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Academic performance of peruvian elementary school children: The case of schools in Lima at the 6th grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El estudio que se informa examinó de qué manera el rendimiento académico en diversas áreas del aprendizaje tales como ortografía, lectura y aritmética estuvo asociado con diferentes variables relacionadas con niños (por ejemplo: género, inteligencia y edad). Asimismo, se consideraron algunas variables distales como estatus socioeconómico y tipo de colegio. En el estudio participaron 1.129 niños que cursaban 6to grado de educación primaria en Lima Metropolitana (more) (Perú). Los estudiantes completaron cuatro pruebas: En el área de lectura fueron examinados con un subtest de la prueba Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE) Lectura de Palabras y Pseudo - palabras (Cuetos & Ramos, 1999). En el área de Aritmética fueron evaluados con el Subtest de Facilidad Numérica de Ekstrom, French y Harman (1979) y en el caso de Ortografía se aplicó la Prueba de Rendimiento Ortográfico (Dioses, 2001). La variable inteligencia fue medida con la Prueba de Matrices Progresivas de Raven (Raven, J., Raven, J.C. & Court, 2004). Debido a la estructura jerárquica de los datos (estudiantes dentro de clases y clases dentro de escuelas) se aplicó análisis multinivel para cada variable académica (ortografía, lectura y aritmética). Los resultados revelaron un gran impacto en primer lugar del tipo de escuela: los alumnos de escuelas privadas rindieron mejor que los de escuelas públicas en todas las áreas académicas; en segundo lugar, la variable inteligencia juega un rol esencial, cuanto mayor es el coeficiente intelectual del estudiante, mejor es el rendimiento académico, y parcialmente del género; las niñas mostraron un mejor desempeño en comparación con los niños en el área de ortografía. Se discuten en detalle algunas repercusiones pedagógicas. Abstract in english Education is in general the basis for development in any country in the world. In the education al field, several international assessments (Pisa, 2006) reflect the great gap that yet subsists among developing countries, in which the case of Peru is not an exception. There have been many national and international academic achievement evaluations that examine the skills and knowledge of students not only in Peru but also in other Latin American countries in different acad (more) emic domains. One of these examples is the Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (LLECE), in which Peru participated, in order to evaluate and compare the performance achieved by Latin American students of 3rd and 6th grade in core areas like Language, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences. Peru ranks, together with other Latin countries, with scores below the average (Regional Office for Education of UNESCO, 2008). The low ranking of the Peruvian educational system carries heavy implications and consequences, especially to the intellectual and social development of learning disabled Peruvian children. Understanding the relation between academic performance and child development is of paramount importance. The present study examines how spelling, reading and arithmetic performances are associated to various child variables (gender, intelligence, and age), and distal variables such as Socio-Economic Status (SES) or type of school. The subjects in the study were 1.129 elementary school children who were in the 6th grade (11 - 12 years old) in Metropolitan Lima, Perú. Children completed four different tests: In the reading area, the subtest of Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE; Cuetos & Ramos, 1999), Reading of Word and Pseudo-word; in the Arithmetic domain, the Number Facility from the Kit of Factor Referenced Cognitive Tests of Ekstrom, French, and Harman (1979) and in the spelling domain, the Spelling Achievement Test from Dioses (2001) was used. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices Test (Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, 2004, updated edition). Some preliminary analyses were conducted beforehand in order to overview and examine the structure of the data. Following this, and because of the hierarchical struc

Manrique Millones, Denisse L.; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Ghesquière, Pol

2011-12-01

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????????????????????????????? Using Debate in the 6th Grade Social Studies: Promoting Student Information Literacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of applying debate in the 6th grade social studies to promote students’ information literacy and their understanding of the subject matters. The debate topics, which came from the 6th grade social studies textbook, were “Should the legislation protect human cloning” and “If the Internet brings more good than harm to elementary students”.The debate activities were designed on the base of the Big6 information literacy model. It comprises six stages which are Task Definition, Information Seeking Strategy, Location & Access, Use of Information, Synthesis, and Evaluation.This study lasted a semester, and the data was gathered through participant observation, interviews, and document analysis. The results showed that debate could be used in the 6th grade social studies curriculum. Through collaboratively designing debate activities between teachers, it is easier to integrate information literacy instruction into the curriculum. Furthermore, to systematically design the information literacy curriculum is another important issue.

