WorldWideScience
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Academic performance of peruvian elementary school children: The case of schools in Lima at the 6th grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El estudio que se informa examinó de qué manera el rendimiento académico en diversas áreas del aprendizaje tales como ortografía, lectura y aritmética estuvo asociado con diferentes variables relacionadas con niños (por ejemplo: género, inteligencia y edad). Asimismo, se consideraron algunas variabl [...] es distales como estatus socioeconómico y tipo de colegio. En el estudio participaron 1.129 niños que cursaban 6to grado de educación primaria en Lima Metropolitana (Perú). Los estudiantes completaron cuatro pruebas: En el área de lectura fueron examinados con un subtest de la prueba Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE) Lectura de Palabras y Pseudo - palabras (Cuetos & Ramos, 1999). En el área de Aritmética fueron evaluados con el Subtest de Facilidad Numérica de Ekstrom, French y Harman (1979) y en el caso de Ortografía se aplicó la Prueba de Rendimiento Ortográfico (Dioses, 2001). La variable inteligencia fue medida con la Prueba de Matrices Progresivas de Raven (Raven, J., Raven, J.C. & Court, 2004). Debido a la estructura jerárquica de los datos (estudiantes dentro de clases y clases dentro de escuelas) se aplicó análisis multinivel para cada variable académica (ortografía, lectura y aritmética). Los resultados revelaron un gran impacto en primer lugar del tipo de escuela: los alumnos de escuelas privadas rindieron mejor que los de escuelas públicas en todas las áreas académicas; en segundo lugar, la variable inteligencia juega un rol esencial, cuanto mayor es el coeficiente intelectual del estudiante, mejor es el rendimiento académico, y parcialmente del género; las niñas mostraron un mejor desempeño en comparación con los niños en el área de ortografía. Se discuten en detalle algunas repercusiones pedagógicas. Abstract in english Education is in general the basis for development in any country in the world. In the education al field, several international assessments (Pisa, 2006) reflect the great gap that yet subsists among developing countries, in which the case of Peru is not an exception. There have been many national an [...] d international academic achievement evaluations that examine the skills and knowledge of students not only in Peru but also in other Latin American countries in different academic domains. One of these examples is the Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (LLECE), in which Peru participated, in order to evaluate and compare the performance achieved by Latin American students of 3rd and 6th grade in core areas like Language, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences. Peru ranks, together with other Latin countries, with scores below the average (Regional Office for Education of UNESCO, 2008). The low ranking of the Peruvian educational system carries heavy implications and consequences, especially to the intellectual and social development of learning disabled Peruvian children. Understanding the relation between academic performance and child development is of paramount importance. The present study examines how spelling, reading and arithmetic performances are associated to various child variables (gender, intelligence, and age), and distal variables such as Socio-Economic Status (SES) or type of school. The subjects in the study were 1.129 elementary school children who were in the 6th grade (11 - 12 years old) in Metropolitan Lima, Perú. Children completed four different tests: In the reading area, the subtest of Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE; Cuetos & Ramos, 1999), Reading of Word and Pseudo-word; in the Arithmetic domain, the Number Facility from the Kit of Factor Referenced Cognitive Tests of Ekstrom, French, and Harman (1979) and in the spelling domain, the Spelling Achievement Test from Dioses (2001) was used. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices Test (Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, 2004, updated edition). Some preliminary analyses were conducted beforehand in order to overview and examine the structure of the data. Following this, and because of the hierarchical structure of the data (stu

Denisse L., Manrique Millones; Karla, Van Leeuwen; Pol, Ghesquière.

2011-12-01

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Tarefas aritméticas para o 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental / Arithmetic tasks for the 6th grade of Elementary School  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo apresentamos e discutimos o produto educacional desenvolvido junto ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Matemática da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. O propósito do trabalho foi desenvolver tarefas que tivessem como característica principal constituírem-se em situações-problem [...] a que estimulassem a produção de significados de estudantes em sala de aula. A estrutura matemática subjacente à situaçãoproblema envolveu as operações de adição e subtração de números naturais. O processo de elaboração desse produto teve como foco a produção de um conjunto de tarefas para serem utilizadas em salas de aula de matemática do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental e que pudessem servir de protótipo para a elaboração de novas tarefas pelo professor. Abstract in english In this article, we discuss educational material developed by the graduate program in mathematics education of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. The purpose of the work was to develop tasks whose main feature was problem situations that stimulate the meaning production of students in the class [...] room. The mathematical structure underlying the situation-problem involved the addition and subtraction of natural numbers. The process of developing the educational material focused on the production of a set of tasks to be used in 6th grade math classes and that could serve as a prototype for the development of new tasks by the teacher.

Maria Helena Marques, Loth; Amarildo Melchiades da, Silva.

2013-08-01

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Problem Solving, metacognition and epistemological beliefs in 6th, 7th and 8th grade students  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills (self confidence related to problem solving skill, self-control in problem solving, avoidance of problem solving), the epistemological beliefs (source of knowing, certainty of knowledge, development of knowledge, justification for knowing) and the metacognition of the 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to establish the relationships among them. The study sample consists of the 13 public and private elementary schools in the cen...

Ayten ?flazo?lu Saban; Sibel Güzel Yüce

2012-01-01

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Influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º a 6º primaria / Influence of Peruvian television advertising in unhealthy food consumption in 4th to 6th grade elementary scholars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: La exposición a la publicidad televisiva promueve el consumo de alimentos no saludables, constituyendo un riesgo para el aumento del sobrepeso y obesidad. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º [...] a 6º de primaria. Diseño: Descriptivo de asociación cruzada. Lugar: Institución Educativa Nº 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Escolares entre 9 y 12 años de edad. Intervenciones: Se aplicó dos encuestas previamente validadas y probadas en prueba piloto, a 120 escolares de ambos sexos que asistieron a clases y que tuvieron consentimiento informado firmado por sus padres. Principales medidas de resultados: Tiempo de ver televisión y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Resultados: Los estudiantes en promedio vieron televisión más de 7 horas diarias (DS 1,17). Los programas más vistos fueron los que estaban dirigidos a público mayor de 14 años. Los alimentos no saludables más publicitados y comprados fueron galletas y bebidas azucaradas. Se encontró asociación significativa entre alimentos no saludables más vistos en TV y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Conclusiones: Existió relación entre la publicidad televisiva y el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares del nivel primario. Abstract in english Background: Exposure to television advertising promoting unhealthy food consumption may increase overweight and obesity risk in children. Objectives: To determine the influence of Peruvian television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in 4th to 6th grade children. Design: Descriptive cro [...] ss-association. Setting: Educational Institution No. 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Peru. Participants: Schoolchildren aged 9 to 12 years. Interventions: Two previously validated tests were applied to 120 students of both sexes who attended classes and whose parents had signed informed consent. Main outcome measures: Time watching TV and unhealthy food consumption. Results: Students watched TV more than 7 hours per day (DS 1.17) average. Most popular programs were those directed to over 14 year-old public. Most unhealthy foods advertised and purchased were biscuits and sugary drinks. Significant association was found between unhealthy foods most watched by TV and unhealthy food consumption. Conclusions: There was relationship between television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in elementary level scholars.

Evelin C., Rojas-Huayllani; Doris H., Delgado-Pérez.

2013-01-01

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????????????????????????????? Using Debate in the 6th Grade Social Studies: Promoting Student Information Literacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of applying debate in the 6th grade social studies to promote students’ information literacy and their understanding of the subject matters. The debate topics, which came from the 6th grade social studies textbook, were “Should the legislation protect human cloning” and “If the Internet brings more good than harm to elementary students”.The debate activities were designed on the base of the Big6 information literacy model. It comprises six stages which are Task Definition, Information Seeking Strategy, Location & Access, Use of Information, Synthesis, and Evaluation.This study lasted a semester, and the data was gathered through participant observation, interviews, and document analysis. The results showed that debate could be used in the 6th grade social studies curriculum. Through collaboratively designing debate activities between teachers, it is easier to integrate information literacy instruction into the curriculum. Furthermore, to systematically design the information literacy curriculum is another important issue.

Lin Ching Chen

2010-06-01

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6th Grades Student’s interpreting of Aerial Photographs  

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Full Text Available Aerial photographs have started to be used as a teaching-training material parallel to the technological developments of our time. These materials are important to help students gain aerial perspective as a means to improve spatial cognition. In this study the skill of 6th grade students on interpreting aerial photographs have been focused on and examined how the students benefit from it. This study has been carried out with qualitative research techniques and 10 students have been used throughout the study. Aerial photographs of the places which students are familiar with have been utilized. Important outcomes were obtained on the use of aerial photographs in primary education. Findings can be guided for geography and social studies education in point of teaching spatial cognition skills.

Adem ÖCAL

2009-04-01

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Pattern tasks: thinking processes used by 6th grade students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este traballio apresenta uma descricão de um estudo em curso focado na exploracão de padrões e tarefas de generalizacão, analisando o desempenho de 54 alunos do sexto ano ao resolver este tipo de tarefas. O objetivo principal é compreender asestratégias que eles usam, dificuldades que emergem do tra [...] balho dos estudantes e verificar o papel desempenhado pela visualização no seu raciocinio. Os resultados obtidos até agora indicam que, em geral, os estudantes tendem a utilizar abordagens numéricas, em vez de abordagens visuais. Eles também tendem a usar estratégias incorretas ao tentar generalizar, sendo a mais comum o uso incorreto de proporção direta. Abstract in spanish Este documento es una descripción de un estudio en curso enfocado en tareas modelo de exploración y generalización, analizando el desempeño de cincuenta y cuatro alumnos de 6° grado cuando resuelven este tipo de tareas. El principal objetivo es entender las estrategias que utilizan, las dificultades [...] que emergen del trabajo de los alumnos y averiguar el papel que desempeñan mediante la visualización en su razonamiento. Hasta ahora, los resultados indican que, en general, los alumnos tienden a usar planteamientos numéricos en lugar de planteamientos visuales. También tienden a usar estrategias incorrectas cuando intentan generalizar, siendo la más común un uso incorrecto de la proporción directa. Abstract in english This paper gives a description of an ongoing study focused on pattern exploration and generalization tasks, analysing the performance of fifty-four 6th grade students when solving this type of tasks. The main goal is to understand the strategies they use, difficulties that emerge from students' work [...] and ascertain the role played by visualization in their reasoning. Results so far indicate that, in general, students tend to use numeric instead of visual approaches. They also tend to use incorrect strategies when attempting to generalize, the most common being an incorrect use of direct proportion.

Ana, Barbosa; Isabel, Vale; Pedro, Palhares.

2012-11-01

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Listening: Upper Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of a good listening program in the upper-elementary grades was emphasized. Perhaps the biggest listening problem with these students, the author said, is to teach them to read as they listen. Suggestions were offered as to how to build listening skills. The separate communicative skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing…

Anderson, Lorena

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DEVOLOPING A SURVEY ON 6TH GRADE STUDENTS’ AWARENESS OF LISTENING SKILLS IN TURKISH CLASSES  

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Full Text Available In this study it is aimed to build up a measurement for finding out 6th grade students’ awareness of listening skills in Turkish classes (In other words, how they find themselves about their listening skills.Sample group is taken from 4 primary public schools of Ministry of National Education in Erzurum, consisting of 6th grade students from different socio-economical groups. Components of the scale is reflected as Likert Type scale (always, often, sometimes, never. After the findings from validity and reliability studies, it can be concluded that the ‘survey’ that is prepared to find out the awareness of the 6th grade students’ listening skills in Turkish classes , is a valid and reliable instrument.

Abdullah ?AH?N

2009-10-01

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Elementary Magma Gradings on Rings  

CERN Document Server

Suppose that $G$ and $H$ are magmas and that $R$ is a strongly $G$-graded ring. We show that there is a bijection between the set of elementary (nonzero) $H$-gradings of $R$ and the set of (zero) magma homomorphisms from $G$ to $H$. Thereby we generalize a result by D\\u{a}sc\\u{a}lescu, N\\u{a}st\\u{a}sescu and Rios Montes from group gradings of matrix rings to strongly magma graded rings. We also show that there is an isomorphism between the preordered set of elementary (nonzero) $H$-filters on $R$ and the preordered set of (zero) submagmas of $G \\times H$. These results are applied to category graded rings and, in particular, to the case when $G$ and $H$ are groupoids. In the latter case, we use this bijection to determine the cardinality of the set of elementary $H$-gradings on $R$.

Lundström, Patrik

2011-01-01

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Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in teacher professional development workshops offered through the Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI); workshop attendees frame the activities as lessons appropriate for their 6th grade students; participants who use the lessons and resources in their classrooms provide iterative feedback, which is used to improve the resources for other teachers involved in the project.

Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

2012-12-01

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A Qualitative Study Concerning the 6th Grade Students’ Conceptual Structures about the Cell Concept  

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Full Text Available This study aims to investigate 6th grade students’ conceptual structures about the cell concept in science education. For this purpose, drawing method, open-ended questions and word association test were applied to 65 middle school students. Descriptive analysis and content analysis were used to analyze the data. It was found that there were a wide range of alternative conceptions in students’ drawings and definitions of the cell. They mostly designated the nucleus, cell membrane and the mitochondria as the most important parts or organelles. The participants association of the cell concept with daily life was mostly categorized as ‘awareness generated by knowledge’, ‘health’ and ‘finding it necessary for the future’. Also, the data collected through the word association test was categorized under 5 categories and ‘defining the cell’, ‘parts and the organelles of the cell’ and ‘giving examples to the cell’ were the mostly persisting ones. We conclude that the 6th grade students who met for the first time with the cell concept at school had insufficient conceptions about that concept.

Özgecan Ta?tan K?r?k

2014-12-01

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Make Way for Schools Planned for 5th and 6th Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses planning and designing schools that serve fifth and sixth graders. This combination of grade levels is seen by many to be the school's greatest strength: fifth graders have the opportunity to transition from the elementary environment, while sixth graders are removed from the adolescent peer pressure of seventh and eighth graders. (EV)

Brunner, Patrick M.

2002-01-01

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Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

Bursal, Murat

2013-01-01

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English Language Arts Scores among Sixth Grade Students Enrolled on an Elementary versus Middle School Campus  

Science.gov (United States)

A K-12 school district located in southern California was faced with overcrowding at 1of its middle schools for the 2011-2012 school year. This project study was designed to explore if an elementary or middle school campus was best in supporting students' academics while they were in transition to 6th grade middle school. Maslow's…

Johnson, La-Trice

2013-01-01

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The Efficiency of Cluster Method in Improving the Creative Writing Skill of 6th Grade Students of Primary School  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research is to search the effect of the cluster method on the creative writing skill of 6th grade students. In this paper, the students of 6-A, studying at Ulas Primary School in 2010-2011 academic year, were divided into two groups as experiment and control. Taking into consideration the various variants, pre-test and last-test…

Sahbaz, Namik Kemal; Duran, Gozde

2011-01-01

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Metric Activities for Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet contains a series of worksheets on the metric system to be used with students at the elementary school level. Twenty of the worksheets are concerned with linear measurement, four with area, ten with mass, and four with capacity. (DT)

Deane, H.; Panetta, P.

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Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

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Controlling maternal feeding practices associated with decreased dieting behavior in 6th grade children  

OpenAIRE

Controlling maternal feeding practices (CMFPs) have been linked to increased caloric intake, disinhibited eating, and obesity in children. Its relationship to child dieting behavior however is unknown. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined whether controlling feeding practices are associated with increased or decreased dieting behavior in children. CMFP was assessed in 3rd grade by the question, ...

Rhee, Kyung E.; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Prisco, Alicia; Kaciroti, Niko A.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.; Lumeng, Julie C.

2010-01-01

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Elementary Science Core Curriculum, Grades K-4  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide is intended to assist teachers and supervisors for grades K-4 as they prepare curricula, daily instruction, and assessment for elementary-level content and skills of Standards 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 of the New York State Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology. This core curriculum is not a syllabus; it specifically addresses only the content and skills to be tested by State examinations, and reflects only a portion of the content that must be addressed at the elementary level. It is expected that additional content will be supplied locally. The document defines process skills and describes their alignments with standards, key ideas, and performance indicators. There is also a set of sample matrices and a listing of major understandings that may be used to develop curriculum checklists or grade-by-grade curricula.

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The Effect of Cooperative Learning Methods on 6th- Grade Students’ Academic Success in Social Studies Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of jigsaw and group research methods used in the application of cooperative learning model on the academic success of secondary school students. Experimental research design, including pre-test and post-test, was used in the study. Work group of the study consisted of 60 6th grade students studying in three different classes of a secondary school in Köprüköy district of Erzurum between 2013-2014 spring semester. The study was conducted with two experimental groups and one control group. The related unit was taught via the related methods for five weeks with experimental groups. Academic Success Test (AST was used as data collection tool of the study. The pre-test and post test scores of experimental and control groups from AST were analyzed by using ANOVA and ANCOVA. According to the AST pre-test and post-test results of research groups, there was no significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores of Jigsaw and Groups Research students in experimental groups, while significant difference was measured between experimental groups and control group.

Elif MERAL

2014-12-01

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Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22.4% increase (43.9% to 66.3%; plessons and the teachers described the positive effect of the framework on student interest/engagement. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that the Active Science framework helped to promote physical activity, facilitate student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge and excite students about integrating physical activity into science lessons.

Finn, Kevin Eugene

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Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

2013-01-01

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A Study of the Teaching and Learning of Growth Relationships in the 6th Grade. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mathematics unit for sixth-grade classes was developed in which each of eight activities contains a challenge conveyed in the form of a story. Each activity requires students to manipulate concrete materials such as ceramic tiles, marked string, wooden cubes, and square paper. The mathematical content consists of concepts such as area,…

Fitzgerald, William M.; Shroyer, Janet

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Computer integrated drug prevention: a new approach to teach lower socioeconomic 5th and 6th grade Israeli children to say no to drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug prevention education provides an important first line of defense against future drug use. Many drug prevention strategies have been developed which teach youngsters of all ages how to say no to drugs. Nevertheless, the problem of drug use and abuse continues to escalate, and younger children, particularly those undergoing harsh psychosocial stress (e.g., hunger, lack of housing, broken homes, family unemployment, etc.), are increasingly becoming a population at-risk. In this paper, the authors describe an original drug prevention program that was developed in Israel aimed at teaching resiliency skills to 5th and 6th grade children growing up in a poverty stricken, urban community. The program, drawing on social learning theory, utilizes an attractive, cartoon illustrated, computer program combined with games, role-playing and group work techniques to prevent future drug use in preadolescent children. PMID:8658321

Gropper, M; Liraz, Z; Portowicz, D; Schindler, M

1995-01-01

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Supporting Informational Writing in the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

The greater emphasis on information books in elementary schools has led to an increased emphasis on informational writing as well. Although some have suggested utilizing mentor texts to engage children in informational writing, there has been little information about the developmental progression of children's ability to compose in this genre.…

Donovan, Carol A.; Smolkin, Laura B.

2011-01-01

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STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

Heaverlo, Carol Ann

28

Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

Hoelscher Deanna M

2006-04-01

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Chronic Absenteeism in the Elementary Grades. Information Capsule. Volume 1009  

Science.gov (United States)

Although high rates of absenteeism at the secondary school level have long been recognized as a significant problem, low attendance in elementary schools is often overlooked. Research suggests that one in 10 students younger than grade three nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing 10 percent or more of the school year. This…

Blazer, Christie

2011-01-01

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise.PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise. RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise.

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto

2012-01-01

31

Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do ensino fundamental / Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financia [...] mento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração) são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise). Abstract in english PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of B [...] elo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise). RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence) are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise).

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino, Terto; Stela Maris Aguiar, Lemos.

2013-04-01

32

Effects of reading-writing-application and learning together techniques on 6 th grade students’ academic achievements on the subject of “Matter and Temperature”  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ReadingWriting-Application technique, Learning Together technique and according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education on students’ academic achievements on the subject of “matter and temperature” and attainment level of students regarding the experiments. Sample of the study comprised a total of 92 6th grade students from three different classes of a primary school. As data collection tools; Academic Achievement Test (AAT and Experimental Achievement Test (EAT were used. The study was conducted in three different groups, each representing a different learning method. These groups were; the Reading-Writing-Application Group (RWAG, Learning Together Group (LTG and the Control Teaching Group (CTG. For data analyzes; descriptive statistics, one-way analyzes of variance (ANOVA, paired group t-test and effect sizes were used. Conclusively, it was determined that effects of Reading-Writing-Application technique and Learning Together technique on students’ academic achievements and attainment level of students regarding the experiments were much higher compared to according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education. It was further determined that the amount of increase in the achievement level created by cooperative groups (RWAG and LTG were much higher in comparison to increase in attainment level of students regarding the experiments.

Fatih GÜRBÜZ

2013-08-01

33

Predictors of the Elementary School Proficiency Exams and Issues of Equality in Educational Facilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is to determine whether school/student, classroom/student, teacher/student ratio, and the Human Development Index (I.G.E.) rates by province predict a province's total 6th and 7th grade Elementary School Proficiency Exam (SBS) scores. To determine the relationships between the province's total 6th and 7th grade SBS…

Erdogan, Irfan; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz; Cifcili, Vakur

2011-01-01

34

Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher- and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about one-fifth of the country's elementary schools. In fourth grade, students take the national achievement tests (SIMCE) of language, mathematics and science. This study examined whether mental health problems identified through either or both screens predicted achievement test scores after controlling for student and family risk factors. A total of 17,252 students had complete first grade teacher forms and these were matched with fourth grade SIMCE data for 11,185 students, 7,903 of whom also had complete parent form data from the first grade. Students at risk on either the TOCA-RR or the PSC-Cl or both performed significantly worse on all SIMCE subtests. Even after controlling for covariates and adjusting for missing data, students with mental health problems on one screen in first grade had fourth grade achievement scores that were 14-18 points (~1/3 SD) lower than students screened as not at risk. Students at risk on both screens had scores that were on average 33 points lower than students at risk on either screen. Mental health problems in first grade were one of the strongest predictors of lower achievement test scores 3 years later, supporting the premise that for children mental health matters in the real world. PMID:21647553

Guzman, Maria Paz; Jellinek, Michael; George, Myriam; Hartley, Marcela; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; Canenguez, Katia M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Yucel, Recai; White, Gwyne W; Guzman, Javier; Murphy, J Michael

2011-08-01

35

Need Assessment for Root Canal Therapy (RCT of the First Molars in Elementary School Students of Tehrans 6th Municipal District  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Although there have been several epidemiologic studies on first permanent molar caries in Iranian students, the need for endodontic therapy has not been investigated so far.The purpose of this study was to assess the need for first molar root canal therapy in 7- to 11-year-old schoolchildren and its association with age, gender, and parent education level. Materials and Methods: We selected 885 students (572 girls and 313 boys from 12 elementary schools, using a random cluster sampling method. We recorded the subjects identities and examined their maxillary and mandibular first molars with a mirror and an explorer. In case of any doubts about the need for endodontic therapy, we performed vitality tests and/or obtained periapical radiography. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: In 26 students (3% there was an indication for endodontic treatment of the first molars. Of these, 18 teeth were in mandible and 8 in the maxilla. The need for endodontic therapy was significantly related to the subjects age and the parents' education level. We did not detect a significant association between gender and the need for endodontic therapy. Conclusion: We recommend pit and fissure sealant plus fluoride therapy, beginning with the eruption of the first permanent molars- especially in the mandible.

M Bahrani

2007-08-01

36

School-Based Accountability and the Distribution of Teacher Quality across Grades in Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

We use North Carolina data to explore whether the quality of teachers in the lower elementary grades (K-2) falls short of teacher quality in the upper grades (3-5) and to examine the hypothesis that school accountability pressures contribute to such quality shortfalls. Our concern with the early grades arises from recent studies highlighting how…

Fuller, Sarah C.; Ladd, Helen F.

2013-01-01

37

Effect of retention in elementary grades on grade 9 motivation for educational attainment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. PMID:25636258

Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

2015-02-01

38

Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Elementary Grade Schools in Bangkok, Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were (a) to examine early elementary grade teachers' developmentally appropriate beliefs and their teaching practices in public schools in Bangkok, (b) to explore the functioning of developmentally appropriate practice in the two chosen early elementary schools, and (c) to determine the factors that influence the…

Saifah, Yotsawee

2012-01-01

39

Effect of Animation Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on 6th Grade Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Transformation During Phase Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effect of animation enhanced conceptual change texts (CCT-CA) on grade 6 students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and transformation during the phase changes was investigated. A quasi-experimental design and one control group (CG, N = 25) and one experimental group (EG, N = 26) were used. While the…

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

40

Perceptions of Elementary School Teachers and Students Using Interactive Whiteboards in English Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) have been widely used in elementary schools in Taiwan. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary school teachers and students using IWBs in English teaching and learning. Six public school English teachers and 614 students of 5th and 6th-grades in Yangmei Township, Taoyuan…

Yang, Ju Yin; Teng, Ya Wen

2014-01-01

41

Fifth-Grade Turkish Elementary School Students' Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels with Regard to Text Types  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…

Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy

2010-01-01

42

Reading Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities in the Upper Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

For students with learning disabilities, the upper elementary grades may represent a unique opportunity to provide successful remediation for lessening a reading difficulty and preventing students with learning disabilities from falling behind in other content areas. This article discusses effective reading interventions for students with learning…

Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.

2012-01-01

43

Extended Learning Time and Student Accountability: Assessing Outcomes and Options for Elementary and Middle Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the relative impacts of student accountability policies and extended learning programs on the achievement gains of elementary and middle grade students. It shares qualitative and quantitative analyses of an extended learning time initiative implemented in conjunction with a high-stakes testing and retention policy. The…

Smith, BetsAnn; Roderick, Melissa; Degener, Sophie C.

2005-01-01

44

The Benefits of Departmentalization in Upper Elementary Grades for Students and Teachers  

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This study addressed the benefits of departmentalization in upper elementary grades for students and teachers. The variables of gender and classroom structure (departmentalized versus self-contained) were considered for student participants (n = 125). Results for students were evaluated on pre-test and post-test data using the following measures:…

Johnson, Malissa Lee

2013-01-01

45

Elementary School Computer Access, Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Grade 5 Student Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the current school computer access rates of elementary school students and to determine the extent to which school computer access relates to academic achievement among Grade 5 students in the state of Texas. Specifically, the relationship of school computer access to student passing rates on the…

Barrett, Julie Ann

2013-01-01

46

Elementary Economics: A Guide to Concepts, Activities, and Resources. Grades 4 to 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to help upper elementary education teachers develop economics lessons as part of the social studies program, this curriculum guide introduces fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students to the study of: (1) economic institutions; (2) scarcity; (3) choice and decisionmaking; (4) specialization and exchange; and (5) economic systems. A…

Pratt, Robert; O'Bannon, Joan

47

Elementary Economics: A Guide to Concepts, Activities, and Resources. Grades 1 to 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide was developed to help elementary education teachers incorporate economics lessons into the social studies curriculum. First, second, and third grade students study the concepts of: (1) economic institutions; (2) scarcity; (3) choice and decision-making; (4) specialization and exchange; and (5) economic systems. A curriculum…

Pratt, Robert; O'Bannon, Joan

48

Black-White Differences on IQ and Grades: The Mediating Role of Elementary Cognitive Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between IQ scores and elementary cognitive task (ECT) performance is well established, with variance on each largely reflecting the general factor of intelligence, or g. Also ubiquitous are Black-White mean differences on IQ and measures of academic success, like grade point average (GPA). Given C. Spearman's (Spearman, C. (1927).…

Pesta, Bryan J.; Poznanski, Peter J.

2008-01-01

49

Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

50

Effect of Retention in Elementary Grades on Transition to Middle School  

OpenAIRE

The authors investigated the effects of retention in grades 1 to 5 on students’ reading and math achievement, teacher-rated engagement, and student-reported school belonging in middle school. From a multiethnic sample (N = 784) of children who scored below the median on a test of literacy in grade 1, an average of 75 students subsequently retained in grades 1 to 5 were matched with an average of 299 continuously promoted students on the basis of propensity to be retained in the elementary g...

Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan H.; Kwok, Oi-man; Puckett, Stevie; Cerdia, Carissa Analise

2013-01-01

51

How Do Teachers Observe and Evaluate Elementary School Students' Foreign Language Performance? A Case Study from South Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how teachers observe and assess elementary school students' foreign language performance in class and how such assessments vary among teachers. Twenty-six elementary school teachers and 23 English teachers at secondary schools in South Korea watched videotapes of 6th-grade students' group activities in English and were…

Butler, Yuko Goto

2009-01-01

52

Information and Communication Technology: Students' Health Education in 1st- to 6th-Grade South Korea Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The purposes of this study were to (1) identify school nurses' awareness of information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' health education and (2) explore the barriers or reasons for the adoption of ICT in school nursing practice, while (3) presenting strategies to speed ICT diffusion and dissemination into…

Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Jeong, Eunhoe

2013-01-01

53

Elementary school second triad pupils' perceptions of the physical education process in the Zasavje region  

OpenAIRE

The diploma thesis titled Elementary school second triad pupils' perceptions of the physical education process in the Zasavje region discusses the effect of sports on individuals' wholesome development. I focused on the impact physical education has on later life and experiencing sports. I discussed physical education in terms of popularity, pardons, negative emotions and grading. The research included 314 4th, 5th or 6th grade pupils attending elementary school in school year 2011/2012. ...

Kos?ak, Z?iva

2013-01-01

54

Effect of retention in elementary grades on transition to middle school.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors investigated the effects of retention in grades 1 to 5 on students' reading and math achievement, teacher-rated engagement, and student-reported school belonging in middle school. From a multiethnic sample (N=784) of children who scored below the median on a test of literacy in grade 1, an average of 75 students subsequently retained in grades 1 to 5 were matched with an average of 299 continuously promoted students on the basis of propensity to be retained in the elementary grades. A total of 20 imputed datasets were analyzed, all of which showed good balance across the 67 baseline covariates used to calculate propensity scores. The hypothesis that retained students, who are "old for grade" when they make the transition to middle school, would have a more difficult transition to middle school than promoted peers was tested with 3-level, piecewise growth modeling. Piece 1 included assessments prior to the transition to middle school, and piece 2 included assessments after the transition. Retained and continuously promoted students did not differ on any of the outcome measures during the year prior to transition, nor did they differ in their post-transition trajectories. Discrepancies between these results and results of prior research are discussed in terms of demographic and generational differences as well as differences in methodological rigor. PMID:23816229

Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-man; Puckett, Stevie; Cerda, Carissa Analise

2013-06-01

55

The prevalence of mental retardation among third grade elementary school children in the Suwon area, Korea.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental retardation (MR) in Korea. The study population comprised 1,757 third-grade elementary school children residing in a single school district in Suwon, Korea. We conducted the total population survey for 1,537 children who attended one of 5 schools in the district. For the remaining 220 children who did not attend a school in the school district, we found children with MR via inspection of the register list of the disabled. A to...

Yim, Shin Young; Yu, Hyun Hee; Lee, Il Yung

2002-01-01

56

6th International Microbeam Workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.

Dr Kevin M. Prise

2004-01-01

57

Impacto de um programa de competências em alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade / Impact of a skill development intervention in 5th and 6th grade students / Impacto de un programa intervención em alunos del segundo ciclo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo consistiuem avaliar um programa de intervenção junto a alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade nas seguintes dimensões: tomada de decisão, conhecimentos sobre sexualidade, competências sociais, assertividade e autoconceito. Metodologia: Participaram 145 alunos, distribuídos [...] pelos grupos controle e experimental. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: TCU Decision-Making; Questionário de Conhecimentos sobre Sexualidade; Assertion Self-Statement Test- Revised; Questionário de Competências Sociais; Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Os resultados revelaram diferenças no pós-teste entre os grupos ao nível da sexualidade. Verificaram-se diferenças do pré-teste para o pós-teste no grupo experimental nos níveis da sexualidade, da assertividade e das competências sociais. No grupo experimental encontraram-se associações positivas entre tomada de decisão, competências sociais e assertividade, bem como entre sexualidade, competências sociais e autoconceito, no pós-teste. Os preditores da assertividade no pós-teste foram tomada de decisão, sexualidade e competências sociais. Como conclusão, os resultados enfatizam a importância de intervenção junto a adolescentes, particularmente na tomada de decisão, na sexualidade e nas competências sociais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar un programa de intervención con alumnos del 2º ciclo de escolaridad en las siguientes dimensiones: Toma de Decisión, Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad, Habilidades Sociales, Asertividad y Autoconcepto. Metodología: Participaron 145 alumnos, distribuidos en g [...] rupo control y experimental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: TCU Decision-Making; Cuestionario de Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad; AssertionSelf-Statement Test-Revised; Cuestionario de Habilidades Sociais; Piers-Harris Children'sSelf-Concept Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en el post-test entre los grupos en cuanto a la sexualidad. Se verificaron diferencias del pre-test para el post-teste en el grupo experimental, cuanto a sexualidad, asertividad y habilidades sociales. Se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre toma de decisión, habilidades sociales y asertividad, así como entre sexualidad,habilidades sociales yautoconcepto, en el post-test en el grupo experimental. Los predictores de la asertividad en el post-test fueron toma de decisión, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Los resultados destacan la importancia de la intervención con adolescentes particularmente en la toma de decisiones, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Abstract in english In this study we evaluate an intervention program in the following dimensions: Decision Making, Knowledge on Sexuality, Social Skills, Assertiveness and Self-Concept with students in 5th and 6th grade. Methodology: 145 students participated in the study divided by control and experimental group. The [...] instruments used were: Decision-Making TCU, Knowledge on Sexuality Questionnaire; Assertion Self-Statement Test-Revised;Social Skills Questionnaire, and Piers-Harris Children's Self- Concept Scale. The results indicate differences at post-test between the groups on knowledge regarding sexuality. There were also differences from pre-test to post-test in the experimental group on knowledge on sexuality, assertiveness and social skills. Positive associations among decision making, social skills and assertiveness were found as well as among knowledge on sexuality, social skills and self-concept, in the experimental group, in the pos-test. Finally, the predictors of assertiveness regarding health behaviors, in the pos-test were: decision making, knowledge regarding sexuality and social skills. The results emphasize the importance of intervention for adolescents in terms of health promotion particularly in decision making, sexuality and social skills.

Marta, Melo; M. Graça, Pereira; Jorge, Silvério.

2014-06-01

58

Integrated STEM in Elementary Grades Using Distributed Agent-based Computation  

CERN Document Server

We investigate how the integration of visual agent-based programming and computationally augmented physical structures can support curricular integration across STEM domains for elementary grade students. We introduce ViMAP-Tangible, a socio-technically distributed computational learning environment, which integrates ultrasonic sensors with the ViMAP visual programming language using a distributed computation infrastructure. In this paper, we report a study in which 3rd and 4th grade students used ViMAP-Tangible to engage in collaborative design-based activities in order to invent 'drawing machines' for generating geometric shapes. The curricular activities integrate engineering practices such as user-centered design, mathematical reasoning about multiplication, rates and fractions, and physical science concepts central to learning Newtonian mechanics. We identify the key affordances of the learning environment and our pedagogical approach in terms of the relationship between the structural elements of studen...

Sengupta, Pratim; Wright, Mason

2014-01-01

59

The Instrument for Determining the Levels of Reflective Thinking among Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research is to develop a reliable and valid instrument in order to determine the elementary school students' levels about reflective thinking. A total of 320 students of 6th, 7th and 8th grades from 6 different primary schools participated in the study. It was identified that the instrument was composed of totally 17 items…

Taskin Can, Bilge; Yildrim, Cennet

2014-01-01

60

Dietary intake based on physical activity level in Korean elementary school students  

OpenAIRE

Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exerci...

Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A.; Kim, Jung-hyun; Kim, Yuri; Lim, Yunsook

2010-01-01

61

Quality of school life and self-concept among elementary school students  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this study is to investigate, how much the dimensions of Children Self-Concept Scale, “Behavior”, “Intellectual and school status”, “Physical appearance and attributes”, “Anxiety”, “Popularity” and “Happiness” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions about quality of life in their school’s. The participants of the study consist of 493 students (235 girls and 258 boys) who attended to 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades from four elementary...

