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Academic performance of peruvian elementary school children: The case of schools in Lima at the 6th grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El estudio que se informa examinó de qué manera el rendimiento académico en diversas áreas del aprendizaje tales como ortografía, lectura y aritmética estuvo asociado con diferentes variables relacionadas con niños (por ejemplo: género, inteligencia y edad). Asimismo, se consideraron algunas variabl [...] es distales como estatus socioeconómico y tipo de colegio. En el estudio participaron 1.129 niños que cursaban 6to grado de educación primaria en Lima Metropolitana (Perú). Los estudiantes completaron cuatro pruebas: En el área de lectura fueron examinados con un subtest de la prueba Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE) Lectura de Palabras y Pseudo - palabras (Cuetos & Ramos, 1999). En el área de Aritmética fueron evaluados con el Subtest de Facilidad Numérica de Ekstrom, French y Harman (1979) y en el caso de Ortografía se aplicó la Prueba de Rendimiento Ortográfico (Dioses, 2001). La variable inteligencia fue medida con la Prueba de Matrices Progresivas de Raven (Raven, J., Raven, J.C. & Court, 2004). Debido a la estructura jerárquica de los datos (estudiantes dentro de clases y clases dentro de escuelas) se aplicó análisis multinivel para cada variable académica (ortografía, lectura y aritmética). Los resultados revelaron un gran impacto en primer lugar del tipo de escuela: los alumnos de escuelas privadas rindieron mejor que los de escuelas públicas en todas las áreas académicas; en segundo lugar, la variable inteligencia juega un rol esencial, cuanto mayor es el coeficiente intelectual del estudiante, mejor es el rendimiento académico, y parcialmente del género; las niñas mostraron un mejor desempeño en comparación con los niños en el área de ortografía. Se discuten en detalle algunas repercusiones pedagógicas. Abstract in english Education is in general the basis for development in any country in the world. In the education al field, several international assessments (Pisa, 2006) reflect the great gap that yet subsists among developing countries, in which the case of Peru is not an exception. There have been many national an [...] d international academic achievement evaluations that examine the skills and knowledge of students not only in Peru but also in other Latin American countries in different academic domains. One of these examples is the Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (LLECE), in which Peru participated, in order to evaluate and compare the performance achieved by Latin American students of 3rd and 6th grade in core areas like Language, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences. Peru ranks, together with other Latin countries, with scores below the average (Regional Office for Education of UNESCO, 2008). The low ranking of the Peruvian educational system carries heavy implications and consequences, especially to the intellectual and social development of learning disabled Peruvian children. Understanding the relation between academic performance and child development is of paramount importance. The present study examines how spelling, reading and arithmetic performances are associated to various child variables (gender, intelligence, and age), and distal variables such as Socio-Economic Status (SES) or type of school. The subjects in the study were 1.129 elementary school children who were in the 6th grade (11 - 12 years old) in Metropolitan Lima, Perú. Children completed four different tests: In the reading area, the subtest of Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE; Cuetos & Ramos, 1999), Reading of Word and Pseudo-word; in the Arithmetic domain, the Number Facility from the Kit of Factor Referenced Cognitive Tests of Ekstrom, French, and Harman (1979) and in the spelling domain, the Spelling Achievement Test from Dioses (2001) was used. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices Test (Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, 2004, updated edition). Some preliminary analyses were conducted beforehand in order to overview and examine the structure of the data. Following this, a

Denisse L., Manrique Millones; Karla, Van Leeuwen; Pol, Ghesquière.

2011-12-01

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Exam and assessment of contents of social sciences in 5th and 6th grade of elementary school. Capacities, concepts, and procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to analyze the exams of 5th and 6th grade of Elementary School about social sciences. In this paper we will analyze the contents of history and geography and the mental operations necessary to respond to the questions of the exams. This investigation has been realised on 69 exams and 745 questions picked up in five schools of the Region of Murcia. The study of these instruments of assessment has allowed us to establish different categories between the capacities, the contents and the format of examination.

Cosme Jesús Gómez Carrasco

2012-04-01

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Tarefas aritméticas para o 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental / Arithmetic tasks for the 6th grade of Elementary School  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo apresentamos e discutimos o produto educacional desenvolvido junto ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Matemática da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. O propósito do trabalho foi desenvolver tarefas que tivessem como característica principal constituírem-se em situações-problem [...] a que estimulassem a produção de significados de estudantes em sala de aula. A estrutura matemática subjacente à situaçãoproblema envolveu as operações de adição e subtração de números naturais. O processo de elaboração desse produto teve como foco a produção de um conjunto de tarefas para serem utilizadas em salas de aula de matemática do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental e que pudessem servir de protótipo para a elaboração de novas tarefas pelo professor. Abstract in english In this article, we discuss educational material developed by the graduate program in mathematics education of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. The purpose of the work was to develop tasks whose main feature was problem situations that stimulate the meaning production of students in the class [...] room. The mathematical structure underlying the situation-problem involved the addition and subtraction of natural numbers. The process of developing the educational material focused on the production of a set of tasks to be used in 6th grade math classes and that could serve as a prototype for the development of new tasks by the teacher.

Maria Helena Marques, Loth; Amarildo Melchiades da, Silva.

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Tarefas aritméticas para o 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental / Arithmetic tasks for the 6th grade of Elementary School  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo apresentamos e discutimos o produto educacional desenvolvido junto ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Matemática da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. O propósito do trabalho foi desenvolver tarefas que tivessem como característica principal constituírem-se em situações-problem [...] a que estimulassem a produção de significados de estudantes em sala de aula. A estrutura matemática subjacente à situaçãoproblema envolveu as operações de adição e subtração de números naturais. O processo de elaboração desse produto teve como foco a produção de um conjunto de tarefas para serem utilizadas em salas de aula de matemática do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental e que pudessem servir de protótipo para a elaboração de novas tarefas pelo professor. Abstract in english In this article, we discuss educational material developed by the graduate program in mathematics education of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. The purpose of the work was to develop tasks whose main feature was problem situations that stimulate the meaning production of students in the class [...] room. The mathematical structure underlying the situation-problem involved the addition and subtraction of natural numbers. The process of developing the educational material focused on the production of a set of tasks to be used in 6th grade math classes and that could serve as a prototype for the development of new tasks by the teacher.

Maria Helena Marques, Loth; Amarildo Melchiades da, Silva.

2013-08-01

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Problem Solving, metacognition and epistemological beliefs in 6th, 7th and 8th grade students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills (self confidence related to problem solving skill, self-control in problem solving, avoidance of problem solving), the epistemological beliefs (source of knowing, certainty of knowledge, development of knowledge, justification for knowing) and the metacognition of the 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to establish the relationships among them. The study sample consists of the 13 public and private elementary schools in the cen...

Ayten ?flazo?lu Saban; Sibel Güzel Yüce

2012-01-01

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Influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º a 6º primaria / Influence of Peruvian television advertising in unhealthy food consumption in 4th to 6th grade elementary scholars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La exposición a la publicidad televisiva promueve el consumo de alimentos no saludables, constituyendo un riesgo para el aumento del sobrepeso y obesidad. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º [...] a 6º de primaria. Diseño: Descriptivo de asociación cruzada. Lugar: Institución Educativa Nº 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Escolares entre 9 y 12 años de edad. Intervenciones: Se aplicó dos encuestas previamente validadas y probadas en prueba piloto, a 120 escolares de ambos sexos que asistieron a clases y que tuvieron consentimiento informado firmado por sus padres. Principales medidas de resultados: Tiempo de ver televisión y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Resultados: Los estudiantes en promedio vieron televisión más de 7 horas diarias (DS 1,17). Los programas más vistos fueron los que estaban dirigidos a público mayor de 14 años. Los alimentos no saludables más publicitados y comprados fueron galletas y bebidas azucaradas. Se encontró asociación significativa entre alimentos no saludables más vistos en TV y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Conclusiones: Existió relación entre la publicidad televisiva y el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares del nivel primario. Abstract in english Background: Exposure to television advertising promoting unhealthy food consumption may increase overweight and obesity risk in children. Objectives: To determine the influence of Peruvian television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in 4th to 6th grade children. Design: Descriptive cro [...] ss-association. Setting: Educational Institution No. 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Peru. Participants: Schoolchildren aged 9 to 12 years. Interventions: Two previously validated tests were applied to 120 students of both sexes who attended classes and whose parents had signed informed consent. Main outcome measures: Time watching TV and unhealthy food consumption. Results: Students watched TV more than 7 hours per day (DS 1.17) average. Most popular programs were those directed to over 14 year-old public. Most unhealthy foods advertised and purchased were biscuits and sugary drinks. Significant association was found between unhealthy foods most watched by TV and unhealthy food consumption. Conclusions: There was relationship between television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in elementary level scholars.

Evelin C., Rojas-Huayllani; Doris H., Delgado-Pérez.

2013-01-01

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6th Grades Student’s interpreting of Aerial Photographs  

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Full Text Available Aerial photographs have started to be used as a teaching-training material parallel to the technological developments of our time. These materials are important to help students gain aerial perspective as a means to improve spatial cognition. In this study the skill of 6th grade students on interpreting aerial photographs have been focused on and examined how the students benefit from it. This study has been carried out with qualitative research techniques and 10 students have been used throughout the study. Aerial photographs of the places which students are familiar with have been utilized. Important outcomes were obtained on the use of aerial photographs in primary education. Findings can be guided for geography and social studies education in point of teaching spatial cognition skills.

Adem ÖCAL

2009-04-01

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DEVOLOPING A SURVEY ON 6TH GRADE STUDENTS’ AWARENESS OF LISTENING SKILLS IN TURKISH CLASSES  

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In this study it is aimed to build up a measurement for finding out 6th grade students’ awareness of listening skills in Turkish classes (In other words, how they find themselves about their listening skills).Sample group is taken from 4 primary public schools of Ministry of National Education in Erzurum, consisting of 6th grade students from different socio-economical groups. Components of the scale is reflected as Likert Type scale (always, often, sometimes, never). After the findings fr...

S?ahi?n, Abdullah; Aydin, Gu?lnur

2009-01-01

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Problem Solving, metacognition and epistemological beliefs in 6th, 7th and 8th grade students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills (self confidence related to problem solving skill, self-control in problem solving, avoidance of problem solving, the epistemological beliefs (source of knowing, certainty of knowledge, development of knowledge, justification for knowing and the metacognition of the 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to establish the relationships among them. The study sample consists of the 13 public and private elementary schools in the central districts of Hatay and Adana province and the 1111 students in the 6th, 7th and 8th grade in these schools. “Problem Solving Inventory for Children”, “Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children (Jr. MAI – (B Forms” and “Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire” was used as data collection tools. Independent groups t-test, one way analysis of variance and stepwise regression analysis methods were used for data analysis in the study. As the result of the data analysis, it was found that the averages of the self confidence related to problem solving skills of the female and male students were close to each other, the female students’ averages of avoidance of problem solving were higher than the male students’, the male students’ points of self-control in problem solving were higher than the female students’ and the female students’ points of epistemological beliefs and metacognition were higher than the male students???. In addition, it was found out that the students’ development levels of problem solving, epistemological beliefs and metacognition of the students were at medium-level and a developmental process was not followed in the second stage of the elementary education. Another finding is that the metacognition and justification for knowing significantly predicted the points of self confidence related to problem solving skill of the students who participated in the study, the metacognition, gender and source of knowing significantly predicted the students’ points of self-control in problem solving and metacognition, source of knowing and gender variables significantly predicted the students’ points of avoidance of problem solving.

Ayten ?flazo?lu Saban

2012-10-01

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Cigarette Use in 6th Through 10th Grade: The Sarasota County Demonstration Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To identify factors associated with cigarette smoking in the 6 th -grade through 10 th -grade youth population of Sarasota County, Florida. Methods: A closed-ended, quantitative survey was completed by 2004 youth and used to extract population-specific data on the correlates of cigarette use. Results: A range of factors influence…

Zapata, Lauren B.; Forthofer, Melinda S.; Eaton, Danice K.; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Bryant, Carol A.; Reynolds, Sherri T.; McDermot, Robert J.

2004-01-01

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Storm Peak Laboratory 5th-6th Grade Climate and Weather Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) has created a place-based elementary school program, which has been implemented at five elementary schools in Northwest Colorado. Real understanding, not factual recall, is the primary goal and developing a desire to be lifelong learners in science is a secondary goal. The specific objectives of the program include the following: 1) Develop a weather and climate curriculum that teaches skills required by Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP). 2) Provide a hands-on place-based educational experience where students have an opportunity to use scientific equipment. 3) Provide students a three-day program that consists of an introduction, field program, and follow-up to help students grasp concepts and apply them to other school studies. 4) Provide all participating students with understanding of climate and weather 5) Build foundations for students to understand climate change. 6) Disseminate to alpine regions across the Western US, potentially impacting thousands of students that will experience the impacts of climate change during their lifetime. The SPL program spans three days for each school and includes five elementary schools. During the first day, a scientist and educators from SPL visit each classroom for two hours to introduce the concepts of climate and weather as well as teach students how to use scientific equipment. During the field program on the second day, students measure and record information about temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and particle concentration while they travel to SPL via the gondola and chair lifts (in winter) or 4WD Suburbans (in fall). Once at the laboratory, students will meet with both SPL scientists and educators to tour the facility, discuss SPL research activities, and explore application of these activities to their curriculum. An alternative winter snowshoe program at the top of the gondola is offered to students who do not ski, where students have a program on snow science. At the end of the day each student has a data sheet with measurements recorded from 5 locations of different elevations to take back to the classroom. Following the field trip, SPL scientists and educators visit the school for a follow-up to help children grasp concepts, represent their data set collected in graphical formats, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. Currently, approximately 250 students annually participate in the SPL 5th and 6th grade climate education program.

McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.

2008-12-01

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How Portfolio Use Affects Students’ Learning and Their Attitudes toward 6th Grade Science Lesson  

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Full Text Available The study examined that whether process of portfolio use enhances students’ learning in 6th grade science lesson and whether portfolio use effects attitudes of the students toward the science subject. At the research, pretest-posttest control group design was applied to 114 6th grade students during 2006 in a southern city of Turkey. The experimental group attended science lessons supported with portfolio use as a teaching approach whereas no change was made in the way of teaching of the control group. An achievement test and attitude scales of science were applied to the both groups as pre- and post-tests. The experimental group demonstrated higher achievement and better attitude toward the science lesson than the control group demonstrated. The students in experimental group commented that portfolios made their learning meaningful and helped them to learn better.

Mehtap ÇAKAN

2010-08-01

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Latina girls' identities-in-practice in 6th grade science  

Science.gov (United States)

Inequalities and achievement gaps in science education among students from different racial and socioeconomic backgrounds as well as between genders in the United States are due to not just access to resources, but also to the incongruence between identities of school science with identities salient to minority students. Minority girls are especially portrayed to be estranged from prototypical school science Discourse, often characterized as white, middle class, and masculine. This dissertation, based on a two-year ethnographic study in an urban middle school in New York City, describes the authoring of novel identities-in-practice of minority girls in a 6th grade science classroom. The findings indicate that minority girls draw from out-of-school identities salient to them to author novel identities-in-practice in the various figured worlds of the 6th grade science classroom. Through taking such authorial stances, minority girls exhibit agency in negotiating for wider boundaries in their school science participation and broker for hybrid spaces of school science where the school science Discourse was destabilized and challenged to be more inclusive of everyday funds of knowledge and Discourses important to the students. The findings also highlight the dialectic relationship between an individual students' learning and participation and the school science community-of-practice and the implications such a relationship has on the learning of both individual students and the collective community-of-practice. From year one findings, curricular adaptations were enacted, with teacher and student input, on lessons centering on food and nutrition. The adapted curriculum specifically solicited for nontraditional funds of knowledge and Discourse from students and were grounded strongly in relevance to students' out of school lives. The hybrid spaces collectively brokered for by the community-of-practice were transformed in three ways: physically, politically, and, pedagogically. Overall, the results from the study indicate that minority girls are not only successful in border crossing but in brokering for new worlds of science, and highlights the importance of incorporating nontraditional funds and Discourses and the important roles played by the community-of-practice as a whole to reshape the landscape of school science in genuine pursuit of the education goal "science for all".

Tan, Edna

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Effectiveness of Interactive Multimedia Environment on Language Acquisition Skills of 6th Grade Students in the United Arab Emirates  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of interactive multimedia (IMM) program on students' acquisition of some English as a second language (ESL) skills. An interactive multimedia CD-ROM was used with ninety 6th grade ESL students in Al-Ain Model School 2, United Arab Emirates. Students were selected and divided into experimental and control groups…

Almekhlafi, Abdurrahman Ghaleb

2006-01-01

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Primary School English Teachers' Perceptions of the English Language Curriculum of 6th, 7th and 8th Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to investigate how the teachers who have different background characteristics perceive the goals and content of the English language curriculum implemented at the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of public primary schools. The study was conducted during the 2004-2005 school year with 368 English teachers selected from the seven regions of…

Ersen Yanik, Asli

2008-01-01

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Elementary Science: Grade 5.  

Science.gov (United States)

This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

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Relationship Between 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Students’ Self-Efficacy Towards Geometry and Their Geometric Thinking Levels  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the relation between the self-efficacy of elementary school students in geometry and their geometric thinking levels. In the Study, the aim is also to determine whether the self-efficacy for the geometry of elementary school students differs with gender, grade, math achievements, pre-school education factors. The study which was designed on a relational model is based on 110 randomly selected students of a primary school in Bursa, Y?ld?r?m from the 6th, 7th and 8th grade. In the study, in order to collect data "Van Hiele Geometry Test", "Towards Geometry Self-Efficacy Scale" and personal information forms were used. Independent groups T-test, ANOVA and Pearson Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze data. The study results showed that geometry self-efficacy significantly differs with mathematics achievement, gender and class levels and also showed that geometry self-efficacy and geometric thinking levels consist statistically a positive but weak relationship between. According to the findings, some suggestions to improve geometry self-efficacy and geometrical thinking levels of elementary school students are presented.

Kür?at YEN?LMEZ

2013-12-01

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Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences  

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This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

Bursal, Murat

2013-01-01

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An evaluation of the efficacy of a preventive intervention for 4th-6th grade urban children of divorce.  

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This study evaluates the efficacy of the Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP), a preventive intervention based on social support and coping skills, for 4th-6th grade urban children of divorce. Structure and content of the 14 group sessions were tailored to the developmental level and sociocultural make-up of the target sample. Pre-post comparisons of demographically matched groups of 57 CODIP participants, 38 non-program divorce controls and 93 children from non-divorced families revealed improvements on parent, child and group leader measures of adjustment. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24258380

Pedro-Carroll, J L; Alpert-Gillis, L J; Cowen, E L

1992-12-01

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Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

 
 
 
 
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Controlling maternal feeding practices associated with decreased dieting behavior in 6th grade children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Controlling maternal feeding practices (CMFPs) have been linked to increased caloric intake, disinhibited eating, and obesity in children. Its relationship to child dieting behavior however is unknown. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined whether controlling feeding practices are associated with increased or decreased dieting behavior in children. CMFP was assessed in 3rd grade by the question, ...

Rhee, Kyung E.; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Prisco, Alicia; Kaciroti, Niko A.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.; Lumeng, Julie C.

2010-01-01

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Grade Inflation: An Elementary and Secondary Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

School administrators in a small suburban school district in Southeastern Pennsylvania were concerned about grade inflation at the elementary and secondary levels. Specifically, they wanted to know if students in grades 5, 8, and 11 who scored at the basic or below basic performance level on the 2003-2004 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment…

Sraiheen, Abdulwahab; Lesisko, Lee James

2006-01-01

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The Effect of Interactive Computer Animations Accompanied with Experiments on Grade 6th Students’ Achievements and Attitudes toward Science  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of instruction including interactive computer animations accompanied with experiments over traditionally designed Instruction in 6th grade students’ physics achievement and attitudes toward science. In this study, a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. As a data collection instruments, physics achievement test and attitude scale toward science were administered to experimental and control group. In the experimental group, the materials were used while doing the experiments and then they did the same experiments interactively on the computer. In the control group, the experiments were done only by materials and the students did not use the computer during the experiments. The findings indicated that there was no significant difference between groups with respect to achievement before the treatment and there was a significant difference between the groups in favor of experimental groups after the treatment. The means of attitude towards science showed no significant difference between the groups before and after treatment.

E. Akp?nar

2007-06-01

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Comparing Traditional and Computer Assisted Education in the Teaching of Colour to 6th Grade Students and Determination of Its Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, informing 6th grade students on the subject of colour was taught using traditional and computer assisted education methods. Colour information was taught by the researcher for 5 weeks in order to specify the influence of both methods on students. The test, which was prepared at the beginning of the study and at the end of five-week…

Akengin, Gultekin

2011-01-01

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Elementary Grades Students' Capacity for Functional Thinking  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a study of how urban elementary grades students develop and express functions. Data were analyzed according to the forms of representations students used, the progression in students' mathematical language and the operations they employed, and how they attended to one or more varying quantities. Findings indicate that students are capable…

Blanton, Maria L.; Kaput, James J.

2004-01-01

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[Elementary Career Education Units: Grade 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with traditional subject matter and topics in elementary grades K-7 and in special education. Developed by teachers in the Radford, Virginia, schools, the units make use of resource persons from outside the school, occupational information,…

Radford City Schools, VA.

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Student learning of key concepts and skills in inquiry science: A longitudinal study of 4th and 6th grade students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study arose out of the need to measure the validity of the hands-on, inquiry-based approach to science learning, as articulated in the National Science Education Standards. It addressed the question of whether the use of hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum promotes improved student understanding of science content and problem-solving and scientific reasoning skills. It measured 4th and 6th grade student learning in five skills (comparing, graphing, investigating, measuring, predicting) and five concepts (objects in the sky, properties, variables, units of measure, life cycle). Data were collected in 1997 and 1999 from two elementary schools in one suburban Pittsburgh school district, where hands-on curriculum units were implemented starting in 1997. A performance-based assessment instrument was devised. Findings were compared by school and by year and showed significant improvement in student learning over the two years. Students improved significantly in the skills of comparing and measuring and in the concepts of objects in the sky, variables, and the life cycle. Additionally, in the repeated measures group, significant improvement was also indicated in the skill of graphing and the concepts of properties and units of measure. No significant differences were found in the skills of investigating and predicting. Student scores in the school with somewhat lower socio-economic status increased more significantly. The study supports the key principles that guided the development of the National Science Education Standards and comprehensive science education programs aligned with them. The results support including the elements of systemic reform, i.e., hands-on curriculum materials, ongoing professional development, centralized materials support, assessment, and community involvement, in all schools.

Davison, Reeny De Vos

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Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22.4% increase (43.9% to 66.3%; p<0.05) from pre to post (p<0.05). Students enjoyed the integration of physical activity into science lessons and the teachers described the positive effect of the framework on student interest/engagement. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that the Active Science framework helped to promote physical activity, facilitate student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge and excite students about integrating physical activity into science lessons.

Finn, Kevin Eugene

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Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

Çakirer, H. Serdar

2014-01-01

30

Importance of Social Skills in the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored elementary teachers' perceptions of the importance of social skills, as well as the stability of these perceptions over time. Importance ratings on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were obtained from 50 elementary teachers (Grades 1-6) across six elementary schools. Results indicated that…

Meier, Catherine R.; DiPerna, James C.; Oster, Maryjo M.

2006-01-01

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STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

Heaverlo, Carol Ann

32

Academic Achievement for Fifth-Grade Students in Elementary and Intermediate School Settings: Grade Span Configurations  

Science.gov (United States)

Few researchers have addressed student achievement outcomes as a function of grade configurations for older elementary-aged students. Thus, this study was designed to determine differences between students' Grade 5 reading and mathematics achievement in elementary schools (K-5) as compared to intermediate schools (Grade 5, 5-6) for 5 academic…

Combs, Julie P.; Clark, David; Moore, George W.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

2011-01-01

33

Computer integrated drug prevention: a new approach to teach lower socioeconomic 5th and 6th grade Israeli children to say no to drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug prevention education provides an important first line of defense against future drug use. Many drug prevention strategies have been developed which teach youngsters of all ages how to say no to drugs. Nevertheless, the problem of drug use and abuse continues to escalate, and younger children, particularly those undergoing harsh psychosocial stress (e.g., hunger, lack of housing, broken homes, family unemployment, etc.), are increasingly becoming a population at-risk. In this paper, the authors describe an original drug prevention program that was developed in Israel aimed at teaching resiliency skills to 5th and 6th grade children growing up in a poverty stricken, urban community. The program, drawing on social learning theory, utilizes an attractive, cartoon illustrated, computer program combined with games, role-playing and group work techniques to prevent future drug use in preadolescent children. PMID:8658321

Gropper, M; Liraz, Z; Portowicz, D; Schindler, M

1995-01-01

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Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

Hoelscher Deanna M

2006-04-01

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do ensino fundamental / Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financia [...] mento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração) são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise). Abstract in english PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of B [...] elo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise). RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence) are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise).

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino, Terto; Stela Maris Aguiar, Lemos.

36

Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do ensino fundamental / Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financia [...] mento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração) são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise). Abstract in english PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of B [...] elo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise). RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence) are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise).

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino, Terto; Stela Maris Aguiar, Lemos.

2013-04-01

37

Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

2013-01-01

38

Effects of reading-writing-application and learning together techniques on 6 th grade students’ academic achievements on the subject of “Matter and Temperature”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ReadingWriting-Application technique, Learning Together technique and according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education on students’ academic achievements on the subject of “matter and temperature” and attainment level of students regarding the experiments. Sample of the study comprised a total of 92 6th grade students from three different classes of a primary school. As data collection tools; Academic Achievement Test (AAT and Experimental Achievement Test (EAT were used. The study was conducted in three different groups, each representing a different learning method. These groups were; the Reading-Writing-Application Group (RWAG, Learning Together Group (LTG and the Control Teaching Group (CTG. For data analyzes; descriptive statistics, one-way analyzes of variance (ANOVA, paired group t-test and effect sizes were used. Conclusively, it was determined that effects of Reading-Writing-Application technique and Learning Together technique on students’ academic achievements and attainment level of students regarding the experiments were much higher compared to according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education. It was further determined that the amount of increase in the achievement level created by cooperative groups (RWAG and LTG were much higher in comparison to increase in attainment level of students regarding the experiments.

Fatih GÜRBÜZ

39

Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

Peck, Rick

2009-01-01

40

Analysis of Opinions Regarding Medical Specialty Selection Examination and Career Choices of 5th and 6th Grade Medical Students from Düzce University, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed that analyzing career choices of Students of Medical Faculty and their opinions regarding Medical Specialty Selection Examination. Methods: At 2012-2013 education terms, 101 medical students from Düzce University participated in this cross sectional study. 58 (57,4% of them were at 5th grade and 43 (42,6% of the participants were at 6th grade. Career Choices, affecting factors, training course satisfaction, some demographic factors (age, gender, grade, type of high school graduated from, thoughts regarding to Medical Specialty Selection Exam and foreign language examination scores were questioned via the questionnaire based survey. Results: 41(40.6% of the 101 participants who filled up the questionnaire based survey were male, 60(59.4% of them were female. Their mean age was 23.6±0.9 years and most of them (n=50; 49.5% had graduated from Anatolian High Schools. It is reported that top 5 training course according to student satisfaction as follows Emergency Medicine (n=16; 15,8%, Dermatology (n=16; 15.8%, Cardiology (n=11; 10.9%, Brain Surgery (n=9; 8.9% and Pediatrics (n=7; 6.9% (p<0.0001. It is also reported that top 5 areas according to the choices on Medical Specialty Selection Examination are as follows; Otolaryngology (n=11; 10.9%, Dermatology (n=9; 8.9%, Internal Medicine (n=8; %7.9, Plastic Surgery (n=8; 7.9% and Psychiatry (n=8; 7.9% (p<0.0001. If we compare male and female students, male students prefer sports medicine (n=5; 12.2%, whereas female students prefer Otolaryngology (n=9; 15.0% in the first rank of their choices. Conclusion: It is reported that regarding to Medical Specialty Selection Examination choices; in addition to gender differences, “impacts on family and private life and properties of academic career” are also the most affecting factors.

?smail Hamdi Kara

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Process evaluation for a school-based physical activity intervention for 6th- and 7th-grade boys: reach, dose, and fidelity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose was to evaluate the reach, dose, and fidelity of Guys Only Activity for Life (G.O.A.L.), a 7-week pilot intervention conducted from February to March 2011 to increase 6th and 7th grade boys' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). One middle school was randomly assigned to the G.O.A.L. intervention and another from the same urban school district in the Midwestern U.S. to a comparison condition. Thirty boys, ages 10-14 years, participated in each school. The intervention, guided by the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), consisted of a 90-min after-school physical activity club 4 days/week and one motivational interviewing session with a registered (school) nurse. Data were gathered via attendance records, club observations, heart rate monitors, audio-taping of motivational interviewing sessions, and surveys. On average boys attended the club 2.11 days/week (SD=.86). A trained independent process evaluator reported that the physical activity club instructors provided the boys with the opportunity for a mean of 25.8 min/day of MVPA. Using a four-point Likert scale (1=disagree a lot; 4=agree a lot), the process evaluator perceived that the club was delivered with high fidelity and adherence to the underlying theories (M=3.48; SD=0.39). Sessions with the nurse lasted an average of 13 min, 29 s. All boys attended. Two trained independent coders indicated that the nurse demonstrated at least beginning proficiency for all tasks associated with motivational interviewing, with the exception of using sufficient open- as opposed to closed-ended questions and reflections compared to questions. Fidelity related to session delivery and adherence to the theories was high (M=3.83; SD=0.19). The process evaluation data indicated that strategies are needed to increase attendance and boys' MVPA during the club time. PMID:24121658

Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Wesolek, Stacey M; Lo, Yun-Jia

2014-02-01

42

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PERUVIAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN: THE CASE OF SCHOOLS IN LIMA AT THE 6TH GRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El estudio que se informa examinó de qué manera el rendimiento académico en diversas áreas del aprendizaje tales como ortografía, lectura y aritmética estuvo asociado con diferentes variables relacionadas con niños (por ejemplo: género, inteligencia y edad. Asimismo, se consideraron algunas variables distales como estatus socioeconómico y tipo de colegio. En el estudio participaron 1.129 niños que cursaban 6to grado de educación primaria en Lima Metropolitana (Perú. Los estudiantes com pletaron cuatro pruebas: En el área de lectura fueron examinados con un subtest de la prueba Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE Lectura de Palabras y Pseudo - palabras (Cuetos & Ramos, 1999. En el área de Aritmética fueron evaluados con el Subtest de Facilidad Numérica de Ekstrom, French y Harman (1979 y en el caso de Ortografía se aplicó la Prueba de Rendimiento Ortográfico (Dioses, 2001. La variable inteligencia fue medida con la Prueba de Matrices Progresivas de Raven (Raven, J., Raven, J.C. & Court, 2004. Debido a la estructura jerárquica de los datos (estudiantes dentro de clases y clases dentro de escuelas se aplicó análisis multinivel para cada variable académica (ortografía, lectura y aritmética. Los resultados revelaron un gran impacto en primer lugar del tipo de escuela: los alumnos de escuelas privadas rindieron mejor que los de escuelas públicas en todas las áreas académicas; en segundo lugar, la variable inteligencia juega un rol esencial, cuanto mayor es el coeficiente intelectual del estudiante, mejor es el rendimiento académico, y parcialmente del género; las niñas mostraron un mejor desempeño en comparación con los niños en el área de ortografía. Se discuten en detalle algunas repercusiones pedagógicas.

DENISSE L. MANRIQUE MILLONES

2011-01-01

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Elementary construction of graded lie groups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show how the definitions of the classical Lie groups have to be modified in the case where Grassmann variables are present. In particular, we construct the general linear, the special linear and the orthosymplectic graded Lie groups. Special attention is paid to the question of how to formulate an adequate 'unitarity condition'. (orig.)

44

Trends in Substance Use among 6th-to 10th-Grade Students from 1998 to 2010: Findings from a National Probability Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the handful of national studies tracking trends in adolescent substance use in the United States, only the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study collects data from 6th through 10th graders. The purpose of this study was to examine trends from 1998 to 2010 (four time points) in the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use…

Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2014-01-01

45

Physical Education, Teacher's Guide, Elementary (Grades 1-5).  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a guide for teachers of physical education in the elementary schools of Vietnam. It consists of the following chapters: (1) Definition and Objectives of P.E. and the Teacher's Role; (2) Organization and Orientation of the P.E. program; (3) Methods for Teaching P.E.; (4) P.E. for grades 1 to 5; (5) P.E. for handicapped children; (6) Sports.…

Lefevre, M. D.; And Others

46

Need Assessment for Root Canal Therapy (RCT of the First Molars in Elementary School Students of Tehrans 6th Municipal District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Although there have been several epidemiologic studies on first permanent molar caries in Iranian students, the need for endodontic therapy has not been investigated so far.The purpose of this study was to assess the need for first molar root canal therapy in 7- to 11-year-old schoolchildren and its association with age, gender, and parent education level. Materials and Methods: We selected 885 students (572 girls and 313 boys from 12 elementary schools, using a random cluster sampling method. We recorded the subjects identities and examined their maxillary and mandibular first molars with a mirror and an explorer. In case of any doubts about the need for endodontic therapy, we performed vitality tests and/or obtained periapical radiography. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: In 26 students (3% there was an indication for endodontic treatment of the first molars. Of these, 18 teeth were in mandible and 8 in the maxilla. The need for endodontic therapy was significantly related to the subjects age and the parents' education level. We did not detect a significant association between gender and the need for endodontic therapy. Conclusion: We recommend pit and fissure sealant plus fluoride therapy, beginning with the eruption of the first permanent molars- especially in the mandible.

M Bahrani

2007-08-01

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An Evaluation of the Teaching Activities Implemented in the Elementary Science and Technology Courses in Terms of Multiple Intelligence Theory: A Sample from Adana  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent class activities at the Elementary Science and Technology course address intelligence areas. The research was both a quantitative and a qualitative study. The sample of the study consisted of 102 4th grade elementary teachers, 97 5th grade elementary teachers, and 55 6th, 7th, and 8th grade

Iflazoglu Saban, Ayten

2011-01-01

48

Effect of Animation Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on 6th Grade Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Transformation During Phase Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effect of animation enhanced conceptual change texts (CCT-CA) on grade 6 students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and transformation during the phase changes was investigated. A quasi-experimental design and one control group (CG, N = 25) and one experimental group (EG, N = 26) were used. While the…

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

49

The Growing Classroom: A Garden-Based Science and Nutrition Curriculum for 2nd through 6th Grades. Book 1: Becoming a Farmer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide for starting a school garden is Book One in Project Life Lab's (Santa Cruz, California) three-part curriculum for a garden-based science and nutrition program for grades 2-6. The curriculum is designed for use as an integrated program, but the books can be used independently. It is suggested that the use of student journals can greatly…

Appel, Gary; And Others

50

The Growing Classroom: A Garden-Based Science and Nutrition Curriculum for 2nd through 6th Grades. Book 2: Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide for teaching science is Book Two in Project Life Lab's (Santa Cruz, California) three-part curriculum for a garden-based science and nutrition program for grades 2-6. The curriculum is designed for use as an integrated program, but the books can be used independently. It is suggested that the use of student journals can greatly enhance…

Appel, Gary; And Others

51

Teacher Views about the Starting Age of the First Grade Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

This research critically investigated the implementation in Turkey of starting elementary-school first grade at age 5 (60 months) according to teacher feedback. While the study is designed as qualitative, a kind of single case study approach is used with a group of 50 volunteer first-grade teachers serving in 15 elementary schools in the Eskisehir…

Ari, Asim

2014-01-01

52

Modeling the Relationships between Cognitive-Linguistic Skills and Writing in Chinese among Elementary Grades Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study is a four-year longitudinal study examining the important predictors of writing of 340 Chinese children in elementary grades. Children's transcription skills (handwriting skills and spelling), and syntactic skills in grade 1 were significant predictors of text writing in grade 1-4 while ideation in grade 1 only contributed…

Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

2013-01-01

53

Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Elementary Grade Schools in Bangkok, Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were (a) to examine early elementary grade teachers' developmentally appropriate beliefs and their teaching practices in public schools in Bangkok, (b) to explore the functioning of developmentally appropriate practice in the two chosen early elementary schools, and (c) to determine the factors that influence the…

Saifah, Yotsawee

2012-01-01

54

Teaching Latitude and Longitude in the Upper Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the desirability of teaching latitude and longitude concepts to upper elementary students. Includes a four-lesson unit on the topics. Employs hurricane tracking information available from the National Hurricane Center. Provides a foundation for future lessons on Middle and North American geography. (SG)

Johnson, Peter C.; Gondesen, Mark E.