Lin Ching Chen

2010-01-01

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Evaluation of the Teachers’ Views about Grade 6th Science and Technology Text Book Set  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study has been done in order to get teachers’ views about Science and Technology Text Book Set which prepared according to new teaching program for 6th grade. A questionnaire related to book set’s (Student Text Book, Student Work Book and Teacher Guide Book) content, visual design, assessment and language was prepared to get teachers’ views about these subjects. The 38 science education teachers were working in different cities. And the evaluation of book set was made according to the teachers viewpoints. The findings were presented with alternative solutions for the problems.

Elif BAKAR; Özgül KELE?; Melih KOÇAKO?LU

2009-01-01

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Effects of Ready for Recess, an Environmental Intervention, on Physical Activity in 3rd - 6th Grade Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Ready for Recess: an elementary school recess intervention targeting staff training (ST) or providing recreational equipment (EQ) separately, and the combination (ST+EQ) on PA. METHODS: Participants were children attending one of 12 elementary schools (grades 3rd -6th) included in the study. Separate analytical models were used to evaluate the effects of the intervention conditions on children's accelerometry and direct observation derived PA measures. RESULTS: Boys and girls were measured using accelerometry (n=667). Boys in ST+EQ increased their MVPA by 14.1% while ST decreased their MVPA by -13.5%. Girls in ST decreased their MVPA by -11.4%. Neither boys nor girls in EQ increased their time spent in MVPA. A total of 523 (boys) and 559 (girls) observations were collected. For boys' and girls' sedentary and vigorous activity there were no significant main effects for treatment condition, time, or treatment condition-by-time effects. CONCUSIONS: Environmental modifications are only as strong as the staff that implements them. Supervision, if not interactive, may be detrimental to PA participation, especially in girls. Research related to staff training for encouragement and promotion of PA coupled with appropriate use of equipment during recess is warranted.

Huberty JL; Beets MW; Beighle A; Saint-Maurice PF; Welk G

2013-01-01

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Usability of a Web-Based Teaching Software: “Vitamin 6th Grade Mathematics Module  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate usability of the Vitamin 6th Grade Mathematics Module program interface. The program was made available to 12 students at a school with most frequently used 11-question task list and the results were recorded in an evaluation form. During the course of the test, participating students were asked to think loud. The tests were conducted one-on-one with each participant with 2 observers. In the evaluation phase, it was considered whether the test was completed or not. In addition, participating students’ behavior and statements were taken into consideration. At the end of the test, users found the program usable but they also made some suggestions.

Gamze YILMAZ; Asl?han TÜFEKC?

2013-01-01

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Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

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Elementary Mathematics, Grades 1-6.  

Science.gov (United States)

GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Elementary math. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Introductory material focuses on the philosophy and objectives of instructional material. The guide is divided into six units covering grades 1-6. Each unit presents the general goals, materials needed, minimum program, skills to be developed,…

Nederland Independent School District, TX.

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The Effect of Interactive Computer Animations Accompanied with Experiments on Grade 6th Students’ Achievements and Attitudes toward Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of instruction including interactive computer animations accompanied with experiments over traditionally designed Instruction in 6th grade students’ physics achievement and attitudes toward science. In this study, a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. As a data collection instruments, physics achievement test and attitude scale toward science were administered to experimental and control group. In the experimental group, the materials were used while doing the experiments and then they did the same experiments interactively on the computer. In the control group, the experiments were done only by materials and the students did not use the computer during the experiments. The findings indicated that there was no significant difference between groups with respect to achievement before the treatment and there was a significant difference between the groups in favor of experimental groups after the treatment. The means of attitude towards science showed no significant difference between the groups before and after treatment.

E. Akp?nar; O. Ergin

2007-01-01

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Comparing Traditional and Computer Assisted Education in the Teaching of Colour to 6th Grade Students and Determination of Its Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this study, informing 6th grade students on the subject of colour was taught using traditional and computer assisted education methods. Colour information was taught by the researcher for 5 weeks in order to specify the influence of both methods on students. The test, which was prepared at the beginning of the study and at the end of five-week…

Akengin, Gultekin

2011-01-01

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Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22.4% increase (43.9% to 66.3%; pStudents enjoyed the integration of physical activity into science lessons and the teachers described the positive effect of the framework on student interest/engagement. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that the Active Science framework helped to promote physical activity, facilitate student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge and excite students about integrating physical activity into science lessons.

