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Sample records for 7-day primaquine treatment

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of alternative primaquine regimens to standard treatment in preventing relapses by Plasmodium vivax: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Lina Marcela Zuluaga-Idarraga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens currently used to prevent relapses by P. vivax.Methods:A systematic review was carried out to identify clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety to prevent malaria recurrences by P. vivax of primaquine regimen 0.5 mg / kg / day for 7 or 14 days compared to standard regimen of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Efficacy of primaquine according to cumulative incidence of recurrences after 28 days was determined. The overall relative risk with fixed-effects meta-analysis was estimated.Results:For the regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/7 days were identified 7 studies, which showed an incidence of recurrence between 0% and 20% with follow-up 60-210 days; only 4 studies comparing with the standard regimen 0.25 mg/kg/day/14 days and no difference in recurrences between both regimens (RR= 0.977, 95% CI= 0.670 to 1.423 were found. 3 clinical trials using regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/14 days with an incidence of recurrences between 1.8% and 18.0% during 330-365 days were identified; only one study comparing with the standard regimen (RR= 0.846, 95% CI= 0.484 to 1.477. High risk of bias and differences in handling of included studies were found.Conclusion:Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether currently PQ regimens used as alternative rather than standard treatment have better efficacy and safety in preventing relapse of P. vivax. Clinical trials are required to guide changes in treatment regimen of malaria vivax.

  2. Efficacy of Clindamycin Vaginal Ovule (3-Day Treatment vs. Clindamycin Vaginal Cream (7-Day Treatment in Bacterial Vaginosis

    Charles P. Wajszczuk

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of a 3-day regimen of clindamycin vaginal ovules with a 7-day regimen of clindamycin vaginal cream for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV

  3. Artesdiaquine and Primaquine combined treatment is more effective for Malaria vivax

    Santoso Santoso

    2012-07-01

    samping   Abstract Background: Malaria treatment in Souh Sumatra has been using artesdiaquine since 2009 for falciparum and vivax malaria. This study is aimed to examine the comparison of the effectiveness of anti-malaria drugs artesdiaquine and its side effects between falciparum malaria and vivax malaria treatment. Methods: This consecutive sampling quasi experimental research was conducted during February to June 2010 in a district of South Sumatra (Indonesia. Diagnosis based on peripheral blood smear plasmodium finding. All patients positive for Plasmodium were observed for 28 days: 0-3 (D0 to 3th (D3, 7th (D7, 14th (D14, 21th (D21 and 28th day (D28. Therapy of artesdiaquine on D0 to D2, while primaquine was only gives on D0. The observations of side effects were done on D0 to D3. The assessments of drug efficacy were immediately after D28. Results: Twenty three falciparum malaria patients and and twelve  vivax malaria patients were included as study subjects Initial clinical symptoms of chills, headache, dizziness, anorexia, and muscle aches were found in falciparum malaria subjects and vivax malaria subjects were 91.3% and 50% respectively. The results showed anti-malaria drugs artesdiaquine had 100% efficacy of vivax malaria patients however for falciparum malaria acquired was only 87%. Artesdiaquine side effects consisted of itching, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain, were more prevalent in patients with falciparum malaria than vivax malaria. Conclusion: The number of malaria vivax patients less clinical symptoms occurred than falciparum malaria. The effectiveness of artesdiaquine anti malaria drugs combination for vivax malaria was better than falciparum malaria. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 26 - 32

  4. Vivax malaria in children: recurrences with standard total dose of primaquine administered in 3 vs. 7 days Malaria vivax en niños: recurrencias con dosis total estándar de primaquina administrada durante 3 frente a 7 días

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Worldwide, the efficacy of cloroquine-primaquine for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malarious attacks has not been thoroughly evaluated. In Latin America such studies are scarce, and in Colombia, almost nonexisting.

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of two regimens for administration of primaquine in children aged less than 18 years.

    Methodology: A clinical, controlled, unmasked study was carried out, with randomized administration of two primaquine regimens, namely: 0.50 mg/kg/day for 7 days (0.50-7 vs. 1.17 mg/kg/day for 3 days (1.17-3.

  5. Is a 7-day Helicobater pylori treatment enough for eradication and inactivation of gastric inflammatory activity?

    Carlos Robles-lara; Carlos Robles-Medranda; Manuel Moncayo; Byron Landivar; Johnny Parrales

    2008-01-01

    AIM- To compare the efficacy of a 7-d vs 10-d triple therapy regarding H pylori eradication, endoscopic findings and histological gastric inflammatory inactivation in the Ecuadorian population. METHODS: 136 patients with dyspepsia and H pylori infection were randomized in 2 groups (68 per group): group 1, 7-d therapy; group 2, t0-d therapy. Both groups received the same medication and daily dosage: omeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin I g bid. Endoscopy was performed for histological assessment and H pylori infection status before and 8 wk after treatment. RESULTS: H pylori was eradicated in 68% of group 1 vs 83. 8% of group 2 for the intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) (P = 0. 03; OR = 2. 48; 95% CI, 1. 1-5. 8), and 68% in group 1 vs 88% in group 2 for the per-protocol analysis (PP) (P = 0. 008; OR = 3. 66; 95% CI, 1. 4-10). Endoscopic gastric mucosa normalization was observed in 56. 9% in group 1 vs 61. 2% in group 2 for ITT, with similar results for the PP, the difference being statistically not significant. The rate of inflammatory inactivation was 69% in group 1 vs 88. 7% in group 2 for ITT (P = 0. 007;OR = 3. 00; 95% CI, 1. 2-7. 5), and 69% in group 1 vs96% in group 2 for PP (P = 0. 0002; OR = 7. 25; 95% CI, 2-26). CONCLUSION: In this Ecuadorian population, the 10-d therapy was more effective than the 7-d therapy for H pylori eradication as well as for gastric mucosa inflammatory inactivation.

  6. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTIRST trial): a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing short (7 days) antibiotic treatment with conventional treatment (14 days)

    Kuijper Ed J; Ablij Hans C; Delfos Nathalie M; Wattel-Louis G Hanke; Koster Ted; Leyten Eliane MS; Elzevier Henk W; Assendelft Willem JJ; van't Wout Jan W; van Nieuwkoop Cees; Pander Jan; Blom Jeanet W; Spelt Ida C; van Dissel Jaap T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current guidelines on the management of urinary tract infection recommend treating febrile urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis with antimicrobials for at least 14 days. Few randomized trials showed the effectiveness of treatment durations of 5 to 7 days but this has only been studied in young previously healthy women. Methods/Design A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter non-inferiority trial in which 400 patients with community acquired febri...

  7. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections. PMID:19768649

  8. Relapse of imported Plasmodium vivax malaria is related to primaquine dose: a retrospective study

    Townell Nicola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relapsing Plasmodium vivax infection results in significant morbidity for the individual and is a key factor in transmission. Primaquine remains the only licensed drug for prevention of relapse. To minimize relapse rates, treatment guidelines have recently been revised to recommend an increased primaquine dose, aiming to achieve a cumulative dose of ≥6 mg/kg, i.e. ≥420 mg in a 70 kg patient. The aims of this study were to characterize the epidemiology of P. vivax infection imported into Queensland Australia, to determine the rates of relapse, to investigate the use of primaquine therapy, and its efficacy in the prevention of relapse. Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of laboratory confirmed P. vivax infection presenting to the two major tertiary hospitals in Queensland, Australia between January 1999 and January 2011. Primaquine dosing was classified as no dose, low dose ( Results Twenty relapses occurred following 151 primary episodes of P. vivax infection (13.2%. Relapses were confirmed among 3/21 (14.2%, 9/50 (18.0%, 1/54 (1.9% and 7/18 (38.9% of patients administered no dose, low dose, high dose and unknown primaquine dose respectively. High dose primaquine therapy was associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse compared to patients who were prescribed low dose therapy (OR 11.6, 95% CI 1.5-519, p = 0.005. Conclusions Relapse of P. vivax infection is more likely in patients who received low dose primaquine therapy. This study supports the recommendations that high dose primaquine therapy is necessary to minimize relapse of P. vivax malaria.

  9. Primaquine pharmacology in the context of CYP 2D6 pharmacogenomics: Current state of the art.

    Marcsisin, Sean R; Reichard, Gregory; Pybus, Brandon S

    2016-05-01

    Primaquine is the only antimalarial drug available to clinicians for the treatment of relapsing forms of malaria. Primaquine development and usage dates back to the 1940s and has been administered to millions of individuals to treat and eliminate malaria infections. Primaquine therapy is not without disadvantages, however, as it can cause life threatening hemolysis in humans with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In addition, the efficacy of primaquine against relapsing malaria was recently linked to CYP 2D6 mediated activation to an active metabolite, the structure of which has escaped definitive identification for over 75years. CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic among various human populations adding further complexity to a comprehensive understanding of primaquine pharmacology. This review aims to discuss primaquine pharmacology in the context of state of the art understanding of CYP 2D6 mediated 8-aminoquinoline metabolic activation, and shed light on the current knowledge gaps of 8-aminoquinoline mechanistic understanding against relapsing malaria. PMID:27016470

  10. Primaquine

    ... carry oxygen to the tissues in the body),nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) deficiency (a genetic condition), glucose- ... these symptoms, call your doctor immediately: tiredness pale skin shortness of breath fast heartbeat yellowing of the ...

  11. Primaquine plus artemisinin combination therapy for reduction of malaria transmission: promise and risk.

    John, Chandy C

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of gametocyte transmission from humans to mosquitoes is a key component of malaria elimination. The study by Gonçalves and colleagues provides valuable new data on how the addition of low-dose primaquine to artemether-lumefantrine affects reduction of gametocytemia and transmission of gametocytes to mosquitoes in asymptomatically Plasmodium falciparum-infected children without G6PD deficiency, and on the degree to which low-dose primaquine affects hemoglobin levels in these children. The study sets the stage for future research required for consideration of an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT)-primaquine regimen in mass drug administration campaigns. Future studies will need to evaluate toxicity in adults and G6PD deficient persons, assess gametocyte transmission from adults, evaluate different ACT drugs with primaquine, and assess the implications of "rare" toxicities in large treatment populations, such as hemolysis requiring blood transfusion. The study highlights both the promise and the potential risk of ACT-primaquine treatment in malaria elimination campaigns.Please see related article: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0581-y . PMID:27039396

  12. 伯氨喹与蒿甲醚联合治疗恶性疟疾的疗效评价%To evaluate the efficacy of primaquine and artemether combined treatment of falciparum malaria

    司慧远; 李晓娟; 姚宁; 周平; 孙莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of primaquine and artemether combined treatment of falciparum malaria. Methods Selected patients who were hospitalized in Sino-Tanzania Friendship Hospital with falciparum malaria, collecting in time for the 2013 May to 2014 March, a total of 100 cases, among whom 86 were Tanzanian and 14 were Chinese. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 50 cases in the combined group, 50 cases in the control group. For combined therapy group, intramuscular injection of 80mg artemether was used once a day, for 7 consecutive days, the first dose of 160 mg, 22.5 mg primaquine was used once a day in the first days of taking artemether, lasting for 8 days; for the control group treatment: intramuscular injection of 80 mg artemether was used once a day for 7 consecutive days, with the first dose of 160 mg. The efficacy of hospital treatment in the two groups (recovery, invalid, reheat) and adverse reaction were evaluated. Results The combined group and the control group is invalid (98%, 0, 2%; 82%, 4%, 14%), the combined group and the control group, statistically significant differences is invalid, or (P<0.05); the incidence of adverse reaction in combined group and the control group was 8% and 16% respectively, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Primaquine and artemether combined therapy can improve the curative effect in the treatment of falciparum malaria, and reduce the probability of relapse, less adverse reaction.%目的:评价伯氨喹与蒿甲醚联合治疗恶性疟疾的疗效。方法选择2013年5月—2014年3月坦桑尼亚中坦友谊医院住院的恶性疟疾100例,按设定的治疗策略随机分为治疗组和对照组各50例。对照组:肌内注射80 mg蒿甲醚,1 d-1,连续治疗7 d,首次剂量160 mg;治疗组:在对照组的基础上,加服22.5 mg伯氨喹,1 d-1,连续服用8 d。依据恶性疟疾临床治愈标准,评价2组患者出院时疗效(痊愈、无效

  13. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    Richard J Maude

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria. METHOD AND FINDINGS: A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity. CONCLUSIONS: The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite

  14. G6PD Deficiency at Sumba in Eastern Indonesia Is Prevalent, Diverse and Severe: Implications for Primaquine Therapy against Relapsing Vivax Malaria

    Satyagraha, Ari Winasti; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Baramuli, Vanessa; Elvira, Rosalie; Ridenour, Chase; Elyazar, Iqbal; Noviyanti, Rintis; Coutrier, Farah Novita; Harahap, Alida Roswita; Baird, J Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax requires diagnosis of both the infection and status of erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity because hypnozoitocidal therapy against relapse requires primaquine, which causes a mild to severe acute hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficient patients. Many national malaria control programs recommend primaquine therapy without G6PD screening but with monitoring due to a broad lack of G6PD deficiency screening capacity. The degree of risk in do...

  15. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Mahmud, Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  16. Double-Blind, Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (2,000/125 Milligrams) versus Those of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (875/125 Milligrams), Both Given Twice Daily for 7 Days, in Treatment of Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    File, T M; Lode, H; Kurz, H.; Kozak, R; H. Xie; Berkowitz, E

    2004-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial was designed to demonstrate that pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 mg) was at least as effective clinically as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg, both given twice daily for 7 days, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. In total, 633 clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia patients (intent-to-treat population) were randomized to receive either oral amoxicillin-c...

  17. Cytochrome P450-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes

    Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the drug of choice for radical cure of relapsing malaria. Use of primaquine is limited due to its hemotoxicity, particularly in populations with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency [G6PD(-)]. Biotransformation appears to be central to the anti-infective and hematological toxicities of primaquine, but the mechanisms are still not well understood. Metabolic studies with primaquine have been hampered due to the reactive nature of potential hemotoxic metabolites. An in vitro metabolism-linked hemotoxicity assay has been developed. Co-incubation of the drug with normal or G6PD(-) erythrocytes, microsomes or recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms has allowed in situ generation of potential hemotoxic metabolite(s), which interact with the erythrocytes to generate hemotoxicity. Methemoglobin formation, real-time generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and depletion of reactive thiols were monitored as multiple biochemical end points for hemotoxicity. Primaquine alone did not produce any hemotoxicity, while a robust increase was observed in methemoglobin formation and generation of ROIs by primaquine in the presence of human or mouse liver microsomes. Multiple CYP isoforms (CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) variably contributed to the hemotoxicity of primaquine. This was further confirmed by significant inhibition of primaquine hemotoxicity by the selective CYP inhibitors, namely thiotepa (CYP2B6), fluoxetine (CYP2D6) and troleandomycin (CYP3A4). Primaquine caused similar methemoglobin formation in G6PD(-) and normal human erythrocytes. However, G6PD(-) erythrocytes suffered higher oxidative stress and depletion of thiols than normal erythrocytes due to primaquine toxicity. The results provide significant insights regarding CYP isoforms contributing to hemotoxicity and may be useful in controlling toxicity of primaquine to increase its therapeutic utility.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate at 2,000/125 Milligrams Twice Daily for 5 Days versus Amoxicillin-Clavulanate at 875/125 Milligrams Twice Daily for 7 Days in the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis

    Sethi, Sanjay; Breton, John; Wynne, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial was designed to show that a short, 5-day course of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg (Augmentin XR) is as effective clinically as a longer, 7-day course of conventional amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg (both given twice daily) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was designed to extend the therapeutic levels of amoxicillin in serum over the 12-h do...

  19. Is primaquine useful and safe as true exo-erythrocytic merontocidal, hypnozoitocidal and gametocidal antimalarial drug?

    Francisco Javier López-Antuñano

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to make available in a single document, a sequence of events that have been published on the biology of malaria parasites and their interaction with the human host, looking for arguments for effective and save treatment: what we know and what we would like to know about the effects of primaquine in order to justify its use in clinical and public health practice. The practicioner should be aware that the antimalarial activity, hemolytic and methemoglobinemic side effects, and detoxification of primaquine are all thought to depend on various biotransformation products of the drug. In spite of the universal use during over six decades, their site and mechanism of formation and degradation and their specific biologic effects remain very poorly understood in human beings. The mature gametocytes of P. falciparum are naturally resistant to chloroquine and other blood merontocides, but they are usually eliminated with a single dose of 1.315 mg/kg per os (p.o. of primaquine phosphate (equivalent to 0.75 mg-base. Rather than empirically, related with relapses frequency, dosage schedules should only be determined through consideration of the kinetics and dynamics of the drug and its effect on sporozoites, pre and exo-erythrocytic merontes, hypnozoites and gametocytes of P. vivax. Where medical care services are not available or not capable to detect glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenese- (G-6-PD deficiencies and deleterious effects of the drug, we recommend not to use primaquine. Both, P. vivax primary clinical attack and P. vivax relapses, as and when they occur should be treated with a course of 10 mg/kg chloroquine-base p.o. Prevention of relapses is probably related to strain characteristics of P. vivax hypnozoites populations envolved. If well informed and qualified medical care workers decide to use primaquine in the absence of enzime defficiencies and are able to follow-up the clinical, toxicological and parasitic

  20. Rationale for recommending a lower dose of primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide in populations where G6PD deficiency is common

    White Nicholas J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In areas of low malaria transmission, it is currently recommended that a single dose of primaquine (0.75 mg base/kg; 45 mg adult dose be added to artemisinin combination treatment (ACT in acute falciparum malaria to block malaria transmission. Review of studies of transmission-blocking activity based on the infectivity of patients or volunteers to anopheline mosquitoes, and of haemolytic toxicity in glucose 6-dehydrogenase (G6PD deficient subjects, suggests that a lower primaquine dose (0.25 mg base/kg would be safer and equally effective. This lower dose could be deployed together with ACTs without G6PD testing wherever use of a specific gametocytocide is indicated.

  1. Fabrication and Evaluation of Transdermal Patches of Primaquine Phosphate

    Srivatava Sarika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication and Evaluation of matrix type Transdermal Patches of Primaquine Phosphate with different ratio of eudragit-L100 and S-100 combination by the solvent evaporation technique. All the patches have been evaluated for their Physiochemical properties was studied by infrared Spectroscopy. Formulation F1 was found best among the all formulation on basis maximum in-vitro release, drug content and folding endurance i.e. 4.711, 99% ± 0.2, 26 ± 2. Other parameters like moisture content, moisture uptake, surface pH was found 1.32 ± 0.38, 3.14 ± 0.2 and 8.9 respectively. Hence F1 formulation was used to incorporate penetration enhancer labrafac™ PD, labrafil® 1944CS and lauroglucol™ FCC. By using this three penetration enhancer nine formulation L1 to L9 was fabricated to increasing volume of 0.5ml, 1.0ml, 1.5 ml. All the formulation was tested for thickness, weight variation, folding endurance, surface pH, moisture content and %drug content. L6 was showing maximum drug content and folding endurance as 99.8%, 28 respectively. The in-vitro release study was carried out with Shimadzu HPLC system. L6 formulation showed the best release value 75.47% in 24hr, emerging to be ideal formulations for Primaquine Phosphate and the mechanism of release was fitted to peppas kinetic models. The formulated transdermal patches increase antimalarial activity and reduced the adverse drug reactions gastrointestinal distress, nausea and methemoglobinemia with cyanosis.

  2. Rationale for short course primaquine in Africa to interrupt malaria transmission

    Eziefula Alice C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following the recent successes of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa, the gametocytocidal drug primaquine needs evaluation as a tool to further reduce the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The drug has scarcely been used in Africa because of concerns about its safety in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. The evidence base for the use of primaquine as a transmission blocker is limited by a lack of comparable clinical and parasitological endpoints between trials. In March 2012, a group of experts met in London to discuss the existing evidence on the ability of primaquine to block malaria transmission, to define the roadblocks to the use of primaquine in Africa and to develop a roadmap to enable its rapid, safe and effective deployment. The output of this meeting is a strategic plan to optimize trial design to reach desired goals efficiently. The roadmap includes suggestions for a series of phase 1, 2, 3 and 4 studies to address specific hurdles to primaquine’s deployment. These include ex-vivo studies on efficacy, primaquine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and dose escalation studies for safety in high-risk groups. Phase 3 community trials are proposed, along with Phase 4 studies to evaluate safety, particularly in pregnancy, through pharmacovigilance in areas where primaquine is already deployed. In parallel, efforts need to be made to address issues in drug supply and regulation, to map G6PD deficiency and to support the evaluation of alternative gametocytocidal compounds.

  3. Design, synthesis, and biological activities of conformationally restricted analogs of primaquine with a 1,10-phenanthroline framework

    Sall, C.; Yapi, A. D.; Desbois, N.; Chevalley, Séverine; Chezal, J.M.; Tan, K.; Teulade, J. C.; Valentin, A; Y. Blache

    2008-01-01

    A series of primaquine analogs was prepared, according to a conformationally restricted conformation of primaquine. In vitro antiplasmodial activities were evaluated and showed that all compounds were active on different strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In particular compounds 5 and 15 possessing a methoxy group were more active than was primaquine. Furthermore, analog 5 displayed good in vitro gametocytocidal activity. In addition selectivity indexes were calculated in respect with cytotoxi...

  4. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  5. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  6. A comparison of 5 or 7 days of rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Ari F. Syam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim A combination of PPI and 1000 mg amoxicillin/500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 2 weeks has been proven effective in the eradication of H. pylori. Most studies suggested that treatment for 7 and 10 days may be equally effective. Few data are available on the efficacy of 5-day triple therapy. Aim of this study was to compare 5-day and 7-day rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection.Methods We prospectively studied 60 consecutive H. pylori-infected patients who came to hospitals in six centres in Indonesia and who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if two rapid urease tests (Pronto Dry and histology or urea breath test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labelled 5-day or 7-day course of oral amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. (RAC. Four weeks after therapy, all patients had a repeated UBT for evaluation of the presence of H. pylori.Results Of the 60 patients (42 males and 18 females with mean age (± SD 47.63 ± 13.93 years, range 21–74 years, 25 patients (41.7% had 5-day treatment and 35 patients (58.3% had 7-day treatment. With 5-day treatment, 18 patients (72% and with 7-day treatment 32 patients (91.4% became negative for H. pylori infection. The eradication failure was found on 7 patients (28.0% in 5-day treatment and 3 patients (8.6% in 7-day treatment.Conclusions The study showed that the eradication of H. pylori infection by triple rabeprazole-based treatment in 7-day is still better than in 5-day. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:113-7Keywords: H. pylori, rabeprazole, triple therapy

  7. Huge congenital cervical immature teratoma mimicking lymphatic malformation in a 7-day-old male neonate

    Jihoon Jang; Jinyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Most cervical teratomas are benign. However, because of their location and size, these neoplasms cause airway obstruction, and the prognosis of patients is poor if left untreated. Early diagnosis by antenatal ultrasound, airway management, and a multidisciplinary team approach to treatment are therefore necessary. This report describes a 7-day-old male neonate who presented at our institution with a huge neck mass that was treated by surgical excision.

  8. Huge congenital cervical immature teratoma mimicking lymphatic malformation in a 7-day-old male neonate

    Jihoon Jang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most cervical teratomas are benign. However, because of their location and size, these neoplasms cause airway obstruction, and the prognosis of patients is poor if left untreated. Early diagnosis by antenatal ultrasound, airway management, and a multidisciplinary team approach to treatment are therefore necessary. This report describes a 7-day-old male neonate who presented at our institution with a huge neck mass that was treated by surgical excision.

  9. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of primaquine by coupling with diazotized p-nitroaniline application to pharmaceutical formulations

    A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of primaquine phosphate has been developed. The method is based on the coupling reaction of primaquine phosphate in acidic medium with diazotized p-nitroaniline, to form a yellow-orange water-soluble azo dye that shows maximum absorption at 482 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 5-300 macro g of primaquine phosphate in a final volume of 25 ml, i.e., 0.2-12 ppm with a molar absorptivity of 6.6 X 10/sup 4/ l mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0068 mu g.cm/sup -2/, a relative error of -0.63 to +0.32% and a relative standard deviation of +-0.18 to +- 2.8%, depending on the concentration level. Interferences due to excipients have been examined. The proposed method has been applied to the assay of primaquine phosphate in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets). (author)

  11. Impairment of IFN-gamma response to synthetic peptides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a 7-day whole blood assay.

    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    Full Text Available Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigens are of interest in order to improve vaccine efficacy and to define biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The methodologies used for these investigations differ greatly between laboratories and discordant results are common. The IFN-gamma response to two well characterized MTB antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, in the form of recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides, was evaluated in HIV-1 uninfected persons in both long-term (7 day and 24 hour, commercially available QuantiFERON TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT, whole blood assays. Our findings showed differences in the IFN-gamma response between 24 hour and 7 day cultures, with recombinant proteins inducing a significantly higher response than the peptide pools in 7 day whole blood assays. The activity of peptides and recombinant proteins did not differ in 24 hour whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC based assays, nor in the ELISpot assay. Further analysis by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed that the peptides are degraded over the course of 7 days of incubation in whole blood whilst the recombinant proteins remain intact. This study therefore demonstrates that screening antigenic candidates as synthetic peptides in long-term whole blood assays may underestimate immunogenicity.

  12. Comparative efficacy of 3-day and 7-day chemotherapy with twice-daily pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections seen in general practice.

    Richards, H H

    1984-01-01

    In a multi-centre general practice study, 183 females suffering from symptoms of acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg pivmecillinam twice-daily for either 3 or 7 days. The clinical response was equally good in both treatment groups with a mean reduction in symptom scores of 88%. Positive pre-treatment bacteriological cultures were obtained from 48 (36%) of the 134 patients for whom data were complete. Bacteriological cure was achieved in all these patients except for 1 in the 3-day treatment group. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated, with side-effects reported by 7 (7%) patients in the 3-day group and 12 (13%) patients in the 7-day group. One patient in the 3-day group and 2 patients in the 7-day group stopped treatment prematurely due to side-effects. PMID:6499513

  13. Effect of antimalarial drug primaquine and its derivatives on the ionization potential of hemoglobin: A QM/MM study

    Liu, Haining; Ding, Yuanqing; Walker, Larry A.; Doerksen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    We used quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations to test if antimalarial primaquine (PQ) and its derivatives aid the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin by binding to hemoglobin and merely lowering hemoglobin’s ionization potential (IP). Our results showed that PQ and its derivatives do not significantly lower the hemoglobin IP, disproving the hypothesis.

  14. Where chloroquine still works: the genetic make-up and susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine plus primaquine in Bhutan

    Wangchuk, Sonam; Drukpa, Tobgyel; Penjor, Kinley; Peldon, Tashi; Dorjey, Yeshey; Dorji, Kunzang; Chhetri, Vishal; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; To, Sheren; Murphy, Amanda; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Price, Ric N.; Thriemer, Kamala; Auburn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Bhutan has made substantial progress in reducing malaria incidence. The national guidelines recommend chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) for radical cure of uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax, but the local efficacy has not been assessed. The impact of cases imported from India on the genetic make-up of the local vivax populations is currently unknown. Methods Patients over 4 years of age with uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection were enrolled into a clinical efficacy study and mole...

  15. Influence of dose per fraction on 7 days per week fractionation in radiotherapy

    To evaluate the effect of the dose per fraction in a radiotherapy schedule of 7 fractions per week and compare it with a conventional one of 5fr/w, 2Gy/fr, we use computer simulations methods taking into account the tumor proliferation. We have a significant increase of TCP with regard to the conventional schedule for 7 days per week programmes in which the dose per fraction is =1.7 Gy. (author)

  16. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  17. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  18. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Gupta, Ashish; Chandra, Tulika; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml) was collected in antic...

  19. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Gupta, Ashish; Chandra, Tulika; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml) was collected in antico...

  20. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  1. Efficacy and safety of single and double doses of ivermectin versus 7-day high dose albendazole for chronic strongyloidiasis.

    Yupin Suputtamongkol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight, or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. RESULTS: Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively. All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range duration of follow-up were 19 (2-76 weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2-74 weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2-74 weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral

  2. Changes of human serum proteome profile during 7-day “dry” immersion

    Pakharukova, N. A.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes of serum proteome profile during 7-day "dry" immersion (DI). The experiment with DI consisted of three series: control group without countermeasures (10 men), with using mechanical stimulation (6 men) and low-frequency myostimulation (5 men) as preventive means. Serum samples were fractionated using ClinProt robot (Bruker Daltonics) on magnetic beads (weak cation exchange magnetic beads—MB WCX) prior to mass-spectral profiling. It was obtained 170 peaks after fractionation of serum samples in each group. On 7th immersion day peak areas of fibrinopeptide A ( m/ z=1206; 1464), angiotensin II ( m/ z=1051), high molecular mass kininogen fragment ( m/ z=2133 Da) and C3-fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=1350 Da) were significantly decreased comparing with pre-experimental values of all experimental series. Peak areas of apolipoprotein C III ( m/ z=9419) and C4a fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=3206 Da) were increased. On 7th day of the recovery peak areas of all changed peaks were not close to pre-experimental values. This fact provided evidence of incomplete recovery of an organism after DI. The depth of the alterations had considerable individual variability. Thereby the detected changes of serum proteome profile in the experiment. They indicated a reorganization of the hormonal, immune systems and lipid metabolism. The use of myostimulation and mechanical stimulation as countermeasures partly compensated adverse effects of 7-day dry immersion on the parameters of coagulation system (fibrinopeptide A) and lipid metabolism (apolipoprotein CIII).

  3. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  4. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Omwoyo WN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo,1,2 Bernhards Ogutu,3,4 Florence Oloo,3,5 Hulda Swai,6 Lonji Kalombo,6 Paula Melariri,6 Geoffrey Maroa Mahanga,2 Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa3,4 1Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya; 2Department of Chemistry, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya; 3Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Polymers and Composites, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: Primaquine (PQ is one of the most widely used antimalarial drugs and is the only available drug that combats the relapsing form of malaria. PQ use in higher doses is limited by severe tissue toxicity including hematological- and gastrointestinal-related side effects. Nanoformulation of drugs in an appropriate drug carrier system has been extensively studied and shown to have the potential to improve bioavailability, thereby enhancing activity, reducing dose frequency, and subsequently reducing toxicity. The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize PQ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs (PQ-SLNs as a potential drug-delivery system. SLNs were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification evaporation method based on a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsion. The mean particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the PQ-SLNs were 236 nm, +23 mV, 14%, and 75%, respectively. The zeta potential of the SLNs changed dramatically, from -6.54 mV to +23.0 mV, by binding positively charged chitosan as surface modifier. A spherical morphology of PQ-SLNs was seen by scanning electron microscope. In vitro, release profile depicted a steady drug release over 72 hours. Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated presence

  5. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T2-4N0-1M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients

  6. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  7. Efficacy of 7-Day and 14-Day Triple Therapy Regimens for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Comparative Study in a Cohort of Romanian Patients

    Arama, Stefan Sorin; Tiliscan, Catalin; Negoita, Cristina; Croitoru, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Mihai, Carmen Marina; Pop, Florinel

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared the eradication rates of of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection by a 7-day and 14-day anti-HP regimen. Materials and Methods. An open, randomized, prospective study was performed to evaluate the response to anti-HP treatment in adult HP-positive patients following a 7-day course (Regimen A) of a proton pump inhibitor in association with clarithromycin and amoxicillin compared to a 14-day course (Regimen B). Gastric biopsies were performed at baseline and two months after anti-HP treatment. Results. Seventy-eight patients aged 18–64 years (28 males, 50 females) diagnosed with HP infection were included. Fifty-two (66.7%) patients received Regimen B and 26 (33.3%) Regimen A. The overall eradication rate was 70.5%. Better treatment response (p duodenal lesions in both regimens. Younger patients ≤35 years had a better response to Regimen B. Better treatment response was seen in women, urban residents, and those with tertiary level of education in both groups. Conclusion. 14-day anti-HP regimen offered a significant better overall eradication of HP in study population. PMID:26858750

  8. Alterações clínicolaboratoriais em pacientes com malária por Plasmodium vivax e deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase tratados com 0,50mg/kg/dia de primaquina Clinical and laboratorial alterations in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency treated with primaquine at 0.50mg/kg/day

    Mônica C.M. Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito adverso da primaquina na dose de 0,50mg/kg/dia foi investigado em onze pacientes com malária vivax (três com deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase. Alterações clínicas e laboratoriais indicaram hemólise aguda apenas nos enzimopênicos, o que fez com que o tratamento fosse interrompido. Nossos resultados sugerem a necessidade do emprego de um teste de triagem para a deficiência de G6PD em áreas endêmicas de malária vivax a fim de se evitar complicações causadas pelo uso da primaquina.The adverse effects of primaquine (0.50mg/kg/day were investigated in eleven patients with vivax malaria (three patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Clinical and laboratorial alterations indicated acute hemolysis in only the enzymopenic patients and treatment was interrupted. Our results suggest that screening for G6PD deficiency should be carried out in patients with vivax malaria infection in order to avoid complications due to primaquine.

  9. Activation of K+ channels and Na+/K+ ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K+ channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K+ channels and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O2− production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K+-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K+-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K+ channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na+/K+ ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K+ channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative stress. ► Low concentrations constitute environmental cardiovascular

  10. Performance of the CareStart™ G6PD deficiency screening test, a point-of-care diagnostic for primaquine therapy screening.

    S. Kim; Nguon, C; Guillard, B.; Duong, S.; Chy, S; Sum, S; Nhem, S.; BOUCHIER, C; Tichit, M.; Christophel, E.; Taylor, WR; Baird, JK; Menard, D.

    2011-01-01

    Development of reliable, easy-to-use, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency at point of care is essential to deploying primaquine therapies as part of malaria elimination strategies. We assessed a kit under research and development called CareStart™ G6PD deficiency screening test (Access Bio, New Jersey, USA) by comparing its performance to quantitative G6PD enzyme activity using a standardized spectrophotometric method ('gold standard'). ...

  11. Efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days in community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label, multicenter study

    Dunbar Lala M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Telithromycin (a new ketolide has shown good in vitro activity against the key causative pathogens of CAP, including S pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and/or macrolides. Methods The efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg orally once daily for 7 days in the treatment of CAP were assessed in an open-label, multicenter study of 442 adults. Results Of 149 microbiologically evaluable patients, 57 (9 bacteremic had Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of the 57 S pneumoniae pathogens isolated in these patients, 9 (2 bacteremic were penicillin- or erythromycin-resistant; all 57 were susceptible to telithromycin and were eradicated. Other pathogens and their eradication rates were: Haemophilus influenzae (96%, Moraxella catarrhalis (100%, Staphylococcus aureus (80%, and Legionella spp. (100%. The overall bacteriologic eradication rate was 91.9%. Of the 357 clinically evaluable patients, clinical cure was achieved in 332 (93%. In the 430 patients evaluable for safety, the most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (8.1% and nausea (5.8%. Conclusion Telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated oral monotherapy and offers a new treatment option for CAP patients, including those with resistant S pneumoniae.

  12. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0–57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10–20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  13. La primaquina tiene alta eficacia en la quimioprofilaxis primaria simple antipalúdica. Metanálisis High efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with primaquine. metanalysis

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Problema: existen informes sobre la capacidad quimioprofiláctica primaria (QP1 antipalúdica de la primaquina (PQ en humanos, pero no conocemos ningún metanálisis sobre el tema. Preguntas: ¿Es eficaz la primaquina para prevenir el paludismo en seres humanos? ¿Depende esa eficacia del lugar, la edad de las personas y de la especie de Plasmodium? Metodología: se aplicaron procedimientos recomendados para metanálisis. Resultados: se incluyeron 4 estudios experimentales de laboratorio (EEL y 7 estudios clínicos controlados (ECC. Según los EEL, para adultos, la dosis de primaquina apropiada en QP1 es 30 mg/d, tomados desde el día previo a la exposición. Los ECC mostraron protección de 93% entre quienes recibieron primaquina y de 45% entre quienes no la recibieron (p = 0,0000000. CONCLUSIONES: la QP1 con primaquina es altamente eficaz en adultos y niños, es igual frente a Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax y debe adoptarse como alternativa válida. Faltan evaluaciones sobre la seguridad y la toxicidad en niños. Background: There are many reportss about primaquine as primary chemoprophylactic (1-CP in humans, but we do not know of any metaanalysis about this subject. Specific Questions: Is primaquine effective to prevent malaria in humans? Does primaquine efficacy to prevent malaria depend on the place, the age of patients, or the Plasmodium species? Methodology: Procedures recommended for metanalysis were applied. Results: Four laboratory experimental studies (LES in humans and seven clinical controlled studies (CCS were included. According to LES the adequate primaquine dose as 1-CP for adults is 30 mg/day from the day before exposition and during the time of exposition. According to CCS protection was 93% in people that received primaquine and 45% in those who did not receive it (p = 0.0000000.

  14. In Vitro Activities of Primaquine-Schizonticide Combinations on Asexual Blood Stages and Gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Cabrera, Mynthia; Cui, Liwang

    2015-12-01

    Currently, the World Health Organization recommends addition of a 0.25-mg base/kg single dose of primaquine (PQ) to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria as a gametocytocidal agent for reducing transmission. Here, we investigated the potential interactions of PQ with the long-lasting components of the ACT drugs for eliminating the asexual blood stages and gametocytes of in vitro-cultured P. falciparum strains. Using the SYBR green I assay for asexual parasites and a flow cytometry-based assay for gametocytes, we determined the interactions of PQ with the schizonticides chloroquine, mefloquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, and naphthoquine. With the sums of fractional inhibitory concentrations and isobolograms, we were able to determine mostly synergistic interactions for the various PQ and schizonticide combinations on the blood stages of P. falciparum laboratory strains. The synergism in inhibiting asexual stages and gametocytes was highly evident with PQ-naphthoquine, whereas synergism was moderate for the PQ-piperaquine, PQ-chloroquine, and PQ-mefloquine combinations. We have detected potentially antagonistic interactions between PQ and lumefantrine under certain drug combination ratios, suggesting that precautions might be needed when PQ is added as the gametocytocide to the artemether-lumefantrine ACT (Coartem). PMID:26416869

  15. Randomized clinical trial on 7-day continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) of head and neck cancer - report on 3-year tumour control and normal tissue toxicity

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate tumour and normal tissues 3-year response to 7-day-a-week continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) compared to a conventional treatment (5 days per week) in a randomized trial. One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in stage T2-4-N0-1M0 were entered into the trial between December 1, 1993 and June 30, 1996. Dose per fraction of 2.0 Gy (to the end of 1994), and 1.8 Gy (since January 1, 1995) was the same in both arms and delivered once a day at regular 24-h intervals to total dose in the range of 66-72 Gy (depending on tumour stage). The only difference was overall treatment time being 5 weeks in the CAIR and 7 weeks in control arm. Actuarial 3-year local tumour control was 82% in the CAIR and 37% in the control group (P < 0.0001) with reduction in local recurrence rate of 83%. Actuarial 3-year overall survival was 78 and 32% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Confluent mucositis was significantly more severe and lasted longer in the CAIR than in control arm. After 2.0 Gy fractions five of 23 patients (22%) in the CAIR developed early necroses over a period of 2-4 months of follow-up which can be considered as a consequential to severe protracted acute mucosal reactions (CLE). For this reason dose per fraction was lowered to 1.8 Gy and the CLE was not observed again until now. Thus the overall rate of CLE decreased to 10%. The gain in tumour control is likely the effect of shortening of overall treatment time by 14 days and regular continuous dose delivery during the whole course of radiation therapy including weekends. A 7-day schedule produces more severe acute mucosal reactions lasting longer than in conventional fractionation, however tolerable by patients. Relatively high rate (22%) of CLE in the 7-day arm observed during the first year of the study was eliminated by decreasing dose per fraction from 2.0 Gy to 1.8 Gy

  16. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, K.F.;

    2010-01-01

    growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount...... significantly affected by the treatments (P <.05). There was a significant interaction between milk-derived proteins and minerals with regard to sOC (P = .01). The intake of milk drinks containing whey increased sOC at the low content of minerals, whereas it decreased sOC at the high content of minerals (P <.05......). In contrast, milk drinks containing casein increased sOC both at the low and at the high contents of minerals. In conclusion, whey and casein (corresponding to their content in 1.5 L of milk) differently affect sOC in 8-year-old boys depending on the content of milk minerals, but do not seem to...

