WorldWideScience
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Academic performance of peruvian elementary school children: The case of schools in Lima at the 6th grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El estudio que se informa examinó de qué manera el rendimiento académico en diversas áreas del aprendizaje tales como ortografía, lectura y aritmética estuvo asociado con diferentes variables relacionadas con niños (por ejemplo: género, inteligencia y edad). Asimismo, se consideraron algunas variabl [...] es distales como estatus socioeconómico y tipo de colegio. En el estudio participaron 1.129 niños que cursaban 6to grado de educación primaria en Lima Metropolitana (Perú). Los estudiantes completaron cuatro pruebas: En el área de lectura fueron examinados con un subtest de la prueba Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE) Lectura de Palabras y Pseudo - palabras (Cuetos & Ramos, 1999). En el área de Aritmética fueron evaluados con el Subtest de Facilidad Numérica de Ekstrom, French y Harman (1979) y en el caso de Ortografía se aplicó la Prueba de Rendimiento Ortográfico (Dioses, 2001). La variable inteligencia fue medida con la Prueba de Matrices Progresivas de Raven (Raven, J., Raven, J.C. & Court, 2004). Debido a la estructura jerárquica de los datos (estudiantes dentro de clases y clases dentro de escuelas) se aplicó análisis multinivel para cada variable académica (ortografía, lectura y aritmética). Los resultados revelaron un gran impacto en primer lugar del tipo de escuela: los alumnos de escuelas privadas rindieron mejor que los de escuelas públicas en todas las áreas académicas; en segundo lugar, la variable inteligencia juega un rol esencial, cuanto mayor es el coeficiente intelectual del estudiante, mejor es el rendimiento académico, y parcialmente del género; las niñas mostraron un mejor desempeño en comparación con los niños en el área de ortografía. Se discuten en detalle algunas repercusiones pedagógicas. Abstract in english Education is in general the basis for development in any country in the world. In the education al field, several international assessments (Pisa, 2006) reflect the great gap that yet subsists among developing countries, in which the case of Peru is not an exception. There have been many national an [...] d international academic achievement evaluations that examine the skills and knowledge of students not only in Peru but also in other Latin American countries in different academic domains. One of these examples is the Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (LLECE), in which Peru participated, in order to evaluate and compare the performance achieved by Latin American students of 3rd and 6th grade in core areas like Language, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences. Peru ranks, together with other Latin countries, with scores below the average (Regional Office for Education of UNESCO, 2008). The low ranking of the Peruvian educational system carries heavy implications and consequences, especially to the intellectual and social development of learning disabled Peruvian children. Understanding the relation between academic performance and child development is of paramount importance. The present study examines how spelling, reading and arithmetic performances are associated to various child variables (gender, intelligence, and age), and distal variables such as Socio-Economic Status (SES) or type of school. The subjects in the study were 1.129 elementary school children who were in the 6th grade (11 - 12 years old) in Metropolitan Lima, Perú. Children completed four different tests: In the reading area, the subtest of Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE; Cuetos & Ramos, 1999), Reading of Word and Pseudo-word; in the Arithmetic domain, the Number Facility from the Kit of Factor Referenced Cognitive Tests of Ekstrom, French, and Harman (1979) and in the spelling domain, the Spelling Achievement Test from Dioses (2001) was used. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices Test (Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, 2004, updated edition). Some preliminary analyses were conducted beforehand in order to overview and examine the structure of the data. Following this, a

Denisse L., Manrique Millones; Karla, Van Leeuwen; Pol, Ghesquière.

2011-12-01

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Exam and assessment of contents of social sciences in 5th and 6th grade of elementary school. Capacities, concepts, and procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to analyze the exams of 5th and 6th grade of Elementary School about social sciences. In this paper we will analyze the contents of history and geography and the mental operations necessary to respond to the questions of the exams. This investigation has been realised on 69 exams and 745 questions picked up in five schools of the Region of Murcia. The study of these instruments of assessment has allowed us to establish different categories between the capacities, the contents and the format of examination.

Cosme Jesús Gómez Carrasco

2012-04-01

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READING HABITS AND THE INTERESTS OF PUPILS OF THE 6TH AND 8TH GRADE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN ORMOŽ  

OpenAIRE

SUMMARY In my diploma work the reading habits and interests of pupils of 6th and 8th classes in primary school Ormož are introduced. The diploma is divided into introductory, theoretical and empirical part, where the research is represented, results and interpretation, and the conclusion. In the theoretical part first the reading in general is represented, which is followed by types of reading, reading models, reading development and typology of readers, it ends with reading motivation. ...

Kontarc?ek, Petra

2012-01-01

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Influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º a 6º primaria / Influence of Peruvian television advertising in unhealthy food consumption in 4th to 6th grade elementary scholars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La exposición a la publicidad televisiva promueve el consumo de alimentos no saludables, constituyendo un riesgo para el aumento del sobrepeso y obesidad. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º [...] a 6º de primaria. Diseño: Descriptivo de asociación cruzada. Lugar: Institución Educativa Nº 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Escolares entre 9 y 12 años de edad. Intervenciones: Se aplicó dos encuestas previamente validadas y probadas en prueba piloto, a 120 escolares de ambos sexos que asistieron a clases y que tuvieron consentimiento informado firmado por sus padres. Principales medidas de resultados: Tiempo de ver televisión y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Resultados: Los estudiantes en promedio vieron televisión más de 7 horas diarias (DS 1,17). Los programas más vistos fueron los que estaban dirigidos a público mayor de 14 años. Los alimentos no saludables más publicitados y comprados fueron galletas y bebidas azucaradas. Se encontró asociación significativa entre alimentos no saludables más vistos en TV y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Conclusiones: Existió relación entre la publicidad televisiva y el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares del nivel primario. Abstract in english Background: Exposure to television advertising promoting unhealthy food consumption may increase overweight and obesity risk in children. Objectives: To determine the influence of Peruvian television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in 4th to 6th grade children. Design: Descriptive cro [...] ss-association. Setting: Educational Institution No. 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Peru. Participants: Schoolchildren aged 9 to 12 years. Interventions: Two previously validated tests were applied to 120 students of both sexes who attended classes and whose parents had signed informed consent. Main outcome measures: Time watching TV and unhealthy food consumption. Results: Students watched TV more than 7 hours per day (DS 1.17) average. Most popular programs were those directed to over 14 year-old public. Most unhealthy foods advertised and purchased were biscuits and sugary drinks. Significant association was found between unhealthy foods most watched by TV and unhealthy food consumption. Conclusions: There was relationship between television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in elementary level scholars.

Evelin C., Rojas-Huayllani; Doris H., Delgado-Pérez.

2013-01-01

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????????????????????????????? Using Debate in the 6th Grade Social Studies: Promoting Student Information Literacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of applying debate in the 6th grade social studies to promote students’ information literacy and their understanding of the subject matters. The debate topics, which came from the 6th grade social studies textbook, were “Should the legislation protect human cloning” and “If the Internet brings more good than harm to elementary students”.The debate activities were designed on the base of the Big6 information literacy model. It comprises six stages which are Task Definition, Information Seeking Strategy, Location & Access, Use of Information, Synthesis, and Evaluation.This study lasted a semester, and the data was gathered through participant observation, interviews, and document analysis. The results showed that debate could be used in the 6th grade social studies curriculum. Through collaboratively designing debate activities between teachers, it is easier to integrate information literacy instruction into the curriculum. Furthermore, to systematically design the information literacy curriculum is another important issue.

Lin Ching Chen

2010-06-01

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DEVOLOPING A SURVEY ON 6TH GRADE STUDENTS’ AWARENESS OF LISTENING SKILLS IN TURKISH CLASSES  

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Full Text Available In this study it is aimed to build up a measurement for finding out 6th grade students’ awareness of listening skills in Turkish classes (In other words, how they find themselves about their listening skills.Sample group is taken from 4 primary public schools of Ministry of National Education in Erzurum, consisting of 6th grade students from different socio-economical groups. Components of the scale is reflected as Likert Type scale (always, often, sometimes, never. After the findings from validity and reliability studies, it can be concluded that the ‘survey’ that is prepared to find out the awareness of the 6th grade students’ listening skills in Turkish classes , is a valid and reliable instrument.

Abdullah ?AH?N

2009-10-01

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Storm Peak Laboratory 5th-6th Grade Climate and Weather Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) has created a place-based elementary school program, which has been implemented at five elementary schools in Northwest Colorado. Real understanding, not factual recall, is the primary goal and developing a desire to be lifelong learners in science is a secondary goal. The specific objectives of the program include the following: 1) Develop a weather and climate curriculum that teaches skills required by Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP). 2) Provide a hands-on place-based educational experience where students have an opportunity to use scientific equipment. 3) Provide students a three-day program that consists of an introduction, field program, and follow-up to help students grasp concepts and apply them to other school studies. 4) Provide all participating students with understanding of climate and weather 5) Build foundations for students to understand climate change. 6) Disseminate to alpine regions across the Western US, potentially impacting thousands of students that will experience the impacts of climate change during their lifetime. The SPL program spans three days for each school and includes five elementary schools. During the first day, a scientist and educators from SPL visit each classroom for two hours to introduce the concepts of climate and weather as well as teach students how to use scientific equipment. During the field program on the second day, students measure and record information about temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and particle concentration while they travel to SPL via the gondola and chair lifts (in winter) or 4WD Suburbans (in fall). Once at the laboratory, students will meet with both SPL scientists and educators to tour the facility, discuss SPL research activities, and explore application of these activities to their curriculum. An alternative winter snowshoe program at the top of the gondola is offered to students who do not ski, where students have a program on snow science. At the end of the day each student has a data sheet with measurements recorded from 5 locations of different elevations to take back to the classroom. Following the field trip, SPL scientists and educators visit the school for a follow-up to help children grasp concepts, represent their data set collected in graphical formats, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. Currently, approximately 250 students annually participate in the SPL 5th and 6th grade climate education program.

McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.

2008-12-01

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A Qualitative Study Concerning the 6th Grade Students’ Conceptual Structures about the Cell Concept  

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Full Text Available This study aims to investigate 6th grade students’ conceptual structures about the cell concept in science education. For this purpose, drawing method, open-ended questions and word association test were applied to 65 middle school students. Descriptive analysis and content analysis were used to analyze the data. It was found that there were a wide range of alternative conceptions in students’ drawings and definitions of the cell. They mostly designated the nucleus, cell membrane and the mitochondria as the most important parts or organelles. The participants association of the cell concept with daily life was mostly categorized as ‘awareness generated by knowledge’, ‘health’ and ‘finding it necessary for the future’. Also, the data collected through the word association test was categorized under 5 categories and ‘defining the cell’, ‘parts and the organelles of the cell’ and ‘giving examples to the cell’ were the mostly persisting ones. We conclude that the 6th grade students who met for the first time with the cell concept at school had insufficient conceptions about that concept.

Özgecan Ta?tan K?r?k

2014-12-01

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Usability of a Web-Based Teaching Software: “Vitamin 6th Grade Mathematics Module  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate usability of the Vitamin 6th Grade Mathematics Module program interface. The program was made available to 12 students at a school with most frequently used 11-question task list and the results were recorded in an evaluation form. During the course of the test, participating students were asked to think loud. The tests were conducted one-on-one with each participant with 2 observers. In the evaluation phase, it was considered whether the test was completed or not. In addition, participating students’ behavior and statements were taken into consideration. At the end of the test, users found the program usable but they also made some suggestions.

Gamze YILMAZ

2013-04-01

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The Efficiency of Cluster Method in Improving the Creative Writing Skill of 6th Grade Students of Primary School  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research is to search the effect of the cluster method on the creative writing skill of 6th grade students. In this paper, the students of 6-A, studying at Ulas Primary School in 2010-2011 academic year, were divided into two groups as experiment and control. Taking into consideration the various variants, pre-test and last-test…

Sahbaz, Namik Kemal; Duran, Gozde

2011-01-01

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Elementary Grades Students' Capacity for Functional Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a study of how urban elementary grades students develop and express functions. Data were analyzed according to the forms of representations students used, the progression in students' mathematical language and the operations they employed, and how they attended to one or more varying quantities. Findings indicate that students are capable…

Blanton, Maria L.; Kaput, James J.

2004-01-01

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Investigating of the Number Perception and Nonroutine Problem Solving Skills of 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Students  

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Full Text Available The purposes of the study are to determine the number perception and nonroutine problem solving skills of students and to examine the possible relationship between these skills. The relational scanning model was used in the study. The study group consists of a total of 240 6th, 7th and 8th grade students from four primary schools in the Erzurum City Center in the 2009-2010 academic year. The simple random sampling model was used to determine the participant primary schools. The “Number Perception Test” and “Nonroutine Problem Solving Test” including problems requiring deduction, induction and spatial reasoning were used to gather data. In the analysis of the data gathered from the tests percentage and frequency values, One-Way ANOVA, independent t-test and correlation analysis were used. In the study, it is determined that these students levels of number perception and nonroutine problem solving skills are low and there is a positive relationship between these skills.

Cemalettin I?IK

2011-04-01

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Analysis of Opinions Regarding Medical Specialty Selection Examination and Career Choices of 5th and 6th Grade Medical Students from Düzce University, Turkey  

OpenAIRE

Objective: In this study, it was aimed that analyzing career choices of Students of Medical Faculty and their opinions regarding Medical Specialty Selection Examination. Methods: At 2012-2013 education terms, 101 medical students from Düzce University participated in this cross sectional study. 58 (57,4%) of them were at 5th grade and 43 (42,6%) of the participants were at 6th grade. Career Choices, affecting factors, training course satisfaction, some demographic factors (age, gender, gr...

?smail Hamdi Kara; Serhat Çelik; Muhammet Fatih Keyif; Adem Demir; Davut Baltac?; Atilla Senih Mayda

2014-01-01

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Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22.4% increase (43.9% to 66.3%; penjoyed the integration of physical activity into science lessons and the teachers described the positive effect of the framework on student interest/engagement. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that the Active Science framework helped to promote physical activity, facilitate student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge and excite students about integrating physical activity into science lessons.

Finn, Kevin Eugene

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Measuring Participation among Elementary Grade Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of a teacher rating scale--the Student Participation Questionnaire (SPQ)--to assess the form/extent of participation in class/school activities among elementary-school students and its administration to 2,207 fourth graders in 258 classrooms in 74 schools are described. The SPQ yields three reliable scales germane to elementary school…

Finn, Jeremy D.; And Others

1991-01-01

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Differences between Teachers' Grading Practices in Elementary and Middle Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the grading practices of elementary and middle school teachers by measuring their responses to 53 scenarios that the authors designed to describe various student characteristics that may influence the grades that teachers assigned. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate a method based on…

Randall, Jennifer; Engelhard, George

2009-01-01

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Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

2013-01-01

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A randomized controlled trial on the effects of yoga on stress reactivity in 6th grade students.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing interest in developing school programs that improve the ability of children to cope with psychosocial stress. Yoga may be an appropriate intervention as it has demonstrated improvements in the ability of children to manage psychosocial stress. Yoga is thought to improve the control of reactivity to stress via the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. The current study examined the effects of yoga compared to a physical education class on physiological response (blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR)) to behavioral stressor tasks (mental arithmetic and mirror tracing tasks). Data analysis of BP and HR was performed using a 2 × 2 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (time × group × stressor time points). 30 (17?male) 6th graders participated in the study. Yoga did not provide significant differences in stress reactivity compared to a physical education class (group × time: systolic (F(1,28) = .538, P = .470); diastolic (F(1,28) = .1.061, P = .312); HR (F(1,28) = .401, P = .532)). The lack of significant differences may be due to the yoga intervention failing to focus on stress management and/or the stressor tasks not adequately capturing attenuation of stressor response. PMID:23431341

Hagins, Marshall; Haden, Sara C; Daly, Leslie A

2013-01-01

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Chronic Absenteeism in the Elementary Grades. Information Capsule. Volume 1009  

Science.gov (United States)

Although high rates of absenteeism at the secondary school level have long been recognized as a significant problem, low attendance in elementary schools is often overlooked. Research suggests that one in 10 students younger than grade three nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing 10 percent or more of the school year. This…

Blazer, Christie

2011-01-01

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise.PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise. RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise.

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto

2012-01-01

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do ensino fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise.PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise. RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise.

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto

2013-04-01

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Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

Peck, Rick

2009-01-01

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Effects of reading-writing-application and learning together techniques on 6 th grade students’ academic achievements on the subject of “Matter and Temperature”  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ReadingWriting-Application technique, Learning Together technique and according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education on students’ academic achievements on the subject of “matter and temperature” and attainment level of students regarding the experiments. Sample of the study comprised a total of 92 6th grade students from three different classes of a primary school. As data collection tools; Academic Achievement Test (AAT and Experimental Achievement Test (EAT were used. The study was conducted in three different groups, each representing a different learning method. These groups were; the Reading-Writing-Application Group (RWAG, Learning Together Group (LTG and the Control Teaching Group (CTG. For data analyzes; descriptive statistics, one-way analyzes of variance (ANOVA, paired group t-test and effect sizes were used. Conclusively, it was determined that effects of Reading-Writing-Application technique and Learning Together technique on students’ academic achievements and attainment level of students regarding the experiments were much higher compared to according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education. It was further determined that the amount of increase in the achievement level created by cooperative groups (RWAG and LTG were much higher in comparison to increase in attainment level of students regarding the experiments.

Fatih GÜRBÜZ

2013-08-01

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Analysis of Opinions Regarding Medical Specialty Selection Examination and Career Choices of 5th and 6th Grade Medical Students from Düzce University, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed that analyzing career choices of Students of Medical Faculty and their opinions regarding Medical Specialty Selection Examination. Methods: At 2012-2013 education terms, 101 medical students from Düzce University participated in this cross sectional study. 58 (57,4% of them were at 5th grade and 43 (42,6% of the participants were at 6th grade. Career Choices, affecting factors, training course satisfaction, some demographic factors (age, gender, grade, type of high school graduated from, thoughts regarding to Medical Specialty Selection Exam and foreign language examination scores were questioned via the questionnaire based survey. Results: 41(40.6% of the 101 participants who filled up the questionnaire based survey were male, 60(59.4% of them were female. Their mean age was 23.6±0.9 years and most of them (n=50; 49.5% had graduated from Anatolian High Schools. It is reported that top 5 training course according to student satisfaction as follows Emergency Medicine (n=16; 15,8%, Dermatology (n=16; 15.8%, Cardiology (n=11; 10.9%, Brain Surgery (n=9; 8.9% and Pediatrics (n=7; 6.9% (p<0.0001. It is also reported that top 5 areas according to the choices on Medical Specialty Selection Examination are as follows; Otolaryngology (n=11; 10.9%, Dermatology (n=9; 8.9%, Internal Medicine (n=8; %7.9, Plastic Surgery (n=8; 7.9% and Psychiatry (n=8; 7.9% (p<0.0001. If we compare male and female students, male students prefer sports medicine (n=5; 12.2%, whereas female students prefer Otolaryngology (n=9; 15.0% in the first rank of their choices. Conclusion: It is reported that regarding to Medical Specialty Selection Examination choices; in addition to gender differences, “impacts on family and private life and properties of academic career” are also the most affecting factors.

?smail Hamdi Kara

2014-06-01

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An Evaluation of the Teaching Activities Implemented in the Elementary Science and Technology Courses in Terms of Multiple Intelligence Theory: A Sample from Adana  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent class activities at the Elementary Science and Technology course address intelligence areas. The research was both a quantitative and a qualitative study. The sample of the study consisted of 102 4th grade elementary teachers, 97 5th grade elementary teachers, and 55 6th, 7th, and 8th grade

Iflazoglu Saban, Ayten

2011-01-01

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Predictors of the Elementary School Proficiency Exams and Issues of Equality in Educational Facilities  

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The main purpose of this study is to determine whether school/student, classroom/student, teacher/student ratio, and the Human Development Index (I.G.E.) rates by province predict a province's total 6th and 7th grade Elementary School Proficiency Exam (SBS) scores. To determine the relationships between the province's total 6th and 7th grade SBS…

Erdogan, Irfan; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz; Cifcili, Vakur

2011-01-01

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Modeling the relationships between cognitive-linguistic skills and writing in Chinese among elementary grades students  

OpenAIRE

The present study is a four-year longitudinal study examining the important predictors of writing of 340 Chinese children in elementary grades. Children’s transcription skills (handwriting skills and spelling), and syntactic skills in grade 1 were significant predictors of text writing in grade 1–4 while ideation in grade 1 only contributed to text writing in grade 2. Stroke order knowledge was shown as an important handwriting skill in Chinese reflecting the characteristics of the Chines...

Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

2012-01-01

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Need Assessment for Root Canal Therapy (RCT of the First Molars in Elementary School Students of Tehrans 6th Municipal District  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Although there have been several epidemiologic studies on first permanent molar caries in Iranian students, the need for endodontic therapy has not been investigated so far.The purpose of this study was to assess the need for first molar root canal therapy in 7- to 11-year-old schoolchildren and its association with age, gender, and parent education level. Materials and Methods: We selected 885 students (572 girls and 313 boys from 12 elementary schools, using a random cluster sampling method. We recorded the subjects identities and examined their maxillary and mandibular first molars with a mirror and an explorer. In case of any doubts about the need for endodontic therapy, we performed vitality tests and/or obtained periapical radiography. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: In 26 students (3% there was an indication for endodontic treatment of the first molars. Of these, 18 teeth were in mandible and 8 in the maxilla. The need for endodontic therapy was significantly related to the subjects age and the parents' education level. We did not detect a significant association between gender and the need for endodontic therapy. Conclusion: We recommend pit and fissure sealant plus fluoride therapy, beginning with the eruption of the first permanent molars- especially in the mandible.

M Bahrani

2007-08-01

29

Effect of retention in elementary grades on grade 9 motivation for educational attainment.  

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This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. PMID:25636258

Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

2015-02-01

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An Investigation of Achievement and Nonachievement Criteria in Elementary and Secondary School Grading.  

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Criteria that teachers include in grading and the weight given each were investigated in a sample of 827 elementary school and high school teachers from 18 school districts. A three-section survey was administered to the subjects. Underlying dimensions of grading criteria were studied, and the relationship between including a specific criterion…

Nava, Fe' Josefa G.; Loyd, Brenda H.

31

Consent Form Return Rates for Third-Grade Urban Elementary Students  

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Objective: To maximize active parent consent form return rates for third-grade minority, urban students enrolled in predominantly low-income elementary schools in Chicago, Ill. Methods: Research staff used a class incentive and class visits to retrieve consent forms from students. Results: Of the 811 third-grade students, 98% returned a form and …

Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.; Phil, D.; DuBois, David L.; Brechling, Vanessa; Day, Joseph; Cantillon, Dan

2006-01-01

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The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Instruction on 6th Grade Turkish Students' Achievement, Science Process Skills, and Attitudes toward Science  

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of guided-inquiry approach in science classes over existing science and technology curriculum in developing content-based science achievement, science process skills, and attitude toward science of grade level 6 students in Turkey. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design…

Koksal, Ela Ayse; Berberoglu, Giray

2014-01-01

33

A Program for Gifted and Talented Students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th Grades in the North Kitsap School District. Final Report.  

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The educational needs in curriculum programing for the gifted and talented are considered; and a program for gifted and talented students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades in the North Kitsap (Washington) School District is described. Chapter I Outlines results of a 1973 survey (including that there is a need to provide for students who have…

Gaab, Carolyn; James, Sally L.

34

Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle school grade level groups. Overall, results supported that disruptive behavior is highly important in evaluating risk status in lower grade levels and that academically engaged behavior becomes more pertinent as students reach higher grade levels. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:23816230

Chafouleas, Sandra M; Kilgus, Stephen P; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Welsh, Megan; Christ, Theodore J

2013-06-01

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Producción argumentativa escrita -lengua materna- en contextos educativos bilingües y monolingües: grados 6º, 7º y 8º / L1 Argumentative Written Production in Bilingual and Monolingual Contexts in 6th, 7th and 8th Grades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En esta investigación comparativa se comprobó la producción argumentativa escrita en lengua materna de alumnos bilingües (Grupo Experimental, GE) y monolingües (Grupo Control, GC) en 6º, 7º y 8º de secundaria, y la incidencia del grado escolar de la experiencia bilingüe sobre tal producción textual. [...] Los resultados fueron, primero, únicamente en 7º y 8º, el GE superó al GC en tal producción y, segundo, los bilingües de mayor experiencia escolar sobrepasaron a los bilingües de menor experiencia en algunos aspectos de dicha producción. Se concluyó que la superioridad del GE sobre el GC en el texto argumentativo dependió de su avance en la escolaridad. Además, la experiencia escolar bilingüe modificó esta habilidad discursiva, según el criterio de evaluación involucrado y los grados escolares en comparación. Abstract in english In this comparative research project we observed the argumentative written production of bilingual (experimental group EG) and monolingual students (control group CG) in 6th, 7th and 8th grades in their mother tongue, as well as the in?uence that the bilingual students' school grade had on such writ [...] ten production. Results show that, firstly, just in 7th and 8th grades the written production of the EG surpassed that of the CG, and secondly, the bilingual students with more school experience surpassed those with less experience in certain aspects. It was concluded that the advantage of the EG over the CG in argumentative written production related to the students' level of school experience. Moreover, the bilingual school experience modified this discursive skill according to the method of evaluation employed and the school grades compared.

Angelmiro, Galindo; Lina María, Moreno.

2008-06-01

36

The Elementary Bubble Project: Exploring Critical Media Literacy in a Fourth-Grade Classroom  

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This article addresses issues surrounding critical media literacy using popular culture texts. The authors focus on the example of their work with a fourth-grade class involved in a project to unpack the messages of popular media and advertising texts. This project, which they call the Elementary Bubble Project, was inspired by guerilla artist Ji…

Gainer, Jesse S.; Valdez-Gainer, Nancy; Kinard, Timothy

2009-01-01

37

Fourth-Grade Students' Motivational Changes in an Elementary Physical Education Running Program  

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Achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice were used to examine fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program. In fall and spring of the school year, participants (N = 113; 66 boys, 47 girls) completed questionnaires assessing achievement goals, expectancy beliefs,…

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Bruene, April

2006-01-01

38

Reducing Peer Directed Aggression in the Elementary Grades: The Effects of an Attribution Retraining Program.  

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An attributional intervention was designed to reduce aggressive males' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to peers and their concomitant reactive aggression. Subjects were 162 African-American and Latino elementary school boys--aggressive and nonaggressive--in grades 3 through 6. Subjects were randomly assigned to the attributional…

Hudley, Cynthia

39

Understanding Attitudes of Educators toward Content Area Reading in the Early Elementary Grades.  

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A study examined the attitudes of educators toward content area reading in the early elementary grades. A self-report survey instrument called the Attitudes Toward Content Area Reading (ATCAR) was developed to measure educators' attitudes and to ascertain whether there were different theoretical orientations of educators relative to content area…

Grierson, Sirpa T.; Daniel, Larry G.

40

A Meta-Analysis of Writing Instruction for Students in the Elementary Grades  

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In an effort to identify effective instructional practices for teaching writing to elementary grade students, we conducted a meta-analysis of the writing intervention literature, focusing our efforts on true and quasi-experiments. We located 115 documents that included the statistics for computing an effect size (ES). We calculated an average…

Graham, Steve; McKeown, Debra; Kiuhara, Sharlene; Harris, Karen R.

2012-01-01

41

Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.  

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An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

42

Prevalence of Dyslexia in First to Fifth Grade Elementary Students Isfahan, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is undoubtedly an essential skill for everybody in these years. Reading disorders or dyslexia can cause several problems for those who suffer from them. Early assessment and diagnosis play an important role in treatment of this disorder. The main aim of this study was determining the prevalence of reading disorder in first to fifth grade elementary school students. The subbasic aim was introducing the screening Inventory Reading Test (IRT for diagnosis of the Students with reading disorder at elementary schools.Methods: A total of 200 students (boys and girls in five elementary education grades in Isfahan were selected through multi-stage random sampling method and assessed by IRT in 2008. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Software package version 13.0 for Windows.Results: This survey revealed the highest prevalence of reading disorder in the first grade male students (25%, and the lowest in fifth grade female students (0%. The incidence of dyslexia in all grades generally was 10%. The overall incidence was 66% for male students and 34% for female students.Conclusion: Reading disorder is more prevalent among male students than female students and the Inventory Reading Test is a satisfactory tool for rapid diagnosis of reading disorder.

Leila Sedaghati

2011-06-01

43

Reaching of Attainment Levels of Algebra Learning Domain in Sixth Grade of Elementary Mathematics Education Program  

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Full Text Available The primary aim of this study is to define reaching of attainment levels of algebra learning domain in sixth grade of elementary mathematics education program. In the study; it has been fulfilled in descriptive featured scanning model because the existing case was tried to define. 510 sixth grade students, determined by stratified sampling method among Elementary Schools in Bal?kesir city centre, have applied into the study. As data collecting tool, pre and post test has been used to define the level in obtaining acquisitions of Algebra learning domain in sixth grade of Elementary Mathematics course curriculum applications. Acquired data have been evaluated by using descriptive analysis, t test for related samples and covariance analysis. Effect sizes correlation coefficient was also calculated. In consequence of the study it has been concluded that the students’Algebra test point averages are meaningful in favor of the post -test (p<.05,as a result of Algebra learning domain applications in elementary school sixth grade of Elementary Mathematics course curriculum, but for the reason that the post -test’s absolute success point averages are under 0.75, the complete learning level has notbeen reached, that the students’ obtaining just about %57 of the acquisitions at the level of 75 has shown that the learning process are not as sufficient as expected level for providing accessibility of learning process’ acquisitions, and that students’ level,studying in upper group schools, in attaining acquisitions are highercompared to those in middle and lower group schools, and when the students’ pretest results are taken under control, obtained post test’s corrected results have also significant difference

Sevinç Mert Uyangör

2012-06-01

44

Information and Communication Technology: Students' Health Education in 1st- to 6th-Grade South Korea Elementary Schools  

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Background: The purposes of this study were to (1) identify school nurses' awareness of information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' health education and (2) explore the barriers or reasons for the adoption of ICT in school nursing practice, while (3) presenting strategies to speed ICT diffusion and dissemination into…

Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Jeong, Eunhoe

2013-01-01

45

RESEARCH INSTRUCTION IN THE THIRD GRADE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BY ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION  

OpenAIRE

Constructivist-orientated teaching research instruction in the third grade of elementary school by environmental education presents a learning process which focuses on the student. In these lessons, the student is active and learns phenomena and concepts through experiences. The diploma consists of a theory part and a practical part. In the theory part of the diploma, we define the concept of constructivism, present the importance of constructivism in teaching and learning, identify the role ...

Markus?, Nina

2012-01-01

46

Integrated STEM in Elementary Grades Using Distributed Agent-based Computation  

OpenAIRE

We investigate how the integration of visual agent-based programming and computationally augmented physical structures can support curricular integration across STEM domains for elementary grade students. We introduce ViMAP-Tangible, a socio-technically distributed computational learning environment, which integrates ultrasonic sensors with the ViMAP visual programming language using a distributed computation infrastructure. In this paper, we report a study in which 3rd and ...

Sengupta, Pratim; Krishnan, Gokul; Wright, Mason

2014-01-01

47

[East Syracuse-Minoa Schools Environmental Education Materials, Elementary Package, Grade 1-Grade 5.  

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This series of five environmental education units is designed for use in grades 1-5. The units are designed around the concepts of survival, interdependence, scarcity, recyclement, rights vs. responsibility, planning, valuing, social forces, and optimism. Each unit is further developed around environmental generalizations (subconcepts),…

East Syracuse - Minoa Central Schools, East Syracuse, NY.

48

Coordinators’ Perspective on the Pedagogical Intervention in the Study Program “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education” La mirada de las profesoras coordinadoras de la intervención pedagógica en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo  

OpenAIRE

This scientific paper is the result of the pedagogical intervention process carried out as part of teacher training in the study programs of the Basic Education Division at Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica). It aims at bringing into focus the tasks of the supervised professional practice process conducted in the study program of “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”, from the perspective of the coordinators of this process. The coordinati...

Maureen Camacho Oviedo; Kattia Rojas Acevedo

2013-01-01

49

Effect of retention in elementary grades on transition to middle school.  

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The authors investigated the effects of retention in grades 1 to 5 on students' reading and math achievement, teacher-rated engagement, and student-reported school belonging in middle school. From a multiethnic sample (N=784) of children who scored below the median on a test of literacy in grade 1, an average of 75 students subsequently retained in grades 1 to 5 were matched with an average of 299 continuously promoted students on the basis of propensity to be retained in the elementary grades. A total of 20 imputed datasets were analyzed, all of which showed good balance across the 67 baseline covariates used to calculate propensity scores. The hypothesis that retained students, who are "old for grade" when they make the transition to middle school, would have a more difficult transition to middle school than promoted peers was tested with 3-level, piecewise growth modeling. Piece 1 included assessments prior to the transition to middle school, and piece 2 included assessments after the transition. Retained and continuously promoted students did not differ on any of the outcome measures during the year prior to transition, nor did they differ in their post-transition trajectories. Discrepancies between these results and results of prior research are discussed in terms of demographic and generational differences as well as differences in methodological rigor. PMID:23816229

Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-man; Puckett, Stevie; Cerda, Carissa Analise

2013-06-01

50

ESCOLEX: a grade-level lexical database from European Portuguese elementary to middle school textbooks.  

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In this article, we introduce ESCOLEX, the first European Portuguese children's lexical database with grade-level-adjusted word frequency statistics. Computed from a 3.2-million-word corpus, ESCOLEX provides 48,381 word forms extracted from 171 elementary and middle school textbooks for 6- to 11-year-old children attending the first six grades in the Portuguese educational system. Like other children's grade-level databases (e.g., Carroll, Davies, & Richman, 1971; Corral, Ferrero, & Goikoetxea, Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1009-1017, 2009; Lété, Sprenger-Charolles, & Colé, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 156-166, 2004; Zeno, Ivens, Millard, Duvvuri, 1995), ESCOLEX provides four frequency indices for each grade: overall word frequency (F), index of dispersion across the selected textbooks (D), estimated frequency per million words (U), and standard frequency index (SFI). It also provides a new measure, contextual diversity (CD). In addition, the number of letters in the word and its part(s) of speech, number of syllables, syllable structure, and adult frequencies taken from P-PAL (a European Portuguese corpus-based lexical database; Soares, Comesaña, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, …, Machado, 2010; Soares, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, França, …, Comesaña, in press) are provided. ESCOLEX will be a useful tool both for researchers interested in language processing and development and for professionals in need of verbal materials adjusted to children's developmental stages. ESCOLEX can be downloaded along with this article or from http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases . PMID:23709164

Soares, Ana Paula; Medeiros, José Carlos; Simões, Alberto; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; de Almeida, José João; Pinheiro, Ana P; Comesaña, Montserrat

2014-03-01

51

Impacto de um programa de competências em alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade / Impact of a skill development intervention in 5th and 6th grade students / Impacto de un programa intervención em alunos del segundo ciclo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo consistiuem avaliar um programa de intervenção junto a alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade nas seguintes dimensões: tomada de decisão, conhecimentos sobre sexualidade, competências sociais, assertividade e autoconceito. Metodologia: Participaram 145 alunos, distribuídos [...] pelos grupos controle e experimental. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: TCU Decision-Making; Questionário de Conhecimentos sobre Sexualidade; Assertion Self-Statement Test- Revised; Questionário de Competências Sociais; Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Os resultados revelaram diferenças no pós-teste entre os grupos ao nível da sexualidade. Verificaram-se diferenças do pré-teste para o pós-teste no grupo experimental nos níveis da sexualidade, da assertividade e das competências sociais. No grupo experimental encontraram-se associações positivas entre tomada de decisão, competências sociais e assertividade, bem como entre sexualidade, competências sociais e autoconceito, no pós-teste. Os preditores da assertividade no pós-teste foram tomada de decisão, sexualidade e competências sociais. Como conclusão, os resultados enfatizam a importância de intervenção junto a adolescentes, particularmente na tomada de decisão, na sexualidade e nas competências sociais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar un programa de intervención con alumnos del 2º ciclo de escolaridad en las siguientes dimensiones: Toma de Decisión, Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad, Habilidades Sociales, Asertividad y Autoconcepto. Metodología: Participaron 145 alumnos, distribuidos en g [...] rupo control y experimental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: TCU Decision-Making; Cuestionario de Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad; AssertionSelf-Statement Test-Revised; Cuestionario de Habilidades Sociais; Piers-Harris Children'sSelf-Concept Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en el post-test entre los grupos en cuanto a la sexualidad. Se verificaron diferencias del pre-test para el post-teste en el grupo experimental, cuanto a sexualidad, asertividad y habilidades sociales. Se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre toma de decisión, habilidades sociales y asertividad, así como entre sexualidad,habilidades sociales yautoconcepto, en el post-test en el grupo experimental. Los predictores de la asertividad en el post-test fueron toma de decisión, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Los resultados destacan la importancia de la intervención con adolescentes particularmente en la toma de decisiones, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Abstract in english In this study we evaluate an intervention program in the following dimensions: Decision Making, Knowledge on Sexuality, Social Skills, Assertiveness and Self-Concept with students in 5th and 6th grade. Methodology: 145 students participated in the study divided by control and experimental group. The [...] instruments used were: Decision-Making TCU, Knowledge on Sexuality Questionnaire; Assertion Self-Statement Test-Revised;Social Skills Questionnaire, and Piers-Harris Children's Self- Concept Scale. The results indicate differences at post-test between the groups on knowledge regarding sexuality. There were also differences from pre-test to post-test in the experimental group on knowledge on sexuality, assertiveness and social skills. Positive associations among decision making, social skills and assertiveness were found as well as among knowledge on sexuality, social skills and self-concept, in the experimental group, in the pos-test. Finally, the predictors of assertiveness regarding health behaviors, in the pos-test were: decision making, knowledge regarding sexuality and social skills. The results emphasize the importance of intervention for adolescents in terms of health promotion particularly in decision making, sexuality and social skills.