Mediha Sar?; Fulya Cenkseven

2008-01-01

62

Fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice were used to examine fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program. In fall and spring of the school year, participants (N = 113; 66 boys, 47 girls) completed questionnaires assessing achievement goals, expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, and intention for future running participation. They also completed a timed 1-mile (1.6 km) run. The number of laps they ran/walked during the school year was used to assess students' persistence/effort. Results indicated the students improved their run but became less motivated about running while participating in a year-long running program. Children's beliefs about how good they were in the running program (i.e., expectancy beliefs) and their perceptions of how interesting and fun it was (i.e., interest) emerged as the strongest positive predictors of their motivation for running over time. These findings provide strong empirical evidence that expectancy beliefs and interest are essential to children's motivation in elementary physical education. PMID:16898276

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E; Bruene, April

2006-06-01

63

Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

64

Teacher-Student Agreement on "Bullies and Kids They Pick On" in Elementary School Classrooms: Gender and Grade Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examined teacher-student agreement on the measure: "bullies and kids they pick on" in 38 (15 first, 12 third, and 11 fifth grade) elementary school classrooms. Overall agreement between teachers and students was low, 7.9%. The frequency of bully-victim dyads reported by teachers and victim prominence were positive…

Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.; Gest, Scott

2013-01-01

65

La Desercion Escolar en los Niveles de Sexto y Noveno Grado: Una Comparacion Entre Zonas Rurales y Urbanas. Boletin 219 (The Educational Desertion in the 6th and 9th Grades: A Comparison Between Rural and Urban Zones. Bulletin 219).  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1962 and again in 1965, a group of sixth and ninth grade students in selected schools in four Puerto Rican communities were interviewed to investigate the factors influencing students' decision to withdraw from school before completing twelfth grade and to identify some characteristics of dropouts. Of 616 students interviewed in 1962, 20.9% of…

Lopez, Maria I. Hernandez; And Others

66

Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.

Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.

2015-04-01

67

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 6th Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 6th Edition, by William L. Masterton and Cecile N. Hurley published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

68

Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th Edition, by David W. Oxtoby, H. P. Gillis, Alan Campion published by Brooks/Cole, 2008.

69

The effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training  

OpenAIRE

The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training. This study is a control group pre-test post-test experimental research. The research was conducted to students who were enrolled in an elementary school in Konya, Turkey. While research’s experimental group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students), control group was constituted of 11 female and 14 ma...

Abdullah Ishiklar

2012-01-01

70

6. S?n?f Ö?rencilerinin Yaz?m Yanl??lar? S?kl??? ve Yaz?m Yanl??lar?n?n Nedenlerine ?li?kin Ö?retmen Görü?leri 6th Grade Students’ Frequency Of Orthographic Mistakes And Teachers’ View About The Reasons For Orthographic Mistakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orthographic mistake is one of the important elements leading to communication problems in written expression, and is generally one of the written expression acquisitions attempted to be taught students in educational institutions. This paper aims to reveal 6th grade students’ frequency of orthographic mistakes in their exam papers and to find out Turkish language teachers’ views about the reasons for orthographic mistakes. To do so, 336 exam papers of 6th grade students, collected both from two schools in Ad?yaman city center and a village school, have been examined. 4142 orthographic mistakes have been identified. It is seen that students do not use symbols, acronyms/abbreviations, circumflex and proper nouns, do not miswrite complementary verb conjugations, and write accurately the words formed by such sound events as vowel shortening and epenthesis. It is identified that 6th grade students have made mistakes mostly in capitalization. Moreover, writing of consonants and vowels, syncopation, the conjunction of ‘de/da’ meaning ‘also’ in English are among other most repeated mistakes. In addition, the open-ended question “What are the 6th grade students’ reasons for orthographic mistakes?” has been asked to 16 Turkish language teachers so as to find out students’ reasons for orthographic mistakes. Content analysis method has been employed to analyze the acquired data. Those Turkish language teachers have responded that the 6th grade students’ reasons for orthographic mistakes are caused by lack of interest and attention, deficiency in basic language acquisition, lack of speaking in Turkish properly and efficiently outside school, exam types or teacher’s exam evaluations, and deficiency of either teachers or students in efficient utilization of sources about orthographic rules. Besides, this paper also suggests to identify the orthographic mistakes of students other than 6th grade, present the orthographic mistakes differently and efficiently, and to explain teachers the importance of orthographic mistakes. Yaz?m yanl??lar?, yaz?l? anlat?mda ileti?im sorunlar?n?n ortaya ç?kmas?na neden olan önemli ögelerden biridir ve genellikle e?itim-ö?retim ortamlar?nda ö?rencilere ö?retilmeye çal???lan yaz?l? anlat?m kazan?mlar?ndand?r. Bu ara?t?rman?n amac?, 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin s?nav kâ??tlar?nda yapt?klar? yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n s?kl???n? ve Türkçe ö?retmenlerinin yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n nedenlerine ili?kin görü?lerini belirlemektir. Bu amaç do?rultusunda Ad?yaman il merkezinden 2 ve köylerinden bir ortaokuldan tesadüfi olarak belirlenen 6. s?n?flar?n 336 s?nav kâ??d? incelenmi? ve bu ara?t?rman?n verilerinin bir k?sm? elde edilmi?tir. Ö?rencilerin 4142 yaz?m yanl??? yapt??? tespit edilmi?tir. Ö?rencilerin s?navlarda simgeleri, k?saltmalar?, düzeltme i?aretini, yabanc? özel adlar? kullanmad???; ek fiilin yaz?l??? ve fiil çekimiyle ilgili yanl?? yapmad?klar?; ünlü daralmas? ve ünlü türemesi ses olaylar?n?n oldu?u kelimeleri do?ru yazd?klar? görülmü?tür. 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin en fazla büyük harflerin yaz?l???nda yanl?? yapt?klar? tespit edilmi?tir. Bununla birlikte sessiz harflerin yaz?l???, sesli harflerin yaz?l???, ses yutumu, ba?laç olan da, de'nin yaz?l??? ise en fazla tekrarlanan di?er yaz?m yanl??lar?d?r. Ö?rencilerin yapt??? yaz?m yanl??lar?n nedenlerini belirlemek için de 6. s?n?f Türkçe dersine giren 16 Türkçe ö?retmenine “6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n nedenleri nelerdir?” aç?k uçlu sorusu yöneltilmi? ve bu ara?t?rman?n verilerinin di?er k?sm? elde edilmi?tir. Verilerin analiz edilmesinde içerik analizi tekni?i kullan?lm??t?r. Türkçe ö?retmenleri, 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin yaz?m yanl??lar?n?n nedenlerinin ilgi ve dikkat eksikli?inden, temel dil becerilerini edinemediklerinden, okul d???nda Türkçenin do?ru, güzel ve etkili kullan?

Ahmet AKKAYA

2013-07-01

71

Reproducibilidad del recordatorio de actividad física de 3 días (3DPAR en escolares de 5° y 6° grado Reliability of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR in schoolchildren from 5th and 6th grade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la reproducibilidad test-retest del recordatorio de actividad física de 3 d??as (3DPAR en formato impreso y digital.Materiales y métodos: Estudio de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas; participaron 121 estudiantes de 5° y 6° grado, 36,9% de género masculino, promedio de edad 10,7 ± 0,9 años. La reproducibilidad fue analizada mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI y se establecieron los niveles de acuerdo entre la primera y segunda medición con la metodología de Bland y Altman (B&A, con base en el promedio de bloques para cada nivel de intensidad y día de la semana. Resultados: El formato impreso registró CCI entre 0,2 y 0,5 para la actividad física muy fuerte (AFMF, entre 0,2 y 0,3 para la actividad física fuerte (AFF; el formato digital fue respondido por 59 estudiantes y mostró CCI entre 0,2 y 0,6 para la AFMF y la AFF, respectivamente. Se encontró un buen nivel de acuerdo entre el formato impreso y digital y una buena reproducibilidad, CCI entre 0,5 y 0,7 para la primera y segunda prueba, respectivamente. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de este trabajo constituyen el inicio de la evaluación de cuestionarios para la medición de la actividad física en niños y adolescentes en nuestro medio. La reproducibilidad encontrada plantea la necesidad de realizar la evaluación en edades mayores y posiblemente ajustar el formulario para indagar por actividades usuales y no necesariamente las de los tres días inmediatamente anteriores. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 34-47Purpose: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR in printed and digital format. Material and methods: An evaluation of a diagnostic test study was done; 121 students of 5th and 6th, 36.9 % male gender, average of age 10.7 ± 0.9 years, took part in this study. Reliability was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and the levels of agreement were established with Bland & Altman plot (B&A, based on averages of blocks for each level of intensity and day of week. Results: The printed format showed ICC between 0.2 and 0.5 for very hard physical activity (VHPA, between 0.2 y 0.3 for hard physical activity (HPA; the digital format was answered by 59 students and showed ICC between 0.2 and 0.6 for the VHPA and HPA. We found a good level of agreement between the two formats. Conclusions: SThe results of this work are the beginning of the evaluation of the questionnaires for assessment of physical activity in children and adolescents in our setting. The reliability findings showed the urgency to realize the evaluation in oldest children ages and possibly, asking for usual activities instead of those of three immediately previous days. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 34-47.

Diana Marina Camargo

2010-04-01

72

Reproducibilidad del recordatorio de actividad física de 3 días (3DPAR) en escolares de 5° y 6° grado / Reliability of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) in schoolchildren from 5th and 6th grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la reproducibilidad test-retest del recordatorio de actividad física de 3 días (3DPAR) en formato impreso y digital.Materiales y métodos: Estudio de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas; participaron 121 estudiantes de 5° y 6° grado, 36,9% de género masculino, promedio de edad 10,7 ± [...] 0,9 años. La reproducibilidad fue analizada mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) y se establecieron los niveles de acuerdo entre la primera y segunda medición con la metodología de Bland y Altman (B&A), con base en el promedio de bloques para cada nivel de intensidad y día de la semana. Resultados: El formato impreso registró CCI entre 0,2 y 0,5 para la actividad física muy fuerte (AFMF), entre 0,2 y 0,3 para la actividad física fuerte (AFF); el formato digital fue respondido por 59 estudiantes y mostró CCI entre 0,2 y 0,6 para la AFMF y la AFF, respectivamente. Se encontró un buen nivel de acuerdo entre el formato impreso y digital y una buena reproducibilidad, CCI entre 0,5 y 0,7 para la primera y segunda prueba, respectivamente. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de este trabajo constituyen el inicio de la evaluación de cuestionarios para la medición de la actividad física en niños y adolescentes en nuestro medio. La reproducibilidad encontrada plantea la necesidad de realizar la evaluación en edades mayores y posiblemente ajustar el formulario para indagar por actividades usuales y no necesariamente las de los tres días inmediatamente anteriores. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 34-47 Abstract in english Purpose: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) in printed and digital format. Material and methods: An evaluation of a diagnostic test study was done; 121 students of 5th and 6th, 36.9 % male gender, average of age 10.7 ± 0.9 years, took part in this s [...] tudy. Reliability was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the levels of agreement were established with Bland & Altman plot (B&A), based on averages of blocks for each level of intensity and day of week. Results: The printed format showed ICC between 0.2 and 0.5 for very hard physical activity (VHPA), between 0.2 y 0.3 for hard physical activity (HPA); the digital format was answered by 59 students and showed ICC between 0.2 and 0.6 for the VHPA and HPA. We found a good level of agreement between the two formats. Conclusions: SThe results of this work are the beginning of the evaluation of the questionnaires for assessment of physical activity in children and adolescents in our setting. The reliability findings showed the urgency to realize the evaluation in oldest children ages and possibly, asking for usual activities instead of those of three immediately previous days. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 34-47.

Diana Marina, Camargo; Yamile, Cepeda; Lina Rocío, González; Hensley Karelly, Stapper; Andrés José, Trigos.

2010-04-01

73

6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, ...

74

SCRUTINIZING STORIES IN TURKISH COURSE BOOKS FOR PRIMARY CLASSES BETWEEN 6th, 7th AND 8th GRADE BY TEXT LINGUISTIC METHODS ?LKÖ?RET?M 6, 7 VE 8. SINIFLAR TÜRKÇE DERS K?TAPLARINDAK? ÖYKÜLER?N MET?N D?L B?L?MSEL YÖNTEMLER I?I?INDA DE?ERLEND?R?LMES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, nine Stories Texts in Main Turkish Course Books for 6th, 7th and 8th grades have been scrutinized by means of linguistic methods and techniques; and it has been aimed to determine the effects of these texts on primary school students’ comprehension-level. These Stories Texts have been studied at three levels surface-structure, narrative-structure and deep-structure, and these stories have been analyzed by syntagmatic and systemic reading methods. These texts have been evaulated as a whole in this examination from concrete to abstract; it has not been considered enunciation subject’s idea, life and other works. In this regard, the study differs from studies on traditional literature. Questionnaires suitable for classes at 6th, 7th and 8th grades have been prepared by associating the data obtained after the studies with gains in the Turkish teaching programme. The questionnaires have been applied in six primary schools with different social-economic status in the center of Malatya. The study has aimed to determine characteristics to constitute a certain frame for selecting stories to be used in teaching mother-tangue. Bu çal??mada 6, 7 ve 8. s?n?flar Türkçe ders kitaplar?ndaki dokuz öykü metin dil bilim yöntem ve teknikleriyle incelenmi?; bu öykülerin ö?rencilerin anlama düzeylerine etkileri belirlenmeye çal???lm??t?r. Bu öyküler metin dil bilimin öngördü?ü do?rultuda yüzeysel, anlat?sal ve derin yap? olmak üzere üç düzeyde ele al?nm??; dizimsel ve dizgesel okuma yöntemleriyle çözümlenmi?tir. Somuttan soyuta do?ru yap?lan bu incelemede metin bir bütün olarak de?erlendirilmi?; sözcelem öznesinin dü?ünce yap?s?, ya?am?, di?er yap?tlar? dikkate al?nmam??t?r. Bu yönü ile bu çal??ma geleneksel incelemelerden ayr?lmaktad?r. Yap?lan inceleme sonucunda elde edilen veriler yeni Türkçe ö?retim program?ndaki kazan?mlarla da ili?kilendirilerek 6, 7 ve 8. s?n?flar düzeyinde anketler haz?rlanm??t?r. Haz?rlanan bu anketler Malatya il merkezindeki farkl? sosyoekonomik yap?ya sahip alt? ilkö?retim okulunda uygulanm??t?r. Çal??ma, ana dili ö?retiminde kullan?lacak öykülerin seçilmesinde belirli bir çerçeve belirlemeyi amaçlam??t?r.

Sezgin DEM?R

2010-01-01

75

The effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training. This study is a control group pre-test post-test experimental research. The research was conducted to students who were enrolled in an elementary school in Konya, Turkey. While research’s experimental group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students, control group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students. Vocational group guidance was conducted to experimental group for 9 weeks once a week. The views of experimental and control group students towards apprenticeship education were measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B (AEEF-B at pre-test post-test phases. In this research, applied vocational group guidance program includes views and behaviours which can be measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B. Group discussion and homework techniques were used to gain vocational views and behaviours in vocational group guidance. After analysis there have been found significant difference between experimental and control groups’ AEEF-B pre-test post-test average scores at 0.01 level. Findings showed that vocational group guidance method had a positive effect against negative ideas to apprenticeship education. In addition, vocational group guidance method has been found to be effective in changing 8th year elementary school students’ negative views towards apprenticeship education to positive views. This program is compatible as long as it is used in vocational guidance activities of 8th year elementary school students.

Abdullah Ishiklar

2012-02-01

76

6th German symposium on nuclear law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers and discussions of the 6th symposium on nuclear law, where legal experts and judges met scientists from other fields, representatives of authorities and industry give a clear picture of the field of tension of nuclear law between politics and engineering. Problems of topical interest are legal guidelines for technical damage prevention measures, the limits of the radiation protection philosophy, inventory protection in the nuclear licensing procedure, the binding force of legal decisions, waste management provisions, and attempted reforms in liability legislation. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO

77

Making the Grade: The Importance of Academic Enablers in the Elementary School Counseling Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary school counselors can support academic achievement by connecting their comprehensive programs to increasing academic competence. One valuable framework focuses on academic enablers, which are identified as interpersonal skills, motivation, engagement, and study skills (DiPerna, 2004). In this article, the authors (a) discuss the…

Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.

2014-01-01

78

Longitudinal Predictors of Chinese Word Reading and Spelling among Elementary Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The longitudinal predictive power of four important reading-related skills (phonological skills, rapid naming, orthographic skills, and morphological awareness) to Chinese word reading and writing to dictation (i.e., spelling) was examined in a 3-year longitudinal study among 251 Chinese elementary students. Rapid naming, orthographic skills, and…

Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Yau-Kai; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa; Lo, Lap-Yan

2013-01-01

79

Math Literacy through French Language Learning: Connecting with the Common Core in the Lower Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the reported proven positive results of early world Language (WL) study are improved cognitive abilities and "higher achievement test scores in reading and math" (Stewart: 11), which are expected student performance outcomes for the Common Core Standards. The future viability of Foreign Language in Elementary Schools (FLES)…

Davis-Wiley, Patricia; Miller, Roy V.

2013-01-01

80

Theorizing an Integration of Reading and Mathematics: Solving Mathematical Word Problems in the Elementary Grades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article theorizes three major cognitive constructs that are operationally defined by shared similarities of processing information in reading and mathematics. Specifically, the paper (1 proposes and details the refinement and evaluation of components of a conceptual model for reading to solve mathematical word problems for elementary students, and (2 develops and refines the theoretical constructs of the model. Our assumptions lay out the interrelationships of reading and mathematics word problems by focusing on the cognitive components of Recognizing Higher Level Patterns of Text Organization (R, Generating Patterns (G, and Attaining a Goal (A. These assumptions are to refine and construct the RGA cognitive components that could theoretically enhance elementary students’ reading and solution of mathematical word problem-solving abilities.

William H. Rupley

2011-12-01

81

Mathematics Anxiety Among 4th And 5th Grade Turkish Elementary School Students  

OpenAIRE

Using a sample of 4th and 5th graders, this study investigated whether students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to a group of variables. A total of 249 students participated in the study. “The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students” and “The Personal Information Form” were used for data collection. Independent samples t-tests, Oneway Anova and Schefee test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that students’ mathematics anxiety diffe...

Fulya Yüksel-?ahin

2008-01-01

82

Relations between hyperactive and aggressive behavior and peer relations at three elementary grade levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sociometrics and teacher ratings of hyperactivity and aggression were obtained on 390 boys in grades 1-6 to explore the relative contributions of hyperactivity and aggression to children's social adjustment. Both hyperactivity and aggression were correlated with negative sociometric nominations at all grade levels; however, only hyperactivity showed consistent inverse correlations with positive sociometric nominations. In multiple regression analyses, hyperactivity contributed incremental variance to the prediction of problematic sociometric status at all grade levels, while aggression did so only at grades 3-4. An examination of the core symptoms of hyperactivity revealed that motor hyperactivity, in the absence of impulsivity and inattention, did not predict negative sociometric status at any grade level. Subgroups of boys categorized as hyperactive only, aggressive only, hyperactive/aggressive, and nonhyperactive/nonaggressive controls were compared on teacher ratings and sociometrics. Hyperactive/aggressive boys had higher hyperactivity and aggression ratings than boys in either of the single-problem groups; all three behavior problem groups had more negative social status than controls. Developmental changes in children's normative expectations for social behavior were discussed as possible mechanisms mediating the age-related differences in relations among aggression, hyperactivity, and peer relations. PMID:2754112

Pope, A W; Bierman, K L; Mumma, G H

1989-06-01

83

6th International Conference on Paleoceanography  

CERN Document Server

This volume is one outcome of the 6th International Conference on Paleoceano­ graphy (ICP VI). The conference was held August 23-28, 1998 in Lisbon, Portugal. The meeting followed the traditional format of a small number of invited oral presentations complemented by a large number ofcontributed posters. Over 550 participants attended, representing thirty countries and nearly 450 posters were presented. The invited speakers addressed the main themes of the 5oral sessions. The session topics were: Polar-Tropical and Interhemisphere Linkages; Does the Ocean Cause, or Respond to, Abrupt Climatic Changes?; Biotic Responses to Major Paleoceanographic Changes; Past Warm Climates; and Innovations In Monitoring Ocean History. This is the first time in ICP history that the Conference Proceedings are published. The aim of the organisers with the publication of this book is two-fold: to provide a useful review of the field and to document the ideas/controversies raised during the con­ ference that may stimulate future ...

Mix, Alan

1999-01-01

84

6th International Symposium on Thermal Expansion  

CERN Document Server

This 6th International Symposium on Thermal Expansion, the first outside the USA, was held on August 29-31, 1977 at the Gull Harbour Resort on Hecla Island, Manitoba, Canada. Symposium Chairman was Ian D. Peggs, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and our continuing sponsor was CINDAS/Purdue University. We made considerable efforts to broaden the base this year to include more users of expansion data but with little success. We were successful, however, in establishing a session on liquids, an area which is receiving more attention as a logical extension to the high-speed thermophysical property measurements on materials at temperatures close to their melting points. The Symposium had good international representation but the overall attendance was, disappointingly, relatively low. Neverthe­ less, this enhanced the informal atmosphere throughout the meeting with a resultant frank exchange of information and ideas which all attendees appreciated. A totally new item this year was the presentation of a bursary to ...

1978-01-01

85

A study on nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior of elementary school children in Seoul  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and diet related knowledge, attitude, and behavior of elementary school children in Seoul. The subjects included were 439 (male 236, female 203) elementary school children in the 4th to the 6th grades. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 program. The average obesity index (OI) was 104.98 and 99.82 for male and female subjects, respectively. The average percentage of underweight, normal, overweight and obese of subje...

Choi, Eun-suil; Shin, Na-ri; Jung, Eun-im; Park, Hae-ryun; Lee, Hong-mie; Song, Kyung-hee

2008-01-01

86

Study on utilization status of internet and needs assessment for developing nutrition education programs among elementary school children  

OpenAIRE

This study was to investigate utilization status of internet, health/nutrition websites among children, and to assess the needs for developing nutrition websites and education programs for children. The survey questionnaire was administered to 5-6th grade students (n=434) at two elementary schools. About 32% used the internet every day while 19.5% used it whenever they needed, showing significant differences in internet usage by gender (p

Ahn, Yun; Kim, Kyung-won

2007-01-01

87

Use of Evidence-Based, Small-Group Reading Instruction for English Language Learners in Elementary Grades: Secondary-Tier Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental/comparison study of secondary-level, small-group instruction included 318 first- and second-grade students (170 ELL and 148 English-only) from six elementary schools. All schools served high numbers of ELL students with varying school SES in urban and suburban communities. Experimental schools implemented a three-tier model of…

Kamps, Debra; Abbott, Mary; Greenwood, Charles; Arreaga-Mayer, Carmen; Wills, Howard; Longstaff, Jennifer; Culpepper, Michelle; Walton, Cheryl

2007-01-01

88

Analyzing Stories Told by an Elementary Science Teacher in a Fifth-Grade Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze and interpret the stories told by one teacher, Ms. M, in a fifth grade science classroom. In this study, stories are defined as teacher utterances that are used in first person or third person narrative view, and are related to an experience that occurred outside the classroom. This research…

Trotman, Alicia M.

2012-01-01

89

Early-Grade Retention and Children's Reading and Math Learning in Elementary Years  

Science.gov (United States)

Many schools have adopted early-grade retention as an intervention strategy for children displaying academic or behavioral problems. Previous analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort data have found evidence of negative effects of kindergarten retention on academic learning during the repeated year. Will kindergarten…

Hong, Guanglei; Yu, Bing

2007-01-01

90

Distúrbios de fala e dificuldades de aprendizagem no ensino fundamental / Speech disorders and grade retention in elementary  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo verificar a associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar. Métodos uma amostra aleatória de 1.810 crianças regularmente matriculadas na 1ª série do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas foram submetidas a um teste de rastreamento de distúrbios de fala (TERDAF). Os dados ref [...] erentes à idade e ao histórico de repetência das crianças foram coletados nos registros da escola. A associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar foram calculadas pela razão de prevalência e intervalo de confiança 95%.  Resultados a prevalência de distúrbio de fala nesta amostra foi de 25%, considerando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade do teste de triagem utilizado. Também foi verificado que as crianças com distúrbios de fala possuem 1,3 vezes (IC 95% 1,1-1,5) o risco de apresentar história de repetência, quando comparadas aos seus pares sem distúrbio de fala. O risco de repetência atribuível ao distúrbio de fala foi de 6,2. Conclusão o distúrbio de fala entre crianças que frequentam a primeira série do ensino fundamental apresenta alta prevalência e está associado com dificuldades de aprendizagem que venham a resultar em repetência escolar, mesmo quando na ausência de dificuldade auditiva detectável. Abstract in english Purpose to verify the prevalence of speech sound disorders (SSD) and its association to grade retention. Methods 1,810 children, randomly selected and regularly registered in the 1st grade of Elementary Public Schools have been submitted to a speech sound disorder screening test (TERDAF). Data [...] related to age and history of grade retention of the children elected to this study were collected in the school records after being authorized by children’s parents. Association between SSD and grade retention were calculated by prevalence ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results children with SSD had more chances to grade retention when compared to those without this (PR 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1 – 1.5). The prevalence of SSD in this sample was 25%, taking into account the values of sensitivity and specificity of the screening test used. It was also verified that children with SSD have 1.3 times the risk to present history of grade retention, when compared to children without such disorders. Conclusion the prevalence of SSD when the phonological acquisition must have been established denotes that such cluster is more prevalent than what literature is used to pointing out once few population epidemiologic studies concerning human communication are carried through.

Bárbara Niegia Garcia de, Goulart; Brasília M., Chiari.

2014-06-01

91

The Latest State of the First Grade of Elementary School Textbooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elementary education course books have been distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Education since 2005/2006 academic year. These course books are revised every year and prepared again with minor corrections. In this research, teachers were asked about their viewpoints on the final states of the course books that are revised and renewed every year. Thus, course books prepared according to the new teaching program were analyzed, aiming that the deficiencies in the books would be detected and so it would be found out how to apply the program more effectively and efficiently. Additionally, it was tried to find answers to the questions of the latest state of the books and to what extend the books would be compensating for the needs. Looking at the results of the research in general, we can conclude that elementary school teachers are mostly satisfied with the changes made in the books but teachers are not satisfied for example length of texts. And this indicates that the reviews and changes made in the books are not sufficient although they are suitable to their goals. So the reviews and changes made in the books are not sufficient although they are suitable to their goals. Beside that available teacher guidance books are insufficient in satisfying the teachers’ needs. In order to apply the program more effectively and efficiently, the teaching methods in the books should be diversified, the number of activities and their contents should be revised and the questions prepared in accordance with various goals should be reviewed.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved

Sema Altun Yalçin

2013-08-01

92

6th Workshop on Higgs Hunting  

CERN Document Server

A subject of major importance in fundamental physics is the investigation of the origin of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking. The mechanism of mass generation through the spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry is called the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism and is associated with the appearance of a physical scalar boson. The discovery announced at CERN on 4th July 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations of a boson at a mass close to 125 GeV/c2, compatible with this scalar boson of the Standard Model, the so-called Higgs boson, mainly in ??, ZZ and WW decay modes, with compatible evidence also found at Fermilab in the bb mode, changed the landscape. This important discovery was acknowledged as decisive for the attribution of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded jointly to François Englert and Peter Higgs . This 6th workshop of the "Higgs Hunting" series organized in Orsay on July 30th - August 1st, 2015 will discuss the developments of LHC run 1 analyses, detailed studies of the new boson and possible dev...

2015-01-01

93

PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

2005-11-01

94

6th International Meshing Roundtable '97  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

White, D.

1997-09-01

95

6th International Conference on Emerging Zoonoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Conference on Emerging Zoonoses, held at Cancun, Mexico, 24-27 February 2011, offered 84 participants from 18 countries, a snapshot of current research in numerous zoonoses caused by viruses, bacteria or prions. Co-chaired by Professors Heinz Feldmann and Jürgen Richt, the conference explored 10 topics: (i) The ecology of emerging zoonotic diseases; (ii) The role of wildlife in emerging zoonoses; (iii) Cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens; (iv) Emerging and neglected influenza viruses; (v) Haemorrhagic fever viruses; (vi) Emerging bacterial diseases; (vii) Outbreak responses to zoonotic diseases; (viii) Food-borne zoonotic diseases; (ix) Prion diseases; and (x) Modelling and prediction of emergence of zoonoses. Human medicine, veterinary medicine and environmental challenges are viewed as a unity, which must be considered under the umbrella of 'One Health'. Several presentations attempted to integrate the insights gained from field data with mathematical models in the search for effective control measures of specific zoonoses. The overriding objective of the research presentations was to create, improve and use the tools essential to address the risk of contagions in a globalized society. In seeking to fulfil this objective, a three-step approach has often been applied: (i) use cultured cells, model and natural animal hosts and human clinical models to study infection; (ii) combine traditional histopathological and biochemical approaches with functional genomics, proteomics and computational biology; and (iii) obtain signatures of virulence and insights into mechanisms of host defense response, immune evasion and pathogenesis. This meeting review summarizes 39 of the conference presentations and mentions briefly the 16 articles in this Special Supplement, most of which were presented at the conference in earlier versions. The full affiliations of all presenters and many colleagues have been included to facilitate further inquiries from readers. PMID:22958247

Kahn, R E; Morozov, I; Feldmann, H; Richt, J A

2012-09-01

96

Principal component analysis reveals gender-specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific pattern of pediatric cardiometabolic risk with principal component analysis, using several biological, behavioral and parental variables in a large cohort (n?=?2866) of 6th grade students. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk ...

Peterson Mark D; Liu Dongmei; IglayReger Heidi B; Saltarelli William A; Visich Paul S; Gordon Paul M

2012-01-01

97

The aurora, Mars, and more! Increasing science content in elementary grades through art and literacy programs in earth and space science  

Science.gov (United States)

Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. One unintended result is that teachers in grades where science is tested must play catch-up with students for them to be successful on the assessment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy, social studies, and math into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Dancing Lights program, developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, is a science, art, and literacy program about the aurora designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. It mirrors other successful literacy programs and will provide a basis for the literacy program being developed for the upcoming MAVEN mission to Mars. We will present early findings, as well as "lessons learned" during our development and implementation of the Dancing Lights program and will highlight our goals for the MAVEN mission literacy program.

Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.

2011-12-01

98

THE GENRE CONSISTENCY BETWEEN THE READING AND LISTENING/VIEWING TEXTS AND WRITING TASKS IN TURKISH (6TH, 7TH AND 8TH GRADES COURSE BOOKS TÜRKÇE (6, 7, 8. SINIF DERS K?TAPLARINDAK? OKUMA VE D?NLEME/?ZLEME MET?NLER? ?LE YAZMA GÖREVLER? ARASINDAK? TÜR UYUMU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The features that reading and listening /viewing texts should hold and which genres should be included in course book has been stated in great detail in Primary Turkish Course (6th, 7th and 8th grades curriculum. On which genres (episode, argumentation, proclamation and poems the students would write texts is clarified in writing acquisition as „writing texts on different genres. In course books, these acquisitions has been referred in the presentation of reading and listening /viewing texts and while giving writing tasks. However, there are differences between reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing tasks in terms of genres and genre class. The main purpose of this study is to locate whether there is a consistency between reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing tasks in terms of genre by supposing that students should be able to write texts of the same genre more consciously after reading and listening a certain genre . For this reason, 9 Turkish teacher?s books belonging to 3 different publications, the genres appearing in reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing texts have been classified in general and according to curriculum sequency. After the genres were analysed, the data and problems have been determined. Consequently, it has been detected that there are several problems in classification, genre detection and the function of genres of reading and listening /viewing texts in course books and there is little consistency between reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing tasks. In some of the books, it has been determined that compulsory genres stated in curriculum were not included in reading and writing parts. Some suggestions have been made according to the data provided. Okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinde bulunmas? gereken özellikler ve hangi metin türlerine yer verilmesi gerekti?i ?lkö?retim Türkçe Dersi (6, 7, 8. S?n?f Ö?retim Program??nda ayr?nt?lar?yla yer almaktad?r. Ö?rencilerin hangi türlerde metin olu?turacaklar? yazma kazan?mlar?nda “farkl? türlerde (olay yaz?lar?, dü?ünce yaz?lar?, bildirme yaz?lar?, ?iir yazar metin yazar.” ?eklinde belirtilmi?tir. Ders kitaplar?nda yer alan okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinin sunulu?unda ve yazma görevlerinin verili?inde bu kazan?mlara göndermelerde bulunulur. Fakat okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinleri ile yazma görevi metinleri aras?nda tür s?n?f? ve metin türü fark? vard?r. Bu çal??man?n as?l amac? ö?rencilerin okuduklar? ve dinledikleri metin türünden sonra ayn? türün özelliklerine uygun metni daha bilinçli yazabilecekleri varsay?m?na dayanarak okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinleri ile yazma görevi olarak verilen metinler aras?nda metin türü bak?m?ndan bir uyumun olup olmad???n? tespit etmektir. Bu amaçla üç yay?nevine ait dokuz Türkçe dersi ö?retmen k?lavuz kitab?ndaki okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinde yer alan türler ile yazma görevi olarak verilen metinlerin türleri i?leyi? s?ras?na göre tasnif edilmi?, elde edilen bulgular betimlenmi?tir. Sonuç olarak ders kitaplar?ndaki okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinde tür ba?lam?nda adland?rma, tür tespiti ve türlerin i?leviyle ilgili birtak?m sorunlar, okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinin türleri ile yazma görevi olarak verilen türler aras?nda uyumun az oldu?u belirlenmi?tir. Baz? kitaplarda, Ö?retim Program??nda zorunlu tutulan metin türlerine okuma ve yazmada yer verilmedi?i tespit edilmi?tir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre öneriler getirilmi?tir.

Gökhan ARI

2011-09-01

99

6th International Conference in Airborne Electromagnetics (AEM 2013)  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue of Exploration Geophysics comprises papers from the 6th International Conference in Airborne Electromagnetics (AEM 2013) held in South Africa, and showcases the latest ideas and advancements in the discipline of airborne electromagnetic geophysics.

Davis, Aaron

2015-02-01

100

The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits.

101

Association between the Number of Unfamiliar Vegetables and Dietary Factors of Elementary School Children  

OpenAIRE

Despite well established health benefits, today’s children do not eat enough vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the number of unfamiliar foods in the vegetable food group and the preference for these foods and dietary factors. Subjects were 1,072 children in 5th and 6th grades from elementary schools located in 4 cities in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. A two-page questionnaire consisted of questions asking about the subjects’ preference and familiarity fo...

Song, Kyunghee; Lee, Hongmie

2013-01-01

102

Assessing decoding ability: the role of speed and accuracy and a new composite indicator to measure decoding skill in elementary grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tools for assessing decoding skill in students attending elementary grades are of fundamental importance for guaranteeing an early identification of reading disabled students and reducing both the primary negative effects (on learning) and the secondary negative effects (on the development of the personality) of this disability. This article presents results obtained by administering existing standardized tests of reading and a new screening procedure to about 1,500 students in the elementary grades in Italy. It is found that variables measuring speed and accuracy in all administered reading tests are not Gaussian, and therefore the threshold values used for classifying a student as a normal decoder or as an impaired decoder must be estimated on the basis of the empirical distribution of these variables rather than by using the percentiles of the normal distribution. It is also found that the decoding speed and the decoding accuracy can be measured in either a 1-minute procedure or in much longer standardized tests. The screening procedure and the tests administered are found to be equivalent insofar as they carry the same information. Finally, it is found that speed and accuracy act as complementary effects in the measurement of decoding ability. On the basis of this last finding, the study introduces a new composite indicator aimed at determining the student's performance, which combines speed and accuracy in the measurement of decoding ability. PMID:23877769

Morlini, Isabella; Stella, Giacomo; Scorza, Maristella

2015-01-01

103

Firefighters. Grade Two. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on the occupational cluster of public service, this unit entitled "Firefighters" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element (life-role…

Fox, Joan; And Others

104

The 6th International Earth Science Olympiad: A Student Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2012, two students from the Australian Science and Mathematics School and two from Yankalilla Area School were selected to travel to Olavarria, Argentina in order to compete in the 6th International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO). It was an opportunity for individuals with a passion for Earth science to come together from 17 countries to…

Barlett, Luke; Cathro, Darcy; Mellow, Maddi; Tate, Clara

2014-01-01

105

Denakenaga' for Children. Lesson Plans for Teaching Denakenaga' (Minto-Nenana Tanana) to Children in Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum for elementary school-level instruction in Denakenaga' is intended for development of oral native language skills. Included are plans for 60 25-minute lessons, arranged in 11 units: basic conversation; food and eating; hunting and animals; clothing and morning routine; weather; body parts; dogs and sleds; numbers; the village;…

Thompson, Chad; Frank, Ellen

106

The Eloy Story. A Report from the Eloy Elementary School Summer Migrant Program for Kindergarten Through Second Grade Level Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

For several years, the Eloy Elementary Schools have had a retention-failure pattern among a group of children consistently dominated by migrant children. After an investigation, the inability to profit from reading instruction was found to be one of the many factors contributing to this pattern. The lack of the ability to use the English language…

Baxley, Dan M., Comp.; Hinton, Max, Comp.

107

The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review  

OpenAIRE

The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011) in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001), Hanover (2003), Leipzig ...