  17. TRIAL TO CULTIVATE AND ISOLATE NEURONAL LIKE CELLS FROM 7 DAYS OLD MICE BRAIN

    CALIN TATU

    Full Text Available role to replace lost cells due to physiological turnover, injury, or disease and tosupport cell genesis contributing to the cell number homeostasis. Long time it wasthought that adult mammalian central nervous system doesn't possess any or fewregenerative capacity. Nowadays it was demonstrated that also in the brain thereare stem cells which have the capacity to differentiate into astocytes,oligodendrocytes and neurons.In few degenerative diseases the stem cells lose the regenerative capacity withconsequences in diminishing and loss of functional capacity. Stem cell therapyrepresents a novel and promising therapeutic approach to treatment of a variety ofdegenerative disease as multiple sclerosis. For this it is necessary that a efficientstem cell source can be found and secondary to be proven that these transplantablecells have differential potential into neural tissue.In order to be able to possess a stem cell source capable to build an implant it isnecessary to know the cultivation technology and also the instruments to prove theircapacity to differentiate into specific cells of the nervous system. These were themotives that enabled us to to try to harvest, cultivate and differentiate stem cellsfrom the murine central nervous system.

  18. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  19. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sadahiro, Sotaro, E-mail: sadahiro@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Murayama, Chieko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  20. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  1. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EARLY 0-7 DAYS OUTCOME OF BABIES BORN AFTER ART ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Priyanka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Retrospective study of early (0-7 days outcome of babies born after ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology In vitro fertilization (IVF is the fertilization of a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm in a laboratory dish. In vitro means “outside the body.” Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg. IVF is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This means special medical techniques are used to help a woman become pregnant. There are five basic steps to IVF- Step 1: Stimulation, also called super ovulation, Step 2: Egg retrieval, Step 3: Insemination and Fertilization, Step 4: Embryo culture, Step 5: Embryo transfer. OBJECTIVE: To study the early (0-7 days outcome of babies born after ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in Department of Pediatrics, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur between Jan 2009- Jan 2010. Inclusion criteria consists of all IVF babies born at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur and exclusion criteria consists of all out born babies and IVF babies delivered at another center. CONCLUSION: There were 54.28% male and 45.72% female babies. Most of the babies were above 1.5 kg (44.28% NBW +45.71% LBW= 89.99%. There were only 5.71% babies born before 32 weeks of gestation. 61.42% were Singleton. Complication rate was low with Respiratory Distress in 10 babies, Sepsis in 4 babies and Jaundice in 22. All were treated successfully. There was no mortality.

  3. Molecular modeling of the voltammetric oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode of the antimalarial drug primaquine and its prodrugs succinylprimaquine and maleylprimaquine

    The 8-aminoquinoline primaquine (PQ) is the only antimalarial drug used as tissue schizonticide and relapsing malaria. Antichagasic activity was also reported. Nevertheless, as it also shows serious side effects, prodrugs such as succinyl and maleyl derivatives have been proposed to decrease its toxicity. Although PQ mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated, the promotion of oxidative stress is an advanced hypothesis that could explain its activity in both plasmodia and trypanosome parasites. The oxidation of PQ and its prodrugs, maleylprimaquine (MPQ) and succinylprimaquine (SPQ), was studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon electrode. All compounds were oxidized in aqueous medium, with the charge transfer process being pH-dependent in acidic medium and pH-independent in a weak basic medium, being the neutral form more easily oxidized. This indicated that the protonation of the nitrogen atoms displays a determinant role in the voltammetric oxidation, being both prodrugs more easily oxidized than PQ protonated forms, in the order: SPQ < MPQ < PQ. For a better understanding of this behavior, a molecular modeling study was performed using the AM1 semi-empirical method from Spartan 04 for Linux (v.119, Wavefunction Inc.). The medium pH showed to be fundamental not only to the electronic density of the quinoline ring but also to the rearrangement of the nitrogen side chain. The electronic density of primaquine non-protonated quinoline ring is higher than that in its protonated and diprotonated species. Also, the use of prodrugs and the degree of saturation of the carriers (maleic or succinic acid) interfere with this feature. SPQ and MPQ have a slight increase in the quinoline electronic density in comparison to PQ. Nevertheless, the carrier in the side chain of SPQ is closer to the quinoline ring than it is in MPQ, which accounts for the higher electronic density in the former. The most significant effect occurs in the correspondent protonated

  4. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  5. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  6. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt;

    2014-01-01

    differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. Materials and methods: In this study the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore...... collected during 2010 and 2011-12 respectively. Results: The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study wind speed was found to...

  7. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    Fiorim, Jonaina, E-mail: nanafiorim@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino, E-mail: faustino43@oi.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Azevedo, Bruna Fernades, E-mail: brunafernandes.azevedo@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Padilha, Alessandra Simão, E-mail: ale_spadilha@yahoo.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Stefanon, Ivanita, E-mail: ivanita@pq.cnpq.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alonso, Maria Jesus, E-mail: mariajesus.alonso@urjc.es [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud III, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPaz) (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  8. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Ohnuki Mari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2. Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM, and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, methyl mercaptan (CH3SH and dimethyl sulfide ((CH32S, the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC. Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH32S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is

  9. A novel oral preparation of human growth hormone (hGH) is absorbed and increases serum IGF-I levels after 7 days administration to GH-deficient adults

    Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda; Haemmerle, Sibylle;

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone deficient (GHD) patients are currently effectively treated with daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of hGH in the evening, but alternative routes would be attractive. An oral formulationulation of hGH, using an amino-caprilic acid derivative (5-CNAC, Emisphere's eligen® technology) as...... carrier has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to determine if this oral formulation of hGH could be absorbed and be bioactive. Eight GHD men (mean age 50 years) receiving sc hGH therapy were withdrawn from therapy for 7 days and then treated for 7 days orally with tablets of HGH191...... (Novartis). Each tablet contained 100 mg of hGH and 200 mg 5-CNAC. One tablet was given at 08 h and 17 h, and two tablets at 22 h to match nocturnal GH secretion. The patients were studied thrice for 24 hours: at day 7 of washout, at days 1 and 7 of treatment. GH peaks were recorded in all patients...

  10. The effect of drug packaging on patients' compliance with treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria in China.

    Qingjun, L.; Jihui, D.; Laiyi, T.; Xiangjun, Z.; Jun, L; Hay, A.; Shires, S; Navaratnam, V

    1998-01-01

    A study conducted in 1994 showed that the use of blister packs containing antimalarial drugs significantly increased patients' compliance, compared with traditional means of dispensing drugs in a paper envelope. The present study assessed patients' compliance and compared the difference between 3-day chloroquine and 8-day primaquine courses of treatment for vivax malaria. The level of real compliance was determined by making the drugs with phenobarbital, and measuring its level in the blood f...

  11. Eradication of H pylori infection in a rural population:One-day quadruple therapy versus 7-day triple therapy

    Lian Zhang; Wei-Cheng You; Lin Shen; Jun-Ling Ma; Kai-Feng Pan; Wei-Dong Liu; Jie Li; Shu-Dong Xiao; San-Ren Lin; Meinhard Classen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the one-day quadruple therapy with a standard 7-d triple therapy for H pylori eradication in a rural population of China.METHODS: A total of 396 patients with 13C-urea breath test positive for H pylori were assigned into two groups:239 patients received one-day quadruple therapy (amoxicillin 2000 mg qid; metronidazole 500 mg qid; bismuth citrate 900 mg qid and lansoprazole 60 mg once daily)and 157 patients received 7-d standard triple therapy (amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; clarithromycin 500 mg bid and lansoprazole 30 mg bid). All the patients underwent a 13C-UBT to assess the eradication of H pylori infection six weeks after treatment.RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients completed the one-day therapy (95.8%) and 148patients completed the 7-d therapy (94.2%). The oneday therapy eradicated H pylori infection in 64 patients (27.95%). In contrast, 103 patients (69.59%) were H pylori negative after the 7-d therapy (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests there is no beneficial effect of the one-day therapy in treatment of H pylori infection compared with the 7-d standard therapy.

  12. Comparing a 7-day diary vs. 24 h-recall for estimating fluid consumption in overweight and obese Mexican women

    Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Barquera-Cervera, Simón; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan; Popkin, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to increased weight, energy intake, and diabetes. Even though the increasing interest on beverages and water intake, there are few dietary tools carefully validated. The purpose of this paper is to compare a fluid intake 7-day diary against a 24-h recall questionnaire to estimate the fluid consumption in overweight and obese women participating in a randomized controlled trial in Mexico. Methods This cross-sectional study exp...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori to the outcome of 10-days vs. 7-days Moxifloxacin based therapy for the eradication: a randomized controlled trial

    Tomić Monika; Bakula Vinko; Kućišec Nastja; Belošić-Halle Željka; Majstorović Karolina; Bago Josip; Bago Petra; Troskot Rosana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Antibiotic resistance decreases success of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication. Recently published results show low rate of resistance and better compliance with moxifloxacin based regiments. Aims&methods Whether 7 days moxifloxacin with lansoprasole and amoxycillin can be compared with 10 days moxifloxacin with lansoprasole and amoxycillin according to moxifloxacin resistance. Patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia who had culture and histology positive Hp infection (n = 15...

  14. Nutrition: a key environmental dietary factor in clinical severity and cardio-metabolic risk in psoriatic male patients evaluated by 7-day food-frequency questionnaire

    Barrea, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Tarantino, Giovanni; Di Somma, Carolina; Pane, Elena; Balato, Nicola; Napolitano, Maddalena; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background Western dietary pattern is included among the environmental dietary factors involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Nutritional data collection methods and gender differences might affect the association between diet and psoriasis. The 7-day food records is considered the “gold standard” of self-administered food frequency questionnaires. In this study, we evaluated the differences in the dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cardio-metabolic risk profile in a group of...

  15. Prevalence and molecular basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Afghan populations: implications for treatment policy in the region.

    Leslie, T.; Moiz, B; N. Mohammad; Amanzai, O; Ur Rasheed, H; Jan, S.; Siddiqi, AM; Nasir, A; Beg, MA; Vink, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), an x-linked inherited enzymopathy, is a barrier to malaria control because primaquine cannot be readily applied for radical cure in individuals with the condition. In endemic areas, including in Afghanistan, the G6PD status of vivax patients is not routinely determined so the drug is rarely, if ever, prescribed even though it is included as a recommended treatment in local, regional and global guidelines. This study assessed the ...

  16. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity. PMID:2586059

  17. Recurrencias de malaria por Plasmodium vivax según el uso de primaquina: análisis de estudios descriptivos longitudinales Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence according to the use of primaquine: analysis of longitudinal descriptive studies

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: la primaquina (PQ es el único medicamento disponible en el mercado para prevenir recurrencias del paludismo por Plasmodium vivax pero varios aspectos suyos se desconocen. OBJETIVO: comparar regímenes de PQ para prevenir recurrencias de malaria vivax. METODOLOGÍA: revisión sistemática de datos. RESULTADOS: 1. ¿Según los estudios descriptivos, la PQ es eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias del paludismo vivax? Sí. La comparación de estudios que no usaron PQ con otros que sí la aplicaron, en cualquier esquema, mostró que si no se usa PQ la recurrencia es altamente probable. 2. ¿Tienen la misma eficacia dosis diarias (mg/kg iguales pero dosis totales diferentes? La dosis total de 75 mg es tanto o más eficaz que la de 210 mg. 3. ¿La eficacia anti-recurrencias depende del lugar donde sucede la infección? Si. Hay variación según país y región. 4. ¿La frecuencia de recurrencias depende del tiempo de seguimiento post tratamiento? La respuesta no es uniforme para todos los lugares. CONCLUSIONES: la PQ resultó eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias, pero no fue 100%. Las dosis totales de 210 y de 75 mg tuvieron igual eficacia, pero 75 mg sólo han sido evaluados en India, donde P. vivax parece ser más sensible a la PQ que en otros lugares. Parece indudable la influencia del lugar en la proporción de recurrencias, incluso con una misma dosis total. El papel del tiempo de seguimiento no resultó claro. Deben evaluarse esquemas alternativos al estándar, que tiene eficacia promedio de 90% o más.BACKGROUND: primaquine (PQ is the only drug available in the market to prevent Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence, but several aspects are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare PQ regimens to prevent recurrence of vivax malaria. METHODS: systematic review and meta-analysis of data. RESULTS: 1. According to descriptive studies, is PQ effective in preventing recurrence of vivax malaria? Yes. The comparison of studies that did not use

  18. [b][/b]Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    Robert Peel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. [b]Materials and methods.[/b] In this study, the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap, the Sampling Technologies Rotorod Model 20, and the Burkard Personal Volumetric Air Sampler were evaluated for Urticaceae and Poaceae pollen under field conditions. The influence of wind speed and relative humidity on these efficiency relationships was also assessed. Data for the two pollen taxa were collected during 2010 and 2011–2012, respectively. [b]Results[/b]. The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study, wind speed was found to only have a significant impact on inter-sampler relationships involving the vertically-orientated Burkard Personal sampler, while no interaction between relative efficiency and relative humidity was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Data collected with the three models of sampler should only be compared once the appropriate correction has been made, with wind speed taken into account where appropriate.

  19. Randomized clinical trial on 7-days-a-week postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk squamous cell head and neck cancer

    Purpose: To evaluate the normal tissue reactions and loco-regional control rates (LRC) in patients treated with 7-days-a-week postoperative continuous irradiation (p-CAIR) compared to conventionally fractionated 5-days-a-week postoperative radiotherapy (CF). Materials/methods: Between 2001 and 2004, 279 patients with high-risk squamous cell cancer of the larynx (158 pts.) or cancer of the oral cavity/oropharynx (121 pts.) were enrolled. They were stratified according to the primary cancer site (larynx vs. others) and the treating center and randomized to receive 63 Gy in fractions of 1.8 Gy given 5-days-a-week (140 pts: CF) or 7-days-a-week (139 pts: p-CAIR). Results: The acute and late toxicity was considered acceptable, although the proportion of patients with confluent mucositis was higher in p-CAIR compared to CF (60.0 vs. 33.3%). The actuarial 3-year LRC were 64 vs. 70% for CF and p-CAIR, respectively, p = 0.32. A statistically significant improvement in 3-year LRC in p-CAIR arm appeared in a subset of the patients with cancer of the oropharynx/oral cavity (74% p-CAIR vs. 53% CF, p = 0.02). By contrast, there was no improvement in LRC in a subset of the patients with cancer of the larynx (p = 0.46). Conclusion: An improvement in LRC attributable to acceleration of postoperative radiotherapy appeared restricted to the patients with cancer of the oropharynx/oral cavity. In patients with cancer of the larynx acceleration of postoperative radiotherapy did not have any beneficial effect

  20. Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles

    The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ► Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ► Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ► In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ► Cell cycle analysis shows

  1. Randomized clinical trial on continuous 7-days-a-week postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk squamous cell head-and-neck cancer: A report on acute normal tissue reactions

    Background and purpose: To analyse acute mucosal reactions in patients treated with continuous accelerated postoperative irradiation (p-CAIR) compared to conventionally fractionated postoperative radiotherapy (p-CF). Patients and methods: The patients were randomly assigned to receive 63 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions 7-days-a-week given over a period of 5 weeks (n=88), or 63 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions given 5-days-a-week over 7 weeks (n=87). It represents 65% of an overall trial size. Acute mucosal reactions were scored using modified Dische system. Polychotomous logistic regression was used to estimate the influence of the selected variables on maximum grade of mucositis, and percent of the body weight loss during radiotherapy. Results: The average maximum Dische score and percent of the patients with confluent mucositis were higher in patients treated with p-CAIR, compared to p-CF (13.3 vs. 10.8 and 54 vs. 27%). Polychotomous logistic regression analysis revealed that fractionation scheme and tumour site have significantly influenced maximum Dische score. Tumour site (laryngeal vs. other) had even stronger influence on maximum Dische score than fractionation scheme. The average residual Dische score 8 weeks after radiotherapy was higher in p-CAIR compared to p-CF (2.1 vs. 1.4), and was, most frequently, related to persistent mucosal erythema (70 vs. 57% of pts.). No severe consequential toxicity of radiotherapy was observed, so far, in the trial. Conclusions: While the incidence, intensity and duration of mucosal reactions was higher in p-CAIR than in p-CF the accelerated treatment can be considered tolerable with respect to acute toxicity. In both arms of the trial slight or moderate mucosal erythema was the most frequent acute side effect, which did not completely subside within 8 weeks after irradiation

  2. A cross-over study comparing an online versus a paper 7-day food record: focus on total water intake data and participant’s perception of the records

    Monnerie, B.; Tavoularis, L. G.; Guelinckx, I.; Hebel, P.; Boisvieux, T.; Cousin, A.; Le Bellego, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare (1) fluid, food and nutrient intake obtained with a paper versus an online version of a 7-day food record and (2) user’s acceptability of both versions of the food record. Methods A cross-over study was carried out in 2010 in France. A total of 246 participants aged 18–60 years reported their food and fluid intake using both versions of the 7-day food record, separated by a 7- to 14-day washout period. To help participants in estimating consumed portions, both versions of t...

  3. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...... of OCT on the IGF system could have therapeutical implications in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and certain malignancies in which IGF-I might be involved. The aim of this study was to examine possible GH-independent effects of OCT on IGF components in humans. Six GH-deficient (GHD......) patients were studied for 24 h after each of the following treatment regimens (each of 1 weeks duration): (a) daily s.c. GH injection (2 IU/m(2)); (b) as (a) + continuous s.c. infusion of OCT (200 microg/24 h) by means of a portable pump (Nordic Infuser); (c) no treatment. Serum GH binding protein (GHBP...

  4. Proteomic Response to Acupuncture Treatment in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Xinsheng Lai; Jiayou Wang; Nabar, Neel R.; Sanqiang Pan; Chunzhi Tang; Yong Huang; Mufeng Hao; Zhonghua Yang; Chunmei Ma; Jin Zhang; Helen Chew; Zhenquan He; Junjun Yang; Baogui Su; Jian Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th) day, rat medullas w...

  5. Blood stream infections due to OXA-48-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: treatment and survival

    Ilker Inanç Balkan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Earlier active treatment with colistin based regimens and microbiological and clinical response wthin 7 days are major predictors of survival in cases of BSIs due to CRE. Rectal screening offers the advantage of earlier recognition and prompt empirical treatment.

  6. Delayed Microbial Cure of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis with Doxycycline Treatment

    De, Vries; Smelov, V.; Middelburg, J.G.; Pleijster, J.; Speksnijder, A.G.; Morré, S A

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cure of chlamydia proctitis (lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV] and non-LGV) with doxycycline treatment was evaluated by chlamydia DNA and RNA persistence in anal swab specimens. In LGV proctitis, RNA persisted for up to 16 days. In non-LGV chlamydia proctitis, DNA was undetectable after 7 days. These findings support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's treatment recommendation of a 21-day doxycycline regimen for LGV proctitis and a 7-day regimen for non-LGV chlamydia proct...

  7. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks. PMID:26192355

  8. Clinical analysis on transcutaneous bilirubin value of normal neonates at 7 days after birth%正常新生儿生后7天经皮胆红素值的临床分析

    王金秀; 王瑛; 江华; 张琳; 刘滢; 丁雪晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide the transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) value of normal neonates at 7 days after birth in Changzhou region, obtain the average peak value of TcB, provide a basis for clinical diagnosis, draft an hour - specific TcB percentile nomogram suitable for the neonates in the region. Methods: 7 482 TcB values were obtained from 679 healthy full term neonates and near full term neonates by JH20 - 1B percutaneous jaundice apparatus from January to March in 2010, the detection time was from 12 hours after birth until 152 hours after birth. Every TcB percentile for each designated time was calculated and used for drafting an hour - specific nomogram. Results: TcB values varied at different time points among the normal neonates at 12 ~ 152 hours after birth, peaked at 116 hours after birth, the proportion of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (TcB>12.9 mg/dL) was 8.4% (57/679) , no bilirubin encephalopathy occurred during follow - up after leaving the hospital TcB nomogram reflected the natural history of TcB among the normal neonates at 7 days after birth. The average peak value of bilirubin was (10.0 ±2. 2) mg/dL, the P40, P75 and P95 of bilirubin were 8. 3 mg/dL, 10. 8mg/dL and 12.6 mg/dL, respectively. Among the perinatal factors, TcB level was significantly associated with gestational age, premature rupture of membrane and cephalhematoma (P < 0. 05) . Conclusion: The appearance time and peak time of neonatal jaundice in Changzhou region are similar to the published reports at home and abroad; the diagnostic criterion of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in China should be higher than current criterion, thus, the interventional standard of hyperbilirubinemia should be improved correspondingly.%目的:提供常州地区正常新生儿生后7天经皮胆红素(TcB)值,得出胆红素的平均峰值,为临床诊断奠定基础并制定一份适合本地区新生儿小时TcB百分位列线图.方法:2010年1~3月679例健康足月和近足月新生儿采用JH20 - 1B

  9. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Skladowski, Krzysztof, E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland); Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  10. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity

  11. Report of treatment of a patient with a mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria%间日疟、恶性疟混合感染1例治疗报告

    温卫珊; 魏荣英

    2011-01-01

    2009年龙岩市报告1例间日疟、恶性疟混合感染病例,患者在国外感染、发病,曾接受过治疗,回国后再次发病.在国内经3个疗程青蒿琥酯(1 800mg)和4个疗程的氯伯8 d疗法(氯喹4 800 mg、伯氨喹720 mg)治疗后痊愈.%The City of Longyan reported a case of a mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 2009. The patient had been infected abroad, developed malaria, been treated, returned home, and developed malaria again. In China, the patient received an 8-day-treatment with 3 courses of artesunate (1 800 mg) and 4 courses of chloroquine+primaquine (chloroquine, 4 800 mg, primaquine 720 mg). Afterwards, the patient recovered.

  12. Factors associated with delays in treatment initiation after tuberculosis diagnosis in two districts of India.

    Durba Paul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time between diagnosis and initiation of tuberculosis (TB treatment contributes to ongoing TB transmission and should be minimized. In India, Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP focuses on indicator start of treatment within 7 days of diagnosis for patients with sputum smear-positive PTB for monitoring DOTS implementation. OBJECTIVES: To determine length of time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment and factors associated with delays of more than 7 days in smear-positive pulmonary TB. METHODS: Using existing programme records such as the TB Register, treatment cards, and the laboratory register, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB registered from July-September 2010 in two districts in India. A random sample of patients with pulmonary TB who experienced treatment delay of more than 7 days was interviewed using structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 2027 of 3411 patients registered with pulmonary TB were smear-positive. 711(35% patients had >7 days between diagnosis and treatment and 262(13% had delays >15 days. Mean duration between TB diagnosis and treatment initiation was 8 days (range = 0-128 days. Odds of treatment delay >7 days was 1.8 times more likely among those who had been previously treated (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-2.3 and 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-1.8 times more likely among those diagnosed in health facilities without microscopy centers. The main factors associated with a delay >7 days were: patient reluctance to start a re-treatment regimen, patients seeking second opinions, delay in transportation of drugs to the DOT centers and delay in initial home visits. To conclude, treatment delay >7 days was associated with a number of factors that included history of previous treatment and absence of TB diagnostic services in the local health facility. Decentralized diagnostic facilities and improved referral procedures may reduce such treatment

  13. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    severe malaria should also be treated with empirical broad spectrum antibiotics until bacterial infection can be excluded (Grade 1B). 15. Haemolysis occurs in approximately 10-15% patients following intravenous artesunate treatment. Haemoglobin concentrations should be checked approximately 14 days following treatment in those treated with IV artemisinins (Grade 2C). 16. Falciparum malaria in pregnancy is more likely to be complicated: the placenta contains high levels of parasites, stillbirth or early delivery may occur and diagnosis can be difficult if parasites are concentrated in the placenta and scanty in the blood. 17. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimester of pregnancy should be treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Grade 2B). Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy should usually be treated with quinine and clindamycin but specialist advice should be sought. Severe malaria in any trimester of pregnancy should be treated as for any other patient with artesunate preferred over quinine (Grade 1C). 18. Children with uncomplicated malaria should be treated with an ACT (artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) as first line treatment (Grade 1A). Quinine with doxycycline or clindamycin, or atovaquone-proguanil at appropriate doses for weight can also be used. Doxycycline should not be given to children under 12 years. 19. Either an oral ACT or chloroquine can be used for the treatment of non-falciparum malaria. An oral ACT is preferred for a mixed infection, if there is uncertainty about the infecting species, or for P. vivax infection from areas where chloroquine resistance is common (Grade 1B). 20. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine (1A). Primaquine is more effective at preventing relapse if taken at the same time as chloroquine (Grade 1C). 21

  14. ECIL guidelines for treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected haematology patients.

    Maschmeyer, Georg; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Pagano, Livio; Robin, Christine; Cordonnier, Catherine; Schellongowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice. In patients with documented intolerance to this regimen, the preferred alternative is the combination of primaquine plus clindamycin. Treatment success should be first evaluated after 1 week, and in case of clinical non-response, pulmonary CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage should be repeated to look for secondary or co-infections. Treatment duration typically is 3 weeks and secondary anti-PCP prophylaxis is indicated in all patients thereafter. In patients with critical respiratory failure, non-invasive ventilation is not significantly superior to intubation and mechanical ventilation. The administration of glucocorticoids must be decided on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27550993

  15. Cortisol and dexamethasone elimination during treatment with cimetidine.

    Peden, N R; Rewhorn, I; Champion, M C; Mussani, R; Ooi, T C

    1984-01-01

    In a randomised cross-over study of treatment for 7 days with cimetidine 600 mg twice daily and placebo, cimetidine had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous dose of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Likewise the elimination characteristics of endogenous cortisol in the dexamethasone suppressed state were not affected by cimetidine.

  16. How common is self-treatment in non gonococcal urethritis?

    Carlin, E. M.; Barton, S E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of self-treatment in men with new episode non gonococcal urethritis (NGU). METHOD--Three hundred consecutive men with new episode NGU attending an open access genitourinary medicine clinic were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Details of treatment used before attending the clinic were obtained. RESULTS--Thirty (10%) men had used treatment, for an average of 7 days, prior to the clinic attendance. Agents used included antibiotics (11), savi...

  17. Characteristics associated with non-participation in 7-day accelerometry

    Franziska Weymar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We found a self-selection bias in participation in accelerometry. Women declined study participation more likely than men. The number of cardiometabolic risk factors decreased compliance only in men. Future studies should consider strategies to reduce this bias.

  18. Characteristics associated with non-participation in 7-day accelerometry

    Franziska Weymar; Janina Braatz; Diana Guertler; Neeltje van den Berg; Christian Meyer; Ulrich John; Felix, Stephan B.; Marcus Dörr; Sabina Ulbricht

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess levels of physical activity the use of objective physical activity measures like accelerometers is promising. We investigated characteristics associated with non-participation in accelerometry within an apparently healthy sample. Methods: Among German participants of a cardiovascular examination program (CEP; 2012–2013), 470 participants aged 40–75 years were invited to wear an accelerometer for 7 days. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the associati...

  19. Comparative trial of treatment with Prioderm lotion and Kwellada shampoo in children with head lice.

    Mathias, R G; Huggins, D.R.; Leroux, S. J.; Proctor, E M

    1984-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of treatment with a new pediculicide lotion, Prioderm (0.5% malathion in isopropanol), were compared with those of treatment with Kwellada (1% lindane) shampoo in a randomized trial of children with head lice. The children's scalps were examined for live lice immediately, 7 days and 4 to 6 weeks following treatment. To determine the in-vitro ovicidal effect of treatment, samples of hair with nits were removed before and immediately following treatment; the subsequent r...

  20. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  1. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori in Children

    F Famouri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low.   Sequential Therapy  Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy.   Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.    

  2. Problemer med primakin-recidivprofylakse hos malariapatienter

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1993-01-01

    Standard treatment of P. ovale and P. vivax malaria is 1500 mg of chloroquine base given over three days followed by 15 mg of primaquine base daily for 14 days. At the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen an increasing number of cases of relative by primaquine-resistant...... malaria have been observed. The side effects of primaquine are mainly gastrointestinal. Primaquine may also cause serious toxic side effects, including methaemoglobin formation and haemolytic anaemia, especially in individuals with erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. We...

  3. Biomechanical properties of ileum after systemic treatment with epithelial growth factor

    Jian Yang; Jing-Bo Zhao; Yan-Jun Zeng; Hans Gregersen

    2003-01-01

    AIM:Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF)leads to growth of all parts of the small intestine in normal functioning rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of this growth process on morphometric and biomechanical parameters of ileum.METHODS: Rats were treated with EGF (150 μg@kg-1day-1)or placebo via osmotic minipumps for 2, 4, 7, and 14 days.A segment of ileum was removed. The morphology at noload state and zero-stress state was measured and passive biomechanical properties were assessed using a biaxial test machine (combined inflation and axial stretching).RESULTS: The ileum weight increased after EGF administration. After 4 days' EGF treatment, the wall thickness was increased. Significantly smaller inner perimeters were seen in 4 day and 7 day EGF treatment groups. The opening angle and residual strain began to increase after 7 days' EGF treatment. Wall stiffness, evaluated from the stress-strain curves, showed a continuous decrease in circumferential direction during the first 7 days' EGF treatment. The longitudinal stiffness increased during the first 7 days. The stress-strain curves for both circumferential and longitudinal direction tended to shift back to normal 14days after starting EGF administration.CONCLUSION: EGF can cause significant changes both in the morphology and in the passive mechanical properties of the rat ileum.

  4. Effectiveness of Mentha piperita in the Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Crossover Study

    João Guilherme Bezerra Alves; Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de Brito; Telma Samila Cavalcanti

    2012-01-01

    Background. Infantile colic is a distressing and common condition for which there is no proven standard treatment. Objective. To compare the efficacy of Mentha piperita with simethicone in treatment for infantile colic. Methods. A double-blind crossover study was performed with 30 infants attending IMIP, Recife, Brazil. They were randomized to use Mentha piperita or simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic during 7 days with each drug. Primary outcomes were mother_s opinion about respo...

  5. [Cyclocryocoagulation in treatment of neovascular glaucoma].

    Kovacić, Zeljko; Ivanisević, Milan; Rogosić, Veljko; Plavec, Andrea; Karelović, Deni

    2004-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a pathological condition of the eye with fast deterioration, accompanied with eyeball pain and loosing sight. The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of cryotherapy in the treatment of NVG which is resistant to medical and surgical therapy, concerning intraocular pressure (IOT) and eyeball pain immediately after the treatment and 6 months after. In the Department of Ophthalmology, Split University Scool of Medicine, during three years 70 patients with NVG, which were resistant to medical and surgical treatment, were included in the prospective study. There were 50 males and 21 women, average age 74 +/- 6.94 (45-87). The patients were treated with transconjuctival cyclocryocoagulation, machine ERBOKRYIO AE-ERBE was used. The average value of IOT was: at admission 44.8 mmHg, 7 days after the treatment 30.7 mmHg with the tendency of falling down 30 and 90 days later, to finally 19.9 mmHg 180 days after the treatment. The IOT was significantly lower after the treatment. At admission, the average value of eyeball pain intensity was high (4.2), 7 days after the treatment it was 2.1 with the tendency of falling down to finally 1.1 180 days after the treatment. The eyeball pain intensity was significantly lower after the treatment. Cyclocryocoagulation is a method of choice in the treatment of NVG resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Cyclocryocoagulation, as a treatment of noncontrolled progressive NVG, does not have any effect on the improvement of sight in these patient. PMID:15918320

  6. A Case of Persistent and Possibly Treatment Resistant Pharyngeal Gonorrhea.

    Levy, Vivian; Pandori, Mark; Berrada, Zenda L; Relucio, Karen I; Lopez, Teresa P; Samuel, Michael C; Park, Ina U

    2016-04-01

    An HIV-negative man with pharyngeal gonorrhea had a positive test-of-cure (nucleic acid amplification test) result 7 days after treatment with ceftriaxone/azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multi-Antigen Sequencing Type 1407 and mosaic pen A (XXXIV) gene were identified in the test-of-cure specimen, and culture was negative. Retreatment with ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscularly plus azithromycin 2 g orally yielded a negative test-of-cure result. PMID:26967304

  7. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  8. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria. PMID:27528800

  9. Evaluation of medication adherence methods in the treatment of malaria in Rwandan infants

    Stichele Robert; Vrijens Bernard; Kips Jan G; Kayumba Pierre; Twagirumukiza Marc; Vervaet Chris; Remon Jean; Van Bortel M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To compare three methods for evaluating treatment adherence in a 7-day controlled treatment period for malaria in children in Rwanda. Methods Fifty-six children (< 5 years) with malaria were recruited at the University Hospital of Butare, Rwanda. Patients were treated with quinine sulfate, taste-masked, pellets during seven days: three days in hospital (in-patient) followed by a four-day out-patient period. Three methods to evaluate medication adherence among patients were...

  10. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification) and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old) were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replicati...

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of natural prostaglandin in the treatment of pyometra in bitches

    Basanti Jena; K. Sadasiva Rao; K. C. S. Reddy; K. B. P. Raghavender

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The current study was done to study the therapeutic effect of natural prostaglandin in treatment of canine pyometra. Materials and Methods: Seven bitches were treated with natural PGF2 á i.e. dinoprost tromethamine at the dose rate of 100 μg/kg body weight subcutaneously once daily for 7 days with supportive therapies. The physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters were studied before (0th day) and after treatment (8th day). Therapeutic efficacy was assessed in te...

  12. Eyelid hygiene as a tool for prevention and treatment of complications due to ocular surface diseases in early post-LASIK period

    V. V. Kurenkov; A. V. Zhemchugova; L. G. Polunina; N. I. Martirosova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to analyze the effect of eyelid hygiene and therapy on early post-op period following excimer laser refractive surgery.Methods: 144 patients (288 eyes) aged 18-57 yrs who underwent excimer laser vision correction (LASIK) were followed. All patients were divided into two groups depending on therapy. In treatment group (70 patients/140 eyes), eyelid hygiene was prescribed 7 days before and 7 days again following refractive surgery for 1 or 2 months. In control group (74 patients/148 ey...

  13. The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (MANTRA-PAF) trial: clinical rationale, study design, and implementation

    Jons, Christian; Hansen, Peter Steen; Johannessen, Arne;

    2009-01-01

    primary endpoint is cumulative AF burden on repeated 7 days Holter monitoring. Secondary endpoints are: thromboembolic events, hospitalization due to arrhythmia, pro-arrhythmic events, procedure/treatment-related side effects, health economics, quality of life, and change in left ventricular function. Ten...

  14. Survey and treatment of an imported cholera case from Myanmar%登革热和严重登革热简报

    龚震宇

    2012-01-01

    On 14 December 2011, one case of cholera occurred in Hunong village, bordering with Myanmar, in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan. The case was confirmed to be infection of Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba and imported from Myanmar, After the treatment in hospital for 7 days, the patient recovered, and after 2 negative results were obtained in clinical sample detection, the patient was discharged.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn;

    2011-01-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first...... rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole or...... amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric...

  16. Pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Nicolle, L E

    2000-09-01

    The efficacy of pivmecillinam for empirical treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) was initially reported in clinical trials published in the 1970s and 1980s. Bacteriological cure rates observed in these trials were consistently >85%, and studies of different dosing regimens suggested that a 3 day course was appropriate. Comparative studies reported that pivmecillinam was equivalent to other antimicrobial agents in terms of clinical and bacteriological outcomes. These studies also documented that pivmecillinam was effective for treatment of Staphylococcus saprophyticus infections, was acceptable for use in pregnancy and was well tolerated. Subsequent widespread use of pivmecillinam in Scandinavian countries has led to a body of clinical experience which confirms the efficacy and safety of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. Recently, two large, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre clinical trials have been completed to assist in defining the role of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. A comparison of 3 day courses of pivmecillinam or norfloxacin, both at 400 mg bd, showed higher bacteriological cure rates with norfloxacin but generally similar clinical outcomes. A second, dose-ranging study found that pivmecillinam, given bd for 7 days, led to superior bacteriological and clinical outcomes at short-term follow-up than the 3 day regimen. Pooling bacteriological outcomes from the two studies showed similar outcomes with 7 days of pivmecillinam 200 mg bd or 3 days of norfloxacin 400 mg bd. The shorter, 3 day, course achieved similar short-term clinical outcomes to 7 days of pivmecillinam and 3 days of norfloxacin in women aged pivmecillinam is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of acute cystitis in women. PMID:11051622

  17. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3

    Enzo Vicari; Sandro La Vignera; Roberto Castiglione; Rosita A. Condorelli; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 1...

  18. Comparative study of cephradine and amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Brumfitt, W; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight female patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections were treated according to a randomization scheme with either 1 g of cephradine every 12 h (47 patients) or 375 mg of amoxicillin-clavulanate every 8 h (41 patients) for 7 days. The treatments were equally effective (cure rates of 89% for cephradine and 88% for amoxicillin-clavulanate) and showed similar relapse rates (cephradine, 14%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 11%). Adverse effects were similar in both groups (ce...

  19. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

    Tamègnon Victorien Dougnon; Honoré Sourou Bankolé; Jean Robert Klotoé; Maximin Sènou; Lauris Fah; Hornel Koudokpon; Casimir Akpovi; Tossou Jacques Dougnon; Phyllis Addo; Frédéric Loko; Michel Boko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were an...

  20. Multicenter Trial of Fluoxetine as an Adjunct to Behavioral Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Niaura, Raymond; Spring, Bonnie; Borrelli, Belinda; Hedeker, Donald; Goldstein, Michael G.; Keuthen, Nancy; DePue, Judy; Kristeller, Jean; Ockene, Judy; Prochazka, Allan; Chiles, John A.; Abrams, David B

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) as an adjunct to behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Sixteen sites randomized 989 smokers to 3 dose conditions: 10 weeks of placebo, 30 mg, or 60 mg fluoxetine per day. Smokers received 9 sessions of individualized cognitive–behavioral therapy, and biologically verified 7-day self-reported abstinence follow-ups were conducted at 1, 3, and 6 months posttreatment. Analyses as...

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn;

    2011-01-01

    rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole or...... amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric...... degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested with a...

  2. Empirical treatment of acute cystitis in women.

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2003-07-01

    Empirical antimicrobial treatment for acute cystitis in women requires continuing reassessment as the antimicrobial susceptibility of community isolates of Escherichia coli evolves. Current recommendations for 3 days trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are compromised by increasing resistance of community E. coli to these agents. Fluoroquinolones are an alternate 3-day therapy, but increasing resistance is being reported from some countries, and widespread community use may promote resistance, limiting effectiveness of these agents for more serious infections. Alternate regimens supported by recent clinical trials suggest pivmecillinam given twice daily for 7 days is as effective as 3 days of quinolone therapy, while microbiological cure is 80% with 3 days therapy twice daily, and 90% with 3 days therapy thrice daily. Nitrofurantoin given for 7 days has a cure rate of 80-85%. Fosfomycin trometamol as a single dose has cure rates of 75-85%. All these agents are effective, but a compromise in efficacy or duration of therapy compared with current 3-day regimens may have to be considered. PMID:12842322

  3. Ecstasy-Induced Caspase Expression Alters Following Ginger Treatment

    Asl, Sara Soleimani; Pourheydar, Bagher; Dabaghian, Fataneh; Nezhadi, Akram; ROOINTAN, AMIR; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to cell death. Herein, we studied the protective effects of ginger on MDMA- induced apoptosis. Methods 15 Sprague dawley male rats were administrated with 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, IP for 7 days. Brains were removed to study the caspase 3, 8, and 9 expressions in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the one-way ANOVA test. Results MDMA treatment resulted in a ...