Finn, Kevin Eugene

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A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effects of Yoga on Stress Reactivity in 6th Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing interest in developing school programs that improve the ability of children to cope with psychosocial stress. Yoga may be an appropriate intervention as it has demonstrated improvements in the ability of children to manage psychosocial stress. Yoga is thought to improve the control of reactivity to stress via the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. The current study examined the effects of yoga compared to a physical education class on physiological response (blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR)) to behavioral stressor tasks (mental arithmetic and mirror tracing tasks). Data analysis of BP and HR was performed using a 2 × 2 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (time × group × stressor time points). 30 (17?male) 6th graders participated in the study. Yoga did not provide significant differences in stress reactivity compared to a physical education class (group × time: systolic (F(1,28) = .538, P = .470); diastolic (F(1,28) = .1.061, P = .312); HR (F(1,28) = .401, P = .532)). The lack of significant differences may be due to the yoga intervention failing to focus on stress management and/or the stressor tasks not adequately capturing attenuation of stressor response.

Hagins, Marshall; Haden, Sara C.; Daly, Leslie A.

2013-01-01

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A Study of the Teaching and Learning of Growth Relationships in the 6th Grade. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mathematics unit for sixth-grade classes was developed in which each of eight activities contains a challenge conveyed in the form of a story. Each activity requires students to manipulate concrete materials such as ceramic tiles, marked string, wooden cubes, and square paper. The mathematical content consists of concepts such as area,…

Fitzgerald, William M.; Shroyer, Janet

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do ensino fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração) são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise).PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise). RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence) are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise).

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto; Stela Maris Aguiar Lemos

2013-01-01

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração) são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise).PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise). RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence) are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise).

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto; Stela Maris Aguiar Lemos

2012-01-01

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental/ Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar (more) e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração) são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise). Abstract in english PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal aud (more) itory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise). RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence) are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise).

Terto, Sulamita da Silva Marcelino; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar

2012-01-01

16

Effects of reading-writing-application and learning together techniques on 6 th grade students’ academic achievements on the subject of “Matter and Temperature”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ReadingWriting-Application technique, Learning Together technique and according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education on students’ academic achievements on the subject of “matter and temperature” and attainment level of students regarding the experiments. Sample of the study comprised a total of 92 6th grade students from three different classes of a primary school. As data collection tools; Academic Achievement Test (AAT) and Experimental Achievement Test (EAT) were used. The study was conducted in three different groups, each representing a different learning method. These groups were; the Reading-Writing-Application Group (RWAG), Learning Together Group (LTG) and the Control Teaching Group (CTG). For data analyzes; descriptive statistics, one-way analyzes of variance (ANOVA), paired group t-test and effect sizes were used. Conclusively, it was determined that effects of Reading-Writing-Application technique and Learning Together technique on students’ academic achievements and attainment level of students regarding the experiments were much higher compared to according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education. It was further determined that the amount of increase in the achievement level created by cooperative groups (RWAG and LTG) were much higher in comparison to increase in attainment level of students regarding the experiments.

Fatih GÜRBÜZ; Gökhan AKSOY; Ufuk Töman

17

Effects of reading-writing-application and learning together techniques on 6 th grade students’ academic achievements on the subject of “Matter and Temperature”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ReadingWriting-Application technique, Learning Together technique and according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education on students’ academic achievements on the subject of “matter and temperature” and attainment level of students regarding the experiments. Sample of the study comprised a total of 92 6th grade students from three different classes of a primary school. As data collection tools; Academic Achievement Test (AAT) and Experimental Achievement Test (EAT) were used. The study was conducted in three different groups, each representing a different learning method. These groups were; the Reading-Writing-Application Group (RWAG), Learning Together Group (LTG) and the Control Teaching Group (CTG). For data analyzes; descriptive statistics, one-way analyzes of variance (ANOVA), paired group t-test and effect sizes were used. Conclusively, it was determined that effects of Reading-Writing-Application technique and Learning Together technique on students’ academic achievements and attainment level of students regarding the experiments were much higher compared to according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education. It was further determined that the amount of increase in the achievement level created by cooperative groups (RWAG and LTG) were much higher in comparison to increase in attainment level of students regarding the experiments.