Marta, Melo; M. Graça, Pereira; Jorge, Silvério.

2014-06-01

52

Una estrategia pedagógica para la enseñanza integrada del Español en el segundo ciclo de la Educación General Básica / A Pedagogical Strategy for Integrated Education of Spanish in the 4th to 6th Grades of the General Basic Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recibido 05 de mayo de 2010 • Aceptado 31 de agosto de 2010 • Corregido 27 de junio de 2011   Resumen. La enseñanza de la lengua debe constituirse en uno de los objetivos prioritarios del sistema educativo costarricense, en consideración a su papel como herramienta de comunicación y desarrollo del pensamiento. Sin lenguaje no se puede acceder a los demás conocimientos disciplinares del currículo escolar. Una experiencia exitosa desarrollada hace algunos años con estudiantes de segundo ciclo se constituyó en la base para el diseño y ejecución de una actividad de desarrollo profesional que se implementó con el objetivo de dar a conocer, a un grupo de docentes de instituciones públicas, la estrategia integradora, previamente adaptada a los requerimientos ministeriales y a la normativa nacional vigente. El estudio se desarrolla en el marco del paradigma cualitativo y se contempla, dentro de este enfoque, la utilización de la investigación-acción y de la sistematización. Para la participación en la actividad o curso se seleccionó una muestra intencional, por factor de conveniencia, en la cual se da a conocer la estrategia que luego sería replicada con un grupo de estudiantes de zonas urbano marginales. Como técnicas se contemplaron la revisión bibliográfica, el análisis de los programas de estudio y de las normas reguladoras ministeriales, la aplicación de una entrevista a profundidad, las reflexiones de los participantes del curso contenidas en un portafolio y las del grupo de estudiantes con quienes se aplicó la estrategia.Se analizó la información teórica y reguladora mediante una triangulación, además de las apreciaciones y reflexiones de docentes y estudiantes. Se concluye sobre la necesidad de considerar un enfoque comunicativo en la enseñanza del idioma y se recomienda la estrategia desarrollada en los ambientes áulicos costarricenses que se ofrece en este artículo.  Abstract. Language teaching has become a priority in the Costa Rican educational system, considering it as a tool for communication and development of thought. Without language, there is no access to other curriculum disciplinary knowledge. A successful experience conducted some years ago, with students from 4th to 6th grade, was the basis for the design and implementation of a professional development activity addressed to promoting an integration strategy previously adjusted according to the Ministry’s requirements and the existing national regulations. This study is developed in the framework of a qualitative paradigm including research-action and systematization. A purposive sample was selected based on a suitability factor, through which individuals are informed about the strategy, and then the strategy is applied to a group of students from urban-marginal areas. The techniques used include literature review, analysis of curriculum and Ministry’s regulations, application of an in-depth interview, discussions from the course’s participant in a portfolio, and discussions from students to whom the strategy was applied. We analyzed the considerations of teachers and students, as well as the theoretical and regulatory information by triangulation. The study’s conclusion is the necessity of a communicative approach in language teaching and our recommendation is to implement the strategy developed in the Costa Rican classrooms as provided in this paper.

Mireya Barboza Navarro

2011-10-01

53

Academic Intrinsic Motivation and Perceived Academic Competence in Greek Elementary Students with and without Learning Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine differences in intrinsic motivation and perceived academic competence as well as in their association between 5th- and 6th-grade students with learning disabilities (LD) (n = 40) and their typically achieving peers. Participants were 980 Greek elementary students from the metropolitan area of Athens. As…

Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Galanaki, Evangelia P.

2009-01-01

54

6th International Microbeam Workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.

Dr Kevin M. Prise

2004-01-01

55

The Effectiveness of Scaffolding Interactive Activities in Developing the English Listening Comprehension Skills of the Sixth Grade Elementary Schoolgirls in Jeddah  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of scaffolding interactive activities in developing the English listening comprehension skills of sixth grade elementary schoolgirls in Jeddah. The subjects in this study were 50 sixth grade pupils at an elementary school in Jeddah. They were assigned to two groups--control and…

Al-Yami, Salwa Ahmed

2008-01-01

56

Fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice were used to examine fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program. In fall and spring of the school year, participants (N = 113; 66 boys, 47 girls) completed questionnaires assessing achievement goals, expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, and intention for future running participation. They also completed a timed 1-mile (1.6 km) run. The number of laps they ran/walked during the school year was used to assess students' persistence/effort. Results indicated the students improved their run but became less motivated about running while participating in a year-long running program. Children's beliefs about how good they were in the running program (i.e., expectancy beliefs) and their perceptions of how interesting and fun it was (i.e., interest) emerged as the strongest positive predictors of their motivation for running over time. These findings provide strong empirical evidence that expectancy beliefs and interest are essential to children's motivation in elementary physical education. PMID:16898276

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E; Bruene, April

2006-06-01

57

Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

58

A Comparative Study of Teachers' Attitudes and Practices regarding Homework in the Elementary, Middle, and High School Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes and practices of elementary, middle, and high school teachers regarding homework. In addition, the study sought to find if there was a relationship between the teachers' attitudes and practices of homework, as well as finding the differences between the grade levels. The questionnaire used…

Peltier, Courtney Pisarich

2011-01-01

59

Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.

Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.

2014-07-01

60

Exploring the Effects of Differentiated Instruction and Cooperative Learning on the Intrinsic Motivational Behaviors of Elementary Reading Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers implemented classroom interventions to improve the intrinsic motivational behaviors of 4th and 6th grade elementary students and to strengthen teacher/student and student/student relationships in a positive supportive learning environment. The problem of low intrinsic motivational behaviors was documented through classroom observation…

Flaherty, Sue; Hackler, Rhonda

2010-01-01

61

Echantillons du travail ecrit des eleves. Francais 6e annee, teste de rendement, juin 1988 (Sample of the Written Work of Students. 6th Grade French Achievement Test, June 1988).  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of student essays provides illustrations of the criteria used to grade the composition portion of the sixth-grade achievement test used in Alberta (Canada). An introductory section describes the procedures for selecting the essays used, establishing scoring norms, and scoring the tests, and offers general comments on the writing…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Records Branch.

62

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 6th Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 6th Edition, by William L. Masterton and Cecile N. Hurley published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

63

Two Traditions in the Social Studies Curriculum for the Elementary Grades: The Textbooks of Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1920s and 1930s, Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg developed new textbooks that integrated social studies curriculum in the elementary grades for the first time. Each author's curriculum; Hanna's expanding environments framework and Rugg's recurring concepts with a focus on contemporary issues has significantly impacted today's elementary

Bisland, Beverly Milner

2009-01-01

64

6. S?n?f Ö?rencilerinin Yaz?m Yanl??lar? S?kl??? ve Yaz?m Yanl??lar?n?n Nedenlerine ?li?kin Ö?retmen Görü?leri 6th Grade Students’ Frequency Of Orthographic Mistakes And Teachers’ View About The Reasons For Orthographic Mistakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orthographic mistake is one of the important elements leading to communication problems in written expression, and is generally one of the written expression acquisitions attempted to be taught students in educational institutions. This paper aims to reveal 6th grade students’ frequency of orthographic mistakes in their exam papers and to find out Turkish language teachers’ views about the reasons for orthographic mistakes. To do so, 336 exam papers of 6th grade students, collected both from two schools in Ad?yaman city center and a village school, have been examined. 4142 orthographic mistakes have been identified. It is seen that students do not use symbols, acronyms/abbreviations, circumflex and proper nouns, do not miswrite complementary verb conjugations, and write accurately the words formed by such sound events as vowel shortening and epenthesis. It is identified that 6th grade students have made mistakes mostly in capitalization. Moreover, writing of consonants and vowels, syncopation, the conjunction of ‘de/da’ meaning ‘also’ in English are among other most repeated mistakes. In addition, the open-ended question “What are the 6th grade students’ reasons for orthographic mistakes?” has been asked to 16 Turkish language teachers so as to find out students’ reasons for orthographic mistakes. Content analysis method has been employed to analyze the acquired data. Those Turkish language teachers have responded that the 6th grade students’ reasons for orthographic mistakes are caused by lack of interest and attention, deficiency in basic language acquisition, lack of speaking in Turkish properly and efficiently outside school, exam types or teacher’s exam evaluations, and deficiency of either teachers or students in efficient utilization of sources about orthographic rules. Besides, this paper also suggests to identify the orthographic mistakes of students other than 6th grade, present the orthographic mistakes differently and efficiently, and to explain teachers the importance of orthographic mistakes. Yaz?m yanl??lar?, yaz?l? anlat?mda ileti?im sorunlar?n?n ortaya ç?kmas?na neden olan önemli ögelerden biridir ve genellikle e?itim-ö?retim ortamlar?nda ö?rencilere ö?retilmeye çal???lan yaz?l? anlat?m kazan?mlar?ndand?r. Bu ara?t?rman?n amac?, 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin s?nav kâ??tlar?nda yapt?klar? yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n s?kl???n? ve Türkçe ö?retmenlerinin yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n nedenlerine ili?kin görü?lerini belirlemektir. Bu amaç do?rultusunda Ad?yaman il merkezinden 2 ve köylerinden bir ortaokuldan tesadüfi olarak belirlenen 6. s?n?flar?n 336 s?nav kâ??d? incelenmi? ve bu ara?t?rman?n verilerinin bir k?sm? elde edilmi?tir. Ö?rencilerin 4142 yaz?m yanl??? yapt??? tespit edilmi?tir. Ö?rencilerin s?navlarda simgeleri, k?saltmalar?, düzeltme i?aretini, yabanc? özel adlar? kullanmad???; ek fiilin yaz?l??? ve fiil çekimiyle ilgili yanl?? yapmad?klar?; ünlü daralmas? ve ünlü türemesi ses olaylar?n?n oldu?u kelimeleri do?ru yazd?klar? görülmü?tür. 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin en fazla büyük harflerin yaz?l???nda yanl?? yapt?klar? tespit edilmi?tir. Bununla birlikte sessiz harflerin yaz?l???, sesli harflerin yaz?l???, ses yutumu, ba?laç olan da, de'nin yaz?l??? ise en fazla tekrarlanan di?er yaz?m yanl??lar?d?r. Ö?rencilerin yapt??? yaz?m yanl??lar?n nedenlerini belirlemek için de 6. s?n?f Türkçe dersine giren 16 Türkçe ö?retmenine “6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n nedenleri nelerdir?” aç?k uçlu sorusu yöneltilmi? ve bu ara?t?rman?n verilerinin di?er k?sm? elde edilmi?tir. Verilerin analiz edilmesinde içerik analizi tekni?i kullan?lm??t?r. Türkçe ö?retmenleri, 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n nedenlerinin ilgi ve dikkat eksikli?inden, temel dil becerilerini edinemediklerinden, okul d???nda Türkçenin do?ru, güzel ve etkili kullan?

Ahmet AKKAYA

2013-07-01

65

Reproducibilidad del recordatorio de actividad física de 3 días (3DPAR) en escolares de 5° y 6° grado / Reliability of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) in schoolchildren from 5th and 6th grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la reproducibilidad test-retest del recordatorio de actividad física de 3 días (3DPAR) en formato impreso y digital.Materiales y métodos: Estudio de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas; participaron 121 estudiantes de 5° y 6° grado, 36,9% de género masculino, promedio de edad 10,7 ± [...] 0,9 años. La reproducibilidad fue analizada mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) y se establecieron los niveles de acuerdo entre la primera y segunda medición con la metodología de Bland y Altman (B&A), con base en el promedio de bloques para cada nivel de intensidad y día de la semana. Resultados: El formato impreso registró CCI entre 0,2 y 0,5 para la actividad física muy fuerte (AFMF), entre 0,2 y 0,3 para la actividad física fuerte (AFF); el formato digital fue respondido por 59 estudiantes y mostró CCI entre 0,2 y 0,6 para la AFMF y la AFF, respectivamente. Se encontró un buen nivel de acuerdo entre el formato impreso y digital y una buena reproducibilidad, CCI entre 0,5 y 0,7 para la primera y segunda prueba, respectivamente. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de este trabajo constituyen el inicio de la evaluación de cuestionarios para la medición de la actividad física en niños y adolescentes en nuestro medio. La reproducibilidad encontrada plantea la necesidad de realizar la evaluación en edades mayores y posiblemente ajustar el formulario para indagar por actividades usuales y no necesariamente las de los tres días inmediatamente anteriores. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 34-47 Abstract in english Purpose: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) in printed and digital format. Material and methods: An evaluation of a diagnostic test study was done; 121 students of 5th and 6th, 36.9 % male gender, average of age 10.7 ± 0.9 years, took part in this s [...] tudy. Reliability was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the levels of agreement were established with Bland & Altman plot (B&A), based on averages of blocks for each level of intensity and day of week. Results: The printed format showed ICC between 0.2 and 0.5 for very hard physical activity (VHPA), between 0.2 y 0.3 for hard physical activity (HPA); the digital format was answered by 59 students and showed ICC between 0.2 and 0.6 for the VHPA and HPA. We found a good level of agreement between the two formats. Conclusions: SThe results of this work are the beginning of the evaluation of the questionnaires for assessment of physical activity in children and adolescents in our setting. The reliability findings showed the urgency to realize the evaluation in oldest children ages and possibly, asking for usual activities instead of those of three immediately previous days. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 34-47.

Diana Marina, Camargo; Yamile, Cepeda; Lina Rocío, González; Hensley Karelly, Stapper; Andrés José, Trigos.

2010-04-01

66

The effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training. This study is a control group pre-test post-test experimental research. The research was conducted to students who were enrolled in an elementary school in Konya, Turkey. While research’s experimental group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students, control group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students. Vocational group guidance was conducted to experimental group for 9 weeks once a week. The views of experimental and control group students towards apprenticeship education were measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B (AEEF-B at pre-test post-test phases. In this research, applied vocational group guidance program includes views and behaviours which can be measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B. Group discussion and homework techniques were used to gain vocational views and behaviours in vocational group guidance. After analysis there have been found significant difference between experimental and control groups’ AEEF-B pre-test post-test average scores at 0.01 level. Findings showed that vocational group guidance method had a positive effect against negative ideas to apprenticeship education. In addition, vocational group guidance method has been found to be effective in changing 8th year elementary school students’ negative views towards apprenticeship education to positive views. This program is compatible as long as it is used in vocational guidance activities of 8th year elementary school students.

Abdullah Ishiklar

2012-02-01

67

6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: Poster presentations  

OpenAIRE

P>The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and basic research. The immunodeficiency presentations dealt with novel, rare class-switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies, attenuation of adverse events following IVIg t...

Fernandez-cruz, E.; Kaveri, S. V.; Peter, H. H.; Durandy, A.; Cantoni, N.; Quinti, I.; Sorensen, R.; Bussel, J. B.; Danieli, M. G.; Winkelmann, A.; Bayry, J.; Kaesermann, F.; Spaeth, P.; Helbert, M.; Salama, A.

2009-01-01

68

Longitudinal Predictors of Chinese Word Reading and Spelling among Elementary Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The longitudinal predictive power of four important reading-related skills (phonological skills, rapid naming, orthographic skills, and morphological awareness) to Chinese word reading and writing to dictation (i.e., spelling) was examined in a 3-year longitudinal study among 251 Chinese elementary students. Rapid naming, orthographic skills, and…

Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Yau-Kai; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa; Lo, Lap-Yan

2013-01-01

69

Working in multi-grade classroom in elementary school for special needs children with mild disabilities  

OpenAIRE

In the thesis the problem of multigrade classroom in elementary school for special needs children with mild disabilities is discussed. As a consequence of low number of students included in such schools these classrooms are common in Slovenia. We are interested in answering following questions: how may special education teacher effectively prepare himself to work in multigrade classroom; which information is needed; how to deal with planning and organizing his own work. In the thesis we defin...

Hribljan, S?pela

2013-01-01

70

The Effects Of Cooperative Learning Method Supported by Multiple Intelligence Theory on Elementary School 4th Grade Students’ Academics Achievement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this experimental research, the effects of cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory on elementary 4th grade students’ academic achievement was investigated.The study, which lasted five weeks, was carried out at public school in the discrit of Yüreir-Adana in 2004-2005 academic year. The participants of the study were 46 students that They were divided in a experimental group and control group. For the purpose of thisstudy, the experimental group was instructed using cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory, whereas the control group was instructed utilizing the traditional teacher oriented method. The measurement instrument used in the study was mathematics achievement test. Mathematics achievement test was used as pretest and posttest to the experimantal and control group.Findings indicated that cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory instructional teaching has a more significant effect on academic achievement than the traditional teacher oriented method.

Kas?m YILDIRIM

2006-12-01

71

Development of a Top-View Numeric Coding Teaching-Learning Trajectory within an Elementary Grades 3-D Visualization Design Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explicates the development of top-view numeric coding of 3-D cube structures within a design research project focused on 3-D visualization skills for elementary grades children. It describes children's conceptual development of 3-D cube structures using concrete models, conventional 2-D pictures and abstract top-view numeric…

Sack, Jacqueline J.

2013-01-01

72

Supporting the Initiation and Early Development of Evidence-Based Grade-Level Collaboration in Urban Elementary Schools: Key Roles and Strategies of Principals and Literacy Coordinators  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports findings from a 3-year longitudinal qualitative case study conducted in three urban elementary schools that examined the ways in which local leadership supported the initiation and early development of evidence-based grade-level collaboration as a mechanism for improving student literacy learning. Findings suggest eight key…

Cosner, Shelby

2011-01-01

73

Economics in Social Studies Textbooks: An Evaluation of the Economics and the Teaching Strategies in Social Studies Textbooks, Elementary Grades (1-6), Report No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is the second part of a continuing effort to evaluate the economic content and related teaching strategies of new social studies textbook series used in the elementary grades. The following five textbook series are examined: (1) The World of Mankind (Follett); (2) The Ginn Social Science Series; (3) Our Family of Man (Harper and Row);…

Davison, Donald G.; And Others

74

Distúrbios de fala e dificuldades de aprendizagem no ensino fundamental / Speech disorders and grade retention in elementary  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo verificar a associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar. Métodos uma amostra aleatória de 1.810 crianças regularmente matriculadas na 1ª série do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas foram submetidas a um teste de rastreamento de distúrbios de fala (TERDAF). Os dados ref [...] erentes à idade e ao histórico de repetência das crianças foram coletados nos registros da escola. A associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar foram calculadas pela razão de prevalência e intervalo de confiança 95%.  Resultados a prevalência de distúrbio de fala nesta amostra foi de 25%, considerando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade do teste de triagem utilizado. Também foi verificado que as crianças com distúrbios de fala possuem 1,3 vezes (IC 95% 1,1-1,5) o risco de apresentar história de repetência, quando comparadas aos seus pares sem distúrbio de fala. O risco de repetência atribuível ao distúrbio de fala foi de 6,2. Conclusão o distúrbio de fala entre crianças que frequentam a primeira série do ensino fundamental apresenta alta prevalência e está associado com dificuldades de aprendizagem que venham a resultar em repetência escolar, mesmo quando na ausência de dificuldade auditiva detectável. Abstract in english Purpose to verify the prevalence of speech sound disorders (SSD) and its association to grade retention. Methods 1,810 children, randomly selected and regularly registered in the 1st grade of Elementary Public Schools have been submitted to a speech sound disorder screening test (TERDAF). Data [...] related to age and history of grade retention of the children elected to this study were collected in the school records after being authorized by children’s parents. Association between SSD and grade retention were calculated by prevalence ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results children with SSD had more chances to grade retention when compared to those without this (PR 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1 – 1.5). The prevalence of SSD in this sample was 25%, taking into account the values of sensitivity and specificity of the screening test used. It was also verified that children with SSD have 1.3 times the risk to present history of grade retention, when compared to children without such disorders. Conclusion the prevalence of SSD when the phonological acquisition must have been established denotes that such cluster is more prevalent than what literature is used to pointing out once few population epidemiologic studies concerning human communication are carried through.

Bárbara Niegia Garcia de, Goulart; Brasília M., Chiari.

2014-06-01

75

A study on nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior of elementary school children in Seoul  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and diet related knowledge, attitude, and behavior of elementary school children in Seoul. The subjects included were 439 (male 236, female 203) elementary school children in the 4th to the 6th grades. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 program. The average obesity index (OI) was 104.98 and 99.82 for male and female subjects, respectively. The average percentage of underweight, normal, overweight and obese of subje...

Choi, Eun-suil; Shin, Na-ri; Jung, Eun-im; Park, Hae-ryun; Lee, Hong-mie; Song, Kyung-hee

2008-01-01

76

Is It Minds-Off Science? A Concern for the Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to develop an understanding of the activity-based learning approach adopted by teachers after they themselves experience hands-on science teaching. The case of a fifth-grade teacher who incorporated a hands-on approach for teaching science in the classroom after attending a workshop is discussed. (LZ)

Roychoudhury, Anita

1994-01-01

77

An Investigation of Fraction Models in Early Elementary Grades: A Mixed-Methods Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect varying models have on student understanding of fractions. The study addressed the question of what students know and understand about fractional concepts through the use of discrete and continuous models. A sample of 54 students in kindergarten and 3rd grade were given an interview pretest, participated in…

Wilkerson, Trena L.; Cooper, Susan; Gupta, Dittika; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie; Baker, Betty Ruth; Sharp, Pat T.

2015-01-01

78

Impact of Grade Retention on the Social Development of Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored impact of peers on retained students. Second- and fifth-grade retained and nonretained children provided measures of peer reward allocations, preferences for social and task partners, attitudes about school environment, report card expectancy, and self-esteem. Peer discrimination was moderated by the rater's age, gender, physical size and…

Plummer, Diane L.; Graziano, William G.

1987-01-01

79

Study on utilization status of internet and needs assessment for developing nutrition education programs among elementary school children  

OpenAIRE

This study was to investigate utilization status of internet, health/nutrition websites among children, and to assess the needs for developing nutrition websites and education programs for children. The survey questionnaire was administered to 5-6th grade students (n=434) at two elementary schools. About 32% used the internet every day while 19.5% used it whenever they needed, showing significant differences in internet usage by gender (p<0.01). Although the subjects used the internet frequen...

Ahn, Yun; Kim, Kyung-won

2007-01-01

80

IMMEDIATE AND SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF THE 5TH GRADE VERSION OF THE keepin’ it REAL SUBSTANCE USE PREVENTION INTERVENTION*  

OpenAIRE

This study assessed the immediate and short-term outcomes of adapting a culturally-grounded middle school program, keepin’ it REAL, for elementary school students. After curriculum adaptation, 10 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention in 5th grade with follow-up boosters in 6th grade; 13 schools were randomly assigned to the control condition, implementing the school’s pre-existing substance use prevention programming. Students (n = 1,566) completed a questionnaire prior to cu...

Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Marsiglia, Flavio; Dustman, Patricia; Reeves, Leslie; Harthun, Mary

2008-01-01

81

Elementary GLOBE  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary GLOBE is designed to introduce students of grades K-4 to the study of Earth System Science (ESS). Elementary GLOBE forms an instructional unit comprised of five modules that address ESS and interrelated subjects including weather, hydrology, phenology, and soils. Each Elementary GLOBE module contains a science-based storybook and classroom learning activities. Five (5) books are included in the series: All About Earth; Do You Know That Clouds Have Names?; The Scoop On Soils; Discoveries at Willow Creek; and The Mystery of the Missing Hummingbirds. An Elementary GLOBE Teacher's Implementation Guide is available and includes tips for using the Elementary GLOBE materials with students, information about inquiry and literacy, and connections to science, mathematics, and geography standards. The Books and the Teacher's Guide are available in English, French and Spanish.

2008-12-01

82

PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

2005-11-01

83

6th International Meshing Roundtable '97  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

White, D.

1997-09-01

84

Prevalence of Elevated Blood Pressure in Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic 6th Graders  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood pressure screening was conducted on 4,311 (Hispanic n = 763 [17.7%], White n = 2,566 [59.5%], African American n = 610 [14.1%], Asian n = 136 [3.2%], Multiracial n = 231 [5.4%], and Native American n = 5 [0.1%]) 6th-grade students enrolled in Seminole County, Florida, Public Schools from August to December 2005. Prevalence of obesity was 21%…

Tarlton, Patricia A.

2007-01-01

85

Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure  

Science.gov (United States)

Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

86

6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC.1,2 As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in Fc?RII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements of antibody druggability (Abbott, Bayer, Pierre Fabre, Merrimack, Pfizer), enhancing IgG pharmacokinetics (Abbott, Chugai), progress in manufacturing (Genmab, Icosagen Cell Factory, Lonza, Pierre Fabre) and the development of biosimilar antibodies (Biocon, Sandoz, Triskel) were also discussed. Last but not least, identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against new therapeutic targets (Genentech, Genmab, Imclone/Lilly, Vaccinex) including Notch, cMet, TGF?RII, SEMA4D, novel development in immunotherapy and prophylaxis against influenza (Crucell), anti-tumor activity of immunostimulatory antibodies (MedImmune/Astra Zeneca) and translations to clinical studies including immunogenicity issues (Amgen, Novartis, University of Debrecen) were presented. PMID:21441785

2011-01-01

87

Elementary School Reading Survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of an elementary reading survey of New Hampshire schools are reported. The survey, part of a 1968 New England Educational Assessment Project, used questionnaires to discover characteristics of reading programs, future needs, and teacher training. Elementary school principals, kindergarten teachers, first-grade teachers, and fourth-grade

Cashman, Mildred Berwick; Berwick, Hildred G.

88

La mirada de las profesoras coordinadoras de la intervención pedagógica en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo / Coordinators’ Perspective on the Pedagogical Intervention in the Study Program “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo científico surge del proceso de intervención pedagógica (IP) que se realiza como parte de la formación docente en las carreras de la División de Educación Básica en la Universidad Nacional y pretende destacar las acciones del proceso de práctica profesional supervisada ejecutado [...] en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica, desde la visión de las académicas responsables de la coordinación de dicho proceso. Para ello, se comparte una serie de acciones de coordinación que requiere el proceso de práctica y que son fundamentales para su desarrollo y exitosa culminación. Se sistematizan en tres áreas principales con su correspondiente análisis: acciones de coordinación, acciones de inducción y acciones de cierre de la intervención pedagógica. Asimismo, se retoman las opiniones del estudiantado y profesorado de apoyo en la valoración de dichas acciones. Entre los principales aportes del artículo se destaca que el proceso de intervención pedagógica es mucho más que la formulación conjunta de un programa de curso o de instrumentos, ya que implica una serie de estrategias de coordinación entre las profesoras responsables de la intervención pedagógica, para complementar el proceso y permitir hacer de la práctica un espacio de aprovechamiento y reflexión sobre la realidad educativa. Se genera, además, el análisis y trabajo en equipo, para la constante retroalimentación del estudiantado y del mismo proceso, lo cual permite perfilar la práctica profesional renovada y fortalecer la formación universitaria, al ser el proceso de IP de la División de Educación Básica un espacio de investigación permanente. Abstract in english This scientific paper is the result of the pedagogical intervention process carried out as part of teacher training in the study programs of the Basic Education Division at Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica). It aims at bringing into focus the tasks of the supervised professional practice process con [...] ducted in the study program of “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”, from the perspective of the coordinators of this process. The coordination tasks that are essential for the development and successful completion of the professional practice process are analyzed and systematized in three main areas: coordination, induction, and conclusion of the pedagogical intervention tasks. The opinions of students and faculty members are considered in the evaluation. One of the main contributions of this paper is calling attention to the pedagogical intervention process, which involves not only the joint preparation of a course program, but also a number of coordination strategies among the persons in charge of the pedagogical intervention to complete the process and take advantage of the practice to think carefully on the educational reality. This study has been also an opportunity of analysis and teamwork focused on continuous feedback to students and to the process itself, giving a new shape to the professional practice, and strengthening university training where the pedagogical intervention process of the Basic Education Division is a permanent research platform.

Maureen, Camacho Oviedo; Kattia, Rojas Acevedo.

2013-12-01

89

Lições de identidade presentes em livros didáticos de séries iniciais Identity lessons in early grades of elementary school textbooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É indubitável o papel que os livros didáticos ocupam nas salas de aula de todo o país, mesmo com o crescente avanço das novas tecnologias. Mais do que um recurso largamente utilizado por professoras e professores em suas práticas educativas, os livros didáticos são artefatos culturais que produzem saberes. Neles estão presentes e circulam as mais diversas pedagogias culturais, as quais ensinam lições que vão muito além dos conteúdos curriculares, convidando alunos e alunas a ocuparem determinadas posições de sujeito. A partir de tais considerações, o presente trabalho se dedica à análise das pedagogias culturais presentes e atuantes nos livros didáticos, mais especificamente, a análise está centrada na assim chamada pedagogia do gauchismo, termo cunhado para designar as diversas formas como as pessoas aprendem a ser gaúchas, em diversas instâncias sociais e culturais. O estudo compara de que maneira a pedagogia do gauchismo está presente em livros de História das Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental, no período que vai de 1960 a 2005, suas recorrências e rupturas. As análises apontam para uma predominância de uma determinada forma de se entender a identidade gaúcha, relacionando-a, sobretudo, à figura emblemática e mítica do gaúcho. Esta representação predominante constitui uma forte pedagogia cultural, produtora de saberes, a qual ensina uma maneira de ser gaúcho, convidando alunos e alunas a ocuparem posições de sujeito e a se constituírem identitariamente a partir de tal pedagogia.While men technologies spread throughout the country, the role that textbooks play in classrooms is unquestionable. Further than a tool widely used by teachers (men and women in their educational practices, textbooks are cultural artefacts producing knowledge. Multiple cultural pedagogies are present and circulate in them, teaching lessons that go much beyond the curricular content, encouraging students (men or women to be in particular subject positions. From these observations, the present paper is devoted to analysing the current, active and cultural pedagogies in textbooks, most specifically the so-called gauchismo pedagogy, a term that was coined to designate how people learn to be a "Gaucho" (someone from Rio Grande do Sul state in different social and cultural situations. The study has investigated how the gauchismo pedagogy is present in early grades of elementary school history textbooks, from 1960 to 2005, its recurrences and ruptures. Data points to a prevailing way to understand the Gaucho identity, particularly relating it to the symbolic and mythic Gaucho. This prevailing representation is a strong cultural pedagogy, producing knowledge, which teaches how to be a Gaucho, encouraging students to be in subject positions and identifying with this pedagogy.

Letícia Fonseca Richthofen de Freitas

2009-01-01

90

Lições de identidade presentes em livros didáticos de séries iniciais / Identity lessons in early grades of elementary school textbooks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É indubitável o papel que os livros didáticos ocupam nas salas de aula de todo o país, mesmo com o crescente avanço das novas tecnologias. Mais do que um recurso largamente utilizado por professoras e professores em suas práticas educativas, os livros didáticos são artefatos culturais que produzem s [...] aberes. Neles estão presentes e circulam as mais diversas pedagogias culturais, as quais ensinam lições que vão muito além dos conteúdos curriculares, convidando alunos e alunas a ocuparem determinadas posições de sujeito. A partir de tais considerações, o presente trabalho se dedica à análise das pedagogias culturais presentes e atuantes nos livros didáticos, mais especificamente, a análise está centrada na assim chamada pedagogia do gauchismo, termo cunhado para designar as diversas formas como as pessoas aprendem a ser gaúchas, em diversas instâncias sociais e culturais. O estudo compara de que maneira a pedagogia do gauchismo está presente em livros de História das Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental, no período que vai de 1960 a 2005, suas recorrências e rupturas. As análises apontam para uma predominância de uma determinada forma de se entender a identidade gaúcha, relacionando-a, sobretudo, à figura emblemática e mítica do gaúcho. Esta representação predominante constitui uma forte pedagogia cultural, produtora de saberes, a qual ensina uma maneira de ser gaúcho, convidando alunos e alunas a ocuparem posições de sujeito e a se constituírem identitariamente a partir de tal pedagogia. Abstract in english While men technologies spread throughout the country, the role that textbooks play in classrooms is unquestionable. Further than a tool widely used by teachers (men and women) in their educational practices, textbooks are cultural artefacts producing knowledge. Multiple cultural pedagogies are prese [...] nt and circulate in them, teaching lessons that go much beyond the curricular content, encouraging students (men or women) to be in particular subject positions. From these observations, the present paper is devoted to analysing the current, active and cultural pedagogies in textbooks, most specifically the so-called gauchismo pedagogy, a term that was coined to designate how people learn to be a "Gaucho" (someone from Rio Grande do Sul state) in different social and cultural situations. The study has investigated how the gauchismo pedagogy is present in early grades of elementary school history textbooks, from 1960 to 2005, its recurrences and ruptures. Data points to a prevailing way to understand the Gaucho identity, particularly relating it to the symbolic and mythic Gaucho. This prevailing representation is a strong cultural pedagogy, producing knowledge, which teaches how to be a Gaucho, encouraging students to be in subject positions and identifying with this pedagogy.

Letícia Fonseca Richthofen de, Freitas.

91

The 15th AINSE nuclear and particle conference at the 6th APPC and 11th AIP congress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1994 AINSE conference was held in Brisbane, at Griffith University in conjunction with the 6th APPC and the 11th Australian Institute of Physics Congress. It focused on physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear reactions and scattering, neutrinos and dark matter. The proceedings booklet contains the conference programme and talks summaries. Seventy one papers out of the 73 contributions were indexed separately for inclusion in the INIS database

92

Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum…

Barret, Jennifer; And Others

93

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

94

This Land Was Made for You and Me: Teaching for Economic Justice in Upper Elementary and Middle School Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching for economic justice can be challenging for upper elementary and middle school teachers. Many teachers may feel uncomfortable with the subject matter and thus avoid addressing sensitive social issues related to economic/financial inequities. This article describes how selected songs and works of visual art, expressions of social protest…

Lucey, Thomas A.; Laney, James D.

