model for the intensity of the central core of radiation of the principle harmonics is discussed and the results compared to those from Monte Carlo-type calculations where emittance is explicitly accounted for. An estimation of the effects of random field errors on the on-axis brightness in the presence of nonzero particle emittance is made. For the particular case of undulators proposed for the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source, the results indicate that 5-m-long devices segmented into two sections will provide the required spectral intensity of a single long undulator when both emittance and magnet errors are considered

  12. Spectral characteristics of insertion device sources at the Advanced Photon Source

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory will be a powerful source of hard x-rays with energies above 1 keV. In addition to the availability of bending magnet radiation, the storage ring will have 35 straight sections for insertion device (ID) x-ray sources. The unique spectral properties and flexibility of these devices open new possibilities for scientific research in essentially every area of science and technology. Existing and new techniques utilizing the full potential of these sources, such as the enhanced coherence, unique polarization properties, and high spectral brilliance, will permit experiments not possible with existing sources. In the following presentation, the spectral properties of ID sources are briefly reviewed. A summary of the specific properties of sources planned for the APS storage ring is then presented. Recent results for APS prototype ID sources are discussed, and finally some special x-ray sources under consideration for the APS facility are described

  13. Spectral characteristics of insertion device sources at the Advanced Photon Source

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory will be a powerful source of hard x-rays with energies above 1 keV. In addition to the availability of bending magnet radiation, the storage ring will have 35 straight sections for insertion device (ID) x-ray sources. The unique spectral properties and flexibility of these devices open new possibilities for scientific research in essentially every area of science and technology. Existing and new techniques utilizing the full potential of these sources, such as the enhanced coherence, unique polarization properties, and high spectral brilliance, will permit experiments not possible with existing sources. In the following presentation, the spectral properties of ID sources are briefly reviewed. A summary of the specific properties of sources planned for the APS storage ring is then presented. Recent results for APS prototype ID sources are discussed, and finally some special x-ray sources under consideration for the APS facility are described. 9 refs

  14. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  15. Environmental assessment of the proposed 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source

    1990-02-01

    The potential environmental impacts of construction and operation of a 6- to 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source known as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory were evaluated. Key elements considered include on- and off-site radiological effects; socioeconomic effects; and impacts to aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, wetlands, water and air quality, cultural resources, and threatened or endangered species. Also incorporated are the effects of decisions made as a result of the preliminary design (Title I) being prepared. Mitigation plans to further reduce impacts are being developed. These plans include coordination with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and other responsible agencies to mitigate potential impacts to wetlands. This mitigation includes providing habitat of comparable ecological value to assure no net loss of wetlands. These mitigation actions would be permitted and monitored by COE. A data recovery plan to protect cultural resources has been developed and approved, pursuant to a Programmatic Agreement among the US Department of Energy, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Illinois State Historic Preservation Office. Applications for National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and air emissions permits have been submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), respectively. 71 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Photonic Crystal Microcavities in Advanced Silicon-On-Insulator Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technology

    Poulton, Christopher V; Orcutt, Jason S; Shainline, Jeffrey M; Wade, Mark T; Popovic, Milos A

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the first (to the best of our knowledge) monolithically integrated linear photonic crystal microcavities in an advanced SOI CMOS microelectronics process (IBM 45nm 12SOI) with no in-foundry process modifications. The cavities were integrated into a standard microelectronics design flow meeting process design rules, and included in a chip set alongside standard microelectronic circuits and microprocessors in the same device layer as transistors. We demonstrate both 1520nm wavelength telecom band and 1180nm cavity designs, using different structures owing to design rule limitations. Loaded Q's of 2,000 and 4,000, and extracted intrinsic loss Q's of the order of 100,000 and 50,000 are demonstrated. We also demonstrate an evanescent coupling geometry which entirely decouples the cavity and waveguide-coupling design, and investigate some of the mode features inherent in this coupling approach. The cavities support extended modes due to the thin device layer that limits optical confinement, and as a ...

  17. Performance of the beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source

    Performance measurement and analysis of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics are reported. The results indicate a BPM resolution of 0.16 μm·mA/√Hz in terms of the single-bunch current and BPM bandwidth. For the miniature insertion device (ID) BPM, the result was 0.1 μm·mA/√Hz. The improvement is due to the 3.6 times higher position sensitivity (in the vertical plane), which is partially canceled by the lower button signal by a factor of 2.3. The minimum single-bunch current required was roughly 0.03 mA. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion has measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Implications of the BPM resolution limit on the global and local orbit feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system for the Advanced Photon Source

    In third-generation synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the sensitivity and reliability requirements for the x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are much higher than for earlier systems. Noise and contamination signals caused by radiation emitted from the bending magnet become a major problem. The regular XBPM calibration process can only provide signal correction for one set of conditions for the insertion devices (ID). During normal operation, parameters affecting the ID-emitted beam, such as the gap of the ID magnets and the beam current, are the variables. A new smart x-ray beam position monitor system (SBPM) has been conceived and designed for the APS. It has a built in self-learning structure with EEPROM memory that is large enough to open-quote open-quote remember close-quote close-quote a complete set of calibration data covering all the possible operating conditions. During the self-learning mode, the monitor system initializes a series of automatic scan motions with information for different ID setups and records them into the database array. During normal operation, the SBPM corrects the normalized output according to the ID setup information and the calibration database. So that, with this novel system, the SBPM is always calibrating itself with the changing ID set up conditions. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step

  20. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-, e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture

  1. Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source (APS)

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-,e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture

  2. Design and construction of the advanced photon source 352-MHz rf system switching control

    A switching control system has been designed and built to provide the capability of rapidly switching the waveguide and low-level cabling between different klystrons to operate the Advanced Photon Source storage ring in the event of a failure of a klystron system or to perform necessary repairs and preventative maintenance. The twelve possible modes of operation allow for complete redundancy of the booster synchrotron rf system and either a maximum of two storage ring rf systems to be completely off-line or one system to be used as a power source for an rf test stand. A programmable controller is used to send commands to intermediate control panels which interface to WR2300 waveguide switches and phase shifters, rf cavity interlock and low-level rf distribution systems, and klystron power supply controls for rapid reconfiguration of the rf systems in response to a mode-selection command. Mode selection is a local manual operation using a keyswitch arrangement which prevents more than one mode from being selected at a time. The programmable controller also monitors for hardware malfunction and guards against open-quotes hot-switchingclose quotes of the rf systems. The rf switching controls system is monitored via the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for remote system status check

  3. Vacuum chamber of the injector synchrotron for the Advanced Photon Source

    The 40 chambers of the 368 m, 7-GeV injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source are made from 1 mm-thick, 316LN stainless steel tubing. Tubes are cold-drawn to an elliptical shape with inside major and minor axes of 6 cm and 3.7 cm, respectively. This results in a thin metallic chamber without corrugations, which allows maximum beam space in the magnets and withstands atmospheric pressure. Sections of the chamber are bent to match the radius of curvature (33.3 m) of the beam over the entire effective length of the dipole magnets. A modified orbital welder is used to join sections of tubing. The chambers and the pumping system required to achieve a pressure of 10-9 Torr are described. A straight section of chamber tubing was tested under external pressure up to 60 psig. At 15 psig, the resulting deflection at the minor half axis was 0.2mm and a maximum compressive stress of 13,500 psi was measured. Tube deformation remained in the elastic region up to ∼38 psig. 4 refs., 2 figs