Fatih GÜRBÜZ; Gökhan AKSOY; Ufuk Töman

2013-01-01

18

Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

Peck, Rick

2009-01-01

19

Information and communication technology: students' health education in 1st- to 6th-grade South Korea elementary schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to (1) identify school nurses' awareness of information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' health education and (2) explore the barriers or reasons for the adoption of ICT in school nursing practice, while (3) presenting strategies to speed ICT diffusion and dissemination into practice. METHODS: For data collection, 209 primary school nurses in K province of Korea were selected and e-mailed the questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed as frequency, percentages, and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The major reasons to adopt ICT were increasing school nurses' confidence in providing health education and improving teaching methods using diverse multimedia. The major barriers to utilization of ICT were lack of time for preparation of educational materials, lack of software availability, and lack of computer skills of school nurses and students. Several strategies were suggested to speed the diffusion of ICT into students' health education, such as integrating a health education course into regular curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to identify barriers and reasons for adoption of ICT in school nursing. In addition, strategies should be emphasized that result in more rapid diffusion of these technologies in school nursing practice.

Lee E; Park H; Whyte J; Jeong E

2013-09-01

20

Enhancing Literacy Instruction for Grade Level Readers in the Early Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

|Local school districts are under pressure to have elementary reading teachers understand how phonics, during teacher-led small group literacy instruction, can help students who read below grade level. Elementary teachers need research-based strategies regarding which reading instructions of letter-sound components are necessary to help students…

Warren, Marie

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Going beyond Location: Thematic Maps in the Early Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Maintains that cartographic research has long suggested that preschool and early elementary students possess advanced mapping behaviors. Reports on a study of the thematic mapping abilities of 74 second-grade students. Finds that the map tasks were appropriate for this age level and provides four recommendations for classroom instruction. (CFR)|

Trifonoff, Karen M.

1995-01-01

22

Elementary construction of graded lie groups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show how the definitions of the classical Lie groups have to be modified in the case where Grassmann variables are present. In particular, we construct the general linear, the special linear and the orthosymplectic graded Lie groups. Special attention is paid to the question of how to formulate an adequate 'unitarity condition'. (orig.)

1977-01-01

23

Producción argumentativa escrita -lengua materna- en contextos educativos bilingües y monolingües: grados 6º, 7º y 8º/ L1 Argumentative Written Production in Bilingual and Monolingual Contexts in 6th, 7th and 8th Grades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En esta investigación comparativa se comprobó la producción argumentativa escrita en lengua materna de alumnos bilingües (Grupo Experimental, GE) y monolingües (Grupo Control, GC) en 6º, 7º y 8º de secundaria, y la incidencia del grado escolar de la experiencia bilingüe sobre tal producción textual. Los resultados fueron, primero, únicamente en 7º y 8º, el GE superó al GC en tal producción y, segundo, los bilingües de mayor experiencia (more) escolar sobrepasaron a los bilingües de menor experiencia en algunos aspectos de dicha producción. Se concluyó que la superioridad del GE sobre el GC en el texto argumentativo dependió de su avance en la escolaridad. Además, la experiencia escolar bilingüe modificó esta habilidad discursiva, según el criterio de evaluación involucrado y los grados escolares en comparación. Abstract in english In this comparative research project we observed the argumentative written production of bilingual (experimental group EG) and monolingual students (control group CG) in 6th, 7th and 8th grades in their mother tongue, as well as the in?uence that the bilingual students' school grade had on such written production. Results show that, firstly, just in 7th and 8th grades the written production of the EG surpassed that of the CG, and secondly, the bilingual students wi (more) th more school experience surpassed those with less experience in certain aspects. It was concluded that the advantage of the EG over the CG in argumentative written production related to the students' level of school experience. Moreover, the bilingual school experience modified this discursive skill according to the method of evaluation employed and the school grades compared.