2009-01-01

95

The 6th International Earth Science Olympiad: A Student Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2012, two students from the Australian Science and Mathematics School and two from Yankalilla Area School were selected to travel to Olavarria, Argentina in order to compete in the 6th International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO). It was an opportunity for individuals with a passion for Earth science to come together from 17 countries to…

Barlett, Luke; Cathro, Darcy; Mellow, Maddi; Tate, Clara

2014-01-01

96

The Effects of Cooperative Learning Method Supported by Multiple Intelligence Theory on Elementary School Third Grade Students’ Academic Achievement on Mathematics Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present experimental study, the effects of cooperative learning method supported by mutliple intelligence theory (CLMI on elementary school third grade students’ achievement on mathematics were investigated. The study, which had lasted nine consecutive weeks, was conducted at a public elementary school in thedistrict of Seyhan-Adana, Turkey in 2004-2005 academic year. The participants of the study were 85 students. For the purpose of this study, on experimental group cooperative learning method supported by mutliple intelligence theory (CLMI was used as the method of instruction whereas the control groups were instructured utilizing the traditional teacher oriented method. “Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT”, “Teele Inventory of Multiple Intelligences (TIMI” and “Personal Information Form (PIF” were used as the measurement instruments of the study. MAT was administered as pretest and posttest to the experimental and control groups. Furthermore, prior to the study TIMI and PIF (for getting personal information about students were administered to all the participants. They also were used in order to constitute the cooperative learning teams in the experimental group. In this research, the data obtained by achivement test was analysed by using statistical techniques of covariance analysis.As a result, there was a statistically significant difference among experimental group and second control group in favor of the experimental group in the achivement test. Moreover, no statically significant differences were observed among the experimental group and the observed – directed group (first control group.

Dilek I?IK

2007-06-01

97

Gender-Based Content of Educational Materials for the Study of Serbian Language in Lower-Stage Grades of Elementary Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analysis of educational materials for the study of Serbian language in lower-stage grades of elementary education (intended for students from 7 through 11 years old from gender perspective. The first part of the paper presents the process of institutionalization of gender-based education in the Republic of Serbia after the year 2000, when gender issues became highlighted as an integral part of the overall reform of education within the implementation of education for democracy and civil society. Declarative commitment to developing gender sensitivity has led to changes in the curriculum for elementary education and, presumably, changes in the selection of educational materials for different school subjects. The authors intended to determine whether educational materials for Serbian language honor the principle of gender equality in the selection of literary texts. The presence and nature of gender-based content in reading books from different publishers, for second and third grade, was determined by using the method of content analysis. The aim was to establish empirical evidence that would show the degree of gender sensitivity of analyzed educational materials and their compliance with the strategic commitment to gender mainstreaming in education. The authors are aware of the range of this micro-level research, and the impossibility to reach general conclusions, however, in their opinion, the obtained data may shed a light on at least one part of the mosaic of the complex relationship of education, educational material and gender equality in contemporary Serbian society. The following conclusions were drawn: (a the analyzed educational material serves the function of developing gender sensitivity; (b the principle of gender equality is respected in selection of the material; (c the distinguished gender characteristics go beyond the so-called traditional gender pattern.

Vesna Trifunovic

2014-02-01

98

Validating Craft Knowledge: An Empirical Examination of Elementary-Grade Students' Performance on an Informal Reading Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal study investigated children's performance on several informal reading and spelling tasks. Students (n = 274) in a rural North Carolina county were assessed across grades 2 to 6 on the following measures: isolated word recognition (timed and untimed), oral reading accuracy, reading comprehension, reading rate, and spelling.…

Morris, Darrell; Bloodgood, Janet W.; Perney, Jan; Frye, Elizabeth M.; Kucan, Linda; Trathen, Woodrow; Ward, Devery; Schlagal, Robert

2011-01-01

99

Elementary Students’ Levels of Realization of Basic Concepts related with Environment Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores elementary students’ levels of recognition of basic concepts about environmental problems. 86 students at 6th, 7th and 8th grades studying in central elementary schools of K?r?kkale participated in this study. Students’ awareness and preliminary knowledge of environmental problems and their sensitivities towards environment were determined by using open ended questions. According to the findings of this study, the students were mostly aware of the environmental problems stemming from environmental contamination, air pollution and waste materials. Moreover, the students mostly answered the questions correctly regarding with the environmental problems they frequently face in daily life whereas the answers to the questions regarding with the current environmental problems that are infrequently handled in educational institutions such as greenhouse effect, global warming etc. were occasionally incorrect; and in certain cases, the answers even contained a number of misconceptions. Moreover, the levels of students’ sensitivity towards environment were found to be sufficient.

Hüseyin Miraç Pekta?

2009-12-01

100

6th Krakow-Winnipeg Conference on Advanced Bioimaging Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from 1997 researchers have been meet in Krakow, Poland for the Krakow-Winnipeg conference on MRI. The scope of the conference includes the latest technical advances in biomedical imaging including molecular imaging and nanotechnology. Other topics for presentation include recent developments in whole body MRI, multi-transmit technology and gradient-free MRI. Book of Abstracts from the 6th Conference contains 29 abstracts of Oral Presentations and 11 abstracts of Posters.

101

The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review  

OpenAIRE

The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011) in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001), Hanover (2003), Leipzig ...

Stopic?, Srec?ko R.

2011-01-01

102

Review of the 6th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the 6th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference on eight monographs. These monographs are present status and prospects of nucliar energy, advancement of commercial power reactor, advanced nuclear reactor and research and test reactor, perspectives on nuclear power safety in 1990's, application of radioisotope and irradiation technique, advancement in nuclear fuel, improvement of nuclear power plant management and regional cooperation and personnel training

103

6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers from Europe and the United States.

Stojiljkovic Maja

2012-09-01

104

6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers ...

Stojiljkovic Maja; Fazlagic Amira; Dokmanovic-Krivokapic Lidija; Nikcevic Gordana; Patrinos George P; Pavlovic Sonja; Zukic Branka

2012-01-01

105

6th world congress of chemical engineering. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, held in Melbourne, was structured around 6 Vision Lectures which lead to 800 oral presentations and 600 poster presentations, spanning the entire range of chemical engineering. The main topics of the Congress were: environment, health and safety; energy; industrial applications; process simulation and control; management and education and the future. Items in INIS scope have been separately indexed

106

Proceedings of the 6th nuclear science and technology conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 2 - 4 December, 1996 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

107

The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS 15.0/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘...

Hakan Sar?çam; Elifcan Y?lmaz; Arzu Gülbahçe; Öner Gülbahçe; Mehmet Çardak

2013-01-01

108

The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors. PMID:17723994

Hang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn

2007-01-01

109

Comparison of reading skills between cochlear implantation and normal hearing children in second and third grade elementary in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract   Background and Aim: Reading skill is necessary for academic achievement, that deaf children have problems in this skill due to hearing impairment. Use of cochlear implant can improve auditory inputs. The aim of this study was to investigate the reading skills of children with cochlear implants and comparing that with normal ones.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytic study was done on 24 children with cochlear implant and 24 normal ones that was selected from second and third grades students of Tehran primary schools. Children's reading performance was assessed by Nama reading test and the data were analyzed using T-test, linear regression and Pearson correlations.     Results: The results showed that the means of reading scores of normal children were significantly greater than the cochlear implanted ones (P<0.01. Also, there was a significant relationship between reading skills and period of cochlear implant (P<0.01.   Conclusion: Cochlear implanted children showed weaker performance in reading skills than normal ones due to less access to auditory and Phonological information. It seems that early surgery and cochlear implant before the age of language learning can be partially compensated reading defects of deaf children.   Key words: Reading skills, Cochlear implantation, Second and third grade.  

Farzad Weisi

2012-12-01

110

Semiologia neurológica numa população de escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental / Neurologic examination of a group of children attending first grade of a elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliamos escolares de primeira série do ensino fundamental, utilizando semiologia neurológica. Foram convidados, sem o conhecimento prévio do desempenho escolar, todos os alunos que frequentavam 5 classes de primeira série do primeiro grau de uma escola pública escolhida ao acaso, no município de I [...] tatiba / São Paulo, cujos pais assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram excluídos aqueles cujos pais não assinaram esse termo ou não compareceram a 3 consultas agendadas em dias diferentes. Utilizou-se o Exame Neurológico Tradicional (ENT) (Lefèvre, 1972). Considerou-se como normal a realização de todas as provas do ENT e as medidas do perímetro craniano propostas por Diament & Rodrigues (1976). Os dados foram armazenados em banco de dados do programa Epi6 (Epidemiologic Information). Os resultados foram analisados pelo cálculo de porcentagem e pelo teste c2. O nível de significância foi 0,05. Foram avaliados 124 alunos. O ENT foi normal em 87 (70,16%) e alterado em 37 (29,83%) escolares. Entre as alterações, foram observados: leve tremor, leve hipotonia muscular, atraso na aquisição da fala, macrocefalia, microcefalia, hiperatividade, síndrome de nervo craniano e paresia facial central. Um escolar apresentou síndrome de liberação piramidal nos membros inferiores. Abstract in english We evaluated children in the first grade of a elementary school using neurological examination. With no previous knowledgement of their educational performance, were invited all children attending five classes of the first grade of an elementary public school chosen randomly, in Itatiba / Sao Paulo [...] / Brazil, whose parents assigned a Commitment Term for participation in this research. Children who missed three evaluations in different days or whose parents did not assigned the Commitment Term were excluded. The Traditional Neurological Examination (ENT) (Lefevre, 1972) was applied. It was considered for normal the measurement of the skull circumference, proposed by Diament & Rodrigues (1976), and the application of all ENT items. The data were stored in a database of the Epi6 Program (Epidemiologic Information), and analyzed by percentage calculation and by the c2 test. The significance level was 0.05. Children evaluated were 124. The ENT results were normal in 87 (70.16%) and altered in 37 (29.83%). Among the alterations, there were observed: light tremor, light muscular hypotonia, speech acquisition delay, macrocephaly, microcephaly, hyperactivity, cranial nerve syndrome, central facial paralysis. One child presented corticospinal tract impairment syndrome of the distal lower extremities.

VANDA M. G., GONÇALVES; JOSIANE M. F., TONELOTTO; SOLANGE G., RAVANINI.

2000-03-01

111

Habilidades de letramento após intervenção fonoaudiológica em crianças do 1º ano do ensino fundamental / Literacy abilities of first grade elementary school children after speech and language intervention  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia de um Programa Fonoaudiológico de Estimulação do Letramento - PFEL, em crianças do 1° ano do Ensino Fundamental, em relação à efetividade deste nas habilidades de letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e leitura. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete crianças, de ambos os gê [...] neros, com média de idade de sete anos e um mês, cursando o 1º ano do Ensino Fundamental realizaram avaliação, pré e após intervenção fonoaudiológica, do letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e nível de leitura. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação pré-PFEL a média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento foi de 28,90%; todos os sujeitos apresentaram alteração no vocabulário; obtiveram escore médio de 24,65 no CONFIAS e a maioria das crianças avaliadas encontrava-se no nível logográfico de leitura. Pós-PFEL os sujeitos apresentaram média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento igual a 40,05%; mantiveram déficit no vocabulário; escore médio no CONFIAS de 34,62 e a maioria dos sujeitos permaneceu no nível logográfico. CONCLUSÃO: O programa desenvolvido nesse estudo mostrou-se eficaz, promovendo mudanças qualitativas relevantes no vocabulário, letramento, consciência fonológica e leitura, apesar de quantitativamente, os resultados não evidenciarem significância estatística. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the effectiveness of the Speech-Language Pathology Program of Literacy Stimulation (PFEL) over literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading abilities of first grade elementary school children. METHODS: Thirty seven children of both genders, who attended the first grade [...] of elementary school and had, in average, seven years and one month of age participated in this study. Subjects carried out pre and post speech-language intervention assessments regarding literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading level. RESULTS: In the assessment carried out before PFEL, the percentual mean of correct answers in the literacy test was 28.90%; all subjects showed vocabulary deficits; the mean score on the CONFIAS test was 24.65, and the majority of the children assessed were at the logographic level of reading. In the post-PFEL assessment, subjects showed a mean percentage of correct answers in the literacy test of 40.05%; they kept the vocabulary deficit and remained at the logographic level of reading; the mean CONFIAS score was 34.62. CONCLUSION: The literacy program developed in this study was effective in promoting relevant qualitative changes in vocabulary, literacy, phonological awareness and reading abilities, even though the quantitative results did not show statistically significant differences.

Carmen Lúcia Romão, Brito; Catharina Pinto Queirós, Uzêda; Jaqueline Gonçalves, Vieira; Laura Giotto, Cavalheiro.

112

Habilidades de letramento após intervenção fonoaudiológica em crianças do 1º ano do ensino fundamental Literacy abilities of first grade elementary school children after speech and language intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia de um Programa Fonoaudiológico de Estimulação do Letramento - PFEL, em crianças do 1° ano do Ensino Fundamental, em relação à efetividade deste nas habilidades de letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e leitura. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete crianças, de ambos os gêneros, com média de idade de sete anos e um mês, cursando o 1º ano do Ensino Fundamental realizaram avaliação, pré e após intervenção fonoaudiológica, do letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e nível de leitura. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação pré-PFEL a média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento foi de 28,90%; todos os sujeitos apresentaram alteração no vocabulário; obtiveram escore médio de 24,65 no CONFIAS e a maioria das crianças avaliadas encontrava-se no nível logográfico de leitura. Pós-PFEL os sujeitos apresentaram média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento igual a 40,05%; mantiveram déficit no vocabulário; escore médio no CONFIAS de 34,62 e a maioria dos sujeitos permaneceu no nível logográfico. CONCLUSÃO: O programa desenvolvido nesse estudo mostrou-se eficaz, promovendo mudanças qualitativas relevantes no vocabulário, letramento, consciência fonológica e leitura, apesar de quantitativamente, os resultados não evidenciarem significância estatística.PURPOSE: To verify the effectiveness of the Speech-Language Pathology Program of Literacy Stimulation (PFEL over literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading abilities of first grade elementary school children. METHODS: Thirty seven children of both genders, who attended the first grade of elementary school and had, in average, seven years and one month of age participated in this study. Subjects carried out pre and post speech-language intervention assessments regarding literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading level. RESULTS: In the assessment carried out before PFEL, the percentual mean of correct answers in the literacy test was 28.90%; all subjects showed vocabulary deficits; the mean score on the CONFIAS test was 24.65, and the majority of the children assessed were at the logographic level of reading. In the post-PFEL assessment, subjects showed a mean percentage of correct answers in the literacy test of 40.05%; they kept the vocabulary deficit and remained at the logographic level of reading; the mean CONFIAS score was 34.62. CONCLUSION: The literacy program developed in this study was effective in promoting relevant qualitative changes in vocabulary, literacy, phonological awareness and reading abilities, even though the quantitative results did not show statistically significant differences.

Carmen Lúcia Romão Brito

2010-01-01

113

6th International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications  

CERN Document Server

The 6th FTRA International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA-14) will be held in Guam, USA, Dec. 17 - 19, 2014. CSA-14 presents a comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in engineering systems in computer science, and applications, including ubiquitous computing, U-Health care system, Big Data, UI/UX for human-centric computing, Computing Service, Bioinformatics and Bio-Inspired Computing and will show recent advances on various aspects of computing technology, Ubiquitous Computing Services and its application.

Stojmenovic, Ivan; Jeong, Hwa; Yi, Gangman

2015-01-01

114

The AMES network in the 6th Framework Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AMES (Ageing Materials European Strategy) European network started its activity in 1993 with the aim of studying ageing mechanisms and remedial procedures for structural materials used for nuclear reactor components. Operated by JRC-IE, it has been supporting the co-ordination of the project cluster throughout the 4th and 5th EURATOM Framework Programs, carrying out projects on with plant life management implications. Among them we can list the development of non-destructive techniques applied to thermal ageing and neutron embrittlement monitoring (AMES-NDT and GRETE), improved surveillance for VVER 440 reactors (COBRA), dosimetry (AMESDOSIMETRY, MADAM and REDOS), chemical composition effects on neutron embrittlement (PISA) and advanced fracture mechanics for integrity assessment (FRAME). Main frame of the network in the 5th Framework Programme is the ATHENA project, which is aimed at summarizing the obtained achievements and edit guidelines on important issues like the Master Curve, Effect of chemical composition on embrittlement rate in RPV steels, Re-embrittlement models validation after VVER-440 annealing and open issues in embrittlement of VVER type reactors. In the 6th EURATOM Framework Programme started in 2003 the network will be part of a broader initiative on PLIM including in a more integrated way NESC, ENIQ, NET and AMALIA networks. This paper shows an overview of the concluded projects, achievements of the running ones and open issues tackled in the 6th EURATOM FWP and a summary of the plans for a new broader network on NPP Plant Life management (SAFELIFE). (author)

115

The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS 15.0/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘t test’ was used for determine the difference among the groups and ‘Pearson Moment Correlation Analysis’ was used for determine correlation among variables. In this study different abilities were examined in the subhead of Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, and General Ability. It was found in this study that there is a meaningful relation between Sef-Esttem and Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, General Ability, Assertiveness. In the view of the preceding findings, and in the scope of academic success this study is discussed and leads other investigations and applications.

Hakan Sar?çam

2013-03-01

116

INVESTIGATION OF EIGHTH GRADE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS LISTENING TEXTS IN TERMS OF CERTAIN VARIABLES
?LKÖ?RET?M SEK?Z?NC? SINIF D?NLEME MET?NLER?N?N ÇE??TL? DE???KENLER AÇISINDAN ?NCELENMES?
 

OpenAIRE

Today, in spite of the changing concept of education, the textbooks keep the major function as a lesson material. Compared to other lessons materials, the textbooks of Turkish lesson have a special importance about being the first written products in mother tongue education process. In this respect, developing of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, the texts that are being in textbooks must be good example of language.In this study, Eighth Grade Elementary School Teachers Book of...

Gu?ndog?du, Ays?e Eda

2011-01-01

117

The 6th Irradiation Test Plan of Dry Process Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the 6th irradiation test of dry process fuel in HANARO are as follows: The first one is to establish the measurement technology of the irradiation rig. It is noted that the present experiment is the first trial of the measurement technology of the irradiation rig in remote manner. Also, it is key technology for the evaluation of the dry-process fuel performance. The second one is for obtaining the temperature measurement data through the measurement irradiation test to verify the fuel performance code with some models of material characteristics. The 6th irradiation period in HANARO is planned to be about 3 months from March 2006, and the OR5 test hole will be used. Considering the estimated average linear power and irradiation period, the discharge burnup of the 6th irradiation test is estimated to be around 1,700 MWd/tHM. Also, the preliminary safety assessment was performed for the irradiation test of dry-processed fuel at the OR5 hole of HANARO. First of all, the initial composition of dry process fuel was calculated based on the composition of selected 5 spent fuel rods estimated using their burnup history and ORIGEN-2 code. Using this result, the nuclear, thermohydraulic and mechanical characteristics of the fuel under the normal operation condition were evaluated. Under this condition the maximum linear power of dry process fuel was estimated as 64.8 kW/m, and the centerline temperature of a pellet was calculated as 2,567 .deg. C. In order to assess the integrity of the fuel under the accident condition initiated by the HANARO, safety analyses on the reactivity insertion accident and locked rotor accident were carried out. The maximum centerline temperature and cladding temperature of the fuel rod in RIA accident case were estimated 2635 .deg. C and 97 .deg. C, respectively. For the pump seizure accident, the maximum centerline temperature and cladding temperature of fuel rod were estimated 2575 .deg. C and 123 .deg. C, respectively. Considering the safety analysis results, the integrity of the fuel during the HANARO irradiation test will be secured. The irradiated dry process fuel will be transported to the IMEF. The post-irradiation examinations such as measurement of dimension, gamma scanning and microstructure analysis of pellets are planned to be performed

118

The 6th Irradiation Test Plan of Dry Process Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the 6th irradiation test of dry process fuel in HANARO are as follows: The first one is to establish the measurement technology of the irradiation rig. It is noted that the present experiment is the first trial of the measurement technology of the irradiation rig in remote manner. Also, it is key technology for the evaluation of the dry-process fuel performance. The second one is for obtaining the temperature measurement data through the measurement irradiation test to verify the fuel performance code with some models of material characteristics. The 6th irradiation period in HANARO is planned to be about 3 months from March 2006, and the OR5 test hole will be used. Considering the estimated average linear power and irradiation period, the discharge burnup of the 6th irradiation test is estimated to be around 1,700 MWd/tHM. Also, the preliminary safety assessment was performed for the irradiation test of dry-processed fuel at the OR5 hole of HANARO. First of all, the initial composition of dry process fuel was calculated based on the composition of selected 5 spent fuel rods estimated using their burnup history and ORIGEN-2 code. Using this result, the nuclear, thermohydraulic and mechanical characteristics of the fuel under the normal operation condition were evaluated. Under this condition the maximum linear power of dry process fuel was estimated as 64.8 kW/m, and the centerline temperature of a pellet was calculated as 2,567 .deg. C. In order to assess the integrity of the fuel under the accident condition initiated by the HANARO, safety analyses on the reactivity insertion accident and locked rotor accident were carried out. The maximum centerline temperature and cladding temperature of the fuel rod in RIA accident case were estimated 2635 .deg. C and 97 .deg. C, respectively. For the pump seizure accident, the maximum centerline temperature and cladding temperature of fuel rod were estimated 2575 .deg. C and 123 .deg. C, respectively. Considering the safety analysis results, the integrity of the fuel during the HANARO irradiation test will be secured. The irradiated dry process fuel will be transported to the IMEF. The post-irradiation examinations such as measurement of dimension, gamma scanning and microstructure analysis of pellets are planned to be performed

Moon, J. S.; Song, K. C.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-02-15

119

Proceedings of the 6th symposium on advanced photon research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at JAERI-Kansai in Kyoto on November 4-5, 2004. The symposium has been held once a year since 1999, to promote the advanced photon research through speeches, information exchanges, discussion by researchers on the front line of advanced photon research in Japan and abroad, not only reports of latest research results and plans at Advanced Photon Research Center. The numbers of speeches were 16, including 5 invited speeches, and the numbers of poster presentations were 56, including the report of presentations and cooperative research and joint research performed in FY2003. The 56 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

120

6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference  

CERN Document Server

This book collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts and presents the proceedings of the 6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference (IP&C 2014) held in Bydgoszcz, 10-12 September 2014. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods  of image processing, computer vision  is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered.

2015-01-01

121

Estrategias metodológicas basadas en tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones elementales sobre mezclas en el 6° grado de educación básica / Stratégies méthodologiques basées sur la technologie pharmaceutique pour promouvoir l’acquisition de notions élémentaires de mélanges en 6ème degré d’éducation basique / Methodological strategies based on pharmaceutical tecnology to promote the acquisition of basic notions about mixtures in the 6º grade of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Venezuela, un país productor de materias primas, requiere de un proceso educativo que conecte al estudiante con la tecnología, que adicionalmente aporte sentido práctico a tópicos generalmente abstractos e implique incidencias positivas en el rendimiento escolar. La presente investigación tuvo como [...] objetivo el desarrollo de estrategias metodológicas, basadas en la tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones sobre mezclas en alumnos del 6° grado de Educación Básica. Se realizó una investigación de campo experimental, con carácter exploratorio y evaluativo. La muestra estuvo conformada por los alumnos del 6° grado de la Escuela Básica “Trino Celis Ríos”, ubicada en Maracay, Edo. Aragua. Un grupo experimental realizó actividades de laboratorio: elaboraron un jarabe, una crema a base de sábila y una loción para la piel. Se aplicaron pruebas antes y después. Mediante análisis de varianza se establecieron diferencias significativas entre el grupo control y el experimental. La estrategia aplicada promovió efectivamente el aprendizaje del concepto de mezclas y los distintos tipos de éstas en estudiantes. Adicionalmente, resultó ser innovadora, práctica y de bajo costo, una importante conexión ciencia-tecnología y un aporte positivo significativo en el rendimiento estudiantil. Abstract in english Venezuela, a raw material producing country, requires an educational process connecting students with technology. Such process should give a practical sense to topics that are generally abstract and involve positive incidences for the students’ performance. This investigation was intended to develop [...] methodological strategies, based on the pharmaceutical technology promoting the acquisition of knowledge about mixtures by students of 6th grade of elementary school. An experimental, exploratory, evaluative research was conducted on campus with a sample of a group of students of the 6th grade from the “Trino Celis Ríos School” located in Maracay, Edo. Aragua. An experimental group conducted laboratory activities including the preparation of a syrup, an Aloe Vera-based cream and a skin lotion. Tests were administered before and after the activities. Signifi cant differences between the control group and the experimental group were established through variation analysis. The strategy applied promoted effectively the learning by students regarding mixture concept and kinds. Additionally, this strategy was innovative, useful and cheaper, an important connection between science and technology and a signifi cant positive contribution to students’ performance.

Blanca, Castillo; Martha, Ruedas.

2007-01-01

122

Aluno-autor: a aprendizagem da escrita literária nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Student-author: learning literary writing in the early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisa etnográfica sobre a escrita do texto literário realizada numa turma de 4º ano do ensino fundamental municipal de Curitiba. O estudo parte do conceito de aluno-autor, criado por Catherine Tauveron para sustentar o argumento de que a escola pode desenvolver nas crianças pequenas uma postura d [...] e autor. O artigo analisa dois textos produzidos por alunos, sendo um deles uma narrativa, e o outro, uma fábula. Paralelamente, apresenta as estratégias adotadas pelo professor para familiarizar os alunos com as características dos gêneros literários, como forma de nortear a sua escrita, de modo a contemplarem em seus textos os elementos da arquitetura desses gêneros, como tema, intriga, narrador, ponto de vista, personagem, estrutura, sequência, coerência, verossimilhança, espaço e tempo. Enfatiza, ainda, o papel do professor como responsável por instigar a reflexão dos alunos sobre sua escrita e criar as condições pedagógicas para que escrevam com prazer, autonomia e criatividade. Abstract in english This is an ethnographic research on literary text writing carried out with a 4th grade class of a municipal elementary school in Curitiba, Brazil. The study is based on Catherine Tauveron's concept of student-author, which supports that schools can induce the development of author's attitude in smal [...] l children. The paper analyzes two texts prepared by students: a narrative and a fable. It also presents the strategies used by the teacher to familiarize students with the characteristics of literary genres, as a means to organize their writing, so that they include elements of the common architecture of genres in their texts, such as theme, intrigue, narrator, point of view, character, structure, sequence, coherence, verisimilitude, space and time. It also emphasizes the role of teachers as responsible for enticing students to think about their writing and creating the pedagogic conditions so students write with pleasure, autonomy and creativity.

Elisa Maria, Dalla-Bona; Leilah Santiago, Bufrem.

2013-03-01

123

INGESTA DE MACRONUTRIENTES Y PREVALENCIA DE MALNUTRICIÓN POR EXCESO EN ESCOLARES DE 5º Y 6º BÁSICO DE DISTINTO NIVEL SOCIOECONÓMICO DE LA REGIÓN METROPOLITANA / MACRONUTRIENTS INTAKE AND OVERWEIGHT PREVALENCE IN 5TH AND 6TH GRADE OF DIFERENTS SOCIOEOCONOMIC LEVELS IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil se han transformado en un importante problema en salud pública. Objetivo: evaluar la ingesta de macronutrientes y determinar la prevalencia de malnutrición en escolares de 5° y 6º año básico de distintos niveles socioeconómicos de 6 comunas de la Región Metropolit [...] ana. Sujetos y método: se evaluaron 1732 niños de ambos sexos de 9 a 12 años de edad. La evaluación antropométrica incluyo peso, talla, pliegue tricipital y subescapular. La ingesta de macronutrientes se evaluó mediante la aplicación de una encuesta recordatorio de 24 hrs; el nivel socioeconómico se evaluó mediante la aplicación la encuesta ESOMAR. Resultados: la prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso fue de 40%, siendo más importante en hombres de los estratos socioeconómicos de menores ingresos. Encontramos un mayor consumo de proteínas y grasas totales en el nivel socioeconómico más alto, mientras que el nivel de menores ingresos tuvo una mayor ingesta de carbohidratos. Tanto hombres como mujeres presentaron una adecuación superior al 75% en todos los macronutrientes con excepción de la fibra. Conclusión: El estudio arrojó una elevada prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso en ambos sexos con un mejor patrón de alimentación en los niños de nivel socioeconómico alto. Abstract in english Obesity in childhood has become an important publie health problem in Chile. Objetive: to study macronutrient intake and nutritional status in school-age children attending5th andóth grade inprimary schoolsfrom different socioeconomic status located in 6 counties in Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total [...] of 1,732 children between 9 and 12 years oldjrom both sexes were studied. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and tricipital and subescapular thickness. Macronutrient intake was determined using a 24-hours recall survey. Socioeconomic status was estimated using the ESOMAR survey. Results: In this sample overweight and obesity prevalence reached 40%. Prevalence was higher in boys and in the lower socio-economic groups. A higher consumption ofproteins andfat wasfound in the wealthier groups, while a higher intake of carbohydrates was present in the poorer ones. Comparison with the daily recommended allowancesfound that both males andfemales hada 75% ofadequacy of all ofmacronutrients with the exception offiber. Conclusión: The study revealeda highprevalence ofmalnutrition in both sexes with a better nutrition standard among children in higher socioeconomic status.

Yéssica, Liberona Z; Valerie, Engler T; Oscar, Castillo V; Luis, Villarroel del P; Jaime, Rozowski N.

2008-09-01

124

"Messing About" in ESS. An Inservice Training Handbook in Elementary Science Study (ESS) for Teachers of Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. Instructor Guidebook.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook provides the elements of a teacher training program for Elementary Science Study, an elementary school science curriculum developed by the Education Development Center. It contains a detailed description of the lessons that make up the teacher training program. Each lesson contains a description of the rationale for that lesson, a…

Head, Jack

125

Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

126

Sex education in Slovenian primary school from 6th to 9th grade  

OpenAIRE

Origin: Sexuality has existed ever since of the man kind. Freud discovered that children go through five stages of sexual development, which prepares them for a healthy adulthood. Modern-day advocates of sexuality who support this thesis are adding that sexuality is not limited to sexual intercourse, but is a constituent part of healthy human relations. World Health Organization plays an important role in the introduction of sex education in school programs and also unites medical-health para...

Hribar Babinski, Ula

2012-01-01

127

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

128

Principal component analysis reveals gender-specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific pattern of pediatric cardiometabolic risk with principal component analysis, using several biological, behavioral and parental variables in a large cohort (n?=?2866 of 6th grade students. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score (MetScore. Stratified risk components and MetScore were analyzed for association with age, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, physical activity (PA, and parental factors. Results In both boys and girls, BMI and CRF were associated with multiple risk components, and overall MetScore. Maternal smoking was associated with multiple risk components in girls and boys, as well as MetScore in boys, even after controlling for children’s BMI. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease (CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls. Children’s PA levels, maternal history of early CVD, and paternal BMI were also indicative for various risk components, but not MetScore. Conclusions Several biological and behavioral factors were independently associated with children’s cardiometabolic disease risk, and thus represent a unique gender-specific risk profile. These data serve to bolster the independent contribution of CRF, PA, and family-oriented healthy lifestyles for improving children’s health.

Peterson Mark D

2012-11-01

129

The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, General Pyrometallurgy, Vessel Integrity, Process Gas Treatment; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Process Control, Process Modeling, Vol. 3: Light metals, General Hydrometallurgy, Precious Metals; Vol. 4: Process Metallurgy, Recycling, Waste Treatment and Prevention, Vol 5: Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, waste effluents Treatment and Biohydrometallurgical application. The plenary lectures will be published in the scientific journal 'World of Metallurgy - ERZMETALL', which is published by the GDMB.

Sre?ko R. Stopi?

2011-10-01

130

Grading physical education  

OpenAIRE

As regards to the evaluation of the physical education, teachers and sports educators have inconsistent and heterogeneous opinions. The first group is convinced that the one-word grades are the way to go; the second group is all for the numeric grading; the third group vouches for the narrative and the fourth wants to eliminate the grades altogether. Our present regulations on examining, evaluating and advancement of students to the next grade in our nine-level elementary schools are cemented...

Zorc, Barbara

2011-01-01

131

What predicts the selection of nursing as a career choice in 5th and 6th year school students?  

Science.gov (United States)

Demand for nursing care, and nurses, is growing in the United Kingdom given an increasingly ageing patient population with long-term co-morbidities. An ageing nursing workforce and fewer school leavers entering nursing are key barriers to student nurse recruitment. This paper aims to identify the socio-demographic and correlates nursing as a career choice in 5th and 6th year school students. This cross-sectional descriptive study gathered self-administered questionnaires from a total cohort of 5th and 6th year school students (n=1059) in one educational authority in Scotland. A response rate of 100% was achieved, with 702 students expressing a career choice. Some 71.7% (n=503) of students providing a full data set would never consider nursing, even if they obtained poor grades. Only 28.3% (n=199) would ever consider nursing. Students cited nursing as a career choice if they were female, of average to below average academic ability/achievement, expressed a positive attitude to nursing as a degree subject which was shared by their career guidance teacher. Each additional higher reduced the likelihood of nursing as a career choice by 22%. Nursing is an unpopular career choice amongst school students. Strategies are required to improve the occupational image of nursing in secondary education. PMID:21852026

Neilson, Gavin R; Jones, Martyn C

2012-07-01

132

A Comparison of Elementary/K-8 and Middle Schools' Suspension Rates  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to examine the suspension percentages among three sixth-grade transition groups: (a) students who attended elementary or K-8 schools in sixth grade and K-8 schools in seventh grade, (b) students who attended elementary or K-8 schools in sixth grade and middle schools in seventh grade, and (c) students who attended middle…

Arcia, Emily

2007-01-01

133

Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

134

Examining elementary students' perceptions of engineers  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a national focus on improving K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. The integration of engineering education from kindergarten through high school (K-12) has been identified as key to sustaining the U.S. economy and standard of living. Misconceptions about the nature of engineering may deter children from even considering this profession. Currently, there are few research studies on young children's perceptions of engineers, and such research can be used to support children along STEM pathways. The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of engineers for children enrolled in a gifted and talented outreach program. Participants included students enrolled in two structural engineering classes: one for 3rd and 4th graders and another for 5th and 6th grade students. Participants represented an age group that is not typically exposed to engineering. This research was framed within a constructivist theoretical framework, and qualitative research methods were utilized to develop a rich understanding of the perspectives of students enrolled in the engineering classes. Data collection included student pre- and post-questionnaires, Draw-an-Engineer tasks, and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis entailed the use of open and axial coding. Trustworthiness of data was determined through triangulation of multiple data sources. Results demonstrated how children describe the work of engineers, objects associated with engineering, tools used or created by engineers, and professional characteristics of engineers. In addition, images of engineers were discussed and influences on students' perceptions of engineers were identified. The findings of this study have implications for the development of formal and informal K-12 curricula and programs that focus on improving students' understanding and engagement in engineering. Implications for researchers interested in studying children's perceptions were also discussed.

Oware, Euridice A.

135

INTAKE OF SOFT DRINKS, FRUIT-FLAVORED BEVERAGES, AND FRUITS AND VEGETABLES BY CHILDREN IN GRADES 4 THROUGH 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and consumption of other food groups is unknown. Beverage consumption of 504 4th to 6th grade children was obtained from up to 7 days of food records. Over 50% of total beverages consumed by 4th to 6th grade students were ...

136

The Effects of Modified Classwide Peer Tutoring Procedures on the Generalization of Spelling Skills of Urban Third-Grade Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

A single-subject reversal design with counterbalanced phases across two classrooms was used to measure the effects of peer tutoring on the retention and generalization of spelling words in two third-grade general education classrooms. The results revealed that the mean pretest-posttest gain scores during all the peer tutoring phases of the two…

Hashimoto, Kazunari; Utley, Cheryl A.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Pitchlyn, Carol L.