Stopic?, Srec?ko R.

2011-01-01

108

Proceedings of the 6th nuclear science and technology conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 2 - 4 December, 1996 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

109

6th Krakow-Winnipeg Conference on Advanced Bioimaging Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from 1997 researchers have been meet in Krakow, Poland for the Krakow-Winnipeg conference on MRI. The scope of the conference includes the latest technical advances in biomedical imaging including molecular imaging and nanotechnology. Other topics for presentation include recent developments in whole body MRI, multi-transmit technology and gradient-free MRI. Book of Abstracts from the 6th Conference contains 29 abstracts of Oral Presentations and 11 abstracts of Posters.

110

The Effects of Cooperative Learning Method Supported by Multiple Intelligence Theory on Elementary School Third Grade Students’ Academic Achievement on Mathematics Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present experimental study, the effects of cooperative learning method supported by mutliple intelligence theory (CLMI on elementary school third grade students’ achievement on mathematics were investigated. The study, which had lasted nine consecutive weeks, was conducted at a public elementary school in thedistrict of Seyhan-Adana, Turkey in 2004-2005 academic year. The participants of the study were 85 students. For the purpose of this study, on experimental group cooperative learning method supported by mutliple intelligence theory (CLMI was used as the method of instruction whereas the control groups were instructured utilizing the traditional teacher oriented method. “Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT”, “Teele Inventory of Multiple Intelligences (TIMI” and “Personal Information Form (PIF” were used as the measurement instruments of the study. MAT was administered as pretest and posttest to the experimental and control groups. Furthermore, prior to the study TIMI and PIF (for getting personal information about students were administered to all the participants. They also were used in order to constitute the cooperative learning teams in the experimental group. In this research, the data obtained by achivement test was analysed by using statistical techniques of covariance analysis.As a result, there was a statistically significant difference among experimental group and second control group in favor of the experimental group in the achivement test. Moreover, no statically significant differences were observed among the experimental group and the observed – directed group (first control group.

Dilek I?IK

2007-06-01

111

Gender-Based Content of Educational Materials for the Study of Serbian Language in Lower-Stage Grades of Elementary Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analysis of educational materials for the study of Serbian language in lower-stage grades of elementary education (intended for students from 7 through 11 years old from gender perspective. The first part of the paper presents the process of institutionalization of gender-based education in the Republic of Serbia after the year 2000, when gender issues became highlighted as an integral part of the overall reform of education within the implementation of education for democracy and civil society. Declarative commitment to developing gender sensitivity has led to changes in the curriculum for elementary education and, presumably, changes in the selection of educational materials for different school subjects. The authors intended to determine whether educational materials for Serbian language honor the principle of gender equality in the selection of literary texts. The presence and nature of gender-based content in reading books from different publishers, for second and third grade, was determined by using the method of content analysis. The aim was to establish empirical evidence that would show the degree of gender sensitivity of analyzed educational materials and their compliance with the strategic commitment to gender mainstreaming in education. The authors are aware of the range of this micro-level research, and the impossibility to reach general conclusions, however, in their opinion, the obtained data may shed a light on at least one part of the mosaic of the complex relationship of education, educational material and gender equality in contemporary Serbian society. The following conclusions were drawn: (a the analyzed educational material serves the function of developing gender sensitivity; (b the principle of gender equality is respected in selection of the material; (c the distinguished gender characteristics go beyond the so-called traditional gender pattern.

Vesna Trifunovic

2014-02-01

112

International political socialization of sixth grade elementary children: What and how do Japanese and Thai children know about the world?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates cognitive and affective components of Japanese and Thai children's attitudes toward international political socialization. The survey results report how children feel about people from other nations, international political institutions, and their country's involvement with the world community. An important concern of the study is the assessment of how much accurate knowledge Japanese and Thai elementary school children have about other nations. This study includes information on children's feelings about, and knowledge of such problems as warfare between nations, world government, stereotypic thinking about people not belonging to one's own culture and awareness of cross-cultural diffusion between Japan, Thailand and other nations.

Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

1981-09-01

113

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 1), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 1, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This is Part 1 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 1 includes the commentary for chapters 1 through 5. Topics covered include congruence, numbers and number bases, subtraction of numbers, division of numbers, and elementary geometry. References to the student text are cited. (RH)

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

114

Materials and Techniques for Teaching the Esperanto Language in the Elementary Grades [and] 1996 Packet for Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials presented here include a variety of resources for teachers of Esperanto: a brief guide to Esperanto teaching, including suggested teacher qualifications, a listing of instructional materials and resources, including serials, with details of publication, activities in preparation for teaching, grade-level class activities, notes on…

Jones, Kent

115

Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools. PMID:23940980

Selmanovi?, Aleksandar; Milanovi?, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

2013-06-01

116

THE FREQUENCY OF CULTURE-SPECIFIC ELEMENTS IN THE ELT COURSEBOOKS AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing cultural elements within the textbook contents is crucial for foreign language learners so that they can attain the authentic language appropriately involving some culture specific expressions that are commonly used in communication. Therefore, it is important for Turkish English learners to understand target culture for effective intercultural interactions. However, most of the course materials at elementary education in Turkey avoid including culture specific expressions as most of the course book writers are not native speakers but Turkish. The present paper pins down this issue by figuring out how much the course books focus on the culture specific expressions in foreign language teaching. To do this, three different randomly selected course books from the 6th, 7th and 8th grades at elementary education in Turkey have been evaluated in terms of the culture specific expressions. After analysing the course books the list and percentage of the cultural expressions will be portrayed.

?smail ÇAKIR

2010-10-01

117

The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS 15.0/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘...

Hakan Sar?çam; Elifcan Y?lmaz; Arzu Gülbahçe; Öner Gülbahçe; Mehmet Çardak

2013-01-01

118

6th International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications  

CERN Document Server

The 6th FTRA International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA-14) will be held in Guam, USA, Dec. 17 - 19, 2014. CSA-14 presents a comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in engineering systems in computer science, and applications, including ubiquitous computing, U-Health care system, Big Data, UI/UX for human-centric computing, Computing Service, Bioinformatics and Bio-Inspired Computing and will show recent advances on various aspects of computing technology, Ubiquitous Computing Services and its application.

Stojmenovic, Ivan; Jeong, Hwa; Yi, Gangman

2015-01-01

119

The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to investigate motion and data representation (e.g., distance vs. time, velocity vs. time plots). After the at-sea experience, and using the data collected, all of the students plotted the sampling locations on their navigation charts and examined and quantitatively described the bottom sediments collected with the grab samples. The CTD data were used to investigate solutions, salinity, and conductivity. The ability to participate in, and use the data collected from, the two-day cruise provided an excellent opportunity for these future elementary teachers to experience real-time scientific research. The students onboard the ship were able to observe, and more importantly, engage in the collection of data from an oceanographic research vessel. All of the students in the course through hands-on laboratory exercises were able to see the link between data collection and analysis and its subsequent interpretation within the scope of a real scientific problem, namely the study of the benthic habitat of an important marine animal.

Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

2004-05-01

120

The AMES network in the 6th Framework Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AMES (Ageing Materials European Strategy) European network started its activity in 1993 with the aim of studying ageing mechanisms and remedial procedures for structural materials used for nuclear reactor components. Operated by JRC-IE, it has been supporting the co-ordination of the project cluster throughout the 4th and 5th EURATOM Framework Programs, carrying out projects on with plant life management implications. Among them we can list the development of non-destructive techniques applied to thermal ageing and neutron embrittlement monitoring (AMES-NDT and GRETE), improved surveillance for VVER 440 reactors (COBRA), dosimetry (AMESDOSIMETRY, MADAM and REDOS), chemical composition effects on neutron embrittlement (PISA) and advanced fracture mechanics for integrity assessment (FRAME). Main frame of the network in the 5th Framework Programme is the ATHENA project, which is aimed at summarizing the obtained achievements and edit guidelines on important issues like the Master Curve, Effect of chemical composition on embrittlement rate in RPV steels, Re-embrittlement models validation after VVER-440 annealing and open issues in embrittlement of VVER type reactors. In the 6th EURATOM Framework Programme started in 2003 the network will be part of a broader initiative on PLIM including in a more integrated way NESC, ENIQ, NET and AMALIA networks. This paper shows an overview of the concluded projects, achievements of the running ones and open issues tackled in the 6th EURATOM FWP and a summary of the plans for a new broader network on NPP Plant Life management (SAFELIFE). (author)

121

Comparison of reading skills between cochlear implantation and normal hearing children in second and third grade elementary in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract   Background and Aim: Reading skill is necessary for academic achievement, that deaf children have problems in this skill due to hearing impairment. Use of cochlear implant can improve auditory inputs. The aim of this study was to investigate the reading skills of children with cochlear implants and comparing that with normal ones.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytic study was done on 24 children with cochlear implant and 24 normal ones that was selected from second and third grades students of Tehran primary schools. Children's reading performance was assessed by Nama reading test and the data were analyzed using T-test, linear regression and Pearson correlations.     Results: The results showed that the means of reading scores of normal children were significantly greater than the cochlear implanted ones (P<0.01. Also, there was a significant relationship between reading skills and period of cochlear implant (P<0.01.   Conclusion: Cochlear implanted children showed weaker performance in reading skills than normal ones due to less access to auditory and Phonological information. It seems that early surgery and cochlear implant before the age of language learning can be partially compensated reading defects of deaf children.   Key words: Reading skills, Cochlear implantation, Second and third grade.  

Farzad Weisi

2012-12-01

122

Semiologia neurológica numa população de escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental / Neurologic examination of a group of children attending first grade of a elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliamos escolares de primeira série do ensino fundamental, utilizando semiologia neurológica. Foram convidados, sem o conhecimento prévio do desempenho escolar, todos os alunos que frequentavam 5 classes de primeira série do primeiro grau de uma escola pública escolhida ao acaso, no município de I [...] tatiba / São Paulo, cujos pais assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram excluídos aqueles cujos pais não assinaram esse termo ou não compareceram a 3 consultas agendadas em dias diferentes. Utilizou-se o Exame Neurológico Tradicional (ENT) (Lefèvre, 1972). Considerou-se como normal a realização de todas as provas do ENT e as medidas do perímetro craniano propostas por Diament & Rodrigues (1976). Os dados foram armazenados em banco de dados do programa Epi6 (Epidemiologic Information). Os resultados foram analisados pelo cálculo de porcentagem e pelo teste c2. O nível de significância foi 0,05. Foram avaliados 124 alunos. O ENT foi normal em 87 (70,16%) e alterado em 37 (29,83%) escolares. Entre as alterações, foram observados: leve tremor, leve hipotonia muscular, atraso na aquisição da fala, macrocefalia, microcefalia, hiperatividade, síndrome de nervo craniano e paresia facial central. Um escolar apresentou síndrome de liberação piramidal nos membros inferiores. Abstract in english We evaluated children in the first grade of a elementary school using neurological examination. With no previous knowledgement of their educational performance, were invited all children attending five classes of the first grade of an elementary public school chosen randomly, in Itatiba / Sao Paulo [...] / Brazil, whose parents assigned a Commitment Term for participation in this research. Children who missed three evaluations in different days or whose parents did not assigned the Commitment Term were excluded. The Traditional Neurological Examination (ENT) (Lefevre, 1972) was applied. It was considered for normal the measurement of the skull circumference, proposed by Diament & Rodrigues (1976), and the application of all ENT items. The data were stored in a database of the Epi6 Program (Epidemiologic Information), and analyzed by percentage calculation and by the c2 test. The significance level was 0.05. Children evaluated were 124. The ENT results were normal in 87 (70.16%) and altered in 37 (29.83%). Among the alterations, there were observed: light tremor, light muscular hypotonia, speech acquisition delay, macrocephaly, microcephaly, hyperactivity, cranial nerve syndrome, central facial paralysis. One child presented corticospinal tract impairment syndrome of the distal lower extremities.

VANDA M. G., GONÇALVES; JOSIANE M. F., TONELOTTO; SOLANGE G., RAVANINI.

2000-03-01

123

Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25688999

Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

2015-04-01

124

6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference  

CERN Document Server

This book collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts and presents the proceedings of the 6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference (IP&C 2014) held in Bydgoszcz, 10-12 September 2014. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods  of image processing, computer vision  is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered.

2015-01-01

125

Proceedings of the 6th symposium on advanced photon research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at JAERI-Kansai in Kyoto on November 4-5, 2004. The symposium has been held once a year since 1999, to promote the advanced photon research through speeches, information exchanges, discussion by researchers on the front line of advanced photon research in Japan and abroad, not only reports of latest research results and plans at Advanced Photon Research Center. The numbers of speeches were 16, including 5 invited speeches, and the numbers of poster presentations were 56, including the report of presentations and cooperative research and joint research performed in FY2003. The 56 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

126

6th Conference on Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems  

CERN Document Server

This book offers a collection of original peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 6th International Congress on Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems (CMSM’2015), held in Hammamet, Tunisia, from the 23rd to the 25th of March 2015. It reports on both recent research findings and innovative industrial applications in the fields of mechatronics and robotics, dynamics of mechanical systems, fluid structure interaction and vibroacoustics, modeling and analysis of materials and structures, and design and manufacturing of mechanical systems. Since its first edition in 2005, the CMSM Congress has been held every two years with the aim of bringing together specialists from universities and industry to present the state-of-the-art in research and applications, discuss the most recent findings and exchange and develop expertise in the field of design and modeling of mechanical systems. The CMSM Congress is jointly organized by three Tunisian research laboratories: the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of th...

Fakhfakh, Tahar; Daly, Hachmi; Aifaoui, Nizar; Chaari, Fakher

2015-01-01

127

Investigating Elementary School Students' Perceptions about Environment through Their Drawings  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine elementary school students' perceptions about environment through their drawings. The study was carried out during the spring semester of 2010-2011 academic year. A total of 429 elementary school students, including 68 fourth grade, 78 fifth grade, 97 sixth grade, 85 seventh grade, 101 eighth grade,…

Ozsoy, Sibel

2012-01-01

128

INGESTA DE MACRONUTRIENTES Y PREVALENCIA DE MALNUTRICIÓN POR EXCESO EN ESCOLARES DE 5º Y 6º BÁSICO DE DISTINTO NIVEL SOCIOECONÓMICO DE LA REGIÓN METROPOLITANA / MACRONUTRIENTS INTAKE AND OVERWEIGHT PREVALENCE IN 5TH AND 6TH GRADE OF DIFERENTS SOCIOEOCONOMIC LEVELS IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil se han transformado en un importante problema en salud pública. Objetivo: evaluar la ingesta de macronutrientes y determinar la prevalencia de malnutrición en escolares de 5° y 6º año básico de distintos niveles socioeconómicos de 6 comunas de la Región Metropolit [...] ana. Sujetos y método: se evaluaron 1732 niños de ambos sexos de 9 a 12 años de edad. La evaluación antropométrica incluyo peso, talla, pliegue tricipital y subescapular. La ingesta de macronutrientes se evaluó mediante la aplicación de una encuesta recordatorio de 24 hrs; el nivel socioeconómico se evaluó mediante la aplicación la encuesta ESOMAR. Resultados: la prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso fue de 40%, siendo más importante en hombres de los estratos socioeconómicos de menores ingresos. Encontramos un mayor consumo de proteínas y grasas totales en el nivel socioeconómico más alto, mientras que el nivel de menores ingresos tuvo una mayor ingesta de carbohidratos. Tanto hombres como mujeres presentaron una adecuación superior al 75% en todos los macronutrientes con excepción de la fibra. Conclusión: El estudio arrojó una elevada prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso en ambos sexos con un mejor patrón de alimentación en los niños de nivel socioeconómico alto. Abstract in english Obesity in childhood has become an important publie health problem in Chile. Objetive: to study macronutrient intake and nutritional status in school-age children attending5th andóth grade inprimary schoolsfrom different socioeconomic status located in 6 counties in Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total [...] of 1,732 children between 9 and 12 years oldjrom both sexes were studied. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and tricipital and subescapular thickness. Macronutrient intake was determined using a 24-hours recall survey. Socioeconomic status was estimated using the ESOMAR survey. Results: In this sample overweight and obesity prevalence reached 40%. Prevalence was higher in boys and in the lower socio-economic groups. A higher consumption ofproteins andfat wasfound in the wealthier groups, while a higher intake of carbohydrates was present in the poorer ones. Comparison with the daily recommended allowancesfound that both males andfemales hada 75% ofadequacy of all ofmacronutrients with the exception offiber. Conclusión: The study revealeda highprevalence ofmalnutrition in both sexes with a better nutrition standard among children in higher socioeconomic status.

Yéssica, Liberona Z; Valerie, Engler T; Oscar, Castillo V; Luis, Villarroel del P; Jaime, Rozowski N.

2008-09-01

129

Estrategias metodológicas basadas en tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones elementales sobre mezclas en el 6° grado de educación básica / Stratégies méthodologiques basées sur la technologie pharmaceutique pour promouvoir l’acquisition de notions élémentaires de mélanges en 6ème degré d’éducation basique / Methodological strategies based on pharmaceutical tecnology to promote the acquisition of basic notions about mixtures in the 6º grade of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Venezuela, un país productor de materias primas, requiere de un proceso educativo que conecte al estudiante con la tecnología, que adicionalmente aporte sentido práctico a tópicos generalmente abstractos e implique incidencias positivas en el rendimiento escolar. La presente investigación tuvo como [...] objetivo el desarrollo de estrategias metodológicas, basadas en la tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones sobre mezclas en alumnos del 6° grado de Educación Básica. Se realizó una investigación de campo experimental, con carácter exploratorio y evaluativo. La muestra estuvo conformada por los alumnos del 6° grado de la Escuela Básica “Trino Celis Ríos”, ubicada en Maracay, Edo. Aragua. Un grupo experimental realizó actividades de laboratorio: elaboraron un jarabe, una crema a base de sábila y una loción para la piel. Se aplicaron pruebas antes y después. Mediante análisis de varianza se establecieron diferencias significativas entre el grupo control y el experimental. La estrategia aplicada promovió efectivamente el aprendizaje del concepto de mezclas y los distintos tipos de éstas en estudiantes. Adicionalmente, resultó ser innovadora, práctica y de bajo costo, una importante conexión ciencia-tecnología y un aporte positivo significativo en el rendimiento estudiantil. Abstract in english Venezuela, a raw material producing country, requires an educational process connecting students with technology. Such process should give a practical sense to topics that are generally abstract and involve positive incidences for the students’ performance. This investigation was intended to develop [...] methodological strategies, based on the pharmaceutical technology promoting the acquisition of knowledge about mixtures by students of 6th grade of elementary school. An experimental, exploratory, evaluative research was conducted on campus with a sample of a group of students of the 6th grade from the “Trino Celis Ríos School” located in Maracay, Edo. Aragua. An experimental group conducted laboratory activities including the preparation of a syrup, an Aloe Vera-based cream and a skin lotion. Tests were administered before and after the activities. Signifi cant differences between the control group and the experimental group were established through variation analysis. The strategy applied promoted effectively the learning by students regarding mixture concept and kinds. Additionally, this strategy was innovative, useful and cheaper, an important connection between science and technology and a signifi cant positive contribution to students’ performance.

Blanca, Castillo; Martha, Ruedas.

2007-01-01

130

Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

131

EDITORIAL: 6th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

The sixth International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was held in Pasadena, California, on 21 23 September 2005. The state of the art in many aspects of PIV technology was presented and discussed, and there were 100 oral presentations and 40 posters. PIV is now the standard tool to analyse various flow fields, including micro-flow, nano-flow, high-speed flow, bio-flow and so on. PIV is one of the most successful measurement techniques developed in this decade. Flow field structure can be easily measured with the turn-key PIV system. Nowadays, the targets of PIV research focus on the improvement of accuracy and the application of PIV to complicated nonlinear analysis. This special feature selects five superior papers from the 6th International PIV Symposium. Even though PIV itself is the standard tool, a lot of effort and research is needed to investigate the physics of flow. It will be my pleasure if readers appreciate the hot topics in PIV research as a result of this special feature. The 7th Symposium will be held in Italy in 2007. I hope the progress in PIV research will create a new field of measurement. I would also like to express sincere thanks to the staff at IOPP for their support.

Okamoto, Koji

2006-07-01

132

Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition Enhanced Problems Version  

Science.gov (United States)

No other text on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics. This text continues to outperform the competition year after year, and the new edition will be no exception. Intended for Calculus-based Physics courses, the 6th edition of this extraordinary text is a major redesign of the best-selling 5th edition, which still maintains many of the elements that led to its enormous success. Jearl Walker adds his unique style to this edition with the addition of new problems designed to capture, and keep, students' attention. Nearly all changes are based on suggestions from instructors and students using the 5th edition, from reviewer comments, and from research done on the process of learning. The primary goal of this text is to provide students with a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and to help them apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The principal goal of Halliday-Resnick-Walker is to provide instructors with a tool by which they can teach students how to effectively read scientific material and successfully reason through scientific questions. To sharpen this tool, the Enhanced Problems Version of the sixth edition of Fundamentals of Physics contains over 1000 new, high-quality problems that require thought and reasoning rather than simplistic plugging of data into formulas.

Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

2002-04-01

133

Aluno-autor: a aprendizagem da escrita literária nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Student-author: learning literary writing in the early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisa etnográfica sobre a escrita do texto literário realizada numa turma de 4º ano do ensino fundamental municipal de Curitiba. O estudo parte do conceito de aluno-autor, criado por Catherine Tauveron para sustentar o argumento de que a escola pode desenvolver nas crianças pequenas uma postura d [...] e autor. O artigo analisa dois textos produzidos por alunos, sendo um deles uma narrativa, e o outro, uma fábula. Paralelamente, apresenta as estratégias adotadas pelo professor para familiarizar os alunos com as características dos gêneros literários, como forma de nortear a sua escrita, de modo a contemplarem em seus textos os elementos da arquitetura desses gêneros, como tema, intriga, narrador, ponto de vista, personagem, estrutura, sequência, coerência, verossimilhança, espaço e tempo. Enfatiza, ainda, o papel do professor como responsável por instigar a reflexão dos alunos sobre sua escrita e criar as condições pedagógicas para que escrevam com prazer, autonomia e criatividade. Abstract in english This is an ethnographic research on literary text writing carried out with a 4th grade class of a municipal elementary school in Curitiba, Brazil. The study is based on Catherine Tauveron's concept of student-author, which supports that schools can induce the development of author's attitude in smal [...] l children. The paper analyzes two texts prepared by students: a narrative and a fable. It also presents the strategies used by the teacher to familiarize students with the characteristics of literary genres, as a means to organize their writing, so that they include elements of the common architecture of genres in their texts, such as theme, intrigue, narrator, point of view, character, structure, sequence, coherence, verisimilitude, space and time. It also emphasizes the role of teachers as responsible for enticing students to think about their writing and creating the pedagogic conditions so students write with pleasure, autonomy and creativity.

Elisa Maria, Dalla-Bona; Leilah Santiago, Bufrem.

2013-03-01

134

Aluno-autor: a aprendizagem da escrita literária nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental Student-author: learning literary writing in the early grades of elementary school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisa etnográfica sobre a escrita do texto literário realizada numa turma de 4º ano do ensino fundamental municipal de Curitiba. O estudo parte do conceito de aluno-autor, criado por Catherine Tauveron para sustentar o argumento de que a escola pode desenvolver nas crianças pequenas uma postura de autor. O artigo analisa dois textos produzidos por alunos, sendo um deles uma narrativa, e o outro, uma fábula. Paralelamente, apresenta as estratégias adotadas pelo professor para familiarizar os alunos com as características dos gêneros literários, como forma de nortear a sua escrita, de modo a contemplarem em seus textos os elementos da arquitetura desses gêneros, como tema, intriga, narrador, ponto de vista, personagem, estrutura, sequência, coerência, verossimilhança, espaço e tempo. Enfatiza, ainda, o papel do professor como responsável por instigar a reflexão dos alunos sobre sua escrita e criar as condições pedagógicas para que escrevam com prazer, autonomia e criatividade.This is an ethnographic research on literary text writing carried out with a 4th grade class of a municipal elementary school in Curitiba, Brazil. The study is based on Catherine Tauveron's concept of student-author, which supports that schools can induce the development of author's attitude in small children. The paper analyzes two texts prepared by students: a narrative and a fable. It also presents the strategies used by the teacher to familiarize students with the characteristics of literary genres, as a means to organize their writing, so that they include elements of the common architecture of genres in their texts, such as theme, intrigue, narrator, point of view, character, structure, sequence, coherence, verisimilitude, space and time. It also emphasizes the role of teachers as responsible for enticing students to think about their writing and creating the pedagogic conditions so students write with pleasure, autonomy and creativity.

Elisa Maria Dalla-Bona

2013-03-01

135

Quality of school life and self-concept among elementary school students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate, how much the dimensions of Children Self-Concept Scale, “Behavior”, “Intellectual and school status”, “Physical appearance and attributes”, “Anxiety”, “Popularity” and “Happiness” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions about quality of life in their school’s. The participants of the study consist of 493 students (235 girls and 258 boys who attended to 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades from four elementary schools located in Adana central province, Turkey. Quality of School Life Scale (QSLS and “Children Self-Concept Scale” were used as data collection tools. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to analyze the gathered data. Results show that, all dimensions of Children Self-concept Scale have significant correlations with quality of school life (p<.001. Results of hierarchic regression analysis show that, the variables of “Behavior”, “Popularity”, “Happiness”, “Intellectual and school status” and “Anxiety” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of school life significantly; but the variable of “Physical appearance and attributes” has no significant contribution to the estimation. It was found that, the variable of “Behavior” has the highest contribution to the estimation of students’ quality of school life among these five variables which could be account for 29.2% of the total variance of elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of their school life.

Mediha Sar?

2008-10-01

136

The Impact of Incorrect Examples on Learning Fractions: A Field Experiment with 6th Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational research indicates that error reflection, especially reflection on incorrect examples, has a positive effect on knowledge acquisition. The benefit of error reflections might be explained by the extended knowledge of incorrect strategies and concepts (negative knowledge) which fosters the learning of new content. In a field experiment…

Heemsoth, Tim; Heinze, Aiso

2014-01-01

137

How 5th and 6th grade school books perceived girls and boys?  

OpenAIRE

Actually, children and young people play in environments everyday more instable. Economical factors and different cultural heritage promotes several problems for the society, the school and the teachers. Students from different social and cultural environments lead to specific educational policies by the educational system. But this is not an easy task. First, because the change cycle in a complex system are not in agreement with the actual politic. Second, because it is nec...

Queiro?s, Telma Maria Gonc?alves; Botelho, Paula Gomes

2006-01-01

138

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

139

Principal component analysis reveals gender-specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific pattern of pediatric cardiometabolic risk with principal component analysis, using several biological, behavioral and parental variables in a large cohort (n?=?2866 of 6th grade students. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score (MetScore. Stratified risk components and MetScore were analyzed for association with age, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, physical activity (PA, and parental factors. Results In both boys and girls, BMI and CRF were associated with multiple risk components, and overall MetScore. Maternal smoking was associated with multiple risk components in girls and boys, as well as MetScore in boys, even after controlling for children’s BMI. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease (CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls. Children’s PA levels, maternal history of early CVD, and paternal BMI were also indicative for various risk components, but not MetScore. Conclusions Several biological and behavioral factors were independently associated with children’s cardiometabolic disease risk, and thus represent a unique gender-specific risk profile. These data serve to bolster the independent contribution of CRF, PA, and family-oriented healthy lifestyles for improving children’s health.

Peterson Mark D

2012-11-01

140

The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, General Pyrometallurgy, Vessel Integrity, Process Gas Treatment; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Process Control, Process Modeling, Vol. 3: Light metals, General Hydrometallurgy, Precious Metals; Vol. 4: Process Metallurgy, Recycling, Waste Treatment and Prevention, Vol 5: Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, waste effluents Treatment and Biohydrometallurgical application. The plenary lectures will be published in the scientific journal 'World of Metallurgy - ERZMETALL', which is published by the GDMB.

Sre?ko R. Stopi?

2011-10-01

141

O Livro didático nas séries iniciais: os "Diversos olhares" para uma coleção de geografia / TEXTBOOKS AND THE FIRST GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: several “points of view” for an edited textbook of Geography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea to make a research on the use of the textbook of Geography in the first grades of theelementary school emerged from several discussions during the Course of Geography at the FaculdadeCatólica de Uberlândia-MG. The subject is controversial and there are divergences in what relatesto its importance and use by teachers. We then chose an edition for analysis which is used inseveral state public schools in Uberlândia-MG. We tried to identify and analyze the way somegeographical concepts – that are in our opinion fundamental for the understanding of thegeographical space – are approached in the textbooks. To understand the pedagogic proposal ofsome textbooks of Geography for the first grades of the elementary school it is necessary to evaluate the methodological referential used by the author - or authors - and the criteria that motivate itschoice by teachers and schools. We compared the books content that is suggested by the Secretariade Estado da Educação de Minas Gerais (Education Secretary of the State to the book content ofthe chosen edition. The objective is not to demerit the work, but to point out ways and someimportant criteria for the choice of textbooks for the first grades of the elementary school. Thisinstrument should not foment discrimination, impartiality or neutrality. It should offer elements sothat teachers and students exercise their potential and creativity on the proposed themes, as a toolto be efficiently used in classrooms.

Suely Aparecida Gomes

2006-06-01

142

Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

143

McGraw-Hill: Filmstrips, Records, 8mm Film Loops, Transparencies, Globegraphic System for Elementary Grades, Junior & Senior High School, College.  

Science.gov (United States)

This catalog lists audiovisual aids available from McGraw-Hill, with prices for individual items and for sets. Approximately 250 series of filmstrips are listed under subject headings. About half of these are intended for elementary schools use, and half are intended for secondary sch ols and colleges. Some filmstrips come with sound recordings,…

McGraw-Hill Films, New York, NY.

144

Who Should Teach Mathematics to Elementary Students? A Case for Mathematics Specialists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the need for specialization of teachers in the elementary grades. Provides two examples of elementary specialization from Sweden and South Korea. Calls for elementary mathematics specialization in the United States. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

Reys, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

145

Demonstration of Combined Efforts in School-Wide Academic and Behavioral Systems and Incidence of Reading and Behavior Challenges in Early Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support. Students in the district are provided a continuum of reading and/or behavioral support based on…

McIntosh, Kent; Chard, David J.; Boland, Joseph B.; Horner, Robert H.

2006-01-01

146

Human CCR4+CCR6+Th17 cells suppress autologous CD8+ T cell responses  

OpenAIRE

The role of Th17 cells in cancer patients remains unclear and controversial. In this study, we have analyzed the phenotype of in vitro primed Th17 cells and further characterized their function on the basis of CCR4 and CCR6 expression. We show a novel function for a subset of IL-17 secreting CD4+ T cells, namely CCR4+CCR6+Th17 cells. When cultured together, CCR4+CCR6+Th17 cells suppressed the lytic function, proliferation and cytokine secretion of both antigen specific and CD3/CD28/CD2 stimul...

Zhao, Fei; Hoechst, Bastian; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Ormandy, Lars A.; Voigtla?nder, Torsten; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Ylaya, Kris; Wang, Xin Wei; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Manns, Michael P.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

2012-01-01

147

6th International seminar on horizontal steam generators. Summaries of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summaries of 55 reports, presented at the 6th International seminar on horizontal steam generators (HSG), used at the NPP with WWER reactors, are presented. The following problems were discussed: HSG operation and designing; HSG performance improving and prolongation of their service life (including the activity of the IAEA and EC); theoretical and experimental investigations of thermal hydraulics and accident control at HSG

148

Elementary algebra  

CERN Document Server

Elementary Algebra 2e, Second Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first tackles the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the substitution method, solving linear systems by graphing, solutions to linear equations in two variables, multiplication property of equality, word problems, addition property of equality, and subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division of real numbers. The manuscript then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational e

McKeague, Charles P

1981-01-01

149

Elementary algebra  

CERN Document Server

Elementary Algebra, Third Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first ponders on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the elimination method, solving linear systems by graphing, word problems, addition property of equality, solving linear equations, linear inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then takes a look at exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include reducing ra

McKeague, Charles P

1986-01-01

150

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas) entre cinco e oito anos de idade, [...] sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994) e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigatin [...] g the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls) with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994); lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school perf

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto, Tenório; Clara Regina Brandão de, Ávila.

2012-02-01

151

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas entre cinco e oito anos de idade, sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994 e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar.PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigating the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994; lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school performance and phonological processing were observed.

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto Tenório

2012-02-01

152

O conhecimento de professores de 1ª a 4ª série quanto aos distúrbios da leitura e escrita The knowledge of elementary education of first to fourth grade teachers as for reading and writing disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar o conhecimento dos professores de 1ª a 4ª série quanto ao distúrbio da leitura e escrita, pesquisando quais dificuldades referentes a esse distúrbio, foram apresentadas por estes professores. MÉTODOS: esses dados foram obtidos, por meio de um questionário informativo de 10 questões, aplicados a 50 professores de 1ª a 4ª série, da cidade de Bauru. Os questionários foram analisados e tabulados, e receberam tratamento estatístico pertinente. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos revelaram que os professores possuem um conhecimento superficial a respeito do distúrbio da leitura e escrita, sendo que muitos adquiriram tal conhecimento fora do ambiente de graduação. Verificou-se também que os professores apesar de encaminharem seus alunos ao fonoaudiólogo, possuem visão limitada quanto à atuação deste profissional. O distúrbio da leitura e escrita foi considerado como um problema próprio da criança, sendo pouco reconhecido como uma falha que também pode ser da escola ou da metodologia de ensino. CONCLUSÃO: os professores logram um saber pouco fundamentado a respeito do distúrbio da leitura e escrita; sendo que, as dificuldades giraram em torno: da identificação real do problema; de quais manifestações caracterizam esse problema; e de como intervir e prevenir.PURPOSE: to investigate the knowledge of the elementary education of first to fourth grade teachers as for reading and writing disorder, searching which difficulties refer to this disorder, they had been submitted by these teachers. METHODS: these data had been achieved, by means of an informative questionnaire of 10 questions, applied to 50 teachers of the elementary education of first to fourth grade from Bauru city. The questionnaires were analyzed and tabulated, and received statistical treatment. RESULTS: the obtained results reveal that the teachers have a superficial knowledge regarding the reading and writing disorder, being that many had acquired such knowledge outside the graduation environment. It was also verified that although the teachers direct their students to the Speech Pathologist, they have limited vision as for the performance of this professional. The reading and writing disorder is considered as a proper problem of the child, being little recognized as a fault that also can be related to the "school" or of the education methodology. CONCLUSION: teachers have little knowledge about reading and writing disorder; whereas, difficulties are centered around the following reasons: the identification of the real problem; events which characterize this problem; how to intervene and prevent it.

Graciela Barbosa Fernandes

2008-01-01

153

Optimization of the power coupling in the MAGPIE 4-way junction using a 1/6th scale model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Mega-Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE) is currently under construction in the Plasma Physics group at Imperial College, London. The generator is specifically designed to carry out radiative collapse experiments in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches. In order to achieve this goal, MAGPIE must be capable of delivering in excess of 1.5MA into a 150 mH load in under 200 ns. In the final generator, four 2.4 MV Marx banks charge four 5 ohm, coaxial, 100 ns single transit, water filled pulse forming lines (PFLs). The four PFLs are connected to a single coaxial vertical transfer line via four sychronously triggered trigatron switches. The vertical transfer line has an impedence of 1.25 ohm and therefore represents a matched load to the four PFLs. At the top of the transfer line a graded insulator stack makes up the vacuum-water interface. A magnetically insulated transmission line section then feeds the load. The total energy stored in the banks is 336 kJ making MAGPIE a multi terrawatt, long pulse generator. A necessary feature of the generator is the junction of the four horizontal PFLs to the single vertical transfer line. This paper reports on work being carried out to characterize the power flow through this junction using a 1/6th size scale model

154

Cluster-Randomized Trial Demonstrating Impact on Academic Achievement of Elementary Social-Emotional Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25485463

Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

2014-12-01

155

IXS2007: The 6th international conference on inelastic x-ray scattering. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This CD collects the presentation files of invited and contributed papers submitted at the 6th International Conference on Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS2007) held May 7-11, 2007, at Awaji Yumebutai International Conference Center. IXS2007 was attended by 115 scientists from 11 different countries. Presentations consist of plenary, invited, and contributed talks, and a poster session. The numbers of the oral and poster presentations are 37 and 66, respectively. (J.P.N.)