Galindo, Angelmiro; Moreno, Lina María

2008-06-01

24

School Based Accountability and the Distribution of Teacher Quality among Grades in Elementary Schools. Working Paper 75  

Science.gov (United States)

|We use North Carolina data to explore the extent to which teachers in the lower grades (K-2) of elementary school are lower quality than in the upper grades (3-5) and to examine the hypothesis that accountability contributes to a shortfall in teacher quality in the lower grades. Our concern with early elementary grades arises from recent studies…

Fuller, Sarah C.; Ladd, Helen F.

2012-01-01

25

Correlations among Perceptual-Motor Ability, Self-Concept and Reading Achievement in Early Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The study involving 105 boys and 108 girls from first, second, and third grades investigated the correlations among measures of perceptual-motor abilities, self-concept, and reading achievement and determined whether perceptual-motor ability and self-concept score can predict reading achievement in the early elementary grades. (Author/SBH)|

Husak, William S.; Magill, Richard A.

1979-01-01

26

Modeling the relationships between cognitive-linguistic skills and writing in Chinese among elementary grades students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study is a four-year longitudinal study examining the important predictors of writing of 340 Chinese children in elementary grades. Children's transcription skills (handwriting skills and spelling), and syntactic skills in grade 1 were significant predictors of text writing in grade 1-4 while ideation in grade 1 only contributed to text writing in grade 2. Stroke order knowledge was shown as an important handwriting skill in Chinese reflecting the characteristics of the Chinese orthography. A model of Chinese writing in early elementary grades was proposed. In the model, orthographic knowledge, morphological awareness and handwriting skills are proposed to contribute to spelling which is correlated with text writing. Handwriting skills, ideation, and syntactic skills were found to contribute to text writing. Path analysis results suggest that the longitudinal relationship between spelling and text writing is bidirectional.

Yeung PS; Ho CS; Chan DW; Chung KK

2013-08-01

27

Survey of Basic Skills: Grade 3 [and] Grade 6 - 1982. School Report for John M. Gomes Elementary. California Assessment Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Assessment Program (CAP) presents the Survey of Basic Skills report for grades 3 and 6 of an Alameda County elementary school for 1982. This report begins with an overview of school and district achievement and progresses to more detailed information related to performance in specific skill areas and scores for different groups of…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

28

Selecting Basic Concept Courseware for Preschools and Early Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Discusses evaluation criteria for selecting courseware that teaches basic concepts appropriate for preschool and early elementary students. Reviews of the software manual, the courseware itself, and reviews by students are suggested. Other areas of concern that are addressed include instructional quality, production quality, flexibility, and…

Schwarz, Ilsa; Lewis, Molly

1992-01-01

29

Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle school grade level groups. Overall, results supported that disruptive behavior is highly important in evaluating risk status in lower grade levels and that academically engaged behavior becomes more pertinent as students reach higher grade levels. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed.

Chafouleas SM; Kilgus SP; Jaffery R; Riley-Tillman TC; Welsh M; Christ TJ

2013-06-01

30

Litter Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade Two. [Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This publication, the third in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for second grade students to introduce the ideas that littering causes environmental problems, both man-made and natural objects cause litter, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

31

Tooth Tutoring. A Mini-Course Idea Book for Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides suggestions for teaching a minicourse in dental hygiene. It is designed to serve as a guide for a health program for upper elementary students and also as a guide to implementing a tooth tutoring program. This program trains grade five students to tutor younger students in the basic principles of dental health. Each section…

Crawford, Florean D.; Cone, Richard

32

Reading Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities in the Upper Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

For students with learning disabilities, the upper elementary grades may represent a unique opportunity to provide successful remediation for lessening a reading difficulty and preventing students with learning disabilities from falling behind in other content areas. This article discusses effective reading interventions for students with learning…

Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.

2012-01-01

33

Understanding Attitudes of Educators toward Content Area Reading in the Early Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

|A study examined the attitudes of educators toward content area reading in the early elementary grades. A self-report survey instrument called the Attitudes Toward Content Area Reading (ATCAR) was developed to measure educators' attitudes and to ascertain whether there were different theoretical orientations of educators relative to content area…

Grierson, Sirpa T.; Daniel, Larry G.

34

The Spiralled Sequence Story Curriculum: A Structuralist Approach to Teaching Fiction in the Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Suggests that children, even in early elementary grades, can grasp basic elements of children's literature using a spiralled sequence story curriculum, which helps them examine types of character, such as the trickster; elements of plot, such as the journey; and generally see patterns in the stories they read. (JC)|

Stott, Jon C.