  4. A shutter design for time domain studies using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source

    In general, a variable repetition rate of the x-ray bunches is needed to explore time domain problems using x-rays. In some instances, the results of several hundreds or thousands of x-ray pulses must be averaged requiring the sample to be in the same time-dependent state each time the monitoring pulse strikes. The important point is that before a second x-ray pulse hits the sample, the system must return to its initial relaxed ground state prior to another spectrum pulse in order to prepare the same excited state again. Our key design principle employs a subsonic, rotating mirror whose period is slaved to the synchrotron intrapulse period. The synchrotron x-ray bunches will be reflected a distance of about 2 m to a narrow 0.5-mm slit just in front of the sample. A mirror rotating at a low 7500 rpm (125 Hz) is sufficient to select a single synchrotron pulse for the Advanced Photon Source. The very precise phase stability required by this method is currently available in rotating mirror devices for laser scanning

  5. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA.

    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step.

  6. Vibration considerations in the design of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a new synchrotron radiation facility being built at Argonne National Laboratory, will provide the world's most brilliant X-ray beams for research in a wide range of technical fields. Successful operation of the APS requires an extremely stable positron closed orbit. Vibration of the storage ring quadrupole magnets, even in the submicron range, can lead to distortion of the positron closed orbit and to potentially unacceptable beam emittance growth, which results in degraded performance. This paper presents an overview of the technical approach used to minimize vibration response, beginning at the conceptual stage, through design and construction, and on to successful operation. Acceptance criteria relating to maximum allowable quadrupole magnet vibration are discussed. Soil properties are used to determine resonant frequencies of foundations and to predict attenuation characteristics. Two sources are considered to have the potential to excite the foundation: far-field sources, which are produced external to the facility, and near-field sources, which are produced within the facility. Measurements of ambient ground motion, monitored to determine far- field excitation, are presented. Ambient vibration was measured at several operating facilities within Argonne to gain insight on typical near-field excitation sources. Discussion covers the dynamic response characteristics of a prototypic magnet support structure to various excitations, including ambient floor motion, coolant flow, and magnet power. 19 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  7. A beamline for 1 endash 4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source

    The third-generation Advanced Photon Source will open up dramatic new opportunities for experiments requiring coherent x-rays, such as scanning x-ray microscopy, interferometry, and coherent scattering. We are building a beamline at the Advanced Photon Source to exploit the potential of coherent x-ray applications in the 1 endash 4 keV energy region. A high brightness 5.5-cm-period undulator supplies the coherent x-rays. The beamline uses horizontally deflecting grazing-incidence optical elements to preserve the coherence of the undulator beam. The optics have multilayer coatings for operation at energies above 1.5 keV. This paper discusses the beamline design and its expected performance. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Tagged photon facility at Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore: Possible scenarios

    L M Pant

    2006-05-01

    Photoproduction of in nuclear medium with the ELSA facility at Bonn is discussed in the context of medium modification of hadronic properties. Utilization of Indus-2 at CAT, Indore for producing tagged bremsstrahlung photons and laser backscattered photons has been explored with a comparison between the two techniques for producing tagged high energy photons for the first time in the country with emphasis on the ADSS programme to have a precise information of (; ) reactions.

  9. Phase contrast medical imaging with compact X-ray sources at the Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics (MAP)

    Coan, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany)], E-mail: paola.coan@esrf.fr; Gruener, F. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Munich, Garching (Germany); Glaser, C.; Schneider, T. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Institut of Clinical Radiology, Klinikum Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich (Germany); Bravin, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Reiser, M. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Institut of Clinical Radiology, Klinikum Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich (Germany); Habs, D. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Munich, Garching (Germany)

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, the excellence cluster 'Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics' (MAP) is presented. One of the aims of the project is the development of innovative X-ray-based diagnostics imaging techniques to be implemented at an ultra-compact high-energy and high-brilliance X-ray source. The basis of the project and the developments towards the clinical application of phase contrast imaging applied to mammography and cartilage studies will be presented and discussed.

  10. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  11. Instrumentation and Beam Dynamics Study of Advanced Electron-Photon Facility in Indiana University

    Luo, Tianhuan [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been specified. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  12. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    McDowell, W. P.; Knott, M. J.; Lenkszus, F. R.; Kraimer, M. R.; Daly, R. T.; Arnold, N. D.; Anderson, M. D.; Anderson, J. B.; Zieman, R. C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  13. 7-GeV advanced photon source beamline initiative: Conceptual design report

    The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R ampersand D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R ampersand D

  14. A quasi-realtime x-ray microtomography system at the Advanced Photon Source

    The combination of high-brilliance x-ray sources, fast detector systems, wide-bandwidth networks, and parallel computers can substantially reduce the time required to acquire, reconstruct, and visualize high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic datasets. A quasi-realtime computed x-ray microtomography system has been implemented at the 2-BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. With this system, a complete tomographic data set can be collected in about 15 minutes. Immediately after each projection is obtained, it is rapidly transferred to the Mathematics and Computing Sciences Division where preprocessing and reconstruction calculations are performed concurrently with the data acquisition by a SGI parallel computer. The reconstruction results, once completed, are transferred to a visualization computer that performs the volume rendering calculations. Rendered images of the reconstructed data are available for viewing back at the beamline experiment station minutes after the data acquisition was complete. The fully pipelined data acquisition and reconstruction system also gives us the option to acquire the tomographic data set in several cycles, initially with coarse then with fine angular steps. At present the projections are acquired with a straight-ray projection imaging scheme using 5-20 keV hard x rays in either phase or amplitude contrast mode at a 1-10 pm resolution. In the future, we expect to increase the resolution of the projections to below 100 nm by using a focused x-ray beam at the 2-ID-B beamline and to reduce the combined acquisition and computation time to the 1 min scale with improvements in the detectors, network links, software pipeline, and computation algorithms

  15. Instrumentation and beam dynamics study of advanced electron-photon facility in Indiana University

    Luo, Tianhuan

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips' geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been speci ed. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  16. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  17. Guide to beamline radiation shielding design at the Advanced Photon Source

    This document is concerned with the general requirements for radiation shielding common to most Advanced Photon Source (APS) users. These include shielding specifications for hutches, transport, stops, and shutters for both white and monochromatic beams. For brevity, only the results of calculations are given in most cases. So-called open-quotes special situationsclose quotes are not covered. These include beamlines with white beam mirrors for low-pass energy filters (open-quotes pink beamsclose quotes), extremely wide band-pass monochromators (multilayers), or novel insertion devices. These topics are dependent on beamline layout and, as such, are not easily generalized. Also, many examples are given for open-quotes typicalclose quotes hutches or other beamline components. If a user has components that differ greatly from those described, particular care should be taken in following these guidelines. Users with questions on specific special situations should address them to the APS User Technical Interface. Also, this document does not cover specifics on hutch, transport, shutter, and stop designs. Issues such as how to join hutch panels, floor-wall interfaces, cable feed-throughs, and how to integrate shielding into transport are covered in the APS Beamline Standard Components Handbook. It is a open-quotes living documentclose quotes and as such reflects the improvements in component design that are ongoing. This document has the following content. First, the design criteria will be given. This includes descriptions of some of the pertinent DOE regulations and policies, as well as brief discussions of abnormal situations, interlocks, local shielding, and storage ring parameters. Then, the various sources of radiation on the experimental floor are discussed, and the methods used to calculate the shielding are explained (along with some sample calculations). Finally, the shielding recommendations for different situations are given and discussed

  18. The Poisson alignment reference system implementation at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Feier, I.