156

Addressing Priorities for Elementary School Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings from international assessments present an opportunity to reconsider mathematics education across the grades. If concepts taught in elementary grades lay the foundation for continued study, then children's introduction to school mathematics deserves particular attention. We consider Davydov's theory (1966), which sequences…

Venenciano, Linda; Dougherty, Barbara

2014-01-01

157

Letramento escolar de estudantes de 1ª e 2ª séries do ensino fundamental de escola pública Formal literacy of first and second grade students of a public elementary school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar e comparar o desempenho em letramento escolar de indivíduos de 1ª e 2ª séries do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública antes e após Programas de Práticas Reflexivas de Linguagem (PPRL. MÉTODOS: Participaram desta pesquisa 97 escolares de 1ª série e 149 de 2ª série entre os anos de 2006 e 2008. Os indivíduos realizaram triagens do letramento escolar antes e após PPRL. Estes tiveram a duração média de quatro meses; foram realizados em situação coletiva e em parceria com os professores das classes selecionadas. Foram elaborados segundo os temas norteadores: promoção de práticas de letramento; conscientização sobre o uso da voz e dos níveis de ruído nas escolas; promoção de narrativas orais e escritas, envolvendo a metalinguagem e principalmente a consciência fonológica e promoção de práticas de leitura e compreensão de leitura. Ao término de cada programa, foram realizadas triagens finais, com a finalidade de analisar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares antes e após a realização dos programas. Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas no desempenho entre as séries tanto nas triagens iniciais, quanto nas finais nas provas de ditado, leitura de palavras e frases e cloze de frases. CONCLUSÃO: A 2ª série apresentou resultados melhores do que a 1ª série. Os resultados foram mais significativos nas provas que demandaram conhecimento mais aprofundado da relação fonema-grafema e vice-versa, sugerindo que o letramento escolar é necessário quando o letramento social não se faz presente.PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the school literacy performance of 1st and 2nd grades elementary school individuals of a public school, before and after Reflexive Practices in Language Programs (RPLP. METHODS: Ninety-seven students of the 1st grade and 149 of the 2nd grade, between the years 2006 and 2008, took part in this study. The subjects were submitted to school literacy screenings before and after the RPLP. The programs had an average duration of four months, and were carried out in a collective situation in classrooms, and in partnership with the teachers of the selected classes. They were prepared according to the guiding themes: promotion of literacy practices; awareness about use of voice and noise levels at school; promotion of oral and written narratives, involving meta-language and, mainly, phonological awareness and the promotion of reading practices and reading comprehension. At the end of each program, final screenings were carried out in order to analyze and compare students' performance before and after their implementation. Data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Significant performance differences were found between 1st and 2nd grades, in both initial and final screenings, in the subtests dictation, words and sentences reading and sentence cloze were found. CONCLUSION: Second grade had better results than first grade. The results were more significant in subtests that required deeper understanding of the phoneme-grapheme association and vice-versa, suggesting that school literacy is necessary when social literacy is not present.

Maria Silvia Cárnio

2011-03-01

158

Letramento escolar de estudantes de 1ª e 2ª séries do ensino fundamental de escola pública / Formal literacy of first and second grade students of a public elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar e comparar o desempenho em letramento escolar de indivíduos de 1ª e 2ª séries do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública antes e após Programas de Práticas Reflexivas de Linguagem (PPRL). MÉTODOS: Participaram desta pesquisa 97 escolares de 1ª série e 149 de 2ª série entre os a [...] nos de 2006 e 2008. Os indivíduos realizaram triagens do letramento escolar antes e após PPRL. Estes tiveram a duração média de quatro meses; foram realizados em situação coletiva e em parceria com os professores das classes selecionadas. Foram elaborados segundo os temas norteadores: promoção de práticas de letramento; conscientização sobre o uso da voz e dos níveis de ruído nas escolas; promoção de narrativas orais e escritas, envolvendo a metalinguagem e principalmente a consciência fonológica e promoção de práticas de leitura e compreensão de leitura. Ao término de cada programa, foram realizadas triagens finais, com a finalidade de analisar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares antes e após a realização dos programas. Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas no desempenho entre as séries tanto nas triagens iniciais, quanto nas finais nas provas de ditado, leitura de palavras e frases e cloze de frases. CONCLUSÃO: A 2ª série apresentou resultados melhores do que a 1ª série. Os resultados foram mais significativos nas provas que demandaram conhecimento mais aprofundado da relação fonema-grafema e vice-versa, sugerindo que o letramento escolar é necessário quando o letramento social não se faz presente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the school literacy performance of 1st and 2nd grades elementary school individuals of a public school, before and after Reflexive Practices in Language Programs (RPLP). METHODS: Ninety-seven students of the 1st grade and 149 of the 2nd grade, between the years 20 [...] 06 and 2008, took part in this study. The subjects were submitted to school literacy screenings before and after the RPLP. The programs had an average duration of four months, and were carried out in a collective situation in classrooms, and in partnership with the teachers of the selected classes. They were prepared according to the guiding themes: promotion of literacy practices; awareness about use of voice and noise levels at school; promotion of oral and written narratives, involving meta-language and, mainly, phonological awareness and the promotion of reading practices and reading comprehension. At the end of each program, final screenings were carried out in order to analyze and compare students' performance before and after their implementation. Data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Significant performance differences were found between 1st and 2nd grades, in both initial and final screenings, in the subtests dictation, words and sentences reading and sentence cloze were found. CONCLUSION: Second grade had better results than first grade. The results were more significant in subtests that required deeper understanding of the phoneme-grapheme association and vice-versa, suggesting that school literacy is necessary when social literacy is not present.

Maria Silvia, Cárnio; Marília Barbieri, Pereira; Débora Cristina, Alves; Rosangela Viana, Andrade.

2011-03-01

159

O estudo do tratamento da informação nos livros didáticos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / A study of the usage of information in text books from the beginning grades of elementary teaching  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo investiga o tratamento da informação expresso em livros didáticos brasileiros apresentados em três coleções analisadas pelo PNLD (2000 e 2004) que foram recomendadas com distinção das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. As atividades foram analisadas a partir dos tipos de gráfic [...] os e conteúdos matemáticos abordados nas tarefas analisadas. Considerando o importante papel que os livros didáticos assumem na educação brasileira esse estudo aponta-nos que o trabalho com tratamento da informação, realizado pelos livros didáticos, encontra-se distante de possibilitar aos alunos a construção de procedimentos para coletar, organizar, comunicar e interpretar dados. O tratamento da informação, na maioria das coleções analisadas, não é explorado no decorrer de todos os livros didáticos, aparecendo apenas no capítulo de estatística e probabilidade. Abstract in english The present research deals with the use of information expressed in Brazilian text books in three collections analized by PNLD ( National Plan of Didatic Book ) ( 2000 and 2004 ) which were recommended with distinction for the beginning grades of elementary teaching. The activities were analyzed for [...] the type of graphics and maths contents. Considering the important role that text books play on Brazilian education, this study shows us that the work with the use of information within text books is not giving students the constructive procedures needed to collect, organize, communicate and interpret information. There is little use of information in the majority of the analyzed collections, appearing only in the statistics and probability chapters.

Maria Patrícia Freitas de, Lemos.

2006-08-01

160

O estudo do tratamento da informação nos livros didáticos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental A study of the usage of information in text books from the beginning grades of elementary teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga o tratamento da informação expresso em livros didáticos brasileiros apresentados em três coleções analisadas pelo PNLD (2000 e 2004 que foram recomendadas com distinção das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. As atividades foram analisadas a partir dos tipos de gráficos e conteúdos matemáticos abordados nas tarefas analisadas. Considerando o importante papel que os livros didáticos assumem na educação brasileira esse estudo aponta-nos que o trabalho com tratamento da informação, realizado pelos livros didáticos, encontra-se distante de possibilitar aos alunos a construção de procedimentos para coletar, organizar, comunicar e interpretar dados. O tratamento da informação, na maioria das coleções analisadas, não é explorado no decorrer de todos os livros didáticos, aparecendo apenas no capítulo de estatística e probabilidade.The present research deals with the use of information expressed in Brazilian text books in three collections analized by PNLD ( National Plan of Didatic Book ( 2000 and 2004 which were recommended with distinction for the beginning grades of elementary teaching. The activities were analyzed for the type of graphics and maths contents. Considering the important role that text books play on Brazilian education, this study shows us that the work with the use of information within text books is not giving students the constructive procedures needed to collect, organize, communicate and interpret information. There is little use of information in the majority of the analyzed collections, appearing only in the statistics and probability chapters.

Maria Patrícia Freitas de Lemos

2006-08-01

161

Atribuições Dadas à Matemática e Ansiedade ante a Matemática: o relato de alguns estudantes do ensino fundamental / Attributions Given to Mathematics, and the Math Anxiety: The Report of Some Elementary School Students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou identificar, em relato de alunos, atribuições dadas à Matemática, bem como graus de ansiedade ante a Matemática. No Estudo 1 foi aplicada a técnica brainstorming que consistiu em escrever, em uma folha de papel, tudo o que ocorre diante da palavra matemática. Participaram [...] 57 estudantes do Ensino Fundamental, 28 do 2º ano e 29 do 6º ano. Os alunos do 6º ano atribuíram mais características negativas à Matemática do que os do 2º ano. No Estudo 2, aplicou-se uma escala de ansiedade à Matemática a quatro crianças do 6º ano, aleatoriamente selecionadas do estudo 1. Observou-se que as situações que os alunos indicaram alta ou extrema ansiedade foram aquelas em que poderiam falhar e sofrer alguma punição. São discutidos o aumento das atribuições negativas com o passar dos anos e a necessidade de metodologias que previnam a aversão à Matemática. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify attributions to mathematics and degrees of anxiety related to mathematics. Study 1 applied the brainstorming technique, which consisted in writing, on a sheet of paper, everything that occurs before the word "Mathematics". Fifty seven elementary school students participa [...] ted, 28 of 2nd grade and 29 of 6th grade. Sixth grade students attributed more negative characteristics to mathematics than those of 2nd grade. Study 2 applied a math anxiety scale to four children in 6th grade, randomly selected from study 1. It was observed that situations in which students showed high or extreme anxiety were those in which they were exposed to conditions such as exams, schoolwork, and going to the blackboard. Data are discussed in terms of the increase in negative attributions over the years and the need for methodologies that prevent the aversion to mathematics.

Alessandra Campanini, Mendes; João dos Santos, Carmo.

1368-13-01

162

Consciência metalingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental / Metalinguistic awareness and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a influência da consciência fonológica, lexical e sintática, sobre a aquisição da linguagem escrita. Esperava-se que as crianças com níveis mais elevados de consciência metalingüística apresentassem desempenho superior na aprendizagem da leitura e escrita. Pa [...] rticiparam da pesquisa 65 alunos da 1ª série do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública de São Paulo. Os instrumentos utilizados para avaliar os níveis de consciência metalingüística foram aplicados no início do ano escolar. As provas utilizadas para avaliar os níveis de leitura e escrita foram aplicadas no início e final do ano letivo. A análise estatística mostrou correlações positivas significativas entre os níveis iniciais de consciência fonológica e sintática e o desempenho final das crianças em leitura e escrita. A consciência lexical mostrou-se correlacionada apenas com o resultado final em leitura. Tais resultados sugerem a importância de se favorecer o desenvolvimento da consciência metalingüística nas séries escolares iniciais. Abstract in english This research aimed to investigate the influence of phonological, lexical and syntactic awareness in written language acquisition. The main hypothesis underlying the research was that metalinguistic abilities could facilitate written language acquisition. Subjects were 65 first-grade students at a p [...] ublic school in São Paulo, Brazil. The materials used to measure levels of metalinguistic awareness were applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing assessment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistical analysis showed positive and significant correlation between initial levels of phonological and syntactic awareness and final performance in reading and writing evaluation. Lexical awareness was significantly correlated solely with final level of reading. These results suggest the importance of performing pedagogical activities in early school life in order to develop metalinguistic awareness.

Sylvia Domingos, Barrera; Maria Regina, Maluf.

163

Variação lingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental / Linguistic variation and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a influência da variação lingüística sobre a aquisição da linguagem escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 65 alunos de três classes da primeira série de uma escola pública de ensino fundamental. O material utilizado para avaliar o nível de variação lingüística da [...] s crianças foi aplicado no início do ano escolar. As provas utilizadas para avaliar os níveis de leitura e escrita foram aplicadas no início e final do ano letivo. A análise estatística mostrou correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis iniciais de variação lingüística e o desempenho final das crianças em leitura, sugerindo que a utilização de linguagem não-padrão pelos alunos pode dificultar o processo de alfabetização, sobretudo quando não trabalhada adequadamente pelas professoras. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a importância de uma efetiva difusão dos conhecimentos lingüísticos e sociolingüísticos, através dos cursos de formação de professores alfabetizadores. Abstract in english This research aimed to investigate the influence of different linguistic patterns in written language acquisition.. Subjects were 65 first grade students at a public school. The material used to measure levels of linguistic variation was applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writi [...] ng assessment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistics analysis showed negative and significant correlation between initial levels of linguistic variation and final performance in reading evaluation. These results suggest that different linguistic patterns can difficult the written language acquisition if they aren’t well working by the teachers that need to know and to use the linguistic and sociolinguistic knowledge in their literacy practice.

Sylvia Domingos, Barrera; Maria Regina, Maluf.

2004-06-01

164

Reading comprehension on the last grades of cicles I and II of elementary school / Compreensão leitora nos últimos anos dos ciclos I e II do Ensino Fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o desempenho de escolares do Ciclo I e II do Ensino Fundamental (EF), em decodificação, compreensão leitora e habilidades subjacentes à leitura, e investigar correlações entre essas variáveis, na ausência e na presença de prejuízos da compreensão leitora, identificados pelos [...] professores. MÉTODOS: Participaram 125 escolares do EF, agrupados segundo o Ciclo e a presença ou ausência de indicativos de prejuízos de compreensão leitora. Estabeleceram-se dois Grupos Controle (bons compreendedores de ambos os Ciclos) e dois Grupos Pesquisa (pobres compreendedores de ambos os Ciclos). Avaliaram-se: fluência e compreensão leitora; compreensão oral; memória fonológica de curto prazo e operacional; closura gramatical. Comparou-se (Teste de Mann-Whitney): em estudo intragrupo, os dois Grupos Controle e os dois Grupos Pesquisa; em estudo intergrupo, Controle e Pesquisa dos diferentes ciclos e Controle I e Pesquisa II. O coeficiente de Spearman investigou correlações entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: Quanto à compreensão leitora, observou-se: melhor desempenho dos Controle em todas as tarefas, comparados aos respectivos Pesquisa; melhor desempenho do Controle II comparado ao Controle I. Os Pesquisa foram semelhantes na maioria das provas. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre a maioria das variáveis estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os Controle mostraram melhor desempenho em leitura, nos dois ciclos. Memória de trabalho e compreensão oral não diferenciaram escolares no Ciclo I, ao contrário do observado no Ciclo II. O Pesquisa II foi semelhante ou melhor que o Pesquisa I e semelhante ou pior que o Controle I. Habilidades subjacentes mostraram diferentes perfis de correlação com a capacidade de compreensão leitora, segundo o grupo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To characterize students' performance in Cycle I and II of the Elementary School (EF), in decoding, reading comprehension and underlying skills of reading, and investigate correlations between these variables, in the absence and presence of reading comprehension deficits, identified by th [...] eir teachers. METHODS: 125 students from ES were grouped according to Cycle and presence or absence of reading comprehension impairments. Two Control (good readers from both Cycles) and two Research groups (poor readers from both Cycles) were established. Assessment involved: fluency and reading comprehension; oral comprehension; working and short-term phonological memory; grammar closure. It was compared (Mann-Whitney test): in intragroup study, both Control and Research groups; in intergroup study, Control and Research from different cycles, and Control I and Research II. Spearman coefficient investigated correlations. RESULTS: Analyzing reading comprehension, we observed better performance of Control Groups in all tasks in comparison to the respective Research Groups, and better performance of Control II in comparison to Control I. Research Groups had similar results in most tests. Positive correlations have been observed between most of the variables. CONCLUSION: Students without reading comprehension impairments showed better performance in reading in both Cycles. Working memory and oral comprehension did not differentiate students with and without complaints in Cycle I, differently from what was observed in Cycle II. Research II presented similar or better performance than Research I and similar or worse performance than Control I. Underlying skills showed different profiles of correlation with reading comprehension capacity, according to the group.

Eliane Mi, Chang; Clara Regina Brandão de, Avila.

2014-07-01

165

Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem por conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% responderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental.The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls. A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20% replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Silvania M. Bottaro

2008-07-01

166

Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental / Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem p [...] or conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% responderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental. Abstract in english The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls). A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. [...] The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20% replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Silvania M., Bottaro; Elsa R. J., Giugliani.

1599-16-01

167

The 6-th ICSI Conference 'Progress in Cryogenics and Isotope Separation' - 2000. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection of abstracts of the papers presented at the 6-th ICSI Conference 'Progress in Cryogenics and Isotope Separation' - 2000 has the following content (number of communication): - Plenary Talks (3); - Physics, technologies and stable isotope applications (5); - Vacuum physics (2); - Cryogenics technologies and equipment (3) ; - Materials science and engineering (17); - Thermogasodynamics (1); - Informatics in cryogenics and isotope separation (2); - Nuclear power (2); - Environmental protection. Industrial risk (6); - Laboratory analysis techniques (6); - Chemical engineering (4). The abstracts of two subsequent papers are also given. In spite of its title the volume contains several full-text communications

168

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

NONE

1997-10-01

169

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

170

IAEA International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties. 6th meeting of the Technical Steering Committee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the Consultant Meeting 6th Meeting of the Technical Steering Committee for the International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties' held on 16-17 September 2004 at Plas Tan-Y-Bwlch, Maentwrog, Gwynedd, UK. The purposes of the meeting were to review the matters and actions identified in the previous meeting, undertake a review of the current status of the database and to make recommendations for actions for the next year. The purposes of the meeting were fully met. This report contains the current status of the identified actions as well as a summary of the recommendations on enhancements to the database. (author)

171

A quantitative examination of school configurations in Tennessee using sixth grade math, reading, science, and social studies standardized test scores  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in standardized test scores, expressed as percentage passing, in math, reading-language arts, science, and social studies by comparing 6th grade students in K--8 schools with those in 6--8 schools. The data were gathered from an analysis of 6th grade students' scores on the 2006--2007 TCAP standardized assessment test in the state of Tennessee. The relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient, proficient, or advanced level in each subject area was examined. The analysis was based on 5 research questions. A t-test for independent samples was used to identify the relationships between the independent variables, configuration of the school (K--8 or 6--8), and the dependent variables, the percent of students scoring below proficient, proficient, or advanced. A chi square analysis was used to identify the relationship between the proportion of K--8 schools meeting AYP versus the proportion of 6--8 schools meeting AYP. The study showed no relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level in math, reading-language arts, and social studies. Similarly, there was not a significant difference between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level in math and reading-language arts and the advanced level in math, reading-language arts, and science. However, there was a significant relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level and the proficient level in science and the percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level and advanced level in social studies. In science, a lower percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored below proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. In science, a higher percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. In social studies, a higher percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. However, a higher percentage of 6th grade students in 6--8 schools scored advanced than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. The study showed a significant difference in the proportion of K--8 schools meeting AYP versus the proportion of 6--8 schools meeting AYP.

Ramsey, Whitney J.

172

Irradiation experiments of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oarai Gas Loop-1, OGL-1, is an in-pile helium gas loop, installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), for irradiation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels at high pressure and temperature. The present report describes results of fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies. The 6th-8th assemblies used coated fuel particles produced by a small-scale fluidized bed. On the other hand, the 9th-12th assemblies used trial manufacturing fuels, produced with a large-scale fluidized bed for mass production of the fuel for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed. For the 9th assembly loaded with the first mass-product fuel, the fission gas release, R/B of 88Kr, was relatively high, 1.5x10-5, and various defects were observed in the ceramography of the irradiated coating layers. Afterwards, a decrease was achieved in the through-coating failure fractions at the fabrication. Correspondingly, the R/B of 88Kr for the 12th assembly was reduced to an excellent value of 2x10-6. Thus, the production technology and the irradiation performance of the HTTR design fuels were successfully demonstrated. (author)

173

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

B. Wagner

2012-12-01

174

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-12-01

175

Elementary School Students' Perceptions of the Future Environment through Artwork  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate first level of elementary school students' perceptions of the future state of the environment through the pictures they draw. The participants of the study are 131 first-grade students, 127 second-grade students, 160 third-grade students, 188 fourth-grade students, and 222 fifth-grade

Özsoy, Sibel; Ahi, Berat

2014-01-01

176

Constructivism in the elementary school curricula  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to examine whether the 5th grade elementary school curricula of Turkish, English, Mathematics, and Science and Technology courses were congruent with the principles and standards of the constructivist education. Qualitative research methods were used in this small-scale case study which was conducted in a private elementary school in Ankara. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analyses in the academic year of 2007-2008. The populati...

Sert, Nehir

2008-01-01

177

Elementary analysis  

CERN Document Server

Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is

Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A

2014-01-01

178

Elementary vectors  

CERN Document Server

Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and applicat

Wolstenholme, E Œ

1978-01-01

179

Elementary Grade Retention: Making the Decision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's administrators must exercise caution in using student retention as a means of responding to changing social values and to the current media attention on declining standardized test scores. Recent reviews of hundreds of studies of student retention have concluded that some low achieving students do benefit from retention, but the majority…

Bucko, Richard

180

Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group. PMID:11885342

White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

2001-10-01

181

Scaffolding the argumentative writing via human rights teaching in the Greek elementary school.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, we have witnessed an increasing research interest in children’s writing ability in various genres, used in their specific cultures. Argumentative writing commands a considerable part of this research for several reasons, including the relationship of argument to the cognitive development and critical thinking as well as the difficulty of constructing an argumentative text. The latter was evident in a recent study by this author concerning the quality of argumentative texts written by students of 4th and 6th grade in a number of Greek primary schools. The present research investigates and compares the quality of children’s argumentative writing before intervention, with the quality of the writing after instruction with specifically prepared lessons about Human Rights. These lessons indirectly teach argumentative writing. Method: Qualitative and quantitative analysis with various measures enabled researchers to compare written argumentative texts before intervention with those produced after Human Rights teaching of 19 ten-year-old Greek students in one elementary school. The results show that the ability to construct argumentative texts is considerably enhanced through the indirect teaching used as learning scaffold.

Papoulia-Tzelepi, P.

2004-01-01

182

Corrosion investigation for iron artifacts dug out at the 6th Yamato ancient tomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed corrosion depth for some iron artifacts dug out at the 6th Yamato ancient tomb in Nara prefecture using X-ray CT for the purpose of estimation for long stability of iron material in the ground as a part of the natural analog study related to the research of the high-level nuclear waste disposal. These samples are three big and 17 small iron artifacts which are called 'Tetsutei' like as horseshoe iron plate. It is considered that the most of them had been buried in a slightly oxidizing or reducing environment. The analysis result shows the maximum corrosion depth is 1.6 mm for about 1500 years. This paper presents an outline of this study. (author)

183

6th conference of German judges at administrative courts held at Kassel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nine working groups, the 6th conference of German judges at administrative courts, held at the beginning of May 1980, primarily dealt with the question as to where the limits are set to legal protection by administrative courts, and with the further creation of public law by judges at administrative courts. Working group No. I turned to the control of decisions made during legal proceedings at administrative courts concerning the Federal Act for Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Law. In doing so, they dealt especially with the decisions on Kalkar and Muelheim-Kaerlich, made by the Federal Constitutional Court. This working group came to the result that hand in hand with a cutdown of the judicial intensity of control we will further observe legal protection shifting into the field of administrative proceedings. (HSCH)

184

Uranium groundwater anomalies and L'Aquila earthquake, 6th April 2009 (Italy)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of chemical and physical groundwater parameters has been carried out worldwide in seismogenic areas with the aim to test possible correlations between their spatial and temporal variations and strain processes. Uranium (U) groundwater anomalies were observed during the preparation phases of the recent L'Aquila earthquake of 6th April 2009 in the cataclastic rocks near the overthrust fault crossing the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The results suggest that U may be used as a potential strain indicator of geodynamic processes occurring before the seismic swarm and the main earthquake shock. Moreover, this justifies the different radon patterns before and after the main shock: the radon releases during and after the earthquake are much than more during the preparatory period because the process does not include only the microfracturing induced by stress-strain activation, but also radon increases accompanying groundwater U anomalies.

Plastino, Wolfango, E-mail: plastino@fis.uniroma3.i [Department of Physics, University of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Povinec, Pavel P. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); De Luca, Gaetano [National Civil Protection Department, Rome, Via Vitorchiano, 2, I-00189 Rome (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gran Sasso National Laboratory, S.S. 17/bis km 18-910, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Doglioni, Carlo [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Nisi, Stefano; Ioannucci, Luca; Balata, Marco; Laubenstein, Matthias [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gran Sasso National Laboratory, S.S. 17/bis km 18-910, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Bella, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale, 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Coccia, Eugenio [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gran Sasso National Laboratory, S.S. 17/bis km 18-910, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

2010-01-15

185

Uranium groundwater anomalies and L'Aquila earthquake, 6th April 2009 (Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of chemical and physical groundwater parameters has been carried out worldwide in seismogenic areas with the aim to test possible correlations between their spatial and temporal variations and strain processes. Uranium (U) groundwater anomalies were observed during the preparation phases of the recent L'Aquila earthquake of 6th April 2009 in the cataclastic rocks near the overthrust fault crossing the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The results suggest that U may be used as a potential strain indicator of geodynamic processes occurring before the seismic swarm and the main earthquake shock. Moreover, this justifies the different radon patterns before and after the main shock: the radon releases during and after the earthquake are much than more during the preparatory period because the process does not include only the microfracturing induced by stress-strain activation, but also radon increases accompanying groundwater U anomalies.

186

Uranium groundwater anomalies and L'Aquila earthquake, 6th April 2009 (Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of chemical and physical groundwater parameters has been carried out worldwide in seismogenic areas with the aim to test possible correlations between their spatial and temporal variations and strain processes. Uranium (U) groundwater anomalies were observed during the preparation phases of the recent L'Aquila earthquake of 6th April 2009 in the cataclastic rocks near the overthrust fault crossing the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The results suggest that U may be used as a potential strain indicator of geodynamic processes occurring before the seismic swarm and the main earthquake shock. Moreover, this justifies the different radon patterns before and after the main shock: the radon releases during and after the earthquake are much than more during the preparatory period because the process does not include only the microfracturing induced by stress-strain activation, but also radon increases accompanying groundwater U anomalies. PMID:19726113

Plastino, Wolfango; Povinec, Pavel P; De Luca, Gaetano; Doglioni, Carlo; Nisi, Stefano; Ioannucci, Luca; Balata, Marco; Laubenstein, Matthias; Bella, Francesco; Coccia, Eugenio

2010-01-01

187

Fabrication of DUPIC Fuel for the 6th Irradiation Test at HANARO Research Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, 15 DUPIC pellets and two mini-elements were fabricated to precisely investigate the thermal characteristics of DUPIC fuel. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets with 10.221{approx}10.278 g/cm{sup 3} (94.5{approx}95.0 % of T.D.) of sintered density and less than Ra 0.96 {mu}m of surface roughness satisfying the specifications of DUPIC fuel for the 6th irradiation test have been remotely fabricated at hot cell. 5 DUPIC pellets including 3 pellets equipped with thermal sensor in the center of the pellet were loaded in a mini-element. Endcap welding of the mini-element was performed by Nd:YAG laser. The DUPIC mini-elements assembled in an instrumented rig will be irradiated at HANARO research reactor.

Kim, Woong Ki; Lee, D. Y.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Jae W.; Park, G. I.; Lee, C. Y.; Yang, M. S

2006-02-15

188

6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics  

CERN Document Server

The growth in the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology fields over the last few years has been remarkable.. The analysis of the datasets of Next Generation Sequencing needs new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Also Systems Biology has also been emerging as an alternative to the reductionist view that dominated biological research in the last decades. This book presents the results of the  6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, 28-30th March, 2012 which brought together interdisciplinary scientists that have a strong background in the biological and computational sciences.

Luscombe, Nicholas; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Rodríguez, Juan

2012-01-01

189

Comparison of 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations regarding generalization patterns / Estudo comparativo da eficácia de estratégias e representações usadas por estudantes da escola básica em problemas relativos à generalização de padrões  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são estudadas as estratégias e representações usadas por alunos turcos de diferentes séries (da 6ª a 8ª) quando resolvendo problemas que envolvem a busca de padrões lineares e quadráticos. Os dados foram coletados a partir da aplicação de testes específicos em 246 alunos e de entrevista [...] s clínicas com 18 desses alunos. Os resultados apontam que a eficácia nos padrões de generalização aumentam positivamente de uma série escolar para outra, bem como aumenta a variedade das estratégias de generalização. Enquanto alunos de diferentes momentos da escolarização usam estratégias recursivas para resolver os problemas relativos à busca de padrões, mas a quantidade de estudantes que mobilizam estratégias explícitas é relativamente pequena. Alunos de séries mais avançadas usam vários tipos de representações no processo de generalizar, ao passo que alunos das séries mais iniciais, de modo acentuado, preferem a representação numérica. Abstract in english The study aims to compare and determine 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations of student from different grades (from 6th to 8th) when dealing with problems related to linear and quadratic patterns. Research data was obtained from tests applied to 246 students and clinical int [...] erviews implemented with 18 students. It was shown that when grade increases students' efficiencies of generalizing pattern improve in a positive way in all levels. Besides this, as learning levels of 6th and 8th grade students increase, the variety in pattern generalization strategies changed at least in all types of patterns. While students at different learning levels generally used recursive strategy to solve all the problems, the number of the students using explicit strategies is relatively low. The students of high levels use many types of representation in generalization; in contrast, the weak level students prefer mostly numerical representations.

Yasar, Akkan.

2013-12-01

190

Elementary Algebra  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course "is a study of the basic skills and concepts of elementary algebra, including language and operations on sets, operations on signed numbers, simple linear equations and inequalities in one variable, operations on polynomials (including beginning techniques of factoring), integer exponents, brief introduction to radicals, introduction to graphing, and applications." The course has seven chapters: Basic algebra principles; Linear equations and set theory; Inequalities & absolute values; Graphs of linear equations; Exponents, monomials, and polynomials; Factoring polynomials and solving quadratic equations; and Rational and radical expressions and equations. Each is broken into two or three lessons containing objectives, readings, multimedia components, and sample problems. The Topic View section of the site provides the concepts taught in the course in either alphabetical or sequential order for educators looking for more specific and targeted supporting materials for an introductory algebra classroom.

2008-07-17

191

An Elementary School Day in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

This set of four lessons, intended for grades 2-5, aims to give U.S. students an opportunity to understand and appreciate ways in which the lives of Korean school children are similar and different from their own. The lessons are: (1)"An Elementary School Day in Korea; (2) "A School Lunch in Korea"; (3) "A Visit to a Third-Grade Classroom in…

Fitzhugh, William

192

Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana / Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en Mé [...] xico. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las mismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an [...] intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist nature that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

Yolanda, Postigo; Asunción, López-Manjón.

2012-06-01

193

Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…

Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.

2010-01-01

194

Physiological Effects of Bouldering Activities in Upper Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the physiological responses of two different types of bouldering activities in upper elementary school students. As part of a physical education fitness unit, fourth and fifth grade students (N = 64) from two Midwestern elementary schools participated in two different activities at the…

Fencl, Matthew; Muras, Jennifer; Steffen, Jeff; Battista, Rebecca; Elfessi, Abdulaziz

2011-01-01

195

FOREWORD: 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF 2013) was held in Beijing, China, 19-22 September 2013, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University and Jiangsu University. The co-organizers were Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy and Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for CO2 Utilization and Reduction. The sponsor of the conference was Concepts NREC. The First International Conference on Pumps and Systems (May 1992), the Second International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1995), the Third International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1998), and the Fourth International Conference on Pumps and Fans (26-29 August 2002) were all held in Beijing and were organized by the late famous Chinese professor on fluid machinery and engineering, Professor Zuyan Mei of Tsinghua University. The conference was interrupted by the death of Professor Mei in 2003. In order to commemorate Professor Mei, the organizing committee of ICPF decided to continue organizing the conference series. The Fifth Conference on Pumps and Systems (2010 ICPF) took place in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 18-21 October 2010, and it was jointly organized by Zhejiang University and Tsinghua University. With the development of renewable energy and new energy in China and in the world, some small types of compressor and some types of pump, as well as wind turbines are developing very fast; therefore the ICPF2013 conference included compressors and wind turbines. The theme of the conference was the application of renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The content of the conference was the basic study, design and experimental study of compressors, fans, blowers and pumps; the CFD application on pumps and fans, their transient behavior, unsteady flows and multi-phase flow; other fluid machinery and devices, such as, wind turbines, turbochargers and reversible pump-turbines, clearance and sealing, jets, filters and mixers; and their engineering application and their system behavior, especially, the application of the renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The objective of the conference was to provide an opportunity for researchers, engineers and students to report on the latest developments in the fields of pumps, compressors, fans and turbochargers, as well as systems. The participants were encouraged to present their work in progress with a short lead time, and the conference promoted discussion of the problems encountered. The ICPF2013 brought together 191 scientists and researchers from 14 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for pumps and fans, which would enhance the sustainable development of fluid machinery and fluid engineering. The Scientific Committee selected 166 technical papers on the following topics: (i) Principles of Fluid Machinery, (ii) Pumps, (iii) Compressors, Fans and Turbochargers, (iv) Turbines, (v) Cavitation and Multiphase Flow, (vi) Systems and Other Fluid Machinery, and 10 invited plenary and invited session lectures, which were presented at the conference, to be included in the proceedings. All the papers of ICPF2013, which were published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ICPF2013, those are Yulin Wu, Zhengwei Wang, Shouqi Yuan, Weidong Shi, Shuhong Liu, Xingqi Luo and Fujun Wang. We sincerely hope that the 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines is a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing modern fluid machines. Professor Yulin Wu Chairman of the Local Organizing Committee 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013) October 2013 Th

Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Yuan, Shouqi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Shuhong; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

2013-12-01

196

PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS2012)  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS) conference series focuses on multiple scale systems, singular perturbation problems, phase transitions and hysteresis phenomena occurring in physical, biological, chemical, economical, engineering and information systems. The 6th edition was hosted by Stefan cel Mare University in the city of Suceava located in the beautiful multicultural land of Bukovina, Romania, from May 21 to 24, 2012. This continued the series of biennial multidisciplinary conferences organized in Cork, Ireland from 2002 to 2008 and in Pécs, Hungary in 2010. The MURPHYS 2012 Workshop brought together more than 50 researchers in hysteresis and multi-scale phenomena from the United State of America, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine, and Romania. Participants shared and discussed new developments of analytical techniques and numerical methods along with a variety of their applications in various areas, including material sciences, electrical and electronics engineering, mechanical engineering and civil structures, biological and eco-systems, economics and finance. The Workshop was sponsored by the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Program Human Resources 2007-2013 (PRO-DOCT) and Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava. The Organizing Committee was co-chaired by Mihai Dimian from Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava (Romania), Amalia Ivanyi from the University of Pecs (Hungary), and Dmitrii Rachinskii from the University College Cork (Ireland). All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The Guest Editors wish to place on record their sincere gratitude to Miss Sarah Toms for the assistance she provided during the publication process. More information about the Workshop can be found at http://www.murphys.usv.ro/ Mihai Dimian and Dmitrii Rachinskii Guest Editors for Journal of Physics: Conference Series Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis

Dimian, Mihai; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

2015-02-01

197

1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

Hansen, E

2006-02-01

198

The Elementary Economist, Volumes 1 and 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

These six newsletters present classroom tested activities in elementary economics. Each issue treats specific topics: scarcity, opportunity cost, production and specialization, consumption and demand, supply and production, prices and efficiency. In each issue, separate activities are provided for grades K-12, 3-4, and 5-6. For the most part,…

Lesley Coll., Cambridge, MA. National Center of Economic Education for Children.

199

Proceedings of the 6th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been recognized that neutron diffraction is an important means of research which can obtain the information on the positions of hydrogen atoms and water molecules which bear important roles in physiological functions, but due to the shortage of the diffractometers that give sufficient diffraction intensity, the utilization has not advanced. By the improvement of neutron flux due to the realization of the JRR-3M and the recent remarkable progress of biochemistry and biophysics, the structural analysis at atomic and molecular levels of the matters of living bodies and the elucidation of physiological functions have become to be carried out. The neutron diffractometer for the matters of living bodies aims at the top class in the world, and has been discussed by the experts in the world in five workshops. As the result, the neutron diffractometer was constructed, and the Gragg reflection from the single crystal of lysozyme protein was successfully observed for the first time in Japan. The 6th workshop was held on March 25, 1995 at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the lecture by Dr. B.P. Schoenborn was given, and the examples of the application of neutron imaging plates were reported. The important contents of the publications are summarized in this report. (K.I.)