2007-01-01

137

Improving Student Attitudes in Three Elementary Schools Through a Life Leadership Program. Maxi 1 Practicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this practicum was to improve elementary student attitudes toward school, teachers, and administrators through implementation of a LIFE Leadership Program. The program was implemented in three Dallas Independent School District (DISD) elementary schools at the fourth-grade, fifth-grade, and sixth-grade levels. The same grade levels…

Beesley, Earl G.; And Others

138

Elementary supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is constructed from elementary quantum mechanics and some of its properties are discussed. Introducing supercoordinates one easily generates more general examples of N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. (orig.)

139

Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

Dundar, Hakan

2012-01-01

140

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas) entre cinco e oito anos de idade, [...] sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994) e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigatin [...] g the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls) with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994); lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school perf

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto, Tenório; Clara Regina Brandão de, Ávila.

2012-02-01

141

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas entre cinco e oito anos de idade, sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994 e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar.PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigating the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994; lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school performance and phonological processing were observed.

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto Tenório

2012-02-01

142

The 6th Milan Breast Cancer Conference, Milan, Italy, 16–18 June 2004  

OpenAIRE

The 6th Milan Breast Cancer Conference, held in Milan, Italy, over 16–18 June 2004, was attended by more than 1000 physicians from 60 countries. This report summarizes the highlights of the most interesting conference presentations on selected topics.

Gennari, Roberto; Cinieri, Saverio; Colleoni, Marco; Zurrida, Stefano; Goldhirsch, Aron; Veronesi, Umberto

2005-01-01

143

Proceedings 6th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi  

OpenAIRE

This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2012), a satellite workshop of the 23rd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR) held on 8th September 2012 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Ciobanu, Gabriel

2012-01-01

144

Human CCR4+ CCR6+ Th17 cells suppress autologous CD8+ T cell responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of Th17 cells in cancer patients remains unclear and controversial. In this study, we have analyzed the phenotype of in vitro primed Th17 cells and further characterized their function on the basis of CCR4 and CCR6 expression. We show a novel function for a subset of IL-17-secreting CD4(+) T cells, namely, CCR4(+)CCR6(+)Th17 cells. When cultured together, CCR4(+)CCR6(+)Th17 cells suppressed the lytic function, proliferation, and cytokine secretion of both Ag-specific and CD3/CD28/CD2-stimulated autologous CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, CCR4(-)CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells, which also secrete IL-17, did not affect the CD8(+) T cells. Suppression of CD8(+) T cells by CCR4(+)CCR6(+)Th17 cells was partially dependent on TGF-?, because neutralization of TGF-? in cocultures reversed their suppressor function. In addition, we also found an increase in the frequency of CCR4(+)CCR6(+), but not CCR4(-)CCR6(+) Th17 cells in peripheral blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Our study not only underlies the importance of analysis of subsets within Th17 cells to understand their function, but also suggests Th17 cells as yet another immune evasion mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma. This has important implications when studying the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, as well as designing effective immunotherapy protocols for patients with cancer. PMID:22615204

Zhao, Fei; Hoechst, Bastian; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Ormandy, Lars A; Voigtländer, Torsten; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Ylaya, Kris; Wang, Xin Wei; Hewitt, Stephen M; Manns, Michael P; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

2012-06-15

145

Cluster-Randomized Trial Demonstrating Impact on Academic Achievement of Elementary Social-Emotional Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25485463

Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

2014-12-01

146

Letramento escolar de estudantes de 1ª e 2ª séries do ensino fundamental de escola pública Formal literacy of first and second grade students of a public elementary school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar e comparar o desempenho em letramento escolar de indivíduos de 1ª e 2ª séries do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública antes e após Programas de Práticas Reflexivas de Linguagem (PPRL. MÉTODOS: Participaram desta pesquisa 97 escolares de 1ª série e 149 de 2ª série entre os anos de 2006 e 2008. Os indivíduos realizaram triagens do letramento escolar antes e após PPRL. Estes tiveram a duração média de quatro meses; foram realizados em situação coletiva e em parceria com os professores das classes selecionadas. Foram elaborados segundo os temas norteadores: promoção de práticas de letramento; conscientização sobre o uso da voz e dos níveis de ruído nas escolas; promoção de narrativas orais e escritas, envolvendo a metalinguagem e principalmente a consciência fonológica e promoção de práticas de leitura e compreensão de leitura. Ao término de cada programa, foram realizadas triagens finais, com a finalidade de analisar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares antes e após a realização dos programas. Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas no desempenho entre as séries tanto nas triagens iniciais, quanto nas finais nas provas de ditado, leitura de palavras e frases e cloze de frases. CONCLUSÃO: A 2ª série apresentou resultados melhores do que a 1ª série. Os resultados foram mais significativos nas provas que demandaram conhecimento mais aprofundado da relação fonema-grafema e vice-versa, sugerindo que o letramento escolar é necessário quando o letramento social não se faz presente.PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the school literacy performance of 1st and 2nd grades elementary school individuals of a public school, before and after Reflexive Practices in Language Programs (RPLP. METHODS: Ninety-seven students of the 1st grade and 149 of the 2nd grade, between the years 2006 and 2008, took part in this study. The subjects were submitted to school literacy screenings before and after the RPLP. The programs had an average duration of four months, and were carried out in a collective situation in classrooms, and in partnership with the teachers of the selected classes. They were prepared according to the guiding themes: promotion of literacy practices; awareness about use of voice and noise levels at school; promotion of oral and written narratives, involving meta-language and, mainly, phonological awareness and the promotion of reading practices and reading comprehension. At the end of each program, final screenings were carried out in order to analyze and compare students' performance before and after their implementation. Data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Significant performance differences were found between 1st and 2nd grades, in both initial and final screenings, in the subtests dictation, words and sentences reading and sentence cloze were found. CONCLUSION: Second grade had better results than first grade. The results were more significant in subtests that required deeper understanding of the phoneme-grapheme association and vice-versa, suggesting that school literacy is necessary when social literacy is not present.

Maria Silvia Cárnio

2011-03-01

147

Letramento escolar de estudantes de 1ª e 2ª séries do ensino fundamental de escola pública / Formal literacy of first and second grade students of a public elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar e comparar o desempenho em letramento escolar de indivíduos de 1ª e 2ª séries do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública antes e após Programas de Práticas Reflexivas de Linguagem (PPRL). MÉTODOS: Participaram desta pesquisa 97 escolares de 1ª série e 149 de 2ª série entre os a [...] nos de 2006 e 2008. Os indivíduos realizaram triagens do letramento escolar antes e após PPRL. Estes tiveram a duração média de quatro meses; foram realizados em situação coletiva e em parceria com os professores das classes selecionadas. Foram elaborados segundo os temas norteadores: promoção de práticas de letramento; conscientização sobre o uso da voz e dos níveis de ruído nas escolas; promoção de narrativas orais e escritas, envolvendo a metalinguagem e principalmente a consciência fonológica e promoção de práticas de leitura e compreensão de leitura. Ao término de cada programa, foram realizadas triagens finais, com a finalidade de analisar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares antes e após a realização dos programas. Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas no desempenho entre as séries tanto nas triagens iniciais, quanto nas finais nas provas de ditado, leitura de palavras e frases e cloze de frases. CONCLUSÃO: A 2ª série apresentou resultados melhores do que a 1ª série. Os resultados foram mais significativos nas provas que demandaram conhecimento mais aprofundado da relação fonema-grafema e vice-versa, sugerindo que o letramento escolar é necessário quando o letramento social não se faz presente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the school literacy performance of 1st and 2nd grades elementary school individuals of a public school, before and after Reflexive Practices in Language Programs (RPLP). METHODS: Ninety-seven students of the 1st grade and 149 of the 2nd grade, between the years 20 [...] 06 and 2008, took part in this study. The subjects were submitted to school literacy screenings before and after the RPLP. The programs had an average duration of four months, and were carried out in a collective situation in classrooms, and in partnership with the teachers of the selected classes. They were prepared according to the guiding themes: promotion of literacy practices; awareness about use of voice and noise levels at school; promotion of oral and written narratives, involving meta-language and, mainly, phonological awareness and the promotion of reading practices and reading comprehension. At the end of each program, final screenings were carried out in order to analyze and compare students' performance before and after their implementation. Data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Significant performance differences were found between 1st and 2nd grades, in both initial and final screenings, in the subtests dictation, words and sentences reading and sentence cloze were found. CONCLUSION: Second grade had better results than first grade. The results were more significant in subtests that required deeper understanding of the phoneme-grapheme association and vice-versa, suggesting that school literacy is necessary when social literacy is not present.

Maria Silvia, Cárnio; Marília Barbieri, Pereira; Débora Cristina, Alves; Rosangela Viana, Andrade.

2011-03-01

148

Consciência metalingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental Metalinguistic awareness and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a influência da consciência fonológica, lexical e sintática, sobre a aquisição da linguagem escrita. Esperava-se que as crianças com níveis mais elevados de consciência metalingüística apresentassem desempenho superior na aprendizagem da leitura e escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 65 alunos da 1ª série do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública de São Paulo. Os instrumentos utilizados para avaliar os níveis de consciência metalingüística foram aplicados no início do ano escolar. As provas utilizadas para avaliar os níveis de leitura e escrita foram aplicadas no início e final do ano letivo. A análise estatística mostrou correlações positivas significativas entre os níveis iniciais de consciência fonológica e sintática e o desempenho final das crianças em leitura e escrita. A consciência lexical mostrou-se correlacionada apenas com o resultado final em leitura. Tais resultados sugerem a importância de se favorecer o desenvolvimento da consciência metalingüística nas séries escolares iniciais.This research aimed to investigate the influence of phonological, lexical and syntactic awareness in written language acquisition. The main hypothesis underlying the research was that metalinguistic abilities could facilitate written language acquisition. Subjects were 65 first-grade students at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The materials used to measure levels of metalinguistic awareness were applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing assessment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistical analysis showed positive and significant correlation between initial levels of phonological and syntactic awareness and final performance in reading and writing evaluation. Lexical awareness was significantly correlated solely with final level of reading. These results suggest the importance of performing pedagogical activities in early school life in order to develop metalinguistic awareness.

Sylvia Domingos Barrera

2003-01-01

149

Atribuições Dadas à Matemática e Ansiedade ante a Matemática: o relato de alguns estudantes do ensino fundamental / Attributions Given to Mathematics, and the Math Anxiety: The Report of Some Elementary School Students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou identificar, em relato de alunos, atribuições dadas à Matemática, bem como graus de ansiedade ante a Matemática. No Estudo 1 foi aplicada a técnica brainstorming que consistiu em escrever, em uma folha de papel, tudo o que ocorre diante da palavra matemática. Participaram [...] 57 estudantes do Ensino Fundamental, 28 do 2º ano e 29 do 6º ano. Os alunos do 6º ano atribuíram mais características negativas à Matemática do que os do 2º ano. No Estudo 2, aplicou-se uma escala de ansiedade à Matemática a quatro crianças do 6º ano, aleatoriamente selecionadas do estudo 1. Observou-se que as situações que os alunos indicaram alta ou extrema ansiedade foram aquelas em que poderiam falhar e sofrer alguma punição. São discutidos o aumento das atribuições negativas com o passar dos anos e a necessidade de metodologias que previnam a aversão à Matemática. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify attributions to mathematics and degrees of anxiety related to mathematics. Study 1 applied the brainstorming technique, which consisted in writing, on a sheet of paper, everything that occurs before the word "Mathematics". Fifty seven elementary school students participa [...] ted, 28 of 2nd grade and 29 of 6th grade. Sixth grade students attributed more negative characteristics to mathematics than those of 2nd grade. Study 2 applied a math anxiety scale to four children in 6th grade, randomly selected from study 1. It was observed that situations in which students showed high or extreme anxiety were those in which they were exposed to conditions such as exams, schoolwork, and going to the blackboard. Data are discussed in terms of the increase in negative attributions over the years and the need for methodologies that prevent the aversion to mathematics.

Alessandra Campanini, Mendes; João dos Santos, Carmo.

1368-13-01

150

75 FR 28740 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education: Overview Information; Teacher Incentive Fund...  

Science.gov (United States)

...same grade configuration (i.e., if elementary schools are proposed there are at least two elementary schools among the minimum of eight schools all within the same LEA; if middle schools are proposed there are at...

2010-05-21

151

National History. Grade 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

This textbook is the last in the national history series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The three books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. The grade 4 text…

Pham-Van-Trong; Pham-Thi Ngoc-Dung

152

INVESTIGATION OF EIGHTH GRADE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS LISTENING TEXTS IN TERMS OF CERTAIN VARIABLES ?LKÖ?RET?M SEK?Z?NC? SINIF D?NLEME MET?NLER?N?N ÇE??TL? DE???KENLER AÇISINDAN ?NCELENMES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, in spite of the changing concept of education, the textbooks keep the major function as a lesson material. Compared to other lessons materials, the textbooks of Turkish lesson have a special importance about being the first written products in mother tongue education process. In this respect, developing of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, the texts that are being in textbooks must be good example of language.In this study, Eighth Grade Elementary School Teachers Book of Turkish Lesson’ listening materials were examined in terms of certain variables and the contribution of listening texts to the listening skill. Ders kitaplar?, günümüzde, de?i?en e?itim anlay???na ra?men hâlâ dersin temel materyali olma i?levini devam ettirmektedir. Di?er derslerle kar??la?t?r?ld???nda; Türkçe dersi için ayr? bir öneme sahip olan ders kitaplar?, ö?rencilerin ana dilini ö?renme sürecinde ilk kar??la?t?klar? yaz?l? dilsel ürünleri de içerisinde bar?nd?rmaktad?r. Bu aç?dan bak?ld???nda kitaplarda dinleme, konu?ma, okuma ve yazma becerilerinin geli?tirilmesi sürecinde ö?renciye iyi birer örnek olabilecek metinlerin yer almas? öngörülmektedir. Çal??mada ?lkö?retim Sekizinci S?n?f Türkçe Dersi Ö?retmen K?lavuz Kitab?’nda yer alan dinleme metinleri çe?itli de?i?kenler aç?s?ndan incelenmi?, temel dil becerilerinden biri olan dinleme becerisine katk?s? ortaya konulmu?tur.

Ay?e Eda GÜNDO?DU

2011-01-01

153

Constructivism in the elementary school curricula  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to examine whether the 5th grade elementary school curricula of Turkish, English, Mathematics, and Science and Technology courses were congruent with the principles and standards of the constructivist education. Qualitative research methods were used in this small-scale case study which was conducted in a private elementary school in Ankara. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analyses in the academic year of 2007-2008. The populati...

Sert, Nehir

2008-01-01

154

Elementary analysis  

CERN Document Server

Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is

Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A

2014-01-01

155

Factors Influencing Tooth Brushing Behaviour based on Health Belief Model among Bushehr Primary School 5th & 6th grade Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Oral health is one of the most important components of personal health. Understanding current status of oral health is necessary to provide future oral health interventions. The aim of this study was to determine factors influencing tooth brushing behavior based on the health belief model (HBM among 5- and 6-grader students.   Methods & Materials : : In this cross-sectional study, 370 primary school students were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaires based on the HBM. The obtained data were analyzed in the SPSS-20.   Results: The results showed that 95.7% of the students brushed their teeth once or more daily. Mean and standard deviation of the brushing frequency in one week was 8.66±3.54. There was a significant correlation between the perceived barriers (P=0.00, r=-0.14 and self-efficacy (P=0.04, r=0.10 with the brushing behavior.   Conclusion : According to the results, educating students and decreasing different barriers seems to be necessary to improve brushing behavior.  

Masoumeh Sadat Zare

2013-11-01

156

Factors Influencing Tooth Brushing Behaviour based on Health Belief Model among Bushehr Primary School 5th & 6th grade Students  

OpenAIRE

  Background & Aim: Oral health is one of the most important components of personal health. Understanding current status of oral health is necessary to provide future oral health interventions. The aim of this study was to determine factors influencing tooth brushing behavior based on the health belief model (HBM) among 5- and 6-grader students.   Methods & Materials : : In this cross-sectional study, 370 primary school students were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Da...

Masoumeh Sadat Zare; Azita Noroozi; Rahim Tahmasebi

2013-01-01

157

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

NONE

1997-10-01

158

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

159

IAEA International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties. 6th meeting of the Technical Steering Committee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the Consultant Meeting 6th Meeting of the Technical Steering Committee for the International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties' held on 16-17 September 2004 at Plas Tan-Y-Bwlch, Maentwrog, Gwynedd, UK. The purposes of the meeting were to review the matters and actions identified in the previous meeting, undertake a review of the current status of the database and to make recommendations for actions for the next year. The purposes of the meeting were fully met. This report contains the current status of the identified actions as well as a summary of the recommendations on enhancements to the database. (author)

160

An Alternative to the Traditional Grading System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this practicum was to change the grading policy in the San Juan Unified School District (California) through a two-state process. The first stage was to change the traditional ABCDF grading system to a three-scale grading system in one high school, one intermediate school, and six elementary schools serving the same attendance area.…

Galvez, Ferdinand V.

161

Irradiation experiments of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oarai Gas Loop-1, OGL-1, is an in-pile helium gas loop, installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), for irradiation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels at high pressure and temperature. The present report describes results of fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies. The 6th-8th assemblies used coated fuel particles produced by a small-scale fluidized bed. On the other hand, the 9th-12th assemblies used trial manufacturing fuels, produced with a large-scale fluidized bed for mass production of the fuel for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed. For the 9th assembly loaded with the first mass-product fuel, the fission gas release, R/B of 88Kr, was relatively high, 1.5x10-5, and various defects were observed in the ceramography of the irradiated coating layers. Afterwards, a decrease was achieved in the through-coating failure fractions at the fabrication. Correspondingly, the R/B of 88Kr for the 12th assembly was reduced to an excellent value of 2x10-6. Thus, the production technology and the irradiation performance of the HTTR design fuels were successfully demonstrated. (author)

162

Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

163

ELEMENTARY 8 TH GRADE STUDENT’S LEVEL OF ABILITY TO APPLY SPELLING RULES AND PUNCTUATION MARKS ?LKÖ?RET?M 8. SINIF Ö?RENC?LER?N?N NOKTALAMA ??ARETLER? ?LE YAZIM KURALLARINI UYGULAYAB?LME DÜZEY?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a written text, in order to clarify the narration and reinforce the comprehensibility for readers to understand it accurately and properly, it is required to pay attention while applying spelling rules and using punctuation marks appropriately in their proper places. Regardless of their levels, when students’ written texts are analyzed, it is found that erroneous sentences mostly focus on punctuation and spelling rules. Due to the fact that these errors cannot be corrected, problems related to insufficient use of mother tongue are encountered. Because of this reason, the aim of the present study is to determine students’ level of ability to apply spelling rules and punctuation marks at elementary schools’ 8 th grade, which is the last phase of obligatory education. In this study, two written texts which were chosen from Turkish Language course books of secondary education were used to collect data. In the ligth of the findings, the students’ achievement levels of ability to apply spelling rules and use punctuation Marks in an appropriate way were determined. Yaz?l? bir metinde anlat?m? belirginle?tirmek, yaz?n?n tam ve do?ru bir ?ekilde anla??lmas?n? kuvvetlendirmek için noktalama i?aretlerinin yerli yerinde kullan?lmas?na ve yaz?m kurallar?na uyulmas?na dikkat edilmesi gerekir. Hangi seviyede olursa olsun ö?rencilerin yaz?l? anlat?m metinleri incelendi?inde hatal? cümlelerin daha çok noktalama ve yaz?m kurallar? üzerine yo?unla?t??? görülmektedir. Bu hatalar?n giderilememesinden kaynaklanan ana dili kullanma yetersizli?i sorunuyla kar??la??lmaktad?r. Bu yüzden ara?t?rman?n amac? zorunlu e?itimin son a?amas? olan ilkö?retim 8. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin noktalama i?aretleri ile yaz?m kurallar?n? do?ru uygulayabilme düzeylerini tespit etmektir. Bu ara?t?rma betimsel nitelikte bir alan ara?t?rmas?d?r. Ara?t?rmada veri toplamak amac?yla ilkö?retim ikinci kademe Türkçe ders kitaplar?ndan se¬çilen iki metin kullan?lm??t?r. Elde edilen bulgular sonunda ö?rencilerin noktalama i?aretlerini do?ru kullanabilme ile yaz?m kurallar?n? do?ru uygulayabilme ba?ar?s? düzeyleri belirlenmi?tir.

Hasan BA?CI

2011-01-01

164

The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

2012-01-01

165

Equations and the Equal Sign in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks  

Science.gov (United States)

To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 - 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 - 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of…

Powell, Sarah R.

2012-01-01

166

Fully variational 6th order elastodynamic formulation for the treatment of blast or fast impulsive forces  

Science.gov (United States)

A new variational space-time formulation is used to treat elastodynamic problems with impulsive loads that propagate at fast velocities, as blasts or explosions. Based on the new formulation, a new family of fully variational time integration algorithms for elastodynamic problems is formulated. In the framework of this new family of algorithms, a conditionally stable time integration algorithm of the 6th order and the variational treatment of impulsive forces propagating at high speeds are developed. The time integration algorithm is based on Hermite's polynomials, with independent field of velocities, and discontinuous time derivative of the displacement field. Numerical examples are performed to test the computational efficiency of the new approach to treat fast dynamic impulsive forces.

Sanchez-Ricart, L.

2012-03-01

167

Intellectually gifted elementary students' perceptions of leadership.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the self-perceptions of leadership held by intellectually gifted elementary students in Grades 4 through 6 the Leadership Strengths Indicator was administered to 21 girls and 13 boys. Significant differences favoring the girls were found on two of the cluster scales (V, Sympathetic and VII, Conscientious) and the total score. PMID:7991331

Riley, T L; Karnes, F A

1994-08-01

168

Birch Lane Elementary School Media Services Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves all 629 students in kindergarten through grade 6 in one elementary school. The program population includes disadvantaged, bilingual, physically handicapped, and mentally retarded students as well as gifted students. The curriculum is organized in a "Man and his ..." format and…

Davis Joint Unified School District, CA.

169

Language Arts. A Teacher's Guide, Elementary.  

Science.gov (United States)

GRADES OR AGES: Elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Language arts. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are three main sections: 1) listening and speaking; 2) written language, with subsections on composition, handwriting, and spelling; and 3) reading, with a subsection on literature. There is also a brief glossary and a list of phonetic aids for…

Hansen, David M.; And Others

170

Improving Recreational Reading Habits of Elementary Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated the effectiveness of a program for improving the recreational reading habits of elementary students through the use of cross-age tutoring in critical reading strategies. The targeted population consisted of a kindergarten and a fourth-grade class in the growing upper-middle-class community of Geneva, Illinois, located…

Krug, Marline; Fordonski, Patricia

171

Examining Behavioral Risk and Academic Performance for Students Transitioning from Elementary to Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the transition from elementary to middle school for 74 fifth-grade students. Specifically, we examined how behavioral risk evident in the elementary years, as measured by the "Student Risk Screening Scale" (SRSS), impacts students transitioning from elementary to middle school. First, we examined how student risk status shifts…

Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Carter, Erik W.; Messenger, Mallory

2015-01-01

172

Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. A written report on the science objectives and design features of the Rover is required. The program includes specific learning objectives in research skills, language arts (reading scientific literature, preparing a verbal presentation and writing a report), mathematics, science and engineering.The model will be mostly a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost (estimated cost of less than 10-25) of mostly found objects and simple art supplies.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

2005-05-01

173

Middle Grades and High Schools Use Effective Strategies to Prepare Students for Challenging High School Studies. High Schools That Work  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle grades schools have their hands full in working with elementary schools and high schools to improve the likelihood of success for middle grades students--accelerating learning, helping elementary students move seamlessly into the middle grades, preparing middle grades students for rigorous high school courses, changing organization and…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

2011-01-01

174

1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

Hansen, E

2006-02-01

175

PREFACE: The 6th International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on multi-phase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing, and so on. Also, from the environmental viewpoint, multi-phase flows need to be investigated to overcome global warming. Multi-phase flows originally have non-linear features because they are multi-phased. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The non-linear interaction causes the multi-phase flows to be very difficult to understand phenomena. The International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multi-phase Flows (ISMTMF) is a unique symposium. The target of the symposium is to exchange the state-of-the-art knowledge on the measurement techniques for non-linear multi-phase flows. Measurement technique is the key technology to understanding non-linear phenomena. The ISMTMF began in 1995 in Nanjing, China. The symposium has continuously been held every two or three years. The ISMTMF-2008 was held in Okinawa, Japan as the 6th symposium of ISMTMF on 15-17 December 2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China and Japan have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for more than 1000 years. Please enjoy Okinawa and experience its history to enhance our international communication. The present symposium was attended by 124 participants, the program included 107 contributions with 5 plenary lectures, 2 keynote lectures, and 100 oral regular paper presentations. The topics include, besides the ordinary measurement techniques for multiphase flows, acoustic and electric sensors, bubbles and microbubbles, computed tomography, gas-liquid interface, laser-imaging and PIV, oil/coal/drop and spray, solid and powder, spectral and multi-physics. This volume includes the presented papers at ISMTMF-2008. In addition to this volume, ten selected papers will be published in a special issue of Measurement Science and Technology. We would like to express special thanks to all the participants and the contributors to the symposium, and also to the supporting organizations; The Japanese Society for Multiphase Flow, The Chinese Society for Measurement, National Natural Science Foundation of China, The Chinese Academy of Science, and University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. Koji Okamoto Chair of 6th ISMTMF and proceedings editor The University of Tokyo, Japan Yuichi Murai Proceedings co-editor Hokkaido University, Japan

Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi

2009-02-01

176

Fatness, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors among sixth grade youth  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine whether cardio metabolic risk factors are predicted by fitness or fatness among adolescents. Participants are 4955 (2614 female) 6th grade students with complete data from 42 US middle schools. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, high d...

177

Proceedings of the 6th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been recognized that neutron diffraction is an important means of research which can obtain the information on the positions of hydrogen atoms and water molecules which bear important roles in physiological functions, but due to the shortage of the diffractometers that give sufficient diffraction intensity, the utilization has not advanced. By the improvement of neutron flux due to the realization of the JRR-3M and the recent remarkable progress of biochemistry and biophysics, the structural analysis at atomic and molecular levels of the matters of living bodies and the elucidation of physiological functions have become to be carried out. The neutron diffractometer for the matters of living bodies aims at the top class in the world, and has been discussed by the experts in the world in five workshops. As the result, the neutron diffractometer was constructed, and the Gragg reflection from the single crystal of lysozyme protein was successfully observed for the first time in Japan. The 6th workshop was held on March 25, 1995 at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the lecture by Dr. B.P. Schoenborn was given, and the examples of the application of neutron imaging plates were reported. The important contents of the publications are summarized in this report. (K.I.)

178

Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

Lucke, Bernhard

2014-05-01

179

NFAP calculation of pressure response of 1/6th scale model containment structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The details associated with the NFAP calculation of the pressure response of the 1/6th scale model containment structure are discussed in this paper. Comparisons are presented of some of the primary items of interest with those determined from the experiment. It was found from this comparison that the hoop response of the containment wall was adequately predicted by the NFAP finite element calculation, including the response in the high pressure, high strain range at which cracking of the concrete and yielding of the hoop reinforcement occurred. In the vertical or meridional direction, it was found that the model was significantly softer than predicted by the finite element calculation; that is, the vertical strains in the test were three to four times larger than computed in the NFAP calculation. These differences were noted even at low strain levels at which the concrete would not be expected to be cracked under tensile loadings. Simplified calculations for the containment indicate that the vertical stiffness of the wall is similar to that which would be determined by assuming the concrete fully cracked. Thus, the experiment indicates an anomalous behavior in the vertical direction

180

Synopsis of the 6th Walker's Cay Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The 6th annual Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy Colloquium at Walker's Cay was held under the auspices of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute on March 10–13, 2004. The Colloquium consisted of a select group of 34 scientists representing academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The main goal of this gathering was to promote in a peaceful and comfortable environment exchanges between basic and clinical science. The secondary benefit was to inspire novel bench to bedside ventures and at the same time provide feed back about promising and/or disappointing clinical results that could help re-frame some scientific question or guide the design of future trials. Several topics were covered that included tumor antigen discovery and validation, platforms for vaccine development, tolerance, immune suppression and tumor escape mechanisms, adoptive T cell therapy and dendritic cell-based therapies, clinical trials and assessment of response. Here we report salient points raised by speakers or by the audience during animated discussion that followed each individual presentation.

Marincola Francesco M

2004-06-01

181

Relação entre Consciência Fonológica e os Níveis de Escrita de escolares da 1ª série do Ensino Fundamental de escola pública do Município de Porto Real - RJ Relation between phonological awareness and the writing levels concerning first grade students of the Elementary Education in a public school of Porto Real Municipal District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o nível de Consciência Fonológica com os níveis de escrita dos escolares de 1ª série do Ensino Fundamental da rede pública do Município de Porto Real. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 30 escolares de 1ª série, de ambos os sexos, idade entre sete e 11 anos, avaliados individualmente através da aplicação da prova de Consciência Fonológica (Capovilla&Capovilla e de um autoditado de cinco gravuras. RESULTADO: o grupo silábico-alfabético/ alfabético apresentou melhor desempenho em 6 provas do teste em relação ao grupo de nível pré-silábico/ silábico. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que há relação significante entre as habilidades de Consciência Fonológica e os Níveis de Escrita dos escolares de 1ª série do Ensino Fundamental da rede pública do Município de Porto Real.PURPOSE: to compare the level of phonological awareness with the writing levels concerning first grade students of the elementary education of a public school of Porto Real Municipal District. METHODS: thirty first grade students of both genders, between seven and eleven-year old, were assessed individually through a phonological awareness test (Capovilla and Capovilla and through a writing test consisting of five pictures. RESULTS: the syllabic-alphabetic/alphabetic group showed a better performance in six tasks of the test than the presyllabic/syllabic group. CONCLUSION: from the achieved results the outcome is that, there is a significant relation between the abilities of phonological awareness and the writing levels of first grade students of the elementary education in a public school of Porto Real Municipal District.

Bruna Ettore

2008-01-01

182

A multi-ary number communication system based on hyperchaotic system of 6th-order cellular neural network  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes the hyperchaotic system of 6th-order cellular neural network (CNN), realizes its synchronization based on state observer. In addition, a multi-ary number communication system based on this hyperchaotic system is given in this paper. This communication system has the features of large capacity of signals transmission and high security.

Xingyuan, Wang; Bing, Xu; Huaguang, Zhang

2010-01-01

183

Process Evaluation of "Learn Young, Learn Fair": A Stress Management Programme for 5th and 6th Graders  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the process evaluation of a stress management program called "Learn Young, Learn Fair" for 5th and 6th graders. Studies, reviews and meta-analyses of prevention programs report that a common limitation in studies is the restricted documentation of process factors that contribute to the success of interventions. Program…

Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Lamberts, Petra; Vugts, Odette; Kok, Gerjo; Fekkes, Minne; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

2007-01-01

184

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research on April 14, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research April 14, 2011 On the NIH CampusNatcher AuditoriumBethesda, MD The event is free and open to the public. Registration will be open soon on the meeting website. See http://painconsortium.nih.gov/index.html

185

Elementary Mathematics Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

2013-01-01

186

PREFACE: 6th Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS11)  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to a subset of papers related to the work presented at the 6th edition of the international Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS), held in Trieste, Italy, September 4-8 2011. Previous editions of the conference were held in Porquerolles (France), Lake Tahoe (USA), Rathen (Germany), Awaji (Japan), and Banff (Canada). This edition was organized and chaired by Stefano Lupi (Roma La Sapienza) and co-chaired by Andrea Perucchi (Elettra), with the support of the Italian Synchrotron Light Laboratory ELETTRA, which was honored to host the WIRMS workshop in its tenth anniversary. The 6th WIRMS edition addressed several different topics, ranging from biochemistry to strongly correlated materials, from geology to conservation science, and from forensics to the study of cometary dusts. Representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities. This edition was attended by 88 participants, including representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities, who enjoyed the stimulating scientific presentations, several detailed discussions, and the beautiful weather and scenery of the Trieste gulf. Participants came from 16 different nations and four continents, including many young scientists, six of which were supported by the organizers. There were 45 scientific talks divided in 11 sessions: Facilities, Microspectroscopy (I, II, III), Time-Resolved Spectroscopies, Extreme Conditions, Condensed Matter, Near-Field, Imaging, THz Techniques and High-Resolution Spectroscopy. 37 posters were also presented at two very lively evening poster sessions. We would like to use the opportunity of writing this preface to thank all the participants of the workshop for the very high level of their scientific contribution and for the very friendly atmosphere, which were the most important keys to the success of the workshop. We also wish to thank all the companies (Bruker, Tydex, Spiricon, Allectra, Neaspec, Micos) and institutions (Sincrotrone Trieste, Sapienza University of Rome, EMS, INFN, CNR-IOM) sponsoring this event. We are indebted to the members of the International Advisory Committee for their valuable help in the difficult choosing of the invited speakers, and for more general advice on the conference organization and structuring. A special acknowledgment goes to the ELETTRA secretary staff, and in particular to Mariella Antonetti, who has been involved with the organization from the very beginning. The 7th WIRMS conference will be held in Melbourne (Australia). Our best wishes go to the organizers for a successful conference. Additional information on the conference can still be found on the conference website: http://www.elettra.trieste.it/events/2011/WIRMS/ A selection of the conference pictures is also available on Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sincrotronets/sets/72157627705743677/ Guest Editors Stefano Lupi and Andrea Perucchi Conference photograph The PDF also contains details of the Local Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee and a list of Sponsors.

Lupi, Stefano; Perucchi, Andrea

2012-05-01

187

Entre continuidades e rupturas: uma investigação sobre o ensino e aprendizagem da História na transição do quinto para o sexto ano do Ensino Fundamental / Between continuities and ruptures: an investigation on teaching and learning History in the transition from the fifth to the sixth grade in Elementary School  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas análises a partir das investigações realizadas por uma pesquisa em uma escola do Ensino Fundamental tendo como fundamentação teórica o campo da Educação Histórica. Buscamos perceber, a partir de observações da aula de História, como os alunos e o profe [...] ssor exteriorizam os principais desafios e dificuldades da transição da quarta série (5º ano) para a quinta série (6º ano). Neste trabalho, dialogamos com pesquisadores como Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). Com isso, pudemos abordar questões que revelam qual a relação do professor com a teoria da história a partir de sua prática em sala de aula. Foram observadas também as abordagens e relações dos sujeitos alunos e professor com o conhecimento histórico, bem como as estratégias didáticas com relação ao uso do livro didático. Abstract in english This article aims to present some analysis from the experience offered by a field research conducted in an Elementary School from the precepts of History Education. It is intended to discuss issues related to the school's fifth grade (6 years) from a public school, for example, the teaching strategi [...] es and the relationship of students with the knowledge of history. We search from observations of History lessons, as students and teacher externalize the main challenges and difficulties of the transition from fourth grade (5 years) for the fifth grade (6 years), based on these observations and the talking with researchers of Education and the Teaching of History Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). With this we lift questions that reveal what relation has the fifth-grade teacher with the initial years. We also observed the relationship of subjects and approaches among themselves and with the historical knowledge and the teaching strategies with respect to textbooks.

Marlene Rosa, Cainelli.

2011-12-01

188

6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010: November 29-December 1, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC. As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration FDA. The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in Fc?RII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements of antibody druggability (Abbott, Bayer, Pierre Fabre, Merrimack, Pfizer), enhancing IgG pharmacokinetics (Abbott, Chugai), progress in manufacturing (Genmab, Icosagen Cell Factory, Lonza, Pierre Fabre) and the development of biosimilar antibodies (Biocon, Sandoz, Triskel) were also discussed. Last but not least, identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against new therapeutic targets (Genentech, Genmab, Imclone/Lilly, Vaccinex) including Notch, cMet, TGFbRII, SEMA4D, novel development in immunotherapy and prophylaxis against influenza (Crucell), anti-tumor activity of immunostimulatory antibodies (MedImmune/Astra Zeneca) and translations to clinical studies including immunogenicity issues (Amgen, Novartis, University of Debrecen) were presented. PMID:21441785

Beck, Alain; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M

2011-01-01

189

The Effect of Demonstrator Gender on Wind Instrument Preferences of Kindergarten, Third-Grade, and Fifth-Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined possible influences of demonstrator gender on children's instrument choices. Participants (N = 104) included boys (n = 53) and girls ( n = 51) in fifth grade (n = 27), third grade (n = 41), and kindergarten (n = 36) in six intact music classes from a single elementary school. Pretest and posttest consisted of circling (Grades 3…

Killian, Janice N.; Satrom, Shauna L.