    1998-09-21

    The Poisson spot was established using a collimated laser beam from a 3-mW diode laser. It was monitored on a quadrant detector and found to be very sensitive to vibration and air disturbances. Therefore, for future work we strongly recommend a sealed vacuum tube in which the Poisson line may be propagated. A digital single-axis feedback system was employed to generate an straight line reference (SLR) on the X axis. Pointing accuracy was better than 8 {+-} 2 microns at a distance of 5 m. The digital system was found to be quite slow with a maximum bandwidth of 47 {+-} 9 Hz. Slow drifts were easily corrected but any vibration over 5 Hz was not. We recommend an analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high bandwidth and smooth operation of the kinematic mirror. Although the Poisson alignment system (PAS) at the Advanced Photon Source is still in its infancy, it already shows great promise as a possible alignment system for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL). Since components such as wigglers and quadruples will initially be aligned with respect to each other using conventional means and mounted on some kind of rigid rail, the goal would be to align six to ten such rails over a distance of about 30 m. The PAS could be used to align these rails by mounting a sphere at the joint between two rails. These spheres would need to be in a vacuum pipe to eliminate the refractive effects of air. Each sphere would not be attached to either rail but instead to a flange connecting the vacuum pipes of each rail. Thus the whole line would be made up of straight, rigid segments that could be aligned by moving the joints. Each sphere would have its own detector, allowing the operators to actively monitor the position of each joint and therefore the overall alignment of the system.

  19. The Poisson alignment reference system implementation at the Advanced Photon Source

    The Poisson spot was established using a collimated laser beam from a 3-mW diode laser. It was monitored on a quadrant detector and found to be very sensitive to vibration and air disturbances. Therefore, for future work we strongly recommend a sealed vacuum tube in which the Poisson line may be propagated. A digital single-axis feedback system was employed to generate an straight line reference (SLR) on the X axis. Pointing accuracy was better than 8 ± 2 microns at a distance of 5 m. The digital system was found to be quite slow with a maximum bandwidth of 47 ± 9 Hz. Slow drifts were easily corrected but any vibration over 5 Hz was not. We recommend an analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high bandwidth and smooth operation of the kinematic mirror. Although the Poisson alignment system (PAS) at the Advanced Photon Source is still in its infancy, it already shows great promise as a possible alignment system for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL). Since components such as wigglers and quadruples will initially be aligned with respect to each other using conventional means and mounted on some kind of rigid rail, the goal would be to align six to ten such rails over a distance of about 30 m. The PAS could be used to align these rails by mounting a sphere at the joint between two rails. These spheres would need to be in a vacuum pipe to eliminate the refractive effects of air. Each sphere would not be attached to either rail but instead to a flange connecting the vacuum pipes of each rail. Thus the whole line would be made up of straight, rigid segments that could be aligned by moving the joints. Each sphere would have its own detector, allowing the operators to actively monitor the position of each joint and therefore the overall alignment of the system

  20. ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics

    Pozo Torres, J.M.; Kumar, P.; Lo Cascio, D.M.R.; Khanna, A.; Dumon, P.; Delbeke, D.; Baets, R.; Fournier, M.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Fulbert, L.; Zimmermann, L.; Tillack, B.; Tian, H.; Aalto, T.; O'Brien, P.; Deptuck, D.; Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Gale, D.

    2012-01-01

    ePIXfab brings silicon photonics within reach of European small and medium sized enterprises, thereby building on its track record and its integration into Europractice. To this end, ePIXfab offers affordable access to standardized active and passive silicon photonic IC and packaging technology, a p

  1. Advances and limitations in the modelling of fabricated photonic bandgap fibers

    Poletti, F.; Petrovich, M.N.; Amezcua-Correa, R.; Broderick, N.G.; Monro, T.M.; Richardson, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    We model fabricated silica photonic bandgap fibers and achieve good agreement between simulated and measured properties. We identify the size of the SEM bitmap image as the ultimate limit to the accurate calculation of surfaces modes within the bandgap.

  2. An overview of the information distribution system at the Advanced Photon Source

    Ramanathan, M.; Smith, M.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Laird, R.; Evans, K.; Anderson, J.; Sidorowicz, K.

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been in operational mode for more than 5 yr. Currently there are over 40 beamlines in various phases of operation. The control system of choice at the APS is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). We have provided various interfaces to the beamlines from the APS control system. An overview of the various systems will be discussed. The General Control System Information (GCSI) uses dedicated computers as EPICS process variable gateways to provide data from the APS control system to each beamline. The GCSI architecture makes the APS control system secure, yet has the flexibility of providing access control to any data available on the APS control system. In addition, the gateway reduces the load on the APS control system equipment by making only one connection for each process variable accessed by multiple users. Each sector, consisting of a bending magnet and insertion device beamlines, is provided its own gateway, which resides on the local sector network. This scheme has the advantage of providing network security and more reliable operation. To provide real-time accelerator data to beamlines, each sector has been provided a chassis to display the storage ring current and other relevant information. These data are transmitted via a direct fiber link from the APS control system hardware to the beamlines. The beamlines are also provided VME-based hardware and associated EPICS software to retrieve key information provided via this fiber link. Some of the information on this link is beam current, lifetime, injection status, and sector specific information such as shutter status, insertion device gap, and energy, and storage ring and front-end beam position monitor signals. The data rates on this link are typically 10 Hz but can be as high as 272 kHz. This scheme allows the beamlines using EPICS-based software to seamlessly use the data from the APS control system without excessively impacting the system

  3. Design of high heat load white-beam slits for wiggler/undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source wiggler/undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. While this slit set can handle the high heat flux from on e APS undulator source, it has large enough aperture to be compatible with a wiggler source also. A grazing-incidence, knife-edge configuration has been used in the design to eliminate downstream X-ray scattering. Enhanced heat transfer technology has been used in the water-cooling system. A unique stepping parallelogram driving structure provides precise vertical slit motion with large optical aperture. The full design detail is presented in this paper