200

On 6th regular inspection of No.1 plant in Takahama Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th regular inspection of No.1 plant in Takahama Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., was carried out from September 6, 1982, to April 19, 1983. The objects of inspection were the reactor, reactor cooling system, measurement and control system, fuel facilities, radiation control facilities, abandonment facilities, reactor containment equipment and emergency standby power generation facilities. The inspection of the appearance, disassembling, leak, function, performance and so on was carried out on these objects, but abnormality was found as follows. Leak was found in one fuel assembly. Two corners exceeding the standard value of peening were found in the gap at the joint of core baffle plates. Abnormality was found in 43 heating tubes of steam generators. The required countermeasures were taken respectively. The works related to the inspection were executed within the range of allowable dose based on the laws. In the two corners exceeding the standard value of peening, the gap at the joint was adjusted to the adequate value. Among the 43 abnormal heating tubes, sleeve repair was applied to 32 tubes, and 11 tubes were plugged. An accumulator safety valve of import was replaced with a Japanese made valve. Abnormality was not found in the internal radiation exposure of 6958 workers. (Kako, I.)

201

6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

NONE

1996-09-01

202

Examining Behavioral Risk and Academic Performance for Students Transitioning from Elementary to Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the transition from elementary to middle school for 74 fifth-grade students. Specifically, we examined how behavioral risk evident in the elementary years, as measured by the "Student Risk Screening Scale" (SRSS), impacts students transitioning from elementary to middle school. First, we examined how student risk status shifts…

Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Carter, Erik W.; Messenger, Mallory

2015-01-01

203

Describing Pre-Service Teachers' Developing Understanding of Elementary Number Theory Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Although elementary number theory topics are closely linked to foundational topics in number and operations and are prevalent in elementary and middle grades mathematics curricula, little is currently known about how students and teachers make sense of them. This study investigated pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of…

Feldman, Ziv

2012-01-01

204

Development and Validation of Nature of Science Instrument for Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor…

Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide

2014-01-01

205

Validity of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment for Predicting First Grade Readiness  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA) was administered to all kindergarten students enrolled in two rural elementary schools in the fall of 2004. Eight months later, the reading portion of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, 6th Edition (MRT-6) was administered. Teachers were asked to indicate whether they had concerns about each student's…

Panter, Janet E.; Bracken, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

206

The prevalence of evidence-based substance use prevention curricula in the nation’s elementary schools1  

OpenAIRE

Current guidelines for school-based substance use prevention suggest that prevention efforts should begin in elementary grades, before students begin using substances. Previous research suggests, however, that the use of evidence-based curricula in these grades may be low. Using a 2005 survey of public school districts in the U.S. that include elementary grades (n=1563), we assessed the prevalence of elementary curricula use, particularly those designated as evidence-based. We found that alth...

Hanley, Sean; Ringwalt, Chris; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Haws, Susan W.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2010-01-01

207

The 6th nationwide anthropological survey of children and adolescents in the Czech Republic in 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th nationwide anthropological survey (NAS) of children and adolescents was carried out in the Czech Republic in 2001 to continue the series of surveys repeated at 10-year intervals since 1951 (with the participation of the Slovak Republic up to 1991). The major objective was to find out the following body measurements of children and adolescents: body height and weight, and head, arm, waist and hip circumferences. Questionnaires were used to find out the body measurements of parents (body height and weight) and some socio-economic characteristics of the child's family (number of siblings, education of parents, breast feeding duration, birth weight and length, child's physical activities, TV watching time, computer gaming time, etc.). A school children questionnaire focused on eating habits was also part of the survey in 2001. A total of 59,000 children aged 0.00 to 18.99 years, i.e. about 3% of the population of the same age range, were enrolled in the survey in 2001. The results obtained presented in diagrammatic and tabular forms are reference standards for monitoring growth of the Czech children and adolescents from birth to the age of 19 years. The survey revealed a substantial slowdown in the long-term trend in body height increase for both boys and girls. The most marked increase in the mean body height is currently recorded in boys at the prepubescent age while the pubescent girls show a practically zero increase for this parameter. A more marked increase in body height at the adult age is not expected any more, but the increase in body height and weight at the prepubescent age is likely to continue for some time. The 6th NAS showed a marked slow down to a stop in the trend in the mean body weight increase. No increase in the mean body weight has been recorded in pubescent girls since the 1970's and in pubescent and postpubescent boys since 1991. Nevertheless, the younger age groups, namely those of preschool and primary school children, continue to show increase in the mean body weight. The secular trend in body weight has been less pronounced compared to that in body height. The rates of overweight and obese children (as assessed by body mass index, BMI) have risen in most age groups of school children compared to those reported in 1991. In contrast, a slight decrease in the rate of overweight children can be seen in boys starting from the age of 16 years and in girls starting from the age of 13 years. The obesity prevalence rate is significantly higher in boys than girls. Statistical analysis confirmed a correlation between the BMI values in children and education of parents (the higher the education, the lower the rate of overweight children) and between the BMI values and the population size of the community where the child lives (the higher the population, the lower the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity). Single children suffer more frequently from overweight and obesity than those with siblings. PMID:15508410

Kobzová, J; Vignerová, J; Bláha, P; Krejcovský, L; Riedlová, J

2004-09-01

208

PREFACE: 6th Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS11)  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to a subset of papers related to the work presented at the 6th edition of the international Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS), held in Trieste, Italy, September 4-8 2011. Previous editions of the conference were held in Porquerolles (France), Lake Tahoe (USA), Rathen (Germany), Awaji (Japan), and Banff (Canada). This edition was organized and chaired by Stefano Lupi (Roma La Sapienza) and co-chaired by Andrea Perucchi (Elettra), with the support of the Italian Synchrotron Light Laboratory ELETTRA, which was honored to host the WIRMS workshop in its tenth anniversary. The 6th WIRMS edition addressed several different topics, ranging from biochemistry to strongly correlated materials, from geology to conservation science, and from forensics to the study of cometary dusts. Representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities. This edition was attended by 88 participants, including representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities, who enjoyed the stimulating scientific presentations, several detailed discussions, and the beautiful weather and scenery of the Trieste gulf. Participants came from 16 different nations and four continents, including many young scientists, six of which were supported by the organizers. There were 45 scientific talks divided in 11 sessions: Facilities, Microspectroscopy (I, II, III), Time-Resolved Spectroscopies, Extreme Conditions, Condensed Matter, Near-Field, Imaging, THz Techniques and High-Resolution Spectroscopy. 37 posters were also presented at two very lively evening poster sessions. We would like to use the opportunity of writing this preface to thank all the participants of the workshop for the very high level of their scientific contribution and for the very friendly atmosphere, which were the most important keys to the success of the workshop. We also wish to thank all the companies (Bruker, Tydex, Spiricon, Allectra, Neaspec, Micos) and institutions (Sincrotrone Trieste, Sapienza University of Rome, EMS, INFN, CNR-IOM) sponsoring this event. We are indebted to the members of the International Advisory Committee for their valuable help in the difficult choosing of the invited speakers, and for more general advice on the conference organization and structuring. A special acknowledgment goes to the ELETTRA secretary staff, and in particular to Mariella Antonetti, who has been involved with the organization from the very beginning. The 7th WIRMS conference will be held in Melbourne (Australia). Our best wishes go to the organizers for a successful conference. Additional information on the conference can still be found on the conference website: http://www.elettra.trieste.it/events/2011/WIRMS/ A selection of the conference pictures is also available on Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sincrotronets/sets/72157627705743677/ Guest Editors Stefano Lupi and Andrea Perucchi Conference photograph The PDF also contains details of the Local Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee and a list of Sponsors.

Lupi, Stefano; Perucchi, Andrea

2012-05-01

209

Revisiting the February 6th 1783 Scilla (Calabria, Italy) landslide and tsunami by numerical simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 6th, 1783, a landslide of about 5 × 106 m3 triggered by a 5.8 M earthquake occurred near the village of Scilla (Southern Calabria, Italy). The rock mass fell into the sea as a rock avalanche, producing a tsunami with a run-up as high as 16 m. The tsunami killed about 1,500 people, making it one of the most catastrophic tsunamis in Italian history. A combined landslide-tsunami simulation is proposed in this paper. It is based on an already performed reconstruction of the landslide, derived from subaerial and submarine investigation by means of geomorphological, geological and geomechanical surveys. The DAN3D model is used to simulate the landslide propagation both in the subaerial and in the submerged parts of the slope, while a simple linear shallow water model is applied for both tsunami generation and propagation. A satisfying back-analysis of the landslide propagation has been achieved in terms of run-out, areal distribution and thickness of the final deposit. Moreover, landslide velocities comparable to similar events reported in the literature are achieved. Output data from numerical simulation of the landslide are used as input parameters for tsunami modelling. It is worth noting that locations affected by recordable waves according to the simulation correspond to those ones recorded by historical documents. With regard to run-up heights a good agreement is achieved at some locations (Messina, Catona, Punta del Faro) between computed and real values, while in other places modelled heights are overestimated. The discrepancies, which were most significant at locations characterized by a very low slope gradient in the vicinity of the landslide, were probably caused by effects such as wave breaking, for which the adopted tsunami model does not account, as well as by uncertainties in the historical data.

Mazzanti, P.; Bozzano, F.

2011-03-01

210

Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

2014-01-01

211

An Experimental Program in the Development of Musical Literacy among Musically Gifted Children in the Upper Elementary Grades with Emphasis on the Potential Impact of Kodaly-Inspired Musical Education. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A project is presented in which 10 American music teachers studied the Zoltan Kodaly teaching approach to musical literacy in Hungarian primary schools, helped adapt American musical materials to be used in a Kodaly-inspired teaching program in the United States, and tested these methods and materials in selected American elementary schools. The…

Ringer, Alexander L.

212

6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010: November 29-December 1, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC. As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration FDA. The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in Fc?RII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements of antibody druggability (Abbott, Bayer, Pierre Fabre, Merrimack, Pfizer), enhancing IgG pharmacokinetics (Abbott, Chugai), progress in manufacturing (Genmab, Icosagen Cell Factory, Lonza, Pierre Fabre) and the development of biosimilar antibodies (Biocon, Sandoz, Triskel) were also discussed. Last but not least, identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against new therapeutic targets (Genentech, Genmab, Imclone/Lilly, Vaccinex) including Notch, cMet, TGFbRII, SEMA4D, novel development in immunotherapy and prophylaxis against influenza (Crucell), anti-tumor activity of immunostimulatory antibodies (MedImmune/Astra Zeneca) and translations to clinical studies including immunogenicity issues (Amgen, Novartis, University of Debrecen) were presented. PMID:21441785

Beck, Alain; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M

2011-01-01

213

Elementary Science Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

2007-01-01

214

Tumor Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

... high grade) What are some of the cancer type-specific grading systems? Breast and prostate cancers are the most common types of cancer that have their own grading systems. Breast cancer . Doctors most often use the Nottingham ...

215

The use of mobile learning by 6th-year medical students in a minimally-supported environment  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The study aims to identify the impact of minimal support on medical students' mobile learning activities. Methods: The study was performed at the Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, on 129 medical students in their 7th year. The study consisted of a quantitative survey of the students, focussing on their mobile learning activities during their 6th year, while using their own mobile devices (such as smart phones) for mobile learning activities. In addition, their perceptions of barrier...

Ken Masters; Zahra Al-Rawahi

2012-01-01

216

Outcomes of Placing Low Performing Eighth Grade Students in Algebra Content Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

In California, Algebra I is the 8th grade math content standard. The United States Department of Education found the annual 8th grade General Math California Standards Test to be out of compliance with the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 since it assesses 6th and 7th grade math standards and not Algebra I math content. In response to the…

Taylor, Donald Joseph

2011-01-01

217

Standards of specialized diabetes care. Edited by Dedov II, Shestakova MV (6th edition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dear Colleagues!We are glad to present the 6th Edition of Standards of Diabetes Care. These evidence-based guidelines were designed to standardize and facilitate diabetes care in all regions of the Russian Federation. The Standards are updated on the regular basis to incorporate new data and relevant recommendations from national and international clinical societies, including World Health Organization Guidelines (WHO, 2011, International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 2011, American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2013, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE, 2009, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD, 2009 and Russian Association of Endocrinologists (RAE, 2011, 2012. Current edition of the “Standards” also integrates results of completed randomized clinical trials (ADVANCE, ACCORD, VADT, UKPDS, etc., as well as findings from the national studies of diabetes mellitus (DM, conducted in close partnership with a number of Russian hospitals.Latest data indicates that prevalence of DM increased during the last decade more than two-fold, reaching some 371 million patients by 2013. According to the current estimation by the International Diabetes Federation, every tenth inhabitant of the planet will be suffering from DM by 2030. These observations resulted in the UN Resolution 61/225 passed on 20.12.2006 that encouraged all Member States “to develop national policies for the prevention, treatment and care of diabetes”.Like many other countries, Russian Federation experiences a sharp rise in the prevalence of DM. According to Russian State Diabetes Register, there are at least 3.799 million patients with DM in this country. However, the epidemiological survey conducted by the Federal Endocrinology Research Centre during 2002-2010 suggests that actual prevalence is 3 to 4 times greater than the officially recognized and, by this estimate, amounts to 9-10 million persons, comprising 7% of the national population. Severe consequences of the global pandemics of DM include its vascular complications: nephropathy, retinopathy, coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular disease. These conditions are responsible for the majority of cases of diabetes-related disability and death. Current edition of the “Standards” emphasizes the patient-oriented approach in making decisions on therapeutic goals, such as levels of glycaemia and blood pressure. It also features updated guidelines on the management of vascular complications and new RAE position statement on gestational diabetes, produced in collaboration with Russian Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology. This text represents a consensus by the absolute majority of national experts, achieved through a number of fruitful discussions held at national meetings and forums. These guidelines are intended for endocrinologists and diabetologists, primary care physicians, cardiologists and other medical professionals involved in prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

2013-06-01

218

PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see composition below) and additional reviewers we wish to thank here for their kind help. Among the 194 abstracts initially received, 121 communications have been accepted for presentation, 109 of which having been actually presented (oral or poster form) at the conference, as well as 4 invited plenary lectures. The presentations for each session topic, and the geographic distribution of the delegates, are given in tables below. It is our hope that ICIPE 2008 has contributed to maintaining existing interactions and fostering new ones. We take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their valuable contributions and the excellent atmosphere of the meeting. The next ICIPE conference is planned to take place in the USA in May 2010. It will be organized by Alain J Kassab of the University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, and will take place on the UCF campus. Further details regarding ICIPE 2010 conference will be made available on the ICIPE 2008 website during the fall of 2008, and will also be disseminated directly to individuals having attended previous ICIPE meetings. The editorial committee of ICIPE 2008, Marc Bonnet - Guest Editor Stéphane André - Associate guest editor Andrei Constantinescu - Associate guest editor Abdellatif El Badia - Associate guest editor Yvon Jarny - Associate guest editor Denis Maillet - Associate guest editor Scientific Committee: ICIPE 2008 ChairmanM. Bonnet (Ecole Polytech., France) SecretariesS. André (Nancy-U., France) A. Constantinescu (Ecole Polytech., France) Honorary membersO. M. Alifanov (Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia) J. V. Beck (Mich. State U., USA) Members G. Alessandrini (U. Trieste, Italy)R. Kress (U. Goettingen, Germany) J. S. Alves (Inst. Sup. Tecnico, Portugal) S. Kubo (Osaka U., Japan) S. Andrieux (EDF, France) K. J. Langenberg (U. Kassel, Germany) S. Arridge (U. College, London, UK) C. Leniliot (U. Provence, France) M. Azaiez (U. Bordeaux, France) D. Lesnic (U. Leeds, UK) J.-C. Batsale (U. Bordeaux, France) W. Lionheart (U. Manchester, UK) M. Bertero (U. Genova, Italy) D. Maillet (Nancy-U., France) J. Blum (U.

Bonnet, Marc

2008-07-01

219

PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these courses. The most significant part of this event was an international exhibition of science, technology, energy and industry. In this international exhibition over 60 prominent international as well as local industrialists and vendors displayed their products. For the recreation of conference participants a cultural program and dinner was arranged. This entertaining program was fully enjoyed by all the participants especially the foreign guests. Recreational trips were also arranged for the foreign delegates. This mega event provided a unique opportunity to our scientific community to benefit from the rich international experience. The conference was a major forum for the exchange of knowledge and provided numerous scientific, technical and social opportunities for meeting leading experts. Editors Dr Javaid Ahsan Bhatti, Dr Talib Hussain, Dr Suleman Qaiser and Dr Wakil Khan National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST) NCP Complex, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan The PDF also contains a list of delegates.

Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

2013-06-01

220

Turbulence and molecular processes in combustion; Toyota Conference, 6th, Shizuoka, Japan, Oct. 11-14, 1992  

Science.gov (United States)

Papers from the conference are presented. The program was divided into the following six sessions: turbulent combustion -- theory and modeling; elementary reactions 1; elementary reactions 2; kinetics and modeling; turbulent combustion -- experiment and modeling; and turbulent combustion -- modeling and simulation. For individual titles, see A95-87171 through A95-87198.

Takeno, Tadao

221

The effects of the science writing heuristic (SWH) approach versus traditional instruction on yearly critical thinking gain scores in grade 5-8 classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are discussed in detail.

Tseng, Ching-mei

222

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 2), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 2, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through 10. Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions. (RH)

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

223

Desempenho de escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas de habilidades metafonológicas e de leitura - PROHMELE / Performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades at the metalinguistics skills and reading proof - PROHMELE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Elaborar uma bateria de provas que se propõe a avaliar o processamento de habilidades necessárias para a aquisição do sistema de escrita alfabético do Português do Brasil, e caracterizar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas desta bateria. [...] MÉTODOS: Foram elaboradas provas específicas para este fim, seguindo os princípios fonológicos da língua portuguesa do Brasil. Foram avaliados 120 escolares de 1ª a 4ª séries, sendo 30 de cada série escolar divididos em quatro grupos, respectivamente GI, GII, GIII e GIV. As provas elaboradas e aplicadas foram: prova de habilidades metafonológicas (identificação e manipulação de sílabas e fonemas, além de repetição de não-palavras); prova de leitura (leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras). RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos nas habilidades metafonológicas com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 4ª série sucessivamente. Também houve diferenças quanto ao tempo de leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras, com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 3ª série, mantendo-se igual ou próximo entre esta e a 4ª série. CONCLUSÃO: Os desempenhos foram se tornando superiores da 1ª à 4ª série, sendo que os escolares obtiveram desempenhos superiores nas provas de identificação em relação às provas de manipulação, assim como os desempenhos nas provas silábicas foram superiores aos das provas fonêmicas. Há uma prevalência da rota fonológica nas séries iniciais (1ª e 2ª) com as outras séries, especialmente a 4ª, usando mais a rota lexical. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To elaborate specific tests to evaluate the processing of abilities necessary to the acquisition of the alphabetic writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, and to characterize and compare the performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades on the proposed test. METHODS: Spec [...] ific tests were elaborated following the phonological principles of Brazilian Portuguese. One hundred and twenty students from 1st to 4th grade of a public elementary school were divided into four groups of 30 subjects: GI, GII, GIII and GIV. The tests were: tests of metalinguistic abilities (syllable and phoneme identification and manipulation, and nonwords repetition); reading tests (reading of real words and pseudowords). RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences among the groups for metalinguistic abilities, with averages decreasing successively from 1st to 4th grade. Differences were also found for time of real words and of pseudowords reading, with averages decreasing from 1st to 3rd grade, and remaining equal or close between 3rd and 4th grades. CONCLUSION: The performances were gradually increasing from 1st to 4th grade, and the students obtained superior performances on the identification tasks, when compared to manipulation tasks, as well as the performances on the syllabic tasks were superior to the phonemic tasks. There was a prevalence of the phonological route in the initial grades (1st and 2nd), while 4th graders preferred the lexical route.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi, Cunha; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

224

Association between the Number of Unfamiliar Vegetables and Dietary Factors of Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite well established health benefits, today's children do not eat enough vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the number of unfamiliar foods in the vegetable food group and the preference for these foods and dietary factors. Subjects were 1,072 children in 5th and 6th grades from elementary schools located in 4 cities in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. A two-page questionnaire consisted of questions asking about the subjects' preference and familiarity for 64 foods in the vegetable group, preferences for three fast foods, four types of vegetable dishes, and six tastes. Also included in the questionnaire were questions assessing subjects' adherence to national dietary guidelines. The subjects were divided into quintiles according to the number of unfamiliar vegetables; the 1st quintile (N=226) was children who had less than 14 unfamiliar vegetables and the 5th quintile (N=229) was more than 29. Compared to the children in the other quintiles, the children in the 5th quintile had a significantly lower adherence to national dietary guidelines regarding consumptions of vegetable and protein sources, regular exercise, awareness of desirable height and weight, and reading food labels, as well as total (P<0.05). The preferences for bland tastes (P<0.05), salads (saengchae, P<0.01), stir-fried vegetables (P<0.01), and several vegetable items (P<0.05) were significantly lower in the 5th quintile compared to the other quintiles. This study proposes the potential benefits of teaching children names of a variety of vegetables to improve their dietary factors such as food preferences and dietary habits. PMID:24551831

Song, Kyunghee; Lee, Hongmie

2013-12-01

225

A Comparison between Elementary School Students' Mental Models and Visualizations in Textbooks for the Concept of Atom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed for two major goals, which are to describe students' mental models about atom concept from 6th to 8th grade and to compare students' mental models with visual representations of atom in textbooks. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected with 4 open-ended questions including drawings which were quantified using the…

Polat-Yaseen, Zeynep

2012-01-01

226

Elementary Children’s Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science  

OpenAIRE

We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a wide array of earth science concepts, from rock formation to the Earth’s interior. We analyzed interview data primarily to determine whether or no...

Libarkin, Julie C.; Schneps, Matthew H.

2012-01-01

227

Elementary particle theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

228

Mapping the membrane topography of the TH6-TH7 segment of the diphtheria toxin T-domain channel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low pH triggers the translocation domain of diphtheria toxin (T-domain), which contains 10 ? helices, to insert into a planar lipid bilayer membrane, form a transmembrane channel, and translocate the attached catalytic domain across the membrane. Three T-domain helices, corresponding to TH5, TH8, and TH9 in the aqueous crystal structure, form transmembrane segments in the open-channel state; the amino-terminal region, TH1-TH4, translocates across the membrane to the trans side. Residues near either end of the TH6-TH7 segment are not translocated, remaining on the cis side of the membrane; because the intervening 25-residue sequence is too short to form a transmembrane ?-helical hairpin, it was concluded that the TH6-TH7 segment resides at the cis interface. Now we have examined this segment further, using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method. We constructed a series of 18 mutant T-domains with single cysteine residues at positions in TH6-TH7, monitored their channel formation in planar lipid bilayers, and probed for an effect of thiol-specific reagents on the channel conductance. For 10 of the mutants, the reagent caused a change in the single-channel conductance, indicating that the introduced cysteine residue was exposed within the channel lumen. For several of these mutants, we verified that the reactions occurred primarily in the open state, rather than in the flicker-closed state. We also established that blocking of the channel by an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag could protect mutants from reaction. Finally, we compared the reaction rates of reagent added to the cis and trans sides to quantify the residue's accessibility from either side. This analysis revealed abrupt changes in cis- versus trans-side accessibility, suggesting that the TH6-TH7 segment forms a constriction that occupies a small portion of the total channel length. We also determined that this constriction is located near the middle of the TH8 helix. PMID:25582482

Kienker, Paul K; Wu, Zhengyan; Finkelstein, Alan

2015-02-01

229

Auditory Display : 6th International Symposium, CMMR/ICAD 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 18-22, 2009 - Revised Papers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval, CMMR 2009, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in May 2009. The 25 revised full papers presented were specially reviewed and corrected for this proceedings volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display.

2010-01-01

230

6th year of the MEFANET conference brought new ideas for the education of future health professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 6th year of the MEFANET conference was held in Brno, Czech Republic, from Tuesday 27th to Wednesday 28th November 2012. This conference provides a regular opportunity for teachers and students from medical faculties from all over the Czech Republic and Slovakia to meet experts in health care informatics and providers of electronical support in the education. Apart from methodical and educational aspects of e-learning at medical faculties in general, this year’s conference has again dealt with the impact of this phenomenon on a specific medical specialty: a thematically focused symposium addressed the fields of orthopaedics, rheumatology and physiotherapy.

Lenka Šnajdrová

2013-05-01

231

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

232

Análise comparativa do desempenho textual de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental com e sem queixa de dificuldades na linguagem escrita Comparative analysis of textual performance in student of fourth and fifth grade of elementary school with and without complaint of disabilities in writing language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho na produção textual e a compreensão leitora de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental, com e sem queixa de dificuldades de linguagem escrita, relacionando-as às práticas de letramento experenciadas por esses estudantes. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 21 pré-adolescentes, de quarta e quinta série de duas escolas públicas, com queixa de dificuldade de linguagem escrita e 21 controles da mesma sala de aula, quanto à produção textual, compreensão textual e práticas de letramento. As produções textuais foram avaliadas segundo o protocolo de níveis textuais. RESULTADOS: não há diferença estatística entre os grupos de estudo e controle, em ambas as séries, na habilidade de compreensão textual. Em relação à produção textual, na quarta série os itens que apresentaram diferença estatística foram: situacionalidade, aceitabilidade, repetição, progressão e intencionalidade. Já na quinta série, os itens alterados foram a aceitabilidade e a progressão. Todos os sujeitos apresentaram práticas de letramento insuficientes. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferença estatística entre o grupo controle e de estudo em algumas categorias textuais, sobretudo, aceitabilidade e progressão. De um modo geral, ambos os grupos apresentaram desempenhos textuais abaixo do esperado para sua escolaridade, fato que parece estar relacionado a práticas de letramento insuficientes, tanto na escola como no ambiente familiar.PURPOSE: compare the textual performance of production and the reading comprehension of students in fourth and fifth grade of elementary school, with and without complaints of desabilities in the writing language, relating them with the practices of literacy experienced by these students. METHODS: 21 were assessed pre-adolescents in 4th and 5th grade of public schools,with complaint of desability in writing language and 21 controls in the same classroom, on the textual production, textual comprehension and practices of literacy. The textual productions were evaluated following the protocol of textual levels. RESULTS: there isn't statistical difference between the study groups and control in both grades in the ability textual understanding. Regarding the textual production in the 4th grade the items that showed changes were: situational, acceptability, repetition, progression, and intentionality. Already in the 5th grade, the items changed to acceptability and progress. All subjects had insufficient practice of literacy. CONCLUSION: there was a statistical difference between the control group and the study in some textual categories, particularly acceptability and progress. In general, both groups were lower than expected textual performance for your schooling, a fact that seems to be related to inadequate practices of literacy as much in the school as the family environment.

Vanessa Deuschle-Araújo

2010-08-01

233

Graded identities of matrix algebras and the universal graded algebra  

CERN Document Server

We consider fine G-gradings on M_n(C) (i.e. gradings of the matrix algebra over the complex numbers where each component is 1 dimensional). Groups which provide such a grading are known to be solvable. We consider the T-ideal of G-graded identities and show that it is generated by a special type of binomial identities which we call elementary. In particular we show that the ideal of graded identities is finitely generated as a T-ideal. Next, given such grading we construct a universal algebra U_{G,c} in two different ways: one by means of polynomial identities and the other one by means of a generic two-cocycle (this parallels the classical constructions in the non-graded case). We show that a suitable central localization of U_{G,c} is Azumaya over its center and moreover, its homomorphic images are precisely the G-graded forms of M_n(C). Finally, we consider the ring of central quotients Q(U_{G,c}) (this is an F-central simple algebra where F=Frac(Z) and Z is the center of of U_{G,c}). Using an earlier resu...

Aljadeff, Eli; Natapov, Michael

2007-01-01

234

Atascocita Springs Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

With the significant amount of time invested in researching the best techniques for delivering instruction to their students, Humble ISD is always on the forefront of education. Taking the recommendations of their active and vocal community groups, the district embarked in the design of the 26th elementary school, Atascocita Springs Elementary

Nigaglioni, Irene; Yocham, Deborah

2011-01-01

235

Inverses and Elementary Matrices  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to explore the properties of inverse matrices. Our principal tool for this exploration is the expression of elementary row operations as left multiplications by elementary matrices. This is part of a larger collection of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David

236

Elementary spacetime cycles  

CERN Document Server

Every system in physics is described in terms of interacting elementary particles characterized by modulated spacetime recurrences. These intrinsic periodicities, implicit in undulatory mechanics, imply that every free particle is a reference clock linking time to the particle's mass, and every system is formalizable by means of modulated elementary spacetime cycles. We propose a novel consistent relativistic formalism based on intrinsically cyclic spacetime dimensions, encoding the quantum recurrences of elementary particles into spacetime geometrodynamics. The advantage of the resulting theory is a formal derivation of quantum behaviors from relativistic mechanics, in which the constraint of intrinsic periodicity turns out to quantize the elementary particles; as well as a geometrodynamical description of gauge interaction which, similarly to gravity, turns out to be represented by relativistic modulations of the internal clocks of the elementary particles. The characteristic classical to quantum correspond...

Dolce, Donatello

2013-01-01

237

Conflict in a Sixth-Grade Book Club: The Impact of a Rule-Driven Discourse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines unintended consequences during a 6th-grade book club discussion of Bette Bao Lord's (1984) In the Year of the Boar and Jackie Robinson. The participants modeled a book club discussion, otherwise known as the fish bowl, for a newly enrolled student. Unintended consequences occurred within the realm of deviating from the rules of…

Hill, K. Dara

2008-01-01

238

Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

2009-01-01

239

Use of Primary Sources in the Sixth Grade Social Studies Course Books  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is to determine the level of use of primary sources in the 6th Grade Social Studies Course Books. The "document analysis" method from among the qualitative research methods was used in the study. The study was conducted on 4 books from among the Social Studies course books published by total of 6 Publishing Houses…

Yilmaz, Ali

2008-01-01

240

Thinking Maps: An innovative way to increase sixth-grade student achievement in social studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of Thinking Maps on the achievement of 6th-grade social studies students in order to determine its effectiveness. The population of this study came from a suburban middle school in the state of Georgia. The quantitative data included a pretest and posttest. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade students who are taught with either Thinking Maps or traditional social studies methods, (b) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade male versus female social studies students, and (c) whether there is a significant interaction between 6th-grade students' type of social studies class and gender as to differentially affect their mean posttest scores on the benchmark test. To answer these questions, students' pretest and posttest were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference after Thinking Maps were implemented with the treatment group for 9 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the test scores between the students who were taught with Thinking Maps and the students who were taught without Thinking Maps. However, the students taught with Thinking Maps had the higher adjusted posttest scores.

Reed, Tamita

241

AN EIGHTH GRADE ORTHOGRAPHY TEST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines an eighth grade orthography test with the aim of improving current methods in teaching orthography and encouraging the development of functional knowledge in elementary school students. Besides general considerations concerning the test in the context of teaching and all the elements connected with its preparation and implementation (clear rules and persistent adherence to rules, clear instructions for tasks, appropriate teacher instruction during classes, the paper also provides a description of a test model which can be used during a revision class of eight grade Serbian language orthography.

???? ?. ????????????

2014-01-01

242

Instructor-led or Learner-led for Elementary Learners to Learn Computer-based Music Composition?  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of instructional strategy (instructor-led vs. learner-led) and grade level (third grade vs. fifth grade) on elementary learners’ music composition performance and attitude with the use of a computer-based music composition software. An experimental learning activity was implemented using 5E learning cycle as a pedagogical framework to facilitate learning. A quasi-experimental design was employed with elementary learners participate...

Ju-Shih Tseng; Ming-Puu Chen

2010-01-01

243

Ground-motion simulations of the L'Aquila earthquake Mw=6.3 (April 6th, 2009) : testing a kinematic fractal source model combined with empirical Green's functions  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to test a simulation method which combine kinematic fractal source models with Green's functions to produce broad-band synthetic accelerograms. It is applied to ground-motion simulations of the L'Aquila earthquake Mw=6.3 that struck the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) on April 6th, 2009. In a first step, the slip distribution on the fault plane is computed. It is based on a composite source description, where subevents are generated using a fractal distribution of sizes. Each elementary source is described as a crack-type slip model with its own spatiotemporal his- tory. To better control the directivity effect at all scales, the location of the nucleation point for an elementary source is assumed to be scale-dependent (Ruiz et al., 2011). Green's func- tions are computed at 13 stations by using the numerical code AXITRA (Coutant, 1990) with a five layers velocity model. Simulation results are compared with ground motions recorded during the L'Aquila earthquake. The directivity effect of the rupture process observed during the L'Aquila earthquake is well reproduced by the simulation. However, simulation results are limited to rather low frequencies and site-effects are not take into account. In a second step, we propose to replace the numerical Green's functions by empirical Green's functions (EGFs). Indeed, the L'Aquila mainshock was followed by numerous aftershocks re- corded by a large number of accelerometric stations of the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN). It provides us with the opportunity to use the recordings of the aftershocks as empi- rical Green's functions. These recordings have the advantage of incorporating the information of wave-propagation and site effects. As preliminary investigation, two aftershocks are selec- ted as EGFs : the April 7th, 2009 (09h26) Mw=5.0 earthquake and the April 6th, 2009 (16h38) Mw=4.4 earthquake. However, this semi-empirical approach is based on the assumption that the recordings of small earthquakes can be considered as a good approximation of the impulse response of the middle to the corner frequency fc. The maximum frequency of validity of the simulations is thus defined by the corner frequency of the EGF. To exploit the frequency content of the EGF beyond the corner frequency, we propose to remove the effect of the source function by deconvolving the EGF by a theoretical source function. Simulation results obtained by using empirical Green's functions show more complex waveforms than those obtained from nume- rical Green's functions and results are more closer to the ground motions recorded during the L'Aquila earthquake.

Foundotos, L.; Courboulex, F.; Baumont, D.

2012-12-01

244

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Accreditation:Impact on Elementary Student Performance  

OpenAIRE

Currently, 848 Georgia public elementary schools that house third- and fifth-grades in the same building use the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) accreditation as a school improvement model. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether elementary schools that are SACS accredited increased their levels of academic achievement at a higher rate over a five-year period than elementary schools that were not SACS accredited as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skil...

Bruner, Darlene Y.; Lance Lamar Brantley

2004-01-01

245

Social Activism in Elementary Science Education: A Science, Technology, and Society Approach to Teach Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students' science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school…

Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie

2006-01-01

246

Confronting Barriers to Teaching Elementary Science: After-School Science Teaching Experiences for Preservice Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examines the transition of eight elementary preservice teachers into student teaching after participating in a science methods course that included a significant amount of teaching after-school science to elementary grade students. These eight participants had a chance to practice teaching inquiry-based science and to reform…

Cartwright, Tina; Smith, Suzanne; Hallar, Brittan

2014-01-01

247

Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

Bazzy, Zadda M.

2010-01-01

248

The Predictors of Internet Addiction Behaviours for Taiwanese Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there has been considerable research which has explored factors related to internet addiction, few studies have investigated elementary school students' involvement in this behaviour pattern. Participants in the present study were 1045 children in grades 3 to 6 from elementary schools in Taiwan. Students completed surveys on their…

Lan, Chu M.; Lee, Yu H.

2013-01-01

249

Psychological Needs Satisfaction, Motivational Regulations and Physical Activity Intention among Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship between psychological needs satisfaction, motivational regulations in physical education and physical activity intention among elementary school students. A total of 291 elementary school students in grades 3-6 voluntarily completed the three measures. This study indicated that satisfaction of three basic…

Chen, Weiyun

2014-01-01

250

The Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Performance of Elementary Brass Players.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the effects of breath management instruction on the performance of 61 elementary brass players in in grades 4, 5, and 6. Shows that breathing instruction within group lessons was effective in improving the breathing and performance of elementary brass players. Includes references. (CMK)

Sehmann, Karin Harfst

2000-01-01

251

Effects of Sustained Teacher Professional Development on the Classroom Science Instruction of Elementary School Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sustained teacher professional development in science education affects the classroom instruction of elementary school teachers in third through sixth grade over a 3-year period. The teachers in the study were all elementary endorsed and prepared to be generalists in the content areas.…

Hauck, Nancy

2012-01-01

252

Publishing the Proceedings for the 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003) was held from June 22 to June 26 at the Coolfont Resort and Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. The Workshop was hosted by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) of the University of Maryland, College Park and by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. As its name implies this was the sixth in a series of biennial workshops devoted to exchanging information and ideas on high power microwave sources and components. The applications addressed included particle accelerators, radar, HPM, space exploration, neutron sources and plasma heating and current driven in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. This Final Report includes a brief description of the RF 2003 Workshop and the distribution of the published proceedings

253

Finite-Difference Approach for a 6th-Order Nonlinear Phase Equation with Self-Excitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A range of physical systems, particularly of chemical nature involving reactions, perform self-excited oscillations coupled by diffusion. The role of diffusion is not trivial so that initial differences in the phase of the oscillations between different points in space do not necessarily disappear as time goes; they may self-sustain. The dynamics of the phase depend on the values of the controlling parameters of the system. We consider a 6th-order nonlinear partial differential equation resulting insuch dynamics. The equation is solved using central finite-difference discretization in space. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated in time using a Matlab solver. The numerical code is tested using forced versions of the equation, which admit exact analytical solutions. The comparison of the exact and numerical solutions demonstrates satisfactory agreement.