  4. Impact of Oxandrolone Treatment on Acute Outcomes After Severe Burn Injury

    Pham, Tam N.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacologic modulation of hypermetabolism clearly benefits children with major burns, however, its role in adult burns remains to be defined. Oxandrolone appears to be a promising anabolic agent although few outcome data are as yet available. We examined whether early oxandrolone treatment in severely burned adults was associated with improved outcomes during acute hospitalization. We evaluated for potential associations between oxandrolone treatment and outcomes in a large cohort of severely burned adults in the context of a multicenter observational study. Patients were dichotomized with respect to oxandrolone treatment, defined as administration within 7 days after admission, with duration of at least 7 days. Acute hospitalization outcomes were compared with univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred seventeen patients were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 42.6 years (range, 18–86); 77% were male, with an average TBSA of 44.1%. Baseline and injury characteristics were similar among treatment and nontreatment cohorts. Oxandrolone treatment (N =59) did not impact length of stay but was associated with a lower mortality rate (P = .01) by univariate analysis. Oxandrolone treatment was independently associated with higher survival by adjusted analyses (P = .02). Examination of early oxandrolone treatment in this cohort of severely burned adults suggests that this therapy is safe and may be associated with improved survival. Further studies are necessary to define the exact mechanisms by which oxandrolone is beneficial during inpatient treatment. PMID:18849836

  5. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in treatment of urinary tract infection due to gram-negative bacteria resistant to penicillin.

    Martinelli, R; A.A. Lopes; Oliveira, M.M.; Rocha, H

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two adult patients with urinary tract infections caused by penicillin-resistant bacteria completed treatment with amoxicillin alone or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Of the 13 patients treated with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, the absence of bacteriuria within 7 days of therapy was observed in 85%, as compared with only 25% of the 8 patients receiving amoxicillin only. There were no significant side effects nor any clinical, biochemic...

  6. The influence of patient's motivation on reported pain during orthodontic treatment

    Marcio José da Silva Campos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients usually experience pain during orthodontic treatment. This fact can affect cooperation and the development of treatment. Reporting pain during treatment seems to be influenced by emotional aspects such as the patient's motivation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between patient's motivation and the intensity of reported pain during two stages of treatment. METHODS: Twenty males (11-37 years old answered a questionnaire divided into five categories regarding their motivation towards treatment. The subjects were studied for 14 days (7 days with bonded brackets and 7 days with the initial arch inserted and the intensity of pain was evaluated on a daily basis. All the issues, including the intensity of pain, were measured through the visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: The VAS-associated questionnaire proved to have good temporal reliability and reasonable internal consistency, being that the "perceived severity" domain had the greatest, although not significant (p = 0.196 correlation with pain intensity. Only the question asking the patients if they thought that their teeth were too uneven showed a positive correlation with pain intensity (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: The results seem to indicate that the five categories related to treatment motivation cannot be used to predict discomfort during treatment. In addition, patients who think their teeth are too uneven may experience more severe pain due to greater force application after insertion of the initial arch.

  7. First Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency in Vivax Malaria Endemic Regions in the Republic of Korea

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Ji, So-Young; Shin, Hyun-Il; Moon, Jun-Hye; Cho, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and affects more than 400 million people worldwide. This deficiency is believed to protect against malaria because its global distribution is similar. However, this genetic disorder may be associated with potential hemolytic anemia after treatment with anti-malarials, primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines. Although primaquine is used for malaria prevention, no study has previously investigate...

  8. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  9. Clinical efficacy of first- and second-line treatments for HIV-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a tri-centre cohort study

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Benfield, Thomas; Atzori, Chiara;

    2009-01-01

    risk of death at 3 months [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.4]. Second-line therapy survival rates differed: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole = 85%; clindamycin/primaquine = 87%; and pentamidine = 60% (P = 0.01). Multivariable time-updated Cox regression analysis showed a...

  10. Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT: a PCR-based strategy to detect malaria parasite carriers and contain drug resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia.

    Stefan Hoyer

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named "Focused Screening and Treatment" (FSAT, based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as "high risk" and "low risk" based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow.

  11. In vivo sensitivity monitoring of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated vivax malaria in four bordered provinces of Thailand during 2009–2010

    Kanungnit Congpuong , Wichai Satimai , Anupong Sujariyakul , Somchai Intanakom, Warunee Harnpitakpong , Yuttana Pranuth , Sawad Cholpol & Pongwit Bualombai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Chloroquine (CQ, followed by 14-day primaquine, is the recommended regimen forthe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in Thailand. CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv has not yet challengedthe efficacy of the drug. The present study was conducted to assess the current response of P. vivax to CQ alonein Thailand.Methods: A 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy study was conducted from June 2009 to December 2010 in 4sentinel sites. Recurrence of parasitaemia and the clinical condition of patients were assessed on each visitduring follow-up. The drug levels in recurrent patients’ blood were measured using HPLC. Data were analyzedusing the WHO 2008 program for the analysis of in vivo tests.Results: Of the total 212 patients included in the study, 201 completed the 28-days follow-up, while 11 wereexcluded. In five patients (2.5%, parasitaemia reappeared within the 28-days follow-up. On the day of recurrentparasitaemia, the level of chloroquine/desethylchloroquine (CQ-DCQ was above the minimum effectiveconcentration (>100 ng/ml in one patient, but lower in four patients.Conclusion: Reappearance of the parasite within 28 days of follow-up in one of five patients was due to parasiteresistance to CQ. The 2.5% prevalence of CQ treatment failure for P. vivax malaria in the study areas signals theneed to launch monitoring activities for CQ resistant P. vivax in malaria endemic areas in order to detect furtherdevelopment of parasite resistance and to estimate the level of burden across the country

  12. Selexipag for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Sitbon, Olivier; Channick, Richard; Chin, Kelly M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a phase 2 trial, selexipag, an oral selective IP prostacyclin-receptor agonist, was shown to be beneficial in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: In this event-driven, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 1156...... patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to receive placebo or selexipag in individualized doses (maximum dose, 1600 μg twice daily). Patients were eligible for enrollment if they were not receiving treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension or if they were receiving a stable dose of an endothelin......-receptor antagonist, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, or both. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause or a complication related to pulmonary arterial hypertension up to the end of the treatment period (defined for each patient as 7 days after the date of the last intake of selexipag or...

  13. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Saghrouni, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Chopping, water sprinkling, storage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, urea, wood ash, activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treatments were evaluated for their efficiency in deactivating tannins in shrub foliage. In a first trial, fresh leaves of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) were stored after chopping or without chopping and spraying or without spraying with water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The plant material was stored for 1, 7 and 14 days and analysed thereafter for extractable total phenols (TP), extractable total tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT) contents. Chopping and water spraying substantially decreased the levels of TP, TT and CT of acacia. The rate of tannin deactivation increased in acacia stored under anaerobic conditions. Acacia stored for 7 days exhibited lower TP, TT and CT contents than that stored for only 1 day. Compared to the 7-day storage period, there was a further non-significant decrease in the level of these phenolic compounds when the storage duration was extended to 14 days. The highest level of rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) in sheep rumen was obtained with chopped, water sprinkled acacia leaves stored under anaerobic conditions. The second trial investigated the effect of increasing levels of urea (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg) and treatment duration (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) on CP, TP, TT and CT in acacia leaves. The 20 g/kg urea level was sufficient to totally deactivate tannins in acacia even with the shortest storage period, i.e. 7 days. However, urea treatment increased ash-free neutral detergent fibre content and did not improve in sacco acacia degradation. In the third trial air-dried 1 mm ground samples of acacia and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) leaves were added to water (control), acacia wood ash, activated charcoal or PEG solutions (100 g/kg) at 1:10 (w/v) and shaken for 20 min. All these four treatments decreased TP, TT and CT contents and could be classified

  14. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments

    Chopping, water sprinkling, storage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, urea, wood ash, activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treatments were evaluated for their efficiency in deactivating tannins in shrub foliage. In a first trial, fresh leaves of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) were stored after chopping or without chopping and spraying or without spraying with water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The plant material was stored for 1, 7 and 14 days and analysed thereafter for extractable total phenols (TP), extractable total tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT) contents. Chopping and water spraying substantially decreased the levels of TP, TT and CT of acacia. The rate of tannin deactivation increased in acacia stored under anaerobic conditions. Acacia stored for 7 days exhibited lower TP, TT and CT contents than that stored for only 1 day. Compared to the 7-day storage period, there was a further non-significant decrease in the level of these phenolic compounds when the storage duration was extended to 14 days. The highest level of rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) in sheep rumen was obtained with chopped, water sprinkled acacia leaves stored under anaerobic conditions. The second trial investigated the effect of increasing levels of urea (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg) and treatment duration (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) on CP, TP, TT and CT in acacia leaves. The 20 g/kg urea level was sufficient to totally deactivate tannins in acacia even with the shortest storage period, i.e. 7 days. However, urea treatment increased ash-free neutral detergent fibre content and did not improve in sacco acacia degradation. In the third trial air-dried 1 mm ground samples of acacia and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) leaves were added to water (control), acacia wood ash, activated charcoal or PEG solutions (100 g/kg) at 1:10 (w/v) and shaken for 20 min. All these four treatments decreased TP, TT and CT contents and could be classified

  15. Dark Matter Results from First 98.7-day Data of PandaX-II Experiment

    Tan, Andi; Cui, Xiangyi; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gong, Haowei; Hu, Shouyang; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xinglong; Liang, Hao; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbin; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Xiang; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We report the WIMP dark matter search results using the first physics-run data of the PandaX-II 500 kg liquid xenon dual-phase time-projection chamber, operating at the China JinPing Underground Laboratory. No dark matter candidate is identified above background. In combination with the data set during the commissioning run, with a total exposure of 3.3$\\times10^4$ kg-day,the most stringent limit to the spin-independent interaction between the ordinary and WIMP dark matter is set for a range of dark matter mass between 3.5 and 1000 GeV/c$^2$. The best upper limit on the scattering cross section is found $2.5\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^2$ for the WIMP mass 40 GeV/c$^2$ at 90% confidence level.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama.

    Frank, N.; Couëtil, L L; Clarke, K. A.

    1998-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were isolated from blood collected on presentation and tissues samples taken postmortem. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid collected antemortem. The importance of passive transfer of immunity, the subtlety of neurologic signs in early meningitis, and considering blood-CSF penetration in antimicrobial selection are discussed.

  17. A Model Humanitarian Cleft Mission: 312 Cleft Surgeries in 7 Days

    Ghulam Qadir Fayyaz, MBBS, DSS, MS

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: A locoregional cleft team can be more effective to care for the patients with cleft in countries where surgical and other expertise can be utilized by proper organization of cleft missions on a national level.

  18. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  19. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup;

    2011-01-01

    after bed rest than before, indicating glucose intolerance. There were no differences in lactate release/uptake across the exercising muscle before and after bed rest, but glucose uptake after 40min of exercise was larger (P=0.05) before bed rest than after. Muscle glycogen content tended to be higher...

  20. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  1. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A;

    2002-01-01

    -fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels......, compared with when the carbohydrate diet is consumed throughout training....

  2. Frostbite - susceptibility, Prevention and Immediate Treatment

    S.S. Purkayastha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Frostbite, the severest form of cold injury, is a major health hazard and a serious medical problem for theArmed Forces operating in snow-bound areas at high altitudes. Detailed experiments on susceptibility, preventionand treatment were conducted to find out suitable measures to prevent, treat and ameliorate wld injuries.Experiments conducted on monkeys have shown that animals with higher  peripheral vascular response me betterprotected against cold injury. Measurements of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD, heat output and peripheralblood flow under local cold stress can be used to screen out highly prone individuals to frostbite. Coldacclimatisation was effective in raising the peripheral vascular response and thereby lessening the degree ofinjury. Frostbite having occurred, its treatment is not very satisfactory. This is primarily due to the time lagbetween occurrence of frostbite and initiation of therapy, which plays a vital role in its curative action. Keepingthis in view, many experiments have been wnductedon this treatment. Pilot studies were carriedoutusing variousdrugs and vitamins, and also procedures like rapid rewarming in warm water, tea decoction, turnip (shalgumdecoction, etc., singly as well as in combination, for treatment. The most encouraging result was obtained by theprocedure of rapid rewarming in tea decoction maintained at 37-39 "C immediately after cold exposure, followedby combined therapy of aspirin (5 mgtkg and pentoxifylline (40 mgkg along with vitamin C (50 mglkg twicedaily for 7 days.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Rosenstock, Steffen; Wildt, Signe

    2011-04-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested with a rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole or amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. Testing after eradication should not be done before 4 weeks after treatment has ended. PMID:21466771

  4. Psychological Treatment

    ... needs. Psychological treatments used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well-designed treatment studies of IBS supports ...

  5. Muscle, skin and core temperature after -110°c cold air and 8°c water treatment.

    Costello, Joseph Thomas; Culligan, Kevin; Selfe, James; Donnelly, Alan Edward

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the reductions in muscle, skin and core temperature following exposure to -110°C whole body cryotherapy (WBC), and compare these to 8°C cold water immersion (CWI). Twenty active male subjects were randomly assigned to a 4-min exposure of WBC or CWI. A minimum of 7 days later subjects were exposed to the other treatment. Muscle temperature in the right vastus lateralis (n=10); thigh skin (average, maximum and minimum) and rectal temperature (n=10) were recorded before and 60 min after treatment. The greatest reduction (Psporting setting. PMID:23139763

  6. Efficacy and safety of oral tinidazole and metronidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized control trial

    Zahra Abbaspoor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for one week is currently the treatment of choice for bacterial vaginosis (BV. Complete treatment by this regimen takes time and occurs less often. This drug has significant side effects too. Using a drug in the shortest treatment course may increases the success of treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral tinidazole compare to metronidazole in treatment of BV.Methods: In this randomized, controlled, double-blind, comparative, clinical trial, 110 non-pregnant women aged between 15-45 years with confirmed diagnosis of BV by Amsels criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g tinidazole tablet once daily for 2 days (n=55 or 500 mg metronidazole table twice daily for 7 days (n=55.The cure and recurrence rate were evaluated in both groups after 2 and 4 weeks follow up visits. For statistical analysis t-test,   test, fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test were used.Results: The results showed that cure rate after 2 weeks in tinidazole tablet group was 84.6٪ and in metronidazole group was 85.4٪ (p=0.9, and after 4 weeks recurrence rate in tinidazole and metronidazole groups was 6.9٪and 12.1٪respectively (P=0.3.Conclusions: Tinidazole table 2 g once daily for 2 days is as effective as metronidazole tablet 500 mg twice a day for 7 days in treatment of BV.

  7. In vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Viral Load Against Human Immunodeficiency-1 and Cytomegalo Viruses

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Viral load quantification is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of AIDS. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on HIV-1 and HCMV in terms of viral loads as surrogate marker. The viral load assay was performed on stored stock cultures of HIV infected human plasma samples before and after 7 days of biofield treatmen...

  8. Tinidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis

    Nicola R Armstrong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicola R Armstrong1, Janet D Wilson21Department of Infectious Diseases and Sexual Health, Trinity Centre, Bradford, UK; 2The Centre for Sexual Health, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Leeds, UKAbstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the commonest cause of vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. Oral metronidazole has long been established as an effective therapy in the treatment of BV. However, adverse effects due to metronidazole are frequent and this may lead to problems with adherence to a 7-day course of treatment and subsequently result in treatment failure. Oral tinidazole has been used to treat bacterial vaginosis for over 25 years but in a number of different dosage regimens. Placebo controlled trials have consistently shown increases in cure rate with tinidazole. Longer courses of treatment (eg, 1 g daily for 5 days appear to be more effective than a 2 g oral single dose. Comparative studies suggest that oral tinidazole is equivalent to oral metronidazole, intravaginal clindamycin cream, and intravaginal metronidazole tablets, in efficacy in treating BV. However, tinidazole has a more favorable side effect profile than oral metronidazole notably with better gastrointestinal tolerability and less metallic taste. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with high rates of recurrence and appropriate management of such recurrences can prove difficult. Recurrent BV has been linked with persistence of Gardnerella vaginalis after treatment; however the clinical implications of the possible greater activity of tinidazole against G. vaginalis are not yet clear. Repeated courses of oral metronidazole may be poorly tolerated and an alternative but equally effective treatment that is better tolerated may be preferable. In comparison to oral metronidazole, cost is clearly an issue as oral metronidazole is considerably cheaper and available in generic form. However where avoidance of oral metronidazole is necessary because of side effects, oral

  9. Stroke Treatments

    ... T. Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke Stroke Treatments A stroke occurs when a vessel in ... Busting Clots to Save Lives Hemorrhagic Stroke Treatment Stroke Prevention The good news is that 80 percent ...

  10. Alternative Treatments

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  11. Treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis with praziquantel and albendazole

    Abdulbar Hamid

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent methods, doses and results of medical treatment on taeniasis/cysticercosis, a zoo-notic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are discussed. In cases of cysticercosis T. solium, especially neurocysticercosis the optimal length and dose of albendazole is a course of 8 days with doses of 15 mg/kg/day divided in two times added by 50 mg/day of prednisone in the morning. The drug is effective in almost any location of the parasites for 80-90% of macroscopic cysts seen by imaging studies. For taeniasis a single dose of praziquantel, 10-15 mg/kg achieves cure rates of more than 90%. Side effects such as nausea, headache and abdominal pain are mild.  Evaluation of drug treatment is done by clinical, radiological and serological evaluation. In Papua (=Irian Jaya nine cases with suspected neurocysticercosis, serologically positive, were treated with 1200 mg single dose albendazole for 15 days. Prednisonetablets, three times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days were added. After one year 6 cases were still serologic positive. At the same time praziquantel, 1200 mg, single dose was given to ten cases during 15 days and prednisone tablets, 3 times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days. After one year 5 sero-positive cases were still found. Albendazole and praziquantel are both effective drugs for taeniasis and cysticercosis, with minor side effects. In addition symptomatic treatment should be given if necessary. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:253-7Keywords: albendazol, praziquantel, cysticercosis, taeniasis

  12. Evaluation of medication adherence methods in the treatment of malaria in Rwandan infants

    Stichele Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To compare three methods for evaluating treatment adherence in a 7-day controlled treatment period for malaria in children in Rwanda. Methods Fifty-six children ( Results Medication adherence data were available for 54 of the 56 patients. Manual pill count and patient self-report yielded a medication adherence of 100% for the in- and out-patient treatment periods. Based on electronic pill-box monitoring, medication adherence during the seven-day treatment period was 90.5 ± 8.3%. Based on electronic pill-box monitoring inpatient medication adherence (99.3 ± 2.7% was markedly higher (p Conclusion Health workers' medication adherence was good. However, a significant lower medication adherence was observed for consumers' adherence in the outpatient setting. This was only detected by electronic pill-box monitoring. Therefore, this latter method is more accurate than the two other methods used in this study.

  13. Tioconazole 2% cream in the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis or mixed vaginal infections.

    Donadio, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients with documented T. vaginalis infections, six of whom were simultaneously infected with C. albicans and one with G. vaginalis, were treated topically (intravaginally) once daily with 5 g of 2% tioconazole vaginal cream (Trosyd, Pfizer) for 3 consecutive days in an open, non-comparative study. At the first follow-up visit (about 7 days post-treatment), 95% (19/20) of the patients were cured; 95% (18/19) of patients remained cured with respect to the baseline infection at the long-term follow-up (2 months post-treatment) visit, and one patient had a reinfection or relapse with T. vaginalis. Only one patient reported a side-effect, a mild vaginal burning which disappeared with continued treatment. It was concluded that tioconazole 2% vaginal cream is safe and effective for the treatment of T. vaginalis and mixed vaginal infections. PMID:3485546

  14. New treatments for tic disorders.

    Qasaymeh, Mohammad M; Mink, Jonathan W

    2006-11-01

    Tics vary in severity from infrequent and barely noticeable to nearly continuous and highly disruptive. Treatment of tic disorders depends on the severity of the tics, the distress they cause, and the effects they have on school, work, or daily activities. Many tics do not interfere with school or everyday life and do not require specific treatment. Comorbid disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder occur in more than 50% of patients. The associated comorbidity can be more bothersome than the tics themselves. Treatment should be aimed at the most troubling symptom. Education and reassurance are often sufficient for mild and occasional tics. For tics of moderate severity, clonidine and guanfacine have a reasonable safety profile. They are considered as first-line medications. With clonidine, start with 0.05 mg at bedtime. Increase as needed and as tolerated by 0.05 mg every 4 to 7 days to a maximum dosage of 0.3 to 0.4 mg/day divided three or four times a day. With guanfacine, start with 0.5 mg at bedtime. The dosage may be increased as needed and as tolerated by 0.5 mg every week to a maximum dosage of 3 to 4 mg/day, divided twice a day. There are emerging data that behavioral therapy is effective for treatment of tics in some individuals. Dopamine receptor blockers are the most potent medications for treating severe tics. The efficacy appears to be proportionate to the affinity for dopamine D2 receptors. Thus, standard antipsychotic medications such as haloperidol, pimozide, or fluphenazine are the most potent. However, these medications commonly cause bothersome side effects. Therefore, we recommend use of atypical neuroleptics before standard neuroleptics in most patients. Risperidone is usually the first choice and may have efficacy for behavior problems that often accompany tics. Start with 0.01 mg/kg/dose once a day; dosage may be increased by 0.02 mg/kg/day at weekly intervals, up to 0.06 mg

  15. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Omwoyo WN; Ogutu B; Oloo F; Swai H; Kalombo L; Melariri P; Mahanga GM; Gathirwa JW

    2014-01-01

    Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo,1,2 Bernhards Ogutu,3,4 Florence Oloo,3,5 Hulda Swai,6 Lonji Kalombo,6 Paula Melariri,6 Geoffrey Maroa Mahanga,2 Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa3,4 1Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya; 2Department of Chemistry, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya; 3Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Chemical Science...

  16. Treatment Effects

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  17. Protective effect of in ovo treatment with the chicken cathelicidin analog D-CATH-2 against avian pathogenic E. coli

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Matthijs, Mieke G. R.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and ever stricter control on antibiotic use are a driving force to develop alternatives to antibiotics. One such strategy is the use of multifunctional Host Defense Peptides. Here we examined the protective effect of prophylactic treatment with the D analog of chicken cathelicidin-2 (D-CATH-2) against a respiratory E. coli infection. Chickens were treated with D-CATH-2 in ovo at day 18 of embryonic development or intramuscularly at days 1 and 4 after hatch. At 7 days of age, birds were challenged intratracheally with avian pathogenic E. coli. Protection was evaluated by recording mortality, morbidity (Mean Lesion Score) and bacterial swabs of air sacs at 7 days post-infection. In ovo D-CATH-2 treatment significantly reduced morbidity (63%) and respiratory bacterial load (>90%), while intramuscular treatment was less effective. D-CATH-2 increased the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and heterophils by both administration routes. E. coli specific IgM levels were lower in in ovo treated animals compared to intramuscular D-CATH-2 treatment. In short, in ovo treatment with the Host Defense Peptide derived D-CATH-2 can partially protect chickens from E. coli infection, making this peptide an interesting starting point to develop alternatives to antibiotics for use in the poultry sector. PMID:27229866

  18. Delayed Treatment of Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Taiwan

    Chen Duan-Rung

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an ongoing public health problem in Taiwan. The National Tuberculosis Registry Campaign, a case management system, was implemented in 1997. This study examined this monitoring system to identify and characterize delayed treatment of TB patients. Methods Records of all tuberculosis cases treated in Taiwan from 2002 through 2005 were obtained from the National Tuberculosis Registry Campaign. Initiation of treatment more than 7 days after diagnosis was considered a long treatment delay. Results The study included 31,937 patients. The mean day of delayed treatment was 3.6 days. Most patients were treated immediately after diagnosis. The relationship between number of TB patients and days of delayed treatment after diagnosis exhibited a Power-law distribution. The long tail of the power-law distribution indicated that an extreme number occur cannot be neglected. Tuberculosis patients treated after an unusually long delay require close observation and follow up. Conclusion This study found that TB control is generally acceptabl in Taiwan; however, delayed treatment increases the risk of transmission. Improving the protocol for managing confirmed TB cases can minimize disease transmission.

  19. Treatment of traumatized teeth with incomplete apex – apexification

    Melissa Andréia MARCHESAN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Two cases reports of traumatized teethwith incomplete apexes and no tooth fracture. Case report: In thesecases, instrumentation should be performed with no pressure to thewalls due to the decreased thickness, therefore, the irrigating solution is fundamental to achieve ideal biomechanical preparation. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressings between sessions were applied at 7 days,15 days, 3 changes every 30 days and a change after 3 months, until apical barrier formation, and sealing of the root canal with the single-gutta-percha point technique with Grossman’s cement. Conclusion:The used clinical protocol efficiently formed the calcified root barrier and biological and functional equilibrium was achieved guaranteeing the treatment success.

  20. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of isolated rectal endometriosis: long term complication of incomplete treatment for pelvic endometriosis.

    Kwack, Jae-Young; You, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman visited our hospital with cyclic hematochezia for four months. The patient had the history of laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy because of severe dysmenorrhea two years ago at another tertiary hospital. According to the medical records, the past surgical treatment was incomplete excision of pelvic endometriotic lesions, especially in rectal serosal lesions. A colonoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography showed an isolated tumor mimicking neoplasm, in which a biopsy under colonoscopy was performed and the lesion was endometriosis pathologically. Laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) was performed. There were no complications during intraoperative and postoperative period and the patient was discharged 7 days after the LAR. It is important for reducing of long-term complication like rectal endometriosis that complete and safe excision of pelvic endometriosis with expert surgical strategy. PMID:27375735

  1. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  2. Auricular Point Acupressure for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Feasibility Study for 1-Week Treatment

    Chao-Hsing Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this one-group, repeated-measures design was to explore the acceptance of auricular point acupressure (APA to reduce chronic low back pain (CLBP and estimate minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs for pain intensity change. Methods. Subjects received 7-day APA treatment. After appropriate acupoints were identified, vaccaria seeds were carefully taped onto each selected auricular point for 7-day. The Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI was used to collect outcome data. Results. A total of 74 subjects participated in the study. Ten subjects dropped out and the retention rate was 87%. Subjects reported a 46% reduction in BPI worst pain, and over 50% reduction in BPI average pain, overall pain severity and pain interference by the end of study, and 62.5% subjects also reported less pain medication use. The MCIDs for the subscale of BPI ranged from .70 to 1.86 points. The percentage improvement of MCIDs from baseline was between 14.5–24.9%. Discussion. APA appears to be highly acceptable to patients with CLBP. A sham group is needed in order to differentiate the true effects of APA from the possible psychological effects of more frequent visits by the auricular therapist and patients’ expectation of the APA treatment.

  3. Symptomatic vaginal candidiasis after pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection.

    Menday, A P

    2002-10-01

    The comparative incidence of symptomatic vaginal candidiasis associated with pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI was determined in two randomised, double-blind, clinical trials. Adverse events reported following general enquiry were reviewed. Presence of Candida vaginitis was based upon the specification as such by investigators, the presence of specific symptoms such as genital pruritus and/or the prescription of specific anti Candida therapy. The incidences of Candida vaginitis were as follows; Study 1 pivmecillinam 200 mg tid for 7 days 13 (4.6%), pivmecillinam 200 mg bid for 7 days 7 (2.4%), pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 6 (2.1%) and placebo 6 (2.1%), P=0.19. Study 2 pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 7 (1.5%), norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days 20 (4.3%), P=0.016. The incidence of Candida vaginitis in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI given 3 days treatment with pivmecillinam 400 mg bid is similar to that seen with placebo and is significantly less than the incidence with norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days. PMID:12385688

  4. Evaluation of Hepatotoxicity with Off-Label Oral-Treatment Doses of Voriconazole for Invasive Fungal Infections ▿

    Gorski, Elizabeth; Esterly, John S.; Postelnick, Michael; Trifilio, Steven; Fotis, Michael; Scheetz, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    The approved treatment dose of intravenous voriconazole is a weight-based dose of 4 mg/kg of body weight twice daily; the approved oral dosing is fixed at 200 mg twice daily. In our institution, patients frequently receive oral high-dose voriconazole at 4 mg/kg twice daily. It is unknown if higher doses are associated with increased hepatotoxicity. A retrospective cohort study of patients treated with oral voriconazole for presumed invasive fungal infection for ≥7 days was completed. Patients...

  5. Sewage Treatment

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  6. An open randomized comparison of gatifloxacin versus cefixime for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever.

    Anil Pandit

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus cefixime in the treatment of uncomplicated culture positive enteric fever. DESIGN: A randomized, open-label, active control trial with two parallel arms. SETTING: Emergency Room and Outpatient Clinics in Patan Hospital, Lagankhel, Lalitpur, Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with clinically diagnosed uncomplicated enteric fever meeting the inclusion criteria. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were allocated to receive one of two drugs, Gatifloxacin or Cefixime. The dosages used were Gatifloxacin 10 mg/kg, given once daily for 7 days, or Cefixime 20 mg/kg/day given in two divided doses for 7 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was fever clearance time. The secondary outcome measure was overall treatment failure (acute treatment failure and relapse. RESULTS: Randomization was carried out in 390 patients before enrollment was suspended on the advice of the independent data safety monitoring board due to significant differences in both primary and secondary outcome measures in the two arms and the attainment of a priori defined endpoints. Median (95% confidence interval fever clearance times were 92 hours (84-114 hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 138 hours (105-164 hours for cefixime-treated patients (Hazard Ratio[95%CI] = 2.171 [1.545-3.051], p<0.0001. 19 out of 70 (27% patients who completed the 7 day trial had acute clinical failure in the cefixime group as compared to 1 out of 88 patients (1% in gatifloxacin group(Odds Ratio [95%CI] = 0.031 [0.004 - 0.237], p<0.001. Overall treatment failure patients (relapsed patients plus acute treatment failure patients plus death numbered 29. They were determined to be (95% confidence interval 37.6 % (27.14%-50.2% in the cefixime group and 3.5% (2.2%-11.5% in the gatifloxacin group (HR[95%CI] = 0.084 [0.025-0.280], p<0.0001. There was one death in the cefixime group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study, gatifloxacin is a better treatment for

  7. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Lai, Xinsheng; Wang, Jiayou; Nabar, Neel R; Pan, Sanqiang; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong; Hao, Mufeng; Yang, Zhonghua; Ma, Chunmei; Zhang, Jin; Chew, Helen; He, Zhenquan; Yang, Junjun; Su, Baogui; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Jun; Sneed, Kevin B; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th) day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01), though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture. Further

  8. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Xinsheng Lai

    Full Text Available Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3 acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01, though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture

  9. Wastewater Treatment.

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Drug treatment

    1995-01-01

    950229 A controlled multi—center clinical trial oncisapride in treatment of functional dyspepsia.WANGBaoen(王宝恩),et al.Beijing Friendship Hosp,Bei-jing.100050.Chin J Intern Med 1995;34(3):180—184.A controlled muhi-centre clinical trial was con-ducted for evaluating the efficacy and safety of cis-apride in the treatment of 414 cases of functional dys-pepsia with 169 cases as control.Cisapride were given

  11. Sensitization associated with stressors and cytokine treatments.

    Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul; Hayley, Shawn

    2003-04-01

    Like stressors, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) increase hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and monoamine turnover at hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sites. These effects can be re-elicited more readily upon reintroduction of these challenges (sensitization), depending on their time of re-exposure and the particular system being assessed. Following TNF-alpha administration, the co-expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin increased within the median eminence, peaking 7-14 days after treatment, and was associated with an early corticosterone sensitization. However, the re-elicitation of sickness symptoms and corticosterone release was most pronounced at lengthy re-exposure intervals (28 days), possibly reflecting histamine release from mast cells. In addition, the cytokine engendered the sensitization of norepinephrine and serotonin utilization, and CRH immunoreactivity at mesocorticolimbic sites, but these effects were most prominent at brief re-exposure intervals (1-7 days). Cytokines may independently prime multiple regulatory systems, and by virtue of the neurochemical changes imparted, have both immediate and proactive influences on the evolution of psychopathology. PMID:12676571

  12. Radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism in Germany

    Aim: Establishment of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism in veterinary routine in accordance with German radiation protection regulations. Patients and methods: 35 cats with proven hyperthyroidism were treated with 131I in a special ward. Thyroid uptake and effective halflife were determined using gammacamera dosimetry. Patients were released when measured whole body activity was below the limit defined in the German ''Strahlenschutzverordnung''. Results: 17/20 cats treated with 150 MBq radioiodine and 15/15 cats treated with 250 MBq had normal thyroid function after therapy, normal values for FT3 and FT4 were reached after two and normal TSH levels after three weeks. In 14 cats normal thyroid function was confirmed by controls 3-6 months later. Thyroidal iodine uptake was 24 ± 10%, effective halflife 2.5 ± 0.7 days. Whole body activity 131I. Radiation exposure of cat owners was estimated as 1.97 μSv/MBq for adults. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy of feline hyperthyroidism is highly effective and safe. It can easily be performed in accordance with German radiation protection regulations, although this requires hospitalisation for approximately two weeks. Practical considerations on radiation exposure of cat owners do not justify this long interval. Regulations for the veterinary use of radioactive substances similar to existing regulations for medical use in humans are highly desirable. (orig.)

  13. Impact of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART on the treatment profile in pilot government dental clinics in Tanzania

    Kikwilu Emil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predominant mode of treatment in government dental clinics in Tanzania has been tooth extraction because the economy could not support the conventional restorative care which depends on expensive equipment, electricity and piped water systems. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART was perceived as a suitable alternative. A 3.5-year study was designed to document the changes in the treatment profiles ascribed to the systematic introduction of ART in pilot government dental clinics. Methods Dental practitioners who were working in 13 government dental clinics underwent a 7-day ART training. Treatment record data on teeth extracted and teeth restored by the conventional and ART approaches were collected from these clinics for the three study periods. The mean percentage of ART restorations to total treatment, ART restorations to total restorations, and total restorations to total treatments rendered were computed. Differences between variables were determined by ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square. Results The mean percentage of ART restorations to total treatment rendered was 0.4 (SE = 0.5 and 11.9 (SE = 1.1 during the baseline and second follow-up period respectively (ANOVA mixed model; P . The mean percentage of ART restorations to total restorations rendered at baseline and 2nd follow-up period was 8.4% and 88.9% respectively (ANOVA mixed model; P . The mean percentage of restorations to total treatment rendered at baseline and 2nd follow-up was 3.9% and 13.0%, respectively (ANOVA mixed model; P . Ninety-nine percent of patients were satisfied with ART restorations, 96.6% willing to receive ART restoration again in future, and 94.9% willing to recommend ART treatment to their close relatives. Conclusion ART introduction in pilot government dental clinics raised the number of teeth saved by restorative care. Countrywide introduction of the ART approach in Tanzania is recommended.

  14. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of natural prostaglandin in the treatment of pyometra in bitches

    Basanti Jena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was done to study the therapeutic effect of natural prostaglandin in treatment of canine pyometra. Materials and Methods: Seven bitches were treated with natural PGF2 á i.e. dinoprost tromethamine at the dose rate of 100 μg/kg body weight subcutaneously once daily for 7 days with supportive therapies. The physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters were studied before (0th day and after treatment (8th day. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed in terms of return of abnormal parameters to either normal or near normal value as compared to the untreated control group, intensity of side effects and post treatment reproductive status. Results: All physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters in the seven treated bitches returned to normal range at the end of treatment. The intensity of side effects was quite severe in the treatment group. Six bitches came to estrus within 2 months of treatment and out of them four conceived on subsequent mating. In rest three bitches there was recurrence of pyometra within 4 months of treatment. Conclusion: Though conception rate of recovered bitches is decreased when compared with that of normal healthy bitches still this treatment protocol can be used successfully in treatment of canine pyometra to conserve the breeding capability of bitches. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 295-299

  16. ESCHARS TREATMENT

    Cioc Liliana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article carry out a modern research and principles of the main solutions for the treatment of eschars, including cleaning solutions for wound debridement, dressings, antibiotics, surgery and adjuvant therapies. The approach taken to achieve the research is justified by the fact that, despite current interest and progress in medicine, surgery, medical care and education for self-care, pressure sores remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting in particular, people with prolonged immobilization and the elderly. The conclusions of the paper are oriented towards to analysis of the efficiency of each treatment solutions presented in active control eschars and negative effects they generate.

  17. Acne: Treatment

    ... Birth control pills can help treat acne in women. Talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of taking birth control pills for acne. Are there other treatments? In addition to or in combination with medicines, cosmetic procedures such as peels, skin abrasion (dermabrasion or ...

  18. Antihypertensive treatment

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed...

  19. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male......) aged 19-47 years were in a double-blinded study randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 12) or GH (n = 12) 6 i.u. s.c. twice daily from 2 days before until 7 days after ileo-anal J pouch surgery. Extracellular and plasma volume (ECV, PV) were determined using 82Br and 125I albumin dilution at...... day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body...

  20. [Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection].

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it's giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms. PMID:26960050

  1. Anaerobic Treatment of Concentrated Black Water in a UASB Reactor at a Short HRT

    Cees J. N. Buisman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the feasibility of applying a UASB reactor for the treatment of concentrated black (toilet water at 25 °C. On average 78% of the influent load of COD at an HRT of 8.7 days was removed. Produced methane can be converted to 56 MJ/p/y as electricity and 84 MJ/p/y as heat by combined heat and power (CHP. Minimum reactor volume at full scale was calculated to be 63L per person (for black water containing 16 gCOD/L produced at 5 L/p/d and this is more than two times smaller than other type of reactors for anaerobic treatment of concentrated black water.

  2. Solubility evaluation of some sealrs used in endodontic treatment, an in-vitro study

    Shekaramiz Z

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Insolubility has been stated as one of the important characteristics of the materials which are used as sealers in the endodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility of four endodontic sealers (ZOE, Dorifill, AH26 and Tubliseal. "nMaterials and Methods: Five specimens from each sealer with similar size were prepared. After first weighing, the samples were stored individually in bottles containing 50 ml of distilled water at 37ºC. After 7 days, the specimens weighed and changes in the weight of each sample recorded with a digital scale. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey HSD tests. "nResults: The results of this study indicated that Dorifill had the maximum solubility among all sealers with weight loss of 2.8%. Tubliseal and ZOE showed the weight loss of 1.4% and 2.3%, respectively. AH26 showed weight gain of 1.9% during 7 days. There were no significant differences in the mean weight changes between Dorifill, Tubliseal and ZOE groups (P>0.05. A significant difference was found between the mean weight changes of AH26 and that of the other groups (P=0.000. "nConclusion: From the results of this study, all tested sealers were in the standard limit of solubility, and thus, it could confirm this physical property of sealers for clinical applications.