2011-01-01

190

Analysis of the SANDIA 1/6th scale concrete containment model using the CASTEM finite element system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the CASTEM Finite Element System is was possible to perform pretest analyses of the SANDIA 1/6th scale concrete containment model, up to the ultimate load of the structure. The various failure modes have been described. The effect of the soil compliance was investigated: it influences significantly the crack development in the basemat, but the limit load of the structure is not affected. (orig.)

191

An asynchronous communication system based on the hyperchaotic system of 6th-order cellular neural network  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a novel asynchronous communication scheme. Based on this scheme, a model using the hyperchaotic system of 6th-order Cellular Neural Network (CNN) is designed. This scheme enhances the security of asynchronous communication compared to the conventional ones. It is noteworthy that the proposed communication scheme does not depend on synchronization, and almost all chaotic systems can be involved in this scheme. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of this scheme.

Wang, Xingyuan; Xu, Bing; Luo, Chao

2012-11-01

192

Report on Inspection of Mangrove Forest Adjacent to Sierra Rutile Operational Areas 5th - 6th December 2007  

OpenAIRE

Executive Summary The “Ocean Bliss” explored part of the Shabro River Estuary from the 6th to the 8th February 2009 with the intention of talking to local residents about the mangrove forest, and their livelihoods. We attempted to navigate an inland to ocean transect and a farmer to fisherman livelihoods transect with varied success. Responses and issues raised were remarkably consistent. We suggest that the following issues be followed up: 1) Use of solar distillation technology....

Wadsworth, Richard A.; Sundufu, Abu; Jalloh, Abdul

2009-01-01

193

EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development  

OpenAIRE

While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006) and FP7 (2007-2013), has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, as...

Holtel, Andreas; Troye-blomberg, Marita; Penas-jimenez, Inmaculada

2011-01-01

194

Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

White, Jacquelyn M.

2011-01-01

195

Elementary particle theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

196

The effects of the science writing heuristic (SWH) approach versus traditional instruction on yearly critical thinking gain scores in grade 5-8 classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are discussed in detail.

Tseng, Ching-mei

197

PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see composition below) and additional reviewers we wish to thank here for their kind help. Among the 194 abstracts initially received, 121 communications have been accepted for presentation, 109 of which having been actually presented (oral or poster form) at the conference, as well as 4 invited plenary lectures. The presentations for each session topic, and the geographic distribution of the delegates, are given in tables below. It is our hope that ICIPE 2008 has contributed to maintaining existing interactions and fostering new ones. We take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their valuable contributions and the excellent atmosphere of the meeting. The next ICIPE conference is planned to take place in the USA in May 2010. It will be organized by Alain J Kassab of the University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, and will take place on the UCF campus. Further details regarding ICIPE 2010 conference will be made available on the ICIPE 2008 website during the fall of 2008, and will also be disseminated directly to individuals having attended previous ICIPE meetings. The editorial committee of ICIPE 2008, Marc Bonnet - Guest Editor Stéphane André - Associate guest editor Andrei Constantinescu - Associate guest editor Abdellatif El Badia - Associate guest editor Yvon Jarny - Associate guest editor Denis Maillet - Associate guest editor Scientific Committee: ICIPE 2008 ChairmanM. Bonnet (Ecole Polytech., France) SecretariesS. André (Nancy-U., France) A. Constantinescu (Ecole Polytech., France) Honorary membersO. M. Alifanov (Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia) J. V. Beck (Mich. State U., USA) Members G. Alessandrini (U. Trieste, Italy)R. Kress (U. Goettingen, Germany) J. S. Alves (Inst. Sup. Tecnico, Portugal) S. Kubo (Osaka U., Japan) S. Andrieux (EDF, France) K. J. Langenberg (U. Kassel, Germany) S. Arridge (U. College, London, UK) C. Leniliot (U. Provence, France) M. Azaiez (U. Bordeaux, France) D. Lesnic (U. Leeds, UK) J.-C. Batsale (U. Bordeaux, France) W. Lionheart (U. Manchester, UK) M. Bertero (U. Genova, Italy) D. Maillet (Nancy-U., France) J. Blum (U.

Bonnet, Marc

2008-07-01

198

6th International Special Session on Current Trends in Numerical Simulation for Parallel Engineering Environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In today's world, the use of parallel programming and architectures is essential for simulating practical problems in engineering and related disciplines. Remarkable progress in CPU architecture (multi- and many-core, SMT, transactional memory, virtualization support, etc.), system scalability, and interconnect technology continues to provide new opportunities, as well as new challenges for both system architects and software developers. These trends are paralleled by progress in parallel algorithms, simulation techniques, and software integration from multiple disciplines. In its 6th year ParSim continues to build a bridge between computer science and the application disciplines and to help with fostering cooperations between the different fields. In contrast to traditional conferences, emphasis is put on the presentation of up-to-date results with a shorter turn-around time. This offers the unique opportunity to present new aspects in this dynamic field and discuss them with a wide, interdisciplinary audience. The EuroPVM/MPI conference series, as one of the prime events in parallel computation, serves as an ideal surrounding for ParSim. This combination enables the participants to present and discuss their work within the scope of both the session and the host conference. This year, ten papers with authors in ten countries were submitted to ParSim, and after a quick turn-around, yet thorough review process we decided to accept three of them for publication and presentation during the ParSim session. These three papers show the use of simulation in a range of different application fields including earthquake and turbulence simulation. At the same time, they also address computer science aspects and discuss different parallelization strategies, programming models and environments, as well as scalability. We are confident that this provides an attractive program and that ParSim will yet again be an informal setting for lively discussions and for fostering new collaborations. Several people contributed to this event. Thanks go to Jack Dongarra, the EuroPVM/MPI general chair, and to Thomas Herault and Franck Cappello, the PC chairs, for their support to continue the ParSim series at EuroPVM/MPI 2007. We would also like to thank the numerous reviewers, who provided us with their reviews in such a short amount of time (in most cases in just a few days) and thereby helped us to maintain the tight schedule. Last, but certainly not least, we would like to thank all those who took the time to submit papers and hence made this event possible in the first place. We are confident that this session will fulfill its purpose to provide new insights from both the engineering and the computer science side and encourages interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and cooperations. We hope that this will continue ParSim's tradition at EuroPVM/MPI.

Schulz, M; Trinitis, C

2007-07-09

199

Standards of specialized diabetes care. Edited by Dedov II, Shestakova MV (6th edition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dear Colleagues!We are glad to present the 6th Edition of Standards of Diabetes Care. These evidence-based guidelines were designed to standardize and facilitate diabetes care in all regions of the Russian Federation. The Standards are updated on the regular basis to incorporate new data and relevant recommendations from national and international clinical societies, including World Health Organization Guidelines (WHO, 2011, International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 2011, American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2013, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE, 2009, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD, 2009 and Russian Association of Endocrinologists (RAE, 2011, 2012. Current edition of the “Standards” also integrates results of completed randomized clinical trials (ADVANCE, ACCORD, VADT, UKPDS, etc., as well as findings from the national studies of diabetes mellitus (DM, conducted in close partnership with a number of Russian hospitals.Latest data indicates that prevalence of DM increased during the last decade more than two-fold, reaching some 371 million patients by 2013. According to the current estimation by the International Diabetes Federation, every tenth inhabitant of the planet will be suffering from DM by 2030. These observations resulted in the UN Resolution 61/225 passed on 20.12.2006 that encouraged all Member States “to develop national policies for the prevention, treatment and care of diabetes”.Like many other countries, Russian Federation experiences a sharp rise in the prevalence of DM. According to Russian State Diabetes Register, there are at least 3.799 million patients with DM in this country. However, the epidemiological survey conducted by the Federal Endocrinology Research Centre during 2002-2010 suggests that actual prevalence is 3 to 4 times greater than the officially recognized and, by this estimate, amounts to 9-10 million persons, comprising 7% of the national population. Severe consequences of the global pandemics of DM include its vascular complications: nephropathy, retinopathy, coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular disease. These conditions are responsible for the majority of cases of diabetes-related disability and death. Current edition of the “Standards” emphasizes the patient-oriented approach in making decisions on therapeutic goals, such as levels of glycaemia and blood pressure. It also features updated guidelines on the management of vascular complications and new RAE position statement on gestational diabetes, produced in collaboration with Russian Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology. This text represents a consensus by the absolute majority of national experts, achieved through a number of fruitful discussions held at national meetings and forums. These guidelines are intended for endocrinologists and diabetologists, primary care physicians, cardiologists and other medical professionals involved in prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

2013-06-01

200

A Comparison between Elementary School Students' Mental Models and Visualizations in Textbooks for the Concept of Atom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed for two major goals, which are to describe students' mental models about atom concept from 6th to 8th grade and to compare students' mental models with visual representations of atom in textbooks. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected with 4 open-ended questions including drawings which were quantified using the…

Polat-Yaseen, Zeynep

2012-01-01

201

Departmentalize Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

In elementary schools today, most students receive their education in a single classroom from one teacher who is responsible for teaching language arts, social studies, math, and science. The self-contained classroom organization is predicated on the assumption that an elementary school teacher is a Jack (or Jill)-of-all-trades who is equally…

Chan, Tak Cheung; Jarman, Delbert

2004-01-01

202

Inverses and Elementary Matrices  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to explore the properties of inverse matrices. Our principal tool for this exploration is the expression of elementary row operations as left multiplications by elementary matrices. This is part of a larger collection of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David

203

Análise comparativa do desempenho textual de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental com e sem queixa de dificuldades na linguagem escrita Comparative analysis of textual performance in student of fourth and fifth grade of elementary school with and without complaint of disabilities in writing language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho na produção textual e a compreensão leitora de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental, com e sem queixa de dificuldades de linguagem escrita, relacionando-as às práticas de letramento experenciadas por esses estudantes. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 21 pré-adolescentes, de quarta e quinta série de duas escolas públicas, com queixa de dificuldade de linguagem escrita e 21 controles da mesma sala de aula, quanto à produção textual, compreensão textual e práticas de letramento. As produções textuais foram avaliadas segundo o protocolo de níveis textuais. RESULTADOS: não há diferença estatística entre os grupos de estudo e controle, em ambas as séries, na habilidade de compreensão textual. Em relação à produção textual, na quarta série os itens que apresentaram diferença estatística foram: situacionalidade, aceitabilidade, repetição, progressão e intencionalidade. Já na quinta série, os itens alterados foram a aceitabilidade e a progressão. Todos os sujeitos apresentaram práticas de letramento insuficientes. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferença estatística entre o grupo controle e de estudo em algumas categorias textuais, sobretudo, aceitabilidade e progressão. De um modo geral, ambos os grupos apresentaram desempenhos textuais abaixo do esperado para sua escolaridade, fato que parece estar relacionado a práticas de letramento insuficientes, tanto na escola como no ambiente familiar.PURPOSE: compare the textual performance of production and the reading comprehension of students in fourth and fifth grade of elementary school, with and without complaints of desabilities in the writing language, relating them with the practices of literacy experienced by these students. METHODS: 21 were assessed pre-adolescents in 4th and 5th grade of public schools,with complaint of desability in writing language and 21 controls in the same classroom, on the textual production, textual comprehension and practices of literacy. The textual productions were evaluated following the protocol of textual levels. RESULTS: there isn't statistical difference between the study groups and control in both grades in the ability textual understanding. Regarding the textual production in the 4th grade the items that showed changes were: situational, acceptability, repetition, progression, and intentionality. Already in the 5th grade, the items changed to acceptability and progress. All subjects had insufficient practice of literacy. CONCLUSION: there was a statistical difference between the control group and the study in some textual categories, particularly acceptability and progress. In general, both groups were lower than expected textual performance for your schooling, a fact that seems to be related to inadequate practices of literacy as much in the school as the family environment.

Vanessa Deuschle-Araújo

2010-08-01

204

Graded identities of matrix algebras and the universal graded algebra  

CERN Document Server

We consider fine G-gradings on M_n(C) (i.e. gradings of the matrix algebra over the complex numbers where each component is 1 dimensional). Groups which provide such a grading are known to be solvable. We consider the T-ideal of G-graded identities and show that it is generated by a special type of binomial identities which we call elementary. In particular we show that the ideal of graded identities is finitely generated as a T-ideal. Next, given such grading we construct a universal algebra U_{G,c} in two different ways: one by means of polynomial identities and the other one by means of a generic two-cocycle (this parallels the classical constructions in the non-graded case). We show that a suitable central localization of U_{G,c} is Azumaya over its center and moreover, its homomorphic images are precisely the G-graded forms of M_n(C). Finally, we consider the ring of central quotients Q(U_{G,c}) (this is an F-central simple algebra where F=Frac(Z) and Z is the center of of U_{G,c}). Using an earlier resu...

Aljadeff, Eli; Natapov, Michael

2007-01-01

205

Bringing Science Public Outreach to Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Many science "museums” already offer fantastic programs for the general public, and even some aimed at elementary school kids. However, these venues are usually located in large cities and are only occasionally used as tools for enriching science education in public schools. Here we present preliminary work to establish exciting educational enrichment environments for public schools that do not easily have access to such facilities. This program is aimed at motivating children's interest in science beyond what they learn in the classroom setting. In this program, we use the experience and experiments/demonstrations developed at a large science museum (in this case, The St. Louis Science Center) and take them into a local elementary school. At the same time, students from the University of Missouri are getting trained on how to present these outreach materials and work with the local elementary schools. Our pilot study has started with implementation of presentations/demonstrations at Benton Elementary School within the Columbia Public School district, Missouri. The school has recently adopted a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) centered learning system throughout all grade levels (K-5), and is therefore receptive to this effort. We have implemented a program in which we have given a series of scientific demonstrations at each grade level's lunch hour. Further enrichment ideas and plans include: addition demonstrations, hands-on experiments, and question and answer sessions. However, the application of these events would be to compliment the curriculum for the appropriate grade level at that time. The focus of this project is to develop public communications which links science museums, college students and local public schools with an emphasis on encouraging college science majors to share their knowledge and to strengthen their ability to work in a public environment.

Miller, Lucas; Speck, A.; Tinnin, A.

2012-01-01

206

Modeling the States of Matter in a First-Grade Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific modeling along with hands-on inquiry can lead to a deeper understanding of scientific concepts among students in upper elementary grades. Even though scientific modeling involves abstract-thinking processes, can students in younger elementary grades successfully participate in scientific modeling? Scientific modeling, like all other…

Lott, Kimberly; Wallin, Lynn

2012-01-01

207

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

208

Mapping the membrane topography of the TH6-TH7 segment of the diphtheria toxin T-domain channel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low pH triggers the translocation domain of diphtheria toxin (T-domain), which contains 10 ? helices, to insert into a planar lipid bilayer membrane, form a transmembrane channel, and translocate the attached catalytic domain across the membrane. Three T-domain helices, corresponding to TH5, TH8, and TH9 in the aqueous crystal structure, form transmembrane segments in the open-channel state; the amino-terminal region, TH1-TH4, translocates across the membrane to the trans side. Residues near either end of the TH6-TH7 segment are not translocated, remaining on the cis side of the membrane; because the intervening 25-residue sequence is too short to form a transmembrane ?-helical hairpin, it was concluded that the TH6-TH7 segment resides at the cis interface. Now we have examined this segment further, using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method. We constructed a series of 18 mutant T-domains with single cysteine residues at positions in TH6-TH7, monitored their channel formation in planar lipid bilayers, and probed for an effect of thiol-specific reagents on the channel conductance. For 10 of the mutants, the reagent caused a change in the single-channel conductance, indicating that the introduced cysteine residue was exposed within the channel lumen. For several of these mutants, we verified that the reactions occurred primarily in the open state, rather than in the flicker-closed state. We also established that blocking of the channel by an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag could protect mutants from reaction. Finally, we compared the reaction rates of reagent added to the cis and trans sides to quantify the residue's accessibility from either side. This analysis revealed abrupt changes in cis- versus trans-side accessibility, suggesting that the TH6-TH7 segment forms a constriction that occupies a small portion of the total channel length. We also determined that this constriction is located near the middle of the TH8 helix. PMID:25582482

Kienker, Paul K; Wu, Zhengyan; Finkelstein, Alan

2015-02-01

209

USE OF DIALECTAL SPEECHES IN 6TH, 7TH, 8TH AND 9TH CLASS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL  

OpenAIRE

The diploma thesis titled The use of dialectal speeches in the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th classes of primary school is composed of a theoretical and empirical part. The first part of the thesis deals with social genres and its subgenres in the Slovenian language and the local speech of the Šentrupert region. It focuses on the way pupils' every day speech is related to the literary language and it discusses the present theme in current syllabi (from years 1998 to 2011). One of the aims of the ...

Kos, Vesna

2012-01-01

210

Instructor-led or Learner-led for Elementary Learners to Learn Computer-based Music Composition?  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of instructional strategy (instructor-led vs. learner-led) and grade level (third grade vs. fifth grade) on elementary learners’ music composition performance and attitude with the use of a computer-based music composition software. An experimental learning activity was implemented using 5E learning cycle as a pedagogical framework to facilitate learning. A quasi-experimental design was employed with elementary learners participate...

Ju-Shih Tseng; Ming-Puu Chen

2010-01-01

211

The Predictors of Internet Addiction Behaviours for Taiwanese Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there has been considerable research which has explored factors related to internet addiction, few studies have investigated elementary school students' involvement in this behaviour pattern. Participants in the present study were 1045 children in grades 3 to 6 from elementary schools in Taiwan. Students completed surveys on their…

Lan, Chu M.; Lee, Yu H.

2013-01-01

212

Social Activism in Elementary Science Education: A Science, Technology, and Society Approach to Teach Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students' science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school…

Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie

2006-01-01

213

Influential Factors on Students' Vocational Aspiration in Turkish Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the fifth grade elementary school students' vocational aspiration and the factors affecting it. The sample consisted of 115 students in 20 elementary public schools with whom face-to- face interviews were conducted. The findings showed that engineering, medical doctor, and school teachers were the most frequently mentioned…

Kentli, Fulya Damla

2014-01-01

214

A New Elementary Mathematics Curriculum: Practice, Learning and Assessment - Some Classroom Episodes  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to present the new and innovative mathematics curriculum for elementary levels that is being implemented in the Portuguese basic education system (students from 1st to 9th grade) through an overview of an ongoing study of implementation/experimentation of this curriculum. A speci?c mechanism was implemented in the ?eld to provide scienti?c and pedagogical support to the development of the new elementary mathematics curriculum (NPMEB) implementation at all grade ...

Vale, Isabel; Fernandes, Domingos; Borralho, Anto?nio

2012-01-01

215

Construção de conceitos de eletricidade nos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental com uso de experimentação virtual / Construction of concepts of electricity in the early grades of elementary school with the use of virtual experiments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, desenvolvemos e aplicamos uma metodologia de ensino para crianças do quarto ano do Ensino Fundamental, com o objetivo de viabilizar o início da construção de alguns conceitos de eletricidade a partir do uso de um experimento virtual. A análise do desenvolvimento das concepções dos es [...] tudantes, durante as atividades realizadas, mostrou que a experimentação virtual propiciou o desenvolvimento de algumas capacidades cognitivas e exibiu indícios de formação dos conceitos em nível formal. Abstract in english In this paper, we report the development and application of a methodology for teaching electricity concepts to children attending the fourth year of elementary school, with the aim of starting the construction of some concepts related to this topic by using a virtual experiment. The analysis of the [...] evolution of the student's concepts while they were performing the programed tasks showed that the virtual experimentation led to the development of some cognitive skills and provided evidences of concept formation in the formal level.

Sorandra Corrêa de, Lima; Eduardo Kojy, Takahashi.

2013-09-01

216

Olympiads for Elementary Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals and history of the Mathematical Olympiads for Elementary Schools are described. Teams, levels, and gender are discussed, as well as teacher training, administration, scoring, and awards. Sample problems are included. (MNS)

Lenchner, George

1985-01-01

217

An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson  

Science.gov (United States)

Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

2013-01-01

218

The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

219

Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

2009-01-01

220

Swiss Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Forest Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates benefits and challenges of forest education in view of 257 Swiss elementary school teachers (1st-3rd grade), by means of a written questionnaire and 15 in-depth interviews. Two thirds of the teachers carried out forest education during normal lesson hours (mean visits = eight per year). Forests were clearly considered as…

Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Knecht, Sarah

2011-01-01

221

Changes in Student Science Interest from Elementary to Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is a transcendental phenomenological study that described the experience of students' interest in science from elementary school through middle school grades and the identification of the factors that increase or decrease interest in science. Numerous researchers have found that interest in science changes among children and the…

Coutts, Trudi E.

2012-01-01

222

Fairfax County's Elementary Art Program: Excellence on a Large Scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

An elementary school art teacher with 25 years' experience with the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools praises her district's nationally recognized program. She attributes success to several factors: a written curriculum for grades K-6, a strategies document for implementing the curriculum, a strong staff development component, collaboration…

Erickson, Ann R.

1998-01-01

223

DEPARTMENTALIZATION OF READING IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.  

Science.gov (United States)

DEPARTMENTALIZATION IS A FORM OF GROUPING FOR INSTRUCTION, AN ADMINISTRATIVE METHOD FOR ASSIGNING PUPILS TO TEACHERS IN SOME PLANNED MANNER. SOME PRECEDENTS FOR THE RECENT REVIVAL OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES ARE CITED. THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION ORGANIZATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--A PROGRAM INVOLVING…

STOWE, ELAINE H.

224

Elementary Teachers' Perspectives of Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed…

Bruun, Faye

2013-01-01

225

Conceptual change among middle school students studying elementary thermodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies the conceptual changes and factors affecting eighth- grade physical science students (n=180) investigating elementary thermodynamics. Classifies three types of students regarding their learning methods: converging, progressing, and oscillating. Reports that original intuitive conceptions are difficult to change and that students engaged in activities requiring sustained reflection make greater cognitive gains.

Lewis, Eileen

2006-05-31

226

Antropometria de escolares ao ingresso no ensino fundamental na cidade de Belém, Pará, 2001 School aged anthropometry when enrolling in the first grade of elementary school in the city of Belém, Pará, 2001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar a antropometria em escolares da primeira série da rede pública estadual em Belém, Pará, como instrumento de vigilância nutricional e estudar as associações entre o estado nutricional e características biológicas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados nutricionalmente 793 escolares, pelos escores z de estatura/idade e peso/estatura, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. As variáveis biológicas e socioeconômicas foram: sexo, idade, naturalidade, idade de ingresso da criança na escola e escolaridade materna. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado ao relacionar o estado nutricional com as variáveis. RESULTADOS: em 637 escolares observamos 16,6% de baixa estatura e risco de baixa estatura, 4,5% de desnutrição e risco de desnutrição, 7,4% de sobrepeso e obesidade. Não houve associação significante entre estado nutricional e sexo. A maioria das crianças nasceu na capital, ingressou tardiamente na escola e tinham mães com escolaridade >4 anos. Observou-se correlação significante entre obesidade e baixa estatura com menor escolaridade materna; risco de desnutrição e baixa estatura com o ingresso escolar tardio; e obesidade e estatura normal com o ingresso regular. CONCLUSÕES: a menor escolaridade materna e o ingresso tardio escolar estão associados à presença de desvios nutricionais. A vigilância nutricional escolar é importante para avaliar, tratar e prevenir os riscos para saúde e nutrição infantil.OBJECTIVES: to perform anthropometric measurements in elementary school students of the public school system of the State of Belém, Pará, as a tool for nutritional surveillance and to study associations between nutritional status and biological, social and economic characteristics. METHODS: 793 students were assessed for their nutritional status, by z scores of height/age and weight /height according to the World Health Organization criteria. Biological, social and economic variables were: gender, age, place of birth, age of school enrolment and maternal education level. The chi square test was used to relate nutritional status to variables. RESULTS: of the 637 students assessed, 16.6% were of low stature or in risk of low stature, 4.5% malnourished or in risk of malnourishment, 7.4% were overweight or obese. There was no significant association between nutritional status and gender. The majority of the children was born in the capital, was enrolled late in school and had mothers with education level of >4 years. There was a significant correlation between obesity and low stature with low maternal education level; malnutrition risk and low stature with late school enrolment; and obesity and normal stature with regular enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: low maternal school level and late school enrollment are associated to nutritional problems. School nutritional surveillance is important to assess, treat and prevent children's health and nutrition risks.

Olga Maria Domingues das Neves

2006-03-01

227

Fluência e compreensão da leitura em escolares do 3º ao 5º ano do ensino fundamental / Fluency and reading comprehension in students from 3rd to 5th of elementary school grades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar e relacionar a fluência na leitura e a compreensão do texto lido. Participaram da pesquisa 97 escolares do 3º ao 5º ano da rede pública de ensino do município de Marília, São Paulo. Como procedimentos, foram avaliados o tempo de leitura, a prosódia e a comp [...] reensão leitora. Foi gravada a leitura oral de um texto e aplicado um teste com questões de múltipla escolha para avaliar a compreensão. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente e revelaram que o desempenho em fluência de leitura dos escolares influencia aspectos das dificuldades apresentadas durante o processo. Abstract in english The study aims to characterize and report on performance in reading fluency and comprehension. The study sample included 97 students from 3 rd to 5 th grade at a state school in the city of Marília in São Paulo State of Brazil. The procedures involved an evaluation of reading time, prosody and text [...] comprehension. The oral reading of a text was recorded, and a multiple choice test was applied to evaluate performance in comprehension. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that performance in students' reading fluency was able to highlight aspects of the difficulties that arise during the processing of reading.

Maíra Anelli, Martins; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

2014-12-01

228

The b value before the 6th August, 1988 India-Myanmar Border Region Earthquake—a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Smith (1981, 1986) and Wyss et al. (1990) have observed that intermediate-term quiescence is often associated with an increasing b value. This study pertains to the temporal behaviour of the b value before the earthquake of 6th August, 1988, which occurred in the India-Myanmar border region. The b value in the preparation zone of the earthquake (21°-25.5°N, 93°-96°E), as identified by Gupta and Singh (1986, 1989), is found to have increased gradually from 1976 to a maximum value of 1.33 during July, 1987, followed by a short-term drop before the occurrence of the earthquake. The quiescence period observed by Gupta and Singh (1986, 1989) for this earthquake is better reflected by the intermediate-term increase in the b-value. A drop in the mean magnitude since 1978 is supported by a CUSUM plot.

Sahu, O. P.; Saikia, M. M.

1994-07-01

229

Finite-Difference Approach for a 6th-Order Nonlinear Phase Equation with Self-Excitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A range of physical systems, particularly of chemical nature involving reactions, perform self-excited oscillations coupled by diffusion. The role of diffusion is not trivial so that initial differences in the phase of the oscillations between different points in space do not necessarily disappear as time goes; they may self-sustain. The dynamics of the phase depend on the values of the controlling parameters of the system. We consider a 6th-order nonlinear partial differential equation resulting insuch dynamics. The equation is solved using central finite-difference discretization in space. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated in time using a Matlab solver. The numerical code is tested using forced versions of the equation, which admit exact analytical solutions. The comparison of the exact and numerical solutions demonstrates satisfactory agreement.

Mohammed, Mayada; Strunin, Dmitry

230

The Distributive Property in Grade 3?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) call for an in depth, integrated look at elementary school mathematical concepts. Some topics have been realigned to support an integration of topics leading to conceptual understanding. For example, the third-grade standards call for relating the concept of area (geometry) to multiplication…

Benson, Christine C.; Wall, Jennifer J.; Malm, Cheryl

2013-01-01

231

Social Studies Graded Course of Study. [Revised].  

Science.gov (United States)

This revised Stark County (Ohio) curriculum guide provides a basic framework for a sequential grades K-12 social studies program. The guide contains the program's philosophy and goals, information about student evaluation, and position statements on social studies, citizenship education, and conceptual learning. The section on elementary education…

Stark County Dept. of Education, Louisville, OH.

232

Technology Talk With a Grade Two Student  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this interview, elementary grade level student Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale discusses how he uses technology--ranging from Smart tables and Smart boards to computers and the Internet--both at home and in the classroom. He talks about how technology helps him solve word and mathematic problems as well as build LEGO robots.

Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale

2013-06-01

233

Proceedings of 6th International Microbeam Workshop/12th L.H. Gray Workshop Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology

234

Grade determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of determining the grade of a radioactive ore particle wherein a grade measurement of the particle e.g. the ratio of its radioactivity to its mass is corrected by means of predetermined calibration factors which are dependent on one or more of the shape, size, density or mass of the particle

235

Antropometria de escolares ao ingresso no ensino fundamental na cidade de Belém, Pará, 2001 / School aged anthropometry when enrolling in the first grade of elementary school in the city of Belém, Pará, 2001  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: realizar a antropometria em escolares da primeira série da rede pública estadual em Belém, Pará, como instrumento de vigilância nutricional e estudar as associações entre o estado nutricional e características biológicas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados nutricionalmente 793 esc [...] olares, pelos escores z de estatura/idade e peso/estatura, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. As variáveis biológicas e socioeconômicas foram: sexo, idade, naturalidade, idade de ingresso da criança na escola e escolaridade materna. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado ao relacionar o estado nutricional com as variáveis. RESULTADOS: em 637 escolares observamos 16,6% de baixa estatura e risco de baixa estatura, 4,5% de desnutrição e risco de desnutrição, 7,4% de sobrepeso e obesidade. Não houve associação significante entre estado nutricional e sexo. A maioria das crianças nasceu na capital, ingressou tardiamente na escola e tinham mães com escolaridade >4 anos. Observou-se correlação significante entre obesidade e baixa estatura com menor escolaridade materna; risco de desnutrição e baixa estatura com o ingresso escolar tardio; e obesidade e estatura normal com o ingresso regular. CONCLUSÕES: a menor escolaridade materna e o ingresso tardio escolar estão associados à presença de desvios nutricionais. A vigilância nutricional escolar é importante para avaliar, tratar e prevenir os riscos para saúde e nutrição infantil. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to perform anthropometric measurements in elementary school students of the public school system of the State of Belém, Pará, as a tool for nutritional surveillance and to study associations between nutritional status and biological, social and economic characteristics. METHODS: 793 stud [...] ents were assessed for their nutritional status, by z scores of height/age and weight /height according to the World Health Organization criteria. Biological, social and economic variables were: gender, age, place of birth, age of school enrolment and maternal education level. The chi square test was used to relate nutritional status to variables. RESULTS: of the 637 students assessed, 16.6% were of low stature or in risk of low stature, 4.5% malnourished or in risk of malnourishment, 7.4% were overweight or obese. There was no significant association between nutritional status and gender. The majority of the children was born in the capital, was enrolled late in school and had mothers with education level of >4 years. There was a significant correlation between obesity and low stature with low maternal education level; malnutrition risk and low stature with late school enrolment; and obesity and normal stature with regular enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: low maternal school level and late school enrollment are associated to nutritional problems. School nutritional surveillance is important to assess, treat and prevent children's health and nutrition risks.

Olga Maria Domingues das, Neves; Anne Lise Dias, Brasil; Laélia Maria Barra Feio, Brasil; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo, Taddei.

2006-03-01

236

Fractions in elementary education  

CERN Document Server

This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and...

Quinn, Frank

2013-01-01

237

A Study of Reading First Implementation and Literacy Performance of Students in Kindergarten through Fifth Grade in Lancaster School District  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined elementary student literacy performance in Lancaster School District in kindergarten through 5th grades for 6 elementary schools implementing the Reading First program and 6 elementary schools not implementing Reading First. Subgroup data for English Language Learners, Hispanic, and African American students was closely…

Bowers, Michele Marie

2011-01-01

238

Perceived Norms and Social Values to Capture School Culture in Elementary and Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study was designed to gain insights into shifting school culture by examining perceived peer group norms and social values across elementary and middle school grades. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants (N = 605) to estimate how many grade mates were academically engaged, disengaged, and antisocial. To capture social…

Galvan, Adriana; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Juvonen, Jaana

2011-01-01

239

A Cross Age Study of Elementary Students' Motivation towards Science Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of grade level and gender on elementary school students' motivation towards science learning. A total of 2231 sixth and eight grade students participated in the study. Data were collected through Students' Motivation towards Science Learning Questionnaire. Two-way Multivariate Analysis of…

Guvercin, Ozge; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

2010-01-01

240

Fractions as Subtraction: An Activity-Oriented Perspective from Elementary Children  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade student responses to the question "What is a fraction?" were examined to gain an understanding of how children in upper elementary grades make sense of fractions. Rather than measure children's understanding of fractions relative to mathematically conventional part-whole constructions of…

Wood, Marcy B.; Olson, Amy M.; Freiberg, Elizabeth J.; Vega, Ruby I.

2013-01-01

241

Pupils’ Conception of Organic Foods and Healthy Eating in School : QUALITATIVE INSIGHTS FROM FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS WITH 5th AND 7th GRADE PUPILS IN A COPENHAGEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adult habits, including unhealthy eating patterns, are largely established during a person´s childhood and early youth. In this connection, public schools are important health promoting platforms due to their potential for encouraging interest, knowledge and learning about health related issues. The main aim of the study was to shed light on primary and lower secondary school pupils´ everyday experience with food, nutrition, ecology and health in connection to public organic school food, using the municipality of Copenhagen as a case. We have examined how a procurement and provision strategy that primarily originates from “backstage agents” such as engaged politicians and civil servants and governed by administrative priorities, is perceived among agents at the front stage arena - the school. Furthermore we have investigated to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and the underlying organic supply chain principles, and to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and classroom initiatives in subjects related to ecology and health. In February 2008, we approached a public school which proved willing to participate in our study. Subsequently, over a period of four weeks, we designed an interview guide used to conduct focus group interviews with pupils from grades 5 and 7, which were then transcribed. In general, pupils were very interested in ecology as a subject. However it seems that they do not see a very strong connection between the healthy, organic meals offered at school and class room activities related to health and ecology. The pupils did not feel that they had been involved in the decision to establish organic and healthy food procurement. As a result they held that they did not feel very committed or engaged in the school provision initiative, and the organic and healthy food procurement was not highly sought after on the part of the pupils. This appears to justify a distinction between the perspective that front stage actors have, including pupils, and the perspective of politicians and planners that operate back stage. The distance between these two stages, which tends to increase in large scale municipal school food systems, is an important challenge to address when planning school food interventions. There seems to be a potential for linking organic school food service more closely with curricular activities, and for linking issues of healthier eating and organic food supply. There is also a need for greater involvement of the pupils and other front stage actors when the food service system and food related curricular activities are planned.

Andersen, Stine; Burkal, Anna

2010-01-01

242

Elementary classical hydrodynamics  

CERN Document Server

Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

1967-01-01

243

Logic in elementary mathematics  

CERN Document Server

This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and

Exner, Robert M

2011-01-01

244

Elementary students' comprehension of place value concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was an attempt to identify to what extent students at primary level in elementary education were able to grasp the Place Value Concept (PVC and to identify the types of errors of those students not able to grasp PVC. For this purpose, 728 primary school students at 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade levels were interviewed. In order to obtain data, semi-structured interview forms were used and each subject was interviewed individually. According to the results obtained, it was observed that the percentage of correct answers for questions related to PVC was low for all grade levels. The higher their levels of success were, the lower their proportion of errors. However, it was observed that all students had difficulties with questions regarding PVC. It was also seen that the difficulties were similar from the point of view of gender.