1991-01-01

55

Perceptions of Elementary School Teachers and Students Using Interactive Whiteboards in English Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) have been widely used in elementary schools in Taiwan. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary school teachers and students using IWBs in English teaching and learning. Six public school English teachers and 614 students of 5th and 6th-grades in Yangmei Township, Taoyuan…

Yang, Ju Yin; Teng, Ya Wen

2014-01-01

56

Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle school grade level groups. Overall, results supported that disruptive behavior is highly important in evaluating risk status in lower grade levels and that academically engaged behavior becomes more pertinent as students reach higher grade levels. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:23816230

Chafouleas, Sandra M; Kilgus, Stephen P; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Welsh, Megan; Christ, Theodore J

2013-06-01

57

6th International Microbeam Workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.

Dr Kevin M. Prise

2004-01-01

58

Fifth-Grade Turkish Elementary School Students' Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels with Regard to Text Types  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…

Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy

2010-01-01

59

A Study on the Reading Motivation of Elementary 3, 4 and 5th Grade Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reading motivation can be defined as intrinsic and extrinsic factors that encourage individuals to read. This study focuses on whether elementary 3, 4 and 5th grade students’ intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation is affected by the variables of gender and grade level. Being a descriptive survey, the study had 520 participants. The data obtained were analyzed by two-way MANOVA and correlation analysis. The results showed that extrinsic motivation is more effective for the reading mo...

Yildiz, Mustafa

2013-01-01

60

The Spillover Effects of Grade-Retained Classmates: Evidence from Urban Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have examined how grade retention can impede the academic success of those retained students. One uncharted line of research is the spillover effect that retained students may exert on their classmates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this relationship for students in urban elementary school classrooms. To do so, this…

Gottfried, Michael A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Elementary Bubble Project: Exploring Critical Media Literacy in a Fourth-Grade Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses issues surrounding critical media literacy using popular culture texts. The authors focus on the example of their work with a fourth-grade class involved in a project to unpack the messages of popular media and advertising texts. This project, which they call the Elementary Bubble Project, was inspired by guerilla artist Ji…

Gainer, Jesse S.; Valdez-Gainer, Nancy; Kinard, Timothy

2009-01-01

62

How Wide Is a Squid Eye? Integrating Mathematics into Public Library Programs for the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Although public library programs for the elementary grades offer explorations in a wide range of topics in which mathematics plays a role, are all too rare: Mathematics offerings are typically limited to homework help. Participating in out-of-school activities that embed mathematics in authentic ways bolsters children's skill development,…

Kliman, Marlene; Jaumot-Pascual, Nuria; Martin, Valerie

2013-01-01

63

Black-White Differences on IQ and Grades: The Mediating Role of Elementary Cognitive Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between IQ scores and elementary cognitive task (ECT) performance is well established, with variance on each largely reflecting the general factor of intelligence, or g. Also ubiquitous are Black-White mean differences on IQ and measures of academic success, like grade point average (GPA). Given C. Spearman's (Spearman, C. (1927).…

Pesta, Bryan J.; Poznanski, Peter J.

2008-01-01

64

Mentoring and Standardized Achievement of African American Males in the Elementary and Middle Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of mentoring on standardized achievement for African American males in the elementary and middle grades. Mentoring has been deemed effective regarding social development and various academic indicators, but scant empirical data is available regarding the effects of mentoring on standardized testing. Thus,…

Anderson, Kenneth A.

2007-01-01

65

Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8: A Study of Validity and Reliability  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…

Aypay, Ayse

2011-01-01

66

Elementary and Middle Grade Students' Constructions of Typicality  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the measures chosen by students when selecting or constructing indices to properties of distributions of data. A series of individual teaching experiments were conducted to provide insight into the development of five 4th to 8th grade students' conceptualizations of distribution over the course of 8 weeks of instruction.…

Leavy, Aisling M.; Middleton, James A.

2011-01-01

67

Una estrategia pedagógica para la enseñanza integrada del Español en el segundo ciclo de la Educación General Básica / A Pedagogical Strategy for Integrated Education of Spanish in the 4th to 6th Grades of the General Basic Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recibido 05 de mayo de 2010 • Aceptado 31 de agosto de 2010 • Corregido 27 de junio de 2011   Resumen. La enseñanza de la lengua debe constituirse en uno de los objetivos prioritarios del sistema educativo costarricense, en consideración a su papel como herramienta de comunicación y desarrollo del pensamiento. Sin lenguaje no se puede acceder a los demás conocimientos disciplinares del currículo escolar. Una experiencia exitosa desarrollada hace algunos años con estudiantes de segundo ciclo se constituyó en la base para el diseño y ejecución de una actividad de desarrollo profesional que se implementó con el objetivo de dar a conocer, a un grupo de docentes de instituciones públicas, la estrategia integradora, previamente adaptada a los requerimientos ministeriales y a la normativa nacional vigente. El estudio se desarrolla en el marco del paradigma cualitativo y se contempla, dentro de este enfoque, la utilización de la investigación-acción y de la sistematización. Para la participación en la actividad o curso se seleccionó una muestra intencional, por factor de conveniencia, en la cual se da a conocer la estrategia que luego sería replicada con un grupo de estudiantes de zonas urbano marginales. Como técnicas se contemplaron la revisión bibliográfica, el análisis de los programas de estudio y de las normas reguladoras ministeriales, la aplicación de una entrevista a profundidad, las reflexiones de los participantes del curso contenidas en un portafolio y las del grupo de estudiantes con quienes se aplicó la estrategia.Se analizó la información teórica y reguladora mediante una triangulación, además de las apreciaciones y reflexiones de docentes y estudiantes. Se concluye sobre la necesidad de considerar un enfoque comunicativo en la enseñanza del idioma y se recomienda la estrategia desarrollada en los ambientes áulicos costarricenses que se ofrece en este artículo.  Abstract. Language teaching has become a priority in the Costa Rican educational system, considering it as a tool for communication and development of thought. Without language, there is no access to other curriculum disciplinary knowledge. A successful experience conducted some years ago, with students from 4th to 6th grade, was the basis for the design and implementation of a professional development activity addressed to promoting an integration strategy previously adjusted according to the Ministry’s requirements and the existing national regulations. This study is developed in the framework of a qualitative paradigm including research-action and systematization. A purposive sample was selected based on a suitability factor, through which individuals are informed about the strategy, and then the strategy is applied to a group of students from urban-marginal areas. The techniques used include literature review, analysis of curriculum and Ministry’s regulations, application of an in-depth interview, discussions from the course’s participant in a portfolio, and discussions from students to whom the strategy was applied. We analyzed the considerations of teachers and students, as well as the theoretical and regulatory information by triangulation. The study’s conclusion is the necessity of a communicative approach in language teaching and our recommendation is to implement the strategy developed in the Costa Rican classrooms as provided in this paper.

Mireya Barboza Navarro

2011-10-01

68

Impacto de um programa de competências em alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade / Impact of a skill development intervention in 5th and 6th grade students / Impacto de un programa intervención em alunos del segundo ciclo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo consistiuem avaliar um programa de intervenção junto a alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade nas seguintes dimensões: tomada de decisão, conhecimentos sobre sexualidade, competências sociais, assertividade e autoconceito. Metodologia: Participaram 145 alunos, distribuídos [...] pelos grupos controle e experimental. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: TCU Decision-Making; Questionário de Conhecimentos sobre Sexualidade; Assertion Self-Statement Test- Revised; Questionário de Competências Sociais; Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Os resultados revelaram diferenças no pós-teste entre os grupos ao nível da sexualidade. Verificaram-se diferenças do pré-teste para o pós-teste no grupo experimental nos níveis da sexualidade, da assertividade e das competências sociais. No grupo experimental encontraram-se associações positivas entre tomada de decisão, competências sociais e assertividade, bem como entre sexualidade, competências sociais e autoconceito, no pós-teste. Os preditores da assertividade no pós-teste foram tomada de decisão, sexualidade e competências sociais. Como conclusão, os resultados enfatizam a importância de intervenção junto a adolescentes, particularmente na tomada de decisão, na sexualidade e nas competências sociais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar un programa de intervención con alumnos del 2º ciclo de escolaridad en las siguientes dimensiones: Toma de Decisión, Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad, Habilidades Sociales, Asertividad y Autoconcepto. Metodología: Participaron 145 alumnos, distribuidos en g [...] rupo control y experimental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: TCU Decision-Making; Cuestionario de Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad; AssertionSelf-Statement Test-Revised; Cuestionario de Habilidades Sociais; Piers-Harris Children'sSelf-Concept Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en el post-test entre los grupos en cuanto a la sexualidad. Se verificaron diferencias del pre-test para el post-teste en el grupo experimental, cuanto a sexualidad, asertividad y habilidades sociales. Se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre toma de decisión, habilidades sociales y asertividad, así como entre sexualidad,habilidades sociales yautoconcepto, en el post-test en el grupo experimental. Los predictores de la asertividad en el post-test fueron toma de decisión, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Los resultados destacan la importancia de la intervención con adolescentes particularmente en la toma de decisiones, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Abstract in english In this study we evaluate an intervention program in the following dimensions: Decision Making, Knowledge on Sexuality, Social Skills, Assertiveness and Self-Concept with students in 5th and 6th grade. Methodology: 145 students participated in the study divided by control and experimental group. The [...] instruments used were: Decision-Making TCU, Knowledge on Sexuality Questionnaire; Assertion Self-Statement Test-Revised;Social Skills Questionnaire, and Piers-Harris Children's Self- Concept Scale. The results indicate differences at post-test between the groups on knowledge regarding sexuality. There were also differences from pre-test to post-test in the experimental group on knowledge on sexuality, assertiveness and social skills. Positive associations among decision making, social skills and assertiveness were found as well as among knowledge on sexuality, social skills and self-concept, in the experimental group, in the pos-test. Finally, the predictors of assertiveness regarding health behaviors, in the pos-test were: decision making, knowledge regarding sexuality and social skills. The results emphasize the importance of intervention for adolescents in terms of health promotion particularly in decision making, sexuality and social skills.

Marta, Melo; M. Graça, Pereira; Jorge, Silvério.

2014-06-01

69

The Effects of Background Music on Learning Disabled Elementary School Students' Performance in Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated effects of background music on writing performance of nine 6th grade students with learning disabilities at one suburban public elementary school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A single-subject A-B-A design was utilized, and results from graded writing prompts with and without background music over 21…

Legutko, Robert S.; Trissler, Theodore T.

2012-01-01

70

Reaching of Attainment Levels of Algebra Learning Domain in Sixth Grade of Elementary Mathematics Education Program  

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Full Text Available The primary aim of this study is to define reaching of attainment levels of algebra learning domain in sixth grade of elementary mathematics education program. In the study; it has been fulfilled in descriptive featured scanning model because the existing case was tried to define. 510 sixth grade students, determined by stratified sampling method among Elementary Schools in Bal?kesir city centre, have applied into the study. As data collecting tool, pre and post test has been used to define the level in obtaining acquisitions of Algebra learning domain in sixth grade of Elementary Mathematics course curriculum applications. Acquired data have been evaluated by using descriptive analysis, t test for related samples and covariance analysis. Effect sizes correlation coefficient was also calculated. In consequence of the study it has been concluded that the students’Algebra test point averages are meaningful in favor of the post -test (p<.05,as a result of Algebra learning domain applications in elementary school sixth grade of Elementary Mathematics course curriculum, but for the reason that the post -test’s absolute success point averages are under 0.75, the complete learning level has notbeen reached, that the students’ obtaining just about %57 of the acquisitions at the level of 75 has shown that the learning process are not as sufficient as expected level for providing accessibility of learning process’ acquisitions, and that students’ level,studying in upper group schools, in attaining acquisitions are highercompared to those in middle and lower group schools, and when the students’ pretest results are taken under control, obtained post test’s corrected results have also significant difference

Sevinç Mert Uyangör

2012-06-01

71

Effect of Selected Exercises on Elementary School Third Grade Girl Students' Motor Development  

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Full Text Available Purpose:The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected exercises on motor development in elementary school third grade girl students in Ahwaz City, Iran.Methods:The present study was semi-experimental, performed as field and using experimental and control groups. The statistical population included all third grade girl students of elementary schools of Ahvaz city (10,500 subjects. Forty of whom were randomly selected (cluster stage and then were divided randomly into two experimental (N=20, M age=8.9 ? 0.49 and control (N=20, M age=8.9 ? 0.48 groups. Experimental group was given training for eight weeks, 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 45 minutes. To measure motor development, the Test of Gross Motor Development, edition2 (TGMD-2; 2002 was applied. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test.Results:The results showed statistically significant differences between control and experimental groups regarding locomotion skills (8.433, p < 0.05, manipulation skills (10.951, P < 0.001 and overall motor development (13.203, p < 0.001. In fact, selected exercises impacted on the motor development of subjects and led to their motor development progress.Conclusions:The selected exercises can be used as an appropriate plan to improve motor skill development in third grade of elementary school.

Sabah Bakhtiari

2011-11-01

72

An Assessment of Nutrition Education in Selected Counties in New York State Elementary Schools (Kindergarten through Fifth Grade)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the extent to which nutrition education is implemented in selected counties in New York State elementary schools (kindergarten through fifth grade) and explore how nutrition knowledge is presented in the classroom and what factors support it. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: New York State elementary

Watts, Sheldon O.; Pinero, Domingo J.; Alter, Mark M.; Lancaster, Kristie J.

2012-01-01

73

Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

2011-01-01

74

Teaching Number Sense for 6th Graders in Taiwan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports on two excerpts from a 6th grade Taiwanese class, describing how a teacher examined and promoted his students’ development of number sense. It illustrates an effort to integrate number sense activities into the mathematics curriculum in ways that encourage exploration, discussion, thinking and reasoning. The results indicate that number sense can be developed through well-designed number sense activities, effective teaching, and a good learning environment. It also demons...

Der-Ching Yang; Chun-Jen Hsu

2009-01-01

75

What are the early indicators of persistent word reading difficulties among Chinese readers in elementary grades?  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify the indicators of persistent reading difficulties among Chinese readers in early elementary grades, the performance of three groups of Chinese children with different reading trajectories ('persistent poor word readers', 'improved poor word readers' and 'skilled word readers') in reading-related measures was analysed in a 3-year longitudinal study. The three groups were classified according to their performance in a standardized Chinese word reading test in Grade 1 and Grade 4. Results of analysis of variance and logistic regression on the reading-related measures revealed that rapid naming and syntactic skills were important indicators of early word reading difficulty. Syntactic skills and morphological awareness were possible markers of persistent reading problems. Chinese persistent poor readers did not differ significantly from skilled readers on the measures of phonological skills. PMID:24408732

Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa

2014-05-01

76

No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

Social Education, 2005

2005-01-01

77

An Exploration of Strategy-Based Reading Instruction Using Expository Science Texts in the Elementary Grades  

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Full Text Available This qualitative exploration was designed to examine strategy-based reading instruction using science expository text in grades 2-5. This study centered on case studies of six elementary teachers and how they used reading strategies during science instruction. Findings revealed that although the teachers’ use of expository text was limited, teachers utilized particular reading strategies that extended and elaborated the students’ oral discussions during science instruction. The classroom conversations about science topics extended the students’ background knowledge of the science concepts that related to science expository text materials in grades 2-5. Further research could include alignment of reading strategy instruction with science instruction using print materials that are matched with the students’ instructional reading levels.
Key words: Expository Text; Reading; Classroom Teacher; Comprehension; Strategies

Carol Fetters

2011-03-01

78

The Instrument for Determining the Levels of Reflective Thinking among Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research is to develop a reliable and valid instrument in order to determine the elementary school students' levels about reflective thinking. A total of 320 students of 6th, 7th and 8th grades from 6 different primary schools participated in the study. It was identified that the instrument was composed of totally 17 items…

Taskin Can, Bilge; Yildrim, Cennet

2014-01-01

79

Teaching Number Sense for 6th Graders in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available This study reports on two excerpts from a 6th grade Taiwanese class, describing how a teacher examined and promoted his students’ development of number sense. It illustrates an effort to integrate number sense activities into the mathematics curriculum in ways that encourage exploration, discussion, thinking and reasoning. The results indicate that number sense can be developed through well-designed number sense activities, effective teaching, and a good learning environment. It also demonstrates that students’ number sense and mathematical thinking can be promoted through the use of multiple representations.

Der-Ching Yang

2009-07-01

80

The Effectiveness of Scaffolding Interactive Activities in Developing the English Listening Comprehension Skills of the Sixth Grade Elementary Schoolgirls in Jeddah  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of scaffolding interactive activities in developing the English listening comprehension skills of sixth grade elementary schoolgirls in Jeddah. The subjects in this study were 50 sixth grade pupils at an elementary school in Jeddah. They were assigned to two groups--control and…

Al-Yami, Salwa Ahmed

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The Examination of the Culture Perception of the Elementary 8th Grade Students  

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Full Text Available This study has been made in order to examine the perceptions of elementary 8th grade students related to the concept of culture. In the study in which qualitative research model has been used, data have been gathered by using the interview technique and written expression, and the data that have been obtained have been analyzed by using the descriptive analysis method. As a result of data analysis, it has been determined that the students make different definitions related to the concept of culture, and that they associate culture with the past. It has been determined that higher the level of education of the parents, the more elevated the degree of ability of the students to associate culture with the past and the present. Planning the studies in this direction also in different education levels will be significant in terms of providing the integrity related to the subject.

?hsan ÜNLÜ

2012-04-01

82

A critical hermeneutic study: Third grade elementary African American students' views of the nature of science  

Science.gov (United States)

Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third grade children reported in this study contribute to efforts to make science equitable for all students. Conducted in two Midwest urban settings, within the students' regular classrooms, three instruments were employed: Views of Nature of Science Elementary (an interview protocol), Elementary Draw a Scientist Test (a drawing activity supplemented by an explicating narrative), and Identify a Scientist (a simple select-a-photo technique supported by Likert-measured sureness). The responses provided by twenty-three students were coded using qualitative content analysis. The findings are represented in three main categories: Science - is governed by experimentation, invention and discovery teach us about the natural world, school is not the only setting for learning science; Scientists - intelligent, happy, studious men and women playing multiple roles, with distinct physical traits working in laboratories; Students - capable users and producers of science and who view science as fun. This study advocates for: use of such instruments for constant monitoring of student views, using the knowledge of these views to construct inquiry based science lessons, and increased research about students of color.

Walls, Leon

83

Fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice were used to examine fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program. In fall and spring of the school year, participants (N = 113; 66 boys, 47 girls) completed questionnaires assessing achievement goals, expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, and intention for future running participation. They also completed a timed 1-mile (1.6 km) run. The number of laps they ran/walked during the school year was used to assess students' persistence/effort. Results indicated the students improved their run but became less motivated about running while participating in a year-long running program. Children's beliefs about how good they were in the running program (i.e., expectancy beliefs) and their perceptions of how interesting and fun it was (i.e., interest) emerged as the strongest positive predictors of their motivation for running over time. These findings provide strong empirical evidence that expectancy beliefs and interest are essential to children's motivation in elementary physical education. PMID:16898276

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E; Bruene, April

2006-06-01

84

Teacher-Student Agreement on "Bullies and Kids They Pick On" in Elementary School Classrooms: Gender and Grade Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examined teacher-student agreement on the measure: "bullies and kids they pick on" in 38 (15 first, 12 third, and 11 fifth grade) elementary school classrooms. Overall agreement between teachers and students was low, 7.9%. The frequency of bully-victim dyads reported by teachers and victim prominence were positive…

Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.; Gest, Scott

2013-01-01

85

Scientific Practices in Elementary Classrooms: Third-Grade Students' Scientific Explanations for Seed Structure and Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary science standards emphasize that students should develop conceptual understanding of the characteristics and life cycles of plants (National Research Council, 2012), yet few studies have focused on early learners' reasoning about seed structure and function. The purpose of this study is twofold: to (a) examine third-grade

Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.

2014-01-01

86

Exploring the Effects of Differentiated Instruction and Cooperative Learning on the Intrinsic Motivational Behaviors of Elementary Reading Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers implemented classroom interventions to improve the intrinsic motivational behaviors of 4th and 6th grade elementary students and to strengthen teacher/student and student/student relationships in a positive supportive learning environment. The problem of low intrinsic motivational behaviors was documented through classroom observation…

Flaherty, Sue; Hackler, Rhonda

2010-01-01

87

6th German symposium on nuclear law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers and discussions of the 6th symposium on nuclear law, where legal experts and judges met scientists from other fields, representatives of authorities and industry give a clear picture of the field of tension of nuclear law between politics and engineering. Problems of topical interest are legal guidelines for technical damage prevention measures, the limits of the radiation protection philosophy, inventory protection in the nuclear licensing procedure, the binding force of legal decisions, waste management provisions, and attempted reforms in liability legislation. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO

88

Mathematics Anxiety Among 4th And 5th Grade Turkish Elementary School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a sample of 4th and 5th graders, this study investigated whether students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to a group of variables. A total of 249 students participated in the study. “The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students” and “The Personal Information Form” were used for data collection. Independent samples t-tests, Oneway Anova and Schefee test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to gender, whether they liked mathematics class or not, whether they liked their mathematics teachers or not and the achievement level in mathematics. Female students reported significantly higher mathematics anxiety than males. Students who liked mathematics class and those who liked their mathematics teachers had lower anxiety. Students with higher achievement in mathematics reported lower degrees of mathematics anxiety. However, results did not show any significant difference in students’ mathematics anxiety with respect to their grade level and gender-stereotypes about success in mathematics.

Fulya Yüksel-?ahin

2008-10-01

89

Two Traditions in the Social Studies Curriculum for the Elementary Grades: The Textbooks of Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1920s and 1930s, Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg developed new textbooks that integrated social studies curriculum in the elementary grades for the first time. Each author's curriculum; Hanna's expanding environments framework and Rugg's recurring concepts with a focus on contemporary issues has significantly impacted today's elementary

Bisland, Beverly Milner

2009-01-01

90

6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: poster presentations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and basic research. The immunodeficiency presentations dealt with novel, rare class-switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies, attenuation of adverse events following IVIg treatment, association of immunoglobulin (Ig)G trough levels and protection against acute infection in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and the reduction of class-switched memory B cells in patients with specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, pregnancy and postpartum-related relapses in multiple sclerosis and refractory myositis, as well as experiences with subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with multi-focal motor neuropathy, were the topics presented in the autoimmunity session. The interaction of dendritic cell (DC)-SIGN and alpha2,6-sialylated IgG Fc and its impact on human DCs, the enrichment of sialylated IgG in plasma-derived IgG, as wells as prion surveillance and monitoring of anti-measles titres in immunoglobulin products, were covered in the basic science session. In summary, the presentations illustrated the breadth of immunoglobulin therapy usage and highlighted the progress that is being made in diverse areas of basic and clinical research, extending our understanding of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin action and contributing to improved patient care. PMID:19883425

Fernandez-Cruz, E; Kaveri, S V; Peter, H-H; Durandy, A; Cantoni, N; Quinti, I; Sorensen, R; Bussel, J B; Danieli, M G; Winkelmann, A; Bayry, J; Käsermann, F; Späth, P; Helbert, M; Salama, A; van Schaik, I N; Yuki, N

2009-12-01

91

6th International Meshing Roundtable '97  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

White, D.

1997-09-01

92

The Relationship between the Discourse Knowledge and the Writing Performance of Elementary-Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether discourse knowledge about various forms of writing predicted young developing writers' (Grade 2 and Grade 4 students) story writing performance once 4 writing (handwriting fluency, spelling, attitude toward writing, advanced planning) and 3 nonwriting (grade, gender, basic reading skills) variables were controlled. It…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Graham, Steve

2009-01-01

93

?lkö?retim 6. S?n?f Ö?rencilerinin Okuma Al??kanl?klar?, Kütüphane Kullanma S?kl?klar? Ve Okumaya Yönelik Tutumlar?n?n ?ncelenmesi The Examination Of Reading Habits, Frequency To Use Library And Attitudes Towards Reading Of 6th Grade Primary School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reading and reading comprehension are among the mostimportant sub-titles of learning process. The acquisition of readinghabit defines a process which requires stressing many factors. Thecontrol of reading skill is closely related with many factors like attitude,habit and interest. This study aims to examine the reading habit, thefrequency to use library and the attitudes towards reading of 6th gradeprimary school students. The sample group of the study included 6thgrade students having education in the Antakya central district ofHatay Province. 403 students included in the study sample were chosenfrom 5 primary schools from different socioeconomic environments. Theresults obtained from the study indicated that the attitudes of femalestudents towards reading were higher than the ones of male students.The effect of socioeconomic environment on attitudes towards readingwas also found to be insignificant. The results of the study showed thatstudents in the sample group tried to spare sufficient time for reading.In addition, a significant difference was found between attitude towardsreading and sparing time for reading books. The results obtained fromthis study indicated that two out of five students in sample group canbe evaluated as “medium level readers” and two out of five students canbe evaluated as “high level readers”. Low level readers had 14.6% rate.The study concluded that 6th grade students used class/school librariesat high rates (84.9%. However, most of the students were found not tobe member of public library and approximately two out of threestudents were found to never use public libraries. Okuma ve okudu?unu anlama ö?renme sürecinin en önemli alt ba?l?klar?ndan biridir. Okuma becerisinin kazand?r?lmas? farkl? etkenlerin dikkate al?nmas?n? gerektiren bir süreci ifade eder. Okuma becerisinin kontrolü ise tutum, al??kanl?k, ilgi gibi pek çok faktörle yak?ndan ilgilidir. Bu ara?t?rmada, ilkö?retim 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin okuma al??kanl?klar?, kütüphane kullanma s?kl?klar? ve okumaya yönelik tutumlar?n?n incelenmesi amaçlanm??t?r. Ara?t?rman?n evrenini Hatay ili merkez Antakya ilçesinde ö?renim gören ilkö?retim 6. s?n?f ö?rencileri olu?turmaktad?r. Evreni temsilen farkl? sosyoekonomik çevrelerde bulunan 5 ilkö?retim okulundan 403 ö?renci ara?t?rma örneklemine al?nm??t?r. Ara?t?rmadan elde edilen sonuçlar k?z ö?rencilerin okumaya yönelik tutumlar?n?n erkek ö?rencilere göre daha yüksek oldu?unu göstermektedir. Ayr?ca sosyoekonomik çevrenin okumaya yönelik tutum üzerindeki etkisinin istatiksel olarak anlaml? bir farkl?l?k olu?turmad??? sonucuna var?lm??t?r. Ara?t?rma sonuçlar? örneklem grubunda yer alan ö?rencilerin okuma için yeterli zaman ay?rmaya çal??t?klar?n? göstermektedir. Ayr?ca okumaya yönelik tutum ile kitap okumaya zaman ay?rma aras?nda anlaml? bir farkl?l?k tespit edilmi?tir. Bu ara?t?rmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, örneklem grubundaki ö?rencilerin be?te ikisinin "orta düzeyde okuyucu", be?te ikisinin "çok okuyan okuyucu" olarak de?erlendirilebilece?ini göstermektedir. Az okuyan okuyucular ise %14,6’l?k bir orana sahiptir. Çal??mada ilkö?retim 6. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin büyük oranda (%84,9 s?n?f/okul kitapl?klar?n? kulland?klar? sonucuna ula??lm??t?r. Ancak ö?rencilerin büyük bölümünün halk kütüphanesi üyesi olmad???, yakla??k üçte ikilik bir oranla da halk kütüphanelerini hiç kullanmad?klar? sonucuna ula??lm??t?r.

Kadir Kaan BÜYÜK?K?Z

2012-12-01

94

The effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training  

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Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training. This study is a control group pre-test post-test experimental research. The research was conducted to students who were enrolled in an elementary school in Konya, Turkey. While research’s experimental group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students, control group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students. Vocational group guidance was conducted to experimental group for 9 weeks once a week. The views of experimental and control group students towards apprenticeship education were measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B (AEEF-B at pre-test post-test phases. In this research, applied vocational group guidance program includes views and behaviours which can be measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B. Group discussion and homework techniques were used to gain vocational views and behaviours in vocational group guidance. After analysis there have been found significant difference between experimental and control groups’ AEEF-B pre-test post-test average scores at 0.01 level. Findings showed that vocational group guidance method had a positive effect against negative ideas to apprenticeship education. In addition, vocational group guidance method has been found to be effective in changing 8th year elementary school students’ negative views towards apprenticeship education to positive views. This program is compatible as long as it is used in vocational guidance activities of 8th year elementary school students.

Abdullah Ishiklar

2012-02-01

95

Temperament in early childhood and peer interactions in third grade: the role of teacher-child relationships in early elementary grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's interactions with peers in early childhood have been consistently linked to their academic and social outcomes. Although both child and classroom characteristics have been implicated as contributors to children's success, there has been scant research linking child temperament, teacher-child relationship quality, and peer interactions in the same study. The purpose of this study is to examine children's early temperament, rated at preschool age, as a predictor of interactions with peers (i.e., aggression, relational aggression, victimization, and prosociality) in third grade while considering teacher-child relationship quality in kindergarten through second grades as a moderator and mediator of this association. The sample (N=1364) was drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Results from structural equation models indicated that teacher-child conflict in early elementary grades mediated links between children's temperament and later peer interactions. Findings underscore the importance of considering children's temperament traits and teacher-child relationship quality when examining the mechanisms of the development of peer interactions. PMID:24295144

Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Niehaus, Kate; Buhs, Eric; White, Jamie M

2013-12-01

96

Models of Providing Science Instruction in the Elementary Grades: A Research Agenda to Inform Decision Makers  

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This article describes the outgrowth of a recently held invitational conference, supported by the National Science Foundation, to define, describe, and examine existing models for the use of elementary science specialists. The authors explore the educational, policy, and financial issues that affect the use of science specialists as well as offer…

Levy, Abigail J.; Pasquale, Marian M.; Marco, Lisa

2008-01-01

97

The Pedagogy of Concept Learning in the Elementary Grades: An Interdisciplinary Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary teachers can use a 3-D approach (direct, divide, and diversity) to classroom instruction and management to teach concept-based lessons. Initially the teacher will "direct" an interactive learning process by diagnosing student needs and modifying subsequent learning tasks through the analysis of student feedback. On the basis of the…

Savitz, Fred R.; DiSibio, Robert A.

98

Making the Grade: The Importance of Academic Enablers in the Elementary School Counseling Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary school counselors can support academic achievement by connecting their comprehensive programs to increasing academic competence. One valuable framework focuses on academic enablers, which are identified as interpersonal skills, motivation, engagement, and study skills (DiPerna, 2004). In this article, the authors (a) discuss the…

Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.

2014-01-01

99

Archaeology and Intercultural Education in the Elementary Grades: An Example from Minnesota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advocates the use of archaeology and anthropology as tools for delivering multicultural education in the elementary setting. Argues that archaeology demonstrates to children the ways that various cultures have solved problems related to a common set of human needs. Discusses curriculum design and includes two lesson plans. (DSK)

Whiting, Nancy Carolyn

1998-01-01

100

Longitudinal Predictors of Chinese Word Reading and Spelling among Elementary Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The longitudinal predictive power of four important reading-related skills (phonological skills, rapid naming, orthographic skills, and morphological awareness) to Chinese word reading and writing to dictation (i.e., spelling) was examined in a 3-year longitudinal study among 251 Chinese elementary students. Rapid naming, orthographic skills, and…

Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Yau-Kai; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa; Lo, Lap-Yan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Theorizing an Integration of Reading and Mathematics: Solving Mathematical Word Problems in the Elementary Grades  

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Full Text Available This article theorizes three major cognitive constructs that are operationally defined by shared similarities of processing information in reading and mathematics. Specifically, the paper (1 proposes and details the refinement and evaluation of components of a conceptual model for reading to solve mathematical word problems for elementary students, and (2 develops and refines the theoretical constructs of the model. Our assumptions lay out the interrelationships of reading and mathematics word problems by focusing on the cognitive components of Recognizing Higher Level Patterns of Text Organization (R, Generating Patterns (G, and Attaining a Goal (A. These assumptions are to refine and construct the RGA cognitive components that could theoretically enhance elementary students’ reading and solution of mathematical word problem-solving abilities.

William H. Rupley

2011-12-01

102

Working in multi-grade classroom in elementary school for special needs children with mild disabilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the thesis the problem of multigrade classroom in elementary school for special needs children with mild disabilities is discussed. As a consequence of low number of students included in such schools these classrooms are common in Slovenia. We are interested in answering following questions: how may special education teacher effectively prepare himself to work in multigrade classroom; which information is needed; how to deal with planning and organizing his own work. In the thesis we defin...

Hribljan, S?pela

2013-01-01

103

The Influence of RET’s on Elementary and Secondary Grade Teachers’ Views of Scientific Inquiry  

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Full Text Available This study explores in-service elementary and secondary science teachers’ conceptions of the Nature of Scientific Inquiry and the influence of participation in two different Research Experience for Teacher (RET programs had on these conceptions. Participant teachers attended one of two six week RET programs in which they worked with scientists to engage in scientific inquiry. Before and after the RETs, teachers completed the Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI questionnaire. Teachers’ answers were analyzed to determine the degree of sophistication of their understanding of five facets of scientific inquiry. Both elementary and secondary teacher participants showed improvement in their understanding of nature of scientific inquiry as a result of program participation, and both programs were successful in supporting the development of inquiry conceptions, although secondary science teachers started and finished the RET’s with a more sophisticated understandings of scientific inquiry. Areas of improvement for elementary teachers included the role of questions in science and the role subjectivity and creativity play in the processes of science, and for secondary teachers growth was seen in the role of questions, the relationship of data and evidence, the distinction of experiments and other means of investigations, and the varied methods of science. Implications of these results are discussed.

Sibel Bahbah

2013-11-01

104

Learning to teach science for all in the elementary grades: What do preservice teachers bring?  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit in the goal of recent reforms is the question: What does it mean to prepare teachers to teach science for all? Through a teacher research study, I have encountered characteristics that may assist prospective elementary teachers in developing effective, inclusive science instruction. I describe these strengths, link them to requirements for teaching, and suggest how science teacher educators might draw on the strengths of their own students to support teaching practices aimed at universal scientific literacy. My conceptual framework is constructed from scholarship concerning best practice in elementary science education, as well as that which describes the dispositions of successful teachers of diverse learners. This study is based on a model of teacher research framed by the concept of research as praxis and phenomenological research methodology. The findings describe the research participants' strengths thematically as propensity for inquiry, attention to children, and awareness of school/society relationships. I view these as potentially productive aspects of knowledge and dispositions about science and about children that I could draw on to further students' development as elementary science teachers.