  4. Design of high heat load white-beam slits for wiggler/undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source wiggler/undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. While this slit set can handle the high heat flux from one APS undulator source, it has a large enough aperture to be compatible with a wiggler source also. A grazing-incidence, knife-edge configuration has been used in the design to eliminate downstream x-ray scattering. Enhanced heat transfer technology has been used in the water-cooling system. A unique stepping parallelogram driving structure provides precise vertical slit motion with large optical aperture. The full design detail is presented in this paper

  5. Study of Second Phase Particles and Fe content in Zr Alloys Using the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne

    We have conducted a study of second phase particles and matrix alloying element concentrations in zirconium alloys using synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. The high flux of synchrotron radiation delivered at the 2BM beamline compared to conventional x-ray generators, enables the detection of very small precipitate volume fractions. We detected the standard C14 hcp Zr(Cr,Fe)2 precipitates, (the stable second phase in Zircaloy-4) in the bulk material at a cumulative annealing parameter as low as 10-20 h, and we followed the kinetics of precipitation and growth as a function of the cumulative annealing parameter (CAP) in the range 10-22 (quench) to 10-16 h. In addition, the unique combination of spatial resolution and elemental sensitivity of the 2ID-D/E microbeam line at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (APS) allows study of the alloying element concentrations at ppm levels in an area as small as 0.2 mm. We used x-ray fluorescence induced by this sub-micron x-ray beam to determine the concentration of these alloying elements in the matrix as a function of alloy type and thermal history. We discuss these results and the potential of synchrotron radiation-based techniques for studying zirconium alloys

  6. Recent Advances in Gas and Chemical Detection by Vernier Effect-Based Photonic Sensors

    Mario La Notte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10−8 RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator.

  7. Paediatric Photon and Proton Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Based on Advanced Imaging

    Kornerup, Josefine S.

    the same group of patients, we found that although radiotherapy with protons instead of photons may provide several benefits in terms of reduced irradiated volumes of healthy tissue and lower doses to organs near the tumour, these benefits cannot be taken for granted. If proton therapy requires...... medication, and may have a considerable impact on the quality of life of the childhood cancer survivor. The major challenge in modern paediatric cancer therapy is therefore to reduce the incidence of treatment-related toxicities, while maintaining or improving the high cure-rates. In this thesis, we study...... slightly larger safety margins between tumour and radiation field in order to ensure proper target volume dose coverage and the same clinical accuracy as photon radiotherapy, the normal tissue dose-sparing benefits of proton radiotherapy may to some extent be lost....

  8. Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors.

    La Notte, Mario; Troia, Benedetto; Muciaccia, Tommaso; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10(-8) RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator. PMID:24618728

  9. Microwave photonics

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  10. Advances in the FDTD design and modeling of nano- and bio-photonics applications

    Tanev, Stoyan; Tuchin, Valery; Cheben, Pavel;

    2011-01-01

    address newly emerging problems and not so much on its mathematical formulation. We will first discuss the application of a traditional formulation of the FDTD approach to the modeling of sub-wavelength photonics structures. Next, a modified total/scattered field FDTD approach will be applied to the...... modeling of biophotonics applications including optical phase contrast microscope (OPCM) imaging of cells containing gold nanoparticles (NPs) as well as its potential application as a modality for in vivo flow cytometry configurations. The conclusion provides a justification for the selection of the two...

  11. Combined SCaM-XAFS and advanced photon source. XAFS of single atoms

    At the beam-line BL10XU of SPring-8 Facility, it has been proposed to construct a Capacitance XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) in which absorption of a photon from an X-ray beam by defects in a solid followed by emission of localized and bound electrons can be monitored by capacitance change to obtain a XAFS spectrum specific only to the site of the defects. The capacitance XAFS method allows to measure zero-dimensional (corresponding to point defects) and one-dimensional (corresponding to dislocation) X-ray absorption coefficients of a three-dimensional sample solid. These LDAC (Low Dimensional Absorption Coefficient) may be denoted as 0/3 and 1/3 in the above cases. The present study may be extended to obtain capacitance XAFS from such interfaces as for example metal-insulator and insulator-semiconductor, etc, (which can be denoted as 0/2 and 1/2), and the required photon intensity for the SCaM study is discussed. Of these, 0/2 spectrum corresponds to a single atom XAFS. (S.Ohno)

  12. Two photon fluorescence imaging of lipid membrane domains and potentials using advanced fluorescent probes

    Kilin, Vasyl; Darwich, Zeinab; Richert, Ludovic; Didier, Pascal; Klymchenko, Andrey; Mély, Yves

    2013-02-01

    Biomembranes are ordered and dynamic nanoscale structures critical for cell functions. The biological functions of the membranes strongly depend on their physicochemical properties, such as electrostatics, phase state, viscosity, polarity and hydration. These properties are essential for the membrane structure and the proper folding and function of membrane proteins. To monitor these properties, fluorescence techniques and notably, two-photon microscopy appear highly suited due to their exquisite sensitivity and their capability to operate in complex biological systems, such as living cells and tissues. In this context, we have developed multiparametric environment-sensitive fluorescent probes tailored for precise location in the membrane bilayer. We notably developed probes of the 3-hydroxychromone family, characterized by an excited state intramolecular proton transfer reaction, which generates two tautomeric emissive species with well-separated emission bands. As a consequence, the response of these probes to changes in their environment could be monitored through changes in the ratios of the two bands, as well as through changes in the fluorescence lifetimes. Using two-photon ratiometric imaging and FLIM, these probes were used to monitor the surface membrane potential, and were applied to detect apoptotic cells and image membrane domains.

  13. Design and Development of a Robot-Based Automation System for Cryogenic Crystal Sample Mounting at the Advanced Photon Source

    X-ray crystallography is the primary method to determine the 3D structures of complex macromolecules at high resolution. In the years to come, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and similar 3rd-generation synchrotron sources elsewhere will become the most powerful tools for studying atomic structures of biological molecules. One of the major bottlenecks in the x-ray data collection process is the constant need to change and realign the crystal sample. This is a very time- and manpower-consuming task. An automated sample mounting system will help to solve this bottleneck problem. We have developed a novel robot-based automation system for cryogenic crystal sample mounting at the APS. Design of the robot-based automation system, as well as its on-line test results at the Argonne Structural Biology Center (SBC) 19-BM experimental station, are presented in this paper

  14. High heat load x-ray optics research and development at the Advanced Photon Source -- An overview

    Lee, Wah-Keat; Mills, D.M.

    1993-09-01

    Insertion devices at third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the APS are capable of producing x-ray beams with total power in excess of 7 kilowatts or power densities of 150 watts/mm{sup 2} at a typical location of the optical components. Optical elements subjected to these types of heat fluxes will suffer considerably unless carefully designed to withstand these unprecedented power loadings. At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have an aggressive R&D program aimed at investigating possible methods to mitigate thermal distortions. The approaches being studied include, improved heat exchangers, use of liquid gallium and liquid nitrogen as coolants, novel crystal geometries, power filtering, and replacement of silicon with diamond for crystal monochromators. This paper will provide an overview of the high heat load x-ray optics program at the APS.