Mohammed, Mayada; Strunin, Dmitry

254

Elementary numerosity and measures  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we introduce the notion of elementary numerosity as a special function defined on all subsets of a given set X which takes values in a suitable non-Archimedean field, and satisfies the same formal properties of finite cardinality. We investigate the relationships between this notion and the notion of measure. The main result is that every non-atomic finitely additive measure is obtained from a suitable elementary numerosity by simply taking its ratio to a unit....

Benci, Vieri; Bottazzi, Emanuele; Di Nasso, Mauro

2012-01-01

255

Glacier Change Investigation for Early Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Few opportunities exist for early elementary students to do inquiry or guided inquiry into topics dealing with climate change and glaciers. "Flubber" offers a simulation for the movement of glacial ice. It is inexpensive to make, stores well, and can be re-used. Students of all ages enjoy watching, measuring, and thinking about flubber and what it represents. As the interest in ice sheets continues to build, activities that both help to illustrate how glaciers move and provide a launch pad for student-driven investigations need to be available to teachers. With support from the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), a set of activities has been developed to provide opportunities for early elementary students to develop inquiry skills within the standards for early elementary grades bands in the National Science Education Standards. Lesson plans, instructions for making and using "Flubber", student worksheets, teacher guides with glacier and climate change information, and a chart of the National Science Education Standards applicable to the activities are available to elementary teachers wishing to introduce their students to glaciers and climate change.

Hintz, R. S.; Landis, C.

2008-12-01

256

Labs at Elementary Level Help Bring Science Alive  

Science.gov (United States)

State and district science standards typically call for students to take part in hands-on labs and experiments in the elementary grades. The 1996 National Science Education Standards, which were written by the National Research Council and serve as a reference for many states, emphasize similar activities. Yet the use of even simple labs and…

Cavanagh, Sean

2008-01-01

257

An Inventory for Assessing Food Behaviors of Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes development, field-testing, and summary statistics of a series of inventories designed to assess food behaviors of 1,673 elementary school students (grades 1-6). Content focuses on personal cleanliness, personal safety, and food quality. Students respond to cartoon items by selecting one of three responses to indicate their typical…

Fanslow, Alyce M.; And Others

1982-01-01

258

Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions among Prospective Elementary Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Research shows that misconceptions about human blood circulation and gas exchange persist across grade levels. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for…

Pelaez, Nancy J.; Boyd, Denise D.; Rojas, Jacqueline B.; Hoover, Mildred A.

2005-01-01

259

Assertive Behavior and Likeability in Elementary School Boys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The social impact of assertive versus nonassertive behavior in fourth- and fifth-grade boys was investigated. Subjects viewed and evaluated eight videotaped scenes of different ten-year-old male models responding assertively or nonassertively to given situations. Results suggest that assertive behavior is valued by elementary school boys. (RDN)

Wojnilower, Daniel A.; Gross, Alan M.

1984-01-01

260

Turkish Elementary and Secondary Students' Views about Science and Scientist  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine elementary and secondary students' views concerning science and scientists. Data gathered from Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and essays written by students were used to analyze their views. The study involved 359 students in grades 5 through 11. The results indicate that student's perceived scientists as to be…

Akcay, Behiye

2011-01-01

261

Antropometria de escolares ao ingresso no ensino fundamental na cidade de Belém, Pará, 2001 / School aged anthropometry when enrolling in the first grade of elementary school in the city of Belém, Pará, 2001  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar a antropometria em escolares da primeira série da rede pública estadual em Belém, Pará, como instrumento de vigilância nutricional e estudar as associações entre o estado nutricional e características biológicas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados nutricionalmente 793 esc [...] olares, pelos escores z de estatura/idade e peso/estatura, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. As variáveis biológicas e socioeconômicas foram: sexo, idade, naturalidade, idade de ingresso da criança na escola e escolaridade materna. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado ao relacionar o estado nutricional com as variáveis. RESULTADOS: em 637 escolares observamos 16,6% de baixa estatura e risco de baixa estatura, 4,5% de desnutrição e risco de desnutrição, 7,4% de sobrepeso e obesidade. Não houve associação significante entre estado nutricional e sexo. A maioria das crianças nasceu na capital, ingressou tardiamente na escola e tinham mães com escolaridade >4 anos. Observou-se correlação significante entre obesidade e baixa estatura com menor escolaridade materna; risco de desnutrição e baixa estatura com o ingresso escolar tardio; e obesidade e estatura normal com o ingresso regular. CONCLUSÕES: a menor escolaridade materna e o ingresso tardio escolar estão associados à presença de desvios nutricionais. A vigilância nutricional escolar é importante para avaliar, tratar e prevenir os riscos para saúde e nutrição infantil. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to perform anthropometric measurements in elementary school students of the public school system of the State of Belém, Pará, as a tool for nutritional surveillance and to study associations between nutritional status and biological, social and economic characteristics. METHODS: 793 stud [...] ents were assessed for their nutritional status, by z scores of height/age and weight /height according to the World Health Organization criteria. Biological, social and economic variables were: gender, age, place of birth, age of school enrolment and maternal education level. The chi square test was used to relate nutritional status to variables. RESULTS: of the 637 students assessed, 16.6% were of low stature or in risk of low stature, 4.5% malnourished or in risk of malnourishment, 7.4% were overweight or obese. There was no significant association between nutritional status and gender. The majority of the children was born in the capital, was enrolled late in school and had mothers with education level of >4 years. There was a significant correlation between obesity and low stature with low maternal education level; malnutrition risk and low stature with late school enrolment; and obesity and normal stature with regular enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: low maternal school level and late school enrollment are associated to nutritional problems. School nutritional surveillance is important to assess, treat and prevent children's health and nutrition risks.

Olga Maria Domingues das, Neves; Anne Lise Dias, Brasil; Laélia Maria Barra Feio, Brasil; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo, Taddei.

2006-03-01

262

Fluência e compreensão da leitura em escolares do 3º ao 5º ano do ensino fundamental / Fluency and reading comprehension in students from 3rd to 5th of elementary school grades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar e relacionar a fluência na leitura e a compreensão do texto lido. Participaram da pesquisa 97 escolares do 3º ao 5º ano da rede pública de ensino do município de Marília, São Paulo. Como procedimentos, foram avaliados o tempo de leitura, a prosódia e a comp [...] reensão leitora. Foi gravada a leitura oral de um texto e aplicado um teste com questões de múltipla escolha para avaliar a compreensão. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente e revelaram que o desempenho em fluência de leitura dos escolares influencia aspectos das dificuldades apresentadas durante o processo. Abstract in english The study aims to characterize and report on performance in reading fluency and comprehension. The study sample included 97 students from 3 rd to 5 th grade at a state school in the city of Marília in São Paulo State of Brazil. The procedures involved an evaluation of reading time, prosody and text [...] comprehension. The oral reading of a text was recorded, and a multiple choice test was applied to evaluate performance in comprehension. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that performance in students' reading fluency was able to highlight aspects of the difficulties that arise during the processing of reading.

Maíra Anelli, Martins; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

2014-12-01

263

A curriculum strategy that expands time for in-depth elementary science instruction by using science-based reading strategies: Effects of a year-long study in grade four  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrative curriculum strategy emphasizing science process skills and hands-on activities expanded the time allocated for in-depth science instruction by replacing a district-adopted basal reading program with science-content reading designed to facilitate applied comprehension skills. This study investigated the combined effect of these curricular components (i.e., in-depth science, science-content-based reading) upon student achievement, attitudes, and self-confidence in both science and reading over the school year. In doing so, teachers in three fourth-grade classrooms each incorporated applied reading (and language arts) objectives into science reading activities as part of a daily, expanded, in-depth science teaching block that encompassed the total instructional time originally allocated to reading and science. Using multivariate covariance analysis, results showed that the students in the experimental group, compared to demographically similar controls, not only displayed significantly greater standardized test achievement as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills reading subtest and the Metropolitan Achievement Test science subtest, but also displayed a more positive attitude toward science and reading and greater self-confidence in learning science. Implications of the strategy for future curriculum research in science education are discussed.

Romance, Nancy R.; Vitale, Michael R.

264

Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior of Taiwanese elementary school children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating. PMID:17723993

Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn

2007-01-01

265

Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Teacher In-Service Program Enabling 6th-12th Grade Rural Teachers to Integrate Holocaust Studies into Their Curricula: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Changing demography and ensuing incidents of backlash, growing intolerance, and prejudice led a group of educators from seven different schools in two rural counties of northwestern Washington State to organize a National Endowment for the Humanities sponsored series of Holocaust education inservice workshops. The obstacles they overcame in…

Wolpow, Ray; Johnson, Natalie N.; Wognild, Kristin N.

2002-01-01

266

Gender Differences in Cognitive Load and Competition Anxiety Affect 6th Grade Students' Attitude toward Playing and Intention to Play at a Sequential or Synchronous Game  

Science.gov (United States)

Do girls have more competition anxiety and exogenous cognitive load than equally able boys during the playing of stressful competitive on-line games? This question led to the adoption of a technology acceptance model to compare the influence factors of competitors in sequential and synchronous games. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data on 220…

Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Hong, Jon-Chao; Cheng, Hao-Yueh; Peng, Yu-Chi; Wu, Nien-Chen

2013-01-01

267

Futebol: representações e práticas de escolares do ensino fundamental / Football: representations and practices of students of the elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo buscou caracterizar as práticas e identificar representações sociais de escolares sobre o futebol no âmbito da aulas de Educação Física Escolar. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa de tipo etnográfico, que utilizou observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, além de question [...] ário, em uma turma de 29 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental, em uma escola pública na cidade de Bauru - SP. Os resultados indicam que as mídias e a família são os principais elementos que constituem as representações dos alunos sobre o futebol, e que o modo como a prática do futebol é desenvolvida na escola ao mesmo tempo as constrói e realimenta. Concluímos que as representações sociais são um importante meio que orienta as relações dos alunos com o futebol, na medida em que influenciam a orientação e organização das suas condutas. Todavia, isto não torna homogêneas suas condutas e valores, pois os alunos buscam no futebol a satisfação de algo que é também pessoal, como diversão e amizades. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the practices and social representations of students about football within the Physical Education classes. This is a qualitative research of ethnographic type, which used participant observation and semi-structured interviews, as well as questionnaires, in a class of [...] 29 students from 6th grade of Elementary Education, in a private school in Bauru City-SP. The results indicate that the media and the family are the main elements that constitute the representations of students about football, and that the way football practice is developed at school simultaneously builds and feed them. We conclude that social representations rule the relationships of students with football, insofar as they guide and organize their behavior. However, this does not make their conduct and values homogenous, because the students seek in football the satisfaction of something that is also personal, as fun and friendship.

Leandro Del Giudice, Macagnan; Mauro, Betti.

2014-04-01

268

Technology Talk With a Grade Two Student  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this interview, elementary grade level student Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale discusses how he uses technology--ranging from Smart tables and Smart boards to computers and the Internet--both at home and in the classroom. He talks about how technology helps him solve word and mathematic problems as well as build LEGO robots.

Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale

2013-06-01

269

Technology Talk With a Grade Two Student  

OpenAIRE

In this interview, elementary grade level student Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale discusses how he uses technology--ranging from Smart tables and Smart boards to computers and the Internet--both at home and in the classroom. He talks about how technology helps him solve word and mathematic problems as well as build LEGO robots.

Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale

2013-01-01

270

Promoting Reading Achievement and Countering the "Fourth-Grade Slump": The Impact of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement in Fifth Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has documented a substantial decline of standardized test scores of children from low-income backgrounds, relative to more advantaged peers, in later elementary grades, the so-called "fourth-grade slump." This article examines changes in reading achievement from first to fifth grade for students in a large urban school system…

Stockard, Jean

2010-01-01

271

Modeling of Synergy Between 4th and 6th Harmonic Absorptions of Fast Waves on Injected Beams in DIII-D Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent moderate to high harmonic fast wave heating and current drive experiments in DIII-D, a synergy effect was observed when the 6th harmonic 90 MHz fast wave power is applied to the plasma preheated by neutral beams and the 4th harmonic 60 MHz fast wave. In this paper, we investigate how the synergy can occur using ORBIT-RF coupled with AORSA. Preliminary simulations suggest that damping of 4th harmonic FW on beam ions accelerates them above the injection energy, which may allow significant damping of 6th harmonic FW on beam ion tails to produce synergy.

272

Pupils’ Conception of Organic Foods and Healthy Eating in School : QUALITATIVE INSIGHTS FROM FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS WITH 5th AND 7th GRADE PUPILS IN A COPENHAGEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adult habits, including unhealthy eating patterns, are largely established during a person´s childhood and early youth. In this connection, public schools are important health promoting platforms due to their potential for encouraging interest, knowledge and learning about health related issues. The main aim of the study was to shed light on primary and lower secondary school pupils´ everyday experience with food, nutrition, ecology and health in connection to public organic school food, using the municipality of Copenhagen as a case. We have examined how a procurement and provision strategy that primarily originates from “backstage agents” such as engaged politicians and civil servants and governed by administrative priorities, is perceived among agents at the front stage arena - the school. Furthermore we have investigated to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and the underlying organic supply chain principles, and to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and classroom initiatives in subjects related to ecology and health. In February 2008, we approached a public school which proved willing to participate in our study. Subsequently, over a period of four weeks, we designed an interview guide used to conduct focus group interviews with pupils from grades 5 and 7, which were then transcribed. In general, pupils were very interested in ecology as a subject. However it seems that they do not see a very strong connection between the healthy, organic meals offered at school and class room activities related to health and ecology. The pupils did not feel that they had been involved in the decision to establish organic and healthy food procurement. As a result they held that they did not feel very committed or engaged in the school provision initiative, and the organic and healthy food procurement was not highly sought after on the part of the pupils. This appears to justify a distinction between the perspective that front stage actors have, including pupils, and the perspective of politicians and planners that operate back stage. The distance between these two stages, which tends to increase in large scale municipal school food systems, is an important challenge to address when planning school food interventions. There seems to be a potential for linking organic school food service more closely with curricular activities, and for linking issues of healthier eating and organic food supply. There is also a need for greater involvement of the pupils and other front stage actors when the food service system and food related curricular activities are planned.

Andersen, Stine; Burkal, Anna

2010-01-01

273

Fractions in elementary education  

CERN Document Server

This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and...

Quinn, Frank

2013-01-01

274

The Prevalence of Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in the Nation's Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Current guidelines for school-based substance use prevention suggest that prevention efforts should begin in elementary grades, before students begin using substances. Previous research suggests, however, that the use of evidence-based curricula in these grades may be low. Using a 2005 survey of public school districts in the United States that…

Hanley, Sean M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Haws, Susan W.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2010-01-01

275

Effects of Applying Blogs to Assist Life Education Instruction for Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study aims to explore the effects of applying blog-assisted life education instruction to fifth grade elementary school students. The subjects were 30 fifth-grade students from southern Taiwan. The teaching experiment lasted 10 weeks with three sessions conducted each week. In the experiment, instructional effectiveness and the…

Lou, Shi-Jer; Kao, Mei-Chuan; Yen, Hsiu-Ling; Shih, Ru-Chu

2013-01-01

276

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

B. Wagner

2012-09-01

277

Accreditation proposal for control systems in electrical engineering for 6th level in European Qualification Framework (EQF)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The progress of science and technology emphasizes the connection between different domains and disciplines. The technology development and changing demands of the labour market require upgrading and renewing of learning outcomes in higher education, especially in engineering fields. The Life Long Learning (LLL) procedure must be the platform offering the required qualifications for the demands of companies and engineering professionals all over the world in order to support their competitiveness. In this paper we describe an improved proposal for accreditation of one important subject in engineering, namely Control Systems. The described procedure could be applied in the frame of LLL and also in classical engineering education systems, such as university and college education, in order to harmonize the recognition of engineering degrees in Europe and outside the Europe. Furthermore we state the necessary learning outcomes in the subject of Control Systems in engineering at Bachelor level (6th level of European Qualification Framework (EQF) and propose a process to test the qualifications. © 2013 IEEE.

Tsirigotis, Georgios; Friesel, Anna

2013-01-01

278

Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements. PMID:15268793

Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

2004-01-01

279

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-09-01

280

The use of mobile learning by 6th-year medical students in a minimally-supported environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to identify the impact of minimal support on medical students' mobile learning activities. Methods: The study was performed at the Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, on 129 medical students in their 7th year. The study consisted of a quantitative survey of the students, focussing on their mobile learning activities during their 6th year, while using their own mobile devices (such as smart phones for mobile learning activities. In addition, their perceptions of barriers to, and advantages of, using mobile devices were investigated. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo. Results: All students used their mobile device as telephones and used most of the sophisticated applications. There was significantly less usage made of medical applications, such as clinical guidelines and medical reference tools. Barriers were screen size, cost, limited memory and battery. Advantages were time-saving, ease of access and use. Few students (14 highlighted lack of institutional support as a problem. Conclusions: Lack of support does not mean lack of usage. It does, however, mean predominantly simple usage. Given the importance of mobile devices in modern medical practice, this has strong negative implications for the professional preparedness of students studying in such environments.

Ken Masters

2012-05-01

281

Elementary classical hydrodynamics  

CERN Document Server

Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

1967-01-01

282

Elementary number theory  

CERN Document Server

Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

Dudley, Underwood

2012-01-01

283

Desarrollo funcional de competencias de producción de textos en alumnos con bajo desempeño en el último año de primaria / Functional development of competences in text production in of students with low performance in their last grade of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan resultados de un estudio con evaluación pre y pos con tres grupos de comparación, realizado con el fin de probar tres tipos de estrategias de entrenamiento en producción de textos, las cuales son morfológica, jerárquica y funcionalmente distintas. Esto con la intención de promover tres [...] diferentes tipos de desligamiento funcional: intrasituacional, extrasituacional y transituacional. El programa de intervención fue implementado como taller de verano dirigido a 14 niños de sexto grado de una escuela primaria pública semi urbana, en el Estado de Morelos, México, con bajos niveles de desempeño en actividades de producción de textos. Las competencias de producción de textos fueron evaluadas con cuatro series de dos actividades: redactar reglamentos, redactar cuentos, elaborar párrafos descriptivos y escribir mensajes utilizando sinónimos. Para comparar los desempeños en evaluaciones antes y después, y entre grupos, fueron realizados análisis descriptivos de los promedios por grupo, utilizando un rango de valoración entre 0 y 4 por cada actividad. Asimismo fue probado un modelo de regresión estructural incluyendo como variable predictor a la situación experimental (grupo) y como variables a predecir, as cuatro competencias evaluadas. Los resultados mostraron que los niños del grupo transituacional mejoraron notablemente sus competencias de producción de textos en comparaciones pre y pos evaluación, asimismo, el modelo de regresión estructural mostró que en el post test la condición experimental tu un efecto significativo en los desempeños diferenciales, en tres de las cuatro competencias evaluadas. Abstract in english Preliminary results of a study with pre - post evaluation with three comparison groups are shown. This study has the purpose of testing three types of strategies for training in text production, which are morphologically, hierarchically and functionally different. This in order to promote three diff [...] erent types of functional relations: intrasituational, extrasituational and transituational. The intervention program was implemented as a summer workshop directed to 14 children of sixth grade in a semi urban area in the State of Morelos, Mexico, having low levels of performance in text production activities. The text production skills were assessed with four sets of two activities each one: writing regulations, writing stories, develop descriptive paragraphs and writing messages with use of synonymous. To compare the performance assessments before and after, and between groups, were descriptive analysis of group averages, using a valuation range between 0 and 4 for each activity. Also tested a structural regression model including as predictor variable to the experimental situation (group) and as variables to predict, the four skills evaluated. The results showed that the children of the transituacional group remarkably improved their competitions in text production from pre and post evaluations, furthermore, the structural regression model showed that in the post test, the experimental condition had a significant effect on the differential performance in three of the four skills assessed.

Aldo, Bazán-Ramírez; Diana, Urbina-Pérez; Lorena, Domínguez-Márquez; María I., Mansillas-Cervantes; Itzel, Gómez-Manjarrez.

284

Elementary students' comprehension of place value concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was an attempt to identify to what extent students at primary level in elementary education were able to grasp the Place Value Concept (PVC and to identify the types of errors of those students not able to grasp PVC. For this purpose, 728 primary school students at 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade levels were interviewed. In order to obtain data, semi-structured interview forms were used and each subject was interviewed individually. According to the results obtained, it was observed that the percentage of correct answers for questions related to PVC was low for all grade levels. The higher their levels of success were, the lower their proportion of errors. However, it was observed that all students had difficulties with questions regarding PVC. It was also seen that the difficulties were similar from the point of view of gender.

Perihan Dinç Artut

2006-01-01

285

The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus  

Science.gov (United States)

In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French…

Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rodriguez, David R.; Miller, Scott T.

2012-01-01

286

Acceleration: It's Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

Willis, Mariam

2012-01-01

287

Elementary concepts of topology  

CERN Document Server

Concise work presents topological concepts in clear, elementary fashion without sacrificing their profundity or exactness. Author proceeds from basics of set-theoretic topology, through topological theorems and questions based on concept of the algebraic complex, to the concept of Betti groups.

Alexandroff, Paul

1961-01-01

288

Mola Art: Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

In this brief article, the author describes a lesson plan on Mola art she used in her elementary classroom. Using four examples of Kuna Indian molas, the teacher introduced students to the beautiful, colorful, creative art form of molas. The Kuna women have been making these layered pieces of cloth for more than one hundred years. They use a…

Barsamian, Araxey

2004-01-01

289

Generalized elementary functions.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 411, ?. 2 (2014), s. 838-852. ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.119, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13009141

Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.

2014-01-01

290

Reproducibility of the School-Based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire among Fourth-Grade Students in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess reproducibility of a School-Based Nutrition Monitoring (SBNM) questionnaire for fourth-grade students. Design: Test-retest. Setting: Fourth-grade elementary school classrooms. Participants: Multiethnic fourth-grade students from 2 area school districts (N = 322). Main Outcome Measures: Reproducibility coefficients with time…

Penkilo, Monica; George, Goldy Chacko; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

2008-01-01

291

A Comparative Study of Integrating Multimedia into the Third Grade Math Curriculum to Improve Math Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This quasi-experimental study was to design, develop, and implement one multimedia math lesson in third grade to improve students' math learning. The non-equivalent control group design was used. The experimental group had 11 third grade students and the control group had 15 third grade students in an African American predominated elementary

Liu, Yuliang

2013-01-01

292

Estudo das representações sociais de professores de 1ª. a 4ª. série do ensino fundamental sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem / Study of teachers social representations of fisrt to fourth elementary school grades about the students motivation and the role played by error in learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo buscou identificar as representações de professores sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem. Embasam o trabalho a teoria das Representações Sociais e a perspectiva Construtivista sobre o ensino. São analisados os dados obtidos em entrevistas semi-estruturadas com s [...] eis professores de 1ª. a 4ª. séries do Ensino Fundamental. Sobre a motivação, as representações giram em torno da idéia de que o centro da atenção dos professores deveria ser o interesse do aluno, utilizando o que ele gosta como forma de atraí-lo e engajá-lo na aprendizagem. Tal concepção distancia-se da perspectiva construtivista, na qual a motivação para a aprendizagem deve ser intrínseca à tarefa do aluno. Quanto ao erro, os conceitos construtivistas estão presentes, mas sem uma apropriação aprofundada. Abstract in english This study looked for to identify the teachers' representations about the students' motivation and the role of the mistake in the learning. The work was based on the theory of the Social Representations and the Construtivistic perspective on the teaching. The analyses were based in data obtained thr [...] ough interviews with six teachers of first to four grade of the Elementary School. About motivation, the representations turn around the idea that the center of teachers' attention should be the student's interests, using what he likes as a way to attract and to engage him in learning. Such conception goes away from constructivistic perspective, in which the motivation for the learning should be intrinsic to the student's task. With respect to error, the construtivistic concepts are present, but without one deep appropriation of them.

Danilo Saretta, Veríssimo; Antônio dos Santos, Andrade.

293

A física nas séries iniciais (2ª a 5ª) do ensino fundamental: desenvolvimento e aplicação de um programa visando a qualificação de professores / The physics in the first four grades of elementary school: developing and applying a program for teachers qualification  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho descrevemos uma proposta para melhorar o ensino de física nas séries do ensino fundamental. Com este objetivo foi desenvolvido um programa que visa qualificar professores. O programa é estruturado em módulos, que contemplam diversos instrumentos e estratégias pedagógicas. Cada módulo [...] começa com aulas de laboratório, seguido de uma interação em sala de aula com textos que abordam história da ciência, física do cotidiano e discussão de conceitos físicos. Por fim, cada módulo utiliza recursos multimídia, disponíveis na internet. O programa foi aplicado em curso de extensão da UFRGS para doze professoras do Colégio São Bento, em Criciúma, SC, e em minicurso no II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física no Instituto de Física da UFRGS. As professoras do Colégio São Bento aplicaram os conteúdos de física aos alunos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental através de oficinas intituladas "Física para Crianças" e fizeram adaptações, quando necessárias, para adequar os conteúdos e estratégias aos interesses e características dos estudantes. Abstract in english In this paper we describe a proposal to improve the teaching of physics in the first four grades of elementary school. With this aim was developed a teachers qualification program. The program is structured in parts which include several instruments and pedagogic strategies. Each part starts with la [...] boratory classes followed by class interaction with texts specially produced to the project. These texts contains science history, everyday physics and introduction to physical concepts. Then multimedia recourses available in the internet are used. The program was applied in an extension course at Federal University of Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS) to twelve teachers of Colégio São Bento, at Criciuma, SC. It was also used in a course in the II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física at Instituto de Física/UFRGS. The teachers of Colégio São Bento applied the physics content to children workshops entitled "Physics to Children" and made adaptations, when necessary, to adequate the content and strategies to the pupils interests and characteristics.

Felipe, Damasio; Maria Helena, Steffani.

2008-12-01

294

Construction and validation of an instrument to assess the reading comprehension of students from the third to the fifth grades of elementary school / Construção e validação de instrumento de avaliação da compreensão de leitura para escolares do terceiro ao quinto ano do Ensino Fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo construir e validar um instrumento de avaliação da compreensão de leitura a fim de caracterizar o perfil de leitura e detectar dificuldades de compreensão em escolares do terceiro ao quinto ano do Ensino Fundamental. Métodos: Participaram 378 escolares [...] divididos em trés grupos para avaliação da compreensão de proposições literais e inferenciais de micro e macroestruturas de dois textos expositivos e dois textos narrativos por meio de questões de múltipla escolha. Resultados: Os dados analisados estatisticamente indicaram valores do teste alfa de Cronbach apresentando consisténcia interna nos quatros textos aplicados para os trés grupos. Conclusão: Foi possível constatar que os escolares apresentaram menor número de erros com o aumento da escolarização e que cada tipo de texto apresentou uma dificuldade específica para os escolares. Abstract in english Purpose: In this study, we aimed at building and validating an instrument to assess reading comprehension, with the purpose of characterizing the reading profile and detecting comprehension difficulties among students from the third to the fifth grades of elementary school. Methods: Participan [...] ts were 378 students, divided into three groups. Their comprehension of micro- and macrostructural literal and inferential propositions that composed two expository texts and two narrative texts were assessed by means of multiple-choice questions. Results: The data analyzed statistically yielded Cronbach's alpha values showing internal consistency in the four texts applied to the three groups. Conclusion: It was possible to verify that the students had fewer errors as the school years progressed and that each type of text posed a particular difficulty to the students.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi, Cunha; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

2014-02-01

295

O ensino de física nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental na rede municipal de ensino do Recife segundo os seus docentes / Physics teaching in the initial grades of elementary school in the rede municipal de ensino do Recife by their teachers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga como esta o ensino de física nos 4º e 5º anos do Ensino Fundamental (EF) na Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. Para realizá-lo contamos com 145 questionários respondidos por docentes do EF I desta rede, espalhados por toda a cidade. Estes questionários nos mostram que existe [...] uma política real de escolha do livro didático de ciencias; que a carga horária semanal dispensada para a disciplina ciencias e, na sua maioria de duas horas e a maioria dos docentes acredita ser suficiente; que o material mais utilizado para a preparação da aula é mesmo o livro didático, mas são utilizados outros como revistas, musicas etc; mais da metade dos docentes, embora considerem a física relevante aos seus alunos, não gostam de abordá-la em sala e sentem-se inseguros para fazê-lo; os assuntos mais trabalhados de física são o eletromagnetismo, energia e física térmica e apresenta algumas sugestões dos professores para a melhoria do ensino de ciencias. Abstract in english This paper investigates how is the physics teaching in the forth and fifth years of elementary school in the Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. To realize it we have 145 questionnaires answered by teachers of initial grade of this network, spread throughout the city. These questionnaires showed tha [...] t there is a real political choice of textbook science; that the weekly waived for the subject Science is mostly of two hours and the majority of teachers believed to be sufficient; the material most used to preparation of the lesson is the textbook, but others are used as magazines, music, etc.; more than half of teachers, although considering the Physics relevant to their students, do not like to approach it in class and they feel insecure to do it; the subjects more worked of Physics are electromagnetism, energy and thermal physics and presents some suggestions for teachers to improve Science teaching.

Micaías Andrade, Rodrigues; Francimar Martins, Teixeira.

2011-12-01

296

Participation Styles in Elementary Physical Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Both observational data and direct measurement of student activity seem to indicate a large variance in student activity during physical education lessons. The aim of this study was to identify participation styles during elementary physical education lessons by using multiple data sources. A class of fifth grade students (N = 17 and a class of sixth grade students (N = 14 were taught by a physical education specialist for three lessons each. Both classes had coed physical education lessons and all students were systematically analyzed by using heart rate measurement, systematic observation and perceived exertion. Each lesson was videotaped for further analysis. Finally, six high and five low skilled students were formally interviewed after the last lesson about their experiences in physical education. The results indicated four different participation styles among the students in these physical education elementary classes. These were low skilled fighters, low skilled avoiders, high skilled fighters and high skilled avoiders. Several contextual factors are contributors to these participation styles. The main reasons for this appear to be differences in students’ fitness levels, physical activity behavior and interest in physical education. This large variation among students shows that teachers need to treat each student individually.

Jan-Erik Romar

2015-01-01

297

Effect of 5E Instructional Model in Student Success in Primary School 6th Year Circulatory System Topic  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental…

Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge

2008-01-01

298

Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

2013-01-01

299

Mars Rover Model Celebration: Using Planetary Exploration To Enrich STEM Teaching In Elementary And Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The program culminates in a capstone event held at the University of Houston (or other central location in the other communities that will be involved) where the best models from each school or group are brought together for a celebratory showcase exhibit and judging. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Dominey, W.; Kapral, A.; Carlson, C.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

2011-12-01

300

Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a Climate Club and their goal is to continue to research and teach others about climate science. Their enthusiasm and desire to teach others is a result of exposure to authentic science issues in school and my research experience is what changed the way I teach science which made this possible.

Munroe, C. H.

2010-12-01

301

Análise psicolinguística e cognitivo-linguística das provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura realizadas em escolares de 2ª a 5ª série / Psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic analysis of the metalinguistic skills and reading proofs in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: analisar o desempenho de escolares de 2ª a 5ª série do ensino fundamental em provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura segundo critérios psicolinguísticos e cognitivo-linguísticos e verificar similaridade e diferenças entre as análises. MÉTODOS: participaram 120 escolares de 2ª a 5 [...] ª série do ensino municipal, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de sete a 12 anos de idade, divididos em 4 grupos de 30 escolares de cada série. Os escolares foram submetidos à aplicação de provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e de leitura. RESULTADOS: houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos nas habilidades metalinguísticas, nas regras de decodificação de palavras reais e pseudopalavras para todas as variáveis na leitura de palavras reais, com exceção do erro tipo Recusas, com médias superiores para Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas e Falha na Aplicação de Regras Ortográficas, indicando que esses tipos de erros foram os de maior ocorrência. Na leitura de pseudopalavras houve diferença estatisticamente significante em Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas, indicando que os escolares apresentaram desempenho inferior na decodificação de palavras que exigiram a utilização de informação fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: a adoção de critérios psicolinguísticos ou cognitivo-linguísticos na avaliação da leitura de palavras e pseudopalavras juntamente com a avaliação das habilidades metalinguísticas fornecem subsídios para a compreensão de como o escolar vem processando os complexos princípios do sistema de escrita do português do Brasil, além de dar o suporte necessário à compreensão das dificuldades específicas apresentadas pelos escolares, orientando o profissional fonoaudiólogo em relação aos objetivos precisos no seu atendimento. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze the performance of the metalinguistic skills and reading tests in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education, according to psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria and to check similarities and differences between the analyses. METHODS: 120 students from 2n [...] d to 5th grades of a municipal school, of both genders, in the age ranging from 7 to 12 year old, divided into 4 groups for each grade. The students were submitted to tests of metalinguistic skills and reading. RESULTS: there were statistically significant differences among the groups in the metalinguistic skills, in the decoding of real words and non-words, for each variable, with exception for the 'Refusal' mistake type, with superior average for the types related to unsuccessful sound attempts and failure in the use of orthography, indicating that these types of mistakes were of larger occurrence. In the non-words reading there were statistically significant differences in unsuccessful sound attempts indicating that the students had lower performance in the decoding of words that demanded the use of phonological information. CONCLUSION: the adoption of the psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria in evaluating real words and non-words' reading, along with the evaluation of the metalinguistic skills provide subsidies to the understanding of the way the students were processing the complex writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, besides to giving the necessary support to the comprehension of the specific difficulties showed by the students, guiding the speech and language professional in relation to the direct purposes in their work.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi, Cunha; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

2010-10-01

302

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

303

Introduction to elementary particles  

CERN Document Server

This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat

Griffiths, David J

2008-01-01

304

The Elementary Calculus Line  

Science.gov (United States)

George Mason Universityâ??s Department of Computer Science is responsible for this great elementary calculus site. Each topic presented on this site contains learning objectives, definitions, examples, diagrams, and exercise problems. The topics available here include: functions, domains and ranges, intercepts, limits, graphing functions, derivatives, and integrals. This site is a perfect resource for anyone in an introductory calculus course, or those who need a refresher on some of the basic calculus concepts.

305

New Simple Torque-Sensorless Torque Control for Quasi-Perfect Compensation of 6th Harmonic Torque Ripple Due to Nonsinusoidal Distribution of Back EMF of PMSM  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a new torque-sensorless torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method can almost perfectly compensate the 6th harmonic torque ripple that is caused by the nonsinusoidal distributions of the back EMF and rotor magnetic flux of PMSMs. The torque control system is, in principle, constructed on the basis of the vector control, but has two new dedicated speed-varying devices—a harmonic torque observer and current controller. The speed-varying harmonic torque observer can estimate the harmonic component over a wide speed range, even in the case where the produced torque is constant, and generate a suitable compensating signal. The speed-varying current controller shows stable control performance over a wide speed range, it can fully track the compensated current command containing the dc and 6th harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined and verified through extensive numerical experiments.

Shinnaka, Shinji; Kishida, Hideo

306

The purple Codex Rossanensis: spectroscopic characterization and first evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a 6th century manuscript  

CERN Document Server

The Codex Rossanensis is a 6th century Bizantine illuminated manuscript written on purple parchment and conserved at the Museo Diocesano in Rossano Calabro, Italy. It is one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament. The challenge of the analysis of the Codex Rossanensis lies in the lack of analytical information on the pictorial media used in the Early Middle Ages. Even though old-medieval illuminated manuscripts have been deeply studied from the historical standpoint, they have been rarely described in their material composition. This paper presents the results obtained during the measurements campaign (June 2012 - November 2013). The spectroscopic analyses performed by Raman, micro-FTIR and XRF allowed for the complete characterization of the pictorial palette, the inks, the support and the material used in a previous restoration treatment. To the author knowledge the article shows the first experimental evidence of the usage of the elderberry lake in a 6th century illuminated ma...

Bicchieri, Marina

2014-01-01

307

Children's motivation in elementary physical education: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation. PMID:15532363

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

2004-03-01

308

Medical students’ skills in image interpretation before and after training: A comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula.