  3. Utility of Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Children Attending an Obesity Treatment Intervention

    Wendy Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the use of accelerometers to monitor change in physical activity in a childhood obesity treatment intervention. Methods. 28 children aged 7–13 taking part in “Families for Health” were asked to wear an accelerometer (Actigraph for 7-days, and complete an accompanying activity diary, at baseline, 3-months and 9-months. Interviews with 12 parents asked about research measurements. Results. Over 90% of children provided 4 days of accelerometer data, and around half of children provided 7 days. Adequately completed diaries were collected from 60% of children. Children partake in a wide range of physical activity which uniaxial monitors may undermonitor (cycling, nonmotorised scootering or overmonitor (trampolining. Two different cutoffs (4 METS or 3200 counts⋅min-1 for minutes spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA yielded very different results, although reached the same conclusion regarding a lack of change in MVPA after the intervention. Some children were unwilling to wear accelerometers at school and during sport because they felt they put them at risk of stigma and bullying. Conclusion. Accelerometers are acceptable to a majority of children, although their use at school is problematic for some, but they may underestimate children's physical activity.

  4. Evaluation of the conservative treatment of Trigger finger by local instillation of corticosteroids

    Muris Pecar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trigger Finger (tenosynovitis stenosans is a specific, named disease from a group of repetitive strain injury (RSI diseases, caused by inflammation which results in difficulties during muscle contraction and weakened and painful tendon movement. It is common in the outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation practice. The aim of our study was to evaluate the success of conservative treatment of Trigger Finger by local instillation of corticosteroids.Methods: The study was designed as an observational and open analysis of the results of conservative treatment of 45 patients. We used precise instillation of steroid anti-inflammatory antirheumatic drugs in the area of patho-anatomic, microtraumatic injuries of tendon and its sheath. Patients were evaluated before and after the treatment with 0 to 5 evaluation score scale. The data were analyzed using X2 test.Results: Most of the patients had evaluation score of 2, 3 and 4, before the treatment. After the treatment 10 (29% patients had achieved score 4 and 35 (71% patients had achieved score 5. All of the patients with score 5 had excellent working ability with full working capacity. Other patients had well-preserved working ability, which improved to excellent in maximum of 7 days.Conclusions: Conservative treatment of Trigger finger shows good therapeutic effects and taking into account the benefits, convenience and generally lower cost of conservative treatment for the patient, should be considered as an effective alternative to surgical treatment.

  5. Auricular point acupressure as an adjunct analgesic treatment for cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chiang, Yi Chien; Ren, Dianxu; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed (1) to examine the feasibility of an auricular point acupressure (APA) research protocol in terms of recruitment and for the assessment and management of pain and (2) to examine the potential APA analgesic effects for cancer patients. This study was a repeated-measures one-group design. Participants were recruited from the cancer center follow-up clinic affiliated with a large university hospital in the northeastern United States. Participants included 50 patients aged 55-87 years with a diagnosis of cancer. Participants received 7 days of APA treatment for their pain. After appropriate acupoints were identified, vaccaria seeds were carefully taped onto each selected auricular point on each ear. The study recruitment and retention rates were 92% and 91%, respectively. Importantly, the study found preliminary evidence for the analgesic effects of APA for cancer pain management. For example, by the end of the 7-day study, APA reduced pain intensity more than 55% for "worst pain" and about 57% for "average pain" and "pain intensity." Moreover, the use of pain medication was reduced during the APA treatment (e.g., 78% of patients [n = 39] took less pain medication than before the treatment). APA appears to be highly acceptable to patients with cancer-related pain. However, without a placebo control, we cannot draw conclusive evidence for the analgesic effect of APA for cancer patients. A sham group must be added to future studies to differentiate the true effects of APA from the possible psychological effects of the APA treatment. PMID:25439120

  6. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser application in the treatment of experimental periodontitis.

    Pavone, Chaine; Perussi, Livia Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes; Scardueli, Cássio Rocha; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio; Junior, Elcio Marcantonio; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in the absence or presence of manual scaling and root planning (SRP) for the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Ligatures were placed in the subgingival region of the maxillary first molar. After a 7-day period, the ligatures were removed, and 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups (G), as follows: (GI) no treatment, (GII) scaling and root planning (SRP) with curettes, (GIII) Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation and (GIV) SRP with curettes followed by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. Seven and 30 days after the treatment, the animals were sacrificed and histologic, histometric and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed. All groups showed similar histopathological characteristics during the evaluation period. The histometric analysis was confirmed using Bonferroni and paired t tests. At 7 and 30 days, groups II, III and IV exhibited greater bone formation in the furcation area when compared to group I (p < 0.0001; p < 0.05). During the 7-day period, the groups irradiated with the laser (III and IV) showed a statistically larger new bone area than the group treated with SRP (II) (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the control group exhibited a higher expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ ligand (RANKL) when compared to groups II, III and IV (p < 0.05). All treatments were able to reduce the inflammatory processes, consequently enabling the repair of periodontal tissues. The results achieved with the application of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser suggest that this laser can stimulate greater bone formation, especially over a shorter period of time. PMID:24477391

  7. Surgical treatment strategy for multiple injury patients in ICU

    ZHANG Lian-yang; YAO Yuan-zhang; JIANG Dong-po; ZHOU Jian; HUANG Xian-kai; SHEN Yue; HUANG Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surgical treatment for patients with multiple injuries in ICU.Methods: Clinical data of 163 multiple injury patients admitted to ICU of our hospital from January 2006 to January 2009 were retrospectively studied, including 118 males and 45 females, with the mean age of 36.2 years (range, 5-67 years). The injury regions included head and neck (29 cases),face (32 cases), chest (89 cases), abdomen (77 cases), pelvis and limbs (91 cases) and body surface (83 cases). There were 57 cases combined with shock. ISS values varied from 10 to 54, 18.42 on average. Patients received surgical treatments in ICU within respectively 24 hours (10 cases), 24-48 hours (8 cases), 3-7 days (7 cases) and 8-14 days (23 cases).Results: Forthe 163 patients, the duration of ICU stay ranged from 2 to 29 days, with the average value of 7.56 days. Among them, 143 were cured (87.73%), 11 died in the hospital (6.75%) due to severe hemorrhagic shock (6 cases),craniocerebral injury (3 cases) and multiple organ failure (2 cases), and 9 died after voluntarily discharging from hospital (5.52%). The total mortality rate was 12.27%.Conclusions: The damage control principle should be followed when multiple injury patients are resuscitated in ICU. Surgical treatment strategies include actively controlling hemorrhage, treating the previously missed injuries and related wounds or surgical complications and performing planned staging operations.

  8. Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment of Acute Epidural Hematoma: Case Series

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Although minimally invasive surgical treatment of acute epidural hematoma attracts increasing attention, no generalized indications for the surgery have been adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery in acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes. Methods. Minimally invasive puncture and aspiration surgery were performed in 59 cases of acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes (13–145 mL); postoperative follow-up was 3 months. Clinical data, including surgical trauma, surgery time, complications, and outcome of hematoma drainage, recovery, and Barthel index scores, were assessed, as well as treatment outcome. Results. Surgical trauma was minimal and surgery time was short (10–20 minutes); no anesthesia accidents or surgical complications occurred. Two patients died. Drainage was completed within 7 days in the remaining 57 cases. Barthel index scores of ADL were ≤40 (n = 1), 41–60 (n = 1), and >60 (n = 55); scores of 100 were obtained in 48 cases, with no dysfunctions. Conclusion. Satisfactory results can be achieved with minimally invasive surgery in treating acute epidural hematoma with hematoma volumes ranging from 13 to 145 mL. For patients with hematoma volume >50 mL and even cerebral herniation, flexible application of minimally invasive surgery would help improve treatment efficacy. PMID:27144170

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Zhichun Feng; Jing Liu; Rong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2′- deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  10. Wastewater treatment

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  11. Testosterone treatment increases androgen receptor and aromatase gene expression in myotubes from patients with PCOS and controls, but does not induce insulin resistance

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Glintborg, Dorte; Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun;

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin mediated glucose disposal and the skeletal muscle tissue is capable to synthesize, convert and degrade androgens. Insulin sensitivity...... sensitivity and if testosterone is implicated in muscular insulin resistance in PCOS, this is by and indirect mechanism....... is conserved in cultured myotubes (in vitro) from patients with PCOS, but the effect of testosterone on this insulin sensitivity is unknown. We investigated the effect of 7days testosterone treatment (100nmol/l) on glucose transport and gene expression levels of hormone receptors and enzymes involved...

  12. Unequal treatment

    United Kingdom government policies for coal and nuclear power during the years May 1979 up to the announcement of major colliery closures in October 1992 are compared and contrasted. It aims to identify the elements and nature of government policy towards the two industries and the extent to which they changed under the influence of events, the disparities of treatment which arose between the two-industries, how far the government's policy objectives for the two industries were achieved and it looks at the overall result of the policies pursued and the continuing effects in the future. (UK)

  13. Nonoperative biological treatment approach for partial Achilles tendon lesion.

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Presti, Mirco Lo; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2010-02-01

    Tendon injuries, especially those of the Achilles tendon, are major concerns in sports medicine. The clinical presentation can be acute or chronic and the pathologic findings can range from peritendonitis to full-thickness tendon rupture. Nonsurgical treatment is not always successful; in particular, significant partial ruptures seem to respond poorly to conservative measures and do not improve with time. Surgery is most often considered the favored treatment option for this kind of lesion to obtain pain relief and full functionality with long-standing effects.This article describes a case of a partial tear of the Achilles tendon in a 34-year-old competitive athlete where surgical treatment was avoided in favor of a new biological approach. We applied autologous platelet growth factors through multiple platelet-rich plasma injections; approximately 6.5 billion platelets were injected into the lesion 3 times, 7 days apart. The treatment with platelet-rich plasma and a progressive rehabilitation program allowed the patient to play for 20 minutes in a basketball game 64 days after the trauma and in a full game 75 days after the trauma. To date, 18 months later, he has participated regularly in all the season's games and received no further treatment for his tendon.The fast tissue repair, confirmed by magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, allowed a swift return to full functionality and competitive sports activity, suggesting a possible role of platelet growth factors in promoting rapid tendon healing with high-quality tissue. This biological approach may represent a less-invasive therapeutic option even in cases where severe tendon lesions are candidates for surgical treatment. PMID:20192152

  14. Gametocytogenesis Following Drug Treatment of Plasmodium Falciparum in an Area of Seasonal Transmission in Sudan

    We monitored post-treatment Plasmodium falciparum among patients treated with chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) in a village in eastern Sudan. Parasites were examined on day zero (pre-treatment), day 7, day 14 and day 21 (post-treatment) during the transmission season. A further sample was taken two months later (Day 80) at the start of the dry season. Asexual forms and gametocytes were detected by microscopy and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect expression of a gametocyte-specific protein pfg377. Gametocyte carriage, as revealed by microscopy, increased significantly following CQ and PS treatment reaching a maximum between days 7 and 14. When measured by RT-PCR, however, there was no significant difference in gametocyte rate between day 0 and day 7 or 14. RT-PCR gametocyte rates dropped dramatically by day 80 post-treatment but were still 33% and 8% in the CQ and PS treated group at this time. Alleles associated with drug resistance of P. falciparum to chloroquine (the chloroquine resistance transporter, pfcrt, and multi-drug resistance, pfmdr-1) and pyrimethamine (dihydrofolate reductase, dhfr) were at high frequency at the beginning of treatment and increased further through time under both drug treatments. Infections with drug-resistant parasites tended to have higher gametocyte prevalence than drug-sensitive infections.

  15. [Regional intraosseous thrombolytic therapy in comprehensive treatment of patients with diabetic foot syndrome].

    Beliaev, A N; Rodin, A N; Kozlov, S A

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed efficacy of regional intraosseous administration of urokinase medac in comprehensive treatment of patients with complicated forms of diabetic foot syndrome by means of analysing therapeutic results in a total of 65 patients presenting with pyonecrotic complications of diabetic foot. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups. The control group was composed of 35 patients receiving basic therapy. The study group comprised 30 patients subjected to comprehensive treatment including regional intraosseous (into the heel bone of the affected limb) administration of urokinase medac at a dose of 100 thousand IU for 5 days. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated by the course of the wound process, indices of haemostasis, free radical oxidation, results of surgical treatment. In patients of the Study Group the terms of wound purification from pyonecrotic masses amounted to 9.8±0.3 days, which was by 4.7 days less than in the Control Group patients (pGroup patients as early as on day 5 of treatment demonstrated shifts towards normocoagulation. In the Control Group by day 22 of treatment, the level of malonic dialdehyde decreased by 18.5%, the index of catalase activity increased by 24.6% (pGroup the level of malonic dialdehyde decreased by 42.6% and catalase activity increased by 69.4% (pblood and the level of free-radical lipid oxidation, stimulation of regenerative processes, as well as improvement of outcomes of surgical treatment. PMID:27626257

  16. Serum lipids and proteins during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing desogestrel.

    Penttilä, I M; Bergink, E W; Holma, P; Hulkko, S; Makkonen, M; Pyörälä, T; Castrén, O

    1983-12-01

    The present study was carried out to measure lipid and protein levels in serum of healthy women during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing 0.075 mg desogestrel (Org 2969, 17 alpha-ethinyl-18-methyl-11-methylene-4-estren-17-ol) plus 0.050 mg ethinyloestradiol per tablet. All 30 volunteers took 1 tablet daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by a tablet-free period of 7 days. Treatment lasted 3 months. At the end of treatment serum total cholesterol had increased by 0.26 mmol/l (5.0%), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 0.22 mmol/l (15.2%) and triglycerides by 0.43 mmol/l (50%); the calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased by 0.16 mmol/l (4.9%). All lipid concentrations had returned to initial levels 2 months after treatment stopped. After 3 months treatment serum ceruloplasmin, cortisol-binding globulin capacity, sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity and thyroxine-binding globulin had significantly increased by 85.2, 133, 206 and 101%, respectively. All protein levels returned to normal 2 months after treatment stopped. The relationship between serum lipids and hormone-binding proteins has been discussed, as well as the significance of the high-density lipoprotein level with regard to contraceptive treatment. PMID:6232161

  17. New pentasubstituted pyrrole hybrid atorvastatin-quinoline derivatives with antiplasmodial activity.

    Carvalho, Rita C C; Martins, Wagner A; Silva, Tayara P; Kaiser, Carlos R; Bastos, Mônica M; Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Krettli, Antoniana U; Boechat, Núbia

    2016-04-15

    Cerebral malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Atorvastatin (AVA) is a pentasubstituted pyrrole, which has been tested as an adjuvant in the treatment of cerebral malaria. Herein, a new class of hybrids of AVA and aminoquinolines (primaquine and chloroquine derivatives) has been synthesized. The quinolinic moiety was connected to the pentasubstituted pyrrole from AVA by a linker group (CH2)n=2-4 units. The activity of the compounds increased with the size of the carbons chain. Compound with n=4 and 7-chloroquinolinyl has displayed better activity (IC50=0.40μM) than chloroquine. The primaquine derivative showed IC50=1.41μM, being less toxic and more active than primaquine. PMID:26988303

  18. Paroxetine treatment, following behavioral suppression of PTSD-like symptoms in mice, prevents relapse by activating the infralimbic cortex.

    Bentefour, Yassine; Rakibi, Youness; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Garcia, René

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies have shown that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remission, induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, is associated with increased prefrontal activation during post-treatment symptom provocation. Other studies have shown that continuation SSRI treatment after remitting from PTSD reduces the rate of relapse. The aim of the present preclinical study was to investigate the relationship between post-treatment prefrontal changes and PTSD relapse prevention. Avoidance conditioning (with a 1.5-mA foot-shock), avoidance extinction and a trauma priming exposure (with a 0.3-mA foot-shock) were used in mice to induce, suppress and reactivate PTSD-like symptoms (including avoidance, fear sensitization, enhanced contextual fear, and anxiety-like behavior), respectively. Paroxetine, injected at 8 mg/kg/day (7 days), was used as SSRI treatment. PTSD-like symptoms were present for at least 30 days and resistant to paroxetine treatment. However, after extinction training (suppressing all PTSD-like symptoms), paroxetine treatment prevented symptom reactivation. Paroxetine treatment also induced infralimbic neuronal activation. However, infralimbic functional tetrodotoxin inactivation abolished the preventive effect of paroxetine treatment on symptom reactivation. The data reveal a potential ability of treatments inducing infralimbic activation to provide prophylactic protection against PTSD relapse. PMID:26706692

  19. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M;

    2009-01-01

    sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin...... of vigorous exercise training can induce significant improvements in insulin action in type 2 diabetes. These improvements include increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and responsiveness as well as enhanced suppression of hepatic glucose production.......The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...

  20. Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records

    Sjörs, Camilla; Raposo, Sara E; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth’s surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Methods: Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies assess the environmental impact of different food items. We linked LCA data expressed as kg ...

  1. An evaluation of the sensitivity of freshwater mussels in 7-day effluent toxicity tests compared to commonly tested species

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federally endangered Tar River spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana) is endemic to the Tar River and Neuse River systems in North Carolina. The causes of...

  2. Planktonic and biofilm communities from 7-day-old chicken cecal microflora cultures: Characterization and resistance to Salmonella colonization

    Over the last few years, both scientific organizations and regulatory agencies have focused on the use of antimicrobial agents in food animals and the related risk of developing antibiotic resistance. Despite increased information relating to the importance of bacterial biofilms and their potential...

  3. Decrease of contractile properties and transversal stiffness of single fibers in human soleus after 7-day “dry” immersion

    Ogneva, I. V.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Altaeva, E. G.; Fokina, N. M.; Kurushin, V. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2011-05-01

    The simulation model of "dry" immersion was used to evaluate the effects of plantar mechanical stimulation (PMS) and high frequency electromyostimulation (EMS) on the mechanical properties of human soleus fibers under the conditions of gravitational unloading. We examined contractile properties of single fibers by means of tensometry, transversal stiffness of sarcolemma and different areas of the contractile apparatus by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that there is a reduction of transversal stiffness in single muscle fibers under hypogravitational conditions. Application of different countermeasures could compensate this effect. Meanwhile pneumostimulation and electro stimulation act in quite different way. Therefore, pneumostimulation seems to be more effective. The data obtained can be considered as the evidence of the fact that such countermeasures as PMS and electromyostimulation influence on muscle fibers in quite different ways and PMS efficiency is likely to be higher. On the basis of our experimental data on transverse stiffness of mechanotransductional nodes and the contractile apparatus, we can assume that support stimulation allows prevention of destructive processes in muscle fibers. Electrostimulation seems to stimulate contractile activity only without suppression of impairment of the fiber mechanical properties.

  4. Survey of the vestibulum, and behavior of xenopus laevis larvae developed during a 7-days space flight

    Briegleb, W.; Neubert, J.; Schatz, A.; Klein, T.; Kruse, B.

    Aquatic animals have almost no body weight related proprioception for spatial orientation. Xenopus larvae, like fish, maintain their attitude in water by continuous correction with their fin(s). For these reasons a special performance of the equilibrium system compared to terrestrial animals is necessary. Evidently fish therefore have more compact (dense) otoliths; Xenopus larvae have less dense otolith (membranes) similar to land vertebrates; but their sacculus-otoliths are vertically positioned, which also may lead to a higher g-sensitivity. For plausibility reasons gravity should influence the embryonic development of gravity receptors. Yet, evaluations of photographs taken from the surface of cut deep-frozen objects by incident light show no aberration of the shape of the whole vestibulum and of the shape, density, size and position of the otolith membrane in larvae developed under near-zero g (NEXPA-BW-STATEX in D1-Mission). The further evaluation of the ``weightless-larvae'' revealed a probably not yet described statolith-like formation in the dorsal wall of the vestibulum. In the weightless larvae this formation outnumbers, also qualitatively, strongly the 1-g controls. An extra result is the lack of striking effects of cosmic radiation on the embryonic development of the flown Xenopus eggs. The swimming behavior of the larvae which was observed about one hour after landing of the Space Shuttle showed a typical anomaly (loop swimming), which is known from larvae developed on the clinostat or from fish flown aboard Apollo capsules.

  5. Influence of exposure time to saliva and antioxidant treatment on bond strength to enamel after tooth bleaching: an in situ study

    Thais Aglaet Matos MIRANDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of different exposure times to saliva in situ in comparison with an antioxidant treatment on composite resin bond strength to human enamel restored after tooth bleaching. Material and Methods: Forty human teeth specimens measuring 5x5 mm were prepared and randomly allocated into 5 groups with 8 specimens each: Gct (control group, restored on unbleached enamel; Gbl (restored immediately after bleaching; Gsa (bleached, treated with 10% sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min and restored; G7d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 7 days and restored; and G14d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 14 days and restored. Restored samples were cut into 0.8 mm2 sticks that were tested in microtensile. Specimens were microscopically analyzed and failure modes were classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Pretest and cohesive failures were not considered in the statistical analysis, which was performed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05, with the dental specimen considered as the experimental unit. Results: Mean bond strength results found for Gbl in comparison with Gct indicated that bleaching significantly reduced enamel adhesiveness (P0.05. Bond strength found for G14d was significantly higher than for Gsa (P<0.01. Fractures modes were predominantly of a mixed type. Conclusions: Bonding strength to bleached enamel was immediately restored with the application of sodium ascorbate and exposure to human saliva in situ for at least 7 days. Best results were obtained with exposure to human saliva in situ for 14 days. Treatment with sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min may be recommended in cases patients cannot wait for at least 7 days for adhesive techniques to be performed.

  6. NEBIVOLOL IN TREATMENT OF STABLE EXERTIONAL ANGINA PECTORIS

    Y. V. Gavrilov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antianginal and antiischemic efficiency of nebivolol in patients with stable angina pectoris.Material and methods. 100 patients with ischemic heart disease showing stable exertional angina pectoris and having no contraindications to beta-blockers were studied. After 5-7 days of control period 50 randomly selected patients began to take nebivolol in initial dose of 5mg once daily and 50 patients started to take metoprolol in initial dose of 50 mg twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Efficiency of treatment was assessed according to the results of control treadmill assessment and control daily ECG monitoring.Results. 56-day therapy with nebivolol at a dose of 7,5 mg per day results in increase in duration of treadmill test before angina or ST depression (p<0.05. Antianginal and antiischemic effect of nebivolol 7.5 mg once daily is rather similar with that of metoprolol in average daily dose of 175 mg. Nebivolol compared to metoprolol significantly (p<0.05 more effectively reduces the number of silent myocardial ischemia.Conclusion. Nebivolol is an efficient antianginal and antiischemic drug for patients with stable exertional angina pectoris.

  7. Treatment of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax during videothoracoscopy.

    Janssen, J P; van Mourik, J; Cuesta Valentin, M; Sutedja, G; Gigengack, K; Postmus, P E

    1994-07-01

    Thoracoscopy for spontaneous pneumothorax has been performed over the years by many pulmonologists. The aim of the procedure was merely diagnostic: the detection of blebs and bullae. Therapeutic modalities were restricted to chemical pleurodesis. The development of videothoracoscopy has made more complex interventions, such as bullectomy possible. A protocol for videothoracoscopic treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax, with all treatment modalities in one session, has been developed. All patients with spontaneous pneumothorax underwent videothoracoscopy under general anaesthesia with double lumen tube intubation. If no abnormalities were found on the visceral pleura, talc pleurodesis was performed. Small lesions, blebs or bullae 2 cm, thoracoscopic resection with an EndoGIA stapling device was performed, followed by scarification, i.e. electrocoagulation, of the parietal pleura. In 43 patients, 44 procedures were performed. In 15 cases (34%) no blebs or bullae were found. In 6 cases (14%) only blebs 2 cm were found. In 21 out of 44 cases (48%), talc pleurodesis was performed, and in 23 cases (52%) bullectomy was performed. No major complication occurred. The average hospital stay was 5.7 days after talc pleurodesis and 6.0 days after bullectomy. There were 2 recurrences (5%) after a follow-up of at least 18 months. In conclusion, the use of videothoracoscopy in spontaneous pneumothorax makes it possible to continue a diagnostic procedure as a therapeutic session.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7925907

  8. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm−1 at 4 cm−1 resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature

  9. Treatment of hind limb ischemia using angiogenic peptide nanofibers.

    Kumar, Vivek A; Liu, Qi; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C; Shi, Siyu; Cornwright, Toya T; Deng, Yuxiao; Azares, Alon; Moore, Amanda N; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Agudo, Noel R; Pan, Su; Woodside, Darren G; Vanderslice, Peter; Willerson, James T; Dixon, Richard A; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    For a proangiogenic therapy to be successful, it must promote the development of mature vasculature for rapid reperfusion of ischemic tissue. Whole growth factor, stem cell, and gene therapies have yet to achieve the clinical success needed to become FDA-approved revascularization therapies. Herein, we characterize a biodegradable peptide-based scaffold engineered to mimic VEGF and self-assemble into a nanofibrous, thixotropic hydrogel, SLanc. We found that this injectable hydrogel was rapidly infiltrated by host cells and could be degraded while promoting the generation of neovessels. In mice with induced hind limb ischemia, this synthetic peptide scaffold promoted angiogenesis and ischemic tissue recovery, as shown by Doppler-quantified limb perfusion and a treadmill endurance test. Thirteen-month-old mice showed significant recovery within 7 days of treatment. Biodistribution studies in healthy mice showed that the hydrogel is safe when administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously. These preclinical studies help establish the efficacy of this treatment for peripheral artery disease due to diminished microvascular perfusion, a necessary step before clinical translation. This peptide-based approach eliminates the need for cell transplantation or viral gene transfection (therapies currently being assessed in clinical trials) and could be a more effective regenerative medicine approach to microvascular tissue engineering. PMID:27182813

  10. Interventional treatment of un-ruptured tubal pregnancy

    Objective: To discuss some concept about interventional treatment of tubal pregnancy. Methods: The procedure of trans-vaginal tubal intra-gestational SAC injection (IGSI) or percutaneous intra-utero-arterial infusion (IUAI) was selected for treatment of 40 patients with un-ruptured tubal pregnancy. Methotrexate (MTX), Rosch-Thurmoud fallopian tube catheterization set, and the general angiographic catheters of 4.1-5.0 F were used for the procedure. Ultrasound and urine beta-hCG were the main indexes monitoring the therapeutic effects. Results: 12 of 40 patients underwent a total of 15 IGSI. Of these, 3 patients required a second injection; 28 of 40 cases were treated with IUAI. The total successful rate of termination of ectopic pregnancy was 97.5%, the mean resolution time for reduction of beta-hCG concentration was 11.7 days (range 4-28), the range of menstruation recovery time was 7-45 days. Conclusion: The interventional therapy for tubal pregnancy will be more widely applied, on the basis of a better understanding about the pathology, characteristics of embryonic sac development and blood supply, the regular change of concentration of serum and urine hCG in tubal pregnancy

  11. Clinical observation of associated treatment for Graves' disease with traditional chinese medicine and 131I

    To investigate the method and curative effect of associated treatment for Graves Disease (GD) with traditional Chinese medicine and 131I. 100 patients with GD were randomly divided into two groups, the patients in group A was only given 131I treatment and the patients in group B was given traditional Chinese medicine (Shimaiqing Fluid, 3 times of 20 mL per day for 40 days) after 7 days of 131I treatment. The serum FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured before and 30 and 90 days after treatment. 8 cardinal symptoms were selected and Kupperman 4-grade grading method was used to assess the remission of the disease. The Results showed that the symptoms of patients in group B were improved ahead of time, and pass through the FT3 and FT4 rebound elevation period safely after one month of 131I treatment. The symptoms of patients in group A after 30 days treatment were more serious than that of before treatment, the levels of serum FT3 and FT4 were both higher than those of before treatment. The symptoms of patients in group B after 90 days treatment were improved significantly, and the levels of serum FT3, FT4 and TSH were in normal value. The clinical symptoms of patients in group A were improved, but the levels of serum FT3 and FT4 were lower and TSH was higher than normal value. The curative effect in group B was better than that in group A, the patients passed through the high risk period safely after 30 days treatment, and the hypothyroidism rate was decreased after 90 days treatment. The Shimaiqing Fluid is a nontoxic and safe medicine, and it may be widely used in clinical treatment for patients with GD. (authors)

  12. Laparoscopic myotomy in achalasia cardia treatment: Experience after 36 operations

    Bjelović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparoscopic Heller­Dor operation, a standard method in the treatment of achalasia, has been performed at the Center for Esophageal Surgery of the First Surgical Clinic since April 2006. Objective. The aim of this study was to present this surgical procedure and initial experiences after 36 consecutive laparoscopic Heller­Dor operations. Methods. This partly retrospective, partly prospective study presented our results after laparoscopic Heller­Dor operation (presentation of the treatment method. We performed a standard anterior esophagocardioymiotomy, without releasing the posterior aspect of the cardia, and anterior partial fundoplication. The type and severity of symptoms and their duration were evaluated based on questionnaires fulfilled by patients. The diagnosis was made based on radiological, endoscopic and manometric findings. Laparoscopic surgery as the method of treatment was evaluated based on the duration of surgery, intra­ and postoperative complications, time interval until the initiation of oral feeding, length of hospital stay, need for additional therapeutic measures after the operation and effect of surgery on the severity of symptoms. Results. Preopereratively, dysphagia was the predominant symptom in all patients, while regurgitation was much lower (44%. The average duration of operation was 127 minutes. Postoperative hospitalization lasted on the average 5.7 days. From 36 treated patients, 34 (94.4% considered that the effect of treatment was good or excellent. Postoperative dysphagia was present in two patients (5.6% and was successfully solved by balloon dilatation. Conclusion. Laparoscopic Heller­Dor operation is an effective and safe surgical procedure in resolving symptoms of achalasia and today presents the method of the first choice in the treatment of this disease.

  13. Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Using Photodithazine®- Mediated Photodynamic Therapy In Vivo

    G. Basso, Fernanda; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of oral candidiasis in a murine model using Photodithazine® (PDZ). This model of oral candidiasis was developed to allow the monitoring of the infection and the establishment of the aPDT treatment. Six-week-old female mice were immunosuppressed and inoculated with C. albicans to induce oral candidiasis. PDZ-mediated aPDT and nystatin treatment were carried out for 5 consecutive days with one application per day. The macroscopic evaluation of oral lesions was performed. After each treatment, the tongue was swabbed to recover C. albicans cells. Viable colonies were quantified and the number of CFU/ml determined. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours and 7 days after treatment and the tongues were surgically removed for histological analysis and analysis of inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6) by RT-qPCR. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. PDZ-mediated aPDT was as effective as Nystatin (NYS group) in the inactivation of C. albicans, reducing 3 and 3.2 logs10 respectively, 24 h after treatment (pcandidiasis. PMID:27253525

  14. Clinical management of carbamazepine intoxication during anti-tubercular treatment: a case report

    Massimo Calderazzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 67-year-old man with medical history of focal post-stroke seizure and type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with carbamazepine, clobazam, gliclazide, insulin glargine, and omeprazole we visited for the onset in the last 7 days of asthenia, cough with mucus, breathing difficulty, chest pain, and weight loss. After clinical and laboratory tests, pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed, and a treatment with isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide rifampicin, and pyridoxine was started. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tuberculosis treatment documented that all drugs were in normal therapeutic range. Four days after the beginning of the treatment, we documented the improvement of fever, and three days later the patient showed sleepiness, visual disorder and asthenia. Clinical and pharmacological evaluation suggested a carbamazepine toxicity probably related to a drug interaction (Drug Interaction Probability Scale score = 6. The impossibility to switch carbamazepine for another antiepileptic drug, due to a resistant form of seizure, induced the discontinuation of tuberculosis treatment, resulting in the normalization of serum carbamazepine levels in one day (10 µg/ml and in the worsening of fever, requiring a new clinical and pharmacological evaluation. The titration dosage of carbamazepine and its therapeutic drug monitoring allowed to continue the treatment with both antitubercular drugs and carbamazepine, without the development of adverse drug reactions. To date, tuberculosis treatment was stopped and clinical evaluation, radiology and microbiology assays documented the absence of tubercular infection and no seizures appeared (carbamazepine dosage 800 mg/bid; serum levels 9.5 µg/ml.

  15. Trends in antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media and treatment failure in children, 2000-2011.

    Leah J McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Guidelines to treat acute otitis media (AOM were published in 2004. Initial declines in prescribing were shown, but it's unknown if they were sustained. We examine trends in antibiotic dispensing patterns to treat AOM among a large population of children. We also document trends in antibiotic failure. STUDY DESIGN: Children aged 3 months to 12 years with an AOM diagnosis, enrolled in a commercial claims database between January 1, 2000-December 31, 2011 were included. Pharmacy claims within 7 days of diagnosis were searched for antibiotic prescriptions. Antibiotic failure was defined as a dispensing of a different antibiotic class within 2-18 days after the first prescription. We analyzed trends in antibiotic use and failure by class of antibiotic and year. RESULTS: We identified over 4 million children under 13 years with AOM. The proportion of antibiotic dispensing decreased from 66.0% in 2005 to 51.9% in 2007, after which the instances of dispensing rebounded to pre-guideline levels. However, levels began decreasing again in 2010 and the antibiotic use rate in 2011 was 57.6%. Cephalosporin prescriptions increased by 41.5% over eleven years. Antibiotic failure decreased slightly, and macrolides had the lowest proportion of failures, while all other classes had failure rates around 10%. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, antibiotic dispensing to treat AOM remains high. In addition, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is increasing despite having a high rate of treatment failure. Overprescribing of antibiotics and use of non-penicillin therapy for AOM treatment could lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  16. Platform treatment

    Our project consists of making of a punt forms test for the radioactive treatment in the research's unit of the CNSTN .First a complete functional analysis is carried out, this analysis comprises a comparative study between our work and a design already established in a preparatory project, it emphasizes the failures whose made proof the old design .Second the metallurgical study which must lead on the choice of materials is in its turn carried out. Thirdly the design with all the details and the plans is carried out by the intermediary of the software CATIA. This design is accompanied by the various bodies's dimensioning and the calculation of the various states of stresses to which the parts of the system are subjected: buckling, inflection fourthly an automatic study is carried out, this study contains the automation's step of the system using the software, SIMATIC STEP 7. It also contains the choice of the various position and velocity pick-ups. Finally we will finish by the presentation of maintenance and safety's instructions of the system and the operator working in this research's . (Author)

  17. Radwaste treatment

    In this part creation of radioactive wastes in Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs and in A-1 NPP during decommissioning process as well as its treatment is described. On January 1996, radioactive waste repository in Mochovce was transferred to the administration of the newly established subsidiary SE-VYZ. During 1996 the repository operator began implementation of requirements contained in the Resolution of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) of the beginning of 1995. Currently the works concentrate mainly on supplementary engineering and geological survey and preparation of a principal change in the drainage system, as well as vault roofing. NRA SR is involved in most of the negotiations on further proceeding, where it makes contributions by its opinions; through, that it controls to what extent the activity at the repository is in compliance with the Resolution of NRA SR as to the Preliminary safety report of the repository. Two inspections were made at the repository in the spring: the first concentrated on consequences of erosion movement of the outer slopes of the repository, the second one dealt with the overall inventory of activities following up the Resolution of NRA SR. As a result of a significant acceleration of work in the last thee months of 1966, NRA SR started to apply regular inspections at the site made at least once a week by the site inspector. The main purpose of these inspections is to supervise the quality of work being performed

  18. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    Elizabeth Wina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replications and each replication in one cage consisted of 5 chicks. R1 was control feed (K without jatropha seed meal., 2 R2 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Neurosphora sitophila (FNS, R3 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAS, R4 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by rumen microbes and R5 with 4% of Jatropha seed meal treated by autoclaved, refluxed by hexane and soaked in methanol (OEHM. Treated feed was given for 14 days at the end of the feeding treatment, two chickens from each replication were slaughtered and organ weights were recorded. Body weight of chicken and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The rest of the chicken was fed commercial feed for the next 7 days (recovery periode. Chicken mortality was almost 0% but 1 chicken from FAS treatment died at the recovery period. Feed consumption was lower at fermented jatropha seed meal than control (K or OEHM, resulted in lower body weight of chicken. The abdomen fat weight and organ weights especially pancreas or spleen resulted from treatment with jatropha were much lower than that of K. In the recovery period, body weight of chicken in the OEHM treatment was almost similar from that of control chicken. In conclusion, biological detoxification on BBJ was able to reduce chicken mortality but could not improve the daily gain higher than control treatment. The best method to detoxify jatropha seed meal was the combination of physical and

  19. Sequential UASB and dual media packed-bed reactors for domestic wastewater treatment - experiment and simulation.

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Raúl; Renman, Gunno

    2016-01-01

    A wastewater treatment system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with Sorbulite(®) and Polonite(®) filter material was tested in a laboratory bench-scale experiment. The system was operated for 50 weeks and achieved very efficient total phosphorus (P) removal (99%), 7-day biochemical oxygen demand removal (99%) and pathogenic bacteria reduction (99%). However, total nitrogen was only moderately reduced in the system (40%). A model focusing on simulation of organic material, solids and size of granules was then implemented and validated for the UASB reactor. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results demonstrated the capacity of the model to predict the behaviour of solids and chemical oxygen demand, which is critical for successful P removal and recovery in the PBR. PMID:27332842

  20. Treatment of Slightly Polluted Wastewater in an Oil Refinery Using a Biological Aerated Filter Process

    XIE Wenyu; ZHONG Li; CHEN Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The slightly polluted wastewater from oil refinery contains some COD, oil pollutants and suspended solids (SS). A small-scale fixed film biological aerated filter (BAF) process was used to treat the wastewater. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT), air/water volume flow ratio and backwashing cycle on treatment efficiencies were investigated. The wastewater was treated by the BAF process under optimal conditions: the HRT of backwashing cycle of every 4-7 days. The results showed that the average removal efficiency of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 84.5%, 94.0% and 83.4%, respectively. And the average effluent concentration of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 12.5, 0.27, 14.5the BAF process is a suitable and highly efficient method to treat the wastewater.

  1. Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Spanggaard, Bettina; Huber, I.; Nielsen, T.F.

    1999-01-01

    To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish- pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of....... fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1,000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested...... probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont...

  2. Ofloxacin compared with ciprofloxacin in the treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infections.

    Kromann-Andersen, B; Sommer, P; Pers, C; Larsen, V; Rasmussen, F

    1988-09-01

    In a double-blind, double-dummy study 61 patients with structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and verified infection were treated for 7 days with ofloxacin 100 mg bd or ciprofloxacin 250 mg bd by mouth. Of 62 isolated strains none was resistant to ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in vitro. Nineteen patients (63%) in both groups were free from infection ten days after therapy. Clinical resolution of symptoms occurred in 83% in the ofloxacin group and 68% in the ciprofloxacin group. Adverse reactions were reported in four patients (6.5%), two with skin rash, one with gastrointestinal disturbance and one with influenza-like symptoms. This study demonstrates that ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are effective in the treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infection. PMID:3182457

  3. Performance of vegetated and non-vegetated vertical flow reed beds in the treatment of diluted leachate.

    De Feo, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the behaviour of a vertical flow reed bed system with 3 kind of wastewaters (W1, W2 and W3) and for two hydraulic retention times (3 and 7 days) as well as to assess the role of Phragmites Australis in constructed wetland treatment processes. The adopted batch experimental system consisted of six vertical flow filters, filled with granular media and planted with reeds. For each vegetated reactor there was a correspondent blank in order to make a comparison. Wastewaters were obtained mixing tap water, MSW landfill leachate and activated sludge in different percentages. W1, W2 and W3 were designed in order to reproduce treated or untreated wastewaters not in compliance with legislation in force (Directive 91/271/EEC), with increasing level of NH4+-N from W1 (16.3 mg/L) to W3 (76.0 mg/L). In average terms, 3 days was sufficient for W1 and W2 to face the compliance limits; while, for W3 even 7 days was not sufficient to respect the compliance limit for ammonia nitrogen (1.4 times greater). The obtained results shown that the vegetation played an essential role especially in the removal of nitrogen: for the wastewater with the highest loads the contribution of reeds in the removal of nitrogen was greater than that of biofiltration processes. The contribution of the vegetation was also detectable in the removal of orthophosphate, but with minus efficiency. PMID:17558782

  4. Effectiveness of the diode laser in the treatment of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats: a histopathological, histometric, and immunohistochemical study.