Perihan Dinç Artut

2006-01-01

245

Gender Differences in Cognitive Load and Competition Anxiety Affect 6th Grade Students' Attitude toward Playing and Intention to Play at a Sequential or Synchronous Game  

Science.gov (United States)

Do girls have more competition anxiety and exogenous cognitive load than equally able boys during the playing of stressful competitive on-line games? This question led to the adoption of a technology acceptance model to compare the influence factors of competitors in sequential and synchronous games. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data on 220…

Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Hong, Jon-Chao; Cheng, Hao-Yueh; Peng, Yu-Chi; Wu, Nien-Chen

2013-01-01

246

Desarrollo funcional de competencias de producción de textos en alumnos con bajo desempeño en el último año de primaria / Functional development of competences in text production in of students with low performance in their last grade of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan resultados de un estudio con evaluación pre y pos con tres grupos de comparación, realizado con el fin de probar tres tipos de estrategias de entrenamiento en producción de textos, las cuales son morfológica, jerárquica y funcionalmente distintas. Esto con la intención de promover tres [...] diferentes tipos de desligamiento funcional: intrasituacional, extrasituacional y transituacional. El programa de intervención fue implementado como taller de verano dirigido a 14 niños de sexto grado de una escuela primaria pública semi urbana, en el Estado de Morelos, México, con bajos niveles de desempeño en actividades de producción de textos. Las competencias de producción de textos fueron evaluadas con cuatro series de dos actividades: redactar reglamentos, redactar cuentos, elaborar párrafos descriptivos y escribir mensajes utilizando sinónimos. Para comparar los desempeños en evaluaciones antes y después, y entre grupos, fueron realizados análisis descriptivos de los promedios por grupo, utilizando un rango de valoración entre 0 y 4 por cada actividad. Asimismo fue probado un modelo de regresión estructural incluyendo como variable predictor a la situación experimental (grupo) y como variables a predecir, as cuatro competencias evaluadas. Los resultados mostraron que los niños del grupo transituacional mejoraron notablemente sus competencias de producción de textos en comparaciones pre y pos evaluación, asimismo, el modelo de regresión estructural mostró que en el post test la condición experimental tu un efecto significativo en los desempeños diferenciales, en tres de las cuatro competencias evaluadas. Abstract in english Preliminary results of a study with pre - post evaluation with three comparison groups are shown. This study has the purpose of testing three types of strategies for training in text production, which are morphologically, hierarchically and functionally different. This in order to promote three diff [...] erent types of functional relations: intrasituational, extrasituational and transituational. The intervention program was implemented as a summer workshop directed to 14 children of sixth grade in a semi urban area in the State of Morelos, Mexico, having low levels of performance in text production activities. The text production skills were assessed with four sets of two activities each one: writing regulations, writing stories, develop descriptive paragraphs and writing messages with use of synonymous. To compare the performance assessments before and after, and between groups, were descriptive analysis of group averages, using a valuation range between 0 and 4 for each activity. Also tested a structural regression model including as predictor variable to the experimental situation (group) and as variables to predict, the four skills evaluated. The results showed that the children of the transituacional group remarkably improved their competitions in text production from pre and post evaluations, furthermore, the structural regression model showed that in the post test, the experimental condition had a significant effect on the differential performance in three of the four skills assessed.

Aldo, Bazán-Ramírez; Diana, Urbina-Pérez; Lorena, Domínguez-Márquez; María I., Mansillas-Cervantes; Itzel, Gómez-Manjarrez.

247

Elementary relativistic string mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic properties of the relativistic string, including its simplest modes of motion, are shown to be derivable in elementary manner directly from the postulate of constant tension. The full set of equations of motion can be derived from the same principle by employing slightly more advanced mathematical concepts. Finally, a heuristic derivation of the Nambu-Goto action is presented

248

DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY CONCERNED WITH DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE REPORTED IN STATISTICAL TABLES WHICH ARE ACCOMPANIED BY DESCRIPTIVE COMMENTARY. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY, THE DEFINITION OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IS RESTRICTED TO INCLUDE ONLY THOSE SITUATIONS IN WHICH STUDENTS RECEIVE INSTRUCTION IN THE VARIOUS ACADEMIC…

American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

249

Estudo das representações sociais de professores de 1ª. a 4ª. série do ensino fundamental sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem / Study of teachers social representations of fisrt to fourth elementary school grades about the students motivation and the role played by error in learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo buscou identificar as representações de professores sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem. Embasam o trabalho a teoria das Representações Sociais e a perspectiva Construtivista sobre o ensino. São analisados os dados obtidos em entrevistas semi-estruturadas com s [...] eis professores de 1ª. a 4ª. séries do Ensino Fundamental. Sobre a motivação, as representações giram em torno da idéia de que o centro da atenção dos professores deveria ser o interesse do aluno, utilizando o que ele gosta como forma de atraí-lo e engajá-lo na aprendizagem. Tal concepção distancia-se da perspectiva construtivista, na qual a motivação para a aprendizagem deve ser intrínseca à tarefa do aluno. Quanto ao erro, os conceitos construtivistas estão presentes, mas sem uma apropriação aprofundada. Abstract in english This study looked for to identify the teachers' representations about the students' motivation and the role of the mistake in the learning. The work was based on the theory of the Social Representations and the Construtivistic perspective on the teaching. The analyses were based in data obtained thr [...] ough interviews with six teachers of first to four grade of the Elementary School. About motivation, the representations turn around the idea that the center of teachers' attention should be the student's interests, using what he likes as a way to attract and to engage him in learning. Such conception goes away from constructivistic perspective, in which the motivation for the learning should be intrinsic to the student's task. With respect to error, the construtivistic concepts are present, but without one deep appropriation of them.

Danilo Saretta, Veríssimo; Antônio dos Santos, Andrade.

250

O ensino de física nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental na rede municipal de ensino do Recife segundo os seus docentes / Physics teaching in the initial grades of elementary school in the rede municipal de ensino do Recife by their teachers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investiga como esta o ensino de física nos 4º e 5º anos do Ensino Fundamental (EF) na Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. Para realizá-lo contamos com 145 questionários respondidos por docentes do EF I desta rede, espalhados por toda a cidade. Estes questionários nos mostram que existe [...] uma política real de escolha do livro didático de ciencias; que a carga horária semanal dispensada para a disciplina ciencias e, na sua maioria de duas horas e a maioria dos docentes acredita ser suficiente; que o material mais utilizado para a preparação da aula é mesmo o livro didático, mas são utilizados outros como revistas, musicas etc; mais da metade dos docentes, embora considerem a física relevante aos seus alunos, não gostam de abordá-la em sala e sentem-se inseguros para fazê-lo; os assuntos mais trabalhados de física são o eletromagnetismo, energia e física térmica e apresenta algumas sugestões dos professores para a melhoria do ensino de ciencias. Abstract in english This paper investigates how is the physics teaching in the forth and fifth years of elementary school in the Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. To realize it we have 145 questionnaires answered by teachers of initial grade of this network, spread throughout the city. These questionnaires showed tha [...] t there is a real political choice of textbook science; that the weekly waived for the subject Science is mostly of two hours and the majority of teachers believed to be sufficient; the material most used to preparation of the lesson is the textbook, but others are used as magazines, music, etc.; more than half of teachers, although considering the Physics relevant to their students, do not like to approach it in class and they feel insecure to do it; the subjects more worked of Physics are electromagnetism, energy and thermal physics and presents some suggestions for teachers to improve Science teaching.

Micaías Andrade, Rodrigues; Francimar Martins, Teixeira.

2011-12-01

251

[Evaluation of the risk of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking among 6th year students of the Faculty of Medicine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementing the National Health Program assumed in Poland for the years 2007 2015, family doctors in their everyday work try to contribute to reducing the popularity of tobacco smoking as well as reducing and changing the structure of alcohol consumption, whose aim is to reduce the negative health effects caused by those substances [9]. Non smoking personnel and prohibition of smoking in health care centres are the basis for effective anti-tobacco counsel. The same dependence occurs in the case of alcohol abuse. The aim of the work was to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of alcohol abuse among students of the 6th year of the Faculty of Medicine of UMB (Medical University of Bia?ystok), as well as to analyze the structure of drinking and smoking among the prospective doctors. The study material was collected by means of anonymous surveys carried out before classes belonging to the family medicine subject block. The obtained data showed that the students had only superficial knowledge of the negative health effects of alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking. 26% of female students and 12% of male students smoke regularly. The results of the shortened Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), so-called AUDIT-C, showed that 50% of prospective female doctors and 61.1% of prospective male doctors drink alcohol in a risky way. PMID:23421056

Bielska, Dorota; Kurpas, Donata; Marcinowicz, Ludmi?a; Ow?asiuk, Anna; Litwiejko, Alicja; Wojtal, Mariola

2012-01-01

252

Accreditation proposal for control systems in electrical engineering for 6th level in European Qualification Framework (EQF)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The progress of science and technology emphasizes the connection between different domains and disciplines. The technology development and changing demands of the labour market require upgrading and renewing of learning outcomes in higher education, especially in engineering fields. The Life Long Learning (LLL) procedure must be the platform offering the required qualifications for the demands of companies and engineering professionals all over the world in order to support their competitiveness. In this paper we describe an improved proposal for accreditation of one important subject in engineering, namely Control Systems. The described procedure could be applied in the frame of LLL and also in classical engineering education systems, such as university and college education, in order to harmonize the recognition of engineering degrees in Europe and outside the Europe. Furthermore we state the necessary learning outcomes in the subject of Control Systems in engineering at Bachelor level (6th level of European Qualification Framework (EQF) and propose a process to test the qualifications. © 2013 IEEE.

Tsirigotis, Georgios; Friesel, Anna

2013-01-01

253

Abstract Book of the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry, Risø, Roskilde, Denmark, 2-6th Sept. 2013  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report compiled all abstracts presented in the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry at Risø, Roskilde, Denmark in 2-6th Sept. 2013. Total 35 participants registered to the workshop, among them 18 from Sweden, 5 from Denmark, 3 from Finland, and 3 from Norway, there are also 6 participants from Germany, France, Slovenia, Korea, Turkey, and China. The workshop consists two part, 3 days lab practices and 2 days lectures/presentation. 3 lab practices were organized, i.e. (1) Radiochemical separation of Pu and ICP-MS measurement of Pu isotopes; (2) Radiochemical separation of 210Po and 226Ra and their alpha spectrometry measurement; and (3) Radiochemical separation of 55Fe, 63Ni, 90Sr and their LSC measurement. Among them, each participant can participate in 2 lab practices. 15 invited lectures are given by the experts in their specific fields, 8 oral and 6 poster presentations are given by the participants. The abstracts of all presentations are included in this report.

2013-01-01

254

Workshop Notes of the 6th International Workshop on Acquisition, Representation and Reasoning about Context with Logic (ARCOE-Logic 2014)  

OpenAIRE

ARCOE-Logic 2014, the 6th International Workshop on Acquisition, Representation and Reasoning about Context with Logic, was held in co-location with the 19th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW 2014) on November 25, 2014 in Link\\"oping, Sweden. These notes contain the five papers which were accepted and presented at the workshop.

Fink, Michael; Homola, Martin; Mileo, Alessandra

2014-01-01

255

Laser 2004 Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research (LASER 2004) held in Pozna?, Poland, 24–27 May 2004  

CERN Document Server

6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research, LASER 2004, held in Poznan, Poland, 24-27 May, 2004 Researchers and graduate students interested in the Mössbauer Effect and its applications will find this volume indispensable. The volume presents the most recent developments in the methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume 162, 1-4

B?aszczak, Z; Marinova, K

2006-01-01

256

ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NO?A”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

2013-07-30

257

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

258

Discerning elementary particles  

OpenAIRE

We extend the quantum-mechanical results of Muller & Saunders (2008) establishing the weak discernibility of an arbitrary number of similar fermions in finite-dimensional Hilbert-spaces in two ways: (a) from fermions to bosons for all finite-dimensional Hilbert-spaces; and (b) from finite-dimensional to infinite-dimensional Hilbert-spaces for all elementary particles. In both cases this is performed using operators whose physical significance is beyond doubt.This confutes th...

Muller, F. A.; Seevinck, M. P.

2009-01-01

259

The Elementary Calculus Line  

Science.gov (United States)

George Mason Universityâ??s Department of Computer Science is responsible for this great elementary calculus site. Each topic presented on this site contains learning objectives, definitions, examples, diagrams, and exercise problems. The topics available here include: functions, domains and ranges, intercepts, limits, graphing functions, derivatives, and integrals. This site is a perfect resource for anyone in an introductory calculus course, or those who need a refresher on some of the basic calculus concepts.

260

Elementary Urban IPM Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a set of twelve lesson plans in PDF format (they are also combined in one 76 page document) aimed at educating elementary school students about integrated pest management. Lessons deal with invertebrate as well as vertebrate pests, and emphasize ecological roles played by these creatures. Topics covered include insect morphology, life cycles, and pathogens. Lessons are well thought-out and organized. Emphasis on school pest management makes these exercises practical.

0002-11-30

261

Mars Rover Model Celebration: Using Planetary Exploration To Enrich STEM Teaching In Elementary And Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The program culminates in a capstone event held at the University of Houston (or other central location in the other communities that will be involved) where the best models from each school or group are brought together for a celebratory showcase exhibit and judging. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Dominey, W.; Kapral, A.; Carlson, C.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

2011-12-01

262

Análise psicolinguística e cognitivo-linguística das provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura realizadas em escolares de 2ª a 5ª série / Psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic analysis of the metalinguistic skills and reading proofs in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: analisar o desempenho de escolares de 2ª a 5ª série do ensino fundamental em provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura segundo critérios psicolinguísticos e cognitivo-linguísticos e verificar similaridade e diferenças entre as análises. MÉTODOS: participaram 120 escolares de 2ª a 5 [...] ª série do ensino municipal, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de sete a 12 anos de idade, divididos em 4 grupos de 30 escolares de cada série. Os escolares foram submetidos à aplicação de provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e de leitura. RESULTADOS: houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos nas habilidades metalinguísticas, nas regras de decodificação de palavras reais e pseudopalavras para todas as variáveis na leitura de palavras reais, com exceção do erro tipo Recusas, com médias superiores para Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas e Falha na Aplicação de Regras Ortográficas, indicando que esses tipos de erros foram os de maior ocorrência. Na leitura de pseudopalavras houve diferença estatisticamente significante em Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas, indicando que os escolares apresentaram desempenho inferior na decodificação de palavras que exigiram a utilização de informação fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: a adoção de critérios psicolinguísticos ou cognitivo-linguísticos na avaliação da leitura de palavras e pseudopalavras juntamente com a avaliação das habilidades metalinguísticas fornecem subsídios para a compreensão de como o escolar vem processando os complexos princípios do sistema de escrita do português do Brasil, além de dar o suporte necessário à compreensão das dificuldades específicas apresentadas pelos escolares, orientando o profissional fonoaudiólogo em relação aos objetivos precisos no seu atendimento. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze the performance of the metalinguistic skills and reading tests in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education, according to psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria and to check similarities and differences between the analyses. METHODS: 120 students from 2n [...] d to 5th grades of a municipal school, of both genders, in the age ranging from 7 to 12 year old, divided into 4 groups for each grade. The students were submitted to tests of metalinguistic skills and reading. RESULTS: there were statistically significant differences among the groups in the metalinguistic skills, in the decoding of real words and non-words, for each variable, with exception for the 'Refusal' mistake type, with superior average for the types related to unsuccessful sound attempts and failure in the use of orthography, indicating that these types of mistakes were of larger occurrence. In the non-words reading there were statistically significant differences in unsuccessful sound attempts indicating that the students had lower performance in the decoding of words that demanded the use of phonological information. CONCLUSION: the adoption of the psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria in evaluating real words and non-words' reading, along with the evaluation of the metalinguistic skills provide subsidies to the understanding of the way the students were processing the complex writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, besides to giving the necessary support to the comprehension of the specific difficulties showed by the students, guiding the speech and language professional in relation to the direct purposes in their work.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi, Cunha; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

2010-10-01

263

Children's motivation in elementary physical education: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation. PMID:15532363

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

2004-03-01

264

Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a Climate Club and their goal is to continue to research and teach others about climate science. Their enthusiasm and desire to teach others is a result of exposure to authentic science issues in school and my research experience is what changed the way I teach science which made this possible.

Munroe, C. H.

2010-12-01

265

Effect of 5E Instructional Model in Student Success in Primary School 6th Year Circulatory System Topic  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental…

Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge

2008-01-01

266

CfDS 2006: the 6th European Dark-Skies Symposium, Portsmouth, 2006 September 15-16  

Science.gov (United States)

The BAA's Campaign for Dark Skies took its turn in 2006 to stage the 6th European Dark-Skies Symposium, similar events having been held in previous years in Switzerland, Germany, France and Belgium. The event was the best attended to date, with more than 150 delegates from eleven European countries, the USA and even South Africa. Between sessions, delegates were given a tour of the night skies of the world in the South Downs Planetarium, where Dr John Mason simulated the effects of light pollution. This was followed by a visit to the Clanfield Observatory, courtesy of the Hampshire Astronomical Group, later in the evening, where the real night sky and a little real light pollution (!) were observed. The whole event was kindly sponsored by the BAA and Abacus Lighting Ltd. A principal aim of the two-day symposium was to advise planners and other decision-makers, and those who make, choose and install lighting, about the legal and moral issues surrounding light pollution. It is not, of course, the Campaign's intention to ban lighting, but to ensure that where outdoor lighting is required, it is designed and installed correctly, thereby causing little or no nuisance and reducing energy costs. These non-astronomical aspects were very much to the fore on the first day of the conference, which was opened by one of CfDS' best allies in Parliament, Lembit Opik MP. Mr Opik expressed his delight at seeing so many delegates, and confirmed his continuing support for the initiatives CfDS pursues within Parliament: for example its discussions with DEFRA on the subject of the proposed planning directive (PPS 23) on light pollution

Mizon, R.

2006-12-01

267

EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development.  

Science.gov (United States)

While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006) and FP7 (2007-2013), has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1) fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2) development of new malaria drugs, (3) research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4) research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA) was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined--and well confined--area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria. PMID:21235784

Holtel, Andreas; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Penas-Jimenez, Inmaculada

2011-01-01

268

EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006 and FP7 (2007-2013, has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1 fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2 development of new malaria drugs, (3 research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4 research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined - and well confined - area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria.

Penas-Jimenez Inmaculada

2011-01-01

269

Developing Computational Fluency with Whole Number in the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article TERC's Susan Jo Russell discusses many aspects of computational fluency, including a definition, common errors, the importance of number and operations sense, assessment, and teaching issues. The author includes an extensive reference list.

Susan Jo Russell

2012-01-01

270

Differentiated Instruction: Principles and Techniques for the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Differentiated instruction is an educational approach that adjusts instruction to accommodate individual students' needs, rather than beginning at a predetermined set point. This approach is meant to increase both student learning and motivation. Because traditional instruction tends to "teach to the middle," or primarily focus on reaching average…

Good, Melinda E.

2006-01-01

271

DESCRIPTIVE GRADES IN INITIAL MATHEMATICAL TEACHING PARENT'S ATTITUDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation is very sensitive process in up bring-education work and it is important for comprehensive development of student. More often are fears of different kind, certain forms of unacceptable behavior, are connected with students failure in school and with school evaluation.Grade is feedback on achievements whose purpose is to provide timely information of current level and the steps that are ahead. Numerical grade reflects level of achievements, but there is no indication about elements that makes that grade. Descriptive grade contains key information's about the progress and for that kind of grade you need a lot of words. For student to be descriptively graded, teacher needs to be professionally educated and ready for detailed monitoring and evaluation of student's achievements. Teacher, using appropriate terminology, should successfully describe achievements of student's progress. The school is expected to teach students how to learn and to prepare them for lifelong learning. One of the important factors is also parents. During the time spent with teachers and parents a need has be shown to examine parent's attitudes about descriptive grades in nine-year elementary school. One of the courses that a descriptive grade cannot fully characterize the overall progress of students is mathematics. This course has been chosen because of the problems that parents have when their kids are in first two grades of nine-year elementary school, their attitudes about descriptive grades and difficulties they have when they try to understand student's achievements.

Dževad Burgi?

2014-04-01

272

Elementary Atom Interaction with Matter  

OpenAIRE

The calculations of the elementary atom (the Coulomb bound state of elementary particles) interaction with the atom of matter, which are performed in the Born approximation, are reviewed. We first discuss the nonrelativistic approach and then its relativistic generalization. The cross section of the elementary atom excitation and ionization as well as the total cross section are considered. A specific selection rule, which applies for the atom formed as positronium by partic...

Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

1998-01-01

273

Sleep Duration and Overweight among Elementary Schoolchildren:A Population-based Study in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Although a number of studies have investigated the relationship of sleep duration to overweight and obesity, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been limited in Japan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. The study subjects were all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2008. Information...

Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

2012-01-01

274

Teacher performance goal practices and elementary students’ behavioral engagement: A developmental perspective  

OpenAIRE

We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students’ behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined ...

Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

275

The effects of physical activity cards on teacher behaviours in elementary physical education classes  

OpenAIRE

The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of usage of ‘’the physical activity cards’ on teacher behaviors to maintain students as physically active in Physical Education classes. Total 384 students (first, second and third grades elementary school students) and 24 teachers from 7 elementary schools from Mugla center were observed by SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) is a direct systematic observation method. Pretest and posttest results of variables were...

Salih Gökhan ?rez; Yaman, Metin; I?rez, Go?nu?l Babayig?it; Saygin, O?zcan

2013-01-01

276

A Study of Training Needs of Elementary School Teachers in Jhunjhunu District of Rajasthan  

OpenAIRE

Elementary school teachers instruct children from grades 1-8 in age group of 6-14 years. The Need of training for elementary and secondary teachers has been emphasized by many commissions and committees. The teacher occupies a very important place in society because he brings about the transfer of the intellectual tradition from one generation to the next. He maintains the level of technological skill and keeps the light of civilization burning bright. ...

Rajesh Kumar,

2012-01-01

277

Elementary matrix theory  

CERN Document Server

The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

Eves, Howard

2012-01-01

278

Elementary Orbifold Differential Topology  

CERN Document Server

Taking an elementary and straightforward approach, we develop the concept of a regular value for a smooth map f: O -> P between smooth orbifolds O and P. We show that Sard's theorem holds and that the inverse image of a regular value is a smooth full suborbifold of O. We also study some constraints that the existence of a smooth orbifold map imposes on local isotropy groups. As an application, we prove a Borsuk no retraction theorem for compact orbifolds with boundary and some obstructions to the existence of real-valued orbifold maps from local model orbifold charts.

Borzellino, Joseph E

2012-01-01

279

Lincoln County Exemplary Program in Vocational Education, Resource Units Developed by Exemplary Teachers for Grades 1-12, Volume IV of Volume I.  

Science.gov (United States)

The elementary grades resource units were prepared to provide students with occupational information to make them aware of the meaning of work and to present the "world of work" in a manner appropriate to the students' state of development. This document is comprised of teaching units for the several elementary grades, with information about…

Lincoln County Schools, Hamlin, WV.

280

Elementary chaotic snap flows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing chaotic snap flow have been presented. ? Three of all are conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. ? Four cases need only a single control parameter and a single nonlinearity. ? A cubic case in a jerk representation requires only two terms and a single nonlinearity. - Abstract: Hyperjerk systems with 4th-order derivative of the form x....=f(x...,x..,x.,x) have been referred to as snap systems. Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing flow are presented through an extensive numerical search. Four of these flows demonstrate elegant simplicity of a single control parameter based on a single nonlinearity of a quadratic, a piecewise-linear or an exponential type. Two others demonstrate elegant simplicity of all unity-in-magnitude parameters based on either a single cubic nonlinearity or three cubic nonlinearities. The chaotic snap flow with a single cubic nonlinearity requires only two terms and can be transformed to its equivalent dynamical form of only five terms which have a single nonlinearity. An advantage is that such a chaotic flow offers only five terms even though the (four) dimension is high. Three of the chaotic snap flows are characterized as conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. Basic dynamical properties are described.es are described.

281

Report to the Palau Ministry of Education on the Mathematics Project at Harris, Maris Stella, and Meyuns Elementary Schools, 1993.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1985, the students in grades 2-8 in three selected elementary schools in Palau have been tested on basic math skills. This report describes the data collected in May 1993 and indicates the relative strengths and weaknesses of students at each grade level in each school. Major outcomes include: (1) the students at Harris School scored…

King, Irvin L.; Emesiochl, Masa-Aki

282

New Simple Torque-Sensorless Torque Control for Quasi-Perfect Compensation of 6th Harmonic Torque Ripple Due to Nonsinusoidal Distribution of Back EMF of PMSM  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a new torque-sensorless torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method can almost perfectly compensate the 6th harmonic torque ripple that is caused by the nonsinusoidal distributions of the back EMF and rotor magnetic flux of PMSMs. The torque control system is, in principle, constructed on the basis of the vector control, but has two new dedicated speed-varying devices—a harmonic torque observer and current controller. The speed-varying harmonic torque observer can estimate the harmonic component over a wide speed range, even in the case where the produced torque is constant, and generate a suitable compensating signal. The speed-varying current controller shows stable control performance over a wide speed range, it can fully track the compensated current command containing the dc and 6th harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined and verified through extensive numerical experiments.

Shinnaka, Shinji; Kishida, Hideo

283

Medical students’ skills in image interpretation before and after training: A comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula.

Sendra-Portero, Francisco, E-mail: sendra@uma.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Torales-Chaparro, Oscar E., E-mail: oetjft@terra.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J., E-mail: mjrg@uma.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

2012-12-15

284

The purple Codex Rossanensis: spectroscopic characterization and first evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a 6th century manuscript  

OpenAIRE

The Codex Rossanensis is a 6th century Bizantine illuminated manuscript written on purple parchment and conserved at the Museo Diocesano in Rossano Calabro, Italy. It is one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament. The challenge of the analysis of the Codex Rossanensis lies in the lack of analytical information on the pictorial media used in the Early Middle Ages. Even though old-medieval illuminated manuscripts have been deeply studied from the ...

Bicchieri, Marina

2014-01-01

285

Highlights from the 6th International Society for Computational Biology Student Council Symposium at the 18th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This meeting report gives an overview of the keynote lectures and a selection of the student oral and poster presentations at the 6th International Society for Computational Biology Student Council Symposium that was held as a precursor event to the annual international conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB). The symposium was held in Boston, MA, USA on July 9th, 2010.

Michaut Magali; Klijn Christiaan; Abeel Thomas

2010-01-01

286

Medical students' skills in image interpretation before and after training: a comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula. PMID:22647422

Sendra-Portero, Francisco; Torales-Chaparro, Oscar E; Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J

2012-12-01

287

Invitational Education at Cooper Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

In the summer of 1998, this author was appointed Principal at Cooper Elementary, one of 21 elementary schools in the Livonia Public Schools' district, the 5th largest district in the state of Michigan. Like many first-year principals, she was full of fresh ideas, lofty goals and endless enthusiasm to inspire students, staff and parents. Her…

Kalec, Ann W.

2004-01-01

288

Engineering at the Elementary Level  

Science.gov (United States)

Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

McGrew, Cheryl

2012-01-01

289

Effect of 5E instructional model in student success in primary school 6th year circulatory system topic  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental group. Appropriate activities using the 5E instructional model were used in the experimental group, while traditional teaching using question and answe...

Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge

2008-01-01

290

PREFACE: NC-AFM 2003: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct nanoscale and atomic resolution imaging is a key issue in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The invention of the dynamic force microscope in the early 1990s was an important step forward in this direction as this instrument provides a universal tool for measuring the topography and many other physical and chemical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale. Operation in the so-called non-contact mode now allows direct atomic resolution imaging of electrically insulating surfaces and nanostructures which has been an unsolved problem during the first decade of nanotechnology. Today, we face a most rapid development of the technique and an extension of its capabilities far beyond imaging; atomically resolved force spectroscopy provides information about local binding properties and researchers now develop sophisticated schemes of force controlled atomic manipulation with the tip of the force microscope. Progress in the field of non-contact force microscopy is discussed at the annually held NC-AFM conferences that are part of a series started in 1998 with a meeting in Osaka, Japan. The 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy took place in Dingle, Ireland, from 31 August to 3 September 2003 and this special issue is a compilation of the original publications of work presented at this meeting. The papers published here well reflect recent achievements, current trends and some of the challenging new directions in non-contact force microscopy that have been discussed during the most stimulating conference days in Dingle. Fundamental aspects of forces and dissipation relevant in imaging and spectroscopy have been covered by experimental and theoretical contributions yielding a more detailed understanding of tip--surface interaction in force microscopy. Novel and improved imaging and spectroscopy techniques have been introduced that either improve the performance of force microscopy or pave the way towards new functionalities and applications. With regard to studies on the specific systems investigated, there was a strong emphasis on oxides and ionics, as well as on organic systems. Following previous pioneering work in uncovering the atomic structure of insulating oxides with force microscopy, it was shown in the meeting that this important class of materials is now accessible for a quantitative atomic scale surface characterization. Single organic molecules and ordered organic layers are building blocks for functional nanostructures currently developed in many laboratories for applications in molecular electronics and sensor technologies. The Dingle conference impressively demonstrated that dynamic force microscopy is ready for its application as an analytical tool for these promising future nanotechnologies. The meeting was a great success scientifically and participants enjoyed the beauty of the conference site. I would like to thank all members of the international steering committee, the programme committee and the co-chairs, J Pethica, A Shluger and G Thornton, for their efforts in preparing the meeting. The members of the local organising committee, J Ballentine-Armstrong, G Cross, S Dunne, S Jarvis and Ö Özer, kept the meeting running smoothly and created a very pleasant atmosphere. The generous financial support from Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), is greatly appreciated; SFI is dramatically raising the profile of Irish science. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to N Couzin and the journal team from Institute of Physics Publishing for their editorial management and perfect co-operation in the preparation of this special issue.

Reichling, Michael

2004-02-01

291

Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test  

Science.gov (United States)

At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

Page, Purlie M.

292

The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School  

OpenAIRE

Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indica...

Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

2012-01-01

293

Reducing disruptive behaviors of elementary physical education students with sit and watch.  

OpenAIRE

This study reduced the disruptive behaviors of students in two elementary physical education classes: a regular fourth-grade class comprised of 30 students and an alternative education class containing 14 fourth- and fifth-grade boys with severe behavior problems. Using a multiple baseline design, we introduced a modified time-out procedure called "Sit and Watch." The procedure reduced the frequency of disruptive behaviors by 95%. Sit and Watch proved to be socially acceptable to parents, sch...

White, A. G.; Bailey, J. S.

1990-01-01

294

Effect of 5E instructional model in student success in primary school 6th year circulatory system topic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental group. Appropriate activities using the 5E instructional model were used in the experimental group, while traditional teaching using question and answer methods was applied with the control group. To compare the treatments, the percentage of correct statements and t test results were used. While initial levels of the experimental group and the control group were the same, a significant difference occurred in favor of the experimental group as a result of the application.

Osman CARDAK

2008-12-01

295

Astrophysics for Early Elementary Students and Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

How can very young students be taught astrophysics? What can we offer to teachers of K-4 students? Whether you deal directly with youngsters in classrooms, work with your School of Education to develop science inquiry training, or offer occasional general outreach, we discuss activities your program can adopt from the University of Oregon's Electronic Universe outreach program. This collaboration through NASA's Oregon Space Grant plus citizen amateur astronomers has been successfully delivering astrophysics to students in all grades throughout Oregon for over a decade. Students in grades K-4 are generally very enthusiastic learners who have a lot of interest in content and technology about space. Unfortunately typical curricula, state learning requirements, and typical training of their teachers is usually very simplistic and often contains erroneous and outdated materials. We'll work through a series of explorations designed for elementary level that use digital data and virtual reality simulations in conjunction with kinesthetic activities to connect observations such as brightness, shadows, motions, shapes, and colors to basic physical characteristics and properties. This is the starting place where we can grab already curious students and inspire teachers, particularly new teachers, to use space science content to develop science inquiry based curricula. Young students and their teachers can handle astrophysics if the topics are presented in familiar terms and with use of sufficient first hand modeling. Don't be afraid to start them early on these topics, this could dispel myths, generate future interest, and promote careers in science.

Kang, R.

2004-12-01

296

Forest Services: World of Work Project: Fifth Grade: Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document is one of the teaching units developed by the Utah World of Work Project, designed to integrate career awareness into the regular curriculum at the elementary level. The fifth grade guide is tied to the science area and focuses on conservation as practiced by Forest Service workers; the growth cycle of forests and the management of…

Utah State Board for Vocational Education, Salt Lake City.

297

The Rosa Parks "Myth": A Third Grade Historical Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes how, by comparing multiple perspectives of the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, students can experience first-hand how different published accounts of the same event may contain different information. The author relates the lesson plan of Jennifer Morrow, a third-grade teacher at Coral Ridge Elementary

Landorf, Hilary; Lowenstein, Ethan

2004-01-01

298

The Negative Impacts of Starting Middle School in Sixth Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

Using administrative data on public school students in North Carolina, we find that sixth grade students attending middle schools are much more likely to be cited for discipline problems than those attending elementary school. That difference remains after adjusting for the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the students and their…

Cook, Philip J.; MacCoun, Robert; Muschkin, Clara; Vigdor, Jacob

2008-01-01

299

Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

2014-01-01

300

Reducing Test Anxiety among Third Grade Students through the Implementation of Relaxation Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to reduce the negative effects that self-perceived levels of test anxiety have on third-grade students. The participants in this study consisted of 177 third-grade students at two Midwestern public elementary schools. Students at one school were taught relaxation techniques, while students at the second school served…

Larson, Heidi A.; El Ramahi, Mera K.; Conn, Steven R.; Estes, Lincoln A.; Ghibellini, Amanda B.

2010-01-01

301

Properties of semi-elementary imsets as sums of elementary imsets  

CERN Document Server

We study properties of semi-elementary imsets and elementary imsets introduced by Studeny (2005). The rules of the semi-graphoid axiom (decomposition, weak union and contraction) for conditional independence statements can be translated into a simple identity among three semi-elementary imsets. By recursively applying the identity, any semi-elementary imset can be written as a sum of elementary imsets, which we call a representation of the semi-elementary imset. A semi-elementary imset has many representations. We study properties of the set of possible representations of a semi-elementary imset and prove that all representations are connected by relations among four elementary imsets.

Kashimura, Takuya; Takemura, Akimichi; Tanaka, Kentaro

2011-01-01

302

Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available s...

Mazen Shahin

2010-01-01

303

Elementary submodels in infinite combinatorics  

OpenAIRE

The usage of elementary submodels is a simple but powerful method to prove theorems, or to simplify proofs in infinite combinatorics. First we introduce all the necessary concepts of logic, then we prove classical theorems using elementary submodels. We also present a new proof of Nash-Williams's theorem on cycle-decomposition of graphs, and finally we improve a decomposition theorem of Laviolette concerning bond-faithful decompositions of graphs.

Soukup, Lajos

2010-01-01

304

Technical Analysis of the Reading Essential Skills Screener-Upper Elementary Version  

Science.gov (United States)

The technical characteristics of scores on the Reading Essential Skills Screener-Upper Elementary Version (B. T. Erford, G. Vitali, R. Hass. & R. R. Boykin, 1995) were studied using 4 independent samples of boys and girls in Grades 4-6. Decision efficiency, principal axis factor analysis, internal consistency, 30-day test-retest reliability, and…

O'Brocki, Catherine M.; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Erford, Bradley T.

2007-01-01

305

Perspectives of General and Special Educators on Fostering Self-Determination in Elementary and Middle Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognizing that many youth with disabilities lack critical self-determination skills and that such deficits may be a contributing factor to disappointing postschool outcomes, educators and researchers have called for increased attention to promoting student self-determination in the early grades. The authors queried 891 elementary and middle…

Stang, Kristin K.; Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Pierson, Melinda R.

2009-01-01

306

Student Discipline Problems and the Transition from Elementary to Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

The transition from elementary to middle school is difficult for many students. However, the association between such transitions and changes in the types and frequencies of student discipline problems has not been adequately investigated. Using data from two school years, infractions and dispositions for all 5th-grade students (N = 4,196) from…

Theriot, Matthew T.; Dupper, David R.