1987-01-01

35

Reading Programs for Students in the Lower Elementary Grades: What Does the Research Say?  

Science.gov (United States)

|This report aims to disseminate research findings about reading programs for early elementary grades in a summary format useful for educators. The report features programs with clear descriptions and useful research, programs for non-English speaking children and research on basal reader series were not included. The four sections of the report…

Briggs, Kerri L.; Clark, Catherine

36

Patterns of Hispanic Students' Math Skill Proficiency in the Early Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this article, we describe patterns of Hispanic students' math skill development during elementary school using data from a nationally representative sample of Hispanic students assessed in math skills from kindergarten through 5th grade. Several robust patterns are evident. First, Hispanic students enter kindergarten with average math skills…

Reardon, Sean F.; Galindo, Claudia

2007-01-01

37

Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

38

Una estrategia pedagógica para la enseñanza integrada del Español en el segundo ciclo de la Educación General Básica / A Pedagogical Strategy for Integrated Education of Spanish in the 4th to 6th Grades of the General Basic Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recibido 05 de mayo de 2010 • Aceptado 31 de agosto de 2010 • Corregido 27 de junio de 2011   Resumen. La enseñanza de la lengua debe constituirse en uno de los objetivos prioritarios del sistema educativo costarricense, en consideración a su papel como herramienta de comunicación y desarrollo del pensamiento. Sin lenguaje no se puede acceder a los demás conocimientos disciplinares del currículo escolar. Una experiencia exitosa desarrollada hace algunos años con estudiantes de segundo ciclo se constituyó en la base para el diseño y ejecución de una actividad de desarrollo profesional que se implementó con el objetivo de dar a conocer, a un grupo de docentes de instituciones públicas, la estrategia integradora, previamente adaptada a los requerimientos ministeriales y a la normativa nacional vigente. El estudio se desarrolla en el marco del paradigma cualitativo y se contempla, dentro de este enfoque, la utilización de la investigación-acción y de la sistematización. Para la participación en la actividad o curso se seleccionó una muestra intencional, por factor de conveniencia, en la cual se da a conocer la estrategia que luego sería replicada con un grupo de estudiantes de zonas urbano marginales. Como técnicas se contemplaron la revisión bibliográfica, el análisis de los programas de estudio y de las normas reguladoras ministeriales, la aplicación de una entrevista a profundidad, las reflexiones de los participantes del curso contenidas en un portafolio y las del grupo de estudiantes con quienes se aplicó la estrategia.Se analizó la información teórica y reguladora mediante una triangulación, además de las apreciaciones y reflexiones de docentes y estudiantes. Se concluye sobre la necesidad de considerar un enfoque comunicativo en la enseñanza del idioma y se recomienda la estrategia desarrollada en los ambientes áulicos costarricenses que se ofrece en este artículo.  Abstract. Language teaching has become a priority in the Costa Rican educational system, considering it as a tool for communication and development of thought. Without language, there is no access to other curriculum disciplinary knowledge. A successful experience conducted some years ago, with students from 4th to 6th grade, was the basis for the design and implementation of a professional development activity addressed to promoting an integration strategy previously adjusted according to the Ministry’s requirements and the existing national regulations. This study is developed in the framework of a qualitative paradigm including research-action and systematization. A purposive sample was selected based on a suitability factor, through which individuals are informed about the strategy, and then the strategy is applied to a group of students from urban-marginal areas. The techniques used include literature review, analysis of curriculum and Ministry’s regulations, application of an in-depth interview, discussions from the course’s participant in a portfolio, and discussions from students to whom the strategy was applied. We analyzed the considerations of teachers and students, as well as the theoretical and regulatory information by triangulation. The study’s conclusion is the necessity of a communicative approach in language teaching and our recommendation is to implement the strategy developed in the Costa Rican classrooms as provided in this paper.