    Theodoro, Leticia Helena; Caiado, Roberto Coelho; Longo, Mariéllen; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Zanini, Naida Assem; Ervolino, Edilson; de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of a high-power gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser (GaAlAs; 808 nm, 1 W, 20 s, 20 Hz, 10 J) alone or as adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing in the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Periodontitis was induced by placing a ligature around the mandibular first molar of 60 rats. After 7 days, the ligature was removed and the animals were divided into four groups as follows: C (control), no periodontal treatment; SRP, scaling and root planing (SRP); DL, diode laser (DL) irradiation treatment; and SRP/DL, both SRP and DL irradiation treatment. Five animals from each group were euthanized at 7, 15, and 30 days posttreatment. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated in the furcation area using histopathological analysis, histometric analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL), and immunohistochemical detection of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osteocalcin (OCN). DL, alone or in combination with adjunctive therapy to SRP in the treatment of experimental periodontitis, resulted in a decreased local inflammatory response. At 7-days posttreatment, the DL and SRP/DL groups had fewer TRAP-positive cells and more RUNX2-positive cells. There was greater OCN immunolabeling in the DL group than in the C and SRP groups at 15 days. There was less ABL in the DL and SRP/DL groups at 15 and 30 days. In conclusion, DL was effective in the treatment of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats, both when used alone and when used as adjunctive therapy to SRP. PMID:24733282

  5. Effects of subchronic phencyclidine (PCP treatment on social behaviors, and operant discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6J mice

    Jessica Ihne

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Subchronic treatment with the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP has been proposed as a rodent model of the negative and cognitive/executive symptoms of schizophrenia. There has, however, been a paucity of studies on this model in mice, despite the growing use of the mouse as a subject in genetic and molecular studies of schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of subchronic PCP treatment (5 mg/kg twice daily x 7 days, followed by 7 days withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice on 1 social behaviors using a sociability/social novelty-preference paradigm, and 2 pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen-based operant system. Results showed that mice subchronically treated with PCP made more visits to (but did not spend more time with a social stimulus relative to an inanimate one, and made more visits and spent more time investigating a novel social stimulus over a familiar one. Subchronic PCP treatment did not significantly affect behavior in either the discrimination or reversal learning tasks. These data encourage further analysis of the potential utility of mouse subchronic PCP treatment for modeling the social withdrawal component of schizophrenia. They also indicate that the treatment regimen employed was insufficient to impair our measures of discrimination and reversal learning in the C57BL/6J strain. Further work will be needed to identify alternative methods (e.g., repeated cycles of subchronic PCP treatment, use of different mouse strains that produce discrimination and/or reversal impairment, as well as other cognitive/executive measures that are sensitive to chronic PCP treatment in mice.

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment induces follicular growth and ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares.

    Johnson, A L

    1987-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse infusion to stimulate follicular development and induce ovulation in seasonally anestrous standardbred mares. Seventeen mares were selected for use in this experiment, on the basis of a previous normal reproductive history, and were housed under a photoperiod of 8L:16D beginning one week prior to the start of the experiment (second week in January). Mares were infused with 20 micrograms (n = 7) or 2 micrograms (n = 6) GnRH/h, or were subjected to photoperiod treatment only (controls, n = 4). Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone did not vary, and neither significant follicular development nor ovulation was observed in any control mare throughout the experimental period (greater than 60 days). By contrast, both groups of GnRH-treated mares showed elevated serum concentrations of LH and FSH within one day after the start of infusion. Mares infused with 20 micrograms GnRH/h had at least one follicle greater than or equal to 25 mm in 7.4 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SEM) days following the start of infusion, and ovulated in 12.0 +/- 0.7 days. In the 2-microgram-GnRH/h treatment group, a 25-mm follicle was detected in 5.7 +/- 0.7 days, and ovulation occurred after 10.0 +/- 0.3 days of infusion. Ovulation in every instance was followed by a functional luteal phase, as indicated by the profiles of progesterone secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3113502

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Dimeticone in the Treatment of Lice Infestation through Prophylaxis of Classmates

    Pietro Ferrara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We conducted a study to evaluate efficacy and safety of dimeticone 4%, a lotion with no conventional insecticide activity, to cure lice infection and to prevent spread of infestation/reinfestation by prophylaxis of classmates.Methods: The study is carried out between April 2008 and June 2008 in Petranova International Institute in Rome. A total of 131 children, aged 3 to 13 years (median age: 7 years were included in the study. All participants received treatment with dimeticone 4% that was applied both to children with the infestation, to cure it, and to all classmates, to prevent the spreading of the infestation. They have been controlled after 7 and 30 days from the application of dimeticone.Results: At baseline we found a positivity of lice infestation in 23/131 children (17.6%, whereas 108/131 (82.4% children were free from lice. After 7 days of treatment with dimeticone 4%, 7/23 (30.4% positive children still had lice infestation, with a cure rate of 69.6% (16/23. At 30 days 26/131 children (19.9% were infested: 15 children were lice free at baseline whereas 11 had lice at both evaluations; the cure rate amounted to 52.2% (12/23. The reinfestation rate (percentage of positive children that showed negativity at baseline was 5.3% (7/131 at 7 days and 11.5% (15/131 at 30 days.Conclusion: The lower reinfestation rate showed in our trial suggests that this approach could be effective in reducing spreading of head lice in small communities. More studies are needed to confirm our findings

  8. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    ... Facts Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis and Treatment Sleepwalking Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Terrors Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Eating Disorder Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment REM ...

  9. Surgical staged treatment for moderate to severe adolescent cervical kyphosis

    LIANG Lei; ZHOU Xu-hui; LIU Yang; GAO Rui; CHEN Hua-jiang; YANG Li-li; SHI Sheng; YUAN Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent cervical kyphosis refers to manifestation characterized by loss of physiological cervical lordosis with involvement of multiple cervical vertebrae.There is no standard treatment strategy for this disease,especially in those patients who need surgical intervention.The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical staged treatment for moderate to severe adolescents cervical kyphosis.Methods A total of 26 adolescent with cervical kyphosis were retrospectively assigned into following two groups according to the magnitude of kyphosis:moderate group (n=17),the Cobb angle was 46.6°±4.8°.The surgical procedure was that skull traction was first carried out for 5-7 days and then the anterior fusion and instrumentation were performed.Severe group (n=9),the Cobb angle was 61.6°±4.8°.The treatment strategy was that the anterior release were first performed,followed by skull traction for 7-10 days,and then anterior fusion were performed.Radiographic evaluation was performed postoperatively.Results Three days after surgery,the X-ray examination showed that the Cobb angle was -8.9°±6.8° in the moderate group and -6.0°±6.3° in the severe group.The deformed appearance was obviously corrected,with neck pain and neurologic function improved significantly.Further magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated the physiology curvature of the cervical spine had been reconstructed.Conclusion Surgical staged treatment may be an ideal therapeutic intervention for cervical kyphosis patients with a Cobb angle exceeding 35° in adolescents.

  10. CO2 surgical laser in the treatment of some types of pathology of pets

    Serra, Christian; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio; Rossi, Giacomo; Fortuna, Damiano

    2002-10-01

    We have treated with CO2 laser surgery 40 cases which contemplated: stomatitis and other oral pathologies, anorectal, cutaneous, subcutaneous lesions, and other ophthalmic ones. The parameters employed to evaluate surgical treatment success were: histological analyses, time of healing process and incidence (per cent) of relapses. During the T/3 period (45 days) all cases of feline stomatitis relapsed. The 83% of pets that suffered of anorectal pathologies healed up to 21 days and no relapse was observed in T/4 period (180 days). The cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules vaporization caused lesions that healed during 7 days (T/1) and no relapse was observed after laser treatment. In cutaneous chronic ulcers and in reptilian abscesses we had the lesions reparation by second intention healing in T/3. A case of feline oral squamocellular carcinoma relapsed in T/3 after laser treatment. The results showed three different level of utility: indispensable, useful but unnecessary, inefficacious. The CO2 laser application resulted the best treatment for anorectal pathologies, cutaneous ulcerations and reptilian abscesses. The laser surgery was only useful but unnecessary in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoformations and also in oral and peri-ophthalmic pathologies. Finally, the laser application appeared inefficacious in squamocellular carcinoma and in chronic phlogosis of feline oral cavity.

  11. Effects of Using Pozzolan and Portland Cement in the Treatment of Dispersive Clay

    Vakili, A. H.; Selamat, M. R.; Moayedi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone. PMID:23864828

  12. Effects of Using Pozzolan and Portland Cement in the Treatment of Dispersive Clay

    A. H. Vakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone.

  13. Fosfomycin trometamol: a review of its use as a single-dose oral treatment for patients with acute lower urinary tract infections and pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-11-01

    Fosfomycin trometamol (fosfomycin tromethamine) [Monuril(®), Monurol(®), Monural(®)] is approved in numerous countries worldwide, mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Fosfomycin has good in vitro activity against common uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli (including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli), Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and the susceptibility of uropathogens to fosfomycin has remained relatively stable over time. A single oral dose of fosfomycin trometamol 3 g (the approved dosage) achieves high concentrations in urine. Results of recent randomized trials indicate that single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to 3- to 7-day regimens of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole or nitrofurantoin in women with uncomplicated lower UTIs. In addition, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or a 7-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, and similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or a 3-day course of ceftibuten in pregnant women with a lower UTI. Single-dose fosfomycin trometamol was generally well tolerated, with gastrointestinal adverse events (e.g. diarrhoea, nausea) reported most commonly. In conclusion, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol is an important option for the first-line empirical treatment of uncomplicated lower UTIs. PMID:24202878

  14. Combined treatment with subchronic lithium and acute intracerebral mirtazapine microinjection into the median raphe nucleus exerted an anxiolytic-like effect synergistically.

    An, Yan; Inoue, Takeshi; Kitaichi, Yuji; Chen, Chong; Nakagawa, Shin; Wang, Ce; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-07-15

    Although preclinical and clinical studies have established the efficacy of lithium augmentation of antidepressant drugs, the mechanism of action of lithium augmentation is not fully understood. Our previous study reported that subchronic lithium treatment enhanced the anxiolytic-like effect of systemic mirtazapine. In the present study, we examined the effect of subchronic lithium in combination with acute local intracerebral injection of mirtazapine on fear-related behaviors in a contextual fear conditioning test in rats to clarify the target brain region of lithium augmentation of mirtazapine. After conditioning by footshock, diet (food pellets) containing Li2CO3 at a concentration of 0.2% was administered for 7 days. Ten min before testing and 7 days after conditioning, mirtazapine (3μg/site) in a volume of 0.5µl was acutely injected into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), hippocampus or amygdala. The combination of subchronic lithium and acute mirtazapine microinjection into the MRN but not the hippocampus or the amygdala reduced fear expression synergistically. These results suggest that intra-MRN mirtazapine treatment with subchronic lithium exerts the anxiolytic-like effect through the facilitation of the MRN-5HT pathway. PMID:27154172

  15. Flow diverter neuroendovascular stents - Reconstructive endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms - Single centre experience

    Girish Rajpal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Flow diverter stents (FDS are new neuroendovascular tools able to achieve the complete and curative treatment of aneurysm by reconstruction of the parent arteries from which the aneurysm arises. We present our initial experience with flow diverter embolization devices and follow-up results. Materials and Methods: Patients with large, giant and wide necked aneurysms, saccular, fusiform and recurrent aneurysms were selected for the treatment. All patients were pretreated with dual antiplatelet agents at least for 7 days before procedure and continued taking both agents for 3 months after treatment. A MRI was done after 3 months of treatment and digital subtraction angiogram was performed at 4 months of treatment. After 1 year both MRI and digital subtraction angiogram was performed. Results: 11 patients (age range 37 year to 79 year, mean 51.1 with 11 intracranial aneurysms were treated with 15 flow diverter stents. 9 aneurysm were located on the anterior circulation and 2 on posterior circulation. 8 aneurysms were large (10-25 mm, 2 were small (25 mm with mean largest diameter of 13.22 mm. 9 were saccular aneurysm and 2 were fusiform, out of these 3 were remnant of the previously treated aneurysm. Treatment was achieved with 10 Silk stents in 7 patients and 5 Pipeline embolization devices in 4 patients. The mean time between treatment and follow up was 9.6 months (range 4-12 months. One mortality was noted due to rebleed after 3 weeks of treatment. Complete angiographic occlusion was achieved in 9 (90% patients after 4 months and 1 (10% patient had near complete occlusion at 12 months. All the patients were stable clinically during follow up period. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment with FDS is safe, easy, and permanent treatment for the selected group of aneurysms. The complete occlusion rate in follow-up study approaches 100% with no angiographic recurrence in this study.

  16. Methemoglobinemia hemotoxicity of some antimalarial 8-aminoquinoline analogues and their hydroxylated derivatives: density functional theory computation of ionization potentials

    The administration of primaquine (PQ), an essential drug for treatment and radical cure of malaria, can lead to methemoglobin formation and life-threatening hemolysis for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients. The ionization potential (IP, a quantitative measure of the ability to lose...

  17. Chemotherapy of Babesia microti infections in Mongolian Jirds.

    Ruebush, T. K.; Contacos, P G; Steck, E A

    1980-01-01

    For identifying drugs which might be effective in the treatment of human Babesia microti infections, 20 selected antiprotozoal agents or combinations of agents were tested for activity against B. microti in Mongolian jirds (meriones unguiculatus). 4-Methyl-primaquine and aromatic diamidines, including diminazene and pentamidine, were the most effective compounds tested.

  18. Reduced PBR/TSPO Expression After Minocycline Treatment in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia: A PET Study Using [18F]DPA-714

    Background: Many new candidate pharmaceuticals designed to improve recovery after stroke have been proposed recently, but there are still too few molecular imaging methods capable to assess their efficacy. A hallmark of the inflammatory reaction that follows focal cerebral ischemia is overexpression of the mitochondrial peripheral benzodiazepine receptor/18 kDa translocator protein (PBR/TSPO) in the monocytic lineage and astrocytes. This overexpression can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using PBR/TSPO-selective radioligands such as [18F]DPA-714. Purpose: Here, we tested whether PET with [18F]DPA-714 would evidence the effect of minocycline, a broad spectrum antibiotic presently tested as neuro-protective agent after stroke, on the inflammatory reaction induced in an experimental model of stroke. Procedures: Ten rats were subjected to a 2-h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion. Minocycline or saline was intravenously administrated 1 h after reperfusion and daily during the following 6 days. PET studies were performed using [18F]DPA-714 at 7 days after cerebral ischemia. Results: In vivo PET imaging showed a significant decrease in [18F]DPA-714 uptake at 7 days after cerebral ischemia in rats treated with minocycline with respect to saline-treated animals. Minocycline treatment had no effect on the size of the infarcted area. Conclusion: Minocycline administered daily during 7 days after ischemia decreases [18F]DPA- 714 binding, suggesting that the drug exerts an anti-inflammatory activity. [18F]DPA-714 PET is a useful bio-marker to study novel anti-inflammatory strategies in experimental cerebral ischemia. (authors)

  19. Stem-cells used in treatment of periodontal bone defects

    The aggressive periodontitis might to provoke the tooth loss, of its function and to affect the patient's aesthetics. The techniques used for the lost bone regeneration, not always are successful and in occasions are very expensive. For years it is working in tissues regeneration by stem-cells implantation. Periodontium could be a potential for this task. This is a study of a female patient aged 26 with an apparent health status and aggressive periodontitis backgrounds treated from 10 years ago, seen in our service due to dental mobility producing mastication nuisances. At clinical examination we noted systemic chronic inflammation of gums, grade II and III dental mobility in incisives and molars teeth, 4-8 mm systemic periodontal sacs and furcation lesions in inferior molars. At radiographs advanced bone losses and a decrease of systemic bone density are noted. After written consent and the initial preparation, we carried out a periodontal flap in the 35 and 37 teeth zone, where the stem-cells concentrate was placed, in bone defects of superior molars (16-17) and previous radicular scraping and isolation, treatment consisted in stem-cells perfusion without flap. There were not postoperative side effects. At 7 days there was a normal coloration, at three months on noted at radiograph a bone neoformation, and at six months gum remained healthy, with a decrease of dental mobility in segment treated and in the evolutionary radiograph it was evidenced the formation and increase of density

  20. Therapeutic effects of blood purification in treatment of fulminant hepatic failure

    Yunchuan Pu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effects of blood purification for treating fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. METHODS: Thirty-three severe FHF patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE above grade III were subjected to a combined blood purification treatment in addition to the comprehensive liver protection therapy. Patients underwent continuous hemofiltration on a daily basis during the daytime followed by sequential treatment with plasma exchange or hemodialysis every 2-3 days. The therapeutic effects of this treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment with blood purification, restoration of consciousness (those who abandoned the treatment without restoration of consciousness were excluded was achieved in 6 of 8 cases (75% in acute liver failure (ALF group, 3 of 3 cases (100% in subacute liver failure (SALF group, and 9 of 14 cases (64.29% in acute/subacute on chronic liver failure (A/SCLF group. Of all cases, 11 patients restored consciousness after 7 days in a coma. The rate of long-term survival (those who abandoned the treatment were excluded was 3/7 (42.86% for ALF group, 2/2 (100% for SALF group, and 1/11 (9.09% for A/SCLF group. The levels of hemoglobin and platelet in peripheral blood were significantly reduced after blood purification. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of FHF patients with daily continuous hemofiltration during the daytime is effective in treating HE and in improving health status in the early stages of the disease. Long-term prognosis also benefits from this treatment. The rate of consciousness recovery and long-term survival is highest in SALF group followed by ALF group. This treatment is less effective in A/SCLF patients. It should be noted that blood purification procedure may cause damage to blood cells.

  1. Effect of anodization and alkali-heat treatment on the bioactivity of titanium implant material (an in vitro study)

    Abdelrahim, Ramy A.; Badr, Nadia A.; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effect of anodized and alkali-heat surface treatment on the bioactivity of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) after immersion in Hank's solution for 7 days. Materials and Methods: Fifteen titanium alloy samples were used in this study. The samples were divided into three groups (five for each), five samples were anodized in 1M H3PO4 at constant voltage value of 20 v and another five samples were alkali-treated in 5 M NaOH solution for 25 min at temperature 60°C followed by heat treatment at 600°C for 1 h. All samples were then immersed in Hank's solution for 7 days to assess the effect of surface modifications on the bioactivity of titanium alloy. The different treated surfaces and control one were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed with PASW Statistics 18.0® (Predictive Analytics Software). Results: Anodization of Ti-alloy samples (Group B) led to the formation of bioactive titanium oxide anatase phase and PO43− group on the surface. The alkali-heat treatment of titanium alloy samples (Group C) leads to the formation of bioactive titania hydrogel and supplied sodium ions. The reaction between the Ti sample and NaOH alkaline solution resulted in the formation of a layer of amorphous sodium titania on the Ti surface, and this layer can induce apatite deposition. Conclusions: The surface roughness and surface chemistry had an excellent ability to induce bioactivity of titanium alloy. The anodization in H3PO4 produced anatase titanium oxide on the surface with phosphate originated from electrolytes changed the surface topography and allowed formation of calcium-phosphate. PMID:27382532

  2. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  3. Combination of the transurethral resection and prostate HIFU ablation at treatment of the localized cancer

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-09-01

    26 patients were included into HIFU and 74 group in group of the combined treatment (TURP+HIFU. Selection criteria for HIFU ablation were the localized cancer of a prostate concerning which earlier it wasn't carried out treatments, and level of a PSA at the time of statement of the diagnosis 15 ng/ml. All patients corresponding to these by criteria, were considered as candidates for treatment and inclusion in the analysis. The nadir and stability of PSA, the histologic conclusion, IPSS, quality of life and complication were estimated at time of postoperative supervision. Results: Statistically significant influence of a combination TURP+HIFU for the term of transurethral drainage of a bladder (a median of 40 days against 7 days, incontience frequency (15.4% against 6.9%, infections of urinary ways (47.9% against 11.4% and IPSS change during the postoperative period (on the average 8.91 against 3.37 is noted. During the short period of supervision it wasn't observed considerable changes in relation to efficiency: in HIFU group the frequency of repeated sessions made 25%, in TUR/HIFU group 4%. Conclusion: HIFU therapy is modern, minimum invasive method of a cancer therapy of a prostate. The combination of a transurethral resection and HIFU ablation significantly reduces the frequency of the complications connected with treatment. Maintaining the patient after combined TURP and HIFU ablation is comparable with maintaining the patient after usual TURP.

  4. Treatment of enterocutaneous fistulas with TPN and somatostatin, compared with patients who received TPN only.

    Spiliotis, J; Vagenas, K; Panagopoulos, K; Kalfarentzos, F

    1990-12-01

    Eighteen patients with post-operative enterocutaneous fistulas were treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), skin care, infection control and intravenous somatostatin (SMS) 250 micrograms/h. This group was compared with 30 patients treated with standard medical treatment (total parenteral nutrition (TPN), skin care and infection control). In the SMS group the fistula output was reduced to 50% in three days and spontaneous closure was observed in 14 patients after a mean of 6.1 +/- 3.1 days of treatment with SMS, and in 18.2 +/- 6.3 days after the TPN administration. In the control group the fistula output was reduced by up to 50% after a week and spontaneous closure occurred in 20 patients in a mean of 27.4 +/- 8.7 days after the start of treatment. These results are statistically significant. There was one (5.5%) death in the SMS group compared with three (10%) deaths in the other, and glucose intolerance was observed in two (11%) patients in the SMS group. Somatostatin has been shown to be useful in the conservative treatment of enterocutaneous fistulas because of its ability to reduce output and accelerate closure. PMID:1983231

  5. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to physical examination. Two swabs of vaginal discharge were obtained for each woman, one for direct smear, another for culture. The culture medium was Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. Patients were randomized into two groups of clotrimazole (vaginal cream for 7 days and 150 mg fluconazole in a single dose. Clinical and paraclinical responses were calculated.Results: Clinical improvement occurred in 96 cases (80%. This value was 86.7% and 73.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole, respectively (P-value=0.04. Paraclinical response on tenth day of treatment was observed in 87 patients (72.5%. This value was 66.7% and 78.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole groups, respectively (P-value=0.110. Mean days of treatment was 4.06 ±1.30 days for clotrimazole and 2.70 ±0.78 days for fluconazole (p value =0.031.Conclusion: Most of the clinical and paraclinical responses to the drugs used for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis are in the favour of fluconazole.

  6. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine.

    Andreas Munk Petersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. RESULTS: After successful colonization with the IBD associated E. coli strains in mice the introduction of E. coli Nissle did not result in eradication of either IBD associated strains or an E. coli from a healthy control, instead, co-colonization at high levels were obtained. Treatment of mice, precolonized with IBD associated E. coli, with ciprofloxacin for three days alone apparently resulted in effective eradication of tested E. coli. However, treatment of precolonized mice with a combination of ciprofloxacin for 3 days followed by E. coli Nissle surprisingly allowed one IBD associated E. coli to re-colonize the mouse intestine, but at a level 3 logs under E. coli Nissle. A prolonged treatment with ciprofloxacin for 7 days did not change this outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In the mouse model E. coli Nissle can not be used alone to eradicate IBD associated E. coli; rather, 3 days of ciprofloxacin are apparently efficient in eradicating these strains, but surprisingly, after ciprofloxacin treatment (3 or 7 days, the introduction of E. coli Nissle may support re-colonization with IBD associated E. coli.

  7. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    ... larger tumors. This treatment is a type of laser therapy. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... chemoreduction, other treatments may include radiation therapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy , or regional chemotherapy . Systemic chemotherapy may also be ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Retinoblastoma)

    ... larger tumors. This treatment is a type of laser therapy. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... chemoreduction, other treatments may include radiation therapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy , or regional chemotherapy . Systemic chemotherapy may also be ...

  9. Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis and Treatment

    ... may receive treatment with estrogen (for women) or testosterone (for men). Hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid most often needs treatment with synthetic (laboratory- made) thyroid hormone. Most often this treatment ...

  10. Treatment After Miscarriage

    ... Loss > Loss & grief > Treatment after miscarriage Treatment after miscarriage E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... is needed. What treatment is recommended after a miscarriage? Your health care provider may recommend: Dilation and ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Key ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  12. Short communication. In vitro embryo production can be modified by the previous ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment in sheep

    F. Forcada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two ewes were used to study how the ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment determines quality of oocytes recovered from ovaries after embryo collection, and their developmental capacity after in vitro maturation (IVM and fertilization (IVF. Ewes were superovulated, and seven days after oestrus, embryos were collected and ewes divided into three groups: (+ +, n=19, ewes responding to the treatment with embryos collected after flushing; (+ –, n=8, ewes responding, but only oocytes were found; and (– –, n=5, ewes not responding to the treatment and no embryos collected. Ovaries were recovered and oocytes collected from the three groups. A significant effect of the response to the treatment was observed for oocyte quality, so that (– – ewes presented the higher number of oocytes per ewe (p<0.001. Total number of oocytes selected for IVM and IVF was significantly higher in the same group, in comparison with (+ + and (+ – (p<0.001. Group (+ – ewes presented the lowest maturation (p<0.001, fertilization (p<0.05 and cleavage rates (p<0.001. In conclusion, the ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment determines the number and quality of the oocytes recovered 7 days after the oestrus induced by the hormonal treatment. In vitro techniques could be an important tool to increase embryo production by particular ewes when they are not able to produce a significant amount of in vivo embryos.

  13. Water Treatment Group

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  14. The interventional treatment for biliary re-stenosis after metallic stents placement in patients with malignant obstruction due to cholangiocarcinoma

    Objective: To explore the interventional treatment for biliary re-stenosis after metallic stents placement in patients due to cholangiocarcinoma and evaluate its therapeutic effect. Methods: Percutaneous metallic stents placement or combined with continuously infusion arterial chemotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic embolization were performed in 12 patients with biliary re-stenosis using 12 metallic stents. Results: Once stent placement was 100% successful in all 12 cases, TBIL, ALT, GTP and AKP values 7 days postoperatively were significantly lower than that in preoperation. Jaundice was reduced satisfactorily in 12 patients. 3 patients were undergone continuously arterial chemotherapeutics infusion and chemotherapeutic embolization 4 weeks after stents placement. Conclusions: Percutaneous replacement of biliary metallic stents was effective and safe for palliation of malignant biliary re-stenosis and would be much better when combined with continuously arterial chemotherapeutics infusion and chemotherapeutic embolization

  15. The interventional treatment for biliary recurrent obstruction after palliative T tube drainage in patients with obstruction due to cholangiocarcinoma

    Objective: To explore the interventional method to treat biliary recurrent jaundice after T tube drainage in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: 7 biliary metallic stents were placed in 7 patients with recurrent jaundice after T-tube drainage in cholangiocarcinoma cases. Results: Stent placement was once successful in all 7 cases with successful rate of 100%. For all cases, TBIL, ALT, GTP and AKP values 7 days postoperatively were significantly lower than that of preoperation together with subsidence of jaundice satisfactorily for 100% after the treatment. Conclusions: Percutaneous placement of biliary metallic stents was effective economic, minimal invasive and safe for palliation of biliary recurrent jaundice after T tube drainage in cholangiocarcinoma-induced obstructive jaundice

  16. Local hyperthermia treatment of tumors induces CD8+ T cell-mediated resistance against distal and secondary tumors

    Zhang, Peisheng; Chen, Lei; Baird, Jason R.; Demidenko, Eugene; Turk, Mary Jo; Hoopes, P. Jack; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.; Fiering, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and an alternating magnetic filed (AMF) can induce local hyperthermia in tumors in a controlled and uniform manner. Heating B16 primary tumors at 43°C for 30 minutes activated dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph node (dLN) and conferred resistance against rechallenge with B16 (but not unrelated Lewis Lung carcinoma) given 7 days post hyperthermia on both the primary tumor side and the contralateral side in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. Mice with heated primary tumors also resisted rechallenge given 30 days post hyperthermia. Mice with larger heated primary tumors had greater resistance to secondary tumors. No rechallenge resistance occurred when tumors were heated at 45°C. Our results demonstrate the promising potential of local hyperthermia treatment applied to identified tumors in inducing anti-tumor immune responses that reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis. PMID:24566274

  17. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  18. A clinical investigation of pivmecillinam. A novel beta-lactam antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Wise, R; Reeves, D S; Symonds, J M; Wilkinson, P J

    1976-01-01

    Pivmecillinam (FL 1039) is the pivaloyloxymethyl ester of mecillinam (FL 1060) which has considerable in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae. 38 hospital inpatients who had proven urinary tract infections were treated with 400 mg pivmecillinam four times daily for 5-7 days. The MIC of mecillinam to the infecting organisms was determined as were the serum and urinary concentrations of the antibiotic. The patients were followed up for 4-6 weeks after the end of treatment. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 35 patients who were adequately followed up, 29 (83%) were classified as cured and there were 6 failures. Reported side effects were of a minor nature. PMID:181216

  19. Effect of yeast antagonist in combination with heat treatment on postharvest blue mold decay and Rhizopus decay of peaches.

    Zhang, Hongyin; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Dong, Ying

    2007-04-01

    The potential of using heat treatment alone or in combination with an antagonistic yeast for the control of blue mold decay and Rhizopus decay of peaches caused by Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer respectively, and in reducing natural decay development of peach fruits, as well as its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. In vitro tests, spore germination of pathogens in PDB was greatly controlled by the heat treatment of 37 degrees C for 2 d. In vivo test to control blue mold decay of peaches, heat treatment and antagonist yeast, as stand-alone treatments, were capable of reducing the percentage of infected wounds from 92.5% to 52.5% and 62.5%, respectively, when peach fruits stored at 25 degrees C for 6 d. However, in fruit treated with combination of heat treatment and Cryptococcus laurentii, the percentage of infected wounds of blue mold decay was only 22.5%. The test of using heat treatment alone or in combination with C. laurentii to control Rhizopus decay of peaches gave a similar result. The application of heat treatment and C. laurentii resulted in low average natural decay incidences on peaches after storage at 4 degrees C for 30 days and 20 degrees C for 7 days ranging from 40% to 30%, compared with 20% in the control fruit. The combination of heat treatment and C. laurentii was the most effective treatment, and the percentage of decayed fruits was 20%. Heat treatment in combination with C. laurentii had no significant effect on firmness, TSS, ascorbic acid or titratable acidity compared to control fruit. Thus, the combination of heat treatment and C. laurentii could be an alternative to chemicals for the control of postharvest decay on peach fruits. PMID:17140691

  20. Drug: D02126 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D02126 Drug Primaquine phosphate (USP); Primaquine (TN) C15H21N3O. 2H3PO4 455.1223 ...ICIDES AND REPELLENTS P01 ANTIPROTOZOALS P01B ANTIMALARIALS P01BA Aminoquinolines P01BA03 Primaqui...ne D02126 Primaquine phosphate (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antiparasitics Antiprotozoals Primaqui...ne D02126 Primaquine phosphate (USP) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antmala...rials Others Aminoquinolines Primaquine [ATC:P01BA03] D02126 Primaquine phosphate

  1. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    Damkier, P; Lublin, H; Taylor, D; Nielsen, J

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  2. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    Koc, M.; Aktas, E. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Medical School

    2003-02-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of

  3. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of

  4. Thermal Treatment of Salt-Loaded Zeolite

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Eung Ho; Kim, Joon Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salts such as molten LiCl salt from an oxide fuel reduction process and molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from an electro refining process must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are known to be leach resistance and waste form durability. US Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed a ceramic waste form (CWF) fabrication technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from ANL Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The CWF, which was made by first occluding salt in zeolite A at 730 K and then encapsulating the zeolite in a borosilicate binder glass by a hot isostatic press (HIP) method or pressureless consolidation (PC) method, has the phase composition of about 70% sodalite, 25% binder glass, and a 5% total of inclusion phases (halite, nepheline, and various oxides and silicates). US ANL showed that the chemical durability and leach resistance of the CWF were higher than those of glass waste form for high level waste from aqueous process, by a 7-day product consistency test (PCT). However, the waste form fabrication process for waste LiCl salt is somewhat different in mixing temperature from that for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at US ANL. The former is mixed at 920 K, whereas, the later mixing is accomplished at 730 K. Such difference in mixing temperature results in the different major phase of SLZ, that is, zeolite Li-A from LiCl salt, and unchanged zeolite A from LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. This unchanged phase of zeolite A during an immobilization step is transformed to sodalite, which was known to be very high leach-resistant, in the step of encapsulating with borosilicate glass. In this work, we tried to investigate the transformation of major phase of SLZ, from zeolite Li-A to Na{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod using zeolite only sodalite, by a quantitative analysis with a software for X-ray diffractometer during the thermal treatment under 1170 K.

  5. Severe ocular hypertension secondary to systemic corticosteroid treatment in a child with nephrotic syndrome

    Brito PN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Nuno Brito,1 Sérgio Estrela Silva,1 José Silva Cotta,1 Fernando Falcão-Reis1,21Ophthalmology Department, Hospital S João, Porto, Portugal; 2Faculty of Medicine of Porto, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalPurpose: To report a case of severe, acute ocular hypertension in a 6-year-old child, 7 days after initiating treatment with oral prednisolone, due to nephrotic syndrome.Methods: A 6-year-old female Caucasian child was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome and treated with oral prednisolone (60 mg/day. Seven days later the child initiated complaints of headache, vomiting, ocular pain, and photophobia. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a severely increased intraocular pressure (IOP of 52 mmHg in the right eye and 56 mmHg in the left eye. Anterior segment morphology was evaluated with ultrasound biomicroscopy. Optic disc status was evaluated by disc photography, kinetic perimetry, and optical coherence tomography.Results: Treatment was initiated with latanoprost, brimonidine, and the fixed association of timolol and dorzolamide. At each follow-up examination, progressively better control of IOP was obtained. Simultaneous with corticosteroid dosage decrease we were able to reduce antiglaucomatous medication while maintaining IOP under control. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an open angle with normal anterior segment echographic findings. Perimetric evaluation revealed normal visual fields in both eyes. Four months after presentation, steroid treatment had been completed and IOP was 10 mmHg in both eyes without any antiglaucomatous medication. Optical coherence tomography revealed normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in all peripapillary sectors.Conclusions: Systemic steroid treatment can cause a severe, acute increase in IOP in children. Children undergoing steroid treatment should have routine ophthalmologic examinations during treatment duration. Prompt antiglaucomatous treatment prevents retinal nerve fiber layer damage and

  6. Epidermal growth factor treatment decreases mortality and is associated with improved gut integrity in sepsis.

    Clark, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective peptide that has healing effects on the intestinal mucosa. We sought to determine whether systemic administration of EGF after the onset of sepsis improved intestinal integrity and decreased mortality. FVB/N mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or 2 x 23 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic mice were further randomized to receive injection of either 150 microg kg(-1) d(-1) (i.p.) EGF or 0.9% saline (i.p.). Circulating EGF levels were decreased after CLP compared with sham animals but were unaffected by giving exogenous EGF treatment. In contrast, intestinal EGF levels increased after CLP and were further augmented by exogenous EGF treatment. Intestinal EGF receptor was increased after CLP, whether assayed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or Western blot, and exogenous EGF treatment decreased intestinal EGF receptor. Villus length decreased 2-fold between sham and septic animals, and EGF treatment resulted in near total restitution of villus length. Sepsis decreased intestinal proliferation and increased intestinal apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Fas-associated death domain, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 cip1/waf Epidermal growth factor treatment after the onset of sepsis restored both proliferation and apoptosis to levels seen in sham animals and normalized expression of Bid, Fas-associated death domain, and p21 cip1/waf . To determine whether improvements in gut homeostasis were associated with a decrease in sepsis-induced mortality, septic mice with or without EGF treatment after CLP were followed 7 days for survival. Mortality decreased from 60% to 30% in mice treated with EGF after the onset of sepsis (P < 0.05). Thus, EGF may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis in part due to its ability to protect intestinal integrity. PMID:18004230

  7. Responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in rat bladder cancer model

    Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Gederas, Odrun; Larsen, Eivind; Randeberg, Lise; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2010-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated histologically the effects of hexyl 5-aminolevulinateinduced photodynamic treatment in the AY-27 tumor cell induced rat bladder cancer model. MATERIAL & METHODS: The animals (fischer-344 female rats) were divided into 2 groups, half of which were orthotopically implanted with 400,000 syngeniec AY-27 urothelia1 rat bladder cancer cells and half sham implanted. 14 days post implantation 6 rats from each group were treated with hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment (8mM HAL and light fluence of 20 J/cm2). Additional groups of animals were only given HAL instillation, only light treatment, or no treatment. All animals were sacrificed 7 days after the PDT/only HAL/only light or no treatment. Each bladder was removed, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin, eosin, and saferin for histological evaluation at high magnification for features of tissue damage by a pathologist blinded to the sample source. RESULTS: In all animals that were AY-27 implanted and not given complete PDT treatment, viable tumors were found in the bladder mucosa and wall. In the animals treated with complete HAL-PDT only 3 of 6 animals had viable tumor. In the 3 animals with viable tumor it was significantly reduced in volume compared to the untreated animals. It was also noted that in the PDT treated animals there was a significantly increased inflammatory response (lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration) in the peri-tumor area compared to implanted animals without complete HAL-PDT. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in a rat bladder cancer model involves both direct effects on cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and indirect effects to evoke the host immune-response, together contributing to tumor eradication.

  8. Late effects of radiation on the lumbar spinal cord of guinea pigs: Re-treatment tolerance

    Using a guinea pig model of lumbar myelopathy, various factors affecting the tolerance of spinal cord to irradiation were assessed: (a) extent of initial injury; (b) time interval between priming and test doses; and (c) animal age at the time of initial radiation treatment. A 3 cm section of lumbar spinal cord of guinea pigs was irradiated with fractionated doses of 4.5 Gy gamma rays given as 9 fractions per week. Guinea pigs were primed with 9 x 4.5 Gy in 7 days which is 60% of the ED50 for a continuous course of treatment. After 28 or 40 weeks, animal were retreated with 6-14 fractions of 4.5 Gy. Animals were observed for 2 years following the priming dose and both the incidence and latency of myelopathy recorded. Young adult guinea pigs (8 wk old) showed both a decreased radiation tolerance and latency compared to old individuals (40 wk old). At 28 or 40 wk after 9 x 4.5 Gy, only about 8% of the initial injury was remembered in young adult guinea pigs. The amount of residual injury was dependent on the initial damage as a proportion of the tolerance dose. The spinal cord shows a greater capacity for long-term recovery than generally appreciated and re-treatment doses clinically prescribed may be lower than necessary. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Treatment trial of clinically ill corroboree frogs with chytridiomycosis with two triazole antifungals and electrolyte therapy.

    Brannelly, Laura A; Skerratt, Lee F; Berger, Lee

    2015-09-01

    Chytridiomycosis caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is an important cause of amphibian declines globally, and is the worst pathogen on record for causing biodiversity loss. The critically endangered southern corroboree frog, Pseudophryne corroboree, is functionally extinct in the wild and is surviving in captive assurance colonies. These captive colonies must remain disease free, and there is no known treatment for corroboree frogs with terminal chytridiomycosis. In this study we tested two triazole antifungals (itraconazole and voriconazole) coupled with aggressive electrolyte therapy on moribund corroboree frogs with severe chytridiomycosis. Six moribund frogs were given 20 mL baths of 0.5 μg/mL itraconazole for 5 min/day for 5 days coupled with electrolyte injections every 8 h for 3 days followed by every 12 h for 3 days. Six other moribund frogs were given 1 mL drops of 1.25 μg/mL voriconazole daily for 7 days coupled with the aggressive electrolyte therapy. While only one animal survived this treatment regime, time until death was extended for all animals by at least 3 days and infection load decreased by an average of 89.3%. Our results suggest there is potential for recovery of terminally ill P. corroboree, and we suggest further trials include antibiotics as well as exploring variations on the above treatment regime with other antifungals. PMID:26246159

  10. Biological treatment for sewage

    Xintai, Wang; Luc Sanya, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The sewage treatment is by no means insignificant in our world, and for many sewage treatment plants, the biological treatment is the best choice to eliminate the nutrients and organic compounds in the waste water. Today, in most waste water treatment plants, there are two main kinds of biological waste water treatment – the active sludge method and the biofilm method. Each of these two methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. For different towns or cities, the waste water treatme...