Sendra-Portero, Francisco, E-mail: sendra@uma.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Torales-Chaparro, Oscar E., E-mail: oetjft@terra.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J., E-mail: mjrg@uma.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

2012-12-15

309

Medical students’ skills in image interpretation before and after training: A comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula.

310

Advances in the biology and therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): Proceedings from the 6th Post-ASH International CML and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Workshop  

OpenAIRE

Following the 53rd annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology in San Diego in December 2011, a group of clinical and laboratory investigators convened for the 6th post-ASH International Workshop on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The workshop took place on the 13th–14th December at the Estancia, La Jolla, California, USA. This report summarizes the most recent advances in the biology and therapy of CML that were presented at ASH and discussed...

Etten, Richard A.; Mauro, Michael; Radich, Jerald P.; Goldman, John M.; Saglio, Giuseppe; Jamieson, Catriona; Soverini, Simona; Gambacorti-passerini, Carlo; Hehlmann, Ru?diger; Martinelli, Giovanni; Perrotti, Danilo; Scadden, David T.; Skorski, Tomasz; Tefferi, Ayalew; Mughal, Tariq I.

2012-01-01

311

Developing Computational Fluency with Whole Number in the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article TERC's Susan Jo Russell discusses many aspects of computational fluency, including a definition, common errors, the importance of number and operations sense, assessment, and teaching issues. The author includes an extensive reference list.

Susan Jo Russell

2012-01-01

312

Graded Differential Geometry of Graded Matrix Algebras  

CERN Document Server

We study the graded derivation-based noncommutative differential geometry of the $Z_2$-graded algebra ${\\bf M}(n| m)$ of complex $(n+m)\\times(n+m)$-matrices with the ``usual block matrix grading'' (for $n\

Grosse, Harald; Grosse, Harald; Reiter, Gert

1999-01-01

313

Elementary Atom Interaction with Matter  

OpenAIRE

The calculations of the elementary atom (the Coulomb bound state of elementary particles) interaction with the atom of matter, which are performed in the Born approximation, are reviewed. We first discuss the nonrelativistic approach and then its relativistic generalization. The cross section of the elementary atom excitation and ionization as well as the total cross section are considered. A specific selection rule, which applies for the atom formed as positronium by partic...

Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

1998-01-01

314

A graph theoretic approach to graded identities  

CERN Document Server

We consider the algebra M_k(C) of k-by-k matrices over the complex numbers and view it as a crossed product with a group G of order k by embedding G in the symmetric group S_k via the regular representation and embedding S_k in M_k(C) in the usual way. This induces a natural G-grading on M_k(C) which we call a crossed product grading. This grading is the so called elementary grading defined by any k-tuple (g_1,g_2,..., g_k) of distinct elements g_i in G. We study the graded polynomial identities for M_k(C) equipped with a crossed product grading. To each multilinear monomial in the free graded algebra we associate a directed labeled graph. This approach allows us to give new proofs of known results of Bahturin and Drensky on the generators of the T-ideal of identities and the Amitsur-Levitsky Theorem. Our most substantial new result is the determination of the asymptotic formula for the G-graded codimension of M_k(C).

Haile, Darrell

2011-01-01

315

A Study of Training Needs of Elementary School Teachers in Jhunjhunu District of Rajasthan  

OpenAIRE

Elementary school teachers instruct children from grades 1-8 in age group of 6-14 years. The Need of training for elementary and secondary teachers has been emphasized by many commissions and committees. The teacher occupies a very important place in society because he brings about the transfer of the intellectual tradition from one generation to the next. He maintains the level of technological skill and keeps the light of civilization burning bright. ...

Rajesh. Kumar

2012-01-01

316

Mathematics Game e-Library for Elementary School, study case: Mexico  

OpenAIRE

One of the most relevant subjects for the intellectual formation of elementary school students is Mathematics where its importance goes back to ancient civilizations and which its importance is underestimated nowadays. This phenomenon occurs in Mexico, where 63.1% of the total population of elementary school students between the third and sixth grade have insufficient/elemental level of mathematics knowledge. This has resulted in the need to use a new mechanism to complement student’s class...

Barajas Saavedra, Arturo; A?lvarez Rodri?guez, Francisco J.

2012-01-01

317

Sleep Duration and Overweight among Elementary Schoolchildren:A Population-based Study in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Although a number of studies have investigated the relationship of sleep duration to overweight and obesity, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been limited in Japan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. The study subjects were all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2008. Information...

Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

2012-01-01

318

Amounts served and consumed of school lunch differed by gender in Japanese elementary schools  

OpenAIRE

School lunches serve to improve nutritional status and to promote the health of children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the portion sizes of school lunches served and consumed in Japanese elementary schools. In addition, gender difference in servings and consumption were also studied. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between October 2007 and February 2008 in schools located in Tokyo and Okayama, Japan. A total of 192 fifth-grade children attending four elementary schools ...

Nozue, Miho; Yoshita, Katsushi; Jun, Kyungyul; Ishihara, Yoko; Taketa, Yasuko; Naruse, Akiko; Nagai, Narumi; Ishida, Hiromi

2010-01-01

319

Teacher performance goal practices and elementary students’ behavioral engagement: A developmental perspective  

OpenAIRE

We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students’ behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined ...

Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

2010-01-01

320

Psychiatric Morbidity of Second and Third Grade Primary School Children in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to identify psychiatric morbidity among Korean second and third elementary school children using an objective diagnostic interview tool. Data from 5,118 (2,723 boys, 2,395 girls; mean age = 8.41 years (SD = 0.66) second and third grade schoolchildren were drawn from 28 elementary schools. After initial screening…

Yoo, H. I.; Cho, S. C.; Kim, B. N.; Kim, S. Y.; Shin, M. S.; Hong, K. E.

2005-01-01

321

The Effects of Learning Strategies Instruction on Metacognitive Knowledge, Using Metacognitive Skills and Academic Achievement (Primary Education Sixth Grade Turkish Course Sample)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of learning strategies instruction on metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive skills, and achievement. An experimental pre-test/post-test control group design was used in the research. The study was conducted in the 2008-2009 school year on 6th grade students at Orgeneral Tural and Dikmeli Primary Schools located…

Caliskan, Muhittin; Sunbul, Ali Murat

2011-01-01

322

Elementary matrix theory  

CERN Document Server

The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

Eves, Howard

2012-01-01

323

Elementary Statistics Tables  

CERN Document Server

This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

Neave, Henry R

2012-01-01

324

PREFACE: NC-AFM 2003: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct nanoscale and atomic resolution imaging is a key issue in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The invention of the dynamic force microscope in the early 1990s was an important step forward in this direction as this instrument provides a universal tool for measuring the topography and many other physical and chemical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale. Operation in the so-called non-contact mode now allows direct atomic resolution imaging of electrically insulating surfaces and nanostructures which has been an unsolved problem during the first decade of nanotechnology. Today, we face a most rapid development of the technique and an extension of its capabilities far beyond imaging; atomically resolved force spectroscopy provides information about local binding properties and researchers now develop sophisticated schemes of force controlled atomic manipulation with the tip of the force microscope. Progress in the field of non-contact force microscopy is discussed at the annually held NC-AFM conferences that are part of a series started in 1998 with a meeting in Osaka, Japan. The 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy took place in Dingle, Ireland, from 31 August to 3 September 2003 and this special issue is a compilation of the original publications of work presented at this meeting. The papers published here well reflect recent achievements, current trends and some of the challenging new directions in non-contact force microscopy that have been discussed during the most stimulating conference days in Dingle. Fundamental aspects of forces and dissipation relevant in imaging and spectroscopy have been covered by experimental and theoretical contributions yielding a more detailed understanding of tip--surface interaction in force microscopy. Novel and improved imaging and spectroscopy techniques have been introduced that either improve the performance of force microscopy or pave the way towards new functionalities and applications. With regard to studies on the specific systems investigated, there was a strong emphasis on oxides and ionics, as well as on organic systems. Following previous pioneering work in uncovering the atomic structure of insulating oxides with force microscopy, it was shown in the meeting that this important class of materials is now accessible for a quantitative atomic scale surface characterization. Single organic molecules and ordered organic layers are building blocks for functional nanostructures currently developed in many laboratories for applications in molecular electronics and sensor technologies. The Dingle conference impressively demonstrated that dynamic force microscopy is ready for its application as an analytical tool for these promising future nanotechnologies. The meeting was a great success scientifically and participants enjoyed the beauty of the conference site. I would like to thank all members of the international steering committee, the programme committee and the co-chairs, J Pethica, A Shluger and G Thornton, for their efforts in preparing the meeting. The members of the local organising committee, J Ballentine-Armstrong, G Cross, S Dunne, S Jarvis and Ö Özer, kept the meeting running smoothly and created a very pleasant atmosphere. The generous financial support from Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), is greatly appreciated; SFI is dramatically raising the profile of Irish science. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to N Couzin and the journal team from Institute of Physics Publishing for their editorial management and perfect co-operation in the preparation of this special issue.

Reichling, Michael

2004-02-01

325

Mola Interpretations: Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes how she introduced the mola designs of the Kuna people of the San Blas Islands to her fifth grade class. The students became excited by the tropical imagery; the wildlife, intertwined with the flowering plant life and the ocean, in colorful and black and-white patterns, because it brought forth such…

Guidetti, Mary D.

2004-01-01

326

Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test  

Science.gov (United States)

At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p project's potential impact on social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

Page, Purlie M.

327

Elementary chaotic snap flows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing chaotic snap flow have been presented. ? Three of all are conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. ? Four cases need only a single control parameter and a single nonlinearity. ? A cubic case in a jerk representation requires only two terms and a single nonlinearity. - Abstract: Hyperjerk systems with 4th-order derivative of the form x....=f(x...,x..,x.,x) have been referred to as snap systems. Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing flow are presented through an extensive numerical search. Four of these flows demonstrate elegant simplicity of a single control parameter based on a single nonlinearity of a quadratic, a piecewise-linear or an exponential type. Two others demonstrate elegant simplicity of all unity-in-magnitude parameters based on either a single cubic nonlinearity or three cubic nonlinearities. The chaotic snap flow with a single cubic nonlinearity requires only two terms and can be transformed to its equivalent dynamical form of only five terms which have a single nonlinearity. An advantage is that such a chaotic flow offers only five terms even though the (four) dimension is high. Three of the chaotic snap flows are characterized as conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. Basic dynamical properties are described.es are described.

328

Report to the Palau Ministry of Education on the Mathematics Project at Harris, Maris Stella, and Meyuns Elementary Schools, 1993.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1985, the students in grades 2-8 in three selected elementary schools in Palau have been tested on basic math skills. This report describes the data collected in May 1993 and indicates the relative strengths and weaknesses of students at each grade level in each school. Major outcomes include: (1) the students at Harris School scored…

King, Irvin L.; Emesiochl, Masa-Aki

329

After Two Years, Three Elementary Math Curricula Outperform a Fourth. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2013-4019  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief aims to help educators understand the implications of math curriculum choice in the early elementary grades by presenting new findings from a study that examined how four math curricula affect students' achievement across two years--from 1st through 2nd grades. The four curricula were (1) Investigations in Number, Data, and Space…

Agodini, Roberto; Harris, Barbara; Seftor, Neil; Remillard, Janine; Thomas, Melissa

2013-01-01

330

The Effects of Reading from the Screen on the Reading Motivation Levels of Elementary 5th Graders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to explore the effects of reading from the screen on elementary 5th grade students' reading motivation levels. It used the randomized control-group pretest-posttest model, which is a true experimental design. The study group consisted of 60 students, 30 experimental and 30 control, who were attending the 5th grade of a public…

Aydemir, Zeynep; Ozturk, Ergun

2012-01-01

331

Cumulative Advantages and the Emergence of Social and Ethnic Inequality: Matthew Effects in Reading and Mathematics Development within Elementary Schools?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the development of social and ethnic disparities in academic achievement in elementary schooling. It investigated whether reading and mathematics development in 136 mixed-ability classes shows path-dependent processes of cumulative advantage (Matthew effects) from Grades 4 to 6 (Grade 4 mean age = 10.62, SD = 0.57) resulting…

Baumert, Jurgen; Nagy, Gabriel; Lehmann, Rainer

2012-01-01

332

Effects of a Nutrition Education Program on the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition Knowledge of Second-Grade and Third-Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…

Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.

2005-01-01

333

Effect of 5E instructional model in student success in primary school 6th year circulatory system topic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental group. Appropriate activities using the 5E instructional model were used in the experimental group, while traditional teaching using question and answer methods was applied with the control group. To compare the treatments, the percentage of correct statements and t test results were used. While initial levels of the experimental group and the control group were the same, a significant difference occurred in favor of the experimental group as a result of the application.

Osman CARDAK

2008-12-01

334

Digital Photography for Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary

Neckers, Matt

2009-01-01

335

Close Reading in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Close reading is a recommended instructional approach to meet the challenges of teaching complex texts. But close readings are more common in high school and college than in elementary schools. In this article, we identify the components of close reading that were developed after a group of elementary school teachers observed their colleges in…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2012-01-01

336

Engineering at the Elementary Level  

Science.gov (United States)

Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

McGrew, Cheryl

2012-01-01

337

Elementary School Philosophy: A Response  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

Wartenberg, Thomas E.

2012-01-01

338

Animals in elementary school education in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project was to provide preliminary, descriptive data concerning the uses of nonhuman animals in northern California elementary school classrooms. The project comprised a mail survey that was sent to all elementary school teachers in Stanislaus County, California, followed by a workshop with survey respondents. Information gathered included that about animals and the use of animals, the learning objectives for the animal-related instructional activities, and the kinds of resources that would help teachers to improve or expand their existing animal-related activities or to create new ones. Most of the teachers were keeping either live animals or a variety of nonliving specimens in the classroom. They reported that animals and information about animals are popular and effective foci of instruction throughout the primary grades. The majority of respondents stated that live animals, in addition to providing formal lessons in science and cross-curricular instruction, are important for teaching children humane values. They also reported the many drawbacks of maintaining live classroom animals, such as the responsibility and cost of ongoing care, potential health and safety issues for the children, and concerns about the welfare of the animals. Because animals used in precollege education are not subject to legal regulations in the United States, some degree of oversight by the school or school district may help to avert potential problems. PMID:16363938

Zasloff, R L; Hart, L A; DeArmond, H

1999-01-01

339

Constructivism in the elementary school curricula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the 5th grade elementary school curricula of Turkish, English, Mathematics, and Science and Technology courses were congruent with the principles and standards of the constructivist education. Qualitative research methods were used in this small-scale case study which was conducted in a private elementary school in Ankara. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analyses in the academic year of 2007-2008. The population of interest consisted of 2 school directors, 1 Turkish teacher, 3 English teachers, 4 Mathematics teachers, and 3 Science and Technology teachers. Descriptive analytical framework was employed for the analysis of the interviews. A rubric and a list of standards were used so as to provide a set of criteria for the analyses of the data. The findings indicate that the performances of the curricula under investigation are congruent with the principles of the constructivist education. Similarly, the stated and unstated intents of the curricula are congruent with their performances and the standards of the constructivist education. However, in-depth analyses of the findings signify that in certain areas of the curricula such as the contents, learning processes, evaluation processes, the use of the information technology, and the other resources are marked by some difficulties and ambiguity.

Nehir SERT

2008-01-01

340

Elementary GLOBE: Cloud Fun  

Science.gov (United States)

A learning activity for the "Do You Know That Clouds Have Names?" book in the Elementary GLOBE series. Each student will be given the opportunity to create their own cumulus cloud out of white paper and mount it on blue paper. Students will also complete the Cloud Fun Student Activity Sheet that includes a description of the cloud and what the weather was like on the day the cloud was observed. The purpose of the activity is to help students identify cumulus clouds and observe the weather conditions on days that they see cumulus clouds. Students will learn about a cumulus cloud's shape and appearance, how to verbally describe cumulus clouds, and what the weather is generally like when these clouds appear in the sky.

2008-12-01

341

Elementary Urban IPM Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elementary Urban Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Curriculum provides teachers with background information, hands-on activities, worksheets, fact sheets, quizzes, and resources to help engage students in real-world learning. While some of the lessons build on previous learning, most are stand-alone. Inspection and monitoring activities can be done weekly, monthly or as often as desired to provide continuity throughout the year and show how things change over time. Through the activities the students will: learn when a living thing is considered a pest; create an animal and its habitat using craft supplies; explore and make a survey of living things; interview people about pests; create a restaurant and menu for pests; and design a travel brochure or poster for a pest of a preferred destination in a yard or building. Other sections of the curriculum are: What is IPM?; Wanted Dead or Alive; Inspecting the School; All About Rodents; Biological Control; and All About Insects.

Erica Jenkins

342

Prognostic factors and significance of the revised 6th edition of the AJCC classification in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To compare the 4th edition 1992 and 6th edition 2002 of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems, to evaluate the paranasopharyngeal structures and lymph node involvement, and to define the prognostic significance of the above factors to overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: CT images of 162 patients, who were diagnosed with NPC and received irradiation alone or chemotherapy and irradiation, were retrospectively reviewed. CT scans, performed prior to and after the completion of treatment, were reviewed. Results: The parapharyngeal space was found to be involved very commonly (98%). 50 of 162 patients (31%) displayed parapharyngeal extension of the tumor to degree A, 59 patients (36%) showed degree B, and 50 patients (31%) degree C nasopharyngeal extension. According to the AJCC 6th edition 2002, patients were distributed into stages IIA, IIB, III, IVA, and IVB. By contrast, using the AJCC 4th edition 1992, patients were distributed into stages III and IV only. After a median follow up of 71.1 months, median survival was 60.7 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 71.3% and a 3-year survival rate of 62.2%. Multivariate analysis identified age, degree of parapharyngeal lateral extension, cavernous-sinus-infiltration, and size of infiltrated lymph nodes as independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: The 6th revision of TNM staging reported herein, provides a more staging reported herein, provides a more uniform distribution of patients between stages. The degree of tumor extension into the parapharyngeal space should be considered in future TNM staging revisions. (orig.)

343

Prognostic factors and significance of the revised 6th edition of the AJCC classification in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To compare the 4th edition 1992 and 6th edition 2002 of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems, to evaluate the paranasopharyngeal structures and lymph node involvement, and to define the prognostic significance of the above factors to overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: CT images of 162 patients, who were diagnosed with NPC and received irradiation alone or chemotherapy and irradiation, were retrospectively reviewed. CT scans, performed prior to and after the completion of treatment, were reviewed. Results: The parapharyngeal space was found to be involved very commonly (98%). 50 of 162 patients (31%) displayed parapharyngeal extension of the tumor to degree A, 59 patients (36%) showed degree B, and 50 patients (31%) degree C nasopharyngeal extension. According to the AJCC 6th edition 2002, patients were distributed into stages IIA, IIB, III, IVA, and IVB. By contrast, using the AJCC 4th edition 1992, patients were distributed into stages III and IV only. After a median follow up of 71.1 months, median survival was 60.7 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 71.3% and a 3-year survival rate of 62.2%. Multivariate analysis identified age, degree of parapharyngeal lateral extension, cavernous-sinus-infiltration, and size of infiltrated lymph nodes as independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: The 6th revision of TNM staging reported herein, provides a more uniform distribution of patients between stages. The degree of tumor extension into the parapharyngeal space should be considered in future TNM staging revisions. (orig.)

Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Karanikolas, D.; Sarafopoulos, A.; Ikonomou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Dept. of Radiology, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); Katodritis, N. [Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center, Nicosia (Cyprus); Samantas, E. [' ' Agii Anargiri' ' Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Zamboglou, N.; Tselis, N. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Fountzilas, G. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, ' ' Papageorgiou' ' General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) Data Office, Athens (Greece)

2006-08-15

344

Replacement of the 5th and 6th level vanes of the low pressure part of the turbine 13K 125 in the TPP 'Oslomej' - Kichevo (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The condensation turbine 13K with nominal power of 125 MW is an axial three-cylindrical machine with inter-level steam heating and a 5-level heating system. The turbine consists: high-pressure cylinder FT; medium-pressure cylinder MP and low-pressure cylinder LP. The 5th level vanes of the LP cylinder have Baumann reinforcement and they are bound in packages of ten vanes each. During the 1994 overhaul, the following examinations were carried out: examination without destruction with penetrant and magnetic flux. It was found out that there were some defects and cracks on the 5th and 6th level vanes of the LP-rotor and some of the stellite plates had come off completely or some smaller parts were missing. At the places where stellite parts were missing the basic material was eroded to a large extent. On the basis of the report all damaged and loose stellite plates were removed, i.e. 50% of the 6th level and 87% of the 5th level. The turbine has since operated in such a condition and it has worked for additional 15000 working hours. During this period the condition of the vanes has been monitored and some examinations and measurements have been undertaken. It has been established that the current technical condition of the rotating 5th and 6th level vanes of the LP-turbine, where the stellite plates had been removed, indicates that they are seriously damaged and an urgent replacement of the vanes is absolutely necessary. (Author)

345

Using GIS to deconstruct Iberian Iron Age landscapes: the territory of Kelin between 6th–5th centuries BC (La Plana d’Utiel, València)  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to present a pilot study applying GIS to analyse regional processes among Iron Age societies in the Mediterranean façade of the Iberian Peninsula (Iberian Culture, 6th–1st century BC). This is the study of La Plana d’Utiel region (València, Spain), using GIS to analyse the emergence of the spatial and territorial complexity as reflection of the socio-cultural complexity of its inhabitants. GIS has provided us a powerful set of tools to study the landscape, the s...

Moreno Marti?n, Andrea

2008-01-01

346

Physicochemical and microbiological analysis of water alternatively transported for rural consumption in the 5th and 6th district of São João da Barra, RJ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People from the 5th and 6th districts of the city of São João da Barra, RJ, use water from alternative sources. This study determined the microbiological contamination of public schools and tanks in strategic locations in the communities, and related it to the physicochemical quality of the water stored according to Ordinance 518 and guidelines by the WHO. Samples were collected from 18 tanks in public schools, and one in an annex school in 18 communities for analysis of: pH, turbidity, total chlorine, free chlorine, fluoride, iron, manganese, and total coliforms and thermotolerant. All samples had at least one parameter at odds with potability standards.

Karla Cabral Oliveira

2013-09-01

347

Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity among Elementary School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine age-related physical activity (PA) patterns between- and within-day in elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PA was recorded every 5-s by uniaxial accelerometry in 35 children (grades 1-2, n = 13; grades 3-4, n = 13; grades 5-6, n = 9) for up to five weekdays and two weekend days. Younger children were…

Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen; Chu, Chia-Hua; Li, Ya-Lin; Huang, Shih-Tse

2011-01-01

348

Development of Elementary School Students’ Argumentativeness In Science Courses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of science courses founded on argumentative discourse activities on elementary school students’ tendencies to approach argumentative situations. A semester-long argumentative discourse integrated science courses were carried out with 7th Grade students (n=23, and 8th Grade students (n=24. To measure change in the students’ tendencies to approach argumentative situations, a 20-item Likert-type Argumentativeness Scale (AS was administered to all the students as pretest and posttest, and 37 randomly selected students were individually interviewed at the end of the study. The results of statistical analysis of the AS indicated that both 7th and 8th Grade students’ argumentativeness significantly increased from prior to the end of this study. This significant increase was further supported by evidence from the qualitative data gathered through the interviews.

Osman Nafiz KAYA

2008-04-01

349

Using First-Grade Teacher Ratings to Predict Third-Grade English Language Arts and Mathematics Achievement on a High-Stakes Statewide Assessment  

OpenAIRE

Early childhood professional organizations support teachers as the best assessors of students’ academic, social, emotional, and physical development. This study investigates the predictive nature of teacher ratings of first-grade students’ performance on a standards-based curriculum-embedded performance assessment within the context of a state accountability system. The sample includes 4292 elementary school students cross-classified by 131 first-grade and 137 third-grade schools attended...

Gallant, Dorinda J.

2013-01-01

350

Reducing disruptive behaviors of elementary physical education students with sit and watch.  

OpenAIRE

This study reduced the disruptive behaviors of students in two elementary physical education classes: a regular fourth-grade class comprised of 30 students and an alternative education class containing 14 fourth- and fifth-grade boys with severe behavior problems. Using a multiple baseline design, we introduced a modified time-out procedure called "Sit and Watch." The procedure reduced the frequency of disruptive behaviors by 95%. Sit and Watch proved to be socially acceptable to parents, sch...

White, A. G.; Bailey, J. S.

1990-01-01

351

Teaching Mathematics to Elementary School Students Using a Variety of Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is based on a first-year, third-grade teacher’s attempt to improve instructional strategies for teaching mathematics in an inner city elementary school. Review of the literature suggested a variety of methods for teaching mathematical concepts to children in grades K-5.  The researcher found that carefully-planned units that include group work, intervention groups, parental involvement, entertainment elements, and explicit instruction increase students’ curiosity, enjoyment, and success in learning mathematics.

Jennifer R. Bradley

2009-02-01

352

Elementary School Enrichment  

Science.gov (United States)

Beth Schaubroeck's lessons for 4th and 5th grade accelerated students aim to help students appreciate the breadth and diversity of mathematical thought. The 68 lessons (in both pdf and doc formats) are grouped into 11 different topical units and are designed to take 15-25 minutes each of student time. They are appropriate for independent or small group work. The author provides student worksheets, solutions, and teacher guides. Topics include: Ancient Mathematics (Egyptian and Mayan), Baseball Statistics, Fibonacci Numbers, Games of Skill, Graphs and Networks, Iteration, Pick’s Theorem, Mobius Bands, Polygonal numbers, Statistics in the library, and Tangrams.

Beth Schaubroeck

2012-01-01

353

The Effects of Music Listening with Play on Preference, Recognition of the Main Melody and Musical Creativity in Elementary School Students  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classical music listening program, namely music listening with plays, for elementary grade one students on music preference, recognition of the main melody, and musical creativity. The classical music listening program organized for this study employed various musical experiences such as singing, playing, composing and moving. The participants of this study were 61 elementary grade one students from Kyong-gi Province, Korea, who attend...

Eunyoung Hwang

2011-01-01

354

The Basic Study Skills Guide for Grades K-6.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide has been designed for use in teaching study skills to elementary school students, kindergarten through grade six. It contains lessons developed and refined over a three-year period in the skills areas of listening, scheduling and task analysis, memory, notetaking, and using a textbook. Each skills area is developed in the context of a…

Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD.

355

Making Class Size Work in the Middle Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on the positive effects of class-size reduction (CSR) has occurred in the elementary level (Word, Johnston, Bain, Fulton, Zaharias, Lintz, Achilles, Folger, & Breda, 1990; Molnar, Smith, Zahorik, Palmer, Halbach, & Ehrle, 1999). Is CSR an important variable in improving education in the middle grades? Can small classes be achieved in…

Tienken, C. H.; Achilles, C. M.

2006-01-01

356

The Teaching of Test Taking Skills-Grade Three. Revised Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The information and activities in this guide are offered to teachers who want to help their third grade students develop test taking skills. The introductory sections of the guide discuss test wisdom, the characteristics of third grade students, the teacher's role in testing programs, elementary words and terms, directional words and phrases for…

Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD.

357

Education in the Middle Grades: Overview of National Practices and Trends. Report No. 45.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spring 1988, the Johns Hopkins Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools (CREMS) conducted a national survey of principals in 2,400 public middle grade schools that include grade 7. Using the 1988 survey date, this document presents an overview of educational approaches and practices in schools that serve early adolescents. Topics…

Epstein, Joyce L.; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

358

Leveled Books for Readers, Grades 3-6: A Companion Volume to "Guiding Readers and Writers."  

Science.gov (United States)

This guidebook builds on a previous work, extending leveled books up through the elementary grades and covering all the different genres that are important to students. More than 6000 leveled titles for Grades 2-6 are featured in this guide, including both fiction and nonfiction--as well as popular series books and short story collections--and…

Pinnell, Gay Su; Fountas, Irene C.

359

Reducing Test Anxiety among Third Grade Students through the Implementation of Relaxation Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to reduce the negative effects that self-perceived levels of test anxiety have on third-grade students. The participants in this study consisted of 177 third-grade students at two Midwestern public elementary schools. Students at one school were taught relaxation techniques, while students at the second school served…

Larson, Heidi A.; El Ramahi, Mera K.; Conn, Steven R.; Estes, Lincoln A.; Ghibellini, Amanda B.

2010-01-01

360

Reading Fluency: More than Automaticity? More than a Concern for the Primary Grades?  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading fluency has traditionally been viewed as a goal of reading that is taught and mastered in the elementary grades. In this article we challenge that notion by exploring the role of reading fluency as a contributor to reading proficiency and difficulty among intermediate and middle grade students. We assessed reading fluency development among…

Rasinski, Timothy; Rikli, Andrew; Johnston, Susan

2009-01-01

361

University Competition, Grading Standards and Grade Inflation  

OpenAIRE

We develop a model of strategic grade determination by universities distinguished by their distributions of student academic abilities. Universities choose grading standards to maximize total wages of graduates. Job placement and wages hinge on a ?rm’s productivity assessment given a student’s university, grade and productivity signal. We identify conditions under which better universities set lower grading standards, exploiting the fact that ?rms cannot distinguish between “good”...

Popov, Sergey V.; Bernhardt, Dan

2010-01-01

362

The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way.

A. Hepworth, Richard

2010-01-01

363

Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

Science.gov (United States)

"Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science" ("TEEMSS") is a physical science curriculum for grades 3-8 that utilizes computers, sensors, and interactive models to support investigations of real-world phenomena. Through 15 inquiry-based instructional units, students interact with computers, gather and analyze data, and formulate…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

364

The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

Ebrahim, Ali

2012-01-01

365

Enhancing the "Science" in Elementary Science Methods: A Collaborative Effort between Science Education and Entomology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers' subject matter knowledge is a particularly important issue in science education in that it influences instructional practices across subject areas and at different grade levels. This paper provides an overview of efforts to develop a unique elementary science methods course and related field experience through a partnership between…

Boardman, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Frazier, Maryann; Appel, Heidi; Weiss, Robinne

366

The Effects of Mass Merchandising on Elementary School Age Children's Book Selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was given to 866 students in the Westfield Public School (New Jersey) to ascertain whether or not elementary age children were strongly influenced by Corporate America in their reading selections. Respondents were in either second, third, or fourth grade. The children were asked three questions about their favorite character and favorite…

Long, Gregory A.

367

Sources of Self-Efficacy: An Investigation of Elementary School Students in France  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy on the academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of 3rd-grade elementary school students (N = 395) in France, to examine whether classroom context might explain a significant portion of the variation in self-efficacy, and to assess…

Joet, Gwenaelle; Usher, Ellen L.; Bressoux, Pascal

2011-01-01

368

Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Elementary Level. Volume I of II.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is the first in a series of Alcohol and Alcohol Safety Curriculum Manuals for use by teachers and curriculum developers. Geared to the elementary grade level, the objective of the manual is to promote responsible present and future decisions about alcohol. Emphasis has been placed on driver and pedestrian safety in recognition of the…

Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

369

Elementary School Students' Learner Self-Concept, Academic Self-Concepts and Approaches to Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the relationships between academic self-concepts, learner self-concept, and approaches to learning in a sample of 580 Australian elementary school students in grades 6 and 7. Found week negative correlations between learner self-concepts and surface approaches to learning. Found that deep approaches for both boys and girls showed the…

Burnett, Paul C.; Proctor, Romina M.

2002-01-01

370

The Effectiveness of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model on Selected Aspects of Elementary School Change.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of a year-long application of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model was studied in 11 schools, involving 1,698 elementary-grade students, 236 teachers, 120 parents, and 10 principals. Data analysis revealed positive changes in student and teacher attitudes. (Author/JDD)

Olenchak, F. Richard; Renzulli, Joseph S.

1989-01-01

371

The Effects of Differentiated Instruction and Enrichment Pedagogy on Reading Achievement in Five Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study examined the effect of a differentiated, enriched reading program on students' oral reading fluency and comprehension using the schoolwide enrichment model-reading (SEM-R). Treatment and control conditions were randomly assigned to 63 teachers and 1,192 second through fifth grade students across five elementary schools.…

Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Muller, Lisa M.; Kaniskan, R. Burcu

2011-01-01

372

Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

2008-01-01

373

AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION INTO THE MEASUREMENT OF CURIOSITY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE POSSIBILITY OF DEVELOPING A NUMBER OF PAPER AND PENCIL TEST INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES WAS EXPLORED FOR YIELDING RELIABLE MEASURES OF CURIOSITY AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN. INVESTIGATIONS WERE CONDUCTED IN APPROXIMATELY 40 FIFTH-GRADE CLASSROOMS AND CARRIED OUT IN 2 PHASES--A PREPARATION PHASE AND A TESTING PHASE. IT WAS FIRST NECESSARY…

MAW, ETHEL W.; MAW, WALLACE H.

374

Effectiveness of Wellness-Based Classroom Guidance in Elementary School Settings: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-session, wellness-based classroom guidance unit was developed based on the Indivisible Self wellness model and presented to 55 students in 5th grade. Participants completed the Five Factor Wellness Inventory, Elementary School Version, before and after the unit. Wellness scores were significantly and positively higher at post-testing for…

Villalba, Jose A.; Myers, Jane E.

2008-01-01

375

Elementary Teachers Integrate Music Activities into Regular Mathematics Lessons: Effects on Students' Mathematical Abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents exploratory research investigating the way teachers integrate music into their regular mathematics lessons as well as the effects of music-mathematics interdisciplinary lessons on elementary school students' mathematical abilities of modeling, strategy and application. Two teachers and two classes of first grade and…

An, Song; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Tillman, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

376

Elementary Teacher Educational Media Utilization and Production in Selected Silicon Valley Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires were sent to teachers of grades K-6 in the Silicon Valley area in November 1990 to obtain current information on the utilization and production of media by teachers at this level. This report is based on usable survey instruments returned by 110 teachers, who represented more than 15 different elementary schools. This information…

Morlan, John E.; Lu, Mei-Yan

377

Becoming a Fluent and Automatic Reader in the Early Elementary School Years  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to (a) develop an empirically based model regarding the development of fluent and automatic reading in the early elementary school years and (b) determine whether fluent text-reading skills provided benefits for reading comprehension beyond those accounted for by fluent word decoding. First-, second-, and third-grade

Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Morris, Robin D.

2006-01-01

378

Project Help. An Elementary Curriculum Guide Designed to Help Students Help Themselves.  

Science.gov (United States)

This two-part curriculum is designed to teach elementary students basic life skills that will enable them to assume greater responsibility for themselves. Part 1, the primary curriculum, is designed for grades 3 and 4. Five units of instruction are included in the primary curriculum: home management, foods, personal cleanliness, sewing, and…

Cranston School Dept., RI.

379

Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?  

Science.gov (United States)

Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

2013-01-01

380

Socioeconomic Differences in Elementary Students ICT Beliefs and Out-of-School Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to explore possible links between student socioeconomic status (SES), beliefs about information and communication technologies (ICTs), and out-of-school learning resources. Grades 5 and 6 students (N = 345) who were enrolled in one private and six public elementary schools in Greece, located in areas with different…

Vekiri, Ioanna

2010-01-01

381

Imagication = Imagination + Education: What Fifth Graders Think of Arts Integration in Public Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

During the 2011-12 school year, a fifth grade class in a diverse San Francisco public elementary school collaborated with the Arts Resources In Action (ARIA) program of the San Francisco Opera's Education Department to create a teacher-guided opera. The students wrote the story, music and lyrics as well as designed and built the sets, props…

Edsall Giglio, Lisa

2012-01-01

382

Factors Affecting Early Elementary (K-4) Teachers' Introduction of the Nature of Science: A National Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

A researcher-developed questionnaire regarding the importance and developmental appropriateness of 12 specific elements of the nature of science (Alshamrani, 2008) for early elementary (kindergarten through fourth grade [K-4]) science instruction was mailed to a random sample of U.S. K-4 teachers. At least half (N = 377) of the respondents…

Sweeney, Sophia Jean

2010-01-01

383

The Impact of an Integrated Approach to Science and Literacy in Elementary School Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the efficacy of an integrated science and literacy approach at the upper-elementary level. Teachers in 94 fourth grade classrooms in one Southern state participated. Half of the teachers taught the treatment unit, an integrated science-literacy unit on light and energy designed using a curriculum model that engages students…

Cervetti, Gina N.; Barber, Jacqueline; Dorph, Rena; Pearson, P. David; Goldschmidt, Pete G.

2012-01-01

384

Improving Music Skills of Elementary Students with Notation-Reading and Sight-Singing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A music educator designed for elementary school students who were musically unskilled a curriculum that was based on the methods of Kodaly and Orff, the philosophy of Warrener, and traditional music education concepts. A heterogeneous group of 606 second- through sixth-grade students in 4 schools participated in implementation of the curriculum.…

Harding, Mary H.