Mireya Barboza Navarro

2011-01-01

39

Effect of Selected Exercises on Elementary School Third Grade Girl Students' Motor Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose:The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected exercises on motor development in elementary school third grade girl students in Ahwaz City, Iran.Methods:The present study was semi-experimental, performed as field and using experimental and control groups. The statistical population included all third grade girl students of elementary schools of Ahvaz city (10,500 subjects). Forty of whom were randomly selected (cluster stage) and then were divided randomly into two experimental (N=20, M age=8.9 ? 0.49) and control (N=20, M age=8.9 ? 0.48) groups. Experimental group was given training for eight weeks, 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 45 minutes. To measure motor development, the Test of Gross Motor Development, edition2 (TGMD-2; 2002) was applied. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test.Results:The results showed statistically significant differences between control and experimental groups regarding locomotion skills (8.433, p < 0.05), manipulation skills (10.951, P < 0.001) and overall motor development (13.203, p < 0.001). In fact, selected exercises impacted on the motor development of subjects and led to their motor development progress.Conclusions:The selected exercises can be used as an appropriate plan to improve motor skill development in third grade of elementary school.

Sabah Bakhtiari; Parvaneh Shafinia; Vahid Ziaee

2011-01-01

40

Echantillons du travail ecrit des eleves. Francais 6e annee, teste de rendement, juin 1988 (Sample of the Written Work of Students. 6th Grade French Achievement Test, June 1988).  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of student essays provides illustrations of the criteria used to grade the composition portion of the sixth-grade achievement test used in Alberta (Canada). An introductory section describes the procedures for selecting the essays used, establishing scoring norms, and scoring the tests, and offers general comments on the writing…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Records Branch.

 
 
 
 
41

Correlations among perceptual-motor ability, self-concept and reading achievement in early elementary grades.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the correlation among measures of perceptual-motor abilities, self-concept, and reading achievement and determined whether perceptual-motor ability and self-concept can predict reading achievement in the early elementary grades. A total of 105 boys and 108 girls from the first, and second and third grades were tested on the stabilometer, a modified Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test, a tapping test, the Primary Self-concept Inventory, and the Science Research Associates Assessment Survey. Intercorrelations across grade levels tended to be low and nonsignificant. The multiple regression procedures yielded no strong predictions of reading achievement. These findings tended to confirm the specificity of perceptual-motor ability, self-concept, and reading achievement.

Husak WS; Magill RA

1979-04-01

42

MANULEX: a grade-level lexical database from French elementary school readers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents MANULEX, a Web-accessible database that provides grade-level word frequency lists of nonlemmatized and lemmatized words (48,886 and 23,812 entries, respectively) computed from the 1.9 million words taken from 54 French elementary school readers. Word frequencies are provided for four levels: first grade (G1), second grade (G2), third to fifth grades (G3-5), and all grades (G1-5). The frequencies were computed following the methods described by Carroll, Davies, and Richman (1971) and Zeno, Ivenz, Millard, and Duvvuri (1995), with four statistics at each level (F, overall word frequency; D, index of dispersion across the selected readers; U, estimated frequency per million words; and SFI, standard frequency index). The database also provides the number of letters in the word and syntactic category information. MANULEX is intended to be a useful tool for studying language development through the selection of stimuli based on precise frequency norms. Researchers in artificial intelligence can also use it as a source of information on natural language processing to simulate written language acquisition in children. Finally, it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists.

Lété B; Sprenger-Charolles L; Colé P

2004-02-01

43

Screening of phonological awareness in the early elementary grades: an IRT approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory factor analysis and analyses conducted within the framework of item response theory showed one latent ability to underlie the different sets of items, which nevertheless differed in difficulty. Analyses in terms of the children's ability further showed the phonological awareness measures to be sensitive to growth. The amount of information supplied by the different sets of items depended on the children's level of ability. The conclusion that it is possible to accurately monitor the development of children's phonological awareness in the early elementary grades appears to be justified, and this possibility opens up new perspectives for the early screening for reading problems and dyslexia.

Vloedgraven JM; Verhoeven L

2007-06-01

44

[Neurologic semiology of a group of first grade students in an elementary school  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated children in the first grade of a elementary school using neurological examination. With no previous knowledge of their educational performance, were invited all children attending five classes of the first grade of an elementary public school chosen randomly, in Itatiba / Sao Paulo / Brazil, whose parents assigned a Commitment Term for participation in this research. Children who missed three evaluations in different days or whose parents did not assigned the Commitment Term were excluded. The Traditional Neurological Examination (ENT) (Lefevre, 1972) was applied. It was considered for normal the measurement of the skull circumference, proposed by Diament & Rodrigues (1976), and the application of all ENT items. The data were stored in a database of the Epi6 Program (Epidemiologic Information), and analyzed by percentage calculation and by the chi2 test. The significance level was 0.05. Children evaluated were 124. The ENT results were normal in 87 (70.16%) and altered in 37 (29.83%). Among the alterations, there were observed: light tremor, light muscular hypotonia, speech acquisition delay, macrocephaly, microcephaly, hyperactivity, cranial nerve syndrome, central facial paralysis. One child presented corticospinal tract impairment syndrome of the distal lower extremities.