  11. Convex treatment response and treatment selection

    Boes, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the identifying power of weak convexity assumptions in treatment effect models with endogenous selection. The counterfactual distributions are constrained either in terms of the response function, or conditional on the realized treatment, and sharp bounds on the potential outcome distributions are derived. The methods are applied to bound the effect of education on smoking.

  12. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    ... health care provider? How is it diagnosed? What infertility treatments are available? Fertility Treatments for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That ...

  13. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance. PMID:27507621

  14. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise Des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance.

  15. Effect of Photoperiod Treatments on Dormancy Induction and Changes in Correlated Respiratory Rate of Nectarine Peach Bud

    2008-01-01

    The responses of dormancy induction to illumination and the characteristics of respiratory rate were studied with the nectarine peach bud in this article. The trial was conducted with nectarine (Prunus persica vat. nectariana cv. Shuguang) and involved three treatments: a short day treatment (8 h), a long day treatment (16 h), and the normal condition as the control. The dormancy status was determined with the growth of shoot and the sprouting ability, and the respiratory rate was mensurated with oxygen electrode. Short day treatment could induce the growth stopping of peach shoots ahead, promote the development of dormancy, and induce buds into dormancy with 21 d previous to control. Long day treatment postponed the growth stopping and the induction and development of dormancy. The respiratory rate decreased according to the development of dormancy induction. The minimum respiratory rate appeared about 7 days after the start of dormancy induction. Bud respiratory rate increased during this period and then declined and remained at low level during dormancy period. Long day reduced buds respiratory rate slightly. Short day could induce dormancy obviously, and long day postponed dormancy induction. The changes of respiratory rate were correlated with the development of dormancy induction, and the bud respiratory rate was also affected by photoperiod.

  16. Assessing Response to Radiation Therapy Treatment of Bone Metastases: Short-Term Followup of Radiation Therapy Treatment of Bone Metastases with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    This study examined the usefulness of diffusion-weighted (DW) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in monitoring bone metastases response to radiation therapy in 15 oligometastatic patients. For each metastasis, both mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes and high b-value DW metastasis/muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) variations were evaluated at 30 ± 5 days and 60 ± 7 days after the end of treatment. On baseline DW-MRI, all bone metastases were hyperintense and had signal intensities higher than normal bone marrow on calculated ADC maps. At follow-up evaluations, 4 patterns of response were identified: (I) decreased high b-value DW SIR associated with increased mean ADC (83.3% of cases); (II) increased mean ADC with no change of high b-value DW SIR (10% of cases); (III) decreased both high b-value DW SIR and mean ADC (3.3% of cases); (IV) a reduction in mean ADC associated with an increase in high b-value DW SIR compared to pretreatment values (3.3% of cases). Patterns (I) and (II) suggested a good response to therapy; pattern (III) was classified as indeterminate, while pattern (IV) was suggestive of disease progression. This pattern approach may represent a useful tool in the differentiation between treatment-induced necrosis and highly cellular residual tumor. 1. Introduction

  17. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3

    Enzo Vicari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE. A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 10 [9] CFU per day or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6% complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = "6Tx/6-": treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26; Group B = "12Tx": 12 months of treatment (n = 22; Group C = "6-/6Tx": no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23; Group D = "12-": no treatment (n = 24. The patients of Groups A = "6Tx/6-" and B = "12Tx" had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast, group "12-": patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%. The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups "6Tx/6-" (15.5% and "6-/6Tx" (13.6% was lower than that found in the patients of group "12-" (45.8%. Finally, no patient of groups "6Tx/6-" and "6-/6Tx" had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group "12-" patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS.

  18. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3.

    Vicari, Enzo; La Vignera, Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months) and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 10(9) FU per day) or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6%) complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = "6Tx/6-": treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26); Group B = "12Tx": 12 months of treatment (n = 22); Group C = "6-/6Tx": no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23); Group D = "12-": no treatment (n = 24). The patients of Groups A = "6Tx/6-" and B = "12Tx" had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively). In contrast, group "12-": patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%). The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups "6Tx/6-" (15.5%) and "6-/6Tx" (13.6%) was lower than that found in the patients of group "12-" (45.8%). Finally, no patient of groups "6Tx/6-" and "6-/6Tx" had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group "12-" patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS. PMID:24969056

  19. Pharmacologic treatment of paraphilias.

    Assumpção, Alessandra Almeida; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Garcia, Heloise Delavenne; Bradford, John M W; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of paraphilias remains a challenge in the mental health field. Combined pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with better efficacy. The gold standard treatment of severe paraphilias in adult males is antiandrogen treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been used in mild types of paraphilia and in cases of sexual compulsions and juvenile paraphilias. Antiandrogen treatments seem to be effective in severe paraphilic subjects committing sexual offenses. In particular, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs have shown high efficacy working in a similar way to physical castration but being reversible at any time. Treatment recommendations, side effects, and contraindications are discussed. PMID:24877704

  20. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  1. Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol–theophylline–guaiphenesin mixture in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

    Mostafa Yakoot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2, Abdel-Mohsen Omar31Green Clinics and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Al-Mabarah Hospital, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin® (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg; theophylline (50 mg; and guaiphenesin (30 mg, per 5 mL syrup.Objective: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design.Patients and methods: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05. There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in ­breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin ­treatment group (P < 0.001. Out of 50 patients, 48 (96% in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their ­improvement on the CGIC scale as “much” and “very much” improved, while only 41 patients (82% reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05.Conclusion: We

  2. Comparison of cefixime and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Dukić Smiljka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Despite significant advances in current medicine and improvement of overall health education, chronic periodontitis is still a widespread disease. Losing teeth is the most serious complication of this particular illness. The aim of this study was to examine patients with chronic periodontitis in order to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical therapy and combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole compared with cefixime, which has not been so far used for the treatment of this disease. Methods. Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90 underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days, while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days. To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results. On the day 7 after the beginning of the therapy, we found that all the three groups of patients had statistically significant clinical improvement of three parameters: GI, BOP and PD, but not of the CAL. However, the improvement of PD was only statistically, but not clinically significant. The improvement in the control group of patients on the day 7 was 19% in BOP and 28% in GI; this improvement was statistically highly significant after the addition of amoxicillin plus metronodazole (71% in BOP and 77% in GI or cefixime (62% in BOP and 82% in GI. Compared to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, cefixim was statistically significantly more effective for GI (p < 0.05, while for the other three clinical parameters their effects were equal. Conclusion. The conjunction of amoxicillin plus metronidazole or cefixime to the causal treatment of patients with

  3. HIV Treatment: The Basics

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  6. Nasal Wash Treatment

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  7. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

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  8. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

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  9. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

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  12. Treatment of appendiceal mass

    Olsen, Jesper; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure...... in total 3,772 patients. Operation for appendiceal mass was beset with a moderate to high risk of complications of up to 57% and a risk of intestinal resection of up to 25%. Major complications were observed in up to 18% of cases. Conservative treatment with or without antibiotics was associated...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

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  16. Research Areas: Treatment

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  17. Early Diagnosis, Timely Treatment

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  18. Wastewater Treatment Plants

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  19. Medical Treatments for Fibroids

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  1. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

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    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Treatment for atrial fibrillation depends on how often you have symptoms, how ...

  5. Shoulder Impingement Treatment

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Shoulder Impingement Treatment Page Content Article Body Shoulder impingement ... goals for shoulder impingement. Phases and Goals of Shoulder Impingement Treatment Treating shoulder impingement involves limiting activities ...

  6. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    ... 2/13 By Dr. Iseman Michael Iseman, MD Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment Given the many effective medications available ... is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment More Treating Tuberculosis Information Active TB Disease Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Latent ...

  7. Comparison of Two Regimens of Nigella sativa Extract for Treatment of Subclinical Mastitis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    Hamideh G. Azadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Little research has focused on treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis during lactation. The seed of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae, commonly known as black seed or black cumin, is used in folk (herbal medicine. Approach: Objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of Nigella sativa Extract (NSE with two regimens for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows and to determine which regimen enhanced efficacy of it. Results: From one hundred Holstein dairy research herd in Mashhad-Iran, 83 cows with a total of 157 subclinically Staphylococcus aureus infected quarters were included. Cows were enrolled in the study based on milk somatic cell counts >200,000 mL-1 and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in 3 samples obtained 1 week apart. About 10 cc of NSE (in paraffin: 200 mg cc-1 was administered via intramammary infusion. First, Cows were divided into three treatment groups. Group 1 (37 cows received intramammary infusion at each milking (3 times daily for 3 days with 10 cc NSE. Group 2 (24 cows received the same intramammary infusion but only once daily for 3 days. The third, 22 cows were included as an untreated negative control group. Results in bacteriologic cure of 69.4% of quarters and 59.5% of cows (Group 1 compared to 60% of quarters and 45.8% of cows (Group 2. Test for mastitis diagnosis Somatic cell counts of milk from quarters that were not cured were higher prior to initiation of treatment than those cured. A bacteriological cure was defined as a treated infected mammary quarter that was bacteriologically negative for the presence of S. aureus at 3-7 day after the last treatment. Conclusion: All two Nigella sativa treatment regimens were significantly better than the negative control and the nine dose Nigella sativa treatment regimen treatment group was not significantly better than the three dose treatment group (p = 0.332.

  8. Endodontic treatment of molars

    Stürzlinger, Heidi; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Habl, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology: By performing a systematic...

  9. Treatment of pediculosis capitis

    Prashant Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of.

  10. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis.

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  11. Dyes Waste Treatments

    Siew-Teng Ong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dyes waste represent one of the problematic groups of pollutants because their presence can be easily identified by the human eye and they are not easily biodegradable. This literature review paper highlights and provides an overview of dyes waste treatments for 3 years period, from 2008–2010. The noteworthy treatment processes for dyes waste include biological treatment, catalytic oxidation, filtration, sorption process and combination treatments.

  12. Treatment Resistant Bipolar Disorder

    Elvan Ozalp; Ersin Hatice Karslioglu

    2015-01-01

    Many patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder respond incompletely or unsatisfactorily to available treatments. Defining refractoriness in bipolar disorder is a complex issue and should concern and include either every phase and pole or the disorder as a whole. There are only limited and sometimes confusing data on the treatment of refractory bipolar patients. The objective of this paper was to review the evidence for treatment options in treatment resistant patients on depressive, manic atta...

  13. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    Geddes, John R.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in t...

  14. Randomized clinical trial of intrauterine cephapirin infusion in dairy cows for the treatment of purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis.

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Dubuc, J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of an intrauterine infusion of cephapirin on reproductive performance at first service of postpartum dairy cows affected by purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) and cytological endometritis (ENDO) using different diagnostic strategies, and to determine if the presence of prolonged anovulation would influence the magnitude of treatment benefit. In total, 2,259 Holstein cows in 28 herds were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. At 35 (± 7) days in milk (DIM), cows were diagnosed with PVD using the Metricheck device (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand), with cytological endometritis using endometrial cytology (ENDO-CYTO), and with cytological endometritis using leukocyte esterase (ENDO-LE). Regardless of reproductive tract disease status, cows were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine cephapirin infusion or to not be treated. Serum progesterone was measured at 35 and 49 (± 7) DIM (14 d apart); cows were considered to have prolonged anovulation if progesterone was cows were collected until 200 DIM. Statistical analyses were conducted using multivariable mixed logistic regression models. Intrauterine cephapirin treatment was associated with an increased first-service pregnancy risk in cows diagnosed with PVD (no treatment: 15.4%; treatment: 31.4%), ENDO-CYTO (no treatment: 16.2%, treatment: 24.4%), and ENDO-LE (no treatment: 15.8%; treatment: 25.1%), but not in cows unaffected by any form of reproductive tract disease (no treatment: 34.8%; treatment: 32.6%). Cephapirin treatment was also associated with an increased first-service reproductive performance in cows affected simultaneously by both PVD and ENDO-CYTO (no treatment: 8.7%; treatment: 23.4%). The effect of cephapirin treatment in anovular cows (no treatment: 21.0%; treatment: 26.4%) was numerically lower than in cyclic cows (no treatment: 22.7%; treatment: 34.1%). Overall, an intrauterine infusion of cephapirin improved first-service pregnancy risk in

  15. [The efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women: a randomized, prospective, multicenter study].

    Rafal'skiĭ, V V; Dovgan', E V; Kozyrev, Iu V; Gustovarova, T A; Khlybova, S V; Novoselova, A V; Filippenko, N G; Likhikh, D G

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. A prospective, multicenter, randomized study that included 112 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was performed. 58 women were randomized in group 1 (cefixime [suprax solutab] 400 mg 1 time a day, 7 days), 54 women were included in group 2 (amoxicillin/clavulanate [amoksiklav] 625 mg 3 times a day, 7 days). The average age of the patients in group 1 was 25.2 +/- 6.6; in group 2--26.6 +/- 5.8 years. Physical examination, evaluation of complaints, collection of data on adverse reactions, and bacteriological analysis of urine were performed after enrollment in the study at visit 2 (day 10 +/- 1) and 3 (day 35 +/- 2). Comparable effectiveness of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was found. Eradication of the pathogen and sustained bacteriological response were observed in 94.8 and 92.7% of women treated with cefixime, and in 98.2 and 92.5% of women treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P > 0.05). At the same time, the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate compared with cefixime significantly higher was followed by the development of adverse reactions (13% and 1.7; respectively; P = 0.02). Seven-day courses of cefixime at a dose 400 mg 1 time a day and amoxicillin/clavulanate at a dose of 625 mg 3 times a day are high-effective treatment regimens for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women in Russia. The use of amoxicillin/clavulanate is significantly more often accompanied by the development of adverse reactions compared with cefixime. PMID:24437236

  16. Thermomechanical treatment of steel

    Thermomechanical treatment is defined as a process in which a forming operation is carried out in the course of a treatment in order to improve the mechanical properties of a material. Several thermomechanical processes for the treatment of steel are described. (WBU)

  17. The Treatment Philosophy Snowballs.

    Hern, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Students who respond to the ludicrous environments of schooling with behaviors and demeanor that do not fit school criteria frequently are given a medical label and drug treatment. The fact that Ritalin is given to 2.8% of all American children reflects a "treatment philosophy" in which professionals define problems and prescribe treatments for a…

  18. Electrocoagulation in Wastewater Treatment

    Mohammed Suleiman Al Ahmad; Ruth Yu-Li Yeh; Yung-Tse Hung; Erick Butler

    2011-01-01

    A review of the literature published in from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to electrochemical treatment within wastewater was presented. The review included several sections such as optimization, modeling, various wastewater treatment techniques, analytical and instrumentation, and comparison with other treatment methods.

  19. Electrocoagulation in Wastewater Treatment

    Mohammed Suleiman Al Ahmad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature published in from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to electrochemical treatment within wastewater was presented. The review included several sections such as optimization, modeling, various wastewater treatment techniques, analytical and instrumentation, and comparison with other treatment methods.

  20. Treatment strategy for DIC

    刘敏涓

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Identify underlying diseases (Table 1), active treatment and seeks to eradicate. Even if the cause of the same, each trying to individualized treatment of patients. Such as pneumococcal sepsis and DIC, the prognosis of young people and the elderly is different from primary and secondary immune deficiencies are different treatment options.

  1. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TREATMENT OF ACUTE BRONCHITIS PRIMARILY WITH PRICKING-CUPPING ON BACK-SHU POINTS

    XU Wei-dong; ZHANG Yong-juan; YANG Jie; CHEN Xiao-xiang; LIU Yong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of treatment of acute bronchitis primarily with prickingcupping method on Back-shu points. Methods: The patients of acute bronchitis were randomly divided into 2groups. In the observation group, there were 36 cases, who were treated with the integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine, primarily the pricking-cupping method on Back-shu points; while in the control group, there were 29 cases who were given the conventinal treatment of western medicine. All the 2 groups were treated for 7 days as one treating course. Results: The total effective rate of the observation group was 97.2% while that of the control group was 82.8%, so there is a significant difference between them. On the first and third days the clinical manifestations were more satisfactorily improved in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.01 ) and on the fifth and seventh days, the comparison showed no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion: The treatment of acute bronchitis by means of the integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine primarily with pricking-cupping method on Back-shu points is of marked therapeutic effect, simple manipulation, and little untoward effects, thus claiming the unique advantage.

  2. Effect of Pre-treatment with Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Leaves on Diabetogenesis Produced by Alloxan in Rats

    Shamsun Nahar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. Objective: In the study, we aimed to investigate the pre-treatment effect or preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves on blood sugar of rats. Materials and method: This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Dhaka. A total 24 long Evans rats were included in this study and divided in to four groups. Hyperglycemia was induced on rats using alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitioneally. Blood sample was collected from tail vein by tail tipping method. Pre-treatment effect or preventive role of Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaf powder on diabetogenesis produced by Alloxan in rats was tested by giving 50 mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 14 days orally as pre-treatment along with standard rat feed. Then alloxan was administered intraperitoneally on 15th day of the experiment and 50mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder was given for 7 days as post-treatment. Results: No significant effect of MO on blood glucose level was observed on normal rats and non significant hypoglycaemic effect was found in rats that were pretreated with MO. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Moringa oleifera leaf powder did not produce any significant protective effect in diabetogenesis produced by alloxan though it has hypoglycaemic effect.

  3. Evaluating the use of Floseal haemostatic matrix in the treatment of epistaxis: a prospective, control-matched longitudinal study.

    Lau, Andrew S; Upile, Navdeep S; Lazarova, Lepa; Swift, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis is a common cause of emergency admissions in ENT. The use of Floseal haemostatic matrix in the treatment of epistaxis has been investigated in a number of studies in North America. We aimed to report a UK-based experience in the context of the current UK management paradigm. The study was designed as a prospective, unrandomised, control-matched longitudinal study. Cases were matched to controls in order to reduce the risk of bias. The overall treatment success rate for Floseal was 75 %, similar to the rates reported by studies based in North America. Nasal packing carried a success rate of 85 % and there was no statistically significant difference between the success rates of both treatments. Anecdotally Floseal can also be used successfully in thrombocyctopenic patients. There was a trend towards a shorter length of stay in the Floseal group, but this was not statistically significant. The 7-day readmission rate was 10 % for both the groups. This controlled study demonstrates that Floseal has a similar treatment success rate to nasal packing and that there may be a trend towards a shorter length of stay. PMID:26920703

  4. Combined postharvest X-ray and cold quarantine treatments against the Mediterranean fruit fly in ‘Clemenules’ mandarins

    In the present work, survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on artificially infested 'Clemenules' clementine mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) was assessed on fruit subjected to integrated quarantine treatments consisting of irradiation with X-rays at doses of 0 (control), 30, 54, and 164 Gy followed by exposure to 1 deg C for 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, or 12 days. Additionally, physico-chemical (rind color, firmness, and physiological disorders, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, maturity index, juice yield, and ethanol and acetaldehyde content) and sensory (sweetness, acidity, sensory maturity index, off-flavors, and mandarin-like flavor) fruit quality of 'Clemenules' clementines were assessed on X-irradiated fruit exposed to 1 deg C for 0 (control), 6, or 12 days. Complete insect mortality with no negative effects on fruit quality after 7 days at 20 deg C of shelf life was obtained on clementines firstly X-irradiated at 30 Gy and subsequently exposed to 1 deg C for 2 days. This combination of treatments considerably reduced quarantine time if compared to standard cold quarantine treatments (1.1-2.2 deg C for 14-18 days) and therefore showed promise as a potential commercial treatment for Spanish citrus exports

  5. TREATMENT EFFECTS 101

    Thelma J. Mielenz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical therapy researchers are interested in how beneficial an intervention is or the “treatment effect.” There are many measures of treatment effect that are applicable for understanding the efficacy and effectiveness of health interventions. Given that each treatment effect has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, understanding these characteristics can help guide which measure is most appropriate for a specific study. This article presents the more common treatment effects for both dichotomous and continues outcomes. The overall aim is to serve as a guide to newer physical therapy researchers on using and interpreting treatment effects.

  6. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:27620086

  7. Tumor burden talks in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs.

    Yi-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model. METHODS: Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%. BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm(3 or large (102.4±22.0 mm(3 C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment. RESULTS: The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r (2 = 0.9336 between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only and InNanoX (radionuclide only. Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors. CONCLUSION: The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs.

  8. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  9. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures. PMID:26580737

  10. Successful treatment of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection using convalescent plasma.

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Peng, Xiu-Ming; Ou, Hui-Lin; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-12-01

    In January 2015, there was an outbreak of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in Zhejiang Province, China. A 45-year-old man was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University with a high fever that had lasted 7 days, chills, and a cough with yellow sputum. Laboratory testing confirmed infection with the H7N9 virus, likely obtained from contact with poultry at a local live poultry market. A large dense shadow was apparent in the patient's left lung at the time of admission. Treatment with oseltamivir (75mg twice daily) did not improve the patient's condition. The decision was made to try using convalescent plasma to treat the infection. Convalescent plasma was administered 3 days after the patient was admitted to the hospital and led to a marked improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of convalescent plasma to treat a case of H7N9 infection in China. These results suggest that the combination of convalescent plasma and antiviral drugs may be effective for the treatment of avian-origin H7N9 infection. PMID:26482389

  11. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  12. A comparison of haloperidol, lithium carbonate and their combination in the treatment of mania.

    Garfinkel, P E; Stancer, H C; Persad, E

    1980-12-01

    Previous investigations of the treatment of mania have resulted in uncertainty about the efficacy of lithium versus a neuroleptic. In addition there have been reports of toxicity with a haloperidol--lithium combination. In order to determine the comparative efficacy of lithium vs haloperidol vs a combination of haloperidol--lithium, we studied 21 severely ill manic patients who all met rigorous criteria for bipolar illness and who required in hospital treatment. Subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (A) Lithium plus placebo (B) Placebo plus haloperidol and (C) Lithium plus haloperidol. The study was conducted in double blind fashion for 3 weeks with the dosages of the medications varied according to clinical response or untoward effects. Subjects on haloperidol and placebo or the haloperidol--lithium combination were significantly improved after 7 days in comparison to the lithium-treated group. Groups B and C did not differ from each other, either in degree of improvement or in side effects. Inspite of the relatively small sample size the results suggest (1) that haloperidol is superior to lithium for treating severely ill acute mania and (2) that while a haloperidol--lithium combination does not result in a significant increase in side effects, it is not superior to haloperidol alone. PMID:6450787

  13. Daily methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment impacts on clock gene protein expression in the mouse brain.

    Baird, Alison L; Coogan, Andrew N; Kaufling, Jennifer; Barrot, Michel; Thome, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    Circadian rhythms are repeating patterns of physiological and other parameters that recur with periods of approximately 24h, and are generated by an endogenous circadian timekeeping mechanism. Such circadian rhythms, and their underlying molecular mechanisms, are known to be altered by a number of central nervous system acting pharmacological compounds, as well as becoming perturbed in a number of common psychiatric and neurological conditions. The psychostimulant methylphenidate and the non-stimulant atomoxetine are used in the pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, a common condition in which circadian rhythms have been reported to be altered. In the present study we have examined the effects of daily methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatment across 7 days on circadian clock gene product expression across numerous brain regions in the male mouse to test the potential impact of such compounds on circadian timing. We report drug, brain region and molecular specific effects of such treatments, including alterations in expression profiles in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian pacemaker. These results indicate that drugs used in the clinical management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can alter molecular factors that are believed to underpin circadian timekeeping, and such effects may be of importance in both the therapeutic and side effect profiles of such drugs. PMID:23566813

  14. IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Treatment Aggravates Staphylococcal Septic Arthritis and Sepsis in Mice.

    Abukar Ali

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra is the primary therapy against autoinflammatory syndromes with robust efficacy in reducing systemic inflammation and associated organ injury. However, patients receiving IL-1Ra might be at increased risk of acquiring serious infections.To study whether IL-1Ra treatment deteriorates Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus septic arthritis and sepsis in mice.NMRI mice were treated with anakinra (IL-1Ra daily for 7 days before intravenous inoculation with S. aureus strain Newman in both arthritogenic and lethal doses. The clinical course of septic arthritis, histopathological and radiological changes of the joints, as well as the mortality were compared between IL-1Ra treated and control groups.IL-1Ra treated mice developed more frequent and severe clinical septic arthritis. Also, the frequency of polyarthritis was significantly higher in the mice receiving IL-1Ra therapy. In line with the data from clinical arthritis, both histological and radiological signs of septic arthritis were more pronounced in IL-1Ra treated group compared to controls. Importantly, the mortality of IL-1Ra treated mice was significantly higher than PBS treated controls.IL-1Ra treatment significantly aggravated S. aureus induced septic arthritis and increased the mortality in these mice.

  15. Application of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes for treatment of urban sewage in Israel.

    Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Malkovskaja, A

    2006-12-01

    The effectiveness of sewage purification by aquatic plants, such as water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), was tested on laboratory and pilot scales. Cascade and semi-continuous pilot experiments verified that the plants are capable of decreasing all tested indicators of water quality to levels that permit the use of the purified water for irrigation of tree crops. This applies to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity. The laboratory-scale tests confirm the capacity of the plants to reach and hold reasonably low levels of BOD (5-7 mg L(-1)) and COD (40-50 mg L(-1)) and very low levels of TSS (3-5 mg L(-1)) and turbidity (1-2 NTU). In the experimental pilot setup, with circulation, COD decreased from 460 to 100 mg L(-1) after 2.5-4 days of treatment, while 6-7 days were required to this end without circulation. This doubled the active pond area and provided a two-level hydraulic loading (8 and 12 L min(-1)) with circulation that proved to be effective during the summer as well as the winter season. The outflow concentrations were 50-85 mg L(-1) of COD and 4-6 mg L(-1) of BOD. The results show that the use of this free water surface flow system (FWS) and its low maintenance system for treatment of urban and agricultural sewage is a viable option. PMID:16597484

  16. A pilot study of rivastigmine in the treatment of delirium after stroke: A safe alternative

    Jansen Ben PW

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common disorder in the early phase of stroke. Given the presumed cholinergic deficiency in delirium, we tested treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Methods This pilot study was performed within an epidemiological study. In 527 consecutive stroke patients presence of delirium was assessed during the first week with the confusion assessment method. Severity was scored with the delirium rating scale (DRS. Sixty-two patients developed a delirium in the acute phase of stroke. Only patients with a severe and persistent delirium (defined as a DRS of 12 or more for more than 24 hours were enrolled in the present study. In total 26 fulfilled these criteria of whom 17 were treated with orally administered rivastigmine with a total dose between 3 and 12 mg a day. Eight patients could not be treated because of dysphagia and one because of early discharge. Results No major side effects were recorded. In 16 patients there was a considerable decrease in severity of delirium. The mean DRS declined from 14.8 on day one to 8.5 after therapy and 5.6 after tapering. The mean duration of delirium was 6.7 days (range; 2–17. Conclusion Rivastigmine is safe in stroke patients with delirium even after rapid titration. In the majority of patients the delirium improved after treatment. A randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the usefulness of rivastigmine in delirium after stroke. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1395

  17. Successful treatment of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 infection using convalescent plasma

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2015, there was an outbreak of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus in Zhejiang Province, China. A 45-year-old man was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University with a high fever that had lasted 7 days, chills, and a cough with yellow sputum. Laboratory testing confirmed infection with the H7N9 virus, likely obtained from contact with poultry at a local live poultry market. A large dense shadow was apparent in the patient's left lung at the time of admission. Treatment with oseltamivir (75 mg twice daily did not improve the patient's condition. The decision was made to try using convalescent plasma to treat the infection. Convalescent plasma was administered 3 days after the patient was admitted to the hospital and led to a marked improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of convalescent plasma to treat a case of H7N9 infection in China. These results suggest that the combination of convalescent plasma and antiviral drugs may be effective for the treatment of avian-origin H7N9 infection.

  18. Tiaogan Qingxin Granule treatment increases myocardial connexin 43 expression in a rat model of arrhythmia.

    Yao, J H; Qu, C H; Ma, L; Chang, X Z

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-induced arrhythmia, especially ventricular arrhythmia, is the main reason for sudden cardiac death. Therefore, ischemic ventricular arrhythmia-targeted treatments are urgently needed. The mechanism of Tiaogan Qingxin Granule in premature ventricular beat (PVB) treatment was explored in arrhythmic rats pretreated with Tiaogan Qingxin Granule. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 40) were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, arrhythmia model, Wenxin Granule, and Tiaogan Qingxin Granule. The ischemic arrhythmia model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. The Tiaogan Qingxin Granule group was treated intragastrically for 7 days before surgery. Sham-operated rats underwent thoracotomy without coronary artery ligation. Myocardial infarction rate was measured using the triphenyltetrazolium chloride method and Cx43 expression was quantified by western blotting. Compared to the arrhythmia model group, the Tiaogan Qingxin Granule group showed a significant reduction in the myocardial infarct size and myocardial infarction rate (P 0.05). Thus, Tiaogan Qingxin Granule reduced the myocardial infarct size, lowered the myocardial infarction rate, and increased Cx43 expression, possibly by increasing blood supply to the cardiac muscles. In conclusion, Tiaogan Qingxin Granule may be useful for treating ischemic PVB. PMID:27323125

  19. Percutaneous transpapillary extraction of biliary calculus for symptomatic choledocholithiasis after unsuccessfully endoscopic treatment

    Purpose: Evaluation of a percutaneous transhepatic treatment of symptomatic choledocholithiasis in bile ducts that cannot be reached with the endoscope. Methods: From January 1996 to August 2000 a transhepatic extraction of biliary calculus was performed in four patients. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) was not successful in any of the cases. Clinical symptoms were icterus in four cases, additional cholangitis or colics in two cases. First, a ballon dilation of the papilla was performed by a percutaneous transhepatic approach. For removal of bile duct stones, occlusion catheters and Dormia baskets were used. Technical success was defined as complete removal of bile duct stones. Clinical success was defined as normalization of cholestasis and inflammation parameters. In the follow-up an ultrasound examination was performed and blood samples were taken for control of cholestasis parameters. Results: In all four cases treatment was technically and clinically successful. For complete removal of biliary calculus a second intervention was necessary in two cases. In each case an internal to external drainage was left over a mean of 7 days (3 - 13 days). In the mean follow-up of 30.5 months (6 - 50 months) all patients had persistent relief of symptoms. No further interventions were necessary. No complications were present. Conclusion: Percutaneous transpapillary extraction of biliary calculus is an effective alternative to surgery in patients with bile ducts, that cannot be reached with the endoscope. (orig.)

  20. Adherence to zinc supplementation guidelines for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Laura M Lamberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on adherence to the recommended dose and duration of zinc supplementation for diarrheal episodes in children under five years of age. In selected districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, we sought to assess adherence to the nationally advised zinc treatment regimen (ie, 10 mg/day for ages 2–6 months and 20 mg/day for ages 7–59 months for 14 days among caregivers of zinc–prescribed children. We identified and conducted follow–up visits to children advised zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. At the initial visit, we collected data on the treatment instructions received from providers. Caregivers were asked to record treatments administered on a pictorial tracking form and were asked to retain all packaging for collection at follow–up. We quantified the average dose and duration of zinc therapy and built logistic regression models to assess the factors associated with caregiver adherence to national guidelines. Caregivers administered zinc for an average of 10.7 days (standard deviation (SD = 3.9 days; median = 13 days, and 47.8% continued treatment for the complete 14 days. Among children receiving zinc syrups and tablets respectively, the age appropriate dose was received by 30.8% and 67.3%. Adherence to age appropriate dose and continuation of zinc for 14 days were highly associated with having received appropriate provider instructions. Our results indicate moderate–to–good adherence to national zinc treatment guidelines for diarrhea among caregivers in rural India. Our findings also highlight the importance of provider guidance in ensuring adherence to zinc dose and duration. Programs aiming to scale–up zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea should train providers to successfully communicate dosing instructions to caregivers, while also addressing the tendency of caregivers to terminate treatment once a child appears to have recovered from an acute diarrheal episode.

  1. Treatment of human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-739358 (Danusertib

    Fei Fei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemias (Ph-positive ALL with clinically approved inhibitors of the Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase frequently results in the emergence of a leukemic clone carrying the T315I mutation in Bcr/Abl, which confers resistance to these drugs. PHA-739358, an Aurora kinase inhibitor, was reported to inhibit the Bcr/Abl T315I mutant in CML cells but no preclinical studies have examined this in detail in human ALL. Results We compared the sensitivity of human Bcr/Abl T315I, Bcr/Abl wild type and non-Bcr/Abl ALL cells to this drug. PHA-739358 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis independently of Bcr/Abl, the T315I mutation, or presence of the tumor suppressor p53, but the degree of effectiveness varied between different ALL samples. Since short-term treatment with a single dose of drug only transiently inhibited proliferation, we tested combination treatments of PHA-739358 with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor Lonafarnib, with vincristine and with dasatinib. All combinations reduced viability and cell numbers compared to treatment with a single drug. Clonogenic assays showed that 25 nM PHA-739358 significantly reduced the colony growth potential of Ph-positive ALL cells, and combined treatment with a second drug abrogated colony growth in this assay. PHA-739358 further effectively blocked Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase activity and Aurora kinase B in vivo, and mice transplanted with human Bcr/Abl T315I ALL cells treated with a 3x 7-day cycle of PHA-739358 as mono-treatment had significantly longer survival. Conclusions PHA-739358 represents an alternative drug for the treatment of both Ph-positive and negative ALL, although combined treatment with a second drug may be needed to eradicate the leukemic cells.

  2. Treatment of head lice with dimeticone 4% lotion: comparison of two formulations in a randomised controlled trial in rural Turkey

    Sahin M Turhan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeticone 4% lotion was shown to be an effective treatment for head louse infestation in two randomised controlled trials in England. It is not affected by insecticide resistance but efficacy obtained (70-75% was lower than expected. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of dimeticone 4% lotion in a geographically, socially, and culturally different setting, in rural Turkey and, in order to achieve blinding, it was compared with a potential alternative formulation. Methods Children from two village schools were screened for head lice by detection combing. All infested students and family members could participate, giving access to treatment for the whole community. Two investigator applied treatments were given 7 days apart. Outcome was assessed by detection combing three times between treatments and twice the week following second treatment. Results In the intention to treat group 35/36 treated using dimeticone 4% had no lice after the second treatment but there were two protocol violators giving 91.7% treatment success. The alternative product gave 30/36 (83.3% treatment success, a difference of 8.4% (95% CI -9.8% to 26.2%. The cure rates per-protocol were 33/34 (97.1% and 30/35 (85.7% respectively. We were unable to find any newly emerged louse nymphs on 77.8% of dimeticone 4% treated participants or on 66.7% of those treated with the alternative formulation. No adverse events were identified. Conclusion Our results confirm the efficacy of dimeticone 4% lotion against lice and eggs and we found no detectable difference between this product and dimeticone 4% lotion with nerolidol 2% added. We believe that the high cure rate was related to the lower intensity of infestation in Turkey, together with the level of community engagement, compared with previous studies in the UK. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10431107

  3. Comparative study of transdermal nitroglycerine patch vs. intramuscular isoxsuprine in treatment of preterm labour

    Abhijeet Kokane

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labour and delivery are very challenging obstetric complications encountered by obstetricians. Despite advances in perinatal medicine, the incidence continues to increase.so need for best tocolytic is necessary to reduce perinatal mortality associate with preterm birth. Methods: A randomized prospective comparative study, carried out over a period of 24 months.100 antenatal cases with 24-36 weeks of gestation randomly selected and divided into two groups of 50 each. Group A: Treated with transdermal nitroglycerine patch (NITRODERM TTS-10 patch releasing 10mg / 24hr till 48 hrs. and Group B : Treated with intramuscular isoxsuprine (Inj. Duvadilan 10 mg / 8 hrly till 48 hrs. after treatment in both groups Patients started on capsule Duvadilan retard (40mg OD for one more week. Data collected regarding efficacy of the drugs in terms of Maternal side effects, Fetal side effects, prolongation of pregnancy for (48 hrs/ 48-72 hrs/3-7 days/>7 days, Changes in cervical dilatation and cervical length after 48 hrs, Mode of delivery, Gestational weeks at the time of delivery, Neonatal outcome. Results: In our study there was no statistically significant difference in demographic data, risk factors, gestational age at admission, obstetric score, fetal side effects, prolongation of pregnancy, cervical length changes, successful tocolysis, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, neonatal outcome But Mean cervical dilatation changes after 48 hrs. of tocolytic treatment in these two groups were statistically significant (0.14 vs. 0.19, p value = 0.024 where nitroglycerine is more effective. Headache was exclusively seen in 80% patients of nitroglycerine group and tachycardia and palpitation exclusively seen in 88% patients of isoxsuprine group, where difference is statistically significant (p value = 0.0001. Conclusions: Nitroglycerine patch should be recommended over intramuscular isoxsuprine for all preterm labour patients including

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Brain Tumors)

    ... Unknown Primary Treatment Colon Cancer Treatment Leukemia Home Page Melanoma Treatment Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Renal Cell Cancer Treatment Small Cell ...

  5. Periimplantitis treatment: literature review

    Leonardo FRANCIO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to review in theliterature the aim modalities of periimplantitis treatment. They were study the use of buccal antiseptics, antimicrobial treatment, open debridment,close debridment, osseous grafts, the use of membranes, combination with osseous grafts and membrane technique and laserteraphy.Literature review: The most of studies showed cases about these treatment types but only one related a specific protocol of peri-implantar disease. All of other demonstrated treatment associations had success on the most absolute cases, independent of treatment. Conclusion: The techniques association of treatment is valid and necessary, but to have a more specific conclusion should be done more studies in humans.

  6. The angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan for treatment of acute stroke (SCAST): a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Bath, Philip M W; Boysen, Gudrun;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is common in acute stroke, and is associated with an increased risk of poor outcomes. We aimed to examine whether careful blood-pressure lowering treatment with the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan is beneficial in patients with acute stroke and raised...... blood pressure. METHODS: Participants in this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial were recruited from 146 centres in nine north European countries. Patients older than 18 years with acute stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) and systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher were included...... within 30 h of symptom onset. Patients were randomly allocated to candesartan or placebo (1:1) for 7 days, with doses increasing from 4 mg on day 1 to 16 mg on days 3 to 7. Randomisation was stratified by centre, with blocks of six packs of candesartan or placebo. Patients and investigators were masked...

  7. The interventional treatment for recurrent jaundice after palliative bilio-intestinal anastomosis in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to cholangiocarcinoma

    Objective: To explore the interventional methods to treat recurrent jaundice after palliative bilio-intestinal anastomosis in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: Ten patients with recurrent jaundice after bilio-intestinal anastomosis were retrospectively evaluated. Nine of ten underwent PTCD with metallic stent placement, one underwent the inner-outer draining catheter procedure. The patients were evaluated with comparison in regard to preoperative conditions, TBIL, ALT, GTP and AKP values. Results: Stent placement was successful only once in all 10 cases with successful rate of 100%. TBIL, ALT, GTP and AKP values were significantly lower 7 days postoperative than that preoperation. Subsidence of jaundice was satisfactory for 100% in all patients after the treatment. Conclusions: Percutaneous placement of biliary metallic stents is a safety, simple, low complication method for managing recurrent jaundice after palliative bilio-intestinal anastomosis for the terminal stage of malignant obstructive jaundice

  8. Discrepancies Between Self-Reported Usual Sleep Duration and Objective Measures of Total Sleep Time in Treatment-Seeking Overweight and Obese Individuals.