385

The Effects of a Remedial Singing Method on the Vocal Pitch Accuracy of Inaccurate Elementary Singers  

Science.gov (United States)

A pretest-posttest experimental design was utilized to determine the efficacy of the Yuba Method on inaccurate elementary singers. Testing of pitch accuracy was analyzed using the Sona-Speech Model 3600 software program. Inaccurate singers (N=168) from a population of 320 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students, were divided into three subgroups…

Miyamoto, Karen A.

2005-01-01

386

Korean Elementary School Students' English Learning Demotivation: A Comparative Survey Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores Korean elementary school students' decreased motivation for English learning by analyzing the questionnaire data obtained from 6,301 students in a large city in South Korea. The students' school grades and their prior experience in private institutes were considered as the major factors behind the decrease in their motivation.…

Kim, Tae-Young

2011-01-01

387

The Effect of Coping Knowledge on Emergency Preparedness in Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and…

Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah

2014-01-01

388

The Metaphors That Elementary School Students Use to Describe the Term "Teacher"  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to investigate metaphors that elementary school 5th and 8th grade students (N = 567) use in order to describe the term "teacher". The data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions, and analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Content analysis technique was…

Karadag, Ruhan; Gültekin, Mehmet

2012-01-01

389

An Experiment with Three Methods of Instruction for Indian Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report detailed an experiment with 3 methods of instructing American Indian children in Taholah Elementary School (Quinault Reservation, Washington State). To assess the relative value of instructional methods in the school, 2 conditions had to prevail. The content of the lessons was to be unknown to pupils at all grade levels, and the content…

McCartin, Rosemarie; Schill, William John

390

Perceptions of Elementary Principals' Influence on Academic Achievement for Minority Students in Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

The researcher focused on the elementary principal's influence on academic achievement of minority students in mathematics in grade four. The sample population was from a parish where three schools were identified to have improved academic achievement in mathematics with the minority population. The study was a mixed method. The study was…

Robertson, Schellia Arnette

2012-01-01

391

Cognitive and Affective Orientations of Elementary School Children Toward Air, Water, and Soil Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to obtain information about children's knowledge of and attitudes toward problems of environmental pollution. It sought to determine whether or not fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in selected elementary schools, one in the United States and one in Mexico, differed in their knowledge of and their attitudes…

Holloway, Mildred Azelle Evans

392

Early Elementary Performance and Attendance in Baltimore City Schools' Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten  

Science.gov (United States)

This study looks at attendance in the early grades of elementary school. In particular, the authors focus on students enrolled in Pre-Kindergarten (PreK) and Kindergarten (K). They follow these young students over several years to determine their pattern of chronic absence (CA), defined as missing more than one-ninth of days enrolled, and their…

Connolly, Faith; Olson, Linda S.

2012-01-01

393

Fitness portfolio calibration for first- through sixth-grade children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate health-relatedfitness portfolios for 1st-6th grade students using the many-faceted Rasch model, and examine advantages and disadvantages of a portfolio assessment system based on Rasch calibration. Nine hundred ninety-five studentsfrom 23 schools infirst-sixth grade, who completed three-six of nine health-related fitness portfolios, participated in this study. Ten physical education teachers performed the grading across various portfolios and grade levels. Students'portfolios were rated using 23 predeveloped rubrics, and their scores linked through several common portfolios that were used across schools. The rating scores were analyzed using the many-faceted Rasch model, with four defined facets: portfolio, rubric, student, and rater The model-data fit was very good, and a consistent grade difference wasfound, that is, older students scored higher in fitness knowledge than younger ones. With Rasch calibration, measurement problems in conventional portfolio assessments can be eliminated, and a valid and reliable assessment system can be developed. In addition, several other measurement advantages are provided by Rasch calibration (e.g., related facets can be examined and controlled simultaneously). A large sample size and a more complex process, however, are required in the calibration stage of developing such a system using the Rasch model. PMID:11770782

Kulinna, P H; Zhu, W

2001-12-01

394

Vegetation dieback as a proxy for temperature within a wet pyroclastic density current: A novel experiment and observations from the 6th of August 2012 Tongariro eruption  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th of August 2012 eruption of Te Maari (Mt Tongariro, New Zealand) generated wet pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which caused widespread dieback of vegetation (singed, brown foliage) in their path. An absence of significant charcoal formation suggests that PDC temperatures were mostly below 250 °C. Textural evidence for liquid water being present in the matrices during emplacement (vesicles) suggests that temperatures were < 100 °C. We determined a probable minimum PDC temperature using an experiment replicating the critical temperatures required to induce foliar browning in seven species affected by the eruption. In locations where all species exhibited browned foliage (or were defoliated), temperatures were probably ? 64 °C assuming a PDC duration of 60 s. In the more distal areas, where only the most susceptible species were browned while others remained healthy and unaffected, temperatures were probably around 51-58 °C. These results have relevance to volcanic hazard mitigation and risk assessment, especially on the popular Tongariro Alpine Crossing.

Efford, Jackson T.; Bylsma, Rebecca J.; Clarkson, Bruce D.; Pittari, Adrian; Mauriohooho, Kate; Moon, Vicki G.

2014-10-01

395

TRISO particle fuel performance code benchmarking activities performed under the IAEA 6th coordinated research programme on advances in HTR fuel technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A key part of the IAEA 6th Coordinated Research Project on advances in high temperature reactor (HTR) fuel technology includes benchmarking of fuel performance models under normal and accident conditions. The normal operation and accident behaviour benchmarks have been structured in two phases. In the first phase, a series of simplified analytical benchmarking problems have been established for both normal and accident conditions as a way to 'calibrate' all of the codes and/or models. In the second phase, the codes and/or models will be used to calculate fuel behaviour in past and future irradiation experiments and heating tests. Current participants in the benchmark include England, France, Germany, Russia and the United States. This paper will present a status of this international code benchmarking activity. (author)

396

Analysis of the 2nd Ispra test on the 1/6TH scale model of the SNR-300 fast breeder reactor with the PISCES-2 DELK code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a numerical simulation of the 2nd test carried out at the JRC in Ispra (Italy) in the 1/6th scale vessel model of the SNR-300 LMFBR. The computer code used for the analysis was the hybrid code PISCES-2D-ELK, being an explicit finite difference code capable of simulating fluids and structures in an Eulerian reference frame, a Lagrange reference frame and having a thin shell option available. The analysis was performed for a total transient time of 10 ms and the results are presented in the form of contour-velocity vector plots at several intervals. The evolution of some important parameters such as the impulse and strain at the shieldtank, the pressure and impulse at the vessel roof (waterhammer) and the strain profiles of the shieldtank and the main vessel are compared with the measured experimental results. (orig./GL)

397

Effectiveness of Multi-Cycle DEAL Teaching Model To Improve The Science Concept of Elementary School Students  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of Multi-Cycle DEAL teaching model to improve elementary students’ mastery of science concepts. The subject of this study was fourth grade elementary school students in Surabaya. The research was conducted in the second semester of the school year 2012/2012 by using Randomized Control Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The research data were collected with mastery test of science concepts. Research data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results showed tha...

Suryanti Yanti

2013-01-01

398

Research in Writing, Preschool Through Elementary, 1983-2003.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this article is the research literature in written composition from early childhood through the elementary years, typically the end of sixth grade. Some research prior to 1984 is discussed, particularly in topics that were not included in Hillocks (1986, such as emergent writing. The definition of “composition” has expanded over the last decade; thus, while focusing primarily on writing, this article pays attention to other modalities (e.g., relations between drawing and writing and includes not only writing but also other mediating tools (e.g., drawing, talking, computers that are used in or for composition.

Chapman, M.

2006-08-01

399

Assessing multiple intelligences in elementary-school students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain a clear understanding of the manner in which fourth-grade students attending a Kansas elementary school learn when engaged in science activities grounded in H. Gardner's book, Frames of mind the theory of multiple intelligences (1983). The significance of this research lies in the discovery of the difference between teaching practice grounded in multiple intelligences versus that based upon traditional theory. Teacher self-perceptions with regard to the effectiveness of their instruction and student assessment within the classroom were also explored. The research evaluated the overall effectiveness of both traditional curriculum delivery and that rooted in the concept of multiple intelligences.

Strecker, Catherine Hunt

400

Some Cobweb Posets Digraphs' Elementary Properties and Questions  

CERN Document Server

A digraph that represents reasonably a scheduling problem should be a directed acyclic graph. Here down we shall deal with special kind of graded $DAGs$ named $KoDAGs$. For their definition and first primary properties see $ [1]$, where natural join of directed biparted graphs and their corresponding adjacency matrices is defined and then applied to investigate cobweb posets and their $Hasse$ digraphs called $KoDAGs$. In this report we extend the notion of cobweb poset while delivering some elementary consequences of the description and observations established in $[1]$.

Kwaniewski, A K

2008-01-01

401

The nature of elementary students' science discourse and conceptual learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examined the nature of 5th-grade students' oral and written discourse in relation to their conceptual learning during six science inquiry-based lessons. Qualitative data were collected using small group observations, transcriptions of small group discourse, students' science notebooks, and student interviews. These data were used to create an in-depth illustration of 5th-grade students' discourse and the impact of that discourse on their science conceptual learning. Findings indicated students spoke in three main discourse classifications during small group inquiries and two of these discourses were also present in the science notebook entries. Findings further indicated gender did not impact the nature of students' oral or written discourse regarding their conceptual learning. Implications for classroom practice and suggestions for further research in elementary science education are offered.

Parks, Melissa Y.

402

Multicultural Mini-Units. Elementary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The teaching mini-units in this teacher's guide are designed for use with elementary level students. Thematic study units are given for each of the following countries or continents: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, and the…

Flora, Sherrill B.

403

Learning Electricity in Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated elementary school pupils' ideas concerning the concept of electricity and the effect of school instruction on the pupil's views. Pupils of different cultural backgrounds were assessed to ascertain their knowledge in four areas: Relation of certain natural phenomena to electricity; Mental models (images) of direct current in…

Azaiza, Ibtisam; Bar, Varda; Galili, Igal

2006-01-01

404

Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

Slavin, Robert E.

2015-01-01

405

Elementary Teacher Education in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

This monograph describes elementary teacher education in South Korea and aspects of Korean society that have contributed to the uniqueness of this educative process. Within the context of comparative education, the essay introduces the cultural, social, and institutional attributes of Korea; discusses specifics of the educative process as a…

Smith, Douglas C.

406

Cooperative Learning and Elementary Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights the five essential components of cooperative learning, provides a quick overview of the research behind the strategy, describes three of the most common types, and offers ideas on how to get started using cooperative learning at the elementary level.

Kimberly Lightle

407

Elementary Mathematical Methods. Third Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains 15 chapters: (1) "Teaching Problem Solving"; (2) "Using Calculators and Computers in Elementary School Mathematics"; (3) "Organizing for Instruction"; (4) "Teaching Numeration of Whole Numbers"; (5) "Teaching Numeration of Common and Decimal Fractions"; (6) "Teaching Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers"; (7) "Teaching…

Thiessen, Diane; And Others

408

Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Japanese program at Mimosa Elementary School in Roswell, Georgia. The success of the program has been aided by collaborative team teaching, a spiraled curriculum, creative teaching methods, Teacher -made materials, and communication among teachers, parents, and administrators. he challenges are also discussed. (Author/VWL)

Uchihara, Azusa

2001-01-01

409

Uniform approximation by elementary operators  

CERN Document Server

On a separable C*-algebra A every (completely) bounded map, which preserves closed two sided ideals, can be approximated uniformly by elementary operators if and only if A is a finite direct sum of C*-algebras of continuous sections vanishing at infinity of locally trivial C*-bundles of finite type.

Magajna, Bojan

2009-01-01

410

Traveling science: An elementary science enhancement program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traveling Science is an elementary science visitation program by two high school teachers (using scheduled release time) for every third to fifth grade student and teacher in Granville County, North Carolina (a total of sixty-one classes, 1,600 students-over 25,000 student contacts in three years). Teachers and students see and participate in hands-on, inquiry-based science done with inexpensive, readily available materials (usually less than 2% per class). Teachers become more confident and self-reliant with respect to science education, and students get increased exposure to hands-on science. In addition to the classroom visits (a total of six per year for each class), teachers receive a guide containing introductory and follow-up materials, and a monthly newsletter. Visit topics cover the physical, life and earth sciences; designed to stress the processes of science. We try to use topics of interest and relevance to students, such as toys, food, animals and playground activities. Teachers and schools also receive additional materials (posters and videos).

Gotlib, L.; Brown, S. [South Granvile High School, Creedmoor, NC (United States); Bibby, E. [Granville County Schools, Oxford, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

411

5/6th nephrectomy in combination with high salt diet and nitric oxide synthase inhibition to induce chronic kidney disease in the Lewis rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global problem. Slowing CKD progression is a major health priority. Since CKD is characterized by complex derangements of homeostasis, integrative animal models are necessary to study development and progression of CKD. To study development of CKD and novel therapeutic interventions in CKD, we use the 5/6th nephrectomy ablation model, a well known experimental model of progressive renal disease, resembling several aspects of human CKD. The gross reduction in renal mass causes progressive glomerular and tubulo-interstitial injury, loss of remnant nephrons and development of systemic and glomerular hypertension. It is also associated with progressive intrarenal capillary loss, inflammation and glomerulosclerosis. Risk factors for CKD invariably impact on endothelial function. To mimic this, we combine removal of 5/6th of renal mass with nitric oxide (NO) depletion and a high salt diet. After arrival and acclimatization, animals receive a NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-Arginine) (L-NNA) supplemented to drinking water (20 mg/L) for a period of 4 weeks, followed by right sided uninephrectomy. One week later, a subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) is performed on the left side. After SNX, animals are allowed to recover for two days followed by LNNA in drinking water (20 mg/L) for a further period of 4 weeks. A high salt diet (6%), supplemented in ground chow (see time line Figure 1), is continued throughout the experiment. Progression of renal failure is followed over time by measuring plasma urea, systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. By six weeks after SNX, renal failure has developed. Renal function is measured using 'gold standard' inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearance technology. This model of CKD is characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), hypertension (systolic blood pressure>150 mmHg), proteinuria (> 50 mg/24 hr) and mild uremia (>10 mM). Histological features include tubulo-interstitial damage reflected by inflammation, tubular atrophy and fibrosis and focal glomerulosclerosis leading to massive reduction of healthy glomeruli within the remnant population (<10%). Follow-up until 12 weeks after SNX shows further progression of CKD. PMID:23851420

van Koppen, Arianne; Verhaar, Marianne C; Bongartz, Lennart G; Joles, Jaap A

2013-01-01

412

A Comparison of Students Who Delay Kindergarten Entry and Those Who are Retained in Grades K-5.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored whether there were differences in IQ and achievement (at grades two, five, and seven) between students who delayed school entry and those who were retained in later elementary grades, as well as any interactions with gender. Concluded that instructional reform may be more effective for improving student success. (JBJ)

Kundert, Deborah K.; And Others

1995-01-01

413

Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

2010-01-01

414

Effect on Reading Fluency of Struggling Third Grade Students: Computer-Assisted Intervention versus Teacher-Guided Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

This research study examined two intervention programs, Read Naturally (computer-assisted) and The Six-Minute Solution (teacher-guided), for the purpose of finding their effects on reading fluency with 3rd grade students at an elementary school. The participants were from two separate third grade classrooms, randomly assigned to one of the two…

Martin, Corey; Elfreth, Jaime; Feng, Jay

2014-01-01

415

Assessing Numeracy in the Upper Elementary and Middle School Years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numeracy is the ability or tendency to reason critically about quantitative information. The preponderance of published research on numeracy examines this construct among either pre-K or early elementary samples, students with developmental challenges, or is focused on post-secondary and adult cohorts. The numeracy skills of upper-elementary and middle school students is less documented and understood, most notably because of the lack of valid instruments that are developmentally appropriate for the age range. A numeracy scale for use among upper-elementary and middle school students is introduced in this paper. Scale validation was performed using a gender-balanced, racially / ethnically diverse sample of 3rd through 8th grade students (N=197 from a private, Catholic K-8 school in Santa Clara County, California. Construct validity is supported by strong, positive correlations with the three subscales of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT as well as the Iowa Test of Basic Skills Mathematics test, a standardized academic achievement domain assessment. A preliminary exploration of the critical-thinking dispositional correlates of numeracy suggests a positive relationship with students’ self-reported creative problem solving, diligence, systematicity, and fair-mindedness.

Carol Ann Gittens

2015-01-01

416

Elementary School Students’ Perceptions of Technology in their Pictorial Representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aimed to reveal elementary school students’ perceptions of technology through their pictorial representations and their written expressions based on their pictorial representations. Content analysis based on the qualitative research method along with art-based inquiry was applied. The “coding system for the concepts revealed from the research data” was implemented. Visual language used in pictorial representations produce messages, with its specialized codes. The degree of students to understand and explain their perception on technology composes the visual codes in this research. The study carried out with fifth-grade elementary school students was applied to a class of 28 students. The elementary school students participating in the present study had diverse perceptions of today’s technology, and most of their perceptions of technology were based on computer and electronic household appliances. Some students’ perceptions of technology were based on the Internet and mobile device technologies. Their perceived future technology was observed as human-computer interaction in the area of computer technology. Findings were discussed followed by relevant implications.

Adile A?k?m Kurt

2011-01-01

417

Repetitive Microteaching:Learning to Teach Elementary Social Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of deliberate practice in the development of performance has been studied extensively in many contexts, such as in athletics. The construct of deliberate practice in the development of teacher performance has been receiving heightened examination lately, though the role of practice in the development of elementary social studies teachers remains essentially unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a repeated practice microteaching model on the teaching behaviors of 64 elementary preservice teachers (PSTs who taught the same social studies lessons to small groups of 4th-grade students four times in succession. PST reflection journals from all PSTs, observational transcripts of 14 teaching pairs, focus group interviews with the PSTs, and informal cooperating teacher interviews revealed that the PSTs’ lessons changed over the four successive teaching episodes. The PSTs became more comfortable and confident after teaching the same social studies lesson multiple times. PSTs also reported that their lessons became better, yet the qualitative data revealed that even though their teaching became more efficient and student work correctness improved, only a few PSTs increased the cognitive demand of their questions and activities. Nonetheless, most PSTs demonstrated increased use of social studies pedagogical content knowledge through their examples and discussions, as well as increased attention to student thinking. Repeated practice field experiences seem to hold potential for elementary PSTs to develop their use ofsocial studies pedagogical content knowledge

Derek L. ANDERSON

2012-11-01

418

The 6th FDR prize  

Science.gov (United States)

From the 58 papers published in 2012 in Fluid Dynamics Research, the following paper has been selected for the sixth FDR prize: The finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method and its application in computational aero-acoustics by Michihisa Tsutahara (Professor Emeritus, Kobe University, Japan), published in volume 44 (August 2012) 045507. This is a review paper of the author's recent work on the finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In this paper, the author introduces a modified FDLBM and its application to aero-acoustics. To solve the discrete Bhatnager, Gross and Krook equation for simulating fluid flow, the FDLBM applies a stable finite-difference scheme on a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the ordinary lattice Boltzmann method uses regular lattices. It is known that for the lattice Boltzmann methods, there is difficulty in simulating high Mach number compressible flows in principle. To alleviate this, the author proposed the modified FDLBM, expanding the flexibility of setting time increments. With this FDLBM, the author has shown that it is possible to simulate compressible flows efficiently around complex bluff bodies and with complex aero-acoustic behaviour. The author summarizes all those works, including studies only available in Japanese up to now, in this review paper. After discussing the details of the FDLBM proposed by the author, example results of simulating the Aeolian tone generated from a circular cylinder at the Mach number M = 0.7 are shown. Then, the scheme is expanded for moving bodies by combining with the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. Using this moving mesh scheme, the author shows the simulation results of the very strong sound pressure generated by a high-speed train in a tunnel. For issues of sound propagation in compressible two-phase flows whose density ratio is high, the two-particle model is introduced. Also, techniques to reduce noise generation from the flow velocity and pressure at gas-liquid interfaces are shown. Finally, the scattering of sound waves by water droplets is discussed. In thick fog, the sound coming from a distance becomes faint due to the sound-scattering effects of micro water droplets. The author gives an example of successfully solving such an issue by the FDLBM. It is highly admirable that the author developed the new FDLBM for aero-acoustic issues and has summarized it with sub-schemes to overcome several difficulties of engineering aeroacoustics in this review. It will certainly contribute to further development of fluid dynamics through computational aero-acoustics. Consequently, this paper was selected as the winner of the sixth FDR prize.

Funakoshi, Mitsuaki

2013-06-01

419

Graded photonic quasicrystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce graded photonic quasicrystals and investigate properties of such structures on the example of a Luneburg lens based on a dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal. It is shown that the graded photonic quasicrystal lens has better focusing properties as compared with the graded photonic crystal lens in a frequency range suitable for experimental realization. The proposed graded photonic quasicrystals can be used in optical systems where compact and powerful focusing elements are required. PMID:22739847

Dyachenko, Pavel N; Pavelyev, Vladimir S; Soifer, Victor A

2012-06-15

420

Redesigning Grading--Districtwide  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first years of his career as a high school math teacher, Matt Townsley was bothered by the fact that his grades penalized students for not learning content quickly. A student could master every standard, but low quiz grades and homework assignments they didn't complete because they didn't understand would lower their final grade,…

Townsley, Matt

2014-01-01

421

Bias in Grading  

Science.gov (United States)

Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

Malouff, John

2008-01-01

422

The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus  

CERN Document Server

In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, we used individual second and third Venus-Sun contact times to calculate the distance to the Sun. Ten of the sites in our network had amiable weather; 8 of which measured second contact and 5 of which measured third contact leading to consistent solar distance measurements of 152+/-30 million km and 163+/-30 million km respectively. The distance to the Sun at the time of the transit was 152.25 million km; therefore, our measurements are also consistent within 1sigma of the known value. The goal of our international school group network was to inspire the next generation of scientists using the excitement and accessibility of a rare astronom...

Faherty, Jacqueline K; Miller, Scott T

2012-01-01

423

The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island  

Science.gov (United States)

There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

2013-01-01

424

Artificially deformed crania from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) in northeastern Hungary: historical and morphological analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

From an anthropological point of view, artificial deformation of the cranial shape in newborns is one of the most interesting human customs, which has been recorded in all continents and in different cultures. However, the main goals of this procedure were basically the same everywhere; that is, to distinguish certain groups of people from others and to indicate the social status of individuals. In the Carpathian Basin all artificially deformed skulls are dated to the late Iron Age, especially to the early Migration Period. The authors examined 9 artificially deformed skulls from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) excavated from two cemeteries in the northeastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Hungary). The extent and the type of the deformation as well as the technique were determined in each case. The authors also attempt to shed light on the probable origin and the historical context of the custom practiced in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary), relying on the anthropological and historical literature on the Hun-Germanic and preceding periods. It seems possible that this custom, which is associated with the finds in the Carpathian Basin, first appeared in the Kalmykia steppe, later in the Crimea, from where it spread to Central and Western Europe by way of the Hun migration. Neither the cranial find described presently nor the special literature on the subject furnish convincing evidence that the cranial deformation resulted in any chronic neurological disorder. PMID:24684322

Molnár, Mónika; János, István; Sz?cs, László; Szathmáry, László

2014-04-01

425

Effects of the 6th September 2002 earthquake: damage amplification in the south-eastern sector of Palermo explained by GIS technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 6th September 2002 earthquake the highest damage level in Palermo was observed in the SE sector. This is a recent urbanization area where reinforced concrete structures predominate. A detailed analysis of soil properties in Palermo was carried out by City-GIS to investigate a possible role of nearsurface geology on earthquake effects. City-GIS is a tool dedicated to natural hazard evaluation in urban areas. The availability of high density of well log data (stratigraphic and geotechnical allowed a realistic modeling of surface geology and physical-mechanical properties that control the seismic response. In wide zones of the above mentioned sector of Palermo, outcropping terrains are composed of thin calcarenite layers, lying above remarkably thick siltyclayey sands that overlay the Numidian Flysch, commonly considered the bedrock of Quaternary sediments. Since silty-clayey sands feature greater deformability properties (Young's modulus and smaller resistance properties (undrained cohesion and shear resistance angle than Numidian Flysch, these zones of the SE sector exhibit high values of the acoustic impedance contrast. Moreover, a quite wide portion of the study area, crossed by the Oreto River, is characterized by very thick alluvial deposits. Here, the significant lateral variations of the lithostratigraphic geometry may be an additional cause of strong site effects.

A. Zuccarello

2003-06-01

426

cGMP: transition from bench to bedside: a report of the 6th International Conference on cGMP Generators, Effectors and Therapeutic Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Essential physiological homeostatic processes such as vascular tone, fluid balance, cardiorenal function, and sensory processes are regulated by the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP). Dysregulation of cGMP-dependent pathways plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, or erectile dysfunction. Thus, the cGMP pathway consisting of the cGMP-generating guanylyl cyclases, protein kinases, and phosphodiesterases (PDE) has evolved to an important drug target and is the focus of a wide variety of research fields ranging from unraveling mechanisms on the molecular level to understanding the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes by cGMP. Based on the results from basic and preclinical research, therapeutic drugs have been developed which modulate the cGMP pathway and are investigated in clinical trials. Riociguat, a nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator; recombinant B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP); or recombinant atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and PDE5 inhibitors are cGMP-modulating drugs that are already available for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, acute heart failure, and erectile dysfunction, respectively. The latest results from basic to clinical research on cGMP were presented on the 6th International Conference on cGMP in Erfurt, Germany, and are summarized in this article. PMID:24927824

Hoffmann, Linda S; Chen, Horng H

2014-08-01

427

[Concept of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma in the General Rules for Clinical and Pathological Studies on Cancer of the Biliary Tract, 6th edition].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is clinically characterized by biliary obstruction in the porta hepatis. Because the boundary between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct is unclear, hilar cholangiocarcinoma can potentially arise from both ducts. Therefore, the definition of hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains under debate. In November 2013, the 6th edition of the General Rules for Clinical and Pathological Studies on Cancer of the Biliary Tract was released, following the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) or International Union Against Cancer (UICC) TNM system. In that edition, as an alternative to "hilar cholangiocarcinoma," the new term "perihilar cholangiocarcinoma" is defined as cholangiocarcinoma involving the perihilar bile duct, despite the presence or absence of a significant liver mass component. This definition clearly indicates that some intrahepatic as well as extrahepatic perihilar tumors are involved in the perihilar tumor category. From the clinical point of view, there is no need for a differential diagnosis between intrahepatic or extrahepatic tumors therefore, the new definition is readily applicable in multidisciplinary team management. Japanese clinicians were previously required to distinguish between the proper use of the AJCC/UICC and the Japanese staging systems, but now the current revision will allow the more convenient use of a single, globally standardized staging system in daily practice. PMID:25154239

Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Gen; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Takashi; Fukaya, Masahide; Uehara, Keisuke; Itatsu, Keita; Yoshioka, Yuichiro; Kokuryo, Toshio; Nagino, Masato

2014-07-01

428

Progress, barriers, solutions and recommendations for more DER integration in the European electricity supply. Summary of findings from the 6th FP EU project SOLID-DER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents an overall and summarizing report of most relevant findings and conclusions regarding the topic of 'Integration of more Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the electricity supply of Europe' addressed in the 6th Framework Programme RTD project SOLID-DER. More precisely this report reviews the current position of DER, thereby enhancing its definition in RES and DG) in the electricity supply, drivers for more DER in the future and the different technical and economic barriers to meet these policy objectives in the EU countries. But most attention is given to the different technical, economic and regulatory changes and policies for increasing the share of DER (RES and DG) in the power supply of all EU countries in the next decades. Also for that reason, at the end the report the most recent developments and issues, i.e. the increasing role of intermittent RES and DG generation and their system impacts that need to be reduced in the future to maintain the reliability levels of the power system, are discussed in this report. This discussion is mainly based on recently finished or still on-going EIE EU projects such as RESPOND, IMPROGRES etc. Finally in the report the policy measures, regulation and the pending RTD issues necessary to be solved are summarized.

429

Changes in Student Science Interest from Elementary to Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is a transcendental phenomenological study that described the experience of students’ interest in science from elementary school through middle school grades and the identification of the factors that increase or decrease interest in science. Numerous researchers have found that interest in science changes among children and the change in interest seems to modulate student motivation, which ultimately leads to fewer children choosing not only science classes in the future but science careers. Research studies have identified numerous factors that affect student interest in science; however, this study incorporated the lived experience of the child and looked at this interest in science through the lens of the child. The study design was a collective cross-case study that was multi-site based. This study utilized a sample of children in fifth grade classes of three different elementary schools, two distinct seventh grade classes of different middle schools, and ninth grade children from one high school in the State of Illinois. The phenomenon was investigated through student interviews. The use of one-on-one semi-structured interviews limited to 45 minutes in length provided the researcher with data of each child’s description of science interest. All interviews were audio- recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was collected and analyzed in order to identify themes, and finally checked for validity. The most significant findings of this study, and possible factors contributing to science interest in children as they progress from elementary to high school, were those findings relating to hands-on activities, the degree to which a student was challenged, the offering of new versus previously studied topics in the curriculum, the perceived relevance of the curricular materials to personal life, and the empowerment children felt when they were allowed to make choices related to their learning experiences. This study’s possible implications for practitioners, specifically the findings of this study’s relation to the 2011 National Research Council Science Framework and the forthcoming Common Core Science Standards, were examined. This study concluded with discussion of its limitations, a summary of the results, and recommendations for additional areas of investigation of the subject matter.

Coutts, Trudi E.

430

Paleontology--Dinosaurs and Other Fossils: Digging into the Past. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book consists of two complete units on paleontology, dinosaurs, and fossils. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary…

Tanner, Joey

431

Magazines Recommended for Use with Children, Grades K-12: A Comparative Survey of Six Basic Lists Compiled by Librarians and Educators. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This annotated list of periodicals, derived from six basic periodical reference works including "The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" and the "Basic Book Collection for Elementary Grades, " was compiled for use with elementary, junior high, and high school students. Each notation indicates the frequency of publication, the current price,…

Wright, Sylvia Hart

432

Elementary principles of linear accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables

433

Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2008-02-05

434

Elementary thermodynamics of trapped particles  

OpenAIRE

I develop simple thermodynamic relations for a collection of noninteracting classical particles confined in a harmonic trap. The volume of such a trap is not a good thermodynamic variable, so conventional expressions of the first law of thermodynamics and the ideal gas law must be modified. I use the frequency of oscillations about the minimum of the trap as an external parameter characterizing the confinement, and derive elementary relations between particle number, tempera...

Ligare, Martin

2002-01-01

435

Could only fermions be elementary?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In standard Poincare and anti de Sitter SO(2, 3) invariant theories, antiparticles are related to negative energy solutions of covariant equations while independent positive energy unitary irreducible representations (UIRs) of the symmetry group are used for describing both a particle and its antiparticle. Such an approach cannot be applied in de Sitter SO(1, 4) invariant theory. We argue that it would be more natural to require that (*) one UIR should describe a particle and its antiparticle simultaneously. This would automatically explain the existence of antiparticles and show that a particle and its antiparticle are different states of the same object. If (*) is adopted then among the above groups only the SO(1, 4) one can be a candidate for constructing elementary particle theory. It is shown that UIRs of the SO(1, 4) group can be interpreted in the framework of (*) and cannot be interpreted in the standard way. By quantizing such UIRs and requiring that the energy should be positive in the Poincare approximation, we conclude that (i) elementary particles can be only fermions. It is also shown that (ii) C invariance is not exact even in the free massive theory and (iii) elementary particles cannot be neutral. This gives a natural explanation of the fact that all observed neutral states are bosons

436

Relação entre criatividade e traços temperamentais em estudantes do ensino fundamental / Relationship between creativity and temperamental traits in a sample of elementary school students / Relación entre creatividad y rasgos temperamentales de estudiantes de educación básica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A percepção da ausência de pesquisas nacionais que investiguem a relação entre criatividade e temperamento desenvolvidas com crianças e adolescentes motivou o presente estudo, conduzido junto a 142 estudantes de 6o ao 9o ano do Ensino Fundamental (84 do sexo feminino e 58 masculino), com idades entr [...] e 11 e 14 anos (M=12,8 anos; DP=1,10). Dois instrumentos foram utilizados: Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil e Student Styles Questionnaire, cujos resultados indicaram que as dimensões temperamentais extroversão e intuição foram as que mais se relacionaram ao desempenho em criatividade (apresentando correlações significativas com os fatores Enriquecimento de Ideias, Preparação Criativa e Criatividade Total). Influência significativa da variável sexo foi encontrada em relação às dimensões racional e emotiva do temperamento, ao passo que a variável série e sua interação com sexo mostrou-se importante em um fator da criatividade (Aspectos Cognitivos). Abstract in spanish La percepción de la ausencia de investigaciones nacionales que estudien la relación entre creatividad y temperamento desarrollada con niños y adolescentes motivó el presente estudio. Participaron 142 estudiantes de sexto a noveno curso de la educación básica (84 mujeres y 58 hombres), con edades ent [...] re 11 y 14 años (M = 12,8 años, SD = 1,10). Se utilizaron dos instrumentos: Test de Creatividad Infantil Figurativo y el Student Styles Questionnaire, cuyos resultados indicaron que las dimensiones temperamentales extraversión e intuición fueron las que más se relacionaron al desempeño en creatividad (presentando correlaciones significativas con los factores (enriquecimiento de ideas, preparación creativa y el total de la creatividad). Influencia significativa de la variable sexo fue encontrada con relación a las dimensiones racional y emocional del temperamento, mientras que el curso y su interacción con el sexo se mostró importante en los aspectos cognitivos de la creatividad. Abstract in english The perception of lack of national research focused on investigating the relationship between creativity and temperament developed with children and adolescents motivated the present study, conducted among 142 students from 6th to 9th grade of elementary school (84 female and 58 male), aged between [...] 11 and 14 years (M=12.8 years; SD=1.10). Two instruments were used: Test of Figural Creativity for Children and Student Styles Questionnaire. The results indicated that the temperamental dimensions extraversion and intuition were the most related to performance on creativity (showing significant correlations with the factors Enrichment of Ideas, Creative Preparation and total creativity). Significant influence of gender was found in relation to rational and emotional dimensions of temperament, while the grade variable and its interaction with gender was found in Cognitive factor of creativity.

Tatiana de Cássia, Nakano; Lívia Rech de, Castro.

2013-08-01

437

The Integration of Creative Drama in an Inquiry-Based Elementary Program: The Effect on Student Attitude and Conceptual Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Creative drama activities designed to help children learn difficult science concepts were integrated into an inquiry-based elementary science program. Children (n = 38) in an upper elementary enrichment program at one primary school were the participants in this action research. The teacher-researcher taught students the Full Option Science System™ (FOSS) modules of sound (fourth grade) and solar energy (fifth grade) with the integration of creative drama activities in treatment classes. A 2 × 2 × (2) Mixed ANOVA was used to examine differences in the learning outcomes and attitudes toward science between groups (drama and non-drama) and grade levels (4th and 5th grades) over time (pre/post). Learning was measured using the tests included with the FOSS modules. A shortened version of the Three Dimension Elementary Science Attitude Survey measured attitudes toward science. Students in the drama treatment group had significantly higher learning gains ( F = 160.2, p Creative drama was an effective strategy to increase science conceptual learning in this group of diverse elementary enrichment students when used as an active extension to the pre-existing inquiry-based science curriculum.

Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles; Shannon, David

2012-11-01

438

Learning Social Studies via Objects in Museums: Investigation into Turkish Elementary School Students' Lived Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a descriptive phenomenological research design, this study investigated Turkish elementary school students' experiences in learning social studies via objects in museums. After students visited four different museums during the teaching of three thematic units at sixth grade level, their lived experiences were elicited. Purposeful…

Yilmaz, Kaya; Filiz, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Ali

2013-01-01

439

Student and Parent Perceptions of Barriers to and Benefits of the School Breakfast Program in Elementary Schools in Southeast Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors impacting participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) for elementary school students in southeast Alabama. Methods: Focus groups were used to gather qualitative data from southeastern Alabama public school fourth and fifth grade students and their parents. Six student…

Sabol, Alexis; Struempler, Barbara J.; Zizza, Claire A.

2011-01-01

440

Design Experiments in Japanese Elementary Science Education with Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Hypothesis Testing and Collaborative Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports design experiments on two Japanese elementary science lesson units in a sixth-grade classroom supported by computer support for collaborative learning (CSCL) technology as a collaborative reflection tool. We took different approaches in the experiments depending on their instructional goals. In the unit 'air and how things…

Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Murayama, Isao; Inagaki, Shigenori; Takenaka, Makiko; Nakayama, Hayashi; Yamaguchi, Etsuji

2004-01-01