  15. Recent Advances in Photonic Devices for Optical Computing and the Role of Nonlinear Optics-Part II

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis E.; Paley, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the era of semiconductor materials and electronic technology while this millennium is expected to be the age of photonic materials and all-optical technology. Optical technology has led to countless optical devices that have become indispensable in our daily lives in storage area networks, parallel processing, optical switches, all-optical data networks, holographic storage devices, and biometric devices at airports. This chapters intends to bring some awareness to the state-of-the-art of optical technologies, which have potential for optical computing and demonstrate the role of nonlinear optics in many of these components. Our intent, in this Chapter, is to present an overview of the current status of optical computing, and a brief evaluation of the recent advances and performance of the following key components necessary to build an optical computing system: all-optical logic gates, adders, optical processors, optical storage, holographic storage, optical interconnects, spatial light modulators and optical materials.

  16. High-Brightness Beams from a Light Source Injector The Advanced Photon Source Low-Energy Undulator Test Line Linac

    Travish, G; Borland, M; Hahne, M; Harkay, K C; Lewellen, J W; Lumpkin, Alex H; Milton, S V; Sereno, N S

    2000-01-01

    The use of existing linacs, and in particular light source injectors, for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments is becoming more common due to the desire to test FELs at ever shorter wavelengths. The high-brightness, high-current beams required by high-gain FELs impose technical specifications that most existing linacs were not designed to meet. Moreover, the need for specialized diagnostics, especially shot-to-shot data acquisition, demands substantial modification and upgrade of conventional linacs. Improvements have been made to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector linac in order to produce and characterize high-brightness beams. Specifically, effort has been directed at generating beams suitable for use in the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL in support of fourth-generation light source research. The enhancements to the linac technical and diagnostic capabilities that allowed for self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) operation of the FEL at 530 nm are described. Recent results, includi...

  17. The operation of the BNL/ATF gun-IV photocathode RF gun at the Advanced Photon Source

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a free-electron laser (FEL) based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process is nearing completion. Recently, an rf photoinjector gun system was made available to the APS by Brookhaven National Laboratory/Accelerator Test Facility (BNL/ATF). It will be used to provide the high-brightness, low-emittance, and low-energy spread electron beam required by the SASE FEL theory. A Nd:Glass laser system, capable of producing a maximum of 500 microJ of UV in a 1-10 ps pulse at up to a 10-Hz repetition rate, serves as the photoinjector's drive laser. Here, the design, commissioning, and integration of this gun with the APS is discussed

  18. High-power Waveguide Dampers for the Short-Pulse X-Ray Project at the Advanced Photon Source

    Waldschmidt, G J; Liu, J; Middendorf, M E; Nassiri, A; Smith, T L; Wu, G; Henry, J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A

    2012-07-01

    High-power waveguide dampers have been designed and prototyped for the Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) cavities at the Advanced Photon Source. The cavities will operate at 2.815 GHz and utilize the TM110 dipole mode. As a result, higher-order (HOM) and lower-order mode (LOM) in-vacuum dampers have been designed to satisfy the demanding broadband damping requirements in the APS storage ring. The SPX single-cell cavity consists of two WR284 waveguides for damping the HOMs and one WR284 waveguide for primarily damping the LOM where up to 2kW will be dissipated in the damping material. The damper designs and high-power experimental results will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Precision white-beam slit design for high power density x-ray undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) X-ray undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. There are several new design concepts applied in this slit set, including: grazing-incidence knife-edge configuration to minimize the scattering of X-rays downstream, enhanced heat transfer tubing to provide water cooling, and a second slit to eliminate the thermal distortion on the slit knife edge. The novel aspect of this design is the use of two L-shaped knife-edge assemblies, which are manipulated by two precision X-Z stepping linear actuators. The principal and structural details of the design for this slit set are presented in this paper

  20. Accelerated rogue waves generated by soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum formation in photonic crystal fibers

    Driben, Rodislav

    2012-01-01

    Soliton fusion is a fascinating and delicate phenomenon that manifests itself in optical fibers in case of interaction between co-propagating solitons with small temporal and wavelengths separation. We show that the mechanism of acceleration of trailing soliton by dispersive waves radiated from the preceding one provides necessary conditions for soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers. As a result of fusion large intensity robust light structures arise and propagate over significant distances. In presence of small random noise the delicate condition for the effective fusion between solitons can easily be broken, making the fusion induced giant waves a rare statistical event. Thus oblong-shaped giant accelerated waves become excellent candidates for optical rogue waves.

  1. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux emitted by the undulator, it is difficult to control the thermal distortion within the desired range of 1--2 μm. We analyzed many conceptual designs in an attempt to minimize the thermal distortion of the slits. Even with 1-mm-thick, low-Z material (graphite) coated on the heating surface of a traditional slit, the maximum thermal distortion is over 25 μm. A three-piece slit was then designed to satisfy the requirements. It consists of one large block, two tungsten knife edges, and an OFHC cooling tube (filled with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. The thermal distortion at the knife edges of this three-piece slit is less than 2 μm

  2. Thermomechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for a wiggler/undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision, vertical, white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator/wiggler beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The slit, a knife-edge-type precision device, is required to have very small thermal distortion during operation with beam. The traditional slit consists of a cooling block and an OFHC cooling channel inside the block. The design consists of one large block and an OFHC cooling tube (filled with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. This design will accommodate the x-ray source from both undulators and wigglers. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux coming from APS Undulator A, it is an exceedingly difficult problem to reduce the thermal distortion to less than 50 μm as required by some users

  3. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux emitted by the undulator, it is difficult to control the thermal distortion within the desired range of 1-2 microns. We analyzed many conceptual designs in an attempt to minimize the thermal distortion of the slits. Even with 1-mm-thick, low-Z material (graphite) coated on the heating surface of a traditional slit, the maximum thermal distortion is over 25 microns. A three-piece slit was then designed to satisfy the requirements. It consists of one large block, two tungsten knife edges, and an OFHC cooling tube (filled with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. The thermal distortion at the knife edges of this three-piece slit has a relative displacement of less than 2 microns

  4. Radiation therapy planning with photons and protons for early and advanced breast cancer: an overview

    Lomax Antony J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postoperative radiation therapy substantially decreases local relapse and moderately reduces breast cancer mortality, but can be associated with increased late mortality due to cardiovascular morbidity and secondary malignancies. Sophistication of breast irradiation techniques, including conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy, has been shown to markedly reduce cardiac and lung irradiation. The delivery of more conformal treatment can also be achieved with particle beam therapy using protons. Protons have superior dose distributional qualities compared to photons, as dose deposition occurs in a modulated narrow zone, called the Bragg peak. As a result, further dose optimization in breast cancer treatment can be reasonably expected with protons. In this review, we outline the potential indications and benefits of breast cancer radiotherapy with protons. Comparative planning studies and preliminary clinical data are detailed and future developments are considered.