    O'Brien, Erin; Hart, Chantelle; Wing, Rena R

    2016-01-01

    To examine the agreement between actigraphy-estimated and self-reported sleep duration in obese individuals, we had 63 treatment seeking overweight/obese participants complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and report sleep duration for weekends and weekdays, and compared their reports to 7 days of actigraphy. Actigraph total sleep time correlated r = .20-.31 with self-report and the absolute discrepancy averaged 51-54 minutes. Only 20 of the 32 subjects (62.5%) classified as short sleepers (sleep quality was associated with greater absolute discrepancy between actigraphy and self-report. The weak correlations between self-report and actigraph should be considered in future efforts to increase sleep duration to promote weight loss in obese individuals. PMID:26503348

  9. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  10. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Üstün, Gökhan Ekrem; Ayşenur TIRPANCI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  11. Topical treatment of melasma

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

  12. Wastewater treatment pilot

    Paraskevopoulos, Christos Alkiviadis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  13. Treatment of textile wastes

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Krsteva, Silvana; Golomeova, Saska

    2013-01-01

    The production of a textile requires several stages of mechanical processing such as spinning, weaving, knitting, and garment production, which seem to be insulated from the wet treatment processes like pretreatment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations. Тhere is a strong interrelation between treatment processes in the dry state and consecutive wet treatments. Most of the processes and products have a negative impact on the environment. Laws and standards for environmental protection a...

  14. Unsuccessful vitamin D treatment

    Schmedes, Anne; Hey, Henrik; Larsson, Iben;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D3 (25-OHD3) analyses have increased exponentially and vitamin D deficiency (D2). Lack of effect of treatment can be due to: 1......) too low dose, 2) incorrect analytical methods when injection treatment (vitamin D2) is used, 3) obesity, 4) seasonal variations, and 5) poor compliance. Treatment is mandatory in order to prevent osteopenia and osteoporosis. Vitamin D3 is more potent than vitamin D2. Injections with vitamin D2 should...... be replaced by vitamin D3....

  15. Swimming hall water treatment

    Valtonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to see how ultraviolet light-treatment can improve water disinfection at Pori central swimming hall. The swimming hall has already an option for ultraviolet disinfection system, but there hasn’t been any immediate need for it to be utilized in combination with more conventional water treatment methods. Nevertheless, growing visitor numbers are already straining the swimming hall’s water treatment systems and some improvement was h...

  16. The treatment of hyperthyroidism

    The clinical picture of hyperthyroidism varies considerably and the diagnosis can easily be missed. The treatment of hyperthyroidism needs to be individualized, taking the patient's condition and preferences into account. There are three possible methods of treating hyperthyroidism, namely, medical treatment, including the use of beta-blockers and other antithyroid medications; surgery, and radio-iodine treatment. These three methods are briefly discussed. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  18. Westinghouse radwaste treatment center

    Radioactive waste is produced during the NPP operation as well as the NPP dismantling and decommissioning phase. Different kinds of waste with different volumes, volume generation rates, properties and compositions have to be handled and treated according to the regulations of the corresponding country. The various waste streams arising especially during Decommissioning and Dismantling activities require versatile treatment approaches to satisfy regulatory requirements and customer needs. Westinghouse has over 30 years of experience in the design, erection and commissioning of radwaste treatment equipment and facilities with special attention on waste volume reduction and minimization of secondary waste generation applied in projects, concepts and studies around the world. Minimization of the total life cycle cost for waste treatment and disposal is a key item for the application of economically viable solutions based on combined processes and integrated waste treatment systems. The ability of enhanced system design and flexible single process combination to form an optimized waste treatment centre is crucial to set up the best process configuration with regard to lowest life cycle cost. Westinghouse's experience in the field of radwaste treatment as well as the application of proven treatment technologies ensures the ability to form a customized radwaste treatment centre, either integrated in an existing facility or as a new, free standing building that provides all relevant transport and handling equipment, interfaces, treatment equipment and temporary storage for waste packages. A typical example for combined waste treatment technologies is the Westinghouse Site Radwaste Treatment Facility in Sanmen (China) as well as concept variations of the SRTF for other reactors (e.g. ABWR, VVER, etc). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and optimize waste treatment facilities for various types of reactors under

  19. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  20. Dengue Fever Treatment

    ... Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Dengue Fever > Understanding Dengue Fever Understanding Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

  1. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  2. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  3. Interventional treatment of emergent hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the endovascular interventional techniques for the management of emergent hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women with mean age of 47 years) diagnosed with HAT after OLT were treated with interventional procedures. All patients presented with elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin levels. The diagnosis of the HAT was suggested by doppler ultrasonography and confirmed by angiography at 16 hours to 10 days (mean, 4.5 days) after OLT. Interventional techniques consisted of indwelling transcatheter hepatic arterial thrombolysis with a low dose of urokinase monitored under ultrasonography every 6-12 hours and stent placement in the stenotic segment of the hepatic artery was undertaken. Systemic intravenous low dose of heparin was given contemporaneously. Results: Complete occlusion of the proper HA was achieved in 10 patients. Hepatic arterial flow was re-established in 8 of the 10 patients (80%) at 12 hours to 9 days (mean, 4.8 days) after the intra-arterial thrombolysis, with significant improvement of liver function. Hepatic artery stenosis at the anastomosis was found in the 8 patients, and a stent placement in the stenotic segment was performed successfully in 7 patients with degree of stenosis over 90%.Intra-arterial thrombolysis was failed in 2 cases. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage from the anastomosis occurred in 1 patient at 12 hours after the treatment, and was emergently taken for the graft revision with reanastomosis. One patient with complete occlusion of the hepatic artery at 7 days after the treatment, but having collateral flow of the liver for maintaining liver function and thus sparing further intervention. 8 patients with successful hepatic arterial recanalization carried along a good clinical course with normal graft function at a median 12 months (range, 4 to 20 months), and patent hepatic arterial flow was identified by

  4. Effect of laser treatment on the attachment and viability of mesenchymal stem cell responses on shape memory NiTi alloy

    Chan, C.W., E-mail: c.w.chan@qub.ac.uk [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hussain, I. [School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN6 7TU (United Kingdom); Waugh, D.G.; Lawrence, J. [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Group, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, Chester, CH1 4BJ (United Kingdom); Man, H.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of laser-induced surface features on the morphology, attachment and viability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at different periods of time, and to evaluate the biocompatibility of different zones: laser-melted zone (MZ), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) in laser-treated NiTi alloy. The surface morphology and composition were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The cell morphology was examined by SEM while the cell counting and viability measurements were done by hemocytometer and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. The results indicated that the laser-induced surface features, such as surface roughening, presence of anisotropic dendritic pattern and complete surface Ni oxidation were beneficial to improve the biocompatibility of NiTi as evidenced by the highest cell attachment (4 days of culture) and viability (7 days of culture) found in the MZ. The biocompatibility of the MZ was the best, followed by the BM with the HAZ being the worst. The defective and porous oxide layer as well as the coarse grained structure might attribute to the inferior cell attachment (4 days of culture) and viability (7 days of culture) on the HAZ compared with the BM which has similar surface morphology. - Highlights: • Laser-treated surface induces a more spreading cell morphology than the non-treated. • Laser-treated surface shows higher cell attachment and viability than the non-treated. • Laser surface treatment is a feasible method to improve the responses of MSCs. • The improvement is attributed to the surface features induced by laser treatment.

  5. Effect of laser treatment on the attachment and viability of mesenchymal stem cell responses on shape memory NiTi alloy

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of laser-induced surface features on the morphology, attachment and viability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at different periods of time, and to evaluate the biocompatibility of different zones: laser-melted zone (MZ), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) in laser-treated NiTi alloy. The surface morphology and composition were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The cell morphology was examined by SEM while the cell counting and viability measurements were done by hemocytometer and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. The results indicated that the laser-induced surface features, such as surface roughening, presence of anisotropic dendritic pattern and complete surface Ni oxidation were beneficial to improve the biocompatibility of NiTi as evidenced by the highest cell attachment (4 days of culture) and viability (7 days of culture) found in the MZ. The biocompatibility of the MZ was the best, followed by the BM with the HAZ being the worst. The defective and porous oxide layer as well as the coarse grained structure might attribute to the inferior cell attachment (4 days of culture) and viability (7 days of culture) on the HAZ compared with the BM which has similar surface morphology. - Highlights: • Laser-treated surface induces a more spreading cell morphology than the non-treated. • Laser-treated surface shows higher cell attachment and viability than the non-treated. • Laser surface treatment is a feasible method to improve the responses of MSCs. • The improvement is attributed to the surface features induced by laser treatment

  6. Alterations of gene profiles in Leydig-cell-regenerating adult rat testis after ethane dimethane sulfonate-treatment

    Yu-Fei Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Only occupying about 1%-5% of total testicular cells, the adult Leydig cell (ALC is a unique endocrine cell that produces androgens. Rat Leydig cells regenerate after these cells in the testis are eliminated with ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS. In this study, we have characterized Leydig cell regeneration and messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA profiles of EDS treated rat testes. Serum testosterone, testicular gene profiling and some steroidogenesis-related proteins were analyzed at 7, 21, 35 and 90 days after EDS treatment. Testicular testosterone levels declined to undetectable levels until 7 days after treatment and then started to recover. Seven days after treatment, 81 mRNAs were down-regulated greater than or equal to two-fold, with 48 becoming undetectable. These genes increased their expression 21 days and completely returned to normal levels 90 days after treatment. The undetectable genes include steroidogenic pathway proteins: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Scarb1, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2a1. Seven days after treatment, there were 89 mRNAs up-regulated two-fold or more including Pkib. These up-regulated mRNAs returned to normal 90 days after treatment. Cyp2a1 did not start to recover until 35 days after treatment, indicating that this gene is only expressed in ALCs not in the precursor cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining using tissue array confirmed the changes of several randomly picked genes and their proteins.

  7. Gene Control of Programmed Myocardial Cell Death in Acute Myocardial Infarction, Its Dynamics in Treatment and Prospects for Therapy

    Belousov S.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study gene regulation of apoptosis in acute myocardial infarction and during the treatment, and assess the effect of levocarnitine (Elcar on gene expression of Fas-dependent apoptosis. Materials and Methods. We examined 28 patients with Q-myocardial infarction included in the study within the first 24 h of the disease and followed up during the treatment course. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=10 consisted of patients with standard treatment (anti-aggregants, ACE inhibitors, and anti-anginal agents — if indicated; group 2 (n=18 — those patients, who received standard treatment with Elcar (levocarnitine intravenously, in 5% glucose normal saline, at the dose of 3.0 g a day for three days. For the following 7 days the patients were given Elcar per os, 4.0 g a day. A control group (group 3 (n=18 consisted of healthy subjects. All patients underwent general examination, ECG, echocardiography, genetic research: we determined mRNA gene expression of mFas and sFas using real-time polymerase chain reaction thrice in each patient — on admission, after 1 week treatment, and at the end of the second week of treatment. Results. Apoptotic gene expression in patients with Q-infarction was found to be increased compared to the norm, the increase lasting for a longer period than acute myocardial infarction itself. This fact enables to explain the cause of prolonged apoptosis by the sustained activity of apoptosis-inducing genes. The use of levocarnitine promotes the normalization of an increased level of gene expression, and has a cardioprotective effect that is important in acute myocardial infarction treatment.

  8. Translational aspects of the novel object recognition task in rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP: effects of modafinil and relevance to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia?

    John P Redrobe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phencyclidine (PCP induces a behavioural syndrome in rodents that bears remarkable similarities to some of the core symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients, among those cognitive deficits. The successful alleviation of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS has become a major focus of research efforts as they remain largely untreated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selected antipsychotic and cognition enhancing drugs, namely haloperidol, risperidone, donepezil, and modafinil in an animal model widely used in preclinical schizophrenia research. To this end, the novel object recognition (NOR task was applied to rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with PCP. Rats were administered either PCP (5 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle twice a day for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period, before testing in NOR. Upon testing, vehicle-treated rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects, an effect abolished in rats that had previously been exposed to PCP-treatment. Acute treatment with modafinil (64 mg/kg, p.o. ameliorated the PCP-induced deficit in novel object exploration, whereas haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., risperidone (0.2 mg/kg, i.p. and donepezil (3 mg/kg, p.o. were without significant effect. Given the negligible efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone, and the contradictory data with donepezil to treat CIAS in the clinic, together with the promising preliminary pro-cognitive effects of modafinil in certain subsets of schizophrenic patients, the sub-chronic PCP-NOR abstinence paradigm may represent an attractive option for the identification of potential novel treatments for CIAS.

  9. Chronic Pain: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment

    ... in the treatment. Treatment With chronic pain, the goal of treatment is to reduce pain and improve ... some treatments used for chronic pain. Less invasive psychotherapy, relaxation therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also ...

  10. The time-dependent and persistent effects of amphetamine treatment upon recovery from hemispatial neglect in rats.

    Brenneman, Miranda M; Hylin, Michael J; Corwin, James V

    2015-10-15

    Neglect is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by the failure to report or respond to stimuli presented to the side of the body opposite a brain lesion and occurs in approximately 40% of right hemisphere strokes. The need for effective therapies to treat neglect in humans has led to the development of a rodent model. Unilateral destruction of medial agranular cortex (AGm), which is part of a cortical network for directed attention, produces severe multimodal neglect with deficits similar to those seen in humans. Amphetamines have previously been investigated for inducing plasticity and recovery of function following brain damage. Amphetamine treatment has been shown to produce recovery from visual, frontal, and sensorimotor cortex damage in animals and this recovery may be the result of axonal growth originating from the opposite, unlesioned hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether amphetamine treatment would induce recovery from neglect produced by unilateral AGm destruction, the time frame in which amphetamine must be administered in order to be effective, and the permanence of recovery following treatment. The results indicated that subjects injected with 2mg/kg of d-amphetamine on days 0, 2, and 5 recovered in significantly fewer days than saline-treated controls, even when administration was delayed by 2 and 7 days. Additionally, these studies indicated that recovery persisted for at least 60 days suggesting that recovery is likely to be long term. PMID:26209293

  11. CLINICAL STUDIES ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF AMOXYCYLIN® AND METRONIDAZOLE® AS AN ADJUVANT TREATMENT IN GENERALIZED AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITES

    Vanda Raluca Popa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study: The aim of the study was to determine whether the additional systemic treatment with 7 day course of Metronidazole® and Amoxycylin® significantly modified the results of non-surgical treatment in patients suffering from generalized aggressive periodontitis (PAG. Materials and method: The experimental group included 41 patients sufferring from PAG, with at least 3 sites at different teeth, and probing depth of the periodontal pockets (PPD of 5-7 mm. The patients, divided into 2 groups, received identical recipients, containing either antibiotics or placebo. To the former group, first an antibiotic and then a placebo had been administered, while the latter received first placebo and then antibiotics. Results: The main result of the measurements performed in the study, quite significant in the former group, was a reduction of PPD in the sites with an initial PPD =7 mm. Conclusions: The protocol of the present study permits the following conclusion: patients receiving antibiotics as an initial therapy demonstrated significant improvements, comparatively with those who were given such treatments after the etiological one.

  12. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    Archiel Launch Tancawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n=235 or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n=237 for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7% was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7% in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  13. Teens and Acne Treatment

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Teens and Acne Treatment Page Content Article Body I'm starting to ... peroxide wash, lotion, or gel—the most effective acne treatment you can get without a prescription. It helps ...

  14. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    This report is a review of some waste management activities including sources, system of collection and treatment of radioactive wastes. The report also includes methods and options used for treatment of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Novel preventive treatment options

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D;

    2009-01-01

    , including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although...

  16. Cyberknife stereotactic treatment

    The topic discussed included, among others, the following: cyberknife capabilities; autonomous robotics; continuous image guidance; flexible robotics maneuverability; Dynamic motion targeting; intelligent patient positioning; 4D treatment optimization and planning system; X-ray sources; robotic manipulator; linear accelerator; MultiPlan treatment planning system; radiosurgery vs radiotherapy; radiation system delivery comparison; simplified contouring; plan optimization; QA and commissioning. (P.A.)

  17. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  18. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  19. Nursing and Psychological Treatments

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ameringer, Suzanne; Harrison, Tondi; Phillips, Christopher M.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    This brief article presents a comment on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. In his article, Barlow pointed to the need "to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession" by changing the terminology of practice in the health care context from psychotherapy to psychological treatments and suggested that the only…

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... of any type of ADHD treatment is to reduce symptoms and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include ... build on them. Therapy can also help a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may use one or more of ...

  1. Treatment strategies in mastocytosis

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Akin, Cem; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Maurer, Marcus; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Treatment recommendations for mastocytosis are based mostly on expert opinion rather than evidence obtained from controlled clinical trials. In this article, treatment options for mastocytosis are presented, with a focus on the control of mediator-related symptoms in patients with indolent disease....

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  3. Coping – After Treatment

    Many cancer survivors say that once treatment ended, it was hard to make a transition to a new way of life. Learn about this phase of your care and how to adjust to the new feelings and issues that come after cancer treatment.

  4. Nonsurgical treatments in periodontics

    Kadkhoda, Z.; E. Baygan

    1995-01-01

    Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are definitely effective in ameliorating periodontal condition. In nonsurgical treatments, pocket elimination is not an essential part but subgingival infection control is the main objective which can eliminate inflammation, stop destruction, form new attachments, decrease pocket depth (following edema decrease) and finally result in long junctional epithelium formation. In short term, surgery can eliminate pocket depth more effective...

  5. Ankle Sprain Treatment

    ... Ankle Sprain Treatment Page Content Article Body Acute ankle and foot injuries are common in athletes and other active young ... Phase I treatment involves resting and protecting the ankle to permit healing, to prevent further injury, and to control pain and swelling. Rest, protection ( ...

  6. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    ... PDF Cancer Terms: After Treatment Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/2015 Cure: To fully restore health. This term is sometimes ... five years after treatment. However, the concept of “cure” is difficult to apply to cancer because undetected cancer cells can sometimes remain in ...

  7. [Medical, social, and economic effectiveness of treatment of day-case patients with peptic ulcer].

    Butorov, I V; Osoianu, Iu P; Maksimov, V V; Butorov, S I

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate medical, social, and economic effectiveness of treatment of day-case patients with peptic ulcer (PU). The subjects of the study were 60 day-case patients with duodenal ulcer aged 18 to 60, who underwent clinical and instrumental examination including esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy and Helicobacter pylori (HP) detection. The patients received 7-day eradication therapy, which included omeprazol in a dose of 20 mg twice a day, clarithromycin--500 mg twice a day, and metronidazole--500 mg twice a day. There was a control group, which included 60 inpatients treated in Gastroenterology Division of the hospital. The use of the three-component medication in the day-case patients and the inpatients led to disappearance of pain syndrome 7.4 +/- 0.3 and 8.6 +/- 0.2 days after the beginning of the treatment, respectively; dyspepsia disappeared in the day-case patients and the inpatients 7.6 +/- 0.2 and 8.8 +/- 0.3 days after the beginning of the treatment, respectively. HP eradication was effective in 86.7% of the day-case patients, and in 88.3% of the inpatients. The course of the disease was recurrence-free during two years in 80% of the day-case patients, and in 76.4% of the inpatients; the cost of the treatment was 2.1 times higher in the group of inpatients. The results show that high effectiveness of the three-component medication, judging by the results of HP eradication, terms of disappearance of pain syndrome and ulcer healing, allows recommending this regimen for wide clinical application in day-case patients with PU. PMID:16512399

  8. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  9. TRIAMCINОLON IN THE TREATMENT OF THE SIMPLE BACTERIAL CYSTITIS (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Ya. V. Shikunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the bacterial cystitis treatment continues to be relevant among the urologists all over the world due to its prevalence rate and the complexity in its treatment. The goal of research: to study experimentally the influence of synthetic glucocorticoidtriamcinоlon on the inflammatory mucosa of the urinary bladder.Material. The experimental study was conducted on the outbred white reproductive rats-females. The main group of the animals (40 rats was exposed to simulation of the inflammatory mucosa of the urinary bladder. Triamcinоlon instillations (0.3 ml were performed on 20 rats. In the other group of rats the triamcinоlon instillation was added with intramuscular injection of antibiotics. There were two compari-son groups of rats with the simulated inflammatory mucosa of the urinary bladder. The first (20 rats re-ceived only intramuscular antibiotics injections and the second (20 rats received no treatment. The con-trol group of animals (10 rats received instillations of intact 0.9% NaCl.Methods. The bladder wall ultrastructure was analyzed by the method of transmission electronic microscopy.Rresults. According to the research data, decongestion of the swelling enchasing mass was observed after 5 days of triamcinоlon instillations both with antibiotics and without it in comparison with the inflammatory process without any treatment and with the antibiotics injections only. After 10 days this result in the main group was the same as in the control group. Infiltrating cells density in the main group after 7 days was obviously lower than in the comparison groups. The triamcinоlon injections induce neovasculogenesis and fibrogenesis, improve hemorheology in the vascular plexus of the urinary bladder mucosa. The results come up to a high level of statistical significance.Summary. The experimental data prove the safety of intravesical triamcialon instillation and its therapeutic effectiveness. 

  10. Effect of heat treatment on corrosion resistance of WE54 alloy

    T. Rzychoń

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poor corrosion resistance is one of the main causes to prevent magnesium alloys for wide applications.The addition of rare earth elements (RE is an effective way to improve corrosion resistance of magnesiumalloys. Heat treatment condition can also influence the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys. The purpose ofthe investigation was to study the corrosion resistance of WE54 alloy after heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted on WE54 alloy in the as-cast condition and after heattreatment at 250-300˚C for periods of time 4 – 96 h. Immersion test was performed using not deaerated 3.5%NaCl solution at room temperature. Specimens were placed in 3.5% NaCl solution for periods of time betweenone and 7 days. The dissolution rates (mg cm-2 day-1 were determined by weight loss measurements. Afterimmersion test, the microstructure and the appearances of the corroded structure were examined by scanningelectron microscopy.Findings: The corrosion rate of WE54 alloy strongly depends on heat treatment condition. WE54 alloy in theas-cast and after solution treated have similar corrosion behavior, different from that of aged specimens. Thecurves of corrosion rate for aged specimens were higher than that for as-cast and solution treated conditions. Itwas also noticed that the longer time of ageing the higher corrosion rates were observed.Research limitations/implications: The knowledge about corrosion behavior of Mg-RE-Zr alloys is currentlyunder evaluation on many speciality applications where lightweight connected with optimum corrosionresistance are required.Practical implications: The knowledge about corrosion behavior of Mg-RE-Zr alloys is currently underevaluation on many speciality applications where lightweight connected with optimum corrosion resistance arerequired.Originality/value: This paper includes the effect of heat treatment condition on corrosion resistance of WE54magnesium alloy.

  11. Corticosteroids or non-corticosteroids:a fresh perspective on alcoholic hepatitis treatment

    FeiWang; Bing-YuanWang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a necrotizing inflammatory process caused by alcoholic liver injury. It carries a significant short-term mortality. The management of AH is challenging. Although corticosteroids have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, their efficacy for the treatment of AH remains debatable. DATA  SOURCES: A literature search was performed of MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and Wiley InterScience usingthekey words"alcoholichepatitis","alcoholicliverdisease", and "corticosteroids". The available data reported in the relevant literaturewereanalyzed. RESULTS: More than 17 controlled trials and at least 13 meta-analyses have reported the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of AH in the past 40 years. Many were poorly designed and used different inclusion/exclusion criteria, making it difficult to reach a consensus. In this review, we summarized all the controversial data in the past decade and analyzed the potential causes for the varying therapeutic effects of corticosteroids in AH. The focus of the controversy has changed from "whether steroids are beneficial or harmful for AH patients" to "how to accurately identify responders to steroids early and rationalize corticosteroid treatment". An early response to glucocorticoids, as determined by calculating the Lille score after 7 days of treatment, has been shown to be a clinically useful indicator. Moreover, down-regulation of steroid sensitivity, risk of infection, and a rational therapeutic strategy of corticosteroids in AH patients are all crucial for therapeutic effect. CONCLUSIONS: An early and accurate determination of steroid sensitivity is important. Besides, we need to overcome the down-regulation of steroid sensitivity, reduce the infection risk and rationalize the therapeutic strategy of corticosteroids. A fresh perspective is needed on the use of corticosteroids in AH patients.

  12. [Antihypertensive treatment in pregnancy].

    Souza, Alex R; Amorim, Melania R; Costa, Aurélio A R; Neto, Carlos N

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy hypertensive disorders represent a frequent gestational pathology. It is one of the most important causes of maternal demise and perinatal morbidity/mortality in the world. Antihypertensive treatment is part of a vast therapeutic arsenal used for prevention of severe complications. However, data from literature research have been controversial about benefits of antihypertensive treatment. We performed a literature review about antihypertensive treatment in severe pre-eclampsia, describing drugs' pharmacological particularities and scientific evidences about their efficacy and safety. It is not controversial that treatment of hypertensive emergency must be instituted. The ideal medication used in those cases is not defined, therefore the real benefits of maintenance antihypertensive treatment in pre-eclampsia remains unclear. PMID:20353709

  13. Study of Dormancy Type and Effect of Different Pre-Sowing Treatments on Seed Germination of Bladder-Senna (Colutea bohsei Boiss. in Laboratory Conditions

    Ahmad BEIKMOHAMMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the existence and type of the dormancy and effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on seed germination of Colutea buhsei Boiss. (Fabaceae as one of the Iran native plants, arid-land and ornamental shrub with ability of usage in the urban landscape design. The experiment was performed with 15 treatments and 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, concentrated (98% H2SO4, cold stratification (CS, soaking with tab water, floating in hot water (100�C followed by continual cooling for 24 hr in the same water and combined treatments. Afterwards seeds were sown in laboratory conditions to determine the factors� effects on germination percentage (GP, germination rate (GR, root and shoot length of Colutea bohsei seeds. All of these treatments, except for GA3 (250 and 500 ppm, increased the percentage and rate of the seed germination. Maximum germination percentage (66.25% and rate (14.9 seeds per day in 7 days was obtained at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min. Maximum root and shoot length was observed at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min plus GA3 (100 ppm, 24 hr. Use of GA3 (100 ppm in 24 hr after H2SO4 increased the germination rate and shoot length but this additive effect was not significant.

  14. Effectiveness of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana): an open-label study.

    Farmaki, Rania; Simou, Chrisa; Papadopoulos, Elias; Koutinas, Alexander F; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2013-08-01

    Hirstiella spp. are common ectoparasites of captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Suggested treatments are empirical and some of them are of low efficacy and potentially toxic. The objective of this open-label study was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis. The skin of 50 green iguanas was thoroughly examined with the aid of bright light and magnifying lenses. A total of 21 iguanas were found to be infested, harbouring 1-24 mites (median: 5). All 35 mites collected from 17 iguanas were identified as Hirstiella sp. Both infested and non-infested lizards, sharing the same enclosure, were carefully wiped with 0·25% fipronil solution. The safety and the efficacy of the treatment were evaluated after 2 days in 47/50 (94%) and 7 days in 29/50 (58%) iguanas. Compared with pre-treatment levels, the parasitic load did not changed significantly on the second day but was significantly lower on day 7 (P = 0·006). No adverse reactions were noticed. Based on these results a single whole-body application of 0·25% fipronil solution can be considered a safe and effective treatment for the reduction of parasitic burden in captive green iguanas infested by Hirstiella sp. mites. PMID:23721613

  15. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:22105133

  16. Treatment of cystic ovaries with controlled vaginal drug release in combination with gonadotropins and prostaglandins in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions

    H.A. Amer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of oestrus synchronization developed over the past 60 years have involved controlling estrous cycle length by luteolytic drugs. The use of controlled internal drug release (CIDR devices is now well accepted throughout the world to treat some diseases. This study aimed to: a investigate the ovarian and endocrine responses associated with the treatment of cystic ovarian follicles with gonadotropin (GnRH and prostaglandin (PGF2α +/- Progesterone-CIDR placement; b determine pregnancy establishment following synchronization and timed artificial insemination in cows suffering from cystic ovarian follicles. The ovarian cysts were typed based on the rectal and ultrasonic examination (B-mode System; Pie-Medical Scanner-240 with 6-8 MHz linear probe into follicular, luteinized and persistent cysts. Two schedules of treatment were designed, in schedule-A, 15 cows with follicular (n=7, luteinized (n=3 and persistent (n=5 cysts were used. The cows received 2 injections of 100 ug GnRH (9 days interval with 25 mg PGF2α administered 7 days after 1st GnRH dose. In schedule-B, 14 cows with follicular (n=6, luteinized (n=3 and persistent (n=5 cysts were used. The cows administered GnRH and CIDR concurrently, then 25 mg PGF2α 7 days later. The CIDR was removed 2 days after PGF2α. The cows were inseminated 16 hours after 2nd GnRH dose. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein during the course of 2 schedules to assay the progesterone and estradiol. In schedule-A, 57.1 %, 33.3 % and 40 % of follicular, luteinized and persistent cysts were ovulated after the 1st GnRH injection, while a total of 100 %, 66.7 % and 100 % were ovulated after the 2nd GnRH dose. The cows with follicular cysts appeared the highest rate of pregnancy (57.1 % followed by the luteinized and persistent cysts (33.3 % and 40 %. Of a total 15 cystictreated cows, 7 were confirmed pregnant (46.7 %. The concentration of progesterone was significantly higher at 1st Gn

  17. Evidence for short duration of antibiotic treatment for non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children - are we there yet? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Shalom Ben-Shimol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ideal duration of antibiotic treatment for childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP has not yet been established. Objective: A literature search was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of shorter than 7 days duration of oral antibiotic treatment for childhood non-severe CAP. Data sources: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database. The search was limited to randomised controlled trials (RCTs conducted between January 1996 and May 2013 in children up to 18 years old. Search terms included pneumonia, treatment, duration, child, children, days, short, respiratory infection and non-severe (nonsevere. Study selection: Only RCTs of oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction of articles was done by 3 authors using a preformed questionnaire. Data synthesis: Eight articles meeting the selection criteria were identified: 7 from 2 developing countries (India and Pakistan, and 1 from a developed country (The Netherlands. Studies from developing countries used the World Health Organization clinical criteria for diagnosing CAP, which includes mainly tachypnoea. None of those studies included fever, chest radiography or any laboratory test in their case definition. The Dutch study case definition used laboratory tests and chest radiographies (x-rays in addition to clinical criteria. Five articles concluded that 3 days of treatment are sufficient for non-severe childhood CAP, 2 articles found 5 days treatment to be sufficient, and one article found no difference between 3 days of amoxicillin treatment and placebo. Conclusions: The efficacy of short duration oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children has not been established in developed countries. Current RCTs from developing countries used clinical criteria that may have failed to appropriately identify children with true bacterial pneumonia necessitating antibiotic treatment. More RCTs

  18. A randomized crossover study comparing trehalose/hyaluronate eyedrops and standard treatment: patient satisfaction in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    Pinto-Bonilla JC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Pinto-Bonilla,1 Alberto del Olmo-Jimeno,2 Fernando Llovet-Osuna,3 Emiliano Hernández-Galilea4 1Department of Corneal, Refractive, and Cataract Surgery, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; 2Optometry Department, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; 3Department of Refractive and Cataract Surgery, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 4Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain Abstract: Dry eye is a common disorder in routine ophthalmological practice, and a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology is leading to improved treatment. Thealoz Duo® is a novel artificial tear preparation containing two active ingredients: Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with anhydrobiotic functions in many organisms, and hyaluronate, a widely distributed anionic glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with lubricative and water-retaining properties in biological systems. In a randomized, single center, open label, crossover study, 17 adult patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome were randomized to treatment with Thealoz Duo® (combining trehalose and hyaluronic acid or Systane®. Patients received 7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy variable was patient satisfaction evaluated by a 0–100 visual analog scale evaluated on days 0 and 7 of treatment. Secondary parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI, symptoms of dry eye, ocular staining scores (fluorescein and lissamine green, ocular clinical signs, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, and global efficacy assessed by the patient and the investigator. Seventeen patients were included. Patient satisfaction improved from 44.5±19.0 to 70.2±19.2 mm during Thealoz Duo® treatment and from 47.2±23 to 57.1±19.1 mm during Systane® treatment (P=0.043, mixed

  19. Drug: D08420 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D08420 Drug Primaquine (INN); Kanaprim (TN) C15H21N3O 259.1685 259.3467 D08420.gif ...oquinolines P01BA03 Primaquine D08420 Primaquine (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antiparasitics Antiprotozoals Primaqui...ne D08420 Primaquine (INN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antmalarials Oth...ers Aminoquinolines Primaquine [ATC:P01BA03] D08420 Primaquine (INN) CAS: 90-34-6...CTS, INSECTICIDES AND REPELLENTS P01 ANTIPROTOZOALS P01B ANTIMALARIALS P01BA Amin

  20. Surgical treatments for osteoarthritis.

    de l'Escalopier, Nicolas; Anract, Philippe; Biau, David

    2016-06-01

    There are two main surgical treatments for osteoarthritis: conservative treatments, where the damaged cartilage is left in place, and radical treatments, where the cartilage is replaced by an artificial endoprosthesis; this latter procedure is termed joint arthroplasty. These treatments are only offered to symptomatic patients. Arthrodesis is yet another surgical intervention in cases of osteoarthritis. It will sacrifice the joint's articular function and is performed on small osteoarthritic joints, such as wrists and ankles, for instance. Osteoarthritis symptoms are usually the consequence of an imbalance between the load applied to a joint and the surface available to support that load. Therefore, conservative treatments will either tend to decrease the load exerted on the joint, such as in a tibial valgus osteotomy for instance, or to improve the articular surface supporting that load. Sometimes, both can be provided at the same time; the peri-acetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia is an example of such a procedure. Conservative treatments are usually offered to young patients in order to delay, if not avoid, the need for a joint prosthesis. They are usually performed before osteoarthritis appears or at an early stage. Joint arthroplasties have overwhelmingly excellent functional results and today's research is directed towards providing rapid recovery, very long-term stability, and the assurance of a good functionality in extreme conditions. However, complications with joint arthroplasties can be serious with little, if any, reasonable salvage solution. Therefore, these procedures are offered to patients who have failed adequate medical treatment measures. PMID:27185463

  1. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  2. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  3. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. PMID:25594451

  4. Treatment Modalities for Acne.

    Fox, Lizelle; Csongradi, Candice; Aucamp, Marique; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease which affects the pilosebaceous units of the skin. It can have severe psychological effects and can leave the patient with severe skin scarring. There are four well-recognized pathological factors responsible for acne which is also the target for acne therapy. In this review, different treatment options are discussed, including topical (i.e., retinoids, and antibiotics) and systemic (i.e., retinoids, antibiotics, and hormonal) treatments. Since the general public has been showing an increasing interest in more natural and generally safer treatment options, the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) for treating acne was also discussed. The use of physical therapies such as comedone extraction, cryoslush therapy, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, intralesional corticosteroids and optical treatments are also mentioned. Acne has been extensively researched with regards to the disease mechanism as well as treatment options. However, due to the increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes towards the available antibiotics, there is a need for new treatment methods. Additionally, the lack of necessary evidence on the efficacy of CAM therapies makes it necessary for researchers to investigate these treatment options further. PMID:27529209

  5. Treatment Success in Cancer

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  6. [Treatment of bronchiectasias].

    Purokivi, Minna; Koskela, Heikki; Kaarteenaho, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Typical symptoms of bronchiectasis include cough, sliminess of the airways and recurrent respiratory infections which lead to lung injury and impaired quality of life when untreated. High-resolution computer tomography is the most important examination to detect bronchiectasias. Cornerstones of the treatment are elucidation of the etiology of the disease, taking care of vaccinations, management of physical fitness, treating sliminess, and careful treatment of periods of exacerbation with antibiotics according to bacterial growth and susceptibility testing determined from sputum. Hypertonic saline inhalation can be used to potentiate the treatment of sliminess and achieve a positive effect on the quality of life. PMID:24822326

  7. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  8. Natural treatments for seasonal and non-seasonal depression: a review of literature and comparison of antidepressant responses

    A. Putilov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The symptoms of depression might be alleviated by such non-pharmacological interventions as sleep deprivation, bright light exposure, and physical exercise. Some strategies of non-drug treatment for seasonal and non-seasonal depression seem to be very effective, but the involvement of specific biological mechanisms in the observed beneficial response still remains to be clarified. A present literature review was combined with a brief summary of the results of a set of author’s investigations that provided a possibility to compare the antidepressant effects of several one-week treatments in 268 female subjects with either winter depression or non-seasonal depression or without depression (n=118, 64 and 86, respectively. It was demonstrated that a total night sleep deprivation failed to improve mood in non-depressed subjects, whereas in seasonally and non-seasonally depressed subjects the significant improvements of similar magnitudes were observed. Furthermore, any type of one-week treatment (i.e., 6 or 7 days of bright light, physical exercise, melatonin or placebo intake, and vocation in a south region administered either alone or in combination with one night of sleep deprivation produced a notable reduction of depression scores in both depressed and non-depressed subjects. Such treatments prevented relapse after sleep deprivation. Mood further improved after visual treatments, such as bright light and physical exercise, rather than after blind intake of ether melatonin or placebo. The studies of natural antidepressants highlighted the possibility that they often work as powerful placebos, and that, compared to the biology of depressives; their psychology is the most important mediator of clinical response. Further research might be aimed on testing the predictions based on evolutionary explanation of depression and antidepressant responses to natural treatments.

  9. Pituitary Disorders Treatment Options

    ... types of drugs can help relieve pituitary problems. Prolactinomas, for example, respond well to a dopamine agonist ... is caused by the treatment you have for pituitary tumors. Surgery or radiation therapy, for example, can lead ...

  10. After Cancer Treatment

    ... grains, and a moderate amount of low-fat meat and dairy products. Limit the fat and sugar in your diet. A healthy diet will help your body get better after cancer treatment. It's also important for you to get ...

  11. Treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Al-Mofleh Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis. Majority of patients with acute pancreatitis respond to medical therapy. Supportive measures and close observations represent the cornerstone of the medical therapy. Failure to respond to medical treatment may indicate choledocholithiasis or infected necrosis. Endoscopic papillotomy with stone retrieval is beneficial in patients with severe biliary pancreatitis. Image-guided fine needle aspiration and bacteriological examination of aspirate is reliable in detecting infection and deliniating causative pathogen. Surgical debridement is the method of choice for treatment of infected necrosis. In contrast, in pancreatic abscess, surgery is preserved for those, who do not respond to percutaneous drainage combined with antibiotics. The benefit of antisecretory and antiproteolytic agents is debatable. A combination of antioxidants, calcium channel antagonists and antibiotics may play a major role in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in the future.

  12. Cancer Treatment Scams

    ... Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health Insurance? Cancer ... Talk to Your Doctor First. Tagged with: health , miracle claims , scam September 2008 You Might Also Like ...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... AACAP Medical Students and Residents Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Member Resources ... Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Without treatment, a child ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major ... For example, parents can learn to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a ...

  16. Early Diagnosis, Timely Treatment

    Full Text Available ... proper treatment and care to the point where vision loss is minimized. Your chances of going blind ... he's been able to keep about half his vision level. Kermit: Well, I can see everything here. ...

  17. About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment How is Alzheimer's disease treated? What ... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it ...