2010-01-01

307

Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

Science.gov (United States)

"Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science" ("TEEMSS") is a physical science curriculum for grades 3-8 that utilizes computers, sensors, and interactive models to support investigations of real-world phenomena. Through 15 inquiry-based instructional units, students interact with computers, gather and analyze data, and formulate…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

308

The Impact of an Integrated Approach to Science and Literacy in Elementary School Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the efficacy of an integrated science and literacy approach at the upper-elementary level. Teachers in 94 fourth grade classrooms in one Southern state participated. Half of the teachers taught the treatment unit, an integrated science-literacy unit on light and energy designed using a curriculum model that engages students…

Cervetti, Gina N.; Barber, Jacqueline; Dorph, Rena; Pearson, P. David; Goldschmidt, Pete G.

2012-01-01

309

Increasing Academic Engagement during Writing Activities in an Urban Elementary Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the authors examined the effects of a systematic functional assessment-based intervention (FABI) to identify the function of a third-grade student's off-task behavior and create a plan to increase academic engaged time (AET). The FABI was designed and implemented in an urban elementary school with a comprehensive, integrated,…

Aitken, Angelique; Harlan, Alison; Hankins, Katy; Michels, John; Moore, Tara C.; Oakes, Wendy P.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

2011-01-01

310

Associations between Whole-Grain Intake, Psychosocial Variables, and Home Availability among Elementary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Develop, refine, and test psychosocial scales for associations with whole-grain intake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Minneapolis/St. Paul suburban elementary school with children in fourth through sixth grades (n = 98) and their parents (n = 76). Variables of interest were child whole-grain intake, self-efficacy,…

Rosen, Renee A.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla M.

2012-01-01

311

AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION INTO THE MEASUREMENT OF CURIOSITY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE POSSIBILITY OF DEVELOPING A NUMBER OF PAPER AND PENCIL TEST INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES WAS EXPLORED FOR YIELDING RELIABLE MEASURES OF CURIOSITY AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN. INVESTIGATIONS WERE CONDUCTED IN APPROXIMATELY 40 FIFTH-GRADE CLASSROOMS AND CARRIED OUT IN 2 PHASES--A PREPARATION PHASE AND A TESTING PHASE. IT WAS FIRST NECESSARY…

MAW, ETHEL W.; MAW, WALLACE H.

312

Effects of Participation in a Martial Arts-Based Antibullying Program in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the Gentle Warrior Program, a traditional martial arts-based intervention to reduce aggression in children, as it was implemented in three elementary schools. The sample consisted of 254 children in grades 3, 4, and 5 who participated in the Gentle Warrior Program as part of a larger school violence intervention. Results…

Twemlow, Stuart W.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stephen W.

2008-01-01

313

Sources of Self-Efficacy: An Investigation of Elementary School Students in France  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy on the academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of 3rd-grade elementary school students (N = 395) in France, to examine whether classroom context might explain a significant portion of the variation in self-efficacy, and to assess…

Joet, Gwenaelle; Usher, Ellen L.; Bressoux, Pascal

2011-01-01

314

The Effects of Differentiated Instruction and Enrichment Pedagogy on Reading Achievement in Five Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study examined the effect of a differentiated, enriched reading program on students' oral reading fluency and comprehension using the schoolwide enrichment model-reading (SEM-R). Treatment and control conditions were randomly assigned to 63 teachers and 1,192 second through fifth grade students across five elementary schools.…

Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Muller, Lisa M.; Kaniskan, R. Burcu

2011-01-01

315

The Yummy Pizza Company. A Labor Studies Curriculum for Elementary Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

"The Yummy Pizza Company" is an interdisciplinary thematic unit that introduces the world of work to elementary school age students. The 10 lesson outlines can be adapted up or down to be used in grades 1-5 because an attempt has been made to keep required reading and writing assignments to a minimum. Optional assignments may be added for more…

California Federation of Teachers, Oakland.

316

On the BP-cohomology of elementary abelian p-groups  

OpenAIRE

The structure of the BP-cohomology of elementary abelian p-groups is studied, obtaining a presentation expressed in terms of BP-cohomology and mod-p singular cohomology, using the Milnor derivations. The arguments are based on a result on multi-Koszul complexes which is related to Margolis's criterion for freeness of a graded module over an exterior algebra.

Powell, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

317

Fear and Loathing in Elementary School: Lessons from a Third Grader about Better Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent educational accountability efforts have married student assessments with reform mandates and sanctions. As a result, students--beginning in early elementary grades--are feeling the pressures of this new era of high-stakes accountability. This article chronicles a story of the consequences of high-stakes testing on a father and his son.…

Militello, Matthew; Militello, Luke

2013-01-01

318

Socioemotional Characteristics of Elementary School Children Identified as Exhibiting Social Leadership Qualities  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary school teachers identified characteristics in 4 major socioemotional domains associated with children's social leadership: self-perception, social anxiety, attachment orientation with peers, and interpersonal goals and skills in close friendships. Participants were 260 4th- and 5th-grade students (126 boys, 134 girls) from 10 classes in…

Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

2009-01-01

319

Becoming a Fluent and Automatic Reader in the Early Elementary School Years  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to (a) develop an empirically based model regarding the development of fluent and automatic reading in the early elementary school years and (b) determine whether fluent text-reading skills provided benefits for reading comprehension beyond those accounted for by fluent word decoding. First-, second-, and third-grade

Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Morris, Robin D.

2006-01-01

320

Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

2013-01-01

321

Graduate Student Outreach: Model of a One-Day "Chemistry Camp" for Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

One-day chemistry camps, managed by graduate students from the Departments of Chemistry at the Universities of Virginia (UVA) and Vermont (UVM), have proven successful as an outreach initiative. The camp model engages kindergarten through fifth grade elementary school students in hands-on, inquiry-based science experiments to educate and excite…

Houck, Joseph D.; Machamer, Natalie K.; Erickson, Karla A.

2014-01-01

322

Teaching the Conceptual Scheme "The Particle Nature of Matter" in the Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conclusions of an extensive project aimed to prepare lessons and associated materials related to teaching concepts included in the scheme "The Particle Nature of Matter" for grades two through six are presented. The hypothesis formulated for the project was that children in elementary schools can learn theoretical concepts related to the particle…

Pella, Milton O.; And Others

323

Parents' Reports on Homework Amount and Problems in Academically Talented Elementary Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the amount and types of responses to homework assignments reported by 577 parents of academically talented elementary students. Students completed homework with few negative responses. While homework assignments increased with grade level, the amount of time parents spent assisting with homework did not increase beyond first…

Worrell, Frank C.; Gabelko, Nina H.; Roth, David A.; Samuels, Lisa K.

1999-01-01

324

Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Students' Science Misconceptions: Implications for Practice and Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to determine what elementary teachers know about student science misconceptions and how teachers address student misconceptions in instruction. The sample included 30 teachers from California with at least 1-year of experience teaching grades 3, 4, and 5. A semistructured interview was used. The interview transcripts were…

Gomez-Zwiep, Susan

2008-01-01

325

Teacher Management of Elementary Classroom Social Dynamics: Associations with Changes in Student Adjustment  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers and students in 54 elementary school classrooms (first, third, and fifth grades) participated in a multi-method longitudinal study of classroom social dynamics. At each of three assessments within a single school year, observers rated teacher-student interaction quality, students completed sociometric assessments and reported on their…

Gest, Scott D.; Madill, Rebecca A.; Zadzora, Kathleen M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2014-01-01

326

Interpersonal Competence Configurations and Peer Relations in Early Elementary Classrooms: Perceived Popular and Unpopular Aggressive Subtypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Social relations of second grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) were examined in rural elementary classrooms. Cluster analysis of teacher ratings was used to identify interpersonal competence configurations including perceived unpopular-aggressive (i.e., "Troubled") and perceived popular-aggressive (i.e., "Tough") subtypes for both boys and girls.…

Robertson, Dylan L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Duncan, Tisha; Crowther, Amity; Dadisman, Kimberly A.

2010-01-01

327

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2010-01-01

328

Socioeconomic Differences in Elementary Students ICT Beliefs and Out-of-School Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to explore possible links between student socioeconomic status (SES), beliefs about information and communication technologies (ICTs), and out-of-school learning resources. Grades 5 and 6 students (N = 345) who were enrolled in one private and six public elementary schools in Greece, located in areas with different…

Vekiri, Ioanna

2010-01-01

329

A STEM-Focused Elementary Teacher Preparation Program: Candidate and Alumni Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

To address shortfalls in the preparation and achievement of U.S. students in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), instruction in these areas must begin in the elementary grades, as early as kindergarten (American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 2007; Natural Academy of Sciences, 2007; National Research…

McIntyre, Ellen; Walkowiak, Temple; Thomson, Margareta; Carrier, Sarah; Lee, Carrie; Greive, Elizabeth; Zulli, Rebecca A.; Maher, Michael J.; DiFrancesca, Daniell

2013-01-01

330

An Experiment with Three Methods of Instruction for Indian Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report detailed an experiment with 3 methods of instructing American Indian children in Taholah Elementary School (Quinault Reservation, Washington State). To assess the relative value of instructional methods in the school, 2 conditions had to prevail. The content of the lessons was to be unknown to pupils at all grade levels, and the content…

McCartin, Rosemarie; Schill, William John

331

Validation of RELAP5-3D computer code on the MSLB problem within the 6th dynamic AER benchmark. Rev. 0  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benchmark was concerned with a two-side break of a main steam line at a NPP with VVER 440/213 reactor units. RELAP5-3D was tested on an input deck for the Dukovany NPP. The input model is a detailed 6-loop model, modified based on specifications of the 6th dynamic AER benchmark. The input deck stems from the 'international' three-loop input deck for the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP, prepared within the IAEA regional programme 'Safety Assessment of VVER-440/213'. Furthermore the model was extended and modified with respect to Dukovany specifications and needs for more detailed analyses. (P.A.)

332

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

NONE

2003-03-01

333

Examining Elementary Education Pre-Service Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary education pre-service teachers? self-efficacy beliefs by gender, grade level and age. Participants were 163 elementary education pre-service teachers. An instrument titled “Music Education Self-Efficacy Scale” (Afacan, 2008 was used as a means of data collection. Descriptive statistics and t test was used to analyze the data. Results revealed that elementary education pre-service teachers? music education self-efficacy was, in general, moderate. Results revealed that participants? self-efficacy beliefs differ by gender, grade level and age. Women?s self-efficacy beliefs were higher than men. Junior (3rd year students? self-efficacy was higher than sophomores (2nd year. Similarly, self-efficay scores of particiapants with an age of between 22 and 24 was higher than those with an age of between 19–21.

Deniz Beste ÇEV?K

2011-04-01

334

The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way.

A. Hepworth, Richard

2010-01-01

335

Elementary particles and fundamental interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter gives an overview of the general theories and models about elementary particles and about their fundamental interactions. The notion of elementary particles, universal components of matter, is a more older and simpler concept than the vector particle interactions concept. Matter constitution and fundamental interactions are presented successively to show the links between historical and didactic aspects of this discipline. A recall of fundamental principles of relativistic quantum mechanics is given between the two parts for a better comprehension of the text. Finally, some experimental results obtained at the LEP (Large Electron Positron) accelerator in Geneva during the ALEPH experiment, are given to introduce the grand unified theories and the future research works in elementary particles physics. (J.S.). 6 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

336

Dimension of elementary amenable groups  

OpenAIRE

The paper has three parts. It is conjectured that for every elementary amenable group G and every non-zero commutative ring k, the homological dimension of G over k is equal to the Hirsch length of G whenever G has no k-torsion. In Part I this is proved for several classes, including the abelian-by-polycyclic groups. In Part II it is shown that elementary amenable groups of homological dimension one are filtered colimits of systems of groups of cohomological dimension one. P...

Bridson, MR; Kropholler, Ph

2012-01-01

337

Dimensional considerations about elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search for fundamental elementary particles responsible for the observed behaviour of matter during the past decades is briefly reviewed, and the possibility is considered that the four fundamental interactions that shape things merge into a unique field when matter is so compressed that particles are at extremely small distances from one another. These interactions are the gravitational interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction. It is thought that a simple geometrical criterion, termed the 'elementary criterion', would suffice to indicate how the various interactions should behave as particles are brought closer to one another and thus approach the situation where all interactions merge. (6 references). (U.K.)

338

On calculation of elementary particles' masses  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of present paper is to develop the approach to calculation of the mass spectra of elementary particles within the framework of the resonance theory of elementary particles as de Broglie waves

Kyriakos, Alexander G.

2006-01-01

339

Analysis of the 2nd Ispra test on the 1/6TH scale model of the SNR-300 fast breeder reactor with the PISCES-2 DELK code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a numerical simulation of the 2nd test carried out at the JRC in Ispra (Italy) in the 1/6th scale vessel model of the SNR-300 LMFBR. The computer code used for the analysis was the hybrid code PISCES-2D-ELK, being an explicit finite difference code capable of simulating fluids and structures in an Eulerian reference frame, a Lagrange reference frame and having a thin shell option available. The analysis was performed for a total transient time of 10 ms and the results are presented in the form of contour-velocity vector plots at several intervals. The evolution of some important parameters such as the impulse and strain at the shieldtank, the pressure and impulse at the vessel roof (waterhammer) and the strain profiles of the shieldtank and the main vessel are compared with the measured experimental results. (orig./GL)

340

Studies of selective separation of U(6), Th(4) and Fe(3) from rare earth elements and their separation on chelating ion exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of chelating ion exchangers for separation of Th(4), U(6) and Fe(3) from Ln(3) has been investigated on the ground of relatively large differences in stability of the aminopolyacetic, aminophosphonium and phosphonium acid complexes with rare earth elements and of analogous complexes with uranium(6), thorium(4) and iron(3). The studies were carried out by the ion exchange filtration and elution method. It was demonstrated that the Bio-Rex 63 phosphonium ion exchanger was characterized by a high selectivity to U(6), Th(4) and Fe(3). Uranium (6) and thorium (4) could be selectively eluted from that exchanger with 1-2 M (NH4)2CO3 solution. Besides the exchanger proved to be useful for preparing high-purity lanthanum (3), e.g. for electronics. (author)

341

Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011  

CERN Document Server

This book highlights the potential of getting benefits from various applications of computational intelligence techniques. The present book is structured such that to include a set of selected and extended papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011, held in Timisoara, Romania, from 19 to 21 May 2011. After a serious paper review performed by the Technical Program Committee only 116 submissions were accepted, leading to a paper acceptance ratio of 65 %. A further refinement was made after the symposium, based also on the assessment of the presentation quality. Concluding, this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of SACI 2011 and few invited papers authored by prominent specialists. The readers will benefit from gaining knowledge of the computational intelligence and on what problems can be solved in several areas; they will learn what kind of approaches is advised to use in order to solve these problems. A...

Precup, Radu-Emil; Preitl, Stefan

2012-01-01

342

Vegetation dieback as a proxy for temperature within a wet pyroclastic density current: A novel experiment and observations from the 6th of August 2012 Tongariro eruption  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th of August 2012 eruption of Te Maari (Mt Tongariro, New Zealand) generated wet pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which caused widespread dieback of vegetation (singed, brown foliage) in their path. An absence of significant charcoal formation suggests that PDC temperatures were mostly below 250 °C. Textural evidence for liquid water being present in the matrices during emplacement (vesicles) suggests that temperatures were PDC temperature using an experiment replicating the critical temperatures required to induce foliar browning in seven species affected by the eruption. In locations where all species exhibited browned foliage (or were defoliated), temperatures were probably ? 64 °C assuming a PDC duration of 60 s. In the more distal areas, where only the most susceptible species were browned while others remained healthy and unaffected, temperatures were probably around 51-58 °C. These results have relevance to volcanic hazard mitigation and risk assessment, especially on the popular Tongariro Alpine Crossing.

Efford, Jackson T.; Bylsma, Rebecca J.; Clarkson, Bruce D.; Pittari, Adrian; Mauriohooho, Kate; Moon, Vicki G.

2014-10-01

343

The masses of elementary particles and hadrons  

OpenAIRE

The masses of elementary particles and hadrons can be calculated from the periodic table of elementary particles. The periodic table is derived from dimensional hierarchy for the seven extra spatial dimensions. As a molecule is the composite of atoms with chemical bonds, a hadron is the composite of elementary particles with hadronic bonds. The masses of elementary particles and hadrons can be calculated using the periodic table with only four known constants: the number of ...

Chung, Ding-yu

2000-01-01

344

Petrov classification: An elementary approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reduce the length of the usual algebraic classification scheme of the Weyl tensor by avoiding the step centered around its reduction to canonical form. Instead the different algebraic types are established more economically via the elementary approach of constructing explicit examples

345

Logo Activities in Elementary Geometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

These activities were designed for use at the University of Montana, where they were tested for four quarters in a mathematics for elementary teachers course on informal geometry. They are for use with Apple II-Plus computers with 64K memory or Apple IIe computers and MIT Logo. (Modifications are necessary if the activities are to be used with…

Libeskind, Shlomo; And Others

346

Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"  

Science.gov (United States)

Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

Freemon, Jennifer

2012-01-01

347

Elementary Mathematical Methods. Third Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains 15 chapters: (1) "Teaching Problem Solving"; (2) "Using Calculators and Computers in Elementary School Mathematics"; (3) "Organizing for Instruction"; (4) "Teaching Numeration of Whole Numbers"; (5) "Teaching Numeration of Common and Decimal Fractions"; (6) "Teaching Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers"; (7) "Teaching…

Thiessen, Diane; And Others

348

Cooperative Learning and Elementary Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights the five essential components of cooperative learning, provides a quick overview of the research behind the strategy, describes three of the most common types, and offers ideas on how to get started using cooperative learning at the elementary level.

Kimberly Lightle

349

Kovalevskaya top -- an elementary approach  

CERN Document Server

The goal of this note is to give an elementary and very short solution to equations of motion for the Kovalevskaya top. For this we use some results from original papers by Kovalevskay, K\\"otter and Weber and also the authors Lax representation (see math-ph/0111024)

Perelomov, A M

2001-01-01

350

Re-Evaluation of 6th Edition of AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Proposed Improvement Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To use magnetic resonance imaging to re-evaluate and improve the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of the data from 924 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging examinations and received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Results: The T classification, N classification, and stage group were independent predictors. No significant differences in the local failure hazards between adjacent T categories were observed between Stage T2b and T1, Stage T2b and T2a, and Stage T2b and T3. Although the disease failure hazards for Stage T1 were similar to those for Stage T2a, those for Stage T2b were similar to those for Stage T3. Survival curves of the different T/N subsets showed a better segregation when Stage T2a was downstaged to T1, T2b and T3 were incorporated into T2, and the nodal greatest dimension was rejected. The disease failure hazard for T3N0-N1 subsets were similar to those of the T1-T2N1 subsets belonging to Stage II; the same result was found for the T4N0-N2 subsets in the sixth American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. However, the staging system we propose shows more consistent hazards within the same stage group and better survival discrimination among T categories, N categories, and overall stages. Conclusio categories, and overall stages. Conclusion: Using the 6th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system produces an acceptable distribution of patient numbers and segregation of survival curves among the different stage groups. The prognostic accuracy of the staging system could be improved by recategorizing the T, N, and group stage criteria.

351

Algebraic entropy of elementary amenable groups  

OpenAIRE

We prove that any finitely generated elementary amenable group of zero (algebraic) entropy contains a nilpotent subgroup of finite index or, equivalently, any finitely generated elementary amenable group of exponential growth is of uniformly exponential growth. We also show that 0 is an accumulation point of the set of entropies of elementary amenable groups.

Osin, D. V.

2004-01-01

352

Repetitive Microteaching:Learning to Teach Elementary Social Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of deliberate practice in the development of performance has been studied extensively in many contexts, such as in athletics. The construct of deliberate practice in the development of teacher performance has been receiving heightened examination lately, though the role of practice in the development of elementary social studies teachers remains essentially unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a repeated practice microteaching model on the teaching behaviors of 64 elementary preservice teachers (PSTs who taught the same social studies lessons to small groups of 4th-grade students four times in succession. PST reflection journals from all PSTs, observational transcripts of 14 teaching pairs, focus group interviews with the PSTs, and informal cooperating teacher interviews revealed that the PSTs’ lessons changed over the four successive teaching episodes. The PSTs became more comfortable and confident after teaching the same social studies lesson multiple times. PSTs also reported that their lessons became better, yet the qualitative data revealed that even though their teaching became more efficient and student work correctness improved, only a few PSTs increased the cognitive demand of their questions and activities. Nonetheless, most PSTs demonstrated increased use of social studies pedagogical content knowledge through their examples and discussions, as well as increased attention to student thinking. Repeated practice field experiences seem to hold potential for elementary PSTs to develop their use ofsocial studies pedagogical content knowledge

Derek L. ANDERSON

2012-11-01

353

Training-test module in the system of pedagogical control of physical fitness in lower grades  

OpenAIRE

Purpose : to substantiate model characteristics of physical fitness of elementary school students of secondary schools through the introduction of training and test module in the pedagogical control. Material : the study involved 320 boys and 278 girls in grades 1-4 schools in Kharkov number number 57, 112, 166. Results : the level of physical fitness of elementary school students with available motor tests and the results are compared between the experimental data and control classes. Found ...

Peleshenko I.N.

2014-01-01

354

Graded photonic quasicrystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce graded photonic quasicrystals and investigate properties of such structures on the example of a Luneburg lens based on a dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal. It is shown that the graded photonic quasicrystal lens has better focusing properties as compared with the graded photonic crystal lens in a frequency range suitable for experimental realization. The proposed graded photonic quasicrystals can be used in optical systems where compact and powerful focusing elements are required. PMID:22739847

Dyachenko, Pavel N; Pavelyev, Vladimir S; Soifer, Victor A

2012-06-15

355

Interface problems of elementary students and parallel interface designs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite multiple window interfaces have eliminated some user-interface problems by showing information in independent windows, disorientation, cognitive overload and split attention keeping up to date as an important problems of e-learning interfaces. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of parallel interface designs on the e-learning success of primary school students. For this purpose, three different parallel interface designs were created with the same content for experimental design. Content was selected as 4 basic traffic signals. This study was designed as general survey models. Performances of the students were examined through the questions related to recall, attention, and difficulty level of media. 9 6th grade primary school students participated in the application. According to the results of the application students were fever forced and best recall in 2nd level parallel interface design. However, students were faster in 3th level parallel interface design. At the end of the research solutions to the problems of the learner-interface interaction is presented by help of parallel interface designs.

Mehmet F?rat

2013-10-01

356

Elementary principles of linear accelerators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.

Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.

1983-09-01

357

Elementary principles of linear accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables

358

Paleontology--Dinosaurs and Other Fossils: Digging into the Past. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book consists of two complete units on paleontology, dinosaurs, and fossils. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary…

Tanner, Joey

359

Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2008-02-05

360

Could only fermions be elementary?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In standard Poincare and anti de Sitter SO(2, 3) invariant theories, antiparticles are related to negative energy solutions of covariant equations while independent positive energy unitary irreducible representations (UIRs) of the symmetry group are used for describing both a particle and its antiparticle. Such an approach cannot be applied in de Sitter SO(1, 4) invariant theory. We argue that it would be more natural to require that (*) one UIR should describe a particle and its antiparticle simultaneously. This would automatically explain the existence of antiparticles and show that a particle and its antiparticle are different states of the same object. If (*) is adopted then among the above groups only the SO(1, 4) one can be a candidate for constructing elementary particle theory. It is shown that UIRs of the SO(1, 4) group can be interpreted in the framework of (*) and cannot be interpreted in the standard way. By quantizing such UIRs and requiring that the energy should be positive in the Poincare approximation, we conclude that (i) elementary particles can be only fermions. It is also shown that (ii) C invariance is not exact even in the free massive theory and (iii) elementary particles cannot be neutral. This gives a natural explanation of the fact that all observed neutral states are bosons.

Lev, Felix M [Artwork Conversion Software Inc., 1201 Morningside Drive, Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 (United States)

2004-03-05

361

An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Using phenomenological analysis, the authors examined the long-term effects of an environmental education school field trip on fourth grade elementary students who visited Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The authors' findings suggest that one year after the experience, many students remembered what they had seen and heard and had developed a…

Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

2007-01-01

362

The Longitudinal Effects of Residential Mobility on the Academic Achievement of Urban Elementary and Middle School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Residential stability matters to a young person's educational development, and the present housing crisis has disrupted the residential stability of many families. This study uses latent growth-curve modeling to examine how changing residences affects math and reading achievement from third through eighth grade among a sample of urban elementary

Voight, Adam; Shinn, Marybeth; Nation, Maury

2012-01-01

363

Professional Learning to Support Elementary Teachers' Use of the iPod Touch in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This single case study reports on the programme of professional learning that a Canadian staff of elementary teachers (Junior Kindergarten to Grade Eight) and their school principal engaged in to learn to use a mobile multimedia device as an instructional resource. The professional learning was facilitated by two university researchers who used…

Ciampa, Katia; Gallagher, Tiffany L.

2013-01-01

364

The Effects of the Cooperative Learning Method Supported by Multiple Intelligence Theory on Turkish Elementary Students' Mathematics Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present experimental study, the effects of the cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory (CLMI) on elementary school fourth grade students' academic achievement and retention towards the mathematics course were investigated. The participants of the study were 150 students who were divided into two experimental…

Isik, Dilek; Tarim, Kamuran

2009-01-01

365

The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

2013-01-01

366

How Do Elementary Textbooks Address Fractions? A Review of Mathematics Textbooks in the USA, Japan, and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

Textbooks play an important part in the design of instruction. This study analyzed the presentation of fractions in textbooks designed for the elementary grades in Kuwait, Japan, and the USA. The analysis focused on the physical characteristics of the books, the structure of the lessons, and the nature of the mathematical problems presented.…

Alajmi, Amal Hussain

2012-01-01

367

Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) Scores  

Science.gov (United States)

The psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) scores were examined. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the responses of 997 students in Grades 2 to 6 on the TAS-E. The results of the EFA produced a four-factor solution: Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Concerns, Task…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Grumbein, Matthew J.; Raad, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

368

Student and Parent Perceptions of Barriers to and Benefits of the School Breakfast Program in Elementary Schools in Southeast Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors impacting participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) for elementary school students in southeast Alabama. Methods: Focus groups were used to gather qualitative data from southeastern Alabama public school fourth and fifth grade students and their parents. Six student…

Sabol, Alexis; Struempler, Barbara J.; Zizza, Claire A.

2011-01-01

369

Learning Social Studies via Objects in Museums: Investigation into Turkish Elementary School Students' Lived Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a descriptive phenomenological research design, this study investigated Turkish elementary school students' experiences in learning social studies via objects in museums. After students visited four different museums during the teaching of three thematic units at sixth grade level, their lived experiences were elicited. Purposeful…

Yilmaz, Kaya; Filiz, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Ali

2013-01-01

370

The Educationally Disadvantaged Elementary School Child: Anxiety Reduction and Behavioral Change Through Public Commitment and Counseling. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 50 subjects, low in sociometric status and identified as educationally disadvantaged on the basis of high "school anxiety" were drawn from fifth and sixth grade public school children. Control and experimental groups were set up. Elementary counselors worked with the experimental groups using procedures based on the theory of cognitive…

Beggs, Donald L.; Mayer, G. Roy

371

No Sissy Boys Here: A Content Analysis of the Representation of Masculinity in Elementary School Reading Textbooks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the portrayal of gender characteristics in elementary school textbooks, particularly masculine and feminine stereotypes, examining first, third, and fifth grade literature textbooks using an evaluative instrument based on the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Despite publisher's guidelines and Title IX, males are still portrayed primarily in a…

Evans, Lorraine; Davies, Kimberly

2000-01-01

372

Graded Brauer Tree Algebras  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we construct non-negative gradings on a basic Brauer tree algebra $A_{\\Gamma}$ corresponding to an arbitrary Brauer tree $\\Gamma$ of type $(m,e)$. We do this by transferring gradings via derived equivalence from a basic Brauer tree algebra $A_S$, whose tree is a star with the exceptional vertex in the middle, to $A_{\\Gamma}$. The grading on $A_S$ comes from the tight grading given by the radical filtration. To transfer gradings via derived equivalence we use ti...

Bogdanic, Dusko

2008-01-01

373

The 6th GRS conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the 3. and 4. November 1982 the sixth conference of the Corporation for Reactor Safety (GRS) was held in Cologne's Guerzenich. The theme of this year's meeting was the 'Status of Risk Investigations at Nuclear Power Plants'. A principal topic was a report on findings made by the GRS during the 'Risk Oriented Analysis SNR-300'. The second topic comprised the newest developments within Phase B of the Risk Study of Water Pressure Reactors, the discussion of the dose/effect relationship and considerations on threshold risk values. (orig.)

374

On Elementary Loops of Logic Programs  

CERN Document Server

Using the notion of an elementary loop, Gebser and Schaub refined the theorem on loop formulas due to Lin and Zhao by considering loop formulas of elementary loops only. In this article, we reformulate their definition of an elementary loop, extend it to disjunctive programs, and study several properties of elementary loops, including how maximal elementary loops are related to minimal unfounded sets. The results provide useful insights into the stable model semantics in terms of elementary loops. For a nondisjunctive program, using a graph-theoretic characterization of an elementary loop, we show that the problem of recognizing an elementary loop is tractable. On the other hand, we show that the corresponding problem is {\\sf coNP}-complete for a disjunctive program. Based on the notion of an elementary loop, we present the class of Head-Elementary-loop-Free (HEF) programs, which strictly generalizes the class of Head-Cycle-Free (HCF) programs due to Ben-Eliyahu and Dechter. Like an HCF program, an HEF progra...

Gebser, Martin; Lierler, Yuliya

2010-01-01

375

The Investigation of Elementary Mathematics Teacher Candidates’ Problem Solving Skills According to Various Variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim was to determine elementary mathematics teacher candidates’ problem solving skills and analyze problem solving skills according to various variables. The data were obtained from total 306 different grade teacher candidates receiving education in Department of Elementary Mathematics Education, Buca Faculty of Education, Dokuz Eylul University in the fall term of 2012-2013. As a result of analyses, there was not a significant difference between male and female candidates’ perceptions of their problem solving skills. There was a significant difference on their problem solving skills and impulsive approach to problem solving according to grades. Additionally, there was not a significant difference between their problem solving skills and their level of family income, settlement and region where they were lived before coming to the university and leisure activities. It was suggested to give weight to achievement that will leave a positive lasting impact on students’ attitudes like metacognitive skills, for the reason that students’ impulsive approach to the problems.

Deniz KAYA

2013-03-01

376

The beginning of metallurgy in the southern Levant: a late 6th millennium CalBC copper awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first diffused [corrected] to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local productionThis copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition. PMID:24671185

Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

2014-01-01

377

The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus  

CERN Document Server

In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, we used individual second and third Venus-Sun contact times to calculate the distance to the Sun. Ten of the sites in our network had amiable weather; 8 of which measured second contact and 5 of which measured third contact leading to consistent solar distance measurements of 152+/-30 million km and 163+/-30 million km respectively. The distance to the Sun at the time of the transit was 152.25 million km; therefore, our measurements are also consistent within 1sigma of the known value. The goal of our international school group network was to inspire the next generation of scientists using the excitement and accessibility of a rare astronom...

Faherty, Jacqueline K; Miller, Scott T

2012-01-01

378

The mineral depletion of foods available to us as a nation (1940-2002)--a review of the 6th Edition of McCance and Widdowson.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 60 years there have been fundamental changes in the quality and quantity of food available to us as a nation. The character, growing method, preparation, source and ultimate presentation of basic staples have changed significantly to the extent that trace elements and micronutrient contents have been severely depleted. This trend, established in a review of the 5th Edition of McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, is still apparent in this review of the 6th edition of the same work. Concurrently there has been a precipitous change towards convenience and pre-prepared foods containing saturated fats, highly processed meats and refined carbohydrates, often devoid of vital micronutrients yet packed with a cocktail of chemical additives including colourings, flavourings and preservatives. It is proposed that these changes are significant contributors to rising levels of diet-induced ill health. Ongoing research clearly demonstrates a significant relationship between deficiencies in micronutrients and physical and mental ill health. PMID:18309763

Thomas, David

2007-01-01

379

Effects of the 6th September 2002 earthquake: damage amplification in the south-eastern sector of Palermo explained by GIS technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 6th September 2002 earthquake the highest damage level in Palermo was observed in the SE sector. This is a recent urbanization area where reinforced concrete structures predominate. A detailed analysis of soil properties in Palermo was carried out by City-GIS to investigate a possible role of nearsurface geology on earthquake effects. City-GIS is a tool dedicated to natural hazard evaluation in urban areas. The availability of high density of well log data (stratigraphic and geotechnical allowed a realistic modeling of surface geology and physical-mechanical properties that control the seismic response. In wide zones of the above mentioned sector of Palermo, outcropping terrains are composed of thin calcarenite layers, lying above remarkably thick siltyclayey sands that overlay the Numidian Flysch, commonly considered the bedrock of Quaternary sediments. Since silty-clayey sands feature greater deformability properties (Young's modulus and smaller resistance properties (undrained cohesion and shear resistance angle than Numidian Flysch, these zones of the SE sector exhibit high values of the acoustic impedance contrast. Moreover, a quite wide portion of the study area, crossed by the Oreto River, is characterized by very thick alluvial deposits. Here, the significant lateral variations of the lithostratigraphic geometry may be an additional cause of strong site effects.

A. Zuccarello

2003-06-01

380

Music activities in elementary school led by a primary education teacher  

OpenAIRE

Primary education teacher has a major impact on musical activities of children during the period of the first to the fifth grade of elemetary school. The quality of these activities depends mostly on his professional qualifications, personal characteristics, motivation, innovation and awareness of the positive effects of music on a child. I performed a case study in three elementary schools involving three primary education teachers. In this case study I have explored the quantity, limitation...

Jekovec, Lucija

2011-01-01

381

Design and implementation of injury prevention curricula for elementary schools: lessons learned  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Project objectives were to: (1) design and produce an easy-to-use, replicable comprehensive injury prevention curriculum for elementary schools; (2) pilot the program to determine instructors' ease in teaching the material and its usefulness in enhancing student knowledge and behavior change; (3) present material in subject-integrated, grade-specific lessons that would meet state and national student learning objectives; and (4) submit and obtain adoption of the curriculum by the ...

Azeredo, R.; Stephens-stidham, S.

2003-01-01

382

The influence of elementary processes to the dynamic resistance of plasma in the positive column in different pressure interval  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taking into consideration of the elementary processes characteristic for different pressure intervals, it was the testimony of a single length of the impedance of the electrical discharge positive column. Particle balance of three regimes considered: direct ionization-ambipolar diffusion, graded ionization-ambipolar diffusion, graded the amount of ionization recombination. Two regimes of the disappearing of metastable atoms in the graded ionization-ambipolar diffusion condition: the spill with an electronic pulse and are considered separately. The impedance curves for different regimes of qualitatively different from each other

383

7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

2010-01-01

384

7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements...304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades,...

2010-01-01

385

Non-elementary proper forcing notions  

OpenAIRE

We present reasons for developing a theory of forcing notions which satisfy the properness demand for countable models which are not necessarily elementary submodels of some (H(chi), in). This leads to forcing notions which are ``reasonably'' definable. We present two specific properties materializing this intuition: nep (non-elementary properness) and snep (Souslin non-elementary properness). For this we consider candidates (countable models to which the definition applies)...

Shelah, Saharon

1997-01-01

386

The periodic table of elementary particles  

OpenAIRE

All leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles. The periodic table is derived from dualities of string theory and a Kaluza-Klein substructure for the six extra spatial dimensions. As a molecule is the composite of atoms with chemical bonds, a hadron is the composite of elementary particles with hadronic bonds. The masses of elementary particles and hadrons can be calculated using the periodic table with only four known const...