  5. Enhancing extreme ultraviolet photons emission in laser produced plasmas for advanced lithography

    Current challenges in the development of efficient laser produced plasma sources for the next generation extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are increasing EUV power and maximizing lifetime and therefore, reducing cost of devices. Mass-limited targets such as small tin droplets are considered among the best choices for cleaner operation of the optical system because of lower mass of atomic debris produced by the laser beam. The small diameter of droplets, however, decreases the conversion efficiency (CE) of EUV photons emission, especially in the case of CO2 laser, where laser wavelength has high reflectivity from the tin surface. We investigated ways of improving CE in mass-limited targets. We considered in our modeling various possible target phases and lasers configurations: from solid/liquid droplets subjected to laser beam energy with different intensities and laser wavelength to dual-beam lasers, i.e., a pre-pulse followed by a main pulse with adjusted delay time in between. We studied the dependence of vapor expansion rate, which can be produced as a result of droplet heating by pre-pulse laser energy, on target configuration, size, and laser beam parameters. As a consequence, we studied the influence of these conditions and parameters on the CE and debris mass accumulation. For better understanding and more accurate modeling of all physical processes occurred during various phases of laser beam/target interactions, plasma plume formation and evolution, EUV photons emission and collection, we have implemented in our heights package state-of-the art models and methods, verified, and benchmarked against laboratory experiments in our CMUXE center as well as various worldwide experimental results.

  6. In situ investigation of the dynamic response of energetic materials using IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source

    The mechanical and chemical response of energetic materials is controlled by a convolution of deformation mechanisms that span length scales and evolve during impact. Traditional methods use continuum measurements to infer the microstructural response whereas advances in synchrotron capabilities and diagnostics are providing new, unique opportunities to interrogate materials in real time and in situ. Experiments have been performed on a new gas-gun system (IMPact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) using single X-ray bunch phase contrast imaging (PCI) and Laue diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The low absorption of molecular materials maximizes x-ray beam penetration, allowing measurements in transmission using the brilliance currently available at APS Sector 32. The transmission geometry makes it possible to observe both average lattice response and spatially heterogeneous, continuum response (1-4 um spatial resolution over ∼2 × 2 mm area, 80 ps exposure, 153 ns frame-rate) in energetic materials ranging from single crystals to plastic-bonded composites. The current work describes our progress developing and using these diagnostics to observe deformation mechanisms relevant to explosives and the first experiments performed with explosives on IMPULSE at APS.

  7. The Advanced Photon Source: Using Synchrotron Radiation to Study Actinide Containing Samples Relevant to Nuclear Energy Systems

    The realization of advanced nuclear reactors as a national source of reliable energy awaits materials research on fuels, reactor components under extreme environments and options for waste treatment and storage. The third generation synchrotrons such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) provide a high flux of coherent, variable energy X rays that can be used to probe in situ a wide range of chemical, physical and materials problems of relevance to nuclear energy production. Synchrotron radiation from such a source is particularly suited to the study of radioactive samples because of its tunability, penetration and intensity. Together, these features provide the opportunity to work with small, encapsulated samples, a necessary requirement because of the inherently hazardous heavy metal, highly radioactive materials. Complicating the practical advantages of synchrotron radiation to the study of nuclear energy systems is the need for risk mitigation when bringing such materials into a user facility. The APS has used a risk based approach to the problem. As part of Argonne National Laboratory, which has a long history in nuclear energy, the APS has taken advantage of the broader Laboratory infrastructure to reach out and accommodate experiments on radioactive samples and the broad nuclear energy community. (author)

  8. Advances in pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

    Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Azazrm, AhmadReza; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharapapagh, Esmail

    2015-01-01

    The collimator in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is an important part of the imaging chain. One of the most important collimators that used in research, preclinical study, small animal, and organ imaging is the pinhole collimator. Pinhole collimator can improve the tradeoff between sensitivity and resolution in comparison with conventional parallel-hole collimator and facilities diagnosis. However, a major problem with pinhole collimator is a small field of view (FOV). Multi-pinhole collimator has been investigated in order to increase the sensitivity and FOV with a preserved spatial resolution. The geometry of pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators is a critical factor in the image quality and plays a key role in SPECT imaging. The issue of the material and geometry for pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators have been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of SPECT imaging. On the other hand, recent developments in collimator optimization have heightened the need for appropriate reconstruction algorithms for pinhole SPECT imaging. Therefore, iterative reconstruction algorithms were introduced to minimize the undesirable effect on image quality. Current researches have focused on geometry and configuration of pinhole and multi-pinhole collimation rather than reconstruction algorithm. The lofthole and multi-lofthole collimator are samples of novel designs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review on recent researches in the pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators for SPECT imaging. PMID:25709537

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of aluminum and copper cleaning procedures for the Advanced Photon Source

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), presently under construction, will produce x rays of unprecedented brightness. The storage ring where the x rays will be produced will be constructed from an extruded 6063 aluminum alloy, while transition pieces (flanges, etc.) will be made from a 2219 aluminum alloy. In addition, cooled photon absorbers will be placed in strategic locations throughout the ring to intercept the majority of the unused high power-density radiation. These will be made of either CDA-101 (OFHC) copper or glidcop (a dispersion strengthened copper alloy). Before any of these components can be assembled they must be cleaned to remove surface contaminants so that the ultrahigh vacuum (<0.1 nTorr) necessary for successful operation can be achieved. Many recipes for cleaning aluminum and copper exist; however, most of them involve the use of chemicals that present safety and/or environmental concerns. We have undertaken an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the effects of a variety of commercially available cleaners on the surface cleanliness of aluminum and copper. Several important results have been identified in this study. A simple alkaline detergent in an ultrasonic bath cleans aluminum alloys as effectively as the more aggressive cleaning solutions. The detergent can be used at 65 degree C to clean the 6063 alloy and at 50 degree C to clean the 2219 alloy. A citric acid based cleaner was found to be effective at cleaning copper, although the surface oxidizes rapidly. To date, we have been unable to find a universal cleaning procedure, i.e., one that is optimal for cleaning both Al and Cu

  10. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics

  11. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    Akhter, Perveen [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Huang, Mengbing, E-mail: mhuang@albany.edu; Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Amir, Faisal [Department of Physics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58203 (United States)

    2015-03-28

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics.