Howes, Elaine V.

2002-11-01

105

The Effects Of Cooperative Learning Method Supported by Multiple Intelligence Theory on Elementary School 4th Grade Students’ Academics Achievement  

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Full Text Available In this experimental research, the effects of cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory on elementary 4th grade students’ academic achievement was investigated.The study, which lasted five weeks, was carried out at public school in the discrit of Yüreir-Adana in 2004-2005 academic year. The participants of the study were 46 students that They were divided in a experimental group and control group. For the purpose of thisstudy, the experimental group was instructed using cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory, whereas the control group was instructed utilizing the traditional teacher oriented method. The measurement instrument used in the study was mathematics achievement test. Mathematics achievement test was used as pretest and posttest to the experimantal and control group.Findings indicated that cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory instructional teaching has a more significant effect on academic achievement than the traditional teacher oriented method.

Kas?m YILDIRIM

2006-12-01

106

A study on nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior of elementary school children in Seoul  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and diet related knowledge, attitude, and behavior of elementary school children in Seoul. The subjects included were 439 (male 236, female 203) elementary school children in the 4th to the 6th grades. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 program. The average obesity index (OI) was 104.98 and 99.82 for male and female subjects, respectively. The average percentage of underweight, normal, overweight and obese of subje...

Choi, Eun-suil; Shin, Na-ri; Jung, Eun-im; Park, Hae-ryun; Lee, Hong-mie; Song, Kyung-hee

2008-01-01

107

Exemplary Technology Integrators in the Elementary School: The Impact in a Gifth-Grade Classroom  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the daily teaching practices of an elementary teacher who was identified as being an exemplary integrator of technology in her classroom. In addition to this inquiry, a collection of audio and video clips from the observations and interviews was used to create DVD resources to be used in a Midwestern university’s teacher education program. Excerpts from these resources are included to allow readers the opportunity to evaluate such products for their possible effectiveness in encouraging teacher candidates to be innovative users of technology in their classrooms, as well as provide evidentiary support for the assertions presented.

Savilla Banister

2005-02-01

108

La mirada de las profesoras coordinadoras de la intervención pedagógica en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo / Coordinators’ Perspective on the Pedagogical Intervention in the Study Program “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo científico surge del proceso de intervención pedagógica (IP) que se realiza como parte de la formación docente en las carreras de la División de Educación Básica en la Universidad Nacional y pretende destacar las acciones del proceso de práctica profesional supervisada ejecutado [...] en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica, desde la visión de las académicas responsables de la coordinación de dicho proceso. Para ello, se comparte una serie de acciones de coordinación que requiere el proceso de práctica y que son fundamentales para su desarrollo y exitosa culminación. Se sistematizan en tres áreas principales con su correspondiente análisis: acciones de coordinación, acciones de inducción y acciones de cierre de la intervención pedagógica. Asimismo, se retoman las opiniones del estudiantado y profesorado de apoyo en la valoración de dichas acciones. Entre los principales aportes del artículo se destaca que el proceso de intervención pedagógica es mucho más que la formulación conjunta de un programa de curso o de instrumentos, ya que implica una serie de estrategias de coordinación entre las profesoras responsables de la intervención pedagógica, para complementar el proceso y permitir hacer de la práctica un espacio de aprovechamiento y reflexión sobre la realidad educativa. Se genera, además, el análisis y trabajo en equipo, para la constante retroalimentación del estudiantado y del mismo proceso, lo cual permite perfilar la práctica profesional renovada y fortalecer la formación universitaria, al ser el proceso de IP de la División de Educación Básica un espacio de investigación permanente. Abstract in english This scientific paper is the result of the pedagogical intervention process carried out as part of teacher training in the study programs of the Basic Education Division at Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica). It aims at bringing into focus the tasks of the supervised professional practice process con [...] ducted in the study program of “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”, from the perspective of the coordinators of this process. The coordination tasks that are essential for the development and successful completion of the professional practice process are analyzed and systematized in three main areas: coordination, induction, and conclusion of the pedagogical intervention tasks. The opinions of students and faculty members are considered in the evaluation. One of the main contributions of this paper is calling attention to the pedagogical intervention process, which involves not only the joint preparation of a course program, but also a number of coordination strategies among the persons in charge of the pedagogical intervention to complete the process and take advantage of the practice to think carefully on the educational reality. This study has been also an opportunity of analysis and teamwork focused on continuous feedback to students and to the process itself, giving a new shape to the professional practice, and strengthening university training where the pedagogical intervention process of the Basic Education Division is a permanent research platform.

Maureen, Camacho Oviedo; Kattia, Rojas Acevedo.

2013-12-01

109

THE GENRE CONSISTENCY BETWEEN THE READING AND LISTENING/VIEWING TEXTS AND WRITING TASKS IN TURKISH (6TH, 7TH AND 8TH GRADES COURSE BOOKS TÜRKÇE (6, 7, 8. SINIF DERS K?TAPLARINDAK? OKUMA VE D?NLEME/?ZLEME MET?NLER? ?LE YAZMA GÖREVLER? ARASINDAK? TÜR UYUMU  

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Full Text Available The features that reading and listening /viewing texts should hold and which genres should be included in course book has been stated in great detail in Primary Turkish Course (6th, 7th and 8th grades curriculum. On which genres (episode, argumentation, proclamation and poems the students would write texts is clarified in writing acquisition as „writing texts on different genres. In course books, these acquisitions has been referred in the presentation of reading and listening /viewing texts and while giving writing tasks. However, there are differences between reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing tasks in terms of genres and genre class. The main purpose of this study is to locate whether there is a consistency between reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing tasks in terms of genre by supposing that students should be able to write texts of the same genre more consciously after reading and listening a certain genre . For this reason, 9 Turkish teacher?s books belonging to 3 different publications, the genres appearing in reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing texts have been classified in general and according to curriculum sequency. After the genres were analysed, the data and problems have been determined. Consequently, it has been detected that there are several problems in classification, genre detection and the function of genres of reading and listening /viewing texts in course books and there is little consistency between reading and listening /viewing texts and the texts of writing tasks. In some of the books, it has been determined that compulsory genres stated in curriculum were not included in reading and writing parts. Some suggestions have been made according to the data provided. Okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinde bulunmas? gereken özellikler ve hangi metin türlerine yer verilmesi gerekti?i ?lkö?retim Türkçe Dersi (6, 7, 8. S?n?f Ö?retim Program??nda ayr?nt?lar?yla yer almaktad?r. Ö?rencilerin hangi türlerde metin olu?turacaklar? yazma kazan?mlar?nda “farkl? türlerde (olay yaz?lar?, dü?ünce yaz?lar?, bildirme yaz?lar?, ?iir yazar metin yazar.” ?eklinde belirtilmi?tir. Ders kitaplar?nda yer alan okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinin sunulu?unda ve yazma görevlerinin verili?inde bu kazan?mlara göndermelerde bulunulur. Fakat okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinleri ile yazma görevi metinleri aras?nda tür s?n?f? ve metin türü fark? vard?r. Bu çal??man?n as?l amac? ö?rencilerin okuduklar? ve dinledikleri metin türünden sonra ayn? türün özelliklerine uygun metni daha bilinçli yazabilecekleri varsay?m?na dayanarak okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinleri ile yazma görevi olarak verilen metinler aras?nda metin türü bak?m?ndan bir uyumun olup olmad???n? tespit etmektir. Bu amaçla üç yay?nevine ait dokuz Türkçe dersi ö?retmen k?lavuz kitab?ndaki okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinde yer alan türler ile yazma görevi olarak verilen metinlerin türleri i?leyi? s?ras?na göre tasnif edilmi?, elde edilen bulgular betimlenmi?tir. Sonuç olarak ders kitaplar?ndaki okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinde tür ba?lam?nda adland?rma, tür tespiti ve türlerin i?leviyle ilgili birtak?m sorunlar, okuma ve dinleme/izleme metinlerinin türleri ile yazma görevi olarak verilen türler aras?nda uyumun az oldu?u belirlenmi?tir. Baz? kitaplarda, Ö?retim Program??nda zorunlu tutulan metin türlerine okuma ve yazmada yer verilmedi?i tespit edilmi?tir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre öneriler getirilmi?tir.

Gökhan ARI

2011-09-01

110

La mirada de las profesoras coordinadoras de la intervención pedagógica en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo / Coordinators’ Perspective on the Pedagogical Intervention in the Study Program “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo científico surge del proceso de intervención pedagógica (IP) que se realiza como parte de la formación docente en las carreras de la División de Educación Básica en la Universidad Nacional y pretende destacar las acciones del proceso de práctica profesional supervisada ejecutado [...] en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica, desde la visión de las académicas responsables de la coordinación de dicho proceso. Para ello, se comparte una serie de acciones de coordinación que requiere el proceso de práctica y que son fundamentales para su desarrollo y exitosa culminación. Se sistematizan en tres áreas principales con su correspondiente análisis: acciones de coordinación, acciones de inducción y acciones de cierre de la intervención pedagógica. Asimismo, se retoman las opiniones del estudiantado y profesorado de apoyo en la valoración de dichas acciones. Entre los principales aportes del artículo se destaca que el proceso de intervención pedagógica es mucho más que la formulación conjunta de un programa de curso o de instrumentos, ya que implica una serie de estrategias de coordinación entre las profesoras responsables de la intervención pedagógica, para complementar el proceso y permitir hacer de la práctica un espacio de aprovechamiento y reflexión sobre la realidad educativa. Se genera, además, el análisis y trabajo en equipo, para la constante retroalimentación del estudiantado y del mismo proceso, lo cual permite perfilar la práctica profesional renovada y fortalecer la formación universitaria, al ser el proceso de IP de la División de Educación Básica un espacio de investigación permanente. Abstract in english This scientific paper is the result of the pedagogical intervention process carried out as part of teacher training in the study programs of the Basic Education Division at Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica). It aims at bringing into focus the tasks of the supervised professional practice process con [...] ducted in the study program of “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”, from the perspective of the coordinators of this process. The coordination tasks that are essential for the development and successful completion of the professional practice process are analyzed and systematized in three main areas: coordination, induction, and conclusion of the pedagogical intervention tasks. The opinions of students and faculty members are considered in the evaluation. One of the main contributions of this paper is calling attention to the pedagogical intervention process, which involves not only the joint preparation of a course program, but also a number of coordination strategies among the persons in charge of the pedagogical intervention to complete the process and take advantage of the practice to think carefully on the educational reality. This study has been also an opportunity of analysis and teamwork focused on continuous feedback to students and to the process itself, giving a new shape to the professional practice, and strengthening university training where the pedagogical intervention process of the Basic Education Division is a permanent research platform.

Maureen, Camacho Oviedo; Kattia, Rojas Acevedo.

111

Science Achievement of English Language Learners in Urban Elementary Schools: Fourth-Grade Student Achievement Results from a Professional Development Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a 5-year professional development intervention aimed at improving science and literacy achievement of English language learning (ELL) students in urban elementary schools, this study examined fourth-grade students' science achievement across a 3-year (2005-2008) implementation of our professional development intervention consisting of…

Santau, Alexandra O.; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime L.; Huggins, Anne Corinne

2011-01-01

112

The Attitude of the Students towards the Value of "Paying Attention to Being Healthy" in 4th Grade Elementary Social Sciences Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed to define the teaching of the value of "Paying Attention to Being Healthy" in 4th grade elementary Social Sciences course and to determine the students' attitude towards this value. To reach this goal, activities to teach the value of paying attention to being healthy were prepared and conducted. The effect of these activities…

Tahiroglu, Mustafa; Cetin, Turhan

2012-01-01

113

?lkö?retim 6. S?n?f Ö?rencilerinin Okuma Al??kanl?klar?, Kütüphane Kullanma S?kl?klar? Ve Okumaya Yönelik Tutumlar?n?n ?ncelenmesi
The Examination Of Reading Habits, Frequency To Use Library And Attitudes Towards Reading Of 6th Grade Primary School Students
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reading and reading comprehension are among the mostimportant sub-titles of learning process. The acquisition of readinghabit defines a process which requires stressing many factors. Thecontrol of reading skill is closely related with many factors like attitude,habit and interest. This study aims to examine the reading habit, thefrequency to use library and the attitudes towards reading of 6th gradeprimary school students. The sample group of the study included 6thgrade students having educat...

Bu?yu?ki?ki?z, Kadir Kaan; Uyar, Yusuf; Balci, Ahmet

2012-01-01

114

Distúrbios de fala e dificuldades de aprendizagem no ensino fundamental / Speech disorders and grade retention in elementary  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo verificar a associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar. Métodos uma amostra aleatória de 1.810 crianças regularmente matriculadas na 1ª série do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas foram submetidas a um teste de rastreamento de distúrbios de fala (TERDAF). Os dados ref [...] erentes à idade e ao histórico de repetência das crianças foram coletados nos registros da escola. A associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar foram calculadas pela razão de prevalência e intervalo de confiança 95%.  Resultados a prevalência de distúrbio de fala nesta amostra foi de 25%, considerando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade do teste de triagem utilizado. Também foi verificado que as crianças com distúrbios de fala possuem 1,3 vezes (IC 95% 1,1-1,5) o risco de apresentar história de repetência, quando comparadas aos seus pares sem distúrbio de fala. O risco de repetência atribuível ao distúrbio de fala foi de 6,2. Conclusão o distúrbio de fala entre crianças que frequentam a primeira série do ensino fundamental apresenta alta prevalência e está associado com dificuldades de aprendizagem que venham a resultar em repetência escolar, mesmo quando na ausência de dificuldade auditiva detectável. Abstract in english Purpose to verify the prevalence of speech sound disorders (SSD) and its association to grade retention. Methods 1,810 children, randomly selected and regularly registered in the 1st grade of Elementary Public Schools have been submitted to a speech sound disorder screening test (TERDAF). Data [...] related to age and history of grade retention of the children elected to this study were collected in the school records after being authorized by children’s parents. Association between SSD and grade retention were calculated by prevalence ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results children with SSD had more chances to grade retention when compared to those without this (PR 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1 – 1.5). The prevalence of SSD in this sample was 25%, taking into account the values of sensitivity and specificity of the screening test used. It was also verified that children with SSD have 1.3 times the risk to present history of grade retention, when compared to children without such disorders. Conclusion the prevalence of SSD when the phonological acquisition must have been established denotes that such cluster is more prevalent than what literature is used to pointing out once few population epidemiologic studies concerning human communication are carried through.

Bárbara Niegia Garcia de, Goulart; Brasília M., Chiari.

2014-06-01

115

Distúrbios de fala e dificuldades de aprendizagem no ensino fundamental / Speech disorders and grade retention in elementary  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo verificar a associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar. Métodos uma amostra aleatória de 1.810 crianças regularmente matriculadas na 1ª série do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas foram submetidas a um teste de rastreamento de distúrbios de fala (TERDAF). Os dados ref [...] erentes à idade e ao histórico de repetência das crianças foram coletados nos registros da escola. A associação entre distúrbios de fala e repetência escolar foram calculadas pela razão de prevalência e intervalo de confiança 95%.  Resultados a prevalência de distúrbio de fala nesta amostra foi de 25%, considerando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade do teste de triagem utilizado. Também foi verificado que as crianças com distúrbios de fala possuem 1,3 vezes (IC 95% 1,1-1,5) o risco de apresentar história de repetência, quando comparadas aos seus pares sem distúrbio de fala. O risco de repetência atribuível ao distúrbio de fala foi de 6,2. Conclusão o distúrbio de fala entre crianças que frequentam a primeira série do ensino fundamental apresenta alta prevalência e está associado com dificuldades de aprendizagem que venham a resultar em repetência escolar, mesmo quando na ausência de dificuldade auditiva detectável. Abstract in english Purpose to verify the prevalence of speech sound disorders (SSD) and its association to grade retention. Methods 1,810 children, randomly selected and regularly registered in the 1st grade of Elementary Public Schools have been submitted to a speech sound disorder screening test (TERDAF). Data [...] related to age and history of grade retention of the children elected to this study were collected in the school records after being authorized by children’s parents. Association between SSD and grade retention were calculated by prevalence ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results children with SSD had more chances to grade retention when compared to those without this (PR 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1 – 1.5). The prevalence of SSD in this sample was 25%, taking into account the values of sensitivity and specificity of the screening test used. It was also verified that children with SSD have 1.3 times the risk to present history of grade retention, when compared to children without such disorders. Conclusion the prevalence of SSD when the phonological acquisition must have been established denotes that such cluster is more prevalent than what literature is used to pointing out once few population epidemiologic studies concerning human communication are carried through.

Bárbara Niegia Garcia de, Goulart; Brasília M., Chiari.

116

Living Things in Field and Classroom: A MINNEMAST Handbook for Teachers of Early Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook for teachers of the primary grades suggests a variety of means by which children can be provided with experiences related to science and mathematics. Chapters are devoted to the classroom garden, the classroom zoo, the classroom museum, objects children bring to school, and field trips. Each chapter describes preparations to be made…

Subarsky, Zachariah; And Others

117

Screening of Phonological Awareness in the Early Elementary Grades: An IRT Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory…

Vloedgraven, Judith M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-01-01

118

Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

119

Using Literature Circles to Increase Reading Comprehension in Third Grade Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading comprehension strategies are important skills for a child to learn. Good strategies support struggling students to be more successful in all subjects at school as reading is the basis for subsequent mastery of most subjects (Bender & Larkin, 2003). This action research project examined the use of literature circles in a third grade class.…

Briggs, Shawna R.

2010-01-01

120

Development and initial validation of the Social and Academic Behavior Risk Screener for elementary grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the current investigation was to develop and provide initial validation of the Social and Academic Behavior Risk Screener (SABRS). Research was conducted in southeast elementary schools with 54 teacher and 243 student participants. An initial item pool was created through review of developmental research on the trajectory of behavior problems and competencies, as well as various models of social, emotional, and academic competence. A content validation process in addition to reliability and exploratory factor analyses resulted in development of a 12-item SABRS scale. Two factors emerged, with six items corresponding to "Social Behavior" and 6 items corresponding to "Academic Behavior." Subsequent correlational and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed each scale, as well as an overall combined scale, to be a concurrently valid and diagnostically accurate predictor of the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) Teacher Rating Scales. The reader is provided a review of implications for practice and directions for future SABRS research. PMID:23773134

Kilgus, Stephen P; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Riley-Tillman, T Chris

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Latest State of the First Grade of Elementary School Textbooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elementary education course books have been distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Education since 2005/2006 academic year. These course books are revised every year and prepared again with minor corrections. In this research, teachers were asked about their viewpoints on the final states of the course books that are revised and renewed every year. Thus, course books prepared according to the new teaching program were analyzed, aiming that the deficiencies in the books would be detected and so it would be found out how to apply the program more effectively and efficiently. Additionally, it was tried to find answers to the questions of the latest state of the books and to what extend the books would be compensating for the needs. Looking at the results of the research in general, we can conclude that elementary school teachers are mostly satisfied with the changes made in the books but teachers are not satisfied for example length of texts. And this indicates that the reviews and changes made in the books are not sufficient although they are suitable to their goals. So the reviews and changes made in the books are not sufficient although they are suitable to their goals. Beside that available teacher guidance books are insufficient in satisfying the teachers’ needs. In order to apply the program more effectively and efficiently, the teaching methods in the books should be diversified, the number of activities and their contents should be revised and the questions prepared in accordance with various goals should be reviewed.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved

Sema Altun Yalçin

2013-08-01

122

The 15th AINSE nuclear and particle conference at the 6th APPC and 11th AIP congress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1994 AINSE conference was held in Brisbane, at Griffith University in conjunction with the 6th APPC and the 11th Australian Institute of Physics Congress. It focused on physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear reactions and scattering, neutrinos and dark matter. The proceedings booklet contains the conference programme and talks summaries. Seventy one papers out of the 73 contributions were indexed separately for inclusion in the INIS database

123

The 15th AINSE nuclear and particle conference at the 6th APPC and 11th AIP congress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1994 AINSE conference was held in Brisbane, at Griffith University in conjunction with the 6th APPC and the 11th Australian Institute of Physics Congress. It focused on physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear reactions and scattering, neutrinos and dark matter. The proceedings booklet contains the conference programme and talks summaries. Seventy one papers out of the 73 contributions were indexed separately for inclusion in the INIS database.

NONE

1994-12-31

124

Elementary Instrumental Music Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Our former Elementary Instrumental Music Program for 4th-6th graders was costly and ineffective. Students were bused to a high school in the middle of the instructional day--costs (time and transportation) were not compensatory with the program, which was experiencing a significant drop-out rate.…

Smith, Dolores A.

125

Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (Mage?=?12.3?±?0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR?=?2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p?grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born. PMID:25001376

2014-01-01

126

Implementation of combined graphical techniques in 5th grade of elementary school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graphic is one among five areas of art education, to which the teachers should devote the same amount of hours. Because the making of graphics is often a long-term process, it is reasonable that we implement at least two graphic techniques into one fine arts assignment, in the second trimester of primary school. In this graduation thesis, I wanted to find out, what is the knowledge of the pupils about graphical concepts and specificity of graphical materials in the 5th grade of primary school...

Z?erjal, Urs?ka

2012-01-01

127

Factor structure of the Social Experience Questionnaire across time, sex, and grade among early elementary school children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ample research suggests that peer victimization predicts social and psychological maladjustment, including emotional (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, and depression) and behavioral (e.g., aggression) problems among children. Thus, a reliable measure of peer victimization for research with young children is needed. The Social Experience Questionnaire-Self-Report (SEQ-S) has been widely used in existing research to assess children's victimization (Crick & Grotpeter, 1996). However, empirical support for the psychometric properties of the SEQ-S is limited by the methods used to evaluate it (i.e., exploratory as opposed to confirmatory analyses), by the lack of longitudinal data, and by the limited age ranges studied. This study examined the underlying factor structure of SEQ-S ratings across 3 time points in a sample of 830 early elementary school children using confirmatory factor analysis. The hypothesized model included 3 latent factors: overt victimization, relational victimization, and receipt of prosocial acts from peers. This model provided a good fit to the data at each time point. Although it is not clear that there is invariance, results indicate that invariance across time, sex, and grade could be present. Recommendations for continued use of the SEQ-S in future research on peer victimization with young children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23730827

Desjardins, Tracy; Yeung Thompson, Rachel S; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Macdonald, Stuart W S

2013-12-01

128

Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Annual report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include developing a model laboratory/classroom for teacher education, providing financial incentives for students with technical majors to complete the program, and emphasizing issues of equity and minority participation in mathematics, science and technology education through recruitment procedures and in course content.

Flick, L.B.

1995-12-31

129

Proceedings of the 6th nuclear science and technology conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 2 - 4 December, 1996 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

130

6th Krakow-Winnipeg Conference on Advanced Bioimaging Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from 1997 researchers have been meet in Krakow, Poland for the Krakow-Winnipeg conference on MRI. The scope of the conference includes the latest technical advances in biomedical imaging including molecular imaging and nanotechnology. Other topics for presentation include recent developments in whole body MRI, multi-transmit technology and gradient-free MRI. Book of Abstracts from the 6th Conference contains 29 abstracts of Oral Presentations and 11 abstracts of Posters.

131

Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure  

Science.gov (United States)

Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

132

6th International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proceedings book contains the papers presented at 6th International Symposium on solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies held at Mojacar (Almeria) in September 28-October 2, 1992, The sessions were: 1.- Advanced components and systems: - Concentrators, - Volumetric and direct absorption receivers - Dish/Stirling 2.- Electricity Generation: - Central receiver systems - Distributed collector systems - Dish/Stirling systems - Economics - Potential for improvement 3.- Thermal/Chemical applications: - Chemical production - Detoxification of Hazardous waste and Solar desalination - Materials testing 4.- Long term research 5.- Test facilities

133

6th International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications  

CERN Document Server

The 6th FTRA International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA-14) will be held in Guam, USA, Dec. 17 - 19, 2014. CSA-14 presents a comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in engineering systems in computer science, and applications, including ubiquitous computing, U-Health care system, Big Data, UI/UX for human-centric computing, Computing Service, Bioinformatics and Bio-Inspired Computing and will show recent advances on various aspects of computing technology, Ubiquitous Computing Services and its application.

Stojmenovic, Ivan; Jeong, Hwa; Yi, Gangman

2015-01-01

134

Grade 7-9 Students’ Perceptions of Energy and Related Concepts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to determine how, after the implementation of the new elementary school Science and Technology Course curriculum, 7th and 9th grade students perceive, construct in their mind the concept of energy and related concepts; and how the perceptions change over time. Thus, a questionnaire consisting of four open-ended questions was administrated to a total of 120 among 6th-, 7th- and 8th-grade students. A qualitative analysis of the data indicated that students have difficult...

Aytekin Çökelez; Sinan Ayaz; Kemal Yürümezo?lu

2009-01-01

135

The AMES network in the 6th Framework Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AMES (Ageing Materials European Strategy) European network started its activity in 1993 with the aim of studying ageing mechanisms and remedial procedures for structural materials used for nuclear reactor components. Operated by JRC-IE, it has been supporting the co-ordination of the project cluster throughout the 4th and 5th EURATOM Framework Programs, carrying out projects on with plant life management implications. Among them we can list the development of non-destructive techniques applied to thermal ageing and neutron embrittlement monitoring (AMES-NDT and GRETE), improved surveillance for VVER 440 reactors (COBRA), dosimetry (AMESDOSIMETRY, MADAM and REDOS), chemical composition effects on neutron embrittlement (PISA) and advanced fracture mechanics for integrity assessment (FRAME). Main frame of the network in the 5th Framework Programme is the ATHENA project, which is aimed at summarizing the obtained achievements and edit guidelines on important issues like the Master Curve, Effect of chemical composition on embrittlement rate in RPV steels, Re-embrittlement models validation after VVER-440 annealing and open issues in embrittlement of VVER type reactors. In the 6th EURATOM Framework Programme started in 2003 the network will be part of a broader initiative on PLIM including in a more integrated way NESC, ENIQ, NET and AMALIA networks. This paper shows an overview of the concluded projects, achievements of the running ones and open issues tackled in the 6th EURATOM FWP and a summary of the plans for a new broader network on NPP Plant Life management (SAFELIFE). (author)

136

Oral Language: Primary and Elementary Levels; Elementary, Grades 4-6. Predrafted Individual Short-Term Plan/Records: Directions for Resource Teachers, Teachers and Aides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The predrafted Oregon Individual Short-Term Plan/Records on oral language (grades 4-6), covering skills such as listening comprehension, critical listening, personal listening, oral expression, and vocabulary development, were designed for migrant children who attend a school for only 2 to 6 weeks. Migrant education teachers who had made extensive…

Olinger, Judy, Comp.; Lugo, Alfredo M., Comp.

137

The effects of a classroom-based social skills training program on the levels of assertiveness and aggressiveness of fourth-grade elementary school students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an classroom-based social skills training program on the levels of assertiveness and aggressiveness of fourth-grade elementary students. Subjects of the study are composed of 51 fourth-grade students. Twenty five of these students are assigned to experimental group and 26 of them are assigned to control group. Social skills training program was implemented to the experimental group for 10 weeks. However, no procedure was applied to the control group. The data obtained before and after the program were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results of the study revealed that the classroom-based social skills training program was effective in increasing the level of assertiveness of students in experimental group, but the program was not effective in decreasing the the level of aggressiveness.

Asl? Uz Ba?

2010-09-01

138

6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference  

CERN Document Server

This book collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts and presents the proceedings of the 6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference (IP&C 2014) held in Bydgoszcz, 10-12 September 2014. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods  of image processing, computer vision  is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered.

2015-01-01

139

Proceedings of the 6th symposium on advanced photon research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at JAERI-Kansai in Kyoto on November 4-5, 2004. The symposium has been held once a year since 1999, to promote the advanced photon research through speeches, information exchanges, discussion by researchers on the front line of advanced photon research in Japan and abroad, not only reports of latest research results and plans at Advanced Photon Research Center. The numbers of speeches were 16, including 5 invited speeches, and the numbers of poster presentations were 56, including the report of presentations and cooperative research and joint research performed in FY2003. The 56 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

140

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Dairy Industry. Grade 3. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on the occupational clusters of health and manufacturing, this unit entitled "The Dairy Industry" is one of four grade 3 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC)…

Briggs, Gail; And Others

142

6th Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration, annual meeting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration (GCNN) and 5th Society for Study on Neuroplasticity and Neuroregeneration (SSNN) conference was held jointly in the Hilton Hotel, Vienna, Austria, 1-4 March 2009. This was the second annual joint conference of the two societies and it was highly successful from a scientific point of view, as it saw a gathering of the top basic and clinical scientists whose research is currently at the cutting edge of neuroscience. This conference saw 86 invited lectures from carefully selected leading scientists from around the world, along with 56 posters of young scientists researching of a focal theme. Over the 3 days, in 32 sessions, new developments in neuroprotection and new ways to enhance neuroregeneration were discussed intensively among more than 600 delegates. In addition, approximately 40 representatives of drug companies, five representatives from scientific publishers and 14 representatives from scientific instruments and supplies-related industries also actively participated in this huge neuroscience event. The GCNN and SSNN conference achieved a new milestone in scientific success in Vienna and established an excellent new working collaboration among the participants in a pleasant, enriched environment with several social gatherings. PMID:19589044

Sharma, Hari Shanker; Sharma, Aruna

2009-07-01

143

Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

144

INGESTA DE MACRONUTRIENTES Y PREVALENCIA DE MALNUTRICIÓN POR EXCESO EN ESCOLARES DE 5º Y 6º BÁSICO DE DISTINTO NIVEL SOCIOECONÓMICO DE LA REGIÓN METROPOLITANA / MACRONUTRIENTS INTAKE AND OVERWEIGHT PREVALENCE IN 5TH AND 6TH GRADE OF DIFERENTS SOCIOEOCONOMIC LEVELS IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil se han transformado en un importante problema en salud pública. Objetivo: evaluar la ingesta de macronutrientes y determinar la prevalencia de malnutrición en escolares de 5° y 6º año básico de distintos niveles socioeconómicos de 6 comunas de la Región Metropolit [...] ana. Sujetos y método: se evaluaron 1732 niños de ambos sexos de 9 a 12 años de edad. La evaluación antropométrica incluyo peso, talla, pliegue tricipital y subescapular. La ingesta de macronutrientes se evaluó mediante la aplicación de una encuesta recordatorio de 24 hrs; el nivel socioeconómico se evaluó mediante la aplicación la encuesta ESOMAR. Resultados: la prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso fue de 40%, siendo más importante en hombres de los estratos socioeconómicos de menores ingresos. Encontramos un mayor consumo de proteínas y grasas totales en el nivel socioeconómico más alto, mientras que el nivel de menores ingresos tuvo una mayor ingesta de carbohidratos. Tanto hombres como mujeres presentaron una adecuación superior al 75% en todos los macronutrientes con excepción de la fibra. Conclusión: El estudio arrojó una elevada prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso en ambos sexos con un mejor patrón de alimentación en los niños de nivel socioeconómico alto. Abstract in english Obesity in childhood has become an important publie health problem in Chile. Objetive: to study macronutrient intake and nutritional status in school-age children attending5th andóth grade inprimary schoolsfrom different socioeconomic status located in 6 counties in Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total [...] of 1,732 children between 9 and 12 years oldjrom both sexes were studied. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and tricipital and subescapular thickness. Macronutrient intake was determined using a 24-hours recall survey. Socioeconomic status was estimated using the ESOMAR survey. Results: In this sample overweight and obesity prevalence reached 40%. Prevalence was higher in boys and in the lower socio-economic groups. A higher consumption ofproteins andfat wasfound in the wealthier groups, while a higher intake of carbohydrates was present in the poorer ones. Comparison with the daily recommended allowancesfound that both males andfemales hada 75% ofadequacy of all ofmacronutrients with the exception offiber. Conclusión: The study revealeda highprevalence ofmalnutrition in both sexes with a better nutrition standard among children in higher socioeconomic status.

Yéssica, Liberona Z; Valerie, Engler T; Oscar, Castillo V; Luis, Villarroel del P; Jaime, Rozowski N.

2008-09-01

145

GROWING PATTERNS AND COMPARISON OF KNOWLEDGE BETWEEN PUPILS OF 5TH AND 9TH GRADE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the thesis was to research knowledge differences about growing patterns among pupils of fifth and ninth grade of primary school. Further aim was to establish whether growing patterns were sufficiently emphasized subject in lessons and whether there were differences in pupils’ knowledge according to sex, grade and their success at mathematics. The thesis consists of theoretical and empirical part. The theoretical part presents the definition of a pattern, the types of patterns...

Smolovic?, Sanja

2013-01-01

146

PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

2012-02-01

147

[The cardiovascular system function of the cosmonauts of the 6th prime expedition on the Mir station].  

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Medical results of inflight cardiovascular measurements made in the 6th prime crew at rest and during provocative graded bicycle exercises and LBNP tests are presented. The methods of electrocardiography, tetrapolar rheography, kinetocardiography, arteriovenous pulsography and tacho-oscillography have been used to examine the cosmonauts. Together with regular cardiovascular changes typical of microgravity effect the individual peculiarities of developing the control mechanisms are noted. Thus in one of the cosmonauts a number of symptoms responsible for a decreased venous return. As a whole the functional state of the cardiovascular system on all flight stages was characterized by a sufficiently high physiological level. PMID:1297492

Poliakov, V V; Anashkin, O D; Alferova, I V; Turchaninova, V F; Golubchikova, Z A; Poliakova, A P; Liamin, V R; Turbasov, V D; Nalizhity?, V M; Kulev, A P

1992-01-01

148

The Effects of Cooperative Learning Method Supported by Multiple Intelligence Theory on Elementary School Third Grade Students’ Academic Achievement on Mathematics Course  

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Full Text Available In the present experimental study, the effects of cooperative learning method supported by mutliple intelligence theory (CLMI on elementary school third grade students’ achievement on mathematics were investigated. The study, which had lasted nine consecutive weeks, was conducted at a public elementary school in thedistrict of Seyhan-Adana, Turkey in 2004-2005 academic year. The participants of the study were 85 students. For the purpose of this study, on experimental group cooperative learning method supported by mutliple intelligence theory (CLMI was used as the method of instruction whereas the control groups were instructured utilizing the traditional teacher oriented method. “Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT”, “Teele Inventory of Multiple Intelligences (TIMI” and “Personal Information Form (PIF” were used as the measurement instruments of the study. MAT was administered as pretest and posttest to the experimental and control groups. Furthermore, prior to the study TIMI and PIF (for getting personal information about students were administered to all the participants. They also were used in order to constitute the cooperative learning teams in the experimental group. In this research, the data obtained by achivement test was analysed by using statistical techniques of covariance analysis.As a result, there was a statistically significant difference among experimental group and second control group in favor of the experimental group in the achivement test. Moreover, no statically significant differences were observed among the experimental group and the observed – directed group (first control group.

Dilek I?IK

2007-06-01

149

International political socialization of sixth grade elementary children: What and how do Japanese and Thai children know about the world?  

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This study investigates cognitive and affective components of Japanese and Thai children's attitudes toward international political socialization. The survey results report how children feel about people from other nations, international political institutions, and their country's involvement with the world community. An important concern of the study is the assessment of how much accurate knowledge Japanese and Thai elementary school children have about other nations. This study includes information on children's feelings about, and knowledge of such problems as warfare between nations, world government, stereotypic thinking about people not belonging to one's own culture and awareness of cross-cultural diffusion between Japan, Thailand and other nations.

Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

1981-09-01

150

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 1), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 1, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This is Part 1 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 1 includes the commentary for chapters 1 through 5. Topics covered include congruence, numbers and number bases, subtraction of numbers, division of numbers, and elementary geometry. References to the student text are cited. (RH)

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

151

Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.  

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The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools. PMID:23940980

Selmanovi?, Aleksandar; Milanovi?, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

2013-06-01

152

Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium  

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This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Symposium of the European VLBI Network, held in Bonn on 25-28 June 2002. The initial aim of these biennial gatherings of European VLBI practitioners was to review in a timely manner new results and technical developments related to Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Now, however, interest and participation in the EVN Symposia reaches far beyond Europe, reflecting the fact that scientific research and development programs are carried out to a high degree in international and often truly global collaborations. More than 120 scientists from around the world registered for participation in the Symposium. The Symposium was hosted by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie and was held at the Gustav Stresemann Institut. In addition to the scientific sessions and poster presentations, the program included an EVN Users Meeting, an MPIfR versus Rest-of-the-World football match (highly appropriate given the competing World Cup event!), a visit to the MPIfR's 100m radio telescope in Effelsberg, and a Conference Dinner held in the nearby old walled town of Bad Müunstereifel. To maximize the usefulness of these proceedings (and possibly as a daring precedent) the Editors decided to demand the written versions of talks and posters and to complete the editorial work before the meeting, and to deliver the book to the participants at the beginning of the Symposium. We thank the authors for their cooperation in delivering publication-ready electronic manuscripts and for meeting the strict deadlines. It is highly gratifying that only a handful of the 100 presentations are not represented in this volume. The editors have made minor changes to some of the contributions in order to improve readability, and take responsibility for any errors arising from these changes. Besides the authors, many individuals have contributed to the preparation of the meeting and its proceedings. In addition to many members of the MPIfR staff, we especially wish to thank: W. Alef, U. Bach, E. Fürst, E. Fingas, L. Fuhrmann, L. Gurvits, N. Junkes, M. Kadler, A. Kraus, E. Middelberg, P. Müller, B. Naunheim, J. Schmidt, and R. Schwartz. Financial support for the Symposium came from the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, from the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission (IHP - Infrastructure Cooperation Networks, contract number HPRI-CT-1999-400003), and from the Max Planck Research Prize for International Collaboration.

Ros, Eduardo; Porcas, Richard W.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Zensus, J. Anton

153

The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, General Pyrometallurgy, Vessel Integrity, Process Gas Treatment; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Process Control, Process Modeling, Vol. 3: Light metals, General Hydrometallurgy, Precious Metals; Vol. 4: Process Metallurgy, Recycling, Waste Treatment and Prevention, Vol 5: Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, waste effluents Treatment and Biohydrometallurgical application. The plenary lectures will be published in the scientific journal 'World of Metallurgy - ERZMETALL', which is published by the GDMB.

Sre?ko R. Stopi?

2011-10-01

154

THE FREQUENCY OF CULTURE-SPECIFIC ELEMENTS IN THE ELT COURSEBOOKS AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN TURKEY  

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Full Text Available Providing cultural elements within the textbook contents is crucial for foreign language learners so that they can attain the authentic language appropriately involving some culture specific expressions that are commonly used in communication. Therefore, it is important for Turkish English learners to understand target culture for effective intercultural interactions. However, most of the course materials at elementary education in Turkey avoid including culture specific expressions as most of the course book writers are not native speakers but Turkish. The present paper pins down this issue by figuring out how much the course books focus on the culture specific expressions in foreign language teaching. To do this, three different randomly selected course books from the 6th, 7th and 8th grades at elementary education in Turkey have been evaluated in terms of the culture specific expressions. After analysing the course books the list and percentage of the cultural expressions will be portrayed.

?smail ÇAKIR

2010-10-01

155

Elementary Students’ Levels of Realization of Basic Concepts related with Environment Problem  

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Full Text Available This paper explores elementary students’ levels of recognition of basic concepts about environmental problems. 86 students at 6th, 7th and 8th grades studying in central elementary schools of K?r?kkale participated in this study. Students’ awareness and preliminary knowledge of environmental problems and their sensitivities towards environment were determined by using open ended questions. According to the findings of this study, the students were mostly aware of the environmental problems stemming from environmental contamination, air pollution and waste materials. Moreover, the students mostly answered the questions correctly regarding with the environmental problems they frequently face in daily life whereas the answers to the questions regarding with the current environmental problems that are infrequently handled in educational institutions such as greenhouse effect, global warming etc. were occasionally incorrect; and in certain cases, the answers even contained a number of misconceptions. Moreover, the levels of students’ sensitivity towards environment were found to be sufficient.

Hüseyin Miraç Pekta?

2009-12-01

156

Evaluating and Improving a Learning Trajectory for Linear Measurement in Elementary Grades 2 and 3: A Longitudinal Study  

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We examined children's development of strategic and conceptual knowledge for linear measurement. We conducted teaching experiments with eight students in grades 2 and 3, based on our hypothetical learning trajectory for length to check its coherence and to strengthen the domain-specific model for learning and teaching. We checked the hierarchical…

Barrett, Jeffrey E.; Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H.; Cullen, Craig; McCool, Jenni; Witkowski-Rumsey, Chepina; Klanderman, David

2012-01-01

157

Validating Craft Knowledge: An Empirical Examination of Elementary-Grade Students' Performance on an Informal Reading Assessment  

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This longitudinal study investigated children's performance on several informal reading and spelling tasks. Students (n = 274) in a rural North Carolina county were assessed across grades 2 to 6 on the following measures: isolated word recognition (timed and untimed), oral reading accuracy, reading comprehension, reading rate, and spelling.…

Morris, Darrell; Bloodgood, Janet W.; Perney, Jan; Frye, Elizabeth M.; Kucan, Linda; Trathen, Woodrow; Ward, Devery; Schlagal, Robert

2011-01-01

158

Sex education in Slovenian primary school from 6th to 9th grade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Origin: Sexuality has existed ever since of the man kind. Freud discovered that children go through five stages of sexual development, which prepares them for a healthy adulthood. Modern-day advocates of sexuality who support this thesis are adding that sexuality is not limited to sexual intercourse, but is a constituent part of healthy human relations. World Health Organization plays an important role in the introduction of sex education in school programs and also unites medical-health para...

Hribar Babinski, Ula

2012-01-01

159

The Impact of Incorrect Examples on Learning Fractions: A Field Experiment with 6th Grade Students  

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Educational research indicates that error reflection, especially reflection on incorrect examples, has a positive effect on knowledge acquisition. The benefit of error reflections might be explained by the extended knowledge of incorrect strategies and concepts (negative knowledge) which fosters the learning of new content. In a field experiment…

Heemsoth, Tim; Heinze, Aiso

2014-01-01

160

The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS 15.0/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘...

Hakan Sar?çam; Elifcan Y?lmaz; Arzu Gülbahçe; Öner Gülbahçe; Mehmet Çardak

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Semiologia neurológica numa população de escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental / Neurologic examination of a group of children attending first grade of a elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliamos escolares de primeira série do ensino fundamental, utilizando semiologia neurológica. Foram convidados, sem o conhecimento prévio do desempenho escolar, todos os alunos que frequentavam 5 classes de primeira série do primeiro grau de uma escola pública escolhida ao acaso, no município de I [...] tatiba / São Paulo, cujos pais assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram excluídos aqueles cujos pais não assinaram esse termo ou não compareceram a 3 consultas agendadas em dias diferentes. Utilizou-se o Exame Neurológico Tradicional (ENT) (Lefèvre, 1972). Considerou-se como normal a realização de todas as provas do ENT e as medidas do perímetro craniano propostas por Diament & Rodrigues (1976). Os dados foram armazenados em banco de dados do programa Epi6 (Epidemiologic Information). Os resultados foram analisados pelo cálculo de porcentagem e pelo teste c2. O nível de significância foi 0,05. Foram avaliados 124 alunos. O ENT foi normal em 87 (70,16%) e alterado em 37 (29,83%) escolares. Entre as alterações, foram observados: leve tremor, leve hipotonia muscular, atraso na aquisição da fala, macrocefalia, microcefalia, hiperatividade, síndrome de nervo craniano e paresia facial central. Um escolar apresentou síndrome de liberação piramidal nos membros inferiores. Abstract in english We evaluated children in the first grade of a elementary school using neurological examination. With no previous knowledgement of their educational performance, were invited all children attending five classes of the first grade of an elementary public school chosen randomly, in Itatiba / Sao Paulo [...] / Brazil, whose parents assigned a Commitment Term for participation in this research. Children who missed three evaluations in different days or whose parents did not assigned the Commitment Term were excluded. The Traditional Neurological Examination (ENT) (Lefevre, 1972) was applied. It was considered for normal the measurement of the skull circumference, proposed by Diament & Rodrigues (1976), and the application of all ENT items. The data were stored in a database of the Epi6 Program (Epidemiologic Information), and analyzed by percentage calculation and by the c2 test. The significance level was 0.05. Children evaluated were 124. The ENT results were normal in 87 (70.16%) and altered in 37 (29.83%). Among the alterations, there were observed: light tremor, light muscular hypotonia, speech acquisition delay, macrocephaly, microcephaly, hyperactivity, cranial nerve syndrome, central facial paralysis. One child presented corticospinal tract impairment syndrome of the distal lower extremities.

VANDA M. G., GONÇALVES; JOSIANE M. F., TONELOTTO; SOLANGE G., RAVANINI.

162

Habilidades de letramento após intervenção fonoaudiológica em crianças do 1º ano do ensino fundamental / Literacy abilities of first grade elementary school children after speech and language intervention  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia de um Programa Fonoaudiológico de Estimulação do Letramento - PFEL, em crianças do 1° ano do Ensino Fundamental, em relação à efetividade deste nas habilidades de letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e leitura. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete crianças, de ambos os gê [...] neros, com média de idade de sete anos e um mês, cursando o 1º ano do Ensino Fundamental realizaram avaliação, pré e após intervenção fonoaudiológica, do letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e nível de leitura. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação pré-PFEL a média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento foi de 28,90%; todos os sujeitos apresentaram alteração no vocabulário; obtiveram escore médio de 24,65 no CONFIAS e a maioria das crianças avaliadas encontrava-se no nível logográfico de leitura. Pós-PFEL os sujeitos apresentaram média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento igual a 40,05%; mantiveram déficit no vocabulário; escore médio no CONFIAS de 34,62 e a maioria dos sujeitos permaneceu no nível logográfico. CONCLUSÃO: O programa desenvolvido nesse estudo mostrou-se eficaz, promovendo mudanças qualitativas relevantes no vocabulário, letramento, consciência fonológica e leitura, apesar de quantitativamente, os resultados não evidenciarem significância estatística. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the effectiveness of the Speech-Language Pathology Program of Literacy Stimulation (PFEL) over literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading abilities of first grade elementary school children. METHODS: Thirty seven children of both genders, who attended the first grade [...] of elementary school and had, in average, seven years and one month of age participated in this study. Subjects carried out pre and post speech-language intervention assessments regarding literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading level. RESULTS: In the assessment carried out before PFEL, the percentual mean of correct answers in the literacy test was 28.90%; all subjects showed vocabulary deficits; the mean score on the CONFIAS test was 24.65, and the majority of the children assessed were at the logographic level of reading. In the post-PFEL assessment, subjects showed a mean percentage of correct answers in the literacy test of 40.05%; they kept the vocabulary deficit and remained at the logographic level of reading; the mean CONFIAS score was 34.62. CONCLUSION: The literacy program developed in this study was effective in promoting relevant qualitative changes in vocabulary, literacy, phonological awareness and reading abilities, even though the quantitative results did not show statistically significant differences.

Carmen Lúcia Romão, Brito; Catharina Pinto Queirós, Uzêda; Jaqueline Gonçalves, Vieira; Laura Giotto, Cavalheiro.

163

Relationship between Grade Span Configuration and Academic Achievement  

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The relationship between grade span configuration and academic achievement of 6th-grade students as measured by the Arkansas Benchmark Examination, which is the approved NCLB criterion-referenced annual assessment, was examined. The results of a one-between two-within analysis of variance for the 3-year state-wide study of 6th graders' combined…

Dove, Mary Jane; Pearson, L. Carolyn; Hooper, Herbert

2010-01-01

164

The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS 15.0/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘t test’ was used for determine the difference among the groups and ‘Pearson Moment Correlation Analysis’ was used for determine correlation among variables. In this study different abilities were examined in the subhead of Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, and General Ability. It was found in this study that there is a meaningful relation between Sef-Esttem and Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, General Ability, Assertiveness. In the view of the preceding findings, and in the scope of academic success this study is discussed and leads other investigations and applications.

Hakan Sar?çam

2013-03-01

165

Investigating Elementary School Students' Perceptions about Environment through Their Drawings  

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The purpose of this study is to determine elementary school students' perceptions about environment through their drawings. The study was carried out during the spring semester of 2010-2011 academic year. A total of 429 elementary school students, including 68 fourth grade, 78 fifth grade, 97 sixth grade, 85 seventh grade, 101 eighth grade,…

Ozsoy, Sibel

2012-01-01

166

Report of the 6th Tanzania Joint Annual Health Sector Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 6th Annual Joint Health Sector Review was concluded successfully at Kunduchi Beach hotel, between 4th and 6th April 2005. It was preceded by a Technical preparatory meeting, held at Belinda Hotel. This year’s was the largest Review yet, with over 200 participants. As well as government and donor representatives, the meeting was attended by a variety of civil society and NGO representatives. The Honourable Minister of Health opened the meeting. Judged by the milestones, performance over ...

Smithson, Paul

2005-01-01

167

Sexuality education in the elementary school.  

Science.gov (United States)

The widespread movement to educate children about child abuse may not be teaching children about other human sexuality dimensions. This article discusses 1) the need for a more balanced approach to sex education than this prevention model allowd, and 2) programs to implement sex education within elementary schools. Kindergarden through 3rd grade children ask simple and direct questions; by 5th and 6th grade, questions are more urgent and indicate the need for a comprehensive family life education program. The author mentions a Chicago, Illinois program for 1st, 2nd and 3rd graders, and the New Jersey Board of Education mandate for K-12 family life education. Among program benefits parents mention when they are included in planning meetings are that children will 1) respect themselves and others, 2) have more accurate information, 3) be free to make their own choices regardless of peer and media pressures, 4) be able to make informed decisions, 5) be better able to handle sexual advances, and 6) that parents will be better able to teach their children about sex. Lack of models, resources, and guidelines has hampered program development for the lower grades. The teacher is the single most important factor in any family life education program. Experienced elementary teachers already have the personal and teaching skills necessary for good sexuality educators, and often after brief training in the subject matter, can integrate family life units into their lesson plans. At a training workshop, teachers ideally will 1) learn the solid rationale for adding the gprogram to the curriculum, 2) recognize, at a personal level, the importance of sex education, and 3) understand their own role and how to prepare for it. Training should give the teachers time to reflect on their own sex education and feelings, and to help them examine their own biases, assumptions and areas of discomfort. The author emphasizes that the elementary school is a natural environment for sex education and the need for programs that are not problem-oriented, but that encourage personal development of the whole child. PMID:12340552

Brick, P

1985-01-01

168

Estrategias metodológicas basadas en tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones elementales sobre mezclas en el 6° grado de educación básica / Stratégies méthodologiques basées sur la technologie pharmaceutique pour promouvoir l’acquisition de notions élémentaires de mélanges en 6ème degré d’éducation basique / Methodological strategies based on pharmaceutical tecnology to promote the acquisition of basic notions about mixtures in the 6º grade of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Venezuela, un país productor de materias primas, requiere de un proceso educativo que conecte al estudiante con la tecnología, que adicionalmente aporte sentido práctico a tópicos generalmente abstractos e implique incidencias positivas en el rendimiento escolar. La presente investigación tuvo como [...] objetivo el desarrollo de estrategias metodológicas, basadas en la tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones sobre mezclas en alumnos del 6° grado de Educación Básica. Se realizó una investigación de campo experimental, con carácter exploratorio y evaluativo. La muestra estuvo conformada por los alumnos del 6° grado de la Escuela Básica “Trino Celis Ríos”, ubicada en Maracay, Edo. Aragua. Un grupo experimental realizó actividades de laboratorio: elaboraron un jarabe, una crema a base de sábila y una loción para la piel. Se aplicaron pruebas antes y después. Mediante análisis de varianza se establecieron diferencias significativas entre el grupo control y el experimental. La estrategia aplicada promovió efectivamente el aprendizaje del concepto de mezclas y los distintos tipos de éstas en estudiantes. Adicionalmente, resultó ser innovadora, práctica y de bajo costo, una importante conexión ciencia-tecnología y un aporte positivo significativo en el rendimiento estudiantil. Abstract in english Venezuela, a raw material producing country, requires an educational process connecting students with technology. Such process should give a practical sense to topics that are generally abstract and involve positive incidences for the students’ performance. This investigation was intended to develop [...] methodological strategies, based on the pharmaceutical technology promoting the acquisition of knowledge about mixtures by students of 6th grade of elementary school. An experimental, exploratory, evaluative research was conducted on campus with a sample of a group of students of the 6th grade from the “Trino Celis Ríos School” located in Maracay, Edo. Aragua. An experimental group conducted laboratory activities including the preparation of a syrup, an Aloe Vera-based cream and a skin lotion. Tests were administered before and after the activities. Signifi cant differences between the control group and the experimental group were established through variation analysis. The strategy applied promoted effectively the learning by students regarding mixture concept and kinds. Additionally, this strategy was innovative, useful and cheaper, an important connection between science and technology and a signifi cant positive contribution to students’ performance.

Blanca, Castillo; Martha, Ruedas.

169

Estrategias metodológicas basadas en tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones elementales sobre mezclas en el 6° grado de educación básica / Stratégies méthodologiques basées sur la technologie pharmaceutique pour promouvoir l’acquisition de notions élémentaires de mélanges en 6ème degré d’éducation basique / Methodological strategies based on pharmaceutical tecnology to promote the acquisition of basic notions about mixtures in the 6º grade of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Venezuela, un país productor de materias primas, requiere de un proceso educativo que conecte al estudiante con la tecnología, que adicionalmente aporte sentido práctico a tópicos generalmente abstractos e implique incidencias positivas en el rendimiento escolar. La presente investigación tuvo como [...] objetivo el desarrollo de estrategias metodológicas, basadas en la tecnología farmacéutica para promover la adquisición de nociones sobre mezclas en alumnos del 6° grado de Educación Básica. Se realizó una investigación de campo experimental, con carácter exploratorio y evaluativo. La muestra estuvo conformada por los alumnos del 6° grado de la Escuela Básica “Trino Celis Ríos”, ubicada en Maracay, Edo. Aragua. Un grupo experimental realizó actividades de laboratorio: elaboraron un jarabe, una crema a base de sábila y una loción para la piel. Se aplicaron pruebas antes y después. Mediante análisis de varianza se establecieron diferencias significativas entre el grupo control y el experimental. La estrategia aplicada promovió efectivamente el aprendizaje del concepto de mezclas y los distintos tipos de éstas en estudiantes. Adicionalmente, resultó ser innovadora, práctica y de bajo costo, una importante conexión ciencia-tecnología y un aporte positivo significativo en el rendimiento estudiantil. Abstract in english Venezuela, a raw material producing country, requires an educational process connecting students with technology. Such process should give a practical sense to topics that are generally abstract and involve positive incidences for the students’ performance. This investigation was intended to develop [...] methodological strategies, based on the pharmaceutical technology promoting the acquisition of knowledge about mixtures by students of 6th grade of elementary school. An experimental, exploratory, evaluative research was conducted on campus with a sample of a group of students of the 6th grade from the “Trino Celis Ríos School” located in Maracay, Edo. Aragua. An experimental group conducted laboratory activities including the preparation of a syrup, an Aloe Vera-based cream and a skin lotion. Tests were administered before and after the activities. Signifi cant differences between the control group and the experimental group were established through variation analysis. The strategy applied promoted effectively the learning by students regarding mixture concept and kinds. Additionally, this strategy was innovative, useful and cheaper, an important connection between science and technology and a signifi cant positive contribution to students’ performance.

Blanca, Castillo; Martha, Ruedas.

2007-01-01

170

Quality of school life and self-concept among elementary school students  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate, how much the dimensions of Children Self-Concept Scale, “Behavior”, “Intellectual and school status”, “Physical appearance and attributes”, “Anxiety”, “Popularity” and “Happiness” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions about quality of life in their school’s. The participants of the study consist of 493 students (235 girls and 258 boys who attended to 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades from four elementary schools located in Adana central province, Turkey. Quality of School Life Scale (QSLS and “Children Self-Concept Scale” were used as data collection tools. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to analyze the gathered data. Results show that, all dimensions of Children Self-concept Scale have significant correlations with quality of school life (p<.001. Results of hierarchic regression analysis show that, the variables of “Behavior”, “Popularity”, “Happiness”, “Intellectual and school status” and “Anxiety” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of school life significantly; but the variable of “Physical appearance and attributes” has no significant contribution to the estimation. It was found that, the variable of “Behavior” has the highest contribution to the estimation of students’ quality of school life among these five variables which could be account for 29.2% of the total variance of elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of their school life.

Mediha Sar?

2008-10-01

171

Aluno-autor: a aprendizagem da escrita literária nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Student-author: learning literary writing in the early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisa etnográfica sobre a escrita do texto literário realizada numa turma de 4º ano do ensino fundamental municipal de Curitiba. O estudo parte do conceito de aluno-autor, criado por Catherine Tauveron para sustentar o argumento de que a escola pode desenvolver nas crianças pequenas uma postura d [...] e autor. O artigo analisa dois textos produzidos por alunos, sendo um deles uma narrativa, e o outro, uma fábula. Paralelamente, apresenta as estratégias adotadas pelo professor para familiarizar os alunos com as características dos gêneros literários, como forma de nortear a sua escrita, de modo a contemplarem em seus textos os elementos da arquitetura desses gêneros, como tema, intriga, narrador, ponto de vista, personagem, estrutura, sequência, coerência, verossimilhança, espaço e tempo. Enfatiza, ainda, o papel do professor como responsável por instigar a reflexão dos alunos sobre sua escrita e criar as condições pedagógicas para que escrevam com prazer, autonomia e criatividade. Abstract in english This is an ethnographic research on literary text writing carried out with a 4th grade class of a municipal elementary school in Curitiba, Brazil. The study is based on Catherine Tauveron's concept of student-author, which supports that schools can induce the development of author's attitude in smal [...] l children. The paper analyzes two texts prepared by students: a narrative and a fable. It also presents the strategies used by the teacher to familiarize students with the characteristics of literary genres, as a means to organize their writing, so that they include elements of the common architecture of genres in their texts, such as theme, intrigue, narrator, point of view, character, structure, sequence, coherence, verisimilitude, space and time. It also emphasizes the role of teachers as responsible for enticing students to think about their writing and creating the pedagogic conditions so students write with pleasure, autonomy and creativity.

Elisa Maria, Dalla-Bona; Leilah Santiago, Bufrem.

2013-03-01

172

Prevalência de transtornos fonológicos em crianças do primeiro ano do ensino fundamental / Prevalence of phonological disorders in first grade students of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de transtornos fonológicos e verificar a sensibilidade e especificidade do Teste de Rastreamento de Distúrbios Articulatórios de Fala (TERDAF), a partir de sua adaptação, em escolares do primeiro ano do ensino fundamental de Montes Claros, MG (Brasil). MÉTODOS: As [...] crianças foram alocadas de forma aleatória em amostragem por conglomerados em 56 escolas públicas no município. Foram avaliadas 587 crianças com média de idade de 6 anos e 6 meses por meio do TERDAF adaptado e, para verificar a sensibilidade e especificidade do teste, 229 delas foram submetidas à Avaliação Diagnóstica da Fala, considerada padrão-ouro. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de transtornos fonológicos foi de 36,2%. O teste apresentou sensibilidade de 94,0%, porém baixa especificidade (41,1%). Ao considerar as variações linguísticas como produção normal, o teste mostrou sensibilidade de 86,7%, especificidade de 75,3%, valor preditivo positivo de 66,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 90,9%. CONCLUSÃO: Encontrou-se alta prevalência de transtornos fonológicos. Dado que maioria dos sujeitos não reconheceu alguma figura e o fato de terem ocorrido produções que refletem condições socioculturais, o teste deverá ser revisado para obter maior acurácia na identificação de transtornos fonológicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence of phonological disorders and to verify the sensitivity and specificity of the adapted Speech Disorder Screening Test (TERDAF) in first grade students of elementary school in Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). METHODS: Children were randomly assigned into cluster samplin [...] g in 56 public schools in the city. We assessed 587 children with a mean age of 6 years and 6 months using the adapted TERDAF; to verify the test's sensitivity and specificity, 229 of them were also assessed using the Speech Diagnosis Assessment, considered golden standard method. RESULTS: The prevalence of phonological disorders was 36.2%. The test presented sensitivity of 94.0%, but low specificity (41.1%). Considering the linguistic variations as normal production, the test had sensitivity of 86.7%, specificity of 75.3%, positive predictive value of 66.7% and negative predictive value of 90.9%. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of phonological disorders was found. Due to the fact that most subjects did not recognize some picture and also that productions reflecting socio-cultural conditions occurred, the test must be further reviewed in order to be more accurate in the identification of phonological disorders.

Luiza Augusta Rosa, Rossi-Barbosa; Antônio Prates, Caldeira; Rodrigo, Honorato-Marques; Reila Freitas, Silva.

2011-09-01

173

Prevalência de transtornos fonológicos em crianças do primeiro ano do ensino fundamental / Prevalence of phonological disorders in first grade students of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de transtornos fonológicos e verificar a sensibilidade e especificidade do Teste de Rastreamento de Distúrbios Articulatórios de Fala (TERDAF), a partir de sua adaptação, em escolares do primeiro ano do ensino fundamental de Montes Claros, MG (Brasil). MÉTODOS: As [...] crianças foram alocadas de forma aleatória em amostragem por conglomerados em 56 escolas públicas no município. Foram avaliadas 587 crianças com média de idade de 6 anos e 6 meses por meio do TERDAF adaptado e, para verificar a sensibilidade e especificidade do teste, 229 delas foram submetidas à Avaliação Diagnóstica da Fala, considerada padrão-ouro. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de transtornos fonológicos foi de 36,2%. O teste apresentou sensibilidade de 94,0%, porém baixa especificidade (41,1%). Ao considerar as variações linguísticas como produção normal, o teste mostrou sensibilidade de 86,7%, especificidade de 75,3%, valor preditivo positivo de 66,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 90,9%. CONCLUSÃO: Encontrou-se alta prevalência de transtornos fonológicos. Dado que maioria dos sujeitos não reconheceu alguma figura e o fato de terem ocorrido produções que refletem condições socioculturais, o teste deverá ser revisado para obter maior acurácia na identificação de transtornos fonológicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence of phonological disorders and to verify the sensitivity and specificity of the adapted Speech Disorder Screening Test (TERDAF) in first grade students of elementary school in Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). METHODS: Children were randomly assigned into cluster samplin [...] g in 56 public schools in the city. We assessed 587 children with a mean age of 6 years and 6 months using the adapted TERDAF; to verify the test's sensitivity and specificity, 229 of them were also assessed using the Speech Diagnosis Assessment, considered golden standard method. RESULTS: The prevalence of phonological disorders was 36.2%. The test presented sensitivity of 94.0%, but low specificity (41.1%). Considering the linguistic variations as normal production, the test had sensitivity of 86.7%, specificity of 75.3%, positive predictive value of 66.7% and negative predictive value of 90.9%. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of phonological disorders was found. Due to the fact that most subjects did not recognize some picture and also that productions reflecting socio-cultural conditions occurred, the test must be further reviewed in order to be more accurate in the identification of phonological disorders.

Luiza Augusta Rosa, Rossi-Barbosa; Antônio Prates, Caldeira; Rodrigo, Honorato-Marques; Reila Freitas, Silva.

174

Vitrification vs. slow cooling protocol using embryos cryopreserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval and IVF outcomes.  

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Full Text Available Modifying cryopreservation protocols may be seen as a way to simplify cryobanking procedure and increase satisfying outcomes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of slow cooling protocol and vitrification on IVF outcomes using embryos preserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval. The study compared 2 groups of human embryos underwent slow cooling protocol (n=189 and vitrification (n=58. All embryos were cryopreserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval. Pre- and postfreezing embryo evaluation was performed in 2 or 3 steps scale, respectively. The study evaluates the effectiveness of two freezing methods and influence of the freezing day, pre- and postfreezing embryo grading on clinical pregnancy rate. Study showed higher pregnancy rate after vitrification (50.4% than slow cooling protocol (25.9%. Significantly higher pregnancy rate was observed, when embryo preserved in the 5th day after oocyte retrieval (50.3% than in the 6th day (22.7%. Postfreezing embryos evaluation showed that high quality blastocysts gave nearly four times better pregnancy outcomes than the ones evaluated as poor quality, and three times better than the ones evaluated as moderate. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate pregnancy and neonatal outcomes after vitrification. The number of controlled studies concerning vitrification has not been large enough, yet.

Joanna Matysiak

2010-06-01

175

Career Education Program for Elementary Students: Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed by elementary teachers in the Jackson (Michigan) public schools as part of an inservice workshop in sex equity, this career education program in science for elementary students is intended to encourage young women to consider careers in science that are nontraditional for women. The program is divided into six grade levels; each grade

Jackson County School District, MI.

176

McGraw-Hill: Filmstrips, Records, 8mm Film Loops, Transparencies, Globegraphic System for Elementary Grades, Junior & Senior High School, College.  

Science.gov (United States)

This catalog lists audiovisual aids available from McGraw-Hill, with prices for individual items and for sets. Approximately 250 series of filmstrips are listed under subject headings. About half of these are intended for elementary schools use, and half are intended for secondary sch ols and colleges. Some filmstrips come with sound recordings,…

McGraw-Hill Films, New York, NY.

177

Evaluation of paracavernous cranial nerves (3rd to 6th) with CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have now used CT to evaluate the cavernous sinuses, especially the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th cranial nerves. adjacent to them. Twenty cases, presumably all having sellar or parasellar lesions, were examined by means of thin-slice (2-4 mm) axial and coronal (including both direct and reconstructed methods) CT studies. Moreover, three blocks of the sellar region obtained from adult cadavers were examined beforehand by CT scan, and the courses of the respective paracavernous cranial nerves were confirmed by microsurgical dissection. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. It was valuable to perform a post-enhanced direct coronal study for the definite identification of the paracavernous cranial nerves (3rd to 6th cranial nerves). 2. Also valuable was a magnified CT film of the parasellar regions, which made the identification of the parasellar cranial nerves clearer. 3. In the clinical cases showing a normal shape of the cavernous sinuses on CT, each cranial nerve was evaluated. In the axial studies (almost 10 to 15 degrees anterior to Reid's basal line), the frequencies of the identification of the 3rd, 5th, and 6th cranial nerves were 76%, 97% (as to the Gasserian ganglion), and 21% respectively. None of the 4th cranial nerve was visualized in the cases examined. On the other hand, the frequencies of the identification of the 3rd, 5th, and 6th cranial nerves were 83%, 86%, and 21% respectively in the direct coronal studies and 62%, 57%, and 4% in thoseonal studies and 62%, 57%, and 4% in those of the reconstructed films. The visualization of each cranial nerve in the direct coronal study was better than when the reconstructed method was used. Finally, a schematic presentation of the cranial nerves adjacent to the cavernous sinuses was made in the axial and coronal projections. (J.P.N.)

178

Recurrent 6th nerve palsy in a child following different live attenuated vaccines: case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy in the paediatric age group is uncommon, but has been described following viral and bacterial infections. It has also been temporally associated with immunization, but has not been previously described following two different live attenuated vaccines. Case presentation A case is presented of a 12 month old Caucasian boy with recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy following measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines, given on separate occasions with complete recovery following each episode. No alternate underlying etiology was identified despite extensive investigations and review. Conclusions The majority of benign 6th nerve palsies do not have a sinister cause and have an excellent prognosis, with recovery expected in most cases. The exact pathophysiology is unknown, although hypotheses including autoimmune mechanisms and direct viral invasion could explain the pathophysiology behind immunization related nerve palsies. It is important to rule out other aetiologies with thorough history, physical examination and investigations. There is limited information in the literature regarding the safety of a repeat dose of a live vaccine in this setting. Future immunizations should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Cheng Daryl R

2012-04-01

179

Optimization of the power coupling in the MAGPIE 4-way junction using a 1/6th scale model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Mega-Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE) is currently under construction in the Plasma Physics group at Imperial College, London. The generator is specifically designed to carry out radiative collapse experiments in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches. In order to achieve this goal, MAGPIE must be capable of delivering in excess of 1.5MA into a 150 mH load in under 200 ns. In the final generator, four 2.4 MV Marx banks charge four 5 ohm, coaxial, 100 ns single transit, water filled pulse forming lines (PFLs). The four PFLs are connected to a single coaxial vertical transfer line via four sychronously triggered trigatron switches. The vertical transfer line has an impedence of 1.25 ohm and therefore represents a matched load to the four PFLs. At the top of the transfer line a graded insulator stack makes up the vacuum-water interface. A magnetically insulated transmission line section then feeds the load. The total energy stored in the banks is 336 kJ making MAGPIE a multi terrawatt, long pulse generator. A necessary feature of the generator is the junction of the four horizontal PFLs to the single vertical transfer line. This paper reports on work being carried out to characterize the power flow through this junction using a 1/6th size scale model

180

Omnibus Guidelines: A Comprehensive Reference for Early Childhood and Elementary Educators. Volume 1: Preschool through Third Grade [and] Volume 2: Kindergarten through Fifth Grade. 3rd Edition. The Work Sampling System[R].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Work Sampling System is a performance assessment that provides an alternative to group-administered, norm-referenced achievement tests for preschool through fifth grade. This volume presents a compilation of the Work Sampling System Developmental Guidelines for preschool through third grade. The guidelines are grouped into these categories:…

Jablon, Judy R.; Marsden, Dorothea B.; Meisels, Samuel J.; Dichtelmiller, Margo L.

 
 
 
 
181

Examining elementary students' perceptions of engineers  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a national focus on improving K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. The integration of engineering education from kindergarten through high school (K-12) has been identified as key to sustaining the U.S. economy and standard of living. Misconceptions about the nature of engineering may deter children from even considering this profession. Currently, there are few research studies on young children's perceptions of engineers, and such research can be used to support children along STEM pathways. The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of engineers for children enrolled in a gifted and talented outreach program. Participants included students enrolled in two structural engineering classes: one for 3rd and 4th graders and another for 5th and 6th grade students. Participants represented an age group that is not typically exposed to engineering. This research was framed within a constructivist theoretical framework, and qualitative research methods were utilized to develop a rich understanding of the perspectives of students enrolled in the engineering classes. Data collection included student pre- and post-questionnaires, Draw-an-Engineer tasks, and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis entailed the use of open and axial coding. Trustworthiness of data was determined through triangulation of multiple data sources. Results demonstrated how children describe the work of engineers, objects associated with engineering, tools used or created by engineers, and professional characteristics of engineers. In addition, images of engineers were discussed and influences on students' perceptions of engineers were identified. The findings of this study have implications for the development of formal and informal K-12 curricula and programs that focus on improving students' understanding and engagement in engineering. Implications for researchers interested in studying children's perceptions were also discussed.

Oware, Euridice A.