Chung, Ding-yu

2000-01-01

387

Instrumentation in elementary particle physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs

388

Graded tensor calculus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

389

Intellectual Development Beyond Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Piagetian type task, The Island Puzzle, was administered to children grades 5 to 12, to science teachers attending a National Science Teachers Association Convention, and to college physics teachers attending a regional meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers. The procedures differed from those of Piaget in that the puzzle was…

Karplus, Elizabeth F.; Karplus, Robert

390

Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available software to support problem solving and understanding of real life situations. We emphasize the use of graphical and numerical techniques, rather than theoretical techniques, to investigate and analyze the behavior of the solutions of the difference equations.As an illustration of our approach, we will show a nontraditional and efficient way of introducing models from finance and economics. We will also present an interesting model of supply and demand with a lag time, which is called the cobweb theorem in economics. We introduce a sample of a research project on a technique of removing chaotic behavior from a chaotic system.

Mazen Shahin

2010-06-01

391

Early Fetal Gender Determination Using Real-Time PCR Analysis of Cell-free Fetal DNA During 6th-10th Weeks of Gestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, new advances in the use of cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal plasma of pregnant women has provided the possibility of applying cffDNA in prenatal diagnosis as a non-invasive method. In contrary to the risks of invasive methods that affect both mother and fetus, applying cffDNA is proven to be highly effective with lower risk. One of the applications of prenatal diagnosis is fetal gender determination, which is important in fetuses at risk of sex-linked genetic diseases. In such cases by obtaining the basic information of the gender, necessary time management can be taken in therapeutic to significantly reduce the necessity of applying the invasive methods. Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the human Y-chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women with gestational age between 6th to 10th weeks and the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. Identification of SRY, DYS14 & DAZ sequences, which are not presentin the maternal genome, was performed using Real-Time PCR. All the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns to calculate the test accuracy. Considerable 97.3% sensitivity and 97.3% specificity were obtained in fetal gender determination which is significant in the first trimester of pregnancy. Only in one case, false positive result was obtained. Using non-invasive method of cffDNAs in the shortest time possible, as well as avoiding invasive tests for early determination of fetal gender, provides the opportunity of deciding and employing early treatment for fetuses at risk of genetic diseases

Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid

2013-04-01

392

Transitions from Elementary to Middle School Math  

Science.gov (United States)

In the move from elementary to middle school mathematics, students encounter major changes in instructional materials and approaches, work expectations, school structure, and general level of difficulty in material. Research shows that, in general, students suffer significant declines in academic achievement in the transition from elementary

Schielack, Janie; Seeley, Cathy L.

2010-01-01

393

Water Those Plants - Elementary School Lesson Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson plan develops the concept of irrigation for elementary school level kids. The lesson plan provides two activities involving role playing. Using the role playing activites and labs, elementary students should acquire the critical thinking skills necessary to draw conclusions about various aspects of irrigation.

394

Effective Hand Washing in an Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary school is the perfect place to teach and reinforce the lifelong skill of effective handwashing for students and adults. One collaboration between an elementary school and a nursing education program to augment school health services without taxing the school budget is described. Nursing students spent 260 professional nursing service…

Hezel, Linda; Bartlett, Connie; Hileman, Judy Willis; Dillon, Lisa; Cessna, Tamara

2000-01-01

395

The Elementary Camp Experience: An ARC Partnership  

Science.gov (United States)

Foreign Language Elementary Summer Camp is a fantastic way to spend part of the summer. For the past ten years in Glastonbury, Connecticut, the authors have offered a variety of foreign language elementary camps that meet daily for three hours for three to four weeks during July. Currently, they offer camps for Chinese, English Language Learners…

Krzemien, Marta; Krotzer, Kate

2012-01-01

396

Student Leadership Education in Elementary Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

As I began my career as a teacher, I assumed leadership education would naturally be integrated into the elementary classroom curriculum because I was intrigued by this topic. However, as I spent more time in the classroom I quickly realized leadership skills were not part of regular classroom learning or practice for elementary age students. I…

Hess, Lindsay

2010-01-01

397

Hawthorne Elementary School: The University Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes positive results coming from Trinity University's active support of educational reform efforts at Hawthorne Elementary School (Houston, Texas). Trinity's teacher education agenda focused on preparing teachers for the real world of the elementary school and pursuing a teacher-selected school reform project. (GR)

Frazee, Bruce M.

1996-01-01

398

Communication and Stakeholder Engagement at Brighouse Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

The Samuel Brighouse Elementary School, located in Richmond, BC, a city adjacent to Vancouver on the west coast of Canada, is a five-hundred student elementary school. When completed in September 2011, it will replace an existing older school on the same site. This project was identified early on as an opportunity for the Richmond School Board to…

Drew, Robert

2011-01-01

399

Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band  

Science.gov (United States)

The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

Moore, Patience

2009-01-01

400

Elementary School Teachers and Teaching with Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to identify the relationship between elementary school teachers' ICT engagement with their attitudes towards technology. To this end, one hundred elementary school students were asked to fill out questionnaires related to their ICT knowledge, usage, and attitude towards technology. The results show that teachers' ICT…

Varol, Filiz

2013-01-01

401

Health Clinic Environments in Georgia Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Schools seem to be the logical place to serve the health needs of students, since children spend a majority of their time there. Design standards were not available for health clinics in Georgia elementary schools; therefore, this study examined key characteristics of an elementary school clinic in order to determine the importance of each design…

Simpson, Susan Rogers

2005-01-01

402

Elementary quadratic chaotic flows with no equilibria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three methods are used to produce a catalog of seventeen elementary three-dimensional chaotic flows with quadratic nonlinearities that have the unusual feature of lacking any equilibrium points. It is likely that most if not all the elementary examples of such systems have now been identified.

403

Elementary quadratic chaotic flows with no equilibria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three methods are used to produce a catalog of seventeen elementary three-dimensional chaotic flows with quadratic nonlinearities that have the unusual feature of lacking any equilibrium points. It is likely that most if not all the elementary examples of such systems have now been identified.

Jafari, Sajad, E-mail: sajadjafari@aut.ac.ir [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sprott, J.C. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hashemi Golpayegani, S. Mohammad Reza [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-03-15

404

Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students’ comprehension proficiencies. This experimental research study explores the use of an anticipatory reading guide with third grade struggling readers across multiple subject areas. Findings indicate that the experimental treatment group outperformed the control group by a statistically significant rate on both reading and content area measures, indicating that when struggling readers practice and use strategies to explicitly think what will be asked of them after reading the passage they perform at higher levels.

Evan Ortlieb

2013-07-01

405

Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

Kugelmass, Rachel

406

Learning beyond the School Walls: Fieldwork in Singapore, Grades 1-6  

Science.gov (United States)

On the Southeast Asian island-nation of Singapore, many elementary schools feature a different kind of field trip. Under the name "fieldwork," first- through sixth-grade students regularly venture out of the school on excursions into the community. They conduct surveys and interviews, do simple experiments, observe and gather relevant information,…

Kho, Ee Moi; Parker, Walter

2010-01-01

407

A Multiliteracies Pedagogy: Exploring Semiotic Possibilities of a Disney Video in a Third Grade Diverse Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Disney videos are used across the US as important materials for teaching language arts and literacy in elementary schools. However, how pupils make meaning of the videos has not been sufficiently investigated in educational research. Twenty-five third-grade pupils were taught comprehension skills using "Sleeping Beauty." The students created their…

Ajayi, Lasisi

2011-01-01

408

Who's Reading and Why: Reading Habits of 1st Grade through Graduate Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The habit of reading develops over a period of time. This study explored reading habits across a wide range of students. An open-ended survey of reading habits involved 242 participants from grades 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, undergraduate non-education majors, undergraduate elementary majors, and graduate reading majors. As data were analyzed, themes emerged…

Camp, Deanne

2007-01-01

409

Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

410

Project CHOICE: #105. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Nursing. (Health Occupations Career Cluster).  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching unit, Nursing, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Health Occupations Career Cluster,…

Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

411

A Curriculum Plan for the Columbus Zoo Aquarium. Grades 3 through 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum plan is submitted as a framework for developing educational programs at the Columbus Zoo Aquarium (CZA) for elementary school students in grades 3 through 6. It is intended to provide support and assistance to those involved with CZA programs. Major sections include: (1) "Review of Columbus Zoo's Educational Programs"; (2)…

Alsdorf, Brian

412

A Study on the Intelligence Profiles of Taiwan Indigenous Students: The Case of Second Grade Pupils  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper attempts to develop an intelligence-fair assessment tool to explore the intelligence profiles of 15 second grade Amis pupils. This study was conducted in an elementary school in Taiwan with a largely Amis population of lower socioeconomic status. The results illustrate that the most developed intelligence for eight pupils was musical…

Liu, Wei-Yu; Teele, Sue

2009-01-01

413

Connections: Combining Environmental Education and Artwork in the Primary Grades for Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research study was designed to raise environmental awareness and improve the social responsibility and actions of students in Grades 2 and 3 at Montecito Elementary in Burnaby. Implemented was a strategy pairing environmental education lessons with artwork projects, to engage the students and improve their awareness of aquatic…

Day, Joanne

2004-01-01

414

Hannah's Prior Knowledge about Chemicals: A Case Study of One Fourth-Grade Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical principles are taught in elementary education across much of the United States because the "National Science Education Standards" include concepts about the nature of matter, states of matter, and changes in matter among other science concepts within the first to fifth grade levels. "Chemicals" is a word related to the nature of matter…

Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Emenike, Mary Elizabeth

2012-01-01

415

Improving the Listening Skills of Fourth Grade Students through a Multifaceted Guidance Approach and Active Listening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourth-grade students in one elementary school were administered a listening inventory, the Listening Composite section of the Test of Language Development-Intermediate, and a questionnaire "Are You a Good Listener" to assess their listening skills. The results showed that students lacked listening skills and did not have adequate knowledge and…

Barmor, Carol

416

Epistemological Beliefs of Third-Grade Students in an Investigation-Rich Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of becoming scientifically literate, students should come to appreciate epistemic aspects of science. Little research has been conducted on elementary students' epistemological beliefs specific to science education. This study offers insights into third-grade students' epistemological beliefs while paying attention to the intersection of…

Kittleson, Julie M.

2011-01-01

417

Concept Mapping in Science Class: A Case Study of Fifth Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research project was to determine the effects of incorporating concept mapping on the achievement of fifth grade students in science class. The study was conducted with twenty-three students at Ata Elementary School, Trabzon, Turkey. The students were tested with teacher-constructed pre- and post tests containing 20…

Asan, Askin

2007-01-01

418

The Relationships among Language Ability, Emotion Regulation and Social Competence in Second-Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Relationships exist between language ability, emotion regulation, and social competence in preschool children. This study examines how these relationships function in elementary school children, and explores whether language ability partially mediates the relationship between emotion regulation and social competence. Second-grade students (N = 67)…

Monopoli, W. John; Kingston, Sharon

2012-01-01

419

Seeing things through science eyes: A case study of an exemplary elementary teacher  

Science.gov (United States)

Science-eyed elementary teachers exhibit relentless passions for replacing traditional teaching with realistic, integrated, responsible instruction with science at its core. The purpose of this study was to explore an exemplary elementary teacher's thinking about science and how it serves as a vehicle for the learning that occurs in her primary classroom. Two research questions were investigated in this study. First, what does it mean for an exemplary elementary teacher to view all learning with science eyes? Second, in what ways does the science-oriented elementary teacher use her knowledge of science content, pedagogy, and practical experience to structure her students' learning and her classroom teaching? A naturalistic methodology was employed in this research effort. Classroom observations, teacher interviews, documents, and selected artifacts were analyzed using a constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Lincoln & Guba, 1985) and the analysis tools of HyperRESEARCH (1994) in an effort to unravel the complex, intuitive knowledge of a nationally recognized first grade teacher. Data analyses provided insightful information about this exceptional teacher and how she organizes, plans, and implements effective lessons that integrate science with all subject areas. Four direct observation themes, Best Practice, Just Like a Scientist, Integrating Curriculum - A Balancing Act, and Expert Pedagogy, and six interview themes, Curriculum - What to Teach?, Instruction - How to Teach, Knowing Students, Getting Stuff, Professionalism, and Reflective Practitioner, emerged from independent analyses of two data sets. Three overall themes, Head, Heart, and Hands of an Exemplary Science Elementary Teacher, emerged from a convergent content analysis. The themes provide the foundation for a proposed model of an expert science pedagogue. Ten portrait-like, impressionistic, vignettes are included in this unique study to capture the spirit of the science-eyed elementary teacher's outstanding work in her first-grade classroom. Conclusions indicate that an in-depth knowledge and genuine passion for science, students, and teaching drives science-eyed teachers. The science-eyed elementary teacher organizes curriculum and instruction with scientific principles and skills of inquiry in mind. She improvises lessons to meet students' needs and interests in science. The science-eyed elementary teacher seeks out other science-eyed teachers. She is unique, inventive, and self aware.

Foster, Andrea Susan

420

Development of Interests and Competency Beliefs: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study of Fifth- to Eighth-Grade Students Using the ICA-R and Structural Equation Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative influence of interest and self-efficacy beliefs on each other over 1 year was examined in 2 longitudinal samples of students, 1 of elementary school students (Grade 5, N = 126) and 1 of middle school students (Grade 7, N = 221). Interest and competence ratings on the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and…

Tracey, Terence J. G.

2002-01-01

421

What Is Fifth Grade?  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most consistent regularities observers would see in schools is the grouping of children by grade. The authors' work with schoolchildren causes them to ask, what is a grade beyond a group of children at a particular age? In this article, the authors share a glimpse of an activity involving inference and logical necessity that they…

O'Brien, Thomas C.; Wallach, Christine

2006-01-01

422

Minimum Grading, Maximum Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Fair and effective schools should assign grades that align with clear and consistent evidence of student performance (Wormeli, 2006), but when a student's performance is inconsistent, traditional grading practices can prove inadequate. Understanding this, increasing numbers of schools have been experimenting with the practice of assigning minimum…

Carey, Theodore; Carifio, James

2011-01-01

423

Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

424

Hypersymmetry: A Z3-graded generalization of supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a generalization of non-commutative geometry and gauge theories based on ternary Z3-graded structures. In the new algebraic structures we define, all products of two entities are left free, the only constraining relations being imposed on ternary products. These relations reflect the action of the Z3-group, which may be either trivial, i.e., abc=bca=cab, generalizing the usual commutativity, or non-trivial, i.e., abc=jbca, with j=e(2?i)/3. The usual Z2-graded structures such as Grassmann, Lie, and Clifford algebras are generalized to the Z3-graded case. Certain suggestions concerning the eventual use of these new structures in physics of elementary particles and fields are exposed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

425

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP)

426

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

1991-12-01

427

Elementary GLOBE: Soil Treasure Hunt  

Science.gov (United States)

A learning activity for the Scoop on Soils book in the Elementary GLOBE Series. Students will make predictions about what they think they will find in a sample of soil. They will investigate the sample and sort out the various items they find. Next they will spend time outside observing one or more sites to see what they find in the soil. After recording and sharing their observations they will create their own stories about the things they found in the soil. The purpose of the activity is to learn about natural things commonly found in soil and how these things impact how the soil looks and feels as well as to introduce students to the concept of decomposition. After completing this activity, students will know about various things found in soil including rocks, critters, roots, and other organic material. They will also understand that animals and microorganisms aid in the decomposition process that contributes organic materials to soils.

2008-12-01

428

Topics in elementary scattering theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these lectures a summary is given of some of the fundamental ideas and formalism used to describe and understand the interactions of elementary particles. A brief review of relativistic kinematics is followed by a discussion of Lorentz-invariant variables for describing two-body processes, phase space and plots, such as the Dalitz plot, which can be used to study some aspects of the dynamics of an interaction, relatively free from kinematic complications. A general description of scattering and decay is given and then, more specifically, some aspects of two-body interactions in the absence of spin are discussed. Finally, complications that arise when particle spin has to be taken into account are considered. (U.K.)

429

Textiles as a Reflection of Ancient and Contemporary Maya Cultures: An Interdisciplinary Unit for 6th and 7th Grade Students at John F. Kennedy Middle School, Northampton, MA. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum unit on textiles is intended for middle school students who have previously studied the cultures of modern and ancient Latin America. The unit does not employ Spanish language skills. Its lessons apply to individual, small group, and whole group work, and may take from 30 minutes to three class periods. The guide lists necessary…

Schlichting, Kimberly

430

Tracking and imaging elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider is one of the most powerful particle accelerators ever built. It smashes electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons, releasing as much as 100 billion electron volts of energy within each of four enormous detectors. Each burst of energy generates a spray of hundreds of elementary particles that are monitored by hundreds of thousands of sensors. In less than a second, an electronic system must sort through the data from some 50,000 electron-positron encounters, searching for just one or two head-on collisions that might lead to discoveries about the fundamental forces and the elementary particles of nature. When the electronic systems identify such a promising event, a picture of the data must be transmitted to the most ingenious image processor ever created. The device is the human brain. Computers cannot match the brain's capacity to recognize complicated patterns in the data collected by the LEP detectors. The work of understanding subnuclear events begins therefore through the visualization of objects that are trillions of times smaller than the eye can see and that move millions of times faster than the eye can follow. During the past decade, the authors and their colleagues at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) have attempted to design the perfect interface between the minds of physicists and the barrage of electronic signals from the LEP detectors. Using sophisticated computers, they translasing sophisticated computers, they translate raw data - 500,000 numbers from each event - into clear, meaningful images. With shapes, curves and colors, they represent the trajectories of particles, their type, their energy and many other properties

431

Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Azmi Zakaria

2011-03-01

432

Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety - 6th national report of Switzerland to the Convention in accordance with its article 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a short description of Switzerland as a state in the middle of Europe and of its political organization, the report explains the development of the nuclear power from the first experimental reactor in 1957. Presently five nuclear power plants (NPP) are operating in Switzerland, producing about 40% of the electricity consumption of the country, the rest being produced essentially by hydroelectric plants. As the first regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission was set up in 1960, which evolved to the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) which came into force at the end of 1996. Since there, Switzerland has prepared and submitted the country reports for the regular Review Meetings of Contracting Countries. This 6th report by ENSI provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. It gives consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 5th meeting and at the extraordinary meeting dedicated to the consequences of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. Shortly after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, the Swiss government has decided to phase out nuclear energy; existing plants will continue to operate as long as they are safe. In Switzerland, on-going activities regarding safety assessment of the different stages in the lifetime of nuclear installations consist of periodic assessments and assessments of long-term operation for existing Swiss NPPs. Such assessments have been performed for two Swiss NPPs (Beznau NPP and Muehleberg NPP) which have been in commercial operation for over 40 years. A detailed examination demonstrated that the conditions for the taking out of service of an NPP are not and will not be reached by these two plants within the next 10 years. Nevertheless, it is mandatory to continue with the scheduled ageing management, maintenance and backfitting activities. After the Fukushima accident, additional safety reviews were performed. All Swiss NPPs were required to back-fit two additional external feed options to resupply spent fuel pools with coolant. An external storage facility at Reitnau has been in place since June 2011, containing various operational resources for emergencies that can readily be called up. Mobile accident management equipment stored on-site has been significantly upgraded. In conclusion, all Swiss NPPs have undergone the safety review process required under the Convention and have incorporated the improvements identified in the respective safety review reports. The Swiss policy of continuous improvement to NPPs based on the current state of the art of science and technology ensures a high level of safety

433

EDITORIAL: The 6th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2006)  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy is a sector of paramount importance over the coming decades if we are to ensure sustainable development that respects our environment. The research and development of novel approaches to convert available energy into usable forms using micro and nanotechnologies can contribute towards this goal and meet the growing need for power in small scale portable applications. The dominant power sources for handheld and other portable electronics are currently primary and rechargeable batteries. Their limited energy density and adverse effects on the environment upon disposal suggest that alternative approaches need to be explored. This special issue will showcase some of the leading work in this area, initially presented at PowerMEMS 2006, the 6th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications. Power MEMS are defined as microsystems for electrical power generation and other energy conversion applications, including propulsion and cooling. The range of power MEMS technologies includes micro thermodynamic machines, such as microturbines, miniature internal combustion engines and micro-coolers; solid-state direct energy conversion, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic microstructures; micro electrochemical devices, such as micro fuel cells and nanostructure batteries; vibration energy harvesting devices, such as piezoelectric, magnetic or electrostatic micro generators, as well as micro thrusters and rocket engines for propulsion. These can either be driven by scavenging thermal, mechanical or solar energy from the environment, or from a stored energy source, such as chemical fuel or radioactive material. The unique scope leads to unique challenges in the development of power MEMS, ranging from the integration of novel materials to the efficient small scale implementation of energy conversion principles. In this special issue, Mitcheson et al provide a comparative assessment of three inertial vibration energy harvesting approaches. Technologies and approaches for micro heat engines are shared, ranging from a complete microsystem for thermal energy harvesting (Cho et al) to core bearing and microturbomachinery technologies for rotating micro heat engines (Waits et al, Nakajima et al). Electrochemical microsystems are also presented, based on methanol as fuel (Morse et al), as well as novel micro and nanofabrication approaches (Chu et al). Fuel cell microsystems with integrated hydrogen generation approaches are also investigated by Peterson et al and Varady et al, illustrating the benefits and challenges of miniaturizing complete power sources. Finally, biological micro fuel cells that leverage the principles found in nature are presented, in contrast to chemical fuel cells (Chen et al, Morishima et al). We hope that this work will inspire others to pursue innovative research and development activities in the area of power MEMS, and consequently contribute to addressing our energy challenges for the 21st century.

Fréchette, Luc G.

2007-09-01

434

Functionally graded boron carbide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

1998-12-31

435

EFFECT OF USING READING FLUENCY STRATEGIES ON IMPROVING READING LEVEL OF THIRD GRADE STUDENTS AT PRIMARY SCHOOLS  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to examine the effect of repeated reading which is one of reading fluency strategies on improving reading performance of third-grade elementary school students. The sample of this study was the third-grade students who studied in two different classes, who were in the same socio-economic status and selected from an elementary school in Kaman, K?rsehir. One of these classes was the control group and the other is the experimental group. Before the intervention, the students’...

Kaman, S?afak; S?ahi?n, Ayfer

2013-01-01

436

Elementary science education: Dilemmas facing preservice teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change processes, (b) to understand the nature of teaching and schooling, and (c) to understand the nature of teacher education itself through explicit discourse about these topics. In addition, development of greater partnerships among university faculty and schools though Partnership School models and other community-building efforts can afford prospective teachers more opportunities to enter the discourse; perhaps even as change agents.

Sullivan, Sherry Elaine

437

Elementary process theory axiomatic introduction and applications  

CERN Document Server

Modern physics lacks a unitary theory that applies to all four fundamental interactions. This PhD thesis is a proposal for a single, complete, and coherent scheme of mathematically formulated elementary laws of nature. While the first chapter presents the general background, the second chapter addresses the method by which the main result has been developed. The next three chapters rigorously introduce the Elementary Process Theory, its mathematical foundations, and its applications to physics, cosmology and philosophy of mind. The final two chapters discuss the results and present the conclusions. Summarizing, the Elementary Process Theory is a scheme of seven well-formed closed expressions, written in the mathematical language of set matrix theory – a generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. In the physical world, these seven expressions can be interpreted as elementary principles governing the universe at supersmall scale. The author critically confronts the theory with Quantum Mechanics and Genera...

Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

2011-01-01

438

Elementary equivalence of Chevalley groups over fields  

OpenAIRE

It is proved that (elementary) Chevalley groups $G_\\pi (\\Phi,K)$ and $G_{\\pi'}(\\Phi',K')$ (or $E_\\pi (\\Phi,K)$ and $E_{\\pi'}(\\Phi',K'))$ over infinite fields $K$ and $K'$ of characteristics $\

Bunina, E. I.

2007-01-01

439

Algebraic Elementary Operators on B(E  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have obtained a necessary and sufficient condition for generalized derivations to be algebraic on $B(E$. Further some results on algebraicness of elementary operators are given.

Gyan Prakash Tripathi

2012-09-01

440

A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

2013-07-25

441

REDUCE in elementary particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This preprint is the second part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains examples of calculations in quantum electrodynamics. 5 refs

442

[Theoretical studies in elementary particle physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses theoretical research in elementary particles in the following areas; Photoproduction; W-top backgrounds to Higgs production; charged Higgs production; measuring strong coupling; polarization and Z'; and polarization of top quark

443

Introduction to the elementary particle physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An introduction is given to the subject of elementary particle physics. Several particle properties are discussed and some models are shown. This introduction covers the theoretical as well as the experimental aspects including a topic on detectors. (L.C.)

444

Quantum theory of elementary processes  

CERN Document Server

In modern physics, one of the greatest divides is that between space-time and quantum fields, as the fiber bundle of the Standard Model indicates. However on the operational grounds the fields and space-time are not very different. To describe a field in an experimental region we have to assign coordinates to the points of that region in order to speak of "when" and "where" of the field itself. But to operationally study the topology and to coordinatize the region of space-time, the use of radars (to send and receive electromagnetic signals) is required. Thus the description of fields (or, rather, processes) and the description of space-time are indistinguishable at the fundamental level. Moreover, classical general relativity already says -- albeit preserving the fiber bundle structure -- that space-time and matter are intimately related. All this indicates that a new theory of elementary processes (out of which all the usual processes of creation, annihilation and propagation, and consequently the topology ...

Galiautdinov, A A

2002-01-01

445

Elementary particle physics with atoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the unique aspects of atomic physics is the capacity to make measurements with extraordinarily high precision. In suitably chosen systems, precision measurements can reveal information about fundamental interactions in nature that is not available from other sources. Although elementary particle physics is often perceived as synonymous with open-quotes high energyclose quotes and open-quotes high cost,close quotes atomic physics has played, and can continue to play, a significant role in this area. A few illustrative examples of this include (1) the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen and its, influence on the modern development of quantum field theory, (2) the severe limits placed on possible time reversal violating interactions by atomic (and neutron) searches for electric dipole moments, and (3) the measurement (and closely related atomic theory) of parity, nonconservation in atoms. This latter work has provides a precise confirmation of the Standard Model of the weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions, and is a uniquely sensitive test for the validity of a variety of alternative models that have been put forth. I will also discuss some of the joys and frustrations of doggedly pursuing the open-quotes ultimateclose quotes measurement of ridiculously tiny effects

446

Elementary gates for quantum computation  

CERN Document Server

We show that a set of gates that consists of all one-bit quantum gates (U(2)) and the two-bit exclusive-or gate (that maps Boolean values (x,y) to (x,x \\oplus y)) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits n (U(2^n)) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized Deutsch-Toffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to one input bit if and only if the logical AND of all remaining input bits is satisfied. These gates play a central role in many proposed constructions of quantum computational networks. We derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two-and three-bit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for n-bit Deutsch-Toffoli gates, and make some observations about the number required for arbitrary n-bit unitary operations.

Barenco, A; Cleve, R; Di Vincenzo, D P; Margolus, N H; Shor, P W; Sleator, T; Smolin, J A; Weinfurter, H; Barenco, A; Bennett, C H; Cleve, R; DiVincenzo, D P; Margolus, N; Shor, P; Sleator, T; Smolin, J; Weinfurter, H

1995-01-01

447

Research in elementary particle physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Task A of this contract supports research in elementary particle physics using cryogenic particle detectors. We have developed superconducting aluminum tunnel-junction detectors sensitive to a variety of particle signals, and with potential application to a number of particle-physics problems. We have extended our range of technologies through a collaboration with Simon Labov, on niobium tri-layer junctions, and Jean-Paul Maneval, on high-Tc superconducting bolometers. We have new data on response to low-energy X-rays and to alpha-particle signals from large-volume detectors. The theoretical work under this contract (Task B) is a continued investigation of nonperturbative aspects of quantum gravity. A Monte Carlo calculation is proposed for Euclidian quantum gravity, based on the ''fifth-time action'' stabilization procedure. Results from the last year include a set of seven papers, summarized below, addressing various aspects of nonperturbative quantum gravity and QCD. Among the issues- addressed is the so-called ''problem of time'' in canonical quantum gravity

448

Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles  

OpenAIRE

Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on t...

Ha, Yuan K.

2008-01-01

449

Elementary education students’ perceptions of “good” citizenship  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate how elementary pre-service teachers perceive of ‘good’ citizenship. Prior to any instruction in their methods courses, 309 pre-service elementary teachers from nine different states were asked to respond to the prompt “What is a good citizen?” The two most common responses were “helping others/community involvement” (n=180) and “following laws” (n=163). Using the framework created by Westheimer and Kahne (2004), the authors make the...

Brien, Jason L. O.; Smith, Jason M.

2011-01-01

450

An elementary local resolution of singularities algorithm  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we simplify and otherwise improve the local resolution of singularities algorithm of [G1]-[G3], providing a local resolution of singularities method that works for functions with convergent power series over an arbitrary local field of characteristic zero. The algorithm of this paper is an entirely elementary classical analysis argument, using only the implicit function theorem and elementary facts about power series and Newton polyhedra. Several examples are g...

Greenblatt, Michael

2012-01-01

451

6th Conference 'Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes'. New tendencies in the biogas technology; 6. Fachtagung Anaerobe biologische Abfallbehandlung. Neue Tendenzen in der Biogastechnologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within this 6th conference at 23rd to 24th September, 2008, in Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Development of biogas technology - influences and tendencies (H. Friedmann); (2) EEG 2009 - Effect on biogas branch (B. Dreher); (3) From composting to fermentation - material flows, technology, cost, practical experiences (M. Kern, T. Raussen, A. Lootsma, K. Funda); (4) Fermentation of vinasses from the production of bioethanol (H. Friedmann); (5) Substrate digestion and microbiological hydrolysis for biogas production from lignocellulosis containing substrates using beer draff as an example (D. Schieder, M. Faulstich, J. Voigt, J. Ellenriedere, B. Haeffner, K. Sommer); (6) Substitution of wheat and corn by grass and manure for improving the economic efficiency of biogas plants (M. Wittmaier); (7) High-efficiency anaerobic digestion with integrated micro filtration using clarification sludge as an example (W. Troesch, B. Kempter-Regel); (8) Modelling of anaerobic digestion; stationary and dynamic parameter of estimation (C. Cimatoribus); (9) Regulation of an anaerobic laboratory reactor by means of fuzzy logic (O. Bade); (10) Model based diagnosis of the state of process in biogas plants (W. Kloeden); (11) Suitability of ADM 1 in the modelling of biogas plants (K. Koch, M. Wichern, M. Luebken, H. Horn, M. Schlattmann, A. Gronauer); (12) Load dependent and automatical operation of biogas plants - an option for the future (M. Mueller, J. Proeter, F. Scholwin); (13) Chances for biogas generation and application in Vietnam (L. van Bot, M. Wittmaier, A. Karagiannidies, B. Bilitewski, P. Werner); (14) State of the art and developments in the fermentation of biological wastes in the Peoples Republic of China (M. Gehring, R. Li, B. Raininger); (15) Bio-methane potential from cattle and pig wastes in Greece (A. Karagiannidis, G. Perkoulidis, T. Kotsopoulos); (16) Contaminants in biogas plants - an assessment of the material flow using nitrogen and sulphur as an example (C. Dornack); (17) Biocorrosion due to sulphur and nitrogen - causes and solutions (A. Weger, T. Neddemeyer, M. Mocker); (18) Siloxane in the treatment of biological wastes (S. Mattersteig, L. Brunn, F. Hohmann, B. Bilitewski); (19) Biofuels from biological wastes (A. Schnapke, B. Bilitewski); (20) Fermentative generation of bio hydrogen and bio methane (D. Rechtenbach, M. Meyer, R. Segmann); (21) Possibilities and limits of testing the yield of biogas according to VDI 4630 (T. Fritz, D. Banemann, N. Engler, M. Nelles); (22) Generation of biogas from renewable raw materials in a laboratory biogas plant (S. Wesolowski, E. Ferchau, D. Trimis, N. Ohly); (23) Dry fermentation in the agriculture: Which substrates and technologies are applied (P. Weiland, J. H. von Thuenen); (24) Semi-technical investigations according to the operation at limiting load of a solid reactor used in the fermentation of maize silage (M. Tietze, V. Kuehn, G. Langhans); (25) Industrial-scale experiences in the high-load operation of dry fermenters in the fermentation of renewable raw materials - mono fraction (G. Langhans); (26) Processing and feeding of biogas in Europe - Becomes the idea the trend? (M. Weithaeuser, F. Scholwin); (27) Processing of biogas and power supply to the public grid (M. Harasek, A. Makaruk, M. Miltner); (28) Design for the drying of waste sludge with waste heat from biogas plants for the supply of a cement work (U. Eymann); (29) Comparison of fermentation and combustion of biomass (G. Hoffmann).

Bilitewski, B.; Werner, P.; Dornack, Christina; Stegmann, R.; Rettenberger, G.; Faulstich, M.; Wittmaier, M. (eds.)

2008-07-01

452

Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

OpenAIRE

In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the the...

Azmi Zakaria; Mahmood Mat Yunus, W.; Monir Norozi; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Mohd. Maarof Moksin; Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

2011-01-01

453

The Effect of Combining Analogy-Based Simulation and Laboratory Activities on Turkish Elementary School Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the combination of both analogy-based simulation and laboratory activities as a teaching tool was more effective than utilizing them separately in teaching the concepts of simple electricity. The quasi-experimental design that involved 66 seventh grade students from urban Turkish elementary

Unlu, Zeynep Koyunlu; Dokme, Ibilge

2011-01-01

454

The Lamprey River Curriculum: A Teacher-Written, Teacher-Tested Social Studies Curriculum with a Science Component for Elementary, Middle and High School Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This social studies curriculum with a science component contains two sections. The first section targets elementary schools and includes six lessons. The second section is intended for middle schools and high schools and contains four units. These two sections overlap with each other and can be used by teachers from any grade level. The content of…

McNelly, Deborah; Hoff, Douglas

455

The Effect of 3D Computer Modeling and Observation-Based Instruction on the Conceptual Change regarding Basic Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has examined the impact of teaching certain basic concepts of astronomy through a predict-observe-explain strategy, which includes three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and observations on conceptual changes seen in sixth-grade elementary school children (aged 11-13; number of students: 131). A pre- and postastronomy instruction…

Kucukozer, Huseyin; Korkusuz, M. Emin; Kucukozer, H. Asuman; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

2009-01-01

456

Interdisciplinary action supporting sexual assault prevention efforts in rural elementary schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate if knowledge is gained by rural, elementary school-aged children of sexual assault prevention concepts following implementation of an interdisciplinary prevention program. Rural children (N = 294 pretest and N = 301 posttest) were tested before and after delivery of a theater program developed for teaching sexual assault prevention concepts. The program was delivered to children enrolled in the 3rd and 4th grades of 3 rural elementary schools. Analysis of variance results indicate an increase in knowledge gained in all age groups. Significant difference in knowledge gained occurred in concept areas related to touch by authority figures, secrets, uncomfortable touch by individuals known to them, strangers, and boys' risk of abuse. Results support the need for ongoing interdisciplinary efforts to teach children sexual assault prevention concepts. PMID:10985008

Hayward, K S; Pehrsson, D E

2000-01-01

457

Design, Customization and Implementation of Energy Simulation with 5E Model in Elementary Classroom  

CERN Document Server

Science simulations are popular among educators as such simulations afford for multiple visual representation and interactivity. Despite the popularity and abundance on the internet, our literature review suggested little research has been conducted on the use of simulation in elementary school. Thus, an exploratory pilot case study was conducted to address this research gap. In this study, an open source energy simulation was remixed for use in elementary school targeted at the Grade 4 & 5 students as an after-school enrichment program. We proposed 3 stages: design, customization and implementation, to provide useful insights with the aim to allow other educators to conduct their own remixed simulation lessons. The simulation design principles (e.g., learning outcomes and colour coding) with the corresponding TPACK construct that emerged from the design and customization stages were reported. Such simulation design principles would be useful to interested educators and researchers who wish to adapt and u...

Lye, Sze Yee; Kwek, Yao Chie; Abas, Suriati; Tay, Lee Yong

2014-01-01

458