  12. Abdominal cancer during early childhood: A dosimetric comparison of proton beams to standard and advanced photon radiotherapy

    Purpose: Evaluation of dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for the treatment of abdominal lesions during early childhood. Patients and methods: Treatment planning was performed for five Neuroblastoma (NBL) and four Wilms Tumor (WT) patients. Opposing fields (2F), photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMXT) and two proton techniques (passively scattered (PT) and scanned beams (IMPT)) were considered. Averaged dose-volume histograms, associated dosimetric parameters and a radiobiological model for the estimation of the therapy related carcinogenic effect were evaluated. Results: With respect to the 2F technique, both proton techniques enabled to reduce mean liver and kidney dose by 40-60%; Organ fractions irradiated at the level of the tolerance dose were reduced by 65% for kidneys and 75% for the liver in NBL patients and by additional 10% for WT patients. IMXT enabled to reduce parameters related to the steep high-dose gradient, e.g., V15Gy for the kidneys was reduced by a factor 2-3 compared to 2F. V12Gy was reduced by 40% in the liver. On the other side, the improvement of those parameters characterizing the low isodose domain was limited for IMXT. The risk for radiation-induced secondary cancer was doubled for IMXT and even more increased for PT if secondary neutrons were taken into account, while this risk remained the same or was reduced by IMPT with respect to 2F. Conclusions: Proton beams improved all dosimetric parameters for NBL and WT patients compared to photon techniques. This improvement was limited for IMXT mainly to parameters related to the steep high-dose gradient. Further research is needed to minimize uncertainties for secondary cancer estimations

  13. Microwave photonics

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  14. Proceedings of the joint meeting of ultrafast pulse high intensity laser research collaboration and JAEA-KPSI 7th symposium on advanced photon research

    The Joint Meeting of Ultrafast Pulse High Intensity Laser Research Collaboration and JAEA-KPSI 7th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was jointly held at Kansai Photon Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizu, Kyoto on May 10-12, 2006. This report consists of contributed papers for the speeches and poster presentations including joint research and cooperative research performed in FY2004 and FY2005 with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The 47 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Plasmon-based photopolymerization: near-field probing, advanced photonic nanostructures and nanophotochemistry

    Hybrid nanomaterials are targeted by a rapidly growing group of nanooptics researchers, due to the promise of optical behavior that is difficult or even impossible to create with nanostructures of homogeneous composition. Examples of important areas of interest include coherent coupling, Fano resonances, optical gain, solar energy conversion, photocatalysis, and nonlinear optical interactions. In addition to the coupling interactions, the strong dependence of optical resonances and damping on the size, shape, and composition of the building blocks provides promise that the coupling interactions of hybrid nanomaterials can be controlled and manipulated for a desired outcome. Great challenges remain in reliably synthesizing and characterizing hybrid nanomaterials for nanooptics. In this review, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and applications of hybrid nanomaterials created through plasmon-induced photopolymerization. The work is placed within the broader context of hybrid nanomaterials involving plasmonic metal nanoparticles and molecular materials placed within the length scale of the evanescent field from the metal surface. We specifically review three important applications of free radical photopolymerization to create hybrid nanoparticles: local field probing, photoinduced synthesis of advanced hybrid nanoparticles, and nanophotochemistry. (review)

  16. Plasmon-based photopolymerization: near-field probing, advanced photonic nanostructures and nanophotochemistry

    Zhou, Xuan; Soppera, Olivier; Plain, Jérôme; Jradi, Safi; Sun, Xiao Wei; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Yang, Xuyong; Deeb, Claire; Gray, Stephen K.; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Bachelot, Renaud

    2014-11-01

    Hybrid nanomaterials are targeted by a rapidly growing group of nanooptics researchers, due to the promise of optical behavior that is difficult or even impossible to create with nanostructures of homogeneous composition. Examples of important areas of interest include coherent coupling, Fano resonances, optical gain, solar energy conversion, photocatalysis, and nonlinear optical interactions. In addition to the coupling interactions, the strong dependence of optical resonances and damping on the size, shape, and composition of the building blocks provides promise that the coupling interactions of hybrid nanomaterials can be controlled and manipulated for a desired outcome. Great challenges remain in reliably synthesizing and characterizing hybrid nanomaterials for nanooptics. In this review, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and applications of hybrid nanomaterials created through plasmon-induced photopolymerization. The work is placed within the broader context of hybrid nanomaterials involving plasmonic metal nanoparticles and molecular materials placed within the length scale of the evanescent field from the metal surface. We specifically review three important applications of free radical photopolymerization to create hybrid nanoparticles: local field probing, photoinduced synthesis of advanced hybrid nanoparticles, and nanophotochemistry.

  17. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities

  18. High-power monolithic fiber amplifiers based on advanced photonic crystal fiber designs

    Sipes, Donald L.; Tafoya, Jason D.; Schulz, Daniel S.; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Weirich, Johannes; Olausson, Christina B.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development and performance of a fully monolithic PCF amplifier that has achieved over 400 W with near diffraction limited beam quality with an approximately 1GHz phase modulated input. The key components for these amplifiers are an advanced PCF fiber design that combines segmented acoustically tailored (SAT) fiber that is gain tailored, a novel multi fiber-coupled laser diode stack and a monolithic 6+1x1 large fiber pump/signal multiplexer. The precisely aligned 2-D laser diode emitter array found in laser diode stacks is utilized by way of a simple in-line imaging process with no mirror reflections to process a 2-D array of 380-450 elements into 3 400/440μm 0.22NA pump delivery fibers. The fiber combiner is an etched air taper design that transforms low numerical aperture (NA), large diameter pump radiation into a high NA, small diameter format for pump injection into an air-clad large mode area PCF, while maintaining a constant core size through the taper for efficient signal coupling and throughput. The fiber combiner has 6 400/440/0.22 core/clad/NA pump delivery fibers and a 25/440 PM step-index signal delivery fiber on the input side and a 40/525 PM undoped PCF on the output side. The etched air taper transforms the six 400/440 μm 0.22 NA pump fibers to the 525 μm 0.55 NA core of the PCF fiber with a measured pump combining efficiency of over 95% with a low brightness drop. The combiner also operates as a stepwise mode converter via a 30 μm intermediate core region in the combiner between the 20 μm core of the input fiber and the 40 μm fiber core of the PCF with a measured signal efficiency of 60% to 70% while maintaining polarization with a measured PER of 20 dB. These devices were integrated in to a monolithic fiber amplifier with high efficiency and near diffraction limited beam quality.

  19. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Photonic crystal fibers

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  1. Green silicon photonics

    Jalali, B.; Fathpour, S.; Tsia, K

    2009-01-01

    Silicon photonics have provided low-cost communication components for Internet applications and are now aimed towards providing environmentally friendly and green optical solutions. The need for energy-efficient photonics is due to the excessive energy dissipated in advanced electronics and an increase in power density that has posed a challenge to the most advanced chip-cooling technologies. The two-photon absorption (TPA)-generated free carriers need to be actively removed from the waveguid...