182

6th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents the Proceedings of the 6th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (MBEC2014), held in Dubrovnik September 7 – 11, 2014. The general theme of MBEC 2014 is "Towards new horizons in biomedical engineering" The scientific discussions in these conference proceedings include the following themes: - Biomedical Signal Processing - Biomedical Imaging and Image Processing - Biosensors and Bioinstrumentation - Bio-Micro/Nano Technologies - Biomaterials - Biomechanics, Robotics and Minimally Invasive Surgery - Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Endocrine Systems Engineering - Neural and Rehabilitation Engineering - Molecular, Cellular and Tissue Engineering - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Clinical Engineering and Health Technology Assessment - Health Informatics, E-Health and Telemedicine - Biomedical Engineering Education

Vasic, Darko

2015-01-01

183

AJCC 6th and 7th TNM staging systems comparison in locally advanced gastric cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the role of AJCC 6th and 7th TNM staging systems in predicting the long term survival of locally advanced gastric cancer patients after curative surgery. Methods: All patients who met the following criteria were included for analyses: treated between January 2002 and December 2004, primary gastric or gastroesophageal cancer, underwent curative gastrectomy (UICC R0) and at least more than D1 lymphadenectomy, pathologically staged as T3-4N0-1 M0, or any T, N2-3M0. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival ( DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated and compared according to N and TNM stage of the two TNM staging systems (T stage were not analyzed due to its extremely unbalanced distribution). The N and TNM stage and other significant variables in univariate analyses were evaluated further for both OS and DFS by Cox regression. Results: The median follow-up time was 61 months. The follow-up rate was 92. 3%. Among the 297 enrolled patients, 56. 9% of the patients had a stage migration between the two staging systems. According to 6th, no difference in DMFS was detected between different N and TNM stages (?2 =6.65, P =0.084; ?2 =6.61, P =0.108). When using 7th, statistically significant difference was found in DMFS between different N stages (?2 =9.035, P =0.029), and TNM stage also tended to have an influence on DMFS (?2 =7.27, P =0.064). The N and TNM stage had similar significant influence on OS, DFS and LRFS based on both staging systems (?2 =9.23 - 19.00, P =0.000 -0.026 and ?2 =11.67 - 19.11, P =0.000 -0.009). In Cox regression, TNM stage was an independent prognostic variable for both OS and DFS based on these two staging systems (?2=9.05 -25.51, P=0.000 -0.003), but the 7th appeared to be a better predictor than the 6th (OS : RR =1.618 vs 1.496; DFS : RR =1.594 vs 1.564). Conclusions: The N and TNM stage in 7th TNM staging system are more predictive for DMFS than in 6th TNM staging system for locally advanced gastric cancer patients. The 7th TNM staging system provides a better prognostic estimation of both OS and DFS. (authors)

184

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

NONE

1997-10-01

185

IAEA International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties. 6th meeting of the Technical Steering Committee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the Consultant Meeting 6th Meeting of the Technical Steering Committee for the International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties' held on 16-17 September 2004 at Plas Tan-Y-Bwlch, Maentwrog, Gwynedd, UK. The purposes of the meeting were to review the matters and actions identified in the previous meeting, undertake a review of the current status of the database and to make recommendations for actions for the next year. The purposes of the meeting were fully met. This report contains the current status of the identified actions as well as a summary of the recommendations on enhancements to the database. (author)

186

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

187

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania  

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Full Text Available Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

B. Wagner

2012-12-01

188

Irradiation experiments of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oarai Gas Loop-1, OGL-1, is an in-pile helium gas loop, installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), for irradiation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels at high pressure and temperature. The present report describes results of fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies. The 6th-8th assemblies used coated fuel particles produced by a small-scale fluidized bed. On the other hand, the 9th-12th assemblies used trial manufacturing fuels, produced with a large-scale fluidized bed for mass production of the fuel for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed. For the 9th assembly loaded with the first mass-product fuel, the fission gas release, R/B of 88Kr, was relatively high, 1.5x10-5, and various defects were observed in the ceramography of the irradiated coating layers. Afterwards, a decrease was achieved in the through-coating failure fractions at the fabrication. Correspondingly, the R/B of 88Kr for the 12th assembly was reduced to an excellent value of 2x10-6. Thus, the production technology and the irradiation performance of the HTTR design fuels were successfully demonstrated. (author)

189

Factors Influencing Tooth Brushing Behaviour based on Health Belief Model among Bushehr Primary School 5th & 6th grade Students  

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Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Oral health is one of the most important components of personal health. Understanding current status of oral health is necessary to provide future oral health interventions. The aim of this study was to determine factors influencing tooth brushing behavior based on the health belief model (HBM among 5- and 6-grader students.   Methods & Materials : : In this cross-sectional study, 370 primary school students were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaires based on the HBM. The obtained data were analyzed in the SPSS-20.   Results: The results showed that 95.7% of the students brushed their teeth once or more daily. Mean and standard deviation of the brushing frequency in one week was 8.66±3.54. There was a significant correlation between the perceived barriers (P=0.00, r=-0.14 and self-efficacy (P=0.04, r=0.10 with the brushing behavior.   Conclusion : According to the results, educating students and decreasing different barriers seems to be necessary to improve brushing behavior.  

Masoumeh Sadat Zare

2013-11-01

190

Oral Language: Primary and Elementary Levels; Primary, Grades 1-3. Predrafted Individual Short-Term Plan/Records: Directions for Resource Teachers, Teachers and Aides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The predrafted Oregon Individual Short-Term Plan/Records on oral language (grades 1-3), covering skills such as sound discrimination, listening comprehension, critical listening, basic language patterns, oral expression, and vocabulary development, were designed for migrant children who attend a school for only 2 to 6 weeks. Migrant education…

Olinger, Judy, Comp.; Lugo, Alfredo M., Comp.

191

Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

2010-01-01

192

Metalinguistic awareness and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children / Consciência metalingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aimed to investigate the influence of phonological, lexical and syntactic awareness in written language acquisition. The main hypothesis underlying the research was that metalinguistic abilities could facilitate written language acquisition. Subjects were 65 first-grade students at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The materials used to measure levels of metalinguistic awareness were applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing assessment tests were appl...

Sylvia Domingos Barrera; Maria Regina Maluf

2003-01-01

193

Results of the 6th regular inspection of Unit 2 in Mihama Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th regular inspection of Unit 2 in the Mihama Power Station was carried out from November 6, 1980, to May 20, 1981. Inspection was made on the reactor proper, reactor cooling system, instrumentation and control system, waste management, reactor containment, etc. By visual, disassembling, leakage, functional and other inspections, the results were as follows: The eddy-current defect inspection on all the steam generator heating tubes showed abnormality in 17 heating tubes at the crevice portion of the high-temperature side tube plate. Radiation exposure dose during the inspection was all below the permissible level. During the regular inspection, the following improvement works and othrs were done: plugging of the 17 heating tubes showing the abnormality and one heating tube withdrawn for detailed examination. (Mori, K.)

194

6th conference of German judges at administrative courts held at Kassel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nine working groups, the 6th conference of German judges at administrative courts, held at the beginning of May 1980, primarily dealt with the question as to where the limits are set to legal protection by administrative courts, and with the further creation of public law by judges at administrative courts. Working group No. I turned to the control of decisions made during legal proceedings at administrative courts concerning the Federal Act for Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Law. In doing so, they dealt especially with the decisions on Kalkar and Muelheim-Kaerlich, made by the Federal Constitutional Court. This working group came to the result that hand in hand with a cutdown of the judicial intensity of control we will further observe legal protection shifting into the field of administrative proceedings. (HSCH)

195

Fabrication of DUPIC Fuel for the 6th Irradiation Test at HANARO Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, 15 DUPIC pellets and two mini-elements were fabricated to precisely investigate the thermal characteristics of DUPIC fuel. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets with 10.221?10.278 g/cm3 (94.5?95.0 % of T.D.) of sintered density and less than Ra 0.96 ?m of surface roughness satisfying the specifications of DUPIC fuel for the 6th irradiation test have been remotely fabricated at hot cell. 5 DUPIC pellets including 3 pellets equipped with thermal sensor in the center of the pellet were loaded in a mini-element. Endcap welding of the mini-element was performed by Nd:YAG laser. The DUPIC mini-elements assembled in an instrumented rig will be irradiated at HANARO research reactor

196

6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics  

CERN Document Server

The growth in the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology fields over the last few years has been remarkable.. The analysis of the datasets of Next Generation Sequencing needs new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Also Systems Biology has also been emerging as an alternative to the reductionist view that dominated biological research in the last decades. This book presents the results of the  6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, 28-30th March, 2012 which brought together interdisciplinary scientists that have a strong background in the biological and computational sciences.

Luscombe, Nicholas; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Rodríguez, Juan

2012-01-01

197

Corrosion investigation for iron artifacts dug out at the 6th Yamato ancient tomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed corrosion depth for some iron artifacts dug out at the 6th Yamato ancient tomb in Nara prefecture using X-ray CT for the purpose of estimation for long stability of iron material in the ground as a part of the natural analog study related to the research of the high-level nuclear waste disposal. These samples are three big and 17 small iron artifacts which are called 'Tetsutei' like as horseshoe iron plate. It is considered that the most of them had been buried in a slightly oxidizing or reducing environment. The analysis result shows the maximum corrosion depth is 1.6 mm for about 1500 years. This paper presents an outline of this study. (author)

198

Epidemic waves during Justinian's plague in the Byzantine Empire (6th-8th c. AD).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to collect the epidemic outbreaks and the epidemic waves of the bubonic plague of the Byzantine Empire during the first pandemic (541-751 AD). Human activities, such as trade and military movements have been speculated as underlying factors for the causation of the pandemic. Historical data combined with geographical spreading of the plague, allows an alternative speculation of suspicious enzootic areas in the Middle East. We conclude that the possible existence of enzootic areas in that region might have been responsible for the causation of the numerous outbreaks of the bubonic plague in the Eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire during the 6th-8th century period. PMID:22043601

Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Tsakris, A; Petridou, E

2011-06-01

199

Fabrication of DUPIC Fuel for the 6th Irradiation Test at HANARO Research Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, 15 DUPIC pellets and two mini-elements were fabricated to precisely investigate the thermal characteristics of DUPIC fuel. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets with 10.221{approx}10.278 g/cm{sup 3} (94.5{approx}95.0 % of T.D.) of sintered density and less than Ra 0.96 {mu}m of surface roughness satisfying the specifications of DUPIC fuel for the 6th irradiation test have been remotely fabricated at hot cell. 5 DUPIC pellets including 3 pellets equipped with thermal sensor in the center of the pellet were loaded in a mini-element. Endcap welding of the mini-element was performed by Nd:YAG laser. The DUPIC mini-elements assembled in an instrumented rig will be irradiated at HANARO research reactor.

Kim, Woong Ki; Lee, D. Y.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Jae W.; Park, G. I.; Lee, C. Y.; Yang, M. S

2006-02-15

200

Elementary supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is constructed from elementary quantum mechanics and some of its properties are discussed. Introducing supercoordinates one easily generates more general examples of N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
201

Acoustics in the elementary classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for increased science exposure at all educational levels continues to be acute. Science is almost universally perceived as difficult, and its ability to raise the quality of life in the presence of apparently insurmountable social problems is increasingly suspect. Over the past 15 years we have conducted teacher workshops, visited classrooms, have organized hands-on demonstration sessions, judged science fairs, and mentored high school students in research efforts, all in an attempt to raise the level of enthusiasm for science. A look ahead suggests that the need continues. Elementary school teachers all too often limit their own science skills to plants and animals, and thus physics concepts do not get the exposure needed to generate the necessary excitement for the physical sciences. Workshops for Elementary grade teachers will be described, which are aimed at preparing teachers to use music as a vehicle to introduce basic physics concepts in the upper elementary grades.

Hansen, Uwe J.

2005-04-01

202

Elementary School Teachers' Manipulative Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from 503 inservice elementary teachers, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' background characteristics, teachers' beliefs about manipulatives, and the frequency with which teachers use manipulatives as part of their mathematics instruction. Findings from the study show that teachers' grade level and beliefs about…

Uribe-Florez, Lida J.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

2010-01-01

203

Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

Dundar, Hakan

2012-01-01

204

Language at the Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

While numerous studies on bilingual education have looked at student test scores, drop-out rates, and parental responses, this study looks at the attitudes of the students directly affected by bilingual education. Interviews with a representative sample of 132 elementary school students (grades 4-6) in El Paso, Texas were conducted for this study.…

Antrim, Nancy Mae

205

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas) entre cinco e oito anos de idade, [...] sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994) e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigatin [...] g the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls) with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994); lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school perf

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto, Tenório; Clara Regina Brandão de, Ávila.

206

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas entre cinco e oito anos de idade, sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994 e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar.PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigating the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994; lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school performance and phonological processing were observed.

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto Tenório

2012-02-01

207

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas) entre cinco e oito anos de idade, [...] sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994) e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigatin [...] g the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls) with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994); lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school perf

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto, Tenório; Clara Regina Brandão de, Ávila.

2012-02-01

208

O conhecimento de professores de 1ª a 4ª série quanto aos distúrbios da leitura e escrita The knowledge of elementary education of first to fourth grade teachers as for reading and writing disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar o conhecimento dos professores de 1ª a 4ª série quanto ao distúrbio da leitura e escrita, pesquisando quais dificuldades referentes a esse distúrbio, foram apresentadas por estes professores. MÉTODOS: esses dados foram obtidos, por meio de um questionário informativo de 10 questões, aplicados a 50 professores de 1ª a 4ª série, da cidade de Bauru. Os questionários foram analisados e tabulados, e receberam tratamento estatístico pertinente. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos revelaram que os professores possuem um conhecimento superficial a respeito do distúrbio da leitura e escrita, sendo que muitos adquiriram tal conhecimento fora do ambiente de graduação. Verificou-se também que os professores apesar de encaminharem seus alunos ao fonoaudiólogo, possuem visão limitada quanto à atuação deste profissional. O distúrbio da leitura e escrita foi considerado como um problema próprio da criança, sendo pouco reconhecido como uma falha que também pode ser da escola ou da metodologia de ensino. CONCLUSÃO: os professores logram um saber pouco fundamentado a respeito do distúrbio da leitura e escrita; sendo que, as dificuldades giraram em torno: da identificação real do problema; de quais manifestações caracterizam esse problema; e de como intervir e prevenir.PURPOSE: to investigate the knowledge of the elementary education of first to fourth grade teachers as for reading and writing disorder, searching which difficulties refer to this disorder, they had been submitted by these teachers. METHODS: these data had been achieved, by means of an informative questionnaire of 10 questions, applied to 50 teachers of the elementary education of first to fourth grade from Bauru city. The questionnaires were analyzed and tabulated, and received statistical treatment. RESULTS: the obtained results reveal that the teachers have a superficial knowledge regarding the reading and writing disorder, being that many had acquired such knowledge outside the graduation environment. It was also verified that although the teachers direct their students to the Speech Pathologist, they have limited vision as for the performance of this professional. The reading and writing disorder is considered as a proper problem of the child, being little recognized as a fault that also can be related to the "school" or of the education methodology. CONCLUSION: teachers have little knowledge about reading and writing disorder; whereas, difficulties are centered around the following reasons: the identification of the real problem; events which characterize this problem; how to intervene and prevent it.

Graciela Barbosa Fernandes

2008-01-01

209

FOREWORD: 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF 2013) was held in Beijing, China, 19-22 September 2013, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University and Jiangsu University. The co-organizers were Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy and Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for CO2 Utilization and Reduction. The sponsor of the conference was Concepts NREC. The First International Conference on Pumps and Systems (May 1992), the Second International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1995), the Third International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1998), and the Fourth International Conference on Pumps and Fans (26-29 August 2002) were all held in Beijing and were organized by the late famous Chinese professor on fluid machinery and engineering, Professor Zuyan Mei of Tsinghua University. The conference was interrupted by the death of Professor Mei in 2003. In order to commemorate Professor Mei, the organizing committee of ICPF decided to continue organizing the conference series. The Fifth Conference on Pumps and Systems (2010 ICPF) took place in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 18-21 October 2010, and it was jointly organized by Zhejiang University and Tsinghua University. With the development of renewable energy and new energy in China and in the world, some small types of compressor and some types of pump, as well as wind turbines are developing very fast; therefore the ICPF2013 conference included compressors and wind turbines. The theme of the conference was the application of renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The content of the conference was the basic study, design and experimental study of compressors, fans, blowers and pumps; the CFD application on pumps and fans, their transient behavior, unsteady flows and multi-phase flow; other fluid machinery and devices, such as, wind turbines, turbochargers and reversible pump-turbines, clearance and sealing, jets, filters and mixers; and their engineering application and their system behavior, especially, the application of the renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The objective of the conference was to provide an opportunity for researchers, engineers and students to report on the latest developments in the fields of pumps, compressors, fans and turbochargers, as well as systems. The participants were encouraged to present their work in progress with a short lead time, and the conference promoted discussion of the problems encountered. The ICPF2013 brought together 191 scientists and researchers from 14 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for pumps and fans, which would enhance the sustainable development of fluid machinery and fluid engineering. The Scientific Committee selected 166 technical papers on the following topics: (i) Principles of Fluid Machinery, (ii) Pumps, (iii) Compressors, Fans and Turbochargers, (iv) Turbines, (v) Cavitation and Multiphase Flow, (vi) Systems and Other Fluid Machinery, and 10 invited plenary and invited session lectures, which were presented at the conference, to be included in the proceedings. All the papers of ICPF2013, which were published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ICPF2013, those are Yulin Wu, Zhengwei Wang, Shouqi Yuan, Weidong Shi, Shuhong Liu, Xingqi Luo and Fujun Wang. We sincerely hope that the 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines is a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing modern fluid machines. Professor Yulin Wu Chairman of the Local Organizing Committee 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013) October 2013 Th

Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Yuan, Shouqi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Shuhong; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

2013-12-01

210

Metalinguistic awareness and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children / Consciência metalingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the influence of phonological, lexical and syntactic awareness in written language acquisition. The main hypothesis underlying the research was that metalinguistic abilities could facilitate written language acquisition. Subjects were 65 first-grade students at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The materials used to measure levels of metalinguistic awareness were applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing assessment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistical analysis showed positive and significant correlation between initial levels of phonological and syntactic awareness and final performance in reading and writing evaluation. Lexical awareness was significantly correlated solely with final level of reading. These results suggest the importance of performing pedagogical activities in early school life in order to develop metalinguistic awareness.

Sylvia Domingos Barrera

2003-01-01

211

1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO3 solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (ing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid

212

O estudo do tratamento da informação nos livros didáticos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / A study of the usage of information in text books from the beginning grades of elementary teaching  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo investiga o tratamento da informação expresso em livros didáticos brasileiros apresentados em três coleções analisadas pelo PNLD (2000 e 2004) que foram recomendadas com distinção das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. As atividades foram analisadas a partir dos tipos de gráfic [...] os e conteúdos matemáticos abordados nas tarefas analisadas. Considerando o importante papel que os livros didáticos assumem na educação brasileira esse estudo aponta-nos que o trabalho com tratamento da informação, realizado pelos livros didáticos, encontra-se distante de possibilitar aos alunos a construção de procedimentos para coletar, organizar, comunicar e interpretar dados. O tratamento da informação, na maioria das coleções analisadas, não é explorado no decorrer de todos os livros didáticos, aparecendo apenas no capítulo de estatística e probabilidade. Abstract in english The present research deals with the use of information expressed in Brazilian text books in three collections analized by PNLD ( National Plan of Didatic Book ) ( 2000 and 2004 ) which were recommended with distinction for the beginning grades of elementary teaching. The activities were analyzed for [...] the type of graphics and maths contents. Considering the important role that text books play on Brazilian education, this study shows us that the work with the use of information within text books is not giving students the constructive procedures needed to collect, organize, communicate and interpret information. There is little use of information in the majority of the analyzed collections, appearing only in the statistics and probability chapters.

Maria Patrícia Freitas de, Lemos.

213

O estudo do tratamento da informação nos livros didáticos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental A study of the usage of information in text books from the beginning grades of elementary teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga o tratamento da informação expresso em livros didáticos brasileiros apresentados em três coleções analisadas pelo PNLD (2000 e 2004 que foram recomendadas com distinção das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. As atividades foram analisadas a partir dos tipos de gráficos e conteúdos matemáticos abordados nas tarefas analisadas. Considerando o importante papel que os livros didáticos assumem na educação brasileira esse estudo aponta-nos que o trabalho com tratamento da informação, realizado pelos livros didáticos, encontra-se distante de possibilitar aos alunos a construção de procedimentos para coletar, organizar, comunicar e interpretar dados. O tratamento da informação, na maioria das coleções analisadas, não é explorado no decorrer de todos os livros didáticos, aparecendo apenas no capítulo de estatística e probabilidade.The present research deals with the use of information expressed in Brazilian text books in three collections analized by PNLD ( National Plan of Didatic Book ( 2000 and 2004 which were recommended with distinction for the beginning grades of elementary teaching. The activities were analyzed for the type of graphics and maths contents. Considering the important role that text books play on Brazilian education, this study shows us that the work with the use of information within text books is not giving students the constructive procedures needed to collect, organize, communicate and interpret information. There is little use of information in the majority of the analyzed collections, appearing only in the statistics and probability chapters.

Maria Patrícia Freitas de Lemos

2006-08-01

214

Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

Lucke, Bernhard

2014-05-01

215

Proceedings of the 6th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been recognized that neutron diffraction is an important means of research which can obtain the information on the positions of hydrogen atoms and water molecules which bear important roles in physiological functions, but due to the shortage of the diffractometers that give sufficient diffraction intensity, the utilization has not advanced. By the improvement of neutron flux due to the realization of the JRR-3M and the recent remarkable progress of biochemistry and biophysics, the structural analysis at atomic and molecular levels of the matters of living bodies and the elucidation of physiological functions have become to be carried out. The neutron diffractometer for the matters of living bodies aims at the top class in the world, and has been discussed by the experts in the world in five workshops. As the result, the neutron diffractometer was constructed, and the Gragg reflection from the single crystal of lysozyme protein was successfully observed for the first time in Japan. The 6th workshop was held on March 25, 1995 at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the lecture by Dr. B.P. Schoenborn was given, and the examples of the application of neutron imaging plates were reported. The important contents of the publications are summarized in this report. (K.I.)

216

The 6th questionnaire report of safety control in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The questionnaire has been done every three years from 1986 for the ultimate purpose of safe medical examinations and this 6th one was performed for the objective period of April 1, 1998-March 31, 2001. Subjects were 1,254 nuclear medicine facilities and answers were obtained in 86.2%. Questionnaire concerned the personnel involved in nuclear medical examinations (medical doctors and pharmacists as well as radiology technologists), instruments (an investigation was additionally conducted on Anger-type camera), accidents experienced, matters possibly leading to accident, improvement in safety control, serious trouble and breakage of the instrument, requests for the instrument manufacturers and so on. Summaries were: numbers of medical radiology technologist increased and a considerable and small number of doctors and pharmacists, respectively, were found involved; tests in vitro were decreased; SPECT-camera with 2 or 3 detectors increased; check rate for imaging instruments was about 80%; cases of actual and possible accident increased but not serious; improvements for automatic operation and of safety sensor were required; mind for preventing accident was important; many requests for the manufacturers were proposed. (K.H.)

217

6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

NONE

1996-09-01

218

Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study  

Science.gov (United States)

During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

2011-09-01

219

Addressing Priorities for Elementary School Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings from international assessments present an opportunity to reconsider mathematics education across the grades. If concepts taught in elementary grades lay the foundation for continued study, then children's introduction to school mathematics deserves particular attention. We consider Davydov's theory (1966), which sequences…

Venenciano, Linda; Dougherty, Barbara

2014-01-01

220

Reading comprehension on the last grades of cicles I and II of elementary school / Compreensão leitora nos últimos anos dos ciclos I e II do Ensino Fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o desempenho de escolares do Ciclo I e II do Ensino Fundamental (EF), em decodificação, compreensão leitora e habilidades subjacentes à leitura, e investigar correlações entre essas variáveis, na ausência e na presença de prejuízos da compreensão leitora, identificados pelos [...] professores. MÉTODOS: Participaram 125 escolares do EF, agrupados segundo o Ciclo e a presença ou ausência de indicativos de prejuízos de compreensão leitora. Estabeleceram-se dois Grupos Controle (bons compreendedores de ambos os Ciclos) e dois Grupos Pesquisa (pobres compreendedores de ambos os Ciclos). Avaliaram-se: fluência e compreensão leitora; compreensão oral; memória fonológica de curto prazo e operacional; closura gramatical. Comparou-se (Teste de Mann-Whitney): em estudo intragrupo, os dois Grupos Controle e os dois Grupos Pesquisa; em estudo intergrupo, Controle e Pesquisa dos diferentes ciclos e Controle I e Pesquisa II. O coeficiente de Spearman investigou correlações entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: Quanto à compreensão leitora, observou-se: melhor desempenho dos Controle em todas as tarefas, comparados aos respectivos Pesquisa; melhor desempenho do Controle II comparado ao Controle I. Os Pesquisa foram semelhantes na maioria das provas. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre a maioria das variáveis estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os Controle mostraram melhor desempenho em leitura, nos dois ciclos. Memória de trabalho e compreensão oral não diferenciaram escolares no Ciclo I, ao contrário do observado no Ciclo II. O Pesquisa II foi semelhante ou melhor que o Pesquisa I e semelhante ou pior que o Controle I. Habilidades subjacentes mostraram diferentes perfis de correlação com a capacidade de compreensão leitora, segundo o grupo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To characterize students' performance in Cycle I and II of the Elementary School (EF), in decoding, reading comprehension and underlying skills of reading, and investigate correlations between these variables, in the absence and presence of reading comprehension deficits, identified by th [...] eir teachers. METHODS: 125 students from ES were grouped according to Cycle and presence or absence of reading comprehension impairments. Two Control (good readers from both Cycles) and two Research groups (poor readers from both Cycles) were established. Assessment involved: fluency and reading comprehension; oral comprehension; working and short-term phonological memory; grammar closure. It was compared (Mann-Whitney test): in intragroup study, both Control and Research groups; in intergroup study, Control and Research from different cycles, and Control I and Research II. Spearman coefficient investigated correlations. RESULTS: Analyzing reading comprehension, we observed better performance of Control Groups in all tasks in comparison to the respective Research Groups, and better performance of Control II in comparison to Control I. Research Groups had similar results in most tests. Positive correlations have been observed between most of the variables. CONCLUSION: Students without reading comprehension impairments showed better performance in reading in both Cycles. Working memory and oral comprehension did not differentiate students with and without complaints in Cycle I, differently from what was observed in Cycle II. Research II presented similar or better performance than Research I and similar or worse performance than Control I. Underlying skills showed different profiles of correlation with reading comprehension capacity, according to the group.

Eliane Mi, Chang; Clara Regina Brandão de, Avila.

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Reading comprehension on the last grades of cicles I and II of elementary school / Compreensão leitora nos últimos anos dos ciclos I e II do Ensino Fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o desempenho de escolares do Ciclo I e II do Ensino Fundamental (EF), em decodificação, compreensão leitora e habilidades subjacentes à leitura, e investigar correlações entre essas variáveis, na ausência e na presença de prejuízos da compreensão leitora, identificados pelos [...] professores. MÉTODOS: Participaram 125 escolares do EF, agrupados segundo o Ciclo e a presença ou ausência de indicativos de prejuízos de compreensão leitora. Estabeleceram-se dois Grupos Controle (bons compreendedores de ambos os Ciclos) e dois Grupos Pesquisa (pobres compreendedores de ambos os Ciclos). Avaliaram-se: fluência e compreensão leitora; compreensão oral; memória fonológica de curto prazo e operacional; closura gramatical. Comparou-se (Teste de Mann-Whitney): em estudo intragrupo, os dois Grupos Controle e os dois Grupos Pesquisa; em estudo intergrupo, Controle e Pesquisa dos diferentes ciclos e Controle I e Pesquisa II. O coeficiente de Spearman investigou correlações entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: Quanto à compreensão leitora, observou-se: melhor desempenho dos Controle em todas as tarefas, comparados aos respectivos Pesquisa; melhor desempenho do Controle II comparado ao Controle I. Os Pesquisa foram semelhantes na maioria das provas. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre a maioria das variáveis estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os Controle mostraram melhor desempenho em leitura, nos dois ciclos. Memória de trabalho e compreensão oral não diferenciaram escolares no Ciclo I, ao contrário do observado no Ciclo II. O Pesquisa II foi semelhante ou melhor que o Pesquisa I e semelhante ou pior que o Controle I. Habilidades subjacentes mostraram diferentes perfis de correlação com a capacidade de compreensão leitora, segundo o grupo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To characterize students' performance in Cycle I and II of the Elementary School (EF), in decoding, reading comprehension and underlying skills of reading, and investigate correlations between these variables, in the absence and presence of reading comprehension deficits, identified by th [...] eir teachers. METHODS: 125 students from ES were grouped according to Cycle and presence or absence of reading comprehension impairments. Two Control (good readers from both Cycles) and two Research groups (poor readers from both Cycles) were established. Assessment involved: fluency and reading comprehension; oral comprehension; working and short-term phonological memory; grammar closure. It was compared (Mann-Whitney test): in intragroup study, both Control and Research groups; in intergroup study, Control and Research from different cycles, and Control I and Research II. Spearman coefficient investigated correlations. RESULTS: Analyzing reading comprehension, we observed better performance of Control Groups in all tasks in comparison to the respective Research Groups, and better performance of Control II in comparison to Control I. Research Groups had similar results in most tests. Positive correlations have been observed between most of the variables. CONCLUSION: Students without reading comprehension impairments showed better performance in reading in both Cycles. Working memory and oral comprehension did not differentiate students with and without complaints in Cycle I, differently from what was observed in Cycle II. Research II presented similar or better performance than Research I and similar or worse performance than Control I. Underlying skills showed different profiles of correlation with reading comprehension capacity, according to the group.

Eliane Mi, Chang; Clara Regina Brandão de, Avila.

222

Consciência metalingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental Metalinguistic awareness and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a influência da consciência fonológica, lexical e sintática, sobre a aquisição da linguagem escrita. Esperava-se que as crianças com níveis mais elevados de consciência metalingüística apresentassem desempenho superior na aprendizagem da leitura e escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 65 alunos da 1ª série do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública de São Paulo. Os instrumentos utilizados para avaliar os níveis de consciência metalingüística foram aplicados no início do ano escolar. As provas utilizadas para avaliar os níveis de leitura e escrita foram aplicadas no início e final do ano letivo. A análise estatística mostrou correlações positivas significativas entre os níveis iniciais de consciência fonológica e sintática e o desempenho final das crianças em leitura e escrita. A consciência lexical mostrou-se correlacionada apenas com o resultado final em leitura. Tais resultados sugerem a importância de se favorecer o desenvolvimento da consciência metalingüística nas séries escolares iniciais.This research aimed to investigate the influence of phonological, lexical and syntactic awareness in written language acquisition. The main hypothesis underlying the research was that metalinguistic abilities could facilitate written language acquisition. Subjects were 65 first-grade students at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The materials used to measure levels of metalinguistic awareness were applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing assessment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistical analysis showed positive and significant correlation between initial levels of phonological and syntactic awareness and final performance in reading and writing evaluation. Lexical awareness was significantly correlated solely with final level of reading. These results suggest the importance of performing pedagogical activities in early school life in order to develop metalinguistic awareness.

Sylvia Domingos Barrera

2003-01-01

223

Comparison of 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations regarding generalization patterns / Estudo comparativo da eficácia de estratégias e representações usadas por estudantes da escola básica em problemas relativos à generalização de padrões  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são estudadas as estratégias e representações usadas por alunos turcos de diferentes séries (da 6ª a 8ª) quando resolvendo problemas que envolvem a busca de padrões lineares e quadráticos. Os dados foram coletados a partir da aplicação de testes específicos em 246 alunos e de entrevista [...] s clínicas com 18 desses alunos. Os resultados apontam que a eficácia nos padrões de generalização aumentam positivamente de uma série escolar para outra, bem como aumenta a variedade das estratégias de generalização. Enquanto alunos de diferentes momentos da escolarização usam estratégias recursivas para resolver os problemas relativos à busca de padrões, mas a quantidade de estudantes que mobilizam estratégias explícitas é relativamente pequena. Alunos de séries mais avançadas usam vários tipos de representações no processo de generalizar, ao passo que alunos das séries mais iniciais, de modo acentuado, preferem a representação numérica. Abstract in english The study aims to compare and determine 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations of student from different grades (from 6th to 8th) when dealing with problems related to linear and quadratic patterns. Research data was obtained from tests applied to 246 students and clinical int [...] erviews implemented with 18 students. It was shown that when grade increases students' efficiencies of generalizing pattern improve in a positive way in all levels. Besides this, as learning levels of 6th and 8th grade students increase, the variety in pattern generalization strategies changed at least in all types of patterns. While students at different learning levels generally used recursive strategy to solve all the problems, the number of the students using explicit strategies is relatively low. The students of high levels use many types of representation in generalization; in contrast, the weak level students prefer mostly numerical representations.

Yasar, Akkan.

2013-12-01

224

Comparison of 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations regarding generalization patterns / Estudo comparativo da eficácia de estratégias e representações usadas por estudantes da escola básica em problemas relativos à generalização de padrões  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são estudadas as estratégias e representações usadas por alunos turcos de diferentes séries (da 6ª a 8ª) quando resolvendo problemas que envolvem a busca de padrões lineares e quadráticos. Os dados foram coletados a partir da aplicação de testes específicos em 246 alunos e de entrevista [...] s clínicas com 18 desses alunos. Os resultados apontam que a eficácia nos padrões de generalização aumentam positivamente de uma série escolar para outra, bem como aumenta a variedade das estratégias de generalização. Enquanto alunos de diferentes momentos da escolarização usam estratégias recursivas para resolver os problemas relativos à busca de padrões, mas a quantidade de estudantes que mobilizam estratégias explícitas é relativamente pequena. Alunos de séries mais avançadas usam vários tipos de representações no processo de generalizar, ao passo que alunos das séries mais iniciais, de modo acentuado, preferem a representação numérica. Abstract in english The study aims to compare and determine 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations of student from different grades (from 6th to 8th) when dealing with problems related to linear and quadratic patterns. Research data was obtained from tests applied to 246 students and clinical int [...] erviews implemented with 18 students. It was shown that when grade increases students' efficiencies of generalizing pattern improve in a positive way in all levels. Besides this, as learning levels of 6th and 8th grade students increase, the variety in pattern generalization strategies changed at least in all types of patterns. While students at different learning levels generally used recursive strategy to solve all the problems, the number of the students using explicit strategies is relatively low. The students of high levels use many types of representation in generalization; in contrast, the weak level students prefer mostly numerical representations.

Yasar, Akkan.

225

Best practice in nursing care of dyspnea: The 6th vital sign in individuals with COPD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this paper is to highlight evidence and key nursing practice, education, organization and policy recommendations from the original and revised Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline, Nursing Care of Dyspnea:  The 6th Vital Sign in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. This paper introduces the notion of dyspnea as the sixth vital sign and presents evidence from the RNAO Best Practice Guideline and other relevant literature to support and enhance nursing care of dyspnea in clients with COPD. Background: COPD is an increasingly serious health issue. Nurses have significant opportunity to positively influence client outcomes and quality of life by assessing dyspnea, identifying problems, and applying appropriate evidence-based interventions. Best practice guidelines developed by the RNAO provide a framework to enhance nursing practice and client care. Design: A panel of nurses was assembled for the initial development of the guideline and more recently, the revision to the original guideline. Method: A structured evidence review based on the scope of the original guideline and supported by three clinical questions was conducted to capture the relevant literature and guidelines published since the original publication. Results: As a result of this work recommendations for nursing practice and education are discussed. Organizational and policy recommendations are also outlined. Conclusions: Nurses have opportunity to positively influence client outcomes and quality of life by assessing dyspnea, identifying problems, and applying appropriate evidence-based interventions. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Recommendations made in the best practice guideline will enhance nursing care of dyspnea in clients with COPD and dyspnea should be recognized as the sixth vital sign in individuals with COPD.