  18. Lewy Body Disease Treatment

    ... may experience severe neuroleptic sensitivity, such as worsening cognition, heavy sedation, increased or possibly irreversible parkinsonism, or ... addition to these forms of therapy and treatment, music and aroma therapy can also reduce anxiety and ...

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... have been prescribing them for more than 60 years. More recently, non-stimulant medications have become available ... Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of ...

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

    Full Text Available ... Retinopathy Causes Diabetic Retinopathy Symptoms Who Is at Risk for Diabetic Retinopathy? Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis Diabetic Retinopathy ... blood sugar will significantly reduce the long-term risk of vision loss. Treatment usually won't cure ...

  2. OCD Treatment Options

    ... Find Help Find a Therapist Treatment Support Groups Coaching Mental Health Apps Helping Others Self-Help Publications & ... significant improvement and enjoy an improved quality of life. It is important to work closely with a ...

  3. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

    Full Text Available ... Retinopathy Sections What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Diabetic Retinopathy Causes Diabetic Retinopathy Symptoms Who Is at Risk for ... macula (called PRP, or panretinal photocoagulation). This treatment causes abnormal new vessels to shrink and often prevents ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Become a Member Practice Parameters and Resource ... Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ...

  5. Laser Acne Treatment

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Acne Treatment, Laser A A A BEFORE: This patient ... laster skin renewal to improve the appearance of acne scars on his cheeks. Procedure Overview A variety ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most effective treatment for your ... stimulant medications. Scientists have studied psychostimulants extensively, and doctors have been prescribing them for more than 60 ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Become a ... Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Copyright ©2016 - ...

  8. [Treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Carvalho, M D

    2001-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent medical literature on the treatment of neonatal jaundice, focusing on practical aspects that are relevant to pediatricians and neonatologists. SOURCES: An extensive review of the related literature was performed, also including the authors clinical experience in this field of investigation. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Jaundice is very common among infants during the first days of life. Several factors such as maternal and neonatal history have to be considered before implementing treatment. Significant advances have been made in the past few years concerning the treatment of jaundiced newborn infants. This review focuses on three forms of treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: phototherapy, exchange transfusion and the use of drugs to reduce serum bilirubin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Nowadays, the in-depth knowledge about the mechanism of action of phototherapy, the development of intensified phototherapy units and the use of drugs to reduce bilirubin formation, have contributed to significantly decrease the need for exchange transfusion. PMID:14676895

  9. Early Diagnosis, Timely Treatment

    Full Text Available ... able to read. Announcer: Kermit has also undergone laser treatments and microsurgery, common procedures which help to ... There's no cure for glaucoma. The goal of therapy is to delay the progression of the disease ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Copyright © ...

  11. Treatment of hip dysplasia.

    Anderson, A

    2011-04-01

    Hip dysplasia is a common orthopaedic developmental disorder of dogs. This paper reviews the treatment options available for management of the condition in the skeletally immature and adult dog. PMID:21906059

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... speak. Contents What is ADHD? How Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  13. Patient Treatment File (PTF)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This database is part of the National Medical Information System (NMIS). The Patient Treatment File (PTF) contains a record for each inpatient care episode provided...

  14. Treatment Before Transplant

    ... to 20-year friendship Supporter stories Valerie Sun - bone marrow transplant patient advocate Jeff and Kim take their life- ... transplant and other treatment options What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  15. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    ... Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes Medication ... or devices Talking to your doctor What is biofeedback? Biofeedback is a neuromuscular reeducation tool we can ...

  16. Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Lice - Pubic "Crab" Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment A lice- ... piperonyl butoxide can be used to treat pubic ("crab") lice. These products are available over-the-counter ...

  17. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    ... Giving Workplace Giving Other Ways to Donate Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: ... prevent recurrence or progression of their cancer. THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY Many people have a thyroid gland ...

  18. Bleeding Disorders Treatment Options

    ... Pictures Young Voices Compendium of Assessment Tools Educational Games Video Library Find a Treatment Centre Haemophilia Journal About Bleeding Disorders Bleeding Disorders The Clotting Process Drugs That Can Cause Bleeding Hemophilia How Do You ...

  19. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  20. Gambling Disorder Treatment Providers

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The information provided within this table gives a snapshot of authorized CalGETS providers with specialized training in the treatment of problem gambling behavior....

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  2. Giardia Infection Treatment

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Giardia Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Giardia General Information Illness & Symptoms Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources ...

  3. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

    Full Text Available ... Treatment is often recommended for people with macular edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and neovascular glaucoma . Laser ... with pinpoint accuracy. With laser surgery for macular edema, tiny laser burns are applied near the macula ...

  4. Muscle strain treatment

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  5. Treatment of Celiac Disease

    ... replacement. If there are associated conditions, such as lactose intolerance or diabetes, a series of additional treatment elements ... information on additional conditions that may be present.) Lactose Intolerance One generally transient condition that is common in ...

  6. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    ... are used in cancer treatment? What are the advantages of laser therapy? What are the disadvantages of ... the drugs used in PDT. What are the advantages of laser therapy? Lasers are more precise than ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Without treatment, a child with ADHD ... Together Resources Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy ...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... grow, learn, and feel better about themselves. The goal of any type of ADHD treatment is to ... Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement Developed by Armstrong Enterprise Communication {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  9. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  10. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... is to reduce symptoms and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  12. Dental Treatment Abuse

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-01-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry.

  13. Endodontic treatment of molars

    Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology: By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results: The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease. Discussion: Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions: Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines.

  14. Biomembranes for wastewater treatment

    Aznar Jiménez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Engineering laboratory for wastewater treatment of UC3M (Spain), optimizes the set-up and the design of membrane bioreactors (MBR), advised for higher quality of the treated water or to increase the treatment capacity. MBR system is a versatile method that achieves a fast depuration of biodegradable water, where nitrogen and phosphorous removal can be integrated in a simple way. Companies interested in applying or developing this technology or micro and ultra filtration membrane produc...

  15. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  16. Portable treatment systems study

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  17. Oscillococcinum for influenza treatment

    Luigi Alberto Marrari; Laurence Terzan; Gilles Chaufferin

    2012-01-01

    The use of a complementary medicine approach, and specifically of the popular medicine Oscillococcinum, for the treatment of influenza-like syndromes remains controversial. This brief paper analyses the currently available literature on this homeopathic preparation and the Cochrane Collaboration’s 2006 systematic review, along with other recent studies, in order to clarify certain fundamental aspects of its use in the treatment of influenza. In the light of the reported findings, and applying...

  18. Portable treatment systems study

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  19. Dental treatment abuse.

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-07-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  20. Renegotiating "best treatment practice"

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses re-accentuated ways of practicing psychiatric treatment. More generally it discusses how an initiative to change local practices in an organisation is taken up and fought for and against by people and things with different competing interests.......This paper discusses re-accentuated ways of practicing psychiatric treatment. More generally it discusses how an initiative to change local practices in an organisation is taken up and fought for and against by people and things with different competing interests....

  1. TREATMENT OF ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Alaei, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Immidiate ManagementInfants and children with acute metabolic crisis require immediate treatment to prevent further acute deterioration and long-term sequelae.Early and appropriate treatment before confirmation of the diagnosis is life-saving.Eliminate intake of the precursors of possibly toxic metabolites.This applies most often to suspected inborn errors of amino acid or organic acid metabolism. In both cases, dietary or parenteral intake of protein and amino acids should be eliminated imme...

  2. Current Treatments of Bruxism

    Guaita, Marc; Högl, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of slee...

  3. Treatment of severe malaria.

    Warrell, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    In the treatment of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection antimalarial drugs should, ideally, be given by controlled rate intravenous infusion until the patient is able to swallow tablets. In cases where infection has been acquired in a chloroquine resistant area, and where it has broken through chloroquine prophylaxis or where the geographical origin or species are uncertain, quinine is the treatment of choice. When access to parenteral quinine is likely to be delayed, parenteral quinidine ...

  4. Endovascular treatment in pregnancy

    There is an increased risk of stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium. Decisions should be made immediately upon transfer to each institution, particularly with respect to when and how to treat the patient. This review highlights the feasibility of endovascular treatment in pregnancy. Most of the pharmaceutical agents and therapeutic devices used in clinical practice can be utilized in pregnant patients. Comprehensive information on the benefits and risks of treatment should be explained to the patient and her family, with particular attention to the safety of the mother and fetus. Radiation exposure to the fetus is also a concern; the hazard can be minimized with optimal protection. Several studies have demonstrated that conventional procedures do not cause serious radiation exposure exceeding the threshold of safety to the fetus. Endovascular therapy can be safely performed for the treatment of acute stroke as in non-pregnant patients with adequate attention to pharmaceutical agents and shielding from radiation. In contrast to therapy for acute stroke, preventive endovascular treatment for asymptomatic lesions remains controversial. Several conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, are known to bleed more frequently in pregnancy, but whether the benefits of preventive treatment outweigh the associated risks is unknown. The decision for preventive treatment should be carefully made on a case-by-case basis after extensive discussion with the patient. (author)

  5. Effects of recombinant LH treatment on folliculogenesis and responsiveness to FSH stimulation

    Durnerin, Cedrin I; Erb, K; Fleming, R;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of LH in sensitizing antral follicles to FSH is unclear. LH is required for normal hormone production and normal oocyte and embryo development, but follicular responses to LH may depend upon the stage of development. Potential roles at the early follicular phase were explored...... in a clinical setting by employing a sequential approach to stimulation by recombinant human (r-h) LH followed by r-hFSH in women who were profoundly down-regulated by depo GnRH agonist. METHODS: We employed a multi-centre, prospective, randomized approach. Women (n = 146) were treated in a long...... course high-dose GnRH agonist (Decapeptyl, 4.2 mg s.c.) protocol and were randomized to receive r-hLH (Luveris, 300 IU/day) for a fixed 7 days, or no r-hLH treatment. This was followed by a standard r-hFSH stimulation regime (Gonal-F, 150 IU/day). Ultrasound and hormone assessments of responses were...

  6. Effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across rat intestine

    D Adukondalu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drug substances along with a variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components interact with the CYP enzyme system.The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across the rat intestine "nMethods: The transport of carbamazepine across different parts of rat intestine was studied by everted and non-everted sac methods. The control and pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for 7 days pre-treated rats were sacrificed and isolated the intestine. The sacs of intestine were prepared, treated with carbamazepine solution and then placed in dulbeccos buffer. Samples were collected periodically and the drug content was estimated using HPLC. Results and conclusion: The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05 difference in the transport of carbamazepine from the intestinal sacs of pretreated with pomegranate juice and control. It seems that pomegranatejuice might have induced CYP3A4enzymes and hence drug is extensively metabolized.

  7. Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone improves intestinal barrier function and alleviates bacterial translocation in stressed rats

    丁连安; 黎介寿; 李幼生; 刘放南; 谭力

    2004-01-01

    Background Damage to the gut barrier often occurs during critical illnesses. In such cases, it is very important to alleviate impairment of the intestinal barrier and protect intestinal barrier function. This study investigated the protective effect of growth hormone on intestinal barrier function in rats under stress.Methods This study consisted of prospective, randomized, and controlled animal experiments. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats served as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) models and were divided into three groups: TPN group, sepsis (Sep) group, and growth hormone (GH) group. Another 8 rats served as normal controls. Each group received different stress stimuli. Rats were fed for 7 days, and samples were taken for examination 24 hours after garaging with dual saccharides. Results The architecture of the small intestinal mucosa in the Sep group showed the most severe damage among all groups. Nitric oxide levels in blood plasma and immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal mucosa of the GH group were significantly lower than in the Sep group (P<0.02). There were no significant changes in CD3 counts and in the CD4/CD8 ratio between the four groups. Dual sugar tests and bacteriological examinations revealed that intestinal permeability and rate of bacterial translocation in the GH group were lower than in the Sep group (P<0.01, respectively).Conclusion Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone can alleviate damage to intestinal barrier function caused by trauma and endotoxemia in rats under stress.

  8. Decolorization of different textile dyes by Penicillium simplicissimum and toxicity evaluation after fungal treatment

    L.R. Bergsten-Torralba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the textile dyes Reactive Red 198 (RR198, Reactive Blue 214 (RB214, Reactive Blue 21 (RB21 and the mixture of the three dyes (MXD by Penicillium simplicissimum INCQS 40211. The dye RB21, a phthalocyanine, was totally decolorized in 2 days, and the others, the monoazo RR198, the diazo RB214 and MXD were decolorized after 7 days by P. simplicissimum. Initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. The acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex and measured through Effective Concentration 50% (EC50. P. simplicissimum reduced efficiently the toxicity of RB21 from moderately acutely toxic to minor acutely toxic and it also reduced the toxicity of RB214 and MXD, which remained minor acutely toxic. Nevertheless, the fungus increased the toxicity of RR198 despite of the reduction of MXD toxicity, which included this dye. Thus, P. simplicissimum INCQS 40211 was efficient to decolorize different textile dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorization experiments.

  9. Endovascular treatment of hemoptysis: influence of the type of pathology on the post embolization prognosis

    To describe the course of patients with hemoptysis following embolization of the arteries involved, assessing the incidence of re bleeding in patients grouped according to type of pathology. Over the past five years, we have carried out 77 embolization in bronchial and other systemic arteries in 64 patients (46 men and 18 women) ranging in age from 18 to 83 years (mean: 54±15 years). The underlying diseases were active tuberculosis (n=11), latent tuberculosis (n=15), bronchiectasis (n=14), aspergilloma (n=3), pulmonary neoplasm (n=10), lung abscess (n=10) and miscellaneous conditions (n=10). Rebleeding occurred in 25 patients (32%). Of these, 13 had to undergo repeat embolization, 7 were treated surgically and 3 died during the recurrence of hemoptysis. In two cases, no diseased arteries could be found and embolization was not performed. The overall hemostatic efficacy was 86% after 7 days, 78% after one month and 61% after one year. In the patients with tuberculosis, the rates were 96% at one week and 91% at one month and one year, while among the remaining groups (with neoplasm, abscess, etc.), the incidences were 80% at day 7,70% at one month and 42% at one year. According to our experience, rebleeding occurs most frequently among patients with diseases other than tuberculosis. In these cases, follow-up should be closer and other therapeutic alternatives (surgery, radiotherapy, endobronchial laser) should be considered as a complement to percutaneous endovascular treatment. (Author) 22 refs

  10. HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.

    Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-02-01

    Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

  11. A novel thermal treatment modality for controlling breast tumor growth and progression.

    Xie, Yifan; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2012-01-01

    The new concept of keeping primary tumor under control in situ to suppress distant foci sheds light on the novel treatment of metastatic tumor. Hyperthermia is considered as one of the means for controlling tumor growth. In this study, a novel thermal modality was built to introduce hyperthermia effect on tumor to suppress its growth and progression using 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma, a common animal model of metastatic breast cancer. A mildly raised temperature (i.e.39°C) was imposed on the skin surface of the implanted tumor using a thermal heating pad. Periodic heating (12 hours per day) was carried out for 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days, respectively. The tumor growth rate was found significantly decreased in comparison to the control without hyperthermia. Biological evidences associated with tumor angiogenesis and metastasis were examined using histological analyses. Accordingly, the effect of mild hyperthermia on immune cell infiltration into tumors was also investigated. It was demonstrated that a delayed tumor growth and malignancy progression was achieved by mediating tumor cell apoptosis, vascular injury, degrading metastasis potential and as well as inhibiting the immunosuppressive cell myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment. Further mechanistic studies will be performed to explore the quantitative relationship between tumor progression and thermal dose in the near future. PMID:23367225

  12. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae as a medicinal plant in Benin

    Tamègnon Victorien Dougnon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o. for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted.

  13. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

    Dougnon, Tamègnon Victorien; Bankolé, Honoré Sourou; Klotoé, Jean Robert; Sènou, Maximin; Fah, Lauris; Koudokpon, Hornel; Akpovi, Casimir; Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Addo, Phyllis; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted. PMID:25050314

  14. Multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of an oblique root fracture: a case report.

    Demiralp, Burak; Keçeli, Hüseyin Gencay; Kökat, Ali Murat; Muhtarogullari, Mehmet; Tuncel, Behram; Eratalay, Kenan

    2007-06-01

    This clinical case study describes a multidisciplinary modified technique for the treatment of an oblique root fracture. A-38-year old woman with a history of trauma and a broken tooth was referred to our clinic. There was an oblique crown fracture extending the coronal third of the root just underneath the cingulum of the crown. The patient was willing to keep her tooth in function by any means. Two weeks after root canal therapy the flap was raised. The coronal two third of the root canal was enlarged. An impression of the enlarged root canal and tooth surface with surrounding bone was taken. The flap was sutured and the impression was sent to the laboratory for the post-casting preparation. After 7 days, the flap was opened again and casting was cemented. The flap was sutured. Ten days after the second surgery, three anterior teeth were prepared and a final impression was taken for the preparation of porcelain crowns. Restoration was finished 15 days after the second operation. The patient is still under maintenance therapy and the 12 month results are presented in this report. Extraction may not be the only alternative for the root fractures. Even for fractures under the alveolar margin, alternative multidisciplinary approaches can be used to restore and allow the tooth to survive. PMID:17511838

  15. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia?

    Yi Li; Xuming Hua; Fang Hua; Wenwei Mao; Liang Wan; Shiting Li

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohistological staining and reverse transcription-PCR detection showed that transplanted bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells could migrate and survive in the ischemic regions, such as the cortical and striatal infarction zone. These cells promote vascular endothelial cell growth factor mRNA expression in the ischemic marginal zone surrounding the ischemic penumbra of the cortical and striatal infarction zone, and have great advantages in promoting the recovery of neurological function, reducing infarct size and promoting angiogenesis. Bone marrow regenerative cells exhibited stronger neuroprotective effects than bone marrow cells. Our experimental findings indicate that bone marrow regenerative cells are preferable over bone marrow cells for cell therapy for neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. Their neuroprotective effect is largely due to their ability to induce the secretion of factors that promote vascular regeneration, such as vascular endothelial growth factor.

  16. Short course continuous, hyperfractionated, accelerated radiation therapy (CHART) as preoperative treatment for rectal cancer

    Brooks, S.; Glynne-Jones, R.; Harrison, M.; Makris, A. [Mount Vernon Cancer Center, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Novell, R.; Brown, K. [Luton and Dunstable Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Determine feasibility and toxicity of preoperative short course pelvic CHART (25 Gy in 15 fractions over 5 days) for treatment of clinically resectable primary rectal tumours. Between 1998 and 2004, 20 patients with clinically staged T3 resectable rectal carcinoma were treated in this prospective pilot study with preoperative short course CHART to their pelvis. The aim was for total mesorectal excision within 7 days. Radiation toxicity, surgical morbidity, locoregional control (LRC), overall (OS), cause specific (CSS) and disease free survival (DFS) outcomes were documented. Nineteen of the 20 patients completed planned radiotherapy. One discontinued radiotherapy due to toxicity. All patients underwent potentially curative radical surgery. One patient developed grade 3, and three patients grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity. With a median follow-up of 31 months (range 0.9-88), there is no grade 3, 4 or 5 late toxicity. Two patients experienced grade 2, and three patients grade 1 late bowel toxicity. Two patients died from postoperative complications, and two developed grade 2 abdominal wound infections. At 3 years LRC is 95% (95% CI 83-100), OS 72% (95% CI 51-94), CSS 86% (95% CI 68-100) and DFS 80% (95% CI 60-100). Two patients died from metastatic disease, one patient from a second primary and one patient is alive after successful resection of hepatic metastases. This small study suggests preoperative short course CHART for clinically resectable rectal carcinoma is feasible with acceptable compliance and tolerable side effects.

  17. Biological treatment of PAH-contaminated sediments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor

    The technical feasibility of a sequential batch process for the biological treatment of sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated through an experimental study. A bench-scale Sediment Slurry Sequencing Batch Reactor (SS-SBR) was fed with river sediments contaminated by a PAH mixture made by fluorene, anthracene, pyrene and crysene. The process performance was evaluated under different operating conditions, obtained by modifying the influent organic load, the feed composition and the hydraulic residence time. Measurements of the Oxygen Uptake Rates (OURs) provided useful insights on the biological kinetics occurring in the SS-SBR, suggesting the minimum applied cycle time-length of 7 days could be eventually halved, as also confirmed by the trend observed in the volatile solid and total organic carbon data. The removal efficiencies gradually improved during the SS-SBR operation, achieving at the end of the study rather constant removal rates above 80% for both 3-rings PAHs (fluorene and anthracene) and 4-ring PAHs (pyrene and crysene) for an inlet total PAH concentration of 70 mg/kg as dry weight (dw).

  18. Functional treatment versus plaster for simple elbow dislocations (FuncSiE: a randomized trial

    Verleisdonk Egbert JMM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elbow dislocations can be classified as simple or complex. Simple dislocations are characterized by the absence of fractures, while complex dislocations are associated with fractures. After reduction of a simple dislocation, treatment options include immobilization in a static plaster for different periods of time or so-called functional treatment. Functional treatment is characterized by early active motion within the limits of pain with or without the use of a sling or hinged brace. Theoretically, functional treatment should prevent stiffness without introducing increased joint instability. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to compare early functional treatment versus plaster immobilization following simple dislocations of the elbow. Methods/Design The design of the study will be a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 100 patients who have sustained a simple elbow dislocation. After reduction of the dislocation, patients are randomized between a pressure bandage for 5-7 days and early functional treatment or a plaster in 90 degrees flexion, neutral position for pro-supination for a period of three weeks. In the functional group, treatment is started with early active motion within the limits of pain. Function, pain, and radiographic recovery will be evaluated at regular intervals over the subsequent 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. The secondary outcome measures are the Mayo Elbow Performance Index, Oxford elbow score, pain level at both sides, range of motion of the elbow joint at both sides, rate of secondary interventions and complication rates in both groups (secondary dislocation, instability, relaxation, health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 and EuroQol-5D, radiographic appearance of the elbow joint (degenerative changes and heterotopic ossifications, costs, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The successful

  19. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

    E M Moore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The available treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL have problems relating to efficacy, adverse effects and cost, making treatment a complex issue. We review the evidence relating to the different methods of treatment in relation to - efficacy and toxicity of the drugs in different areas of the world; ability to monitor side effects, length of treatment; ability of patients to pay for and stay safe during treatment, ability of the healthcare services to give intramuscular, intravenous or oral therapy; the sex and child-bearing potential of the patient and the immune status of the patient. The high mortality of untreated/ poorly treated VL infection makes the decisions paramount, but a unified and coordinated response by each area is likely to be more effective and informative to future policies than an ad hoc response. For patients in resource-rich countries, liposomal amphotericin B appears to be the optimal treatment. In South Asia, miltefosine is being used; the combination of single dose liposomal amphotericin B and short course miltefosine looks encouraging but has the problem of potential reproductive toxicities in females. In Africa, the evidence to switch from SSG is not yet compelling. The need to monitor and plan for evolving drug failure, secondary to leishmania parasite resistance, is paramount. With a few drugs the options may be limited; however, we await key ongoing trials in both Africa and India to explore the effects of combination treatment. If safe and reliable combinations are revealed by the ongoing studies, it is far from clear as to whether this will avoid leishmania parasite resistance. The development of new drugs to add to the armamentarium is paramount. Lessons can be learnt from the management of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria in terms of planning the switch to combination treatment. As important as establishing the best choice for specific antileishmanial agent is ensuring treatment centers

  20. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates Th1, Th2, and Hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks.

    Puttonen, Henri A J; Sundvik, Maria; Rozov, Stanislav; Chen, Yu-Chia; Panula, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75 and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a prolonged increase in swimming speed was seen. At the highest ethanol concentration dopamine levels decreased significantly after a 10-min treatment. We found that ethanol upregulates key genes involved in the biosynthesis of histamine (hdc) and dopamine (th1 and th2) following a short 10-min ethanol treatment, measured by qPCR. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we further discovered that the morphology of the histaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and networks in the larval zebrafish brain was unaffected by both the 10-min and a longer 30-min treatment. The results suggest that acute ethanol rapidly decreases dopamine levels, and activates both forms or th to replenish the dopamine stores within 30 min. The dynamic changes in histaminergic and dopaminergic system enzymes occurred in the same cells which normally express the transcripts. As both dopamine and histamine are known to be involved in the behavioral effects of ethanol and locomotor stimulation, these results suggest that rapid adaptations of these networks are associated with altered locomotor activity. PMID:23754986

  1. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children

    Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Maiga, Amelia W.; Ouologuem, Dinkorma; Fofana, Bakary; Sagara, Issaka; Dembele, Demba; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dama, Souleymane; Sidibe, Bakary; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010–2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002–2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010–2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002–2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0) and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003). The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6). Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002–2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting. PMID:26839003

  2. Effect of early treatment with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS on pulmonary inflammation induced by bleomycin

    Laisa A. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bleomycin (B is an antineoplastic drug that has pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect. There are few experimental studies about the effects of physical therapy treatment in this case. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study rat lungs treated with B and precocious intervention by transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS. METHOD : Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=5: a control group (C; a stimulated group (TEDS; a group treated with a single dose of B (intratracheally, 2.5 mg/kg (B; and a group treated with B and electric stimulation (B + TEDS. After the B instillation, the electrical stimulation was applied for 7 days, for a duration of 20 minutes. Lung fragments were histologically processed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and 8-isoprostane-PGF2α (8-iso-PGF2α. The density of the alveolar area was determined by planimetry, the inflammatory profile was defined by the number of cells, and the level of oxidative stress in the pulmonary tissue was evaluated by 8-iso-PGF2α. For statistical analysis of the data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used, followed by a one-way ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni test (p≤0.05. RESULTS : The B group exhibited a significant reduction in the area density, and the acute treatment with B + TEDS prevented this reduction. There were increased numbers of fibroblasts, leukocytes, and macrophages in the B group, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, which was observed only in this group. CONCLUSION : B promoted a reduction in the alveolar density area, thereby inducing the inflammatory process and increasing the production of free radicals. These effects were minimized by the application of TEDS at the initial treatment stage.

  3. ٍEvaluating Baremoom Mouthwash Efficacy in Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

    MH Akhavan Karbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is regarded as a painful and discomforting chemotherapy complication , affecting patient’s quality of life and endurance to continue the treatment. Hence, treatment of mucositis is of great significance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Baremoom mouthwash in treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis . Methods: This interventional double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was performed on 40 adult patients under chemotherapy in blood and oncology department of Shahid Sadouqhi hospital. The total of 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental baremoom group and a control placebo group each containing 20 subjects. Baremoom mouthwash (30% extract, Soren Tektoos, Mashhad and placebo mouthwash ( Sterile water with allowable additives ,Soren Tektoos, Mashhad with same apparent properties were given to the patients (3 times a day for 7 days after mucositis detection. The patients were evaluated in regard with mucositis grade (0-4 WHO and wounds extension on 1th , 3th and 7th days after the study begining. In order to statistically analyze the collected data, Freidman, Mann–Whitney, and wilcoxon W tests were applied utilizing SPSS software (ver, 17. Results: On 3rd  and 7th  days, mean degree of wound extension and mucositis were demonstrated to be significantly different between the two groups. According to Friedman test, both experimental and control groups revealed a significant difference in regard with wound extension and mucositis grade within the three time periods. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that Baremoom mouthwash was more effective in chemotherapy- induced mucositis than placebo. Hence, this agent can be recommended as an appropriate medicine in order to eliminate mucositis symtoms and decrease oral ulcers.

  4. Prevalence, clinical presentation and treatment outcome of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent adult patients presenting with acute diarrhoea

    Objective: To document the prevalence, clinical presentation and treatment outcome of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent adult patients presenting with acute diarrhoea. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation Karachi from February 1, till September 30, 2012. All immunocompetent adult patients who presented with acute diarrhoea to the gastroenterology clinic at SIUT were included. Data collection sheet was filled and stool studies sent. Modified acid fast stain of stool was performed for cryptosporidium. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 105 patients with acute diarrhoea. Fifty three (50.4%) were males. The mean age was 34+-8.4 years. Of 105, 58 (55%) patients had cryptosporidium isolated in stool studies. Patients with cryptosporidiosis had statistically significant greater stool frequency per day (p<0.001,OR=12.7; CI [4.4-37.1]), abdominal pain (p<0.001, OR= 19.8 [6.1-64.1]), vomiting (p<0.001, OR=7.3 [2.7-19.9]), low grade fever (p<0.001, OR=8.5 [3.5-20.8]), fatigue (p<0.001, OR=8.4 [3.2-21.6]) and dehydration and a shorter duration of illness with more watery diarrhoea. All 58 patients reported resolution of diarrhoea after 7 days of treatment with nitazoxanide. However, 40 (70.1%) patients reported recurrence of diarrhoea within 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent adult patients. Nitazoxanide is the recommended antimicrobial drug for cryptosporidiosis. (author)

  5. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children

    Djimde Abdoulaye A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010–2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002–2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010–2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002–2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0 and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003. The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6. Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002–2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting.

  6. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates th1, th2 and hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks

    Pertti Panula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75% and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a prolonged increase in swimming speed was seen. At the highest ethanol concentration dopamine levels decreased significantly after a 10-min treatment. We found that ethanol upregulates key genes involved in the biosynthesis of histamine (hdc and dopamine (th1 and th2 following a short 10-min ethanol treatment, measured by qPCR. Using in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry, we further discovered that the morphology of the histaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and networks in the larval zebrafish brain was unaffected by both the 10-min and a longer 30-min treatment. The results suggest that acute ethanol rapidly decreases dopamine levels, and activates both forms or th to replenish the dopamine stores within 30 minutes. The dynamic changes in histaminergic and dopaminergic system enzymes occured in the same cells which normally express the transcripts. As both dopamine and histamine are known to be involved in the behavioural effects of ethanol and locomotor stimulation, these results suggest that rapid adaptations of these networks are associated with altered locomotor activity.

  7. Quarantine treatment for Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) through gamma radiation from Cobalt-60

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira, E-mail: amandaramos@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potenza, Marcos Roberto, E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.b [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pests like beetles, moths, fungus and mites normally attack stored products such as grains, spices, flours, brans and tobacco in bale. Among these pests the Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most important pests due its elevated potential of reproduction, infesting a great number of products, inducing great damages. This work had as objective to determine the efficacy of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment for S. zeamais. The insects used in this experiment were reared in maize grains, at the Laboratorio de Artropodes of the Instituto Biologico/SP, on climatic room with 27 +- 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 +- 5%. Samples containing 25 adult insects were put in acrylic recipients measuring 2.8cm x 2.8cm. Each treatment had four repetitions, in a total of 100 insects for treatment. They were irradiated with growing doses of gamma radiation: 0 (control); 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,5; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25 2,5; 2,75; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy, in a experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, model Gammacell-220, located at the Centro de Tecnologia da Radiacoes - CTR of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the samples were transferred to plastic recipients measuring 3,5cm x 10cm, with perforated lids (to allow gaseous exchanges). After the irradiation the samples were kept in climatic room (27 +- 2 deg C and 70 +- 5%). The mortality of insects was evaluated 1 hour after the irradiation and also on the next 7 days. By the results obtained we can conclude that was the dose of 2.75 kGy that induced the immediate mortality for adult insects of the specie S. zeamais. (author)

  8. Quarantine treatment for Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) through gamma radiation from Cobalt-60

    Pests like beetles, moths, fungus and mites normally attack stored products such as grains, spices, flours, brans and tobacco in bale. Among these pests the Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most important pests due its elevated potential of reproduction, infesting a great number of products, inducing great damages. This work had as objective to determine the efficacy of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment for S. zeamais. The insects used in this experiment were reared in maize grains, at the Laboratorio de Artropodes of the Instituto Biologico/SP, on climatic room with 27 ± 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. Samples containing 25 adult insects were put in acrylic recipients measuring 2.8cm x 2.8cm. Each treatment had four repetitions, in a total of 100 insects for treatment. They were irradiated with growing doses of gamma radiation: 0 (control); 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,5; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25 2,5; 2,75; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy, in a experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, model Gammacell-220, located at the Centro de Tecnologia da Radiacoes - CTR of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the samples were transferred to plastic recipients measuring 3,5cm x 10cm, with perforated lids (to allow gaseous exchanges). After the irradiation the samples were kept in climatic room (27 ± 2 deg C and 70 ± 5%). The mortality of insects was evaluated 1 hour after the irradiation and also on the next 7 days. By the results obtained we can conclude that was the dose of 2.75 kGy that induced the immediate mortality for adult insects of the specie S. zeamais. (author)

  9. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy in patients with hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    James AH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Andra H James,1 Barbara A Konkle,2,3 Kenneth A Bauer4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 2Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, Washington, 3Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 4Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Objective: The aims of the study reported here were to provide data from six pregnant subjects who were enrolled in a clinical trial of antithrombin (AT concentrate, discuss other published case series and case reports, and provide general guidance for the use of AT concentrate for inherited AT deficiency in pregnancy. Methods: In the late 1980s, 31 AT-deficient subjects were enrolled in a prospective treatment trial of the plasma-derived AT concentrate Thrombate III®. Herein, newly available treatment data about the six pregnant subjects in the trial is tabulated and summarized. Results: All six experienced venous thromboembolism (VTE during pregnancy, were dosed according to a weight-based protocol, and were treated concomitantly with anticoagulation. Loading doses of AT concentrate of 54–62 units/kg were followed by maintenance doses of 50%–100% of the loading dose for 3–10 days. At the time of labor, loading doses of 46–50 units/kg were followed by maintenance doses of 50%–75% of the loading dose for 5–7 days. None of the six experienced recurrent thrombosis while receiving treatment with AT concentrate. Conclusion: Currently we suggest that women with AT deficiency who are pregnant or postpartum and have a personal history of VTE or current VTE receive AT concentrates. Keywords: thrombophilia, thrombosis, plasma-derived concentrate, labor, delivery, heparin.

  10. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (...

  11. Validation of the Danish 7-day pre-coded food diary among adults: energy intake v. energy expenditure and recording length

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Rasmussen, Lone Banke;

    2009-01-01

    position-and-motion instrument (ActiReg®). Further, the influence of recording length on EI:BMR, percentage consumers, the number of meal occasions and recorded food items per meal was examined. A total of 138 Danish volunteers aged 20–59 years wore the ActiReg® and recorded their food intake for 7...... for EI and EE were − 6·29 and 3·09 MJ/d. Of the participants, 73 % were classified as acceptable reporters, 26 % as under-reporters and 1 % as over-reporters. EI:BMR was significantly lower on 1–3 consecutive recording days compared with 4–7 recording days (P <0·03). Percentage consumers of selected...... beginning and the end of the 7 d reporting. Together, the results indicate that EI was underestimated at group level and that a 7 d recording is preferable to a 4 d recording period....

  12. Reduction in Thrombosis and Bacterial Adhesion with 7 Day Implantation of S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-Doped Elast-eon E2As Catheters in Sheep

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Davis, Ryan P.; Jones, Anna M.; Major, Terry C.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis and infection are two common problems associated with blood-contacting medical devices such as catheters. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be a potent antimicrobial agent as well as an inhibitor of platelet activation and adhesion. Healthy endothelial cells that line the inner walls of all blood vessels exhibit a NO flux of 0.5~4×10−10 mol cm−2 min−1 that helps prevent thrombosis. Materials with a NO flux that is equivalent to this level are expected to exhibit similar anti-thrombotic...

  13. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transfusion based on the Thrombelastograph (TEG) results reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in liver transplantation. Taking the pivotal role of thrombin generation in the coagulation process into consideration, the clinical utility of the TEG may, ...

  14. Treatment of carnitine deficiency.

    Winter, S C

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine deficiency is a secondary complication of many inborn errors of metabolism. Pharmacological treatment with carnitine not only corrects the deficiency, it facilitates removal of accumulating toxic acyl intermediates and the generation of mitochondrial free coenzyme A (CoA). The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved the use of carnitine for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism in 1992. This approval was based on retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients, with 18 in the untreated cohort and 72 in the treated cohort. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of clinical and biochemical findings. Compelling data included increased excretion of disease-specific acylcarnitine derivatives in a dose-response relationship, decreased levels of metabolites in the blood, and improved clinical status with decreased hospitalization frequency, improved growth and significantly lower mortality rates as compared to historical controls. Complications of carnitine treatment were few, with gastrointestinal disturbances and odour being the most frequent. No laboratory or clinical safety issues were identified. Intravenous carnitine preparations were also approved for treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency. Since only 25% of enteral carnitine is absorbed and gastrointestinal tolerance of high doses is poor, parenteral carnitine treatment is an appealing alternative therapeutic approach. In 7 patients treated long term with high-dose weekly to daily venous boluses of parenteral carnitine through a subcutaneous venous port, benefits included decreased frequency of decompensations, improved growth, improved muscle strength and decreased reliance on medical foods with liberalization of protein intake. Port infections were the most troubling complication. Theoretical concerns continue to be voiced that carnitine might result in fatal arrhythmias in patients with long-chain fat metabolism defects. No published clinical studies substantiate these

  15. Control of the Biofilms Formed by Curli- and Cellulose-Expressing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Using Treatments with Organic Acids and Commercial Sanitizers.

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are a mixture of bacteria and extracellular products secreted by bacterial cells and are of great concern to the food industry because they offer physical, mechanical, and biological protection to bacterial cells. This study was conducted to quantify biofilms formed by different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces and to determine the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments in control of these biofilms. STEC producing various amounts of cellulose (n = 6) or curli (n = 6) were allowed to develop biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces at 28°C for 7 days. The biofilms were treated with 2% acetic or lactic acid and manufacturer-recommended concentrations of acidic or alkaline sanitizers, and residual biofilms were quantified. Treatments with the acidic and alkaline sanitizers were more effective than those with the organic acids for removing the biofilms. Compared with their counterparts, cells expressing a greater amount of cellulose or curli formed more biofilm mass and had greater residual mass after sanitizing treatments on polystyrene than on stainless steel. Research suggests that the organic acids and sanitizers used in the present study differed in their ability to control biofilms. Bacterial surface components and cell contact surfaces can influence both biofilm formation and the efficacy of sanitizing treatments. These results provide additional information on control of biofilms formed by STEC. PMID:25951395

  16. Treatment Practice and Research Issues in Improving Opioid Treatment Outcomes

    JACKSON, T. RON

    2002-01-01

    Providers of treatment for opioid addiction have entered a new era of accountability, as Federal and State regulators increasingly demand objective evidence of treatment effectiveness. Since the length of treatment is associated with success of treatment, opioid treatment programs that demonstrate an ability to retain patients can make a strong case that they are effective. The challenge to opioid treatment providers is to examine their practices and begin organizational change to incorporate...

  17. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to “pseudo-resistance” (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true “treatment resistance.” Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nona...

  18. Anti-androgen treatments.

    Bachelot, Anne; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Salenave, Sylvie; Kerlan, Véronique; Galand-Portier, Marie-Béatrice

    2010-02-01

    1. Estrogen plus progestin contraceptives (EPP) are the first-line treatment of moderate hirsutism and acne in women of child bearing age (grade C). 2. CPA, 50mg/day, 20 days out of 28, associated with estrogen is the first-line treatment of "moderate to severe hirsutism" in women of childbearing age (grade C). 3. Spironolactone, given as a contraceptive, can be proposed as a second-line treatment in case of side effects or counter-indications to CPA in moderate to severe hirsutism (grade C) in women of childbearing age. No market authorization in this indication. 4. Flutamide or Finasteride are "only" to be used under the guise of contraception as a "thirdline therapy" in cases of severe hirsutism, the presence of side effects or counter-indications to EPP, CPA 50mg/day or spironolactone (grade C). No market authorization in this indication 5. There is no indication for GnRH analogs as an anti-androgen treatment in women of childbearing age given the current therapeutic alternatives (grade C) 6. Only long-term hair removal treatments can be proposed (grade C): electrolysis or laser hair removal. PMID:20096826

  19. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  20. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)