Gonçalves VM; Tonelotto JM; Ravanini SG

2000-03-01

45

ESCOLEX: A grade-level lexical database from European Portuguese elementary to middle school textbooks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article, we introduce ESCOLEX, the first European Portuguese children's lexical database with grade-level-adjusted word frequency statistics. Computed from a 3.2-million-word corpus, ESCOLEX provides 48,381 word forms extracted from 171 elementary and middle school textbooks for 6- to 11-year-old children attending the first six grades in the Portuguese educational system. Like other children's grade-level databases (e.g., Carroll, Davies, & Richman, 1971; Corral, Ferrero, & Goikoetxea, Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1009-1017, 2009; Lété, Sprenger-Charolles, & Colé, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 156-166, 2004; Zeno, Ivens, Millard, Duvvuri, 1995), ESCOLEX provides four frequency indices for each grade: overall word frequency (F), index of dispersion across the selected textbooks (D), estimated frequency per million words (U), and standard frequency index (SFI). It also provides a new measure, contextual diversity (CD). In addition, the number of letters in the word and its part(s) of speech, number of syllables, syllable structure, and adult frequencies taken from P-PAL (a European Portuguese corpus-based lexical database; Soares, Comesaña, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, …, Machado, 2010; Soares, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, França, …, Comesaña, in press) are provided. ESCOLEX will be a useful tool both for researchers interested in language processing and development and for professionals in need of verbal materials adjusted to children's developmental stages. ESCOLEX can be downloaded along with this article or from http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases .

Soares AP; Medeiros JC; Simões A; Machado J; Costa A; Iriarte A; de Almeida JJ; Pinheiro AP; Comesaña M

2013-05-01

46

ESCOLEX: A grade-level lexical database from European Portuguese elementary to middle school textbooks.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we introduce ESCOLEX, the first European Portuguese children's lexical database with grade-level-adjusted word frequency statistics. Computed from a 3.2-million-word corpus, ESCOLEX provides 48,381 word forms extracted from 171 elementary and middle school textbooks for 6- to 11-year-old children attending the first six grades in the Portuguese educational system. Like other children's grade-level databases (e.g., Carroll, Davies, & Richman, 1971; Corral, Ferrero, & Goikoetxea, Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1009-1017, 2009; Lété, Sprenger-Charolles, & Colé, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 156-166, 2004; Zeno, Ivens, Millard, Duvvuri, 1995), ESCOLEX provides four frequency indices for each grade: overall word frequency (F), index of dispersion across the selected textbooks (D), estimated frequency per million words (U), and standard frequency index (SFI). It also provides a new measure, contextual diversity (CD). In addition, the number of letters in the word and its part(s) of speech, number of syllables, syllable structure, and adult frequencies taken from P-PAL (a European Portuguese corpus-based lexical database; Soares, Comesaña, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, …, Machado, 2010; Soares, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, França, …, Comesaña, in press) are provided. ESCOLEX will be a useful tool both for researchers interested in language processing and development and for professionals in need of verbal materials adjusted to children's developmental stages. ESCOLEX can be downloaded along with this article or from http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases . PMID:23709164

Soares, Ana Paula; Medeiros, José Carlos; Simões, Alberto; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Alvaro; de Almeida, José João; Pinheiro, Ana P; Comesaña, Montserrat

2013-05-25

47

Moderate lead exposure and elementary school end-of-grade examination performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between moderate lead poisoning in early childhood with performance on a comprehensive set of end-of-grade examinations at the elementary school level in two urban school districts. METHODS: Children born between 1996 and 2000 who resided in Milwaukee or Racine, WI, with a record of a blood lead test before the age of 3 years were considered for the analysis. Children were defined as exposed (blood lead level ?10 and <