Patricia Hill Bailey

2013-01-01

226

Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem por conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% responderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental.The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls. A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20% replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Silvania M. Bottaro

2008-07-01

227

6th International Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization TAPHOS 2011. 14th - 17th June, Tübingen, Germany.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nebelsick J.H., Friedrich J.-P. and Dynowski J.F. (eds., 2011. 6th International Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization. Taphos 2011. Tübingen, 14th-17th June 2011. Annali dell’Università di Ferrara, Sez.Museologia Scientifica e Naturalistica, volume speciale

James H. Nebelsick

2011-09-01

228

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research on April 14, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research April 14, 2011 On the NIH CampusNatcher AuditoriumBethesda, MD The event is free and open to the public. Registration will be open soon on the meeting website. See http://painconsortium.nih.gov/index.html

229

Class size and grades in music  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

My experience from teaching music in elementary school has motivated this study, the purpose of which is to evaluate the relationship between pupils’ grades and the size of classes in the classroom. The investigation was limited to only include grades from the 9th (last) year of elementary school in the subject of music, the size of the class, and the differences between girls and boys. The results of the study demonstrated that no correlation between higher grades and smaller classes was e...

Wa?hleman, Martin

2009-01-01

230

The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009. Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Ni?de city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

Kamil ??eri

2010-07-01

231

Constructivism in the elementary school curricula  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to examine whether the 5th grade elementary school curricula of Turkish, English, Mathematics, and Science and Technology courses were congruent with the principles and standards of the constructivist education. Qualitative research methods were used in this small-scale case study which was conducted in a private elementary school in Ankara. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analyses in the academic year of 2007-2008. The populati...

Sert, Nehir

2008-01-01

232

An Observational Study in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate elementary mathematics classrooms in terms of mathematics content, teaching method, and the duration of mathematics lesson. Data for this research study comprised of 241 elementary mathematics lessons taught by 15 teachers working in different schools in Ankara. The results suggested, (a) in these lessons the topic was worthwhile to teach, the level of teaching was appropriate to the grade level, the topic was presented correctly but the connection ...

Duatepe-paksu, Asuman; Akkus, Oylum

2010-01-01

233

Elementary metallography  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials and Processes 1 (MET 141) is offered to freshmen by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Purdue University. The goal of MET 141 is to broaden the technical background of students who have not had any college science courses. Hence, applied physics, chemistry, and mathematics are included and quantitative problem solving is involved. In the elementary metallography experiment of this course, the objectives are: (1) introduce the vocabulary and establish outlook; (2) make qualitative observations and quantitative measurements; (3) demonstrate the proper use of equipment; and (4) review basic mathematics and science.

Kazem, Sayyed M.

1992-01-01

234

PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these courses. The most significant part of this event was an international exhibition of science, technology, energy and industry. In this international exhibition over 60 prominent international as well as local industrialists and vendors displayed their products. For the recreation of conference participants a cultural program and dinner was arranged. This entertaining program was fully enjoyed by all the participants especially the foreign guests. Recreational trips were also arranged for the foreign delegates. This mega event provided a unique opportunity to our scientific community to benefit from the rich international experience. The conference was a major forum for the exchange of knowledge and provided numerous scientific, technical and social opportunities for meeting leading experts. Editors Dr Javaid Ahsan Bhatti, Dr Talib Hussain, Dr Suleman Qaiser and Dr Wakil Khan National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST) NCP Complex, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan The PDF also contains a list of delegates.

Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

2013-06-01

235

An Alternative to the Traditional Grading System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this practicum was to change the grading policy in the San Juan Unified School District (California) through a two-state process. The first stage was to change the traditional ABCDF grading system to a three-scale grading system in one high school, one intermediate school, and six elementary schools serving the same attendance area.…

Galvez, Ferdinand V.

236

Turbulence and molecular processes in combustion; Toyota Conference, 6th, Shizuoka, Japan, Oct. 11-14, 1992  

Science.gov (United States)

Papers from the conference are presented. The program was divided into the following six sessions: turbulent combustion -- theory and modeling; elementary reactions 1; elementary reactions 2; kinetics and modeling; turbulent combustion -- experiment and modeling; and turbulent combustion -- modeling and simulation. For individual titles, see A95-87171 through A95-87198.

Takeno, Tadao

237

Closely Reading Informational Texts in the Primary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

238

Association between the Number of Unfamiliar Vegetables and Dietary Factors of Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite well established health benefits, today's children do not eat enough vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the number of unfamiliar foods in the vegetable food group and the preference for these foods and dietary factors. Subjects were 1,072 children in 5th and 6th grades from elementary schools located in 4 cities in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. A two-page questionnaire consisted of questions asking about the subjects' preference and familiarity for 64 foods in the vegetable group, preferences for three fast foods, four types of vegetable dishes, and six tastes. Also included in the questionnaire were questions assessing subjects' adherence to national dietary guidelines. The subjects were divided into quintiles according to the number of unfamiliar vegetables; the 1st quintile (N=226) was children who had less than 14 unfamiliar vegetables and the 5th quintile (N=229) was more than 29. Compared to the children in the other quintiles, the children in the 5th quintile had a significantly lower adherence to national dietary guidelines regarding consumptions of vegetable and protein sources, regular exercise, awareness of desirable height and weight, and reading food labels, as well as total (Pfood preferences and dietary habits. PMID:24551831

Song, Kyunghee; Lee, Hongmie

2013-12-01

239

Riesgo de caries en los niños de tercer grado de la escuela “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” / Risk of dental caries in 3rd grade schoolchildren from “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” elementary school.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo transversal para determinar el riesgo de caries mediante el empleo de un modelo de predicción (tabla de riesgo) en 64 infantes que cursan el tercer grado en la escuela “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” en Santa Clara, en el período comprendido de septiembre a [...] mayo del 2006. Para la estimación del riesgo de caries en niños se utilizó un modelo que emplea predictores factibles de medir en nuestros servicios estomatológicos, garantizando la identificación de factores de riesgo asociados con la enfermedad. La recogida de la información se llevó a cabo por el método de encuesta, mediante examen clínico, observación, mediciones y entrevistas individuales. Se pudo observar que el 19,4 % de los examinados se encontró en la categoría de alto riesgo. Se destaca que el factor de riesgo que más se asoció con otros de manera significativa o muy significativa fue el de hábitos nocivos, seguido por antecedentes de caries y caries en familiares. Consideramos que el empleo de este modelo de predicción resulta de vital importancia para garantizar la identificación de factores asociados con la enfermedad y favorecer la proyección estratégica en función de prevenir el inicio de esta. Abstract in english A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the risk of dental caries in 64 third-grade children from “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” elementary school located in Santa Clara city, Villa Clara province, in the period from September 2005 to May 2006. For caries risk estim [...] ation, a model comprising feasible predictors that may be measured in our dental services was used, thus assuring the detection of disease-related risk factors. The surveying method based on clinical exam, observation, measurement and individual interviews made data collection possible. It was stressed that the most significant risk factor was harmful habits, followed by a history of dental caries in the children and their relatives. It was considered that the use of a predictive model is of vital importance to ensure detection of risk factors associated to the disease and to encourage strategic actions to prevent the onset of caries.

Lilian, Toledo Reyes; Lilian, Rodríguez Pérez; Isabel, Ramos Hurtado.

240

Changing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Attitudes to Algebra.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses the question: "What are the implications for the preparation of prospective elementary teachers of 'early algebra' in the elementary grades curriculum?" Part of the answer involves language aspects of algebra: in particular, how a change in pre-service teachers' attitudes to algebra, from instrumental to relational, is…

McGowen, Mercedes A.; Davis, Gary E.

 
 
 
 
241

Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…

Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.

2010-01-01

242

Physiological Effects of Bouldering Activities in Upper Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the physiological responses of two different types of bouldering activities in upper elementary school students. As part of a physical education fitness unit, fourth and fifth grade students (N = 64) from two Midwestern elementary schools participated in two different activities at the…

Fencl, Matthew; Muras, Jennifer; Steffen, Jeff; Battista, Rebecca; Elfessi, Abdulaziz

2011-01-01

243

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

244

Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana / Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en Mé [...] xico. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las mismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an [...] intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist nature that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

Yolanda, Postigo; Asunción, López-Manjón.

245

Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana / Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en Mé [...] xico. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las mismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an [...] intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist nature that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

Yolanda, Postigo; Asunción, López-Manjón.

2012-06-01

246

Describing Pre-Service Teachers' Developing Understanding of Elementary Number Theory Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Although elementary number theory topics are closely linked to foundational topics in number and operations and are prevalent in elementary and middle grades mathematics curricula, little is currently known about how students and teachers make sense of them. This study investigated pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of…

Feldman, Ziv

2012-01-01

247

Educational Specifications: Milton J. Brecht Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents recommended facility specifications for the Milton J. Brecht Elementary School (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) designed to contribute to children's learning through the application of multiple intelligence theory and more recently emerging brain based learning knowledge and theory. The report examines the grade levels to be…

Manheim Township School District, Lancaster, PA.

248

Math Word Problem Remediation with Elementary Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a program for improving elementary school students ability to solve mathematical word problems. The targeted population consisted of primary, middle, and junior high students attending two different kindergarten through eighth grade schools. Both schools were located within blue collar neighborhoods in a large metropolitan…

Benko, Alice; Loaiza, Rosemary; Long, Robert; Sacharski, Michael; Winkler, Jennifer

249

Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. A written report on the science objectives and design features of the Rover is required. The program includes specific learning objectives in research skills, language arts (reading scientific literature, preparing a verbal presentation and writing a report), mathematics, science and engineering.The model will be mostly a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost (estimated cost of less than 10-25) of mostly found objects and simple art supplies.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

2005-05-01

250

Validity of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment for Predicting First Grade Readiness  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA) was administered to all kindergarten students enrolled in two rural elementary schools in the fall of 2004. Eight months later, the reading portion of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, 6th Edition (MRT-6) was administered. Teachers were asked to indicate whether they had concerns about each student's…

Panter, Janet E.; Bracken, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

251

Tumor Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

... other surgery. 3. How are tumor grades classified? Grading systems differ depending on the type of cancer. In ... than tumors with a lower grade. If a grading system for a tumor type is not specified, the ...

252

Development and Validation of Nature of Science Instrument for Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor…

Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide

2014-01-01

253

Safety Action; Traffic and Pedestrian Safety. A Guide for Teachers in the Elementary Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

GRADES OR AGES: Elementary, grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Safety action, traffic and pedestrian safety. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: After introductory material explaining the philosophy of the guide, the elementary school child, characteristics of children as related to safety, and the responsibility of the safety team, the guide has…

Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

254

Improving Language Arts Skills through the Use of Modeling and Grade Appropriate Comprehension Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a program for increasing students' language arts skills by incorporating modeling and grade appropriate comprehension activities. The targeted population consisted of Kindergarten, 4th, and 6th grade students in a rural middle class community located in central Illinois. The problems with language arts skills were documented…

Gehring, Tina; McGuire, Kathleen; Parr, Kirsten A.; Wiles, David

255

Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

2014-01-01

256

Selected contributions from the 6th Spanish Conference on Coastal Geomorphology, 7-9 September 2011, Tarragona, Spain: an introduction  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the 6th Spanish Conference on Coastal Geomorphology held from 7-9 September 2011 in Tarragona, Spain. The guest editors are Isabel Montoya Montes, Maria J. Sánchez García and Inmaculada Rodríguez Santalla. These conferences on coastal geomorphology are held biannually and serve as a discussion forum focusing mainly on advances in knowledge about the dynamics of the Spanish littoral environment, although contributions from other coastal regions are encouraged. The papers presented in this Special Issue provide a selective view of the latest research results, the main topics dealing with recent coastal morphodynamics and longer-scale coastal evolution. The 7th Conference will be held in July 2013 in Oviedo, Spain, organized by the Department of Geology at the University of Oviedo.

Montoya Montes, Isabel; Sánchez García, Maria J.; Rodríguez Santalla, Inmaculada

2013-04-01

257

Results of the 6th regular inspection of No. 1 plant in Mihama Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th periodical inspection on Unit 1 in the Mihama Power Station was made for the period of July to December 1984. Inspection was made in the following: reactor proper, reactor cooling system, instrumentation and control system, radiation control facility, etc. By external appearance observation, disassembly, performance test, etc. there were observed no abnormalities. Personnel radiation exposure doses during the inspection were below the permissible level. The following modification etc. works were done in the periodical inspection: replacement of the accumulator safety valve, replacement of the out-reactor nuclear instrumentation panel, installation of accident-time monitors, replacement of the control-rod cluster guide tube support pins, alteration in the fuel enrichment. (Mori, K.)

258

Special Issue for the 6th International Conference on Applied Financial Economics, Samos, Greece, 2-4 July 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea behind this issue was to publish the full papers of selected works presented in the 6th International Applied Financial Economics (AFE Conference, which took place at the premises of the Research and Training Institute of East Aegean (INEAG in Samos Island, Greece, 2-4 July 2009. Despite their short history, the AFE Conferences, co-organized by INEAG, the Department of Statistics and Actuarial-Financial Mathematics of the University of the Aegean, the University of Athens and other Academic Institutions, have already gained worldwide reputation and have been established as a forum in which academics, researchers and professional experts in the field of finance from all over the world come together, interact, exchange ideas and present their research.

Alexandros E. Milionis

2010-01-01

259

Publishing the Proceedings for the 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003) was held from June 22 to June 26 at the Coolfont Resort and Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. The Workshop was hosted by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) of the University of Maryland, College Park and by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. As its name implies this was the sixth in a series of biennial workshops devoted to exchanging information and ideas on high power microwave sources and components. The applications addressed included particle accelerators, radar, HPM, space exploration, neutron sources and plasma heating and current driven in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. This Final Report includes a brief description of the RF 2003 Workshop and the distribution of the published proceedings

260

Proceedings of 6th International Microbeam Workshop/12th L.H. Gray Workshop Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology

 
 
 
 
261

Does Grade Retention Make a Difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a continuing record of interest over the years, few studies have documented the demographics of grade retention or the relationship between it and academic achievement across multiple grades and groups of students. In this research, we were interested in the characteristics and consequences of retaining students in elementary (K-5) and…

Tingle, Lynne R.; Schoeneberger, Jason; Algozzine, Bob

2012-01-01

262

Elementary Science Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

2007-01-01

263

coast - 6th edition  

COAST Northern Ireland Environment Agency issue 06 2010 FREE ‘Celebrating and promoting the coastal wildlife, maritime heritage and marine environments of Northern Ireland.’ Airborne lidar a welcome addition Binevenagh ...

264

20 CFR 404.367 - When you are a “full-time elementary or secondary school student”.  

Science.gov (United States)

...school which provides elementary or secondary education...You are instructed in elementary or secondary education...an independent study elementary or secondary education...full-time for day students under the institution's... (e) You are in grade 12 or below; and...

2010-04-01

265

The Ups and Downs of 3rd Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

The transition from 2nd to 3rd grade has received little notice in education research--yet the authors' experience in elementary school counseling convinced them that most students undergo a seismic shift during this period. Third grade is not only the first year students will encounter standardized end-of-grade tests, but also a year in which…

Felton, Kelsey Augst; Akos, Patrick

2011-01-01

266

Student Achievement in Multigrade and Single Grade Classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finds that, among 418 students in 8 New Brunswick (Canada) elementary schools, students in multigrade classes and matched peers in single grades 1-5 did not differ significantly in grade points or total achievement test scores. Reports that 27 of 34 teachers surveyed preferred teaching single grade classes. (SV)

Brown, Kenneth G.; Martin, Andrew B.

1989-01-01

267

Entre continuidades e rupturas: uma investigação sobre o ensino e aprendizagem da História na transição do quinto para o sexto ano do Ensino Fundamental / Between continuities and ruptures: an investigation on teaching and learning History in the transition from the fifth to the sixth grade in Elementary School  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas análises a partir das investigações realizadas por uma pesquisa em uma escola do Ensino Fundamental tendo como fundamentação teórica o campo da Educação Histórica. Buscamos perceber, a partir de observações da aula de História, como os alunos e o profe [...] ssor exteriorizam os principais desafios e dificuldades da transição da quarta série (5º ano) para a quinta série (6º ano). Neste trabalho, dialogamos com pesquisadores como Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). Com isso, pudemos abordar questões que revelam qual a relação do professor com a teoria da história a partir de sua prática em sala de aula. Foram observadas também as abordagens e relações dos sujeitos alunos e professor com o conhecimento histórico, bem como as estratégias didáticas com relação ao uso do livro didático. Abstract in english This article aims to present some analysis from the experience offered by a field research conducted in an Elementary School from the precepts of History Education. It is intended to discuss issues related to the school's fifth grade (6 years) from a public school, for example, the teaching strategi [...] es and the relationship of students with the knowledge of history. We search from observations of History lessons, as students and teacher externalize the main challenges and difficulties of the transition from fourth grade (5 years) for the fifth grade (6 years), based on these observations and the talking with researchers of Education and the Teaching of History Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). With this we lift questions that reveal what relation has the fifth-grade teacher with the initial years. We also observed the relationship of subjects and approaches among themselves and with the historical knowledge and the teaching strategies with respect to textbooks.

Marlene Rosa, Cainelli.

2011-12-01

268

[Attractiveness of France for international clinical trials in 2012: 6(th) survey assessed by Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2002, the Leem (French Association of Pharmaceutical Companies) has conducted a survey every two years to update the attractiveness of France for international clinical trials. Thirty companies (68% of the French market) have participated in this 6(th) survey which involved 79 countries, a greater number of Phases I/II, II and III studies (420 versus 352 in 2010), a relatively stable number of included patients (246,895 versus 249,704 in 2010) and a greater number of centers (32,965 versus 24,337 in 2010). The evolution of time-lines for the go-ahead by French Authorities is heterogeneous (shorter time-lines by the French National Agency of Drug and Health Products Safety [ANSM] but longer time-lines by Research Ethics Comittees [CPP]). The time-lines for first hospital contracts remain stable. France ranks at an average position among European countries in regards to quantitative and qualitative data, and its state-of-art in early stages is still recognized. Its good performance in oncology and orphan diseases are major assets of competitiveness. PMID:23484655

Lassale, Catherine; Sibenaler, Claire; Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Barthélémy, Philippe; Plétan, Yannick; Courcier, Soizic

2013-01-01

269

Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague  

Science.gov (United States)

Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hansch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zoller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

2013-01-01

270

Accreditation proposal for control systems in electrical engineering for 6th level in European Qualification Framework (EQF)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The progress of science and technology emphasizes the connection between different domains and disciplines. The technology development and changing demands of the labour market require upgrading and renewing of learning outcomes in higher education, especially in engineering fields. The Life Long Learning (LLL) procedure must be the platform offering the required qualifications for the demands of companies and engineering professionals all over the world in order to support their competitiveness. In this paper we describe an improved proposal for accreditation of one important subject in engineering, namely Control Systems. The described procedure could be applied in the frame of LLL and also in classical engineering education systems, such as university and college education, in order to harmonize the recognition of engineering degrees in Europe and outside the Europe. Furthermore we state the necessary learning outcomes in the subject of Control Systems in engineering at Bachelor level (6th level of European Qualification Framework (EQF) and propose a process to test the qualifications. © 2013 IEEE.

Friesel, Anna

2013-01-01

271

The use of mobile learning by 6th-year medical students in a minimally-supported environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to identify the impact of minimal support on medical students' mobile learning activities. Methods: The study was performed at the Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, on 129 medical students in their 7th year. The study consisted of a quantitative survey of the students, focussing on their mobile learning activities during their 6th year, while using their own mobile devices (such as smart phones for mobile learning activities. In addition, their perceptions of barriers to, and advantages of, using mobile devices were investigated. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo. Results: All students used their mobile device as telephones and used most of the sophisticated applications. There was significantly less usage made of medical applications, such as clinical guidelines and medical reference tools. Barriers were screen size, cost, limited memory and battery. Advantages were time-saving, ease of access and use. Few students (14 highlighted lack of institutional support as a problem. Conclusions: Lack of support does not mean lack of usage. It does, however, mean predominantly simple usage. Given the importance of mobile devices in modern medical practice, this has strong negative implications for the professional preparedness of students studying in such environments.

Ken Masters

2012-05-01

272

CITON's contribution to the European index of nuclear safety (JSRI) within the EURATOM's 6th Research Framework Programme (FP6)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work aimed at ensuring the technical support for JSRI (Joint Safety Research Index) project of European Commission. The objective of JSRI was achieving a data base (index) containing short reports from the most recent nuclear reactor safety research done in the member states and states associated to the European Union. The work presents: the EURATOM's 6th Research Framework Programme, FP6, (2002 - 2006) as a condition for performing the European Nuclear Research activity; the results obtained from the JSRI in 2000-2002; summaries of the research-development works conducted in 2003. The abstracts are classified according to the report classifying list, give the main achievements, describe the work contents and underline the prominent results obtained in the last 4 years. The classification takes into account: - The integrity and reliability; - Failure control (design basis accidents); - Severe accidents; - Fission products in the primary circuit and containment; - Containment; - Risk analyses; - Miscellaneous (Fuel storage and waste management). Reports representing the Romanian contribution were results of the works on nuclear safety performed in the Nuclear Research Institute at Pitesti and the Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects - CITON at Bucharest

273

[Evaluation of the risk of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking among 6th year students of the Faculty of Medicine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementing the National Health Program assumed in Poland for the years 2007 2015, family doctors in their everyday work try to contribute to reducing the popularity of tobacco smoking as well as reducing and changing the structure of alcohol consumption, whose aim is to reduce the negative health effects caused by those substances [9]. Non smoking personnel and prohibition of smoking in health care centres are the basis for effective anti-tobacco counsel. The same dependence occurs in the case of alcohol abuse. The aim of the work was to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of alcohol abuse among students of the 6th year of the Faculty of Medicine of UMB (Medical University of Bia?ystok), as well as to analyze the structure of drinking and smoking among the prospective doctors. The study material was collected by means of anonymous surveys carried out before classes belonging to the family medicine subject block. The obtained data showed that the students had only superficial knowledge of the negative health effects of alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking. 26% of female students and 12% of male students smoke regularly. The results of the shortened Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), so-called AUDIT-C, showed that 50% of prospective female doctors and 61.1% of prospective male doctors drink alcohol in a risky way. PMID:23421056

Bielska, Dorota; Kurpas, Donata; Marcinowicz, Ludmi?a; Ow?asiuk, Anna; Litwiejko, Alicja; Wojtal, Mariola

2012-01-01

274

Bioinformatics as a driver, not a passenger, of translational biomedical research: Perspectives from the 6th Benelux bioinformatics conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The 6th Benelux Bioinformatics Conference (BBC11 held in Luxembourg on 12 and 13 December 2011 attracted around 200 participants, including internationally-renowned guest speakers and more than 100 peer-reviewed submissions from 3 continents. Researchers from the public and private sectors convened at BBC11 to discuss advances and challenges in a wide spectrum of application areas. A key theme of the conference was the contribution of bioinformatics to enable and accelerate translational and clinical research. The BBC11 stressed the need for stronger collaborating efforts across disciplines and institutions. The demonstration of the clinical relevance of systems approaches and of next-generation sequencing-based measurement technologies are among the existing opportunities for increasing impact in translational research. Translational bioinformatics will benefit from research models that strike a balance between the importance of protecting intellectual property and the need to openly access scientific and technological advances. The full conference proceedings are freely available at http://www.bbc11.lu.

Azuaje Francisco J

2012-03-01

275

SOME THOUGHTS ON THE DEMISE OF ROMAN INFLUENCE IN NORTH AFRICA, 5th/ 6th CENTURY AD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When one thinks of the once mighty Roman Empire, a vision of the proverbial “eternal city” of Rome with its beautiful white colonnaded marble buildings comes to mind. However, Rome did not last eternally, in fact, more than 200 years before the traditional date of the “fall” of the Roman Empire in the West (AD 476, the Golden Age of Rome had shifted towards the southern shore of the Mediterranean, to the previously rather neglected provinces of North Africa. From the 2nd century AD until it was overrun by the Vandals in the 5th century, Roman North Africa enjoyed a period of unequalled prosperity; during the Vandal reign Roman influence still endured in small measure, followed by a brief renaissance under the Byzantines in the 6th century, but after the Arab conquest in the late 7th century it vanished as completely as if the Romans had never set foot in North Africa.
The exceptional prosperity of North Africa at a time when the rest of the Empire was already in a state of decline, and the complete disappearance of any Roman influence whatsoever on the culture and language of a region which was at the time the most Romanized of all the Roman provinces, will be discussed in this article.

L. Cilliers

2012-03-01

276

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

B. Wagner

2012-09-01

277

Bioinformatics as a driver, not a passenger, of translational biomedical research: Perspectives from the 6th Benelux bioinformatics conference.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th Benelux Bioinformatics Conference (BBC11) held in Luxembourg on 12 and 13 December 2011 attracted around 200 participants, including internationally-renowned guest speakers and more than 100 peer-reviewed submissions from 3 continents. Researchers from the public and private sectors convened at BBC11 to discuss advances and challenges in a wide spectrum of application areas. A key theme of the conference was the contribution of bioinformatics to enable and accelerate translational and clinical research. The BBC11 stressed the need for stronger collaborating efforts across disciplines and institutions. The demonstration of the clinical relevance of systems approaches and of next-generation sequencing-based measurement technologies are among the existing opportunities for increasing impact in translational research. Translational bioinformatics will benefit from research models that strike a balance between the importance of protecting intellectual property and the need to openly access scientific and technological advances. The full conference proceedings are freely available at http://www.bbc11.lu. PMID:22414553

Azuaje, Francisco J; Heymann, Michaël; Ternes, Anne-Marie; Wienecke-Baldacchino, Anke; Struck, Daniel; Moes, Danièle; Schneider, Reinhard

2012-01-01

278

The Effect of Demonstrator Gender on Wind Instrument Preferences of Kindergarten, Third-Grade, and Fifth-Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined possible influences of demonstrator gender on children's instrument choices. Participants (N = 104) included boys (n = 53) and girls ( n = 51) in fifth grade (n = 27), third grade (n = 41), and kindergarten (n = 36) in six intact music classes from a single elementary school. Pretest and posttest consisted of circling (Grades 3…

Killian, Janice N.; Satrom, Shauna L.

2011-01-01

279

Desempenho de escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas de habilidades metafonológicas e de leitura - PROHMELE / Performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades at the metalinguistics skills and reading proof - PROHMELE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Elaborar uma bateria de provas que se propõe a avaliar o processamento de habilidades necessárias para a aquisição do sistema de escrita alfabético do Português do Brasil, e caracterizar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas desta bateria. [...] MÉTODOS: Foram elaboradas provas específicas para este fim, seguindo os princípios fonológicos da língua portuguesa do Brasil. Foram avaliados 120 escolares de 1ª a 4ª séries, sendo 30 de cada série escolar divididos em quatro grupos, respectivamente GI, GII, GIII e GIV. As provas elaboradas e aplicadas foram: prova de habilidades metafonológicas (identificação e manipulação de sílabas e fonemas, além de repetição de não-palavras); prova de leitura (leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras). RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos nas habilidades metafonológicas com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 4ª série sucessivamente. Também houve diferenças quanto ao tempo de leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras, com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 3ª série, mantendo-se igual ou próximo entre esta e a 4ª série. CONCLUSÃO: Os desempenhos foram se tornando superiores da 1ª à 4ª série, sendo que os escolares obtiveram desempenhos superiores nas provas de identificação em relação às provas de manipulação, assim como os desempenhos nas provas silábicas foram superiores aos das provas fonêmicas. Há uma prevalência da rota fonológica nas séries iniciais (1ª e 2ª) com as outras séries, especialmente a 4ª, usando mais a rota lexical. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To elaborate specific tests to evaluate the processing of abilities necessary to the acquisition of the alphabetic writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, and to characterize and compare the performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades on the proposed test. METHODS: Spec [...] ific tests were elaborated following the phonological principles of Brazilian Portuguese. One hundred and twenty students from 1st to 4th grade of a public elementary school were divided into four groups of 30 subjects: GI, GII, GIII and GIV. The tests were: tests of metalinguistic abilities (syllable and phoneme identification and manipulation, and nonwords repetition); reading tests (reading of real words and pseudowords). RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences among the groups for metalinguistic abilities, with averages decreasing successively from 1st to 4th grade. Differences were also found for time of real words and of pseudowords reading, with averages decreasing from 1st to 3rd grade, and remaining equal or close between 3rd and 4th grades. CONCLUSION: The performances were gradually increasing from 1st to 4th grade, and the students obtained superior performances on the identification tasks, when compared to manipulation tasks, as well as the performances on the syllabic tasks were superior to the phonemic tasks. There was a prevalence of the phonological route in the initial grades (1st and 2nd), while 4th graders preferred the lexical route.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi, Cunha; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

280

Desempenho de escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas de habilidades metafonológicas e de leitura - PROHMELE Performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades at the metalinguistics skills and reading proof - PROHMELE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Elaborar uma bateria de provas que se propõe a avaliar o processamento de habilidades necessárias para a aquisição do sistema de escrita alfabético do Português do Brasil, e caracterizar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas desta bateria. MÉTODOS: Foram elaboradas provas específicas para este fim, seguindo os princípios fonológicos da língua portuguesa do Brasil. Foram avaliados 120 escolares de 1ª a 4ª séries, sendo 30 de cada série escolar divididos em quatro grupos, respectivamente GI, GII, GIII e GIV. As provas elaboradas e aplicadas foram: prova de habilidades metafonológicas (identificação e manipulação de sílabas e fonemas, além de repetição de não-palavras; prova de leitura (leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos nas habilidades metafonológicas com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 4ª série sucessivamente. Também houve diferenças quanto ao tempo de leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras, com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 3ª série, mantendo-se igual ou próximo entre esta e a 4ª série. CONCLUSÃO: Os desempenhos foram se tornando superiores da 1ª à 4ª série, sendo que os escolares obtiveram desempenhos superiores nas provas de identificação em relação às provas de manipulação, assim como os desempenhos nas provas silábicas foram superiores aos das provas fonêmicas. Há uma prevalência da rota fonológica nas séries iniciais (1ª e 2ª com as outras séries, especialmente a 4ª, usando mais a rota lexical.PURPOSE: To elaborate specific tests to evaluate the processing of abilities necessary to the acquisition of the alphabetic writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, and to characterize and compare the performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades on the proposed test. METHODS: Specific tests were elaborated following the phonological principles of Brazilian Portuguese. One hundred and twenty students from 1st to 4th grade of a public elementary school were divided into four groups of 30 subjects: GI, GII, GIII and GIV. The tests were: tests of metalinguistic abilities (syllable and phoneme identification and manipulation, and nonwords repetition; reading tests (reading of real words and pseudowords. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences among the groups for metalinguistic abilities, with averages decreasing successively from 1st to 4th grade. Differences were also found for time of real words and of pseudowords reading, with averages decreasing from 1st to 3rd grade, and remaining equal or close between 3rd and 4th grades. CONCLUSION: The performances were gradually increasing from 1st to 4th grade, and the students obtained superior performances on the identification tasks, when compared to manipulation tasks, as well as the performances on the syllabic tasks were superior to the phonemic tasks. There was a prevalence of the phonological route in the initial grades (1st and 2nd, while 4th graders preferred the lexical route.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi Cunha

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Transformational leadership and the elementary school principal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to establish a link between transformational leadership behavior in principals and increased student learning measured by Indiana's annual achievement test. A secondary focus was to determine if transformational leadership led to increased levels of teacher satisfaction, willingness to give extra effort, and subordinate perception of principal effectiveness. This study was conducted in Indiana elementary schools with grade configurations of K–6. The sample was ...

Hoernemann, Margaret Ellen

1998-01-01

282

Elementary particle theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

283

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 2), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 2, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through 10. Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions. (RH)

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

284

The effects of the science writing heuristic (SWH) approach versus traditional instruction on yearly critical thinking gain scores in grade 5-8 classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are discussed in detail.

Tseng, Ching-mei

285

AIDS/HIV education for preservice elementary teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Professional preparation programs should provide future elementary teachers opportunities to develop competence in dealing with school-related AIDS issues. Curriculum writers and instructors of preservice elementary teachers could be more effective if they were aware of this groups' beliefs about school-related AIDS issues. A survey was conducted to assess the beliefs and opinions of preservice elementary teachers about school-related AIDS issues. Subjects (n = 157) generally agreed they would eventually have a child with AIDS in their classroom and agreed AIDS education should be included in the elementary grades, yet a substantial number did not believe they understood the basics about AIDS. Less than one-third indicated they knew how to clean up blood or body fluids safely. About one-third indicated they would feel personally threatened to teach a student with AIDS. These results are reflected in recommended AIDS educational content and resources for preservice elementary teachers and future research in this area. PMID:2232729

Ballard, D J; White, D M; Glascoff, M A

1990-08-01

286

EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006 and FP7 (2007-2013, has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1 fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2 development of new malaria drugs, (3 research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4 research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined - and well confined - area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria.

Penas-Jimenez Inmaculada

2011-01-01

287

CfDS 2006: the 6th European Dark-Skies Symposium, Portsmouth, 2006 September 15-16  

Science.gov (United States)

The BAA's Campaign for Dark Skies took its turn in 2006 to stage the 6th European Dark-Skies Symposium, similar events having been held in previous years in Switzerland, Germany, France and Belgium. The event was the best attended to date, with more than 150 delegates from eleven European countries, the USA and even South Africa. Between sessions, delegates were given a tour of the night skies of the world in the South Downs Planetarium, where Dr John Mason simulated the effects of light pollution. This was followed by a visit to the Clanfield Observatory, courtesy of the Hampshire Astronomical Group, later in the evening, where the real night sky and a little real light pollution (!) were observed. The whole event was kindly sponsored by the BAA and Abacus Lighting Ltd. A principal aim of the two-day symposium was to advise planners and other decision-makers, and those who make, choose and install lighting, about the legal and moral issues surrounding light pollution. It is not, of course, the Campaign's intention to ban lighting, but to ensure that where outdoor lighting is required, it is designed and installed correctly, thereby causing little or no nuisance and reducing energy costs. These non-astronomical aspects were very much to the fore on the first day of the conference, which was opened by one of CfDS' best allies in Parliament, Lembit Opik MP. Mr Opik expressed his delight at seeing so many delegates, and confirmed his continuing support for the initiatives CfDS pursues within Parliament: for example its discussions with DEFRA on the subject of the proposed planning directive (PPS 23) on light pollution

Mizon, R.

2006-12-01

288

6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton took place in Milan, on July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book are available in this special issue 2009 of the Museologia Scientifica e Naturalistica.

2009-10-01

289

Laser 2004 Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research (LASER 2004) held in Pozna?, Poland, 24–27 May 2004  

CERN Document Server

6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research, LASER 2004, held in Poznan, Poland, 24-27 May, 2004 Researchers and graduate students interested in the Mössbauer Effect and its applications will find this volume indispensable. The volume presents the most recent developments in the methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume 162, 1-4

B?aszczak, Z; Marinova, K

2006-01-01

290

A concepção sobre saúde do escolar entre professores do ensino fundamental (1ª a 4ª séries) / The concept of student health as viewed by early elementary school teachers (1st- 4th grades)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo investiga a concepção sobre a saúde do escolar entre os docentes do ensino fundamental e caracteriza a formação desses profissionais nessa temática. Utilizou-se metodologia qualitativa, numa amostra constituída por 45 professores. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionári [...] o semi-estruturado e posteriormente analisados seguindo a proposta de análise temática. Observou-se que 77,7% dos docentes estudaram conteúdos de saúde e 33,33% apresentam dificuldades em trabalhar essa temática, principalmente por falta de material didático adequado. Com relação aos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais no tema transversal saúde, 75,55% dos entrevistados participaram dessa capacitação. Observa-se que os professores do ensino fundamental necessitam uma capacitação específica e maior suporte com relação à prática da saúde escolar. Abstract in english The study investigated the attitudes of early elementary school teachers towards student health and characterized their training in this area. Using qualitative methodology, a sample of forty-five teachers responded to a semi-structured questionnaire, subsequently analyzed in accord with the propose [...] d topical approach. Findings showed that 77.7% of the teachers had studied health content, while 33.33% encountered problems working with this topic, chiefly because they lacked suitable teaching material. Further, 75.55% had taken part in training related to Brazil's National Curriculum Parameters and the transversal theme of health. When asked about the importance of addressing the health topic, 28.33% referred to the need to take care of one's health. In conclusion, early elementary teachers need specific training and greater support in dealing with the topic.

Marcos Henrique, Fernandes; Vera Maria, Rocha; Djanira Brasilino de, Souza.

291

Inverses and Elementary Matrices  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to explore the properties of inverse matrices. Our principal tool for this exploration is the expression of elementary row operations as left multiplications by elementary matrices. This is part of a larger collection of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David

2010-05-18

292

A Comparison between Elementary School Students' Mental Models and Visualizations in Textbooks for the Concept of Atom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed for two major goals, which are to describe students' mental models about atom concept from 6th to 8th grade and to compare students' mental models with visual representations of atom in textbooks. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected with 4 open-ended questions including drawings which were quantified using the…

Polat-Yaseen, Zeynep

2012-01-01

293

Modeling the States of Matter in a First-Grade Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific modeling along with hands-on inquiry can lead to a deeper understanding of scientific concepts among students in upper elementary grades. Even though scientific modeling involves abstract-thinking processes, can students in younger elementary grades successfully participate in scientific modeling? Scientific modeling, like all other…

Lott, Kimberly; Wallin, Lynn

2012-01-01

294

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Accreditation:Impact on Elementary Student Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently, 848 Georgia public elementary schools that house third- and fifth-grades in the same building use the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) accreditation as a school improvement model. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether elementary schools that are SACS accredited increased their levels of academic achievement at a higher rate over a five-year period than elementary schools that were not SACS accredited as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skil...

Bruner, Darlene Y.; Lance Lamar Brantley

2004-01-01

295

Bringing Science Public Outreach to Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Many science "museums” already offer fantastic programs for the general public, and even some aimed at elementary school kids. However, these venues are usually located in large cities and are only occasionally used as tools for enriching science education in public schools. Here we present preliminary work to establish exciting educational enrichment environments for public schools that do not easily have access to such facilities. This program is aimed at motivating children's interest in science beyond what they learn in the classroom setting. In this program, we use the experience and experiments/demonstrations developed at a large science museum (in this case, The St. Louis Science Center) and take them into a local elementary school. At the same time, students from the University of Missouri are getting trained on how to present these outreach materials and work with the local elementary schools. Our pilot study has started with implementation of presentations/demonstrations at Benton Elementary School within the Columbia Public School district, Missouri. The school has recently adopted a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) centered learning system throughout all grade levels (K-5), and is therefore receptive to this effort. We have implemented a program in which we have given a series of scientific demonstrations at each grade level's lunch hour. Further enrichment ideas and plans include: addition demonstrations, hands-on experiments, and question and answer sessions. However, the application of these events would be to compliment the curriculum for the appropriate grade level at that time. The focus of this project is to develop public communications which links science museums, college students and local public schools with an emphasis on encouraging college science majors to share their knowledge and to strengthen their ability to work in a public environment.

Miller, Lucas; Speck, A.; Tinnin, A.

2012-01-01

296

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching Elementary School Children about Water Management and Local Government.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that students have little knowledge about the operation of local government. Discusses a three-day interdisciplinary lesson about water management and local government for the elementary grades. Includes descriptions of laboratory exercises, homework assignments, and class discussions. (CFR)

Araboglou, Argy

1993-01-01

297

Improving Social Skills at the Elementary Level through Cooperative Learning and Direct Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for improving social development of elementary school students in order to lessen disruptive behavior in physical education class. The targeted population consisted of elementary school children in second, fourth, and fifth grades in a growing rural, middle class community. Anecdotal…

Dohrn, Laurie; Holian, Eleanor; Kaplan, Debra

298

District Leadership for Science Education: Using K-12 Departments to Support Elementary Science Education under NCLB  

Science.gov (United States)

By contrasting two case studies of school districts, this paper illustrates the effectiveness of K-12 science departments in supporting elementary science education, especially in response to NCLB's push towards the articulation of curriculum across all grades and as a response to the erosion of instructional time on science in elementary schools…

Miller, Christopher L.

2010-01-01

299

CSRQ Center Report on Elementary School Comprehensive School Reform Models: Educator's Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

Which comprehensive school reform programs have evidence of positive effects on elementary school achievement? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in elementary schools, grades K-6. Comprehensive school reform models are programs used schoolwide to improve student achievement. They typically…

Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008

2008-01-01

300

Psychological Needs Satisfaction, Motivational Regulations and Physical Activity Intention among Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship between psychological needs satisfaction, motivational regulations in physical education and physical activity intention among elementary school students. A total of 291 elementary school students in grades 3-6 voluntarily completed the three measures. This study indicated that satisfaction of three basic…

Chen, Weiyun

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Influential Factors on Students' Vocational Aspiration in Turkish Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the fifth grade elementary school students' vocational aspiration and the factors affecting it. The sample consisted of 115 students in 20 elementary public schools with whom face-to- face interviews were conducted. The findings showed that engineering, medical doctor, and school teachers were the most frequently mentioned…

Kentli, Fulya Damla

2014-01-01

302

Social Activism in Elementary Science Education: A Science, Technology, and Society Approach to Teach Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students' science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school…

Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie

2006-01-01

303

Project A+, Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools, 1991-92: The Second Year.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program, where four elementary schools were equipped with computer hardware and software, was made possible by grants from IBM and Apple, Inc. The goals of the program were, in 3 years, to reduce by 50% the number of students not in their age appropriate grade level and those students not achieving…

Nichols, Todd; Frazer, Linda

304

The Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Performance of Elementary Brass Players.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the effects of breath management instruction on the performance of 61 elementary brass players in in grades 4, 5, and 6. Shows that breathing instruction within group lessons was effective in improving the breathing and performance of elementary brass players. Includes references. (CMK)

Sehmann, Karin Harfst

2000-01-01

305

Teaching in Valleybrook Elementary School: A Simulation Game Focusing Upon Problems of the Racially Desegregated School.  

Science.gov (United States)

A majority-white elementary school has been simulated in which players assume the role of fifth-grade teacher Terry Patterson and practice solving typical problems indigenous to the desegregated elementary school. The problems are presented on film, in written incidents, and through role plays. Each player is furnished with extensive background…

Venditti, Frederick P.

306

Construção de conceitos de eletricidade nos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental com uso de experimentação virtual / Construction of concepts of electricity in the early grades of elementary school with the use of virtual experiments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, desenvolvemos e aplicamos uma metodologia de ensino para crianças do quarto ano do Ensino Fundamental, com o objetivo de viabilizar o início da construção de alguns conceitos de eletricidade a partir do uso de um experimento virtual. A análise do desenvolvimento das concepções dos es [...] tudantes, durante as atividades realizadas, mostrou que a experimentação virtual propiciou o desenvolvimento de algumas capacidades cognitivas e exibiu indícios de formação dos conceitos em nível formal. Abstract in english In this paper, we report the development and application of a methodology for teaching electricity concepts to children attending the fourth year of elementary school, with the aim of starting the construction of some concepts related to this topic by using a virtual experiment. The analysis of the [...] evolution of the student's concepts while they were performing the programed tasks showed that the virtual experimentation led to the development of some cognitive skills and provided evidences of concept formation in the formal level.

Sorandra Corrêa de, Lima; Eduardo Kojy, Takahashi.

2013-09-01

307

Construção de conceitos de eletricidade nos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental com uso de experimentação virtual / Construction of concepts of electricity in the early grades of elementary school with the use of virtual experiments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, desenvolvemos e aplicamos uma metodologia de ensino para crianças do quarto ano do Ensino Fundamental, com o objetivo de viabilizar o início da construção de alguns conceitos de eletricidade a partir do uso de um experimento virtual. A análise do desenvolvimento das concepções dos es [...] tudantes, durante as atividades realizadas, mostrou que a experimentação virtual propiciou o desenvolvimento de algumas capacidades cognitivas e exibiu indícios de formação dos conceitos em nível formal. Abstract in english In this paper, we report the development and application of a methodology for teaching electricity concepts to children attending the fourth year of elementary school, with the aim of starting the construction of some concepts related to this topic by using a virtual experiment. The analysis of the [...] evolution of the student's concepts while they were performing the programed tasks showed that the virtual experimentation led to the development of some cognitive skills and provided evidences of concept formation in the formal level.

Sorandra Corrêa de, Lima; Eduardo Kojy, Takahashi.

308

An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson  

Science.gov (United States)

Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

2013-01-01

309

Use of Primary Sources in the Sixth Grade Social Studies Course Books  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is to determine the level of use of primary sources in the 6th Grade Social Studies Course Books. The "document analysis" method from among the qualitative research methods was used in the study. The study was conducted on 4 books from among the Social Studies course books published by total of 6 Publishing Houses…

Yilmaz, Ali

2008-01-01

310

The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

311

The purple Codex Rossanensis: spectroscopic characterization and first evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a 6th century manuscript  

CERN Document Server

The Codex Rossanensis is a 6th century Bizantine illuminated manuscript written on purple parchment and conserved at the Museo Diocesano in Rossano Calabro, Italy. It is one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament. The challenge of the analysis of the Codex Rossanensis lies in the lack of analytical information on the pictorial media used in the Early Middle Ages. Even though old-medieval illuminated manuscripts have been deeply studied from the historical standpoint, they have been rarely described in their material composition. This paper presents the results obtained during the measurements campaign (June 2012 - November 2013). The spectroscopic analyses performed by Raman, micro-FTIR and XRF allowed for the complete characterization of the pictorial palette, the inks, the support and the material used in a previous restoration treatment. To the author knowledge the article shows the first experimental evidence of the usage of the elderberry lake in a 6th century illuminated ma...

Bicchieri, Marina

2014-01-01

312

New Simple Torque-Sensorless Torque Control for Quasi-Perfect Compensation of 6th Harmonic Torque Ripple Due to Nonsinusoidal Distribution of Back EMF of PMSM  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a new torque-sensorless torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method can almost perfectly compensate the 6th harmonic torque ripple that is caused by the nonsinusoidal distributions of the back EMF and rotor magnetic flux of PMSMs. The torque control system is, in principle, constructed on the basis of the vector control, but has two new dedicated speed-varying devices—a harmonic torque observer and current controller. The speed-varying harmonic torque observer can estimate the harmonic component over a wide speed range, even in the case where the produced torque is constant, and generate a suitable compensating signal. The speed-varying current controller shows stable control performance over a wide speed range, it can fully track the compensated current command containing the dc and 6th harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined and verified through extensive numerical experiments.

Shinnaka, Shinji; Kishida, Hideo

313

PREFACE: NC-AFM 2003: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct nanoscale and atomic resolution imaging is a key issue in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The invention of the dynamic force microscope in the early 1990s was an important step forward in this direction as this instrument provides a universal tool for measuring the topography and many other physical and chemical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale. Operation in the so-called non-contact mode now allows direct atomic resolution imaging of electrically insulating surfaces and nanostructures which has been an unsolved problem during the first decade of nanotechnology. Today, we face a most rapid development of the technique and an extension of its capabilities far beyond imaging; atomically resolved force spectroscopy provides information about local binding properties and researchers now develop sophisticated schemes of force controlled atomic manipulation with the tip of the force microscope. Progress in the field of non-contact force microscopy is discussed at the annually held NC-AFM conferences that are part of a series started in 1998 with a meeting in Osaka, Japan. The 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy took place in Dingle, Ireland, from 31 August to 3 September 2003 and this special issue is a compilation of the original publications of work presented at this meeting. The papers published here well reflect recent achievements, current trends and some of the challenging new directions in non-contact force microscopy that have been discussed during the most stimulating conference days in Dingle. Fundamental aspects of forces and dissipation relevant in imaging and spectroscopy have been covered by experimental and theoretical contributions yielding a more detailed understanding of tip--surface interaction in force microscopy. Novel and improved imaging and spectroscopy techniques have been introduced that either improve the performance of force microscopy or pave the way towards new functionalities and applications. With regard to studies on the specific systems investigated, there was a strong emphasis on oxides and ionics, as well as on organic systems. Following previous pioneering work in uncovering the atomic structure of insulating oxides with force microscopy, it was shown in the meeting that this important class of materials is now accessible for a quantitative atomic scale surface characterization. Single organic molecules and ordered organic layers are building blocks for functional nanostructures currently developed in many laboratories for applications in molecular electronics and sensor technologies. The Dingle conference impressively demonstrated that dynamic force microscopy is ready for its application as an analytical tool for these promising future nanotechnologies. The meeting was a great success scientifically and participants enjoyed the beauty of the conference site. I would like to thank all members of the international steering committee, the programme committee and the co-chairs, J Pethica, A Shluger and G Thornton, for their efforts in preparing the meeting. The members of the local organising committee, J Ballentine-Armstrong, G Cross, S Dunne, S Jarvis and Ö Özer, kept the meeting running smoothly and created a very pleasant atmosphere. The generous financial support from Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), is greatly appreciated; SFI is dramatically raising the profile of Irish science. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to N Couzin and the journal team from Institute of Physics Publishing for their editorial management and perfect co-operation in the preparation of this special issue.

Reichling, Michael

2004-02-01

314

Medical students’ skills in image interpretation before and after training: A comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula.

Sendra-Portero, Francisco, E-mail: sendra@uma.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Torales-Chaparro, Oscar E., E-mail: oetjft@terra.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J., E-mail: mjrg@uma.es [Departamento de Radiología y Medicina Física, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Boulevar Louis Pasteur, 32, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

2012-12-15

315

Medical students’ skills in image interpretation before and after training: A comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula.

316

Investigation of explosive decomposition of volatile alkyl OMC of elements of the 2nd-6th groups of the Periodic system in the gas phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Explosive decomposition of a number of alkylic compounds of elements of the 2nd-6th groups of the Periodic system (Cd, In, Te) in the gas phase has been investigated. On the basis of experimental results and literature data a correlation in the ability of the lowest alkylic compounds of OMC to be explosively decomposed depending upon the position of a metal in the Periodic system has been established

317

Sustainable consumption: towards action and impact. : International scientific conference November 6th-8th 2011, Hamburg - European Green Capital 2011, Germany: abstract volume  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This volume contains the abstracts of all oral and poster presentations of the international scientific conference „Sustainable Consumption – Towards Action and Impact“ held in Hamburg (Germany) on November 6th-8th 2011. This unique conference aims to promote a comprehensive academic discourse on issues concerning sustainable consumption and brings together scholars from a wide range of academic disciplines. In modern societies, private consumption is a multifaceted and ambivalent ph...

Balmer, Ivo; Defila, Rico; Digiulio, Antonietta; Kaufmann-hayoz, Ruth; Kobel, Peter

2011-01-01

318

Elementary particle theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references. (WHK)

Marciano, W.J.

1984-12-01

319

Optimal Grading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assuming that teachers are concerned with human capital formation and students - with ability signaling, in this paper we model a teacher-student relationship as an agency problem with conflicting interests. In our model, the teacher elicits effort from the student rewarding for it with a grade, the utility of which to the student is an ability signal inferred by the job market. In the event that the job market does not observe individual teachers' grading practice, teachers find grades as co...

Zubrickas, Robertas

2010-01-01

320

Optimal Grading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assuming that teachers are concerned with human capital formation and students - with ability signaling, in this paper we model a teacher-student relationship as an agency problem with conflicting interests. In our model, the teacher elicits effort from a student rewarding for it with a grade, the utility of which to the student is the ability signal inferred by the job market. In the event that the job market does not observe individual teachers' grading practices, teachers find grades as...

Zubrickas, Robertas

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The Impact of Interactive Storybook on Elementary School Students' Recall  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…

Seyit, Ertem Ihsan

2011-01-01

322

Effectiveness of Small Group Social Skills Lessons with Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research study (ARS) describes the effectiveness of small group social skills lessons with elementary students, using "Too Good for Violence: A Curriculum for Non-violent Living" by the Mendez Foundation. The school counselor and school social worker taught the curriculum in a structured small group of 4th grade students in 8 weekly…

Chupp, Amy I.; Boes, Susan R.

2012-01-01

323

Elementary Teachers' Perspectives of Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed…

Bruun, Faye

2013-01-01

324

Teaching History for Citizenship in the Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

History instruction must serve, above all else, to develop critically important citizenship knowledge, skills, and values. This book aims to blend recent scholarship on teaching U.S. history for citizenship with ideas on how to achieve this mission in grades K-5. Chapters in the book are: (1) "Teaching History for Citizenship in the Elementary

Hoge, John D.

325

Turkish Elementary and Secondary Students' Views about Science and Scientist  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine elementary and secondary students' views concerning science and scientists. Data gathered from Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and essays written by students were used to analyze their views. The study involved 359 students in grades 5 through 11. The results indicate that student's perceived scientists as to be…

Akcay, Behiye

2011-01-01

326

Oregon Title 1-M Early Childhood and Elementary Education Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brief descriptions of Oregon Title 1-M early childhood and elementary education programs for migrant children from infants to grade 8, along with lists of contact persons for each program, include reading, pre-school skill development, English as a second language, individualized instruction, utilization of community services, and parental…

Lugo, Alfredo Morales, Comp.

327

An Inventory for Assessing Food Behaviors of Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes development, field-testing, and summary statistics of a series of inventories designed to assess food behaviors of 1,673 elementary school students (grades 1-6). Content focuses on personal cleanliness, personal safety, and food quality. Students respond to cartoon items by selecting one of three responses to indicate their typical…

Fanslow, Alyce M.; And Others

1982-01-01

328

Group Counseling for African American Elementary Students: An Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…

Steen, Sam

2009-01-01

329

Environmental Education Activities Manual, Book 2: Lower Elementary Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activities book for lower elementary grades is the second book of a series of six books designed to provide developmental K-12 experiences designed to support the basic environmental philosophy of spaceship earth. The aims of the four activity sections of this book are to aid in developing students to make them more sensitive to their…

Stapp, William B., Ed.; Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.

330

Environmental Education Activities Manual, Book 4: Upper Elementary Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activities book for the upper elementary grades is the fourth book of a series of six books designed to provide developmental K-12 experiences designed to support the basic environmental philosophy of spaceship earth presented in Book 1. The aims of the four activity sections of this book are to aid in developing students to make them more…

Stapp, William B., Ed.; Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.

331

Environmental Education Activities Manual, Book 3: Middle Elementary Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activities book for the middle elementary grades is the third book of a series of six books designed to provide developmental K-12 experiences designed to support the basic environmental philosophy of spaceship earth presented in Book 1. The aims of the four activity sections of this book are to aid in developing students to make them more…

Stapp, William B., Ed.; Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.

332

Social Network Profiles of Children in Early Elementary School Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This study characterized the social network roles and peer relationship features of early elementary school-age children from kindergarten to 2nd grade. Children were asked to identify who they liked and did not like to play with and peer groups who played together from their classroom. Consistent with the literature, we found similar patterns for…

Vu, Jennifer A.; Locke, Jill J.

2014-01-01

333

Elementary Language Arts: Model Curriculum Guide. First Field Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to serve as a model to aid school districts in developing and reviewing their language arts curricula, this curriculum guide for the elementary grades lists in parallel columns topics/concepts, learning outcomes, and sample learning objectives for language skills in the areas of oral communication, reading, and writing. Topics and…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

334

The Evolution of a Learning Community for Elementary Education Majors  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns about the quality of math and science education in the elementary grades often focus on the shortage of well qualified teachers at that level, a shortage that reflects both a lack of interest among prospective teachers in teaching mathematics and science (Committee on Science, 2007), and the need for solid preparation in mathematics for…

Rogotzke, Kathy; Zoellner, Craig; Larson, Kacy; Fallis, Nancy

2010-01-01

335

Improving Social Skills In Elementary Students Through Classroom Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

In the action research project report the teacher researchers targeted 70 elementary students in third- and fifth-grade classrooms that demonstrated a lack of social skills necessary to work cooperatively in a classroom. The purpose of the project was to improve the social skills in children. The three teacher researchers who conducted this action…

Fetissoff, Kira; Kry, Jeannie; Skilling, Aryn

2008-01-01

336

Conceptual change among middle school students studying elementary thermodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies the conceptual changes and factors affecting eighth- grade physical science students (n=180) investigating elementary thermodynamics. Classifies three types of students regarding their learning methods: converging, progressing, and oscillating. Reports that original intuitive conceptions are difficult to change and that students engaged in activities requiring sustained reflection make greater cognitive gains.

Lewis, Eileen

2006-05-31

337

The use of historical materials in elementary science classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Science educators have stressed in recent years the importance of providing students with an historical understanding of the development of scientific knowledge. Although many approaches have been suggested for building historical understanding of science, historical source materials have often been deemed too difficult to use with elementary school students. This article reports on a case study that used archival and contemporary source materials in project activities, such as photographs and field notes, to engage students in the processes of data generation, selection, annotation, and evaluation. The curricular science activities of one elementary classroom with 29 fourth and fifth grade students are decribed and analyzed as they build and use archives of historical and contemporary naturalist materials. The article concludes with a discussion of the feasibility and benefits of using historical source materials within elementary science education, as well as the implications for selecting and preparing historical source materials in digital format for use in elementary education.

Kafai, Yasmin B.; Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J.

2001-07-01

338

BMI Change, Fitness Change and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among 8th Grade Youth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examined whether a two-year change in fitness, body mass index (BMI) or the additive effect of change in fitness and BMI were associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors among youth. Cardiometabolic risk factors, BMI group (normal weight, overweight or obese) were obtained from participants at the start of 6th grade and end of 8th grade. Shuttle run laps were assessed and categorized in quintiles at both time points. Regression models were used to examine whether changes...

Jago, Russell; Drews, Kimberly L.; Mcmurray, Robert G.; Baranowski, Tom; Galassetti, Pietro; Foster, Gary D.; Moe, Ester; Buse, John B.

2013-01-01

339

Handicraft (Industrial Arts). Grades 4-5.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the second of two textbooks covering the elementary program in Vietnam on handicrafts and industrial arts. It is written for Vietnamese children at the fourth and fifth grade level. The four chapters are: (1) clay moulding, (2) use of ordinary carpentry tools, (3) book binding, and (4) miscellaneous. The course is designed to offer…

Le Xuan Thuy

340

Poetry in Third Grade: Getting Started  

Science.gov (United States)

Poetry should be an integral part of children's learning in elementary school. This article explains the classroom structures and routines through which third-grade students in an inner-city school became familiar with poetic language and learned to appreciate the artistry of poetry. Most of the students were struggling readers. Reading poetry…

Sekeres, Diane Carver; Gregg, Madeleine

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effect of 5E instructional model in student success in primary school 6th year circulatory system topic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental group. Appropriate activities using the 5E instructional model were used in the experimental group, while traditional teaching using question and answer methods was applied with the control group. To compare the treatments, the percentage of correct statements and t test results were used. While initial levels of the experimental group and the control group were the same, a significant difference occurred in favor of the experimental group as a result of the application.

Osman CARDAK

2008-12-01

342

Promoting Reading Achievement and Countering the "Fourth-Grade Slump": The Impact of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement in Fifth Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has documented a substantial decline of standardized test scores of children from low-income backgrounds, relative to more advantaged peers, in later elementary grades, the so-called "fourth-grade slump." This article examines changes in reading achievement from first to fifth grade for students in a large urban school system…

Stockard, Jean

2010-01-01

343

Antropometria de escolares ao ingresso no ensino fundamental na cidade de Belém, Pará, 2001 / School aged anthropometry when enrolling in the first grade of elementary school in the city of Belém, Pará, 2001  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: realizar a antropometria em escolares da primeira série da rede pública estadual em Belém, Pará, como instrumento de vigilância nutricional e estudar as associações entre o estado nutricional e características biológicas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados nutricionalmente 793 esc [...] olares, pelos escores z de estatura/idade e peso/estatura, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. As variáveis biológicas e socioeconômicas foram: sexo, idade, naturalidade, idade de ingresso da criança na escola e escolaridade materna. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado ao relacionar o estado nutricional com as variáveis. RESULTADOS: em 637 escolares observamos 16,6% de baixa estatura e risco de baixa estatura, 4,5% de desnutrição e risco de desnutrição, 7,4% de sobrepeso e obesidade. Não houve associação significante entre estado nutricional e sexo. A maioria das crianças nasceu na capital, ingressou tardiamente na escola e tinham mães com escolaridade >4 anos. Observou-se correlação significante entre obesidade e baixa estatura com menor escolaridade materna; risco de desnutrição e baixa estatura com o ingresso escolar tardio; e obesidade e estatura normal com o ingresso regular. CONCLUSÕES: a menor escolaridade materna e o ingresso tardio escolar estão associados à presença de desvios nutricionais. A vigilância nutricional escolar é importante para avaliar, tratar e prevenir os riscos para saúde e nutrição infantil. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to perform anthropometric measurements in elementary school students of the public school system of the State of Belém, Pará, as a tool for nutritional surveillance and to study associations between nutritional status and biological, social and economic characteristics. METHODS: 793 stud [...] ents were assessed for their nutritional status, by z scores of height/age and weight /height according to the World Health Organization criteria. Biological, social and economic variables were: gender, age, place of birth, age of school enrolment and maternal education level. The chi square test was used to relate nutritional status to variables. RESULTS: of the 637 students assessed, 16.6% were of low stature or in risk of low stature, 4.5% malnourished or in risk of malnourishment, 7.4% were overweight or obese. There was no significant association between nutritional status and gender. The majority of the children was born in the capital, was enrolled late in school and had mothers with education level of >4 years. There was a significant correlation between obesity and low stature with low maternal education level; malnutrition risk and low stature with late school enrolment; and obesity and normal stature with regular enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: low maternal school level and late school enrollment are associated to nutritional problems. School nutritional surveillance is important to assess, treat and prevent children's health and nutrition risks.

Olga Maria Domingues das, Neves; Anne Lise Dias, Brasil; Laélia Maria Barra Feio, Brasil; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo, Taddei.

344

Futebol: representações e práticas de escolares do ensino fundamental / Football: representations and practices of students of the elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo buscou caracterizar as práticas e identificar representações sociais de escolares sobre o futebol no âmbito da aulas de Educação Física Escolar. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa de tipo etnográfico, que utilizou observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, além de question [...] ário, em uma turma de 29 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental, em uma escola pública na cidade de Bauru - SP. Os resultados indicam que as mídias e a família são os principais elementos que constituem as representações dos alunos sobre o futebol, e que o modo como a prática do futebol é desenvolvida na escola ao mesmo tempo as constrói e realimenta. Concluímos que as representações sociais são um importante meio que orienta as relações dos alunos com o futebol, na medida em que influenciam a orientação e organização das suas condutas. Todavia, isto não torna homogêneas suas condutas e valores, pois os alunos buscam no futebol a satisfação de algo que é também pessoal, como diversão e amizades. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the practices and social representations of students about football within the Physical Education classes. This is a qualitative research of ethnographic type, which used participant observation and semi-structured interviews, as well as questionnaires, in a class of [...] 29 students from 6th grade of Elementary Education, in a private school in Bauru City-SP. The results indicate that the media and the family are the main elements that constitute the representations of students about football, and that the way football practice is developed at school simultaneously builds and feed them. We conclude that social representations rule the relationships of students with football, insofar as they guide and organize their behavior. However, this does not make their conduct and values homogenous, because the students seek in football the satisfaction of something that is also personal, as fun and friendship.

Leandro Del Giudice, Macagnan; Mauro, Betti.

345

Futebol: representações e práticas de escolares do ensino fundamental / Football: representations and practices of students of the elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo buscou caracterizar as práticas e identificar representações sociais de escolares sobre o futebol no âmbito da aulas de Educação Física Escolar. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa de tipo etnográfico, que utilizou observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, além de question [...] ário, em uma turma de 29 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental, em uma escola pública na cidade de Bauru - SP. Os resultados indicam que as mídias e a família são os principais elementos que constituem as representações dos alunos sobre o futebol, e que o modo como a prática do futebol é desenvolvida na escola ao mesmo tempo as constrói e realimenta. Concluímos que as representações sociais são um importante meio que orienta as relações dos alunos com o futebol, na medida em que influenciam a orientação e organização das suas condutas. Todavia, isto não torna homogêneas suas condutas e valores, pois os alunos buscam no futebol a satisfação de algo que é também pessoal, como diversão e amizades. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the practices and social representations of students about football within the Physical Education classes. This is a qualitative research of ethnographic type, which used participant observation and semi-structured interviews, as well as questionnaires, in a class of [...] 29 students from 6th grade of Elementary Education, in a private school in Bauru City-SP. The results indicate that the media and the family are the main elements that constitute the representations of students about football, and that the way football practice is developed at school simultaneously builds and feed them. We conclude that social representations rule the relationships of students with football, insofar as they guide and organize their behavior. However, this does not make their conduct and values homogenous, because the students seek in football the satisfaction of something that is also personal, as fun and friendship.

Leandro Del Giudice, Macagnan; Mauro, Betti.

2014-04-01

346

Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

2013-04-01

347

Fractions in elementary education  

CERN Document Server

This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and...

Quinn, Frank

2013-01-01

348

Pupils’ Conception of Organic Foods and Healthy Eating in School : QUALITATIVE INSIGHTS FROM FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS WITH 5th AND 7th GRADE PUPILS IN A COPENHAGEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adult habits, including unhealthy eating patterns, are largely established during a person´s childhood and early youth. In this connection, public schools are important health promoting platforms due to their potential for encouraging interest, knowledge and learning about health related issues. The main aim of the study was to shed light on primary and lower secondary school pupils´ everyday experience with food, nutrition, ecology and health in connection to public organic school food, using the municipality of Copenhagen as a case. We have examined how a procurement and provision strategy that primarily originates from “backstage agents” such as engaged politicians and civil servants and governed by administrative priorities, is perceived among agents at the front stage arena - the school. Furthermore we have investigated to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and the underlying organic supply chain principles, and to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and classroom initiatives in subjects related to ecology and health. In February 2008, we approached a public school which proved willing to participate in our study. Subsequently, over a period of four weeks, we designed an interview guide used to conduct focus group interviews with pupils from grades 5 and 7, which were then transcribed. In general, pupils were very interested in ecology as a subject. However it seems that they do not see a very strong connection between the healthy, organic meals offered at school and class room activities related to health and ecology. The pupils did not feel that they had been involved in the decision to establish organic and healthy food procurement. As a result they held that they did not feel very committed or engaged in the school provision initiative, and the organic and healthy food procurement was not highly sought after on the part of the pupils. This appears to justify a distinction between the perspective that front stage actors have, including pupils, and the perspective of politicians and planners that operate back stage. The distance between these two stages, which tends to increase in large scale municipal school food systems, is an important challenge to address when planning school food interventions. There seems to be a potential for linking organic school food service more closely with curricular activities, and for linking issues of healthier eating and organic food supply. There is also a need for greater involvement of the pupils and other front stage actors when the food service system and food related curricular activities are planned.

Andersen, Stine; Burkal, Anna

2010-01-01

349

Elementary cycles of time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elementary particles, i.e. the basic constituents of nature, are characterized by quantum recurrences in time. The flow of time of every physical system can be therefore decomposed in elementary cycles of time. This allows us to enforce the local nature of relativistic time, yielding interesting unified descriptions of fundamental aspects of modern physics, as shown in recent publications. Every particle can be regarded as a reference clock with time resolution of the order of the Compton time particle, many orders of magnitude more accurate than the atomic clocks. Here we report basic implications about the resulting notion of time.

Dolce Donatello

2013-09-01

350

Replacement of the 5th and 6th level vanes of the low pressure part of the turbine 13K 125 in the TPP 'Oslomej' - Kichevo (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The condensation turbine 13K with nominal power of 125 MW is an axial three-cylindrical machine with inter-level steam heating and a 5-level heating system. The turbine consists: high-pressure cylinder FT; medium-pressure cylinder MP and low-pressure cylinder LP. The 5th level vanes of the LP cylinder have Baumann reinforcement and they are bound in packages of ten vanes each. During the 1994 overhaul, the following examinations were carried out: examination without destruction with penetrant and magnetic flux. It was found out that there were some defects and cracks on the 5th and 6th level vanes of the LP-rotor and some of the stellite plates had come off completely or some smaller parts were missing. At the places where stellite parts were missing the basic material was eroded to a large extent. On the basis of the report all damaged and loose stellite plates were removed, i.e. 50% of the 6th level and 87% of the 5th level. The turbine has since operated in such a condition and it has worked for additional 15000 working hours. During this period the condition of the vanes has been monitored and some examinations and measurements have been undertaken. It has been established that the current technical condition of the rotating 5th and 6th level vanes of the LP-turbine, where the stellite plates had been removed, indicates that they are seriously damaged and an urgent replacement of the vanes is absolutely necessary. (Author)

351

Effects of Applying Blogs to Assist Life Education Instruction for Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study aims to explore the effects of applying blog-assisted life education instruction to fifth grade elementary school students. The subjects were 30 fifth-grade students from southern Taiwan. The teaching experiment lasted 10 weeks with three sessions conducted each week. In the experiment, instructional effectiveness and the…

Lou, Shi-Jer; Kao, Mei-Chuan; Yen, Hsiu-Ling; Shih, Ru-Chu

2013-01-01

352

The Influence of Different Representations on Solving Concentration Problems at Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the students' learning process of the concept of concentration at the elementary school level in Taiwan. The influence of different representational types on the process of proportional reasoning was also explored. The participants included nineteen third-grade and eighteen fifth-grade students. Eye-tracking technology was…

Liu, Chia-Ju; Shen, Ming-Hsun

2011-01-01

353

Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

Science.gov (United States)

"Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics" is a core curriculum for students at all ability levels in prekindergarten through grade 6. The program supports students' understanding of key math concepts and skills and covers a range of mathematical content across grades. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) reviewed 12 studies on "Scott…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

354

Report on Tewa Portion of Trilingual Program at San Juan Elementary School, 1971-1972  

Science.gov (United States)

Guides for teaching oral and written Tewa to American Indian children in grades 1-6 as an integral part of the regular curriculum are presented. In the San Juan Elementary School trilingual program, the time spent teaching Tewa decreases with grade level--from 2 90-minute periods per day for first graders to 2 30-minute classes per week for sixth…

Speirs, Randall H.

355

A Cross Age Study of Elementary Students' Motivation towards Science Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of grade level and gender on elementary school students' motivation towards science learning. A total of 2231 sixth and eight grade students participated in the study. Data were collected through Students' Motivation towards Science Learning Questionnaire. Two-way Multivariate Analysis of…

Guvercin, Ozge; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

2010-01-01

356

Mathematics Courses for Elementary Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reported are the results of a survey of sixty-one high-rated institutions concerning the mathematics preparation of elementary teachers. The problem of the mathematical competence of elementary school teachers is discussed. (MP)

Swadener, Marc

1978-01-01

357

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

NONE

2003-03-01

358

Validation of RELAP5-3D computer code on the MSLB problem within the 6th dynamic AER benchmark. Rev. 0  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benchmark was concerned with a two-side break of a main steam line at a NPP with VVER 440/213 reactor units. RELAP5-3D was tested on an input deck for the Dukovany NPP. The input model is a detailed 6-loop model, modified based on specifications of the 6th dynamic AER benchmark. The input deck stems from the 'international' three-loop input deck for the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP, prepared within the IAEA regional programme 'Safety Assessment of VVER-440/213'. Furthermore the model was extended and modified with respect to Dukovany specifications and needs for more detailed analyses. (P.A.)

359

Elementary students' comprehension of place value concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was an attempt to identify to what extent students at primary level in elementary education were able to grasp the Place Value Concept (PVC and to identify the types of errors of those students not able to grasp PVC. For this purpose, 728 primary school students at 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade levels were interviewed. In order to obtain data, semi-structured interview forms were used and each subject was interviewed individually. According to the results obtained, it was observed that the percentage of correct answers for questions related to PVC was low for all grade levels. The higher their levels of success were, the lower their proportion of errors. However, it was observed that all students had difficulties with questions regarding PVC. It was also seen that the difficulties were similar from the point of view of gender.

Perihan Dinç Artut

2006-01-01

360

Bowling for Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical education programs at the elementary school level play an important role in developing students' interest and skill in lifelong physical activities. With increasing inactivity, overweight, and obesity among children, school physical education programs are challenged with presenting activities that can be enjoyed in childhood and…

Curtis, Joyce M.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Elementary Reading Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This reading guide is intended to assist elementary teachers in planning, implementing, and evaluating reading programs in order to improve reading instruction. The introduction discusses such topics as the status of reading in society and school, the purpose of reading instruction, and goals of reading instruction. "Organizing for Instruction"…

Greenville County School District, Greenville, SC.

362

Elementary particle interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to ?+ and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics

363

A Comparative Study of Integrating Multimedia into the Third Grade Math Curriculum to Improve Math Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This quasi-experimental study was to design, develop, and implement one multimedia math lesson in third grade to improve students' math learning. The non-equivalent control group design was used. The experimental group had 11 third grade students and the control group had 15 third grade students in an African American predominated elementary

Liu, Yuliang

2013-01-01

364

The state of "Rika" at the elementary and secondary education  

Science.gov (United States)

From the results of TIMSS2003, the state of "Rika" at the elementary and lower secondary schools was reviewed. Although the score of science achievement of Japanese students was still in higher rank internationally, it was located in the lower one among East Asian countries and especially the core of the 4th grade students at the elementary school in Japan was lower than the result in 1995. Although there was an increase from 1995 and 1999 in the average percentage of Japanese students agreeing a lot that they enjoy learning science, it remains in the still low level internationally.

Saruta, Yuji

2005-11-01

365

Graded Group Schemes and Graded Group Varieties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We define graded group schemes and graded group varieties and develop their theory. Graded group schemes are the graded analogue of group schemes and are in correspondence with graded Hopf algebra. In this setting, graded group varieties take the place of infinitesimal group schemes; an important and well studied class of group schemes. We give some examples, derive their properties, and define some special type of graded group schemes, like connected and \\'{e}tale graded ...

Roma?n, Camil I. Aponte

2014-01-01

366

O ensino de física nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental na rede municipal de ensino do Recife segundo os seus docentes / Physics teaching in the initial grades of elementary school in the rede municipal de ensino do Recife by their teachers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investiga como esta o ensino de física nos 4º e 5º anos do Ensino Fundamental (EF) na Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. Para realizá-lo contamos com 145 questionários respondidos por docentes do EF I desta rede, espalhados por toda a cidade. Estes questionários nos mostram que existe [...] uma política real de escolha do livro didático de ciencias; que a carga horária semanal dispensada para a disciplina ciencias e, na sua maioria de duas horas e a maioria dos docentes acredita ser suficiente; que o material mais utilizado para a preparação da aula é mesmo o livro didático, mas são utilizados outros como revistas, musicas etc; mais da metade dos docentes, embora considerem a física relevante aos seus alunos, não gostam de abordá-la em sala e sentem-se inseguros para fazê-lo; os assuntos mais trabalhados de física são o eletromagnetismo, energia e física térmica e apresenta algumas sugestões dos professores para a melhoria do ensino de ciencias. Abstract in english This paper investigates how is the physics teaching in the forth and fifth years of elementary school in the Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. To realize it we have 145 questionnaires answered by teachers of initial grade of this network, spread throughout the city. These questionnaires showed tha [...] t there is a real political choice of textbook science; that the weekly waived for the subject Science is mostly of two hours and the majority of teachers believed to be sufficient; the material most used to preparation of the lesson is the textbook, but others are used as magazines, music, etc.; more than half of teachers, although considering the Physics relevant to their students, do not like to approach it in class and they feel insecure to do it; the subjects more worked of Physics are electromagnetism, energy and thermal physics and presents some suggestions for teachers to improve Science teaching.

Micaías Andrade, Rodrigues; Francimar Martins, Teixeira.

367

Estudo das representações sociais de professores de 1ª. a 4ª. série do ensino fundamental sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem Study of teachers social representations of fisrt to fourth elementary school grades about the students motivation and the role played by error in learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo buscou identificar as representações de professores sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem. Embasam o trabalho a teoria das Representações Sociais e a perspectiva Construtivista sobre o ensino. São analisados os dados obtidos em entrevistas semi-estruturadas com seis professores de 1ª. a 4ª. séries do Ensino Fundamental. Sobre a motivação, as representações giram em torno da idéia de que o centro da atenção dos professores deveria ser o interesse do aluno, utilizando o que ele gosta como forma de atraí-lo e engajá-lo na aprendizagem. Tal concepção distancia-se da perspectiva construtivista, na qual a motivação para a aprendizagem deve ser intrínseca à tarefa do aluno. Quanto ao erro, os conceitos construtivistas estão presentes, mas sem uma apropriação aprofundada.This study looked for to identify the teachers' representations about the students' motivation and the role of the mistake in the learning. The work was based on the theory of the Social Representations and the Construtivistic perspective on the teaching. The analyses were based in data obtained through interviews with six teachers of first to four grade of the Elementary School. About motivation, the representations turn around the idea that the center of teachers' attention should be the student's interests, using what he likes as a way to attract and to engage him in learning. Such conception goes away from constructivistic perspective, in which the motivation for the learning should be intrinsic to the student's task. With respect to error, the construtivistic concepts are present, but without one deep appropriation of them.

Danilo Saretta Veríssimo

2001-01-01

368

Construction and validation of an instrument to assess the reading comprehension of students from the third to the fifth grades of elementary school / Construção e validação de instrumento de avaliação da compreensão de leitura para escolares do terceiro ao quinto ano do Ensino Fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo construir e validar um instrumento de avaliação da compreensão de leitura a fim de caracterizar o perfil de leitura e detectar dificuldades de compreensão em escolares do terceiro ao quinto ano do Ensino Fundamental. Métodos: Participaram 378 escolares [...] divididos em trés grupos para avaliação da compreensão de proposições literais e inferenciais de micro e macroestruturas de dois textos expositivos e dois textos narrativos por meio de questões de múltipla escolha. Resultados: Os dados analisados estatisticamente indicaram valores do teste alfa de Cronbach apresentando consisténcia interna nos quatros textos aplicados para os trés grupos. Conclusão: Foi possível constatar que os escolares apresentaram menor número de erros com o aumento da escolarização e que cada tipo de texto apresentou uma dificuldade específica para os escolares. Abstract in english Purpose: In this study, we aimed at building and validating an instrument to assess reading comprehension, with the purpose of characterizing the reading profile and detecting comprehension difficulties among students from the third to the fifth grades of elementary school. Methods: Participan [...] ts were 378 students, divided into three groups. Their comprehension of micro- and macrostructural literal and inferential propositions that composed two expository texts and two narrative texts were assessed by means of multiple-choice questions. Results: The data analyzed statistically yielded Cronbach's alpha values showing internal consistency in the four texts applied to the three groups. Conclusion: It was possible to verify that the students had fewer errors as the school years progressed and that each type of text posed a particular difficulty to the students.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi, Cunha; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

2014-02-01

369

O ensino de física nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental na rede municipal de ensino do Recife segundo os seus docentes / Physics teaching in the initial grades of elementary school in the rede municipal de ensino do Recife by their teachers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investiga como esta o ensino de física nos 4º e 5º anos do Ensino Fundamental (EF) na Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. Para realizá-lo contamos com 145 questionários respondidos por docentes do EF I desta rede, espalhados por toda a cidade. Estes questionários nos mostram que existe [...] uma política real de escolha do livro didático de ciencias; que a carga horária semanal dispensada para a disciplina ciencias e, na sua maioria de duas horas e a maioria dos docentes acredita ser suficiente; que o material mais utilizado para a preparação da aula é mesmo o livro didático, mas são utilizados outros como revistas, musicas etc; mais da metade dos docentes, embora considerem a física relevante aos seus alunos, não gostam de abordá-la em sala e sentem-se inseguros para fazê-lo; os assuntos mais trabalhados de física são o eletromagnetismo, energia e física térmica e apresenta algumas sugestões dos professores para a melhoria do ensino de ciencias. Abstract in english This paper investigates how is the physics teaching in the forth and fifth years of elementary school in the Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. To realize it we have 145 questionnaires answered by teachers of initial grade of this network, spread throughout the city. These questionnaires showed tha [...] t there is a real political choice of textbook science; that the weekly waived for the subject Science is mostly of two hours and the majority of teachers believed to be sufficient; the material most used to preparation of the lesson is the textbook, but others are used as magazines, music, etc.; more than half of teachers, although considering the Physics relevant to their students, do not like to approach it in class and they feel insecure to do it; the subjects more worked of Physics are electromagnetism, energy and thermal physics and presents some suggestions for teachers to improve Science teaching.

Micaías Andrade, Rodrigues; Francimar Martins, Teixeira.

2011-12-01

370

Estudo das representações sociais de professores de 1ª. a 4ª. série do ensino fundamental sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem / Study of teachers social representations of fisrt to fourth elementary school grades about the students motivation and the role played by error in learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo buscou identificar as representações de professores sobre a motivação dos alunos e o papel do erro na aprendizagem. Embasam o trabalho a teoria das Representações Sociais e a perspectiva Construtivista sobre o ensino. São analisados os dados obtidos em entrevistas semi-estruturadas com s [...] eis professores de 1ª. a 4ª. séries do Ensino Fundamental. Sobre a motivação, as representações giram em torno da idéia de que o centro da atenção dos professores deveria ser o interesse do aluno, utilizando o que ele gosta como forma de atraí-lo e engajá-lo na aprendizagem. Tal concepção distancia-se da perspectiva construtivista, na qual a motivação para a aprendizagem deve ser intrínseca à tarefa do aluno. Quanto ao erro, os conceitos construtivistas estão presentes, mas sem uma apropriação aprofundada. Abstract in english This study looked for to identify the teachers' representations about the students' motivation and the role of the mistake in the learning. The work was based on the theory of the Social Representations and the Construtivistic perspective on the teaching. The analyses were based in data obtained thr [...] ough interviews with six teachers of first to four grade of the Elementary School. About motivation, the representations turn around the idea that the center of teachers' attention should be the student's interests, using what he likes as a way to attract and to engage him in learning. Such conception goes away from constructivistic perspective, in which the motivation for the learning should be intrinsic to the student's task. With respect to error, the construtivistic concepts are present, but without one deep appropriation of them.

Danilo Saretta, Veríssimo; Antônio dos Santos, Andrade.

371

Participant's Handbook for Solving Multi-Ethnic Problems: A Simulation Game for Elementary and High School Teachers. Participant's Workbook...  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet is a participant's handbook for playing the Valleybrook Elementary School-Lakemont High School Simulation Game. In this game, the participant tries to deal with simulated problems faced in desegregated schools. The participant either plays the role of Terry Patterson, a new fifth grade teacher in Valleybrook Elementary School, or that…

Venditti, Frederick P.

372

Mars Rover Model Celebration: Using Planetary Exploration To Enrich STEM Teaching In Elementary And Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The program culminates in a capstone event held at the University of Houston (or other central location in the other communities that will be involved) where the best models from each school or group are brought together for a celebratory showcase exhibit and judging. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Dominey, W.; Kapral, A.; Carlson, C.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

2011-12-01

373

Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

Alsawaie, Othman N.

2012-01-01

374

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

375

ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NO?A”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

2013-07-30

376

The Elementary Calculus Line  

Science.gov (United States)

George Mason UniversityâÂÂs Department of Computer Science is responsible for this great elementary calculus site. Each topic presented on this site contains learning objectives, definitions, examples, diagrams, and exercise problems. The topics available here include: functions, domains and ranges, intercepts, limits, graphing functions, derivatives, and integrals. This site is a perfect resource for anyone in an introductory calculus course, or those who need a refresher on some of the basic calculus concepts.

2008-04-22

377

Elementary Preservice Teachers’ Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last two decades investigation of teachers’ beliefs and conceptions and teachers‘possibilities for change has been one of the points of emphasis in mathematics education. We propose the concept and design of an intervention program including five stakeholders on the basis of a teacher–student–parent–preservice teacher–teacher educator relation. The main idea is comprised of reversed roles in teaching and learning process i.e. elementary school preservice teachers should ado...

Alenka Lipovec; Polonca Pangr?i?

2008-01-01

378

Análise psicolinguística e cognitivo-linguística das provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura realizadas em escolares de 2ª a 5ª série / Psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic analysis of the metalinguistic skills and reading proofs in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: analisar o desempenho de escolares de 2ª a 5ª série do ensino fundamental em provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura segundo critérios psicolinguísticos e cognitivo-linguísticos e verificar similaridade e diferenças entre as análises. MÉTODOS: participaram 120 escolares de 2ª a 5 [...] ª série do ensino municipal, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de sete a 12 anos de idade, divididos em 4 grupos de 30 escolares de cada série. Os escolares foram submetidos à aplicação de provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e de leitura. RESULTADOS: houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos nas habilidades metalinguísticas, nas regras de decodificação de palavras reais e pseudopalavras para todas as variáveis na leitura de palavras reais, com exceção do erro tipo Recusas, com médias superiores para Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas e Falha na Aplicação de Regras Ortográficas, indicando que esses tipos de erros foram os de maior ocorrência. Na leitura de pseudopalavras houve diferença estatisticamente significante em Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas, indicando que os escolares apresentaram desempenho inferior na decodificação de palavras que exigiram a utilização de informação fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: a adoção de critérios psicolinguísticos ou cognitivo-linguísticos na avaliação da leitura de palavras e pseudopalavras juntamente com a avaliação das habilidades metalinguísticas fornecem subsídios para a compreensão de como o escolar vem processando os complexos princípios do sistema de escrita do português do Brasil, além de dar o suporte necessário à compreensão das dificuldades específicas apresentadas pelos escolares, orientando o profissional fonoaudiólogo em relação aos objetivos precisos no seu atendimento. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze the performance of the metalinguistic skills and reading tests in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education, according to psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria and to check similarities and differences between the analyses. METHODS: 120 students from 2n [...] d to 5th grades of a municipal school, of both genders, in the age ranging from 7 to 12 year old, divided into 4 groups for each grade. The students were submitted to tests of metalinguistic skills and reading. RESULTS: there were statistically significant differences among the groups in the metalinguistic skills, in the decoding of real words and non-words, for each variable, with exception for the 'Refusal' mistake type, with superior average for the types related to unsuccessful sound attempts and failure in the use of orthography, indicating that these types of mistakes were of larger occurrence. In the non-words reading there were statistically significant differences in unsuccessful sound attempts indicating that the students had lower performance in the decoding of words that demanded the use of phonological information. CONCLUSION: the adoption of the psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria in evaluating real words and non-words' reading, along with the evaluation of the metalinguistic skills provide subsidies to the understanding of the way the students were processing the complex writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, besides to giving the necessary support to the comprehension of the specific difficulties showed by the students, guiding the speech and language professional in relation to the direct purposes in their work.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi, Cunha; Simone Aparecida, Capellini.

379

Análise psicolinguística e cognitivo-linguística das provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura realizadas em escolares de 2ª a 5ª série Psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic analysis of the metalinguistic skills and reading proofs in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar o desempenho de escolares de 2ª a 5ª série do ensino fundamental em provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e leitura segundo critérios psicolinguísticos e cognitivo-linguísticos e verificar similaridade e diferenças entre as análises. MÉTODOS: participaram 120 escolares de 2ª a 5ª série do ensino municipal, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de sete a 12 anos de idade, divididos em 4 grupos de 30 escolares de cada série. Os escolares foram submetidos à aplicação de provas de habilidades metalinguísticas e de leitura. RESULTADOS: houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos nas habilidades metalinguísticas, nas regras de decodificação de palavras reais e pseudopalavras para todas as variáveis na leitura de palavras reais, com exceção do erro tipo Recusas, com médias superiores para Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas e Falha na Aplicação de Regras Ortográficas, indicando que esses tipos de erros foram os de maior ocorrência. Na leitura de pseudopalavras houve diferença estatisticamente significante em Tentativas de Som Mal Sucedidas, indicando que os escolares apresentaram desempenho inferior na decodificação de palavras que exigiram a utilização de informação fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: a adoção de critérios psicolinguísticos ou cognitivo-linguísticos na avaliação da leitura de palavras e pseudopalavras juntamente com a avaliação das habilidades metalinguísticas fornecem subsídios para a compreensão de como o escolar vem processando os complexos princípios do sistema de escrita do português do Brasil, além de dar o suporte necessário à compreensão das dificuldades específicas apresentadas pelos escolares, orientando o profissional fonoaudiólogo em relação aos objetivos precisos no seu atendimento.PURPOSE: to analyze the performance of the metalinguistic skills and reading tests in students from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary education, according to psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria and to check similarities and differences between the analyses. METHODS: 120 students from 2nd to 5th grades of a municipal school, of both genders, in the age ranging from 7 to 12 year old, divided into 4 groups for each grade. The students were submitted to tests of metalinguistic skills and reading. RESULTS: there were statistically significant differences among the groups in the metalinguistic skills, in the decoding of real words and non-words, for each variable, with exception for the 'Refusal' mistake type, with superior average for the types related to unsuccessful sound attempts and failure in the use of orthography, indicating that these types of mistakes were of larger occurrence. In the non-words reading there were statistically significant differences in unsuccessful sound attempts indicating that the students had lower performance in the decoding of words that demanded the use of phonological information. CONCLUSION: the adoption of the psycholinguistic and cognitive-linguistic criteria in evaluating real words and non-words' reading, along with the evaluation of the metalinguistic skills provide subsidies to the understanding of the way the students were processing the complex writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, besides to giving the necessary support to the comprehension of the specific difficulties showed by the students, guiding the speech and language professional in relation to the direct purposes in their work.

Vera Lúcia Orlandi Cunha

2010-10-01

380

Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a Climate Club and their goal is to continue to research and teach others about climate science. Their enthusiasm and desire to teach others is a result of exposure to authentic science issues in school and my research experience is what changed the way I teach science which made this possible.

Munroe, C. H.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 6th Regional Symposium of the IFAA held in Milano, from 1 to 5 July 2009, follows the 5th Regional meeting in Ferrara (2005 and the 9th International Symposium held in Zagreb (2007. The Symposium was jointly organized by the University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Geological Sciences and Geotechnologies, and by the University of Genova, Dip.Te.Ris. Geologists and paleontologists of the University of Genova have been studying coralline-rich outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin since the end of the XIX Century (G. Rovereto, M. Airoldi, S. Conti, V.I. Mastrorilli, producing the scientific descriptions of dozens of new species, the types of which are housed in the Genova Dip.Te.Ris.This volume represetn the abstract book and the field trip guide book edited for the symposium.

Francesca Benzoni

2009-10-01

382

Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011  

CERN Document Server

This book highlights the potential of getting benefits from various applications of computational intelligence techniques. The present book is structured such that to include a set of selected and extended papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011, held in Timisoara, Romania, from 19 to 21 May 2011. After a serious paper review performed by the Technical Program Committee only 116 submissions were accepted, leading to a paper acceptance ratio of 65 %. A further refinement was made after the symposium, based also on the assessment of the presentation quality. Concluding, this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of SACI 2011 and few invited papers authored by prominent specialists. The readers will benefit from gaining knowledge of the computational intelligence and on what problems can be solved in several areas; they will learn what kind of approaches is advised to use in order to solve these problems. A...

Precup, Radu-Emil; Preitl, Stefan

2012-01-01

383

Irradiation of fuels and materials in the Jules Horowitz reactor: The 6th European Union JHR co-ordination action (JHR-CA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermine thematic network in the 5th FP pointed out the need for a new MTR facility in Europe to answer the continuous need of irradiation capabilities for fission power reactors and fusion facilities and to face the ageing of present MTRs. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) Project in Cadarache copes with this context, as an international service-oriented user-facility. In the field of nuclear fuels and materials irradiation experiments, a 6th FP co-ordination action, called JHR-CA, has started at the beginning of 2004 for 2 years. The main objective is to network existing expertise on development of a new generation of experimental devices, through definition of conceptual designs, instrumentation and related in-reactor services. This paper presents the outline of the JHR project, the organization of the JHR-CA programme, and a choice of irradiation device conceptual design results. (author)

384

Prognostic Impact of the 6th and 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging Systems on Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The new 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system is based on pathologic data from esophageal cancers treated by surgery alone. There is no information available on evaluation of the new staging system with regard to prognosis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the new staging system on esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 301 consecutive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with CRT. Comparisons were made of the prognostic impacts of the 6th and 7th staging systems and the prognostic impacts of stage and prognostic groups, which were newly defined in the 7th edition. Results: There were significant differences between Stages I and III (p < 0.01) according to both editions. However, the 7th edition poorly distinguishes the prognoses of Stages III and IV (p = 0.36 by multivariate analysis) in comparison to the 6th edition (p = 0.08 by multivariate analysis), although these differences were not significant. For all patients, T, M, and gender were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For the Stage I and II prognostic groups, survival curves showed a stepwise decrease with increase in stage, except for Stage IIA. However, there were no significant differences seen between each prognostic stage. Conclusions: Our study indicates there ar Conclusions: Our study indicates there are several problems with the 7th TNM staging system regarding prognostic factors in patients undergoing CRT.

385

Prognostic Impact of the 6th and 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging Systems on Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The new 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system is based on pathologic data from esophageal cancers treated by surgery alone. There is no information available on evaluation of the new staging system with regard to prognosis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the new staging system on esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 301 consecutive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with CRT. Comparisons were made of the prognostic impacts of the 6th and 7th staging systems and the prognostic impacts of stage and prognostic groups, which were newly defined in the 7th edition. Results: There were significant differences between Stages I and III (p < 0.01) according to both editions. However, the 7th edition poorly distinguishes the prognoses of Stages III and IV (p = 0.36 by multivariate analysis) in comparison to the 6th edition (p = 0.08 by multivariate analysis), although these differences were not significant. For all patients, T, M, and gender were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For the Stage I and II prognostic groups, survival curves showed a stepwise decrease with increase in stage, except for Stage IIA. However, there were no significant differences seen between each prognostic stage. Conclusions: Our study indicates there are several problems with the 7th TNM staging system regarding prognostic factors in patients undergoing CRT.

Nomura, Motoo, E-mail: excell@hkg.odn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Shitara, Kohei [Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Hatooka, Shunzo [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Mizota, Ayako; Kondoh, Chihiro; Yokota, Tomoya; Takahari, Daisuke; Ura, Takashi; Muro, Kei [Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

2012-02-01

386

Improving science inquiry with elementary students of diverse backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of an inquiry-based instructional intervention on (a) children's ability to conduct science inquiry overall and to use specific skills in inquiry, and (b) narrowing the gaps in children's ability among demographic subgroups of students. The intervention consisted of instructional units, teacher workshops, and classroom practices. The study involved 25 third- and fourth-grade students from six elementary schools representing diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Quantitative results demonstrated that the intervention enhanced the inquiry ability of all students regardless of grade, achievement, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), home language, and English proficiency. Particularly, low-achieving, low-SES, and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) exited students made impressive gains. The study adds to the existing literature on designing learning environments that foster science inquiry of all elementary students.

Cuevas, Peggy; Lee, Okhee; Hart, Juliet; Deaktor, Rachael

2005-03-01

387

ITâs Elementary! Integrating Technology in the Primary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

In this excerpt from a book of the same title, the author explains what it means for a classroom teacher to "integrate technology" and why integration is important. Nine instructional strategies that have been shown to have a positive effect on student learning are outlined and the resources necessary for successful integration are described. Although this excerpt does not include specific suggestions about mathematics, the general information is useful to teachers of all subjects who are integrating technology into their classrooms.

Hamilton, Boni

2007-01-01

388

Developing Computational Fluency with Whole Number in the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article TERC's Susan Jo Russell discusses many aspects of computational fluency, including a definition, common errors, the importance of number and operations sense, assessment, and teaching issues. The author includes an extensive reference list.

Russell, Susan J.

2012-01-01

389

The Devaluation of Social Studies in the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were to determine the actual amount of instructional time spent on social studies, to determine the variety of instructional strategies used during social studies instruction, and to assess the frequency and types of technology usage during social studies instruction. As part of addressing the No Child Left Behind Act, a…

Bailey, Gahan; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Hollifield, Donna

2006-01-01

390

Children's motivation in elementary physical education: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation. PMID:15532363

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

2004-03-01

391

Elementary Atom Interaction with Matter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The calculations of the elementary atom (the Coulomb bound state of elementary particles) interaction with the atom of matter, which are performed in the Born approximation, are reviewed. We first discuss the nonrelativistic approach and then its relativistic generalization. The cross section of the elementary atom excitation and ionization as well as the total cross section are considered. A specific selection rule, which applies for the atom formed as positronium by partic...

Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

1998-01-01

392

Sleep Duration and Overweight among Elementary Schoolchildren:A Population-based Study in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although a number of studies have investigated the relationship of sleep duration to overweight and obesity, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been limited in Japan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. The study subjects were all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2008. Information...

Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

2012-01-01

393

Inequality decisions and accounts: the case of tracking in a Swiss elementary school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Decision making in terms of grading and evaluating students significantly contributes to unequal opportunities. In Switzerland, this particularly holds true for the transition from elementary school to the stratified system of secondary schools which often is determined by school authori-ties. Based on the case study of an elementary school in German Switzerland, this contribution explores accounts to which these decisions are related. Two types of accounts have to be taken into consideratio...

Hasse, Raimund; Schmidt, Lucia

2010-01-01

394

DESCRIPTIVE GRADES IN INITIAL MATHEMATICAL TEACHING PARENT'S ATTITUDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation is very sensitive process in up bring-education work and it is important for comprehensive development of student. More often are fears of different kind, certain forms of unacceptable behavior, are connected with students failure in school and with school evaluation.Grade is feedback on achievements whose purpose is to provide timely information of current level and the steps that are ahead. Numerical grade reflects level of achievements, but there is no indication about elements that makes that grade. Descriptive grade contains key information's about the progress and for that kind of grade you need a lot of words. For student to be descriptively graded, teacher needs to be professionally educated and ready for detailed monitoring and evaluation of student's achievements. Teacher, using appropriate terminology, should successfully describe achievements of student's progress. The school is expected to teach students how to learn and to prepare them for lifelong learning. One of the important factors is also parents. During the time spent with teachers and parents a need has be shown to examine parent's attitudes about descriptive grades in nine-year elementary school. One of the courses that a descriptive grade cannot fully characterize the overall progress of students is mathematics. This course has been chosen because of the problems that parents have when their kids are in first two grades of nine-year elementary school, their attitudes about descriptive grades and difficulties they have when they try to understand student's achievements.

Dževad Burgi?

2014-04-01

395

Self-esteem and mathematics achievement of elementary Qatari students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematics achievement and self-esteem of 238 Qatari elementary students (128 girls, 110 boys) was assessed. In Grades 1 to 5, self-esteem was M = 14.3 (SD = 2.7) and mathematics achievement was M = 68.1 (SD = 21.9). Results indicated boys had higher self-esteem. Mathematics achievement and sex explained seven percent of the variance in self-esteem. PMID:25074315

Alkhateeb, Haitham M

2014-06-01

396

A física nas séries iniciais (2ª a 5ª) do ensino fundamental: desenvolvimento e aplicação de um programa visando a qualificação de professores / The physics in the first four grades of elementary school: developing and applying a program for teachers qualification  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho descrevemos uma proposta para melhorar o ensino de física nas séries do ensino fundamental. Com este objetivo foi desenvolvido um programa que visa qualificar professores. O programa é estruturado em módulos, que contemplam diversos instrumentos e estratégias pedagógicas. Cada módulo [...] começa com aulas de laboratório, seguido de uma interação em sala de aula com textos que abordam história da ciência, física do cotidiano e discussão de conceitos físicos. Por fim, cada módulo utiliza recursos multimídia, disponíveis na internet. O programa foi aplicado em curso de extensão da UFRGS para doze professoras do Colégio São Bento, em Criciúma, SC, e em minicurso no II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física no Instituto de Física da UFRGS. As professoras do Colégio São Bento aplicaram os conteúdos de física aos alunos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental através de oficinas intituladas "Física para Crianças" e fizeram adaptações, quando necessárias, para adequar os conteúdos e estratégias aos interesses e características dos estudantes. Abstract in english In this paper we describe a proposal to improve the teaching of physics in the first four grades of elementary school. With this aim was developed a teachers qualification program. The program is structured in parts which include several instruments and pedagogic strategies. Each part starts with la [...] boratory classes followed by class interaction with texts specially produced to the project. These texts contains science history, everyday physics and introduction to physical concepts. Then multimedia recourses available in the internet are used. The program was applied in an extension course at Federal University of Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS) to twelve teachers of Colégio São Bento, at Criciuma, SC. It was also used in a course in the II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física at Instituto de Física/UFRGS. The teachers of Colégio São Bento applied the physics content to children workshops entitled "Physics to Children" and made adaptations, when necessary, to adequate the content and strategies to the pupils interests and characteristics.

Felipe, Damasio; Maria Helena, Steffani.

397

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Accreditation:Impact on Elementary Student Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, 848 Georgia public elementary schools that house third- and fifth-grades in the same building use the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS accreditation as a school improvement model. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether elementary schools that are SACS accredited increased their levels of academic achievement at a higher rate over a five-year period than elementary schools that were not SACS accredited as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS. Independent variables included accreditation status, socioeconomic status (SES of schools, and baseline scores of academic achievement. Dependent variables included mathematics and reading achievement scores. There was a statistically significant difference found when examining the SES of schools and baseline scores of the elementary schools. SACS accredited elementary schools had higher SES and higher baseline scores in third- and fifth grade mathematics and reading. However, the multiple regression model indicated no statistically significant differences in gain scores between SACS accredited and non-SACS accredited elementary schools in third- and fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement during the five year period examined in this study.

Darlene Y. Bruner

2004-07-01

398

Honest Grading, Grade Inflation and Reputation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When grades lose their informative value because the percentage of students receiving the best grade rises without any corresponding increase in ability, this is called grade inflation. Conventional wisdom says that such grade inflation is unavoidable since it is essentially costless to award good grades. In this paper, we point out an effect driving into the opposite direction: Grade inflation is not actually costless, since it has an impact on future cohorts of graduates, or, put differentl...

Ehlers, Tim; Schwager, Robert

2012-01-01

399

Elementary Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Document Server

This is the first graduate course on elementary quantum mechanics in Internet written in Romanian for the benefit of Romanian speaking students (Romania and Moldova). It is a translation (with corrections) of the Spanish version of the course (physics/9808031, English translation is under consideration), which I did at the request of students of physics in Bucharest. The topics included refer to the postulates of quantum mechanics, one-dimensional barriers and wells, angular momentum and spin, WKB method, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, quantum scattering, and partial waves

Rosu, H C

2000-01-01

400

Elementary Statistics Tables  

CERN Document Server

This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

Neave, Henry R

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

The 6th FDR prize  

Science.gov (United States)

From the 58 papers published in 2012 in Fluid Dynamics Research, the following paper has been selected for the sixth FDR prize: The finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method and its application in computational aero-acoustics by Michihisa Tsutahara (Professor Emeritus, Kobe University, Japan), published in volume 44 (August 2012) 045507. This is a review paper of the author's recent work on the finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In this paper, the author introduces a modified FDLBM and its application to aero-acoustics. To solve the discrete Bhatnager, Gross and Krook equation for simulating fluid flow, the FDLBM applies a stable finite-difference scheme on a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the ordinary lattice Boltzmann method uses regular lattices. It is known that for the lattice Boltzmann methods, there is difficulty in simulating high Mach number compressible flows in principle. To alleviate this, the author proposed the modified FDLBM, expanding the flexibility of setting time increments. With this FDLBM, the author has shown that it is possible to simulate compressible flows efficiently around complex bluff bodies and with complex aero-acoustic behaviour. The author summarizes all those works, including studies only available in Japanese up to now, in this review paper. After discussing the details of the FDLBM proposed by the author, example results of simulating the Aeolian tone generated from a circular cylinder at the Mach number M = 0.7 are shown. Then, the scheme is expanded for moving bodies by combining with the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. Using this moving mesh scheme, the author shows the simulation results of the very strong sound pressure generated by a high-speed train in a tunnel. For issues of sound propagation in compressible two-phase flows whose density ratio is high, the two-particle model is introduced. Also, techniques to reduce noise generation from the flow velocity and pressure at gas-liquid interfaces are shown. Finally, the scattering of sound waves by water droplets is discussed. In thick fog, the sound coming from a distance becomes faint due to the sound-scattering effects of micro water droplets. The author gives an example of successfully solving such an issue by the FDLBM. It is highly admirable that the author developed the new FDLBM for aero-acoustic issues and has summarized it with sub-schemes to overcome several difficulties of engineering aeroacoustics in this review. It will certainly contribute to further development of fluid dynamics through computational aero-acoustics. Consequently, this paper was selected as the winner of the sixth FDR prize.

Funakoshi, Mitsuaki

2013-06-01

402

Elementary chaotic snap flows  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing chaotic snap flow have been presented. > Three of all are conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. > Four cases need only a single control parameter and a single nonlinearity. > A cubic case in a jerk representation requires only two terms and a single nonlinearity. - Abstract: Hyperjerk systems with 4th-order derivative of the form x{sup ....}=f(x{sup ...},x{sup ..},x{sup .},x) have been referred to as snap systems. Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing flow are presented through an extensive numerical search. Four of these flows demonstrate elegant simplicity of a single control parameter based on a single nonlinearity of a quadratic, a piecewise-linear or an exponential type. Two others demonstrate elegant simplicity of all unity-in-magnitude parameters based on either a single cubic nonlinearity or three cubic nonlinearities. The chaotic snap flow with a single cubic nonlinearity requires only two terms and can be transformed to its equivalent dynamical form of only five terms which have a single nonlinearity. An advantage is that such a chaotic flow offers only five terms even though the (four) dimension is high. Three of the chaotic snap flows are characterized as conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. Basic dynamica