  2. A finite element analysis of room temperature silicon crystals for the Advanced Photon Source bending-magnet and insertion-device beams

    The third generation of synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide users with a high brilliance x-ray beam with high power and power densities. In many cases, the first optical component to intercept the x-ray beam is a silicon-crystal monochromator. Due to extreme heat loading, the photon throughput and brilliance will be severely degraded if the monochromator is not properly designed (or cooled). This document describes a series of finite element analyses performed on room temperature silicon for the three standard APS sources, namely, the bending magnet, Wiggler A, and Undulator A. The modeling is performed with the silicon cooled directly with water or liquid gallium through rectangular channels. The temperature distributions and thermally induced deformations are presented

  3. A hard X-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

    A hard x-ray scanning microprobe based on zone plate optics and undulator radiation, in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV, has reached a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 microm (v) x 0.6 microm (h), and a photon flux of 4 x 109 photons/sec/0.01%BW. Using a slit 44 meters upstream to create a virtual source, a circular beam spot of 0.15 microm in diameter can be obtained with a photon flux of one order of magnitude less. During fluorescence mapping of trace elements in a single human ovarian cell, the microprobe exhibited an imaging sensitivity for Pt (La line) of 80 attograms/microm2 for a count rate of 10 counts per second. The x-ray microprobe has been used to map crystallographic strain and multiquantum well thickness in micro-optoelectronic devices produced with the selective area growth technique

  4. A fast white-beam shutter for hard x-ray topography at beamline 1-BM of the Advanced Photon Source

    Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) delivers a white beam from a bending magnet with very intense x-ray photon flux. One important application of this beamline is white-beam x-ray topography imaging for crystal-based x-ray optics development and for industrial characterization of single crystals and epitaxial materials. Due to the intense photon flux from the third-generation synchrotron source of the APS, the exposure time of the imaging process should be accurately controlled down to the millisecond level. For this purpose we have designed and implemented a fast shutter that is vacuum compatible to 10−8 torr. The aperture is a copper block with a 70 mm horizontal and 5 mm vertical opening and is water cooled. The aperture is moved vertically up and down by means of a linear voice-coil actuator. The aperture's position is controlled using encoder feedback in a servo loop running on an industrial motion controller. A shutter opening response time of 32 milliseconds was measured. In this paper, we describe the shutter mechanics and its associated electronics installed at the 1-BM, and we report example white-beam topographs of diamond type IIa crystals.

  5. Broadband photon time of flight spectroscopy: advanced spectroscopic analysis for ensuring safety and performance of pharmaceutical tablets

    Kamran, Faisal; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Andersson-Engels, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    We report on extended spectroscopic analysis of pharmaceutical tablets performed with broadband photon time-of-flight absorption/scaring spectroscopy. Precise monitoring of absorption and scattering spectra enables cost-efficient monitoring of key safety and performance parameters of the drugs....

  6. SU-E-T-398: Feasibility of Automated Tools for Robustness Evaluation of Advanced Photon and Proton Techniques in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy (RT) techniques such as proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) and photon-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) have dosimetric advantages in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. However, anatomic or alignment changes during treatment may limit robustness of PBS and VMAT plans. We assess the feasibility of automated deformable registration tools for robustness evaluation in adaptive PBS and VMAT RT of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods: We treated 10 patients with bilateral OPC with advanced RT techniques and obtained verification CT scans with physician-reviewed target and OAR contours. We generated 3 advanced RT plans for each patient: proton PBS plan using 2 posterior oblique fields (2F), proton PBS plan using an additional third low-anterior field (3F), and a photon VMAT plan using 2 arcs (Arc). For each of the planning techniques, we forward calculated initial (Ini) plans on the verification scans to create verification (V) plans. We extracted DVH indicators based on physician-generated contours for 2 target and 14 OAR structures to investigate the feasibility of two automated tools (contour propagation (CP) and dose deformation (DD)) as surrogates for routine clinical plan robustness evaluation. For each verification scan, we compared DVH indicators of V, CP and DD plans in a head-to-head fashion using Student's t-test. Results: We performed 39 verification scans; each patient underwent 3 to 6 verification scan. We found no differences in doses to target or OAR structures between V and CP, V and DD, and CP and DD plans across all patients (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Automated robustness evaluation tools, CP and DD, accurately predicted dose distributions of verification (V) plans using physician-generated contours. These tools may be further developed as a potential robustness screening tool in the workflow for adaptive treatment of OPC using advanced RT techniques, reducing the need for physician

  7. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system using artificial intelligence methods for the advanced photon source insertion-device beamlines

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front-end has two XBPMs to monitor the X-ray beam position for both that vertical and horizontal directions. Performance challenges for a conventional photoemission type X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) during operations are contamination of the signal from the neighboring bending magnet sources and the sensitivity of the XBPM to the insertion device (ID) gap variations. Problems are exacerbated because users change the ID gap during their operations, and hence the percentage level of the contamination in the front end XBPM signals varies. A smart XBPM system with a high speed digital signal processor has been built at the Advanced Photon Source for the ID beamline front ends. The new version of the software, which uses an artificial intelligence method, provides a self learning and self-calibration capability to the smart XBPM system. The structure of and recent test results with the system are presented in this paper

  8. Recent advances and open questions in neutrino-induced quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production

    The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations. A recent workshop hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Theory at the University of Washington (INT-13-54W) examined experimental and theoretical developments in neutrino–nucleus interactions and related measurements from electron and pion scattering. We summarize the discussions at the workshop pertaining to the aforementioned issues in quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production, particularly where there was consensus on the highest priority issues to be resolved and the path towards resolving them

  9. Focused-ion-beam overlay-patterning of three-dimensional diamond structures for advanced single-photon properties

    Jiang, Qianqing; Liu, Dongqi; Liu, Gangqin; Chang, Yanchun; Li, Wuxia, E-mail: liwuxia@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Xinyu; Gu, Changzhi, E-mail: liwuxia@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-28

    Sources of single photons are of fundamental importance in many applications as to provide quantum states for quantum communication and quantum information processing. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, even at room temperature. However, the efficiency of photon collection of the color centers in bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, diamond structuring has been investigated by various methods. Among them, focused-ion-beam (FIB) direct patterning has been recognized as the most favorable technique. But it has been noted that diamond tends to present significant challenges in FIB milling, e.g., the susceptibility of forming charging related artifacts and topographical features. In this work, periodically-positioned-rings and overlay patterning with stagger-superimposed-rings were proposed to alleviate some problems encountered in FIB milling of diamond, for improved surface morphology and shape control. Cross-scale network and uniform nanostructure arrays have been achieved in single crystalline diamond substrates. High quality diamond solid immersion lens and nanopillars were sculptured with a nitrogen-vacancy center buried at the desired position. Compared with the film counterpart, an enhancement of about ten folds in single photon collection efficiency was achieved with greatly improved signal to noise ratio. All these results indicate that FIB milling through over-lay patterning could be an effective approach to fabricate diamond structures, potentially for quantum information studies.

  10. A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source

    A hard x-ray scanning microprobe based on zone plate optics and undulator radiation, in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV, has reached a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 μm(v)x0.6 μm(h), and a photon flux of 4x109 photons/sec/0.01%BW. Using a slit 44 meters upstream to create a virtual source, a circular beam spot of 0.15 μm in diameter can be obtained with a photon flux of one order of magnitude less. During fluorescence mapping of trace elements in a single human ovarian cell, the microprobe exhibited an imaging sensitivity for Pt (Lα line) of 80 attograms/μm2 for a count rate of 10 counts per second. The x-ray microprobe has been used to map crystallographic strain and multiquantum well thickness in micro-optoelectronic devices produced with the selective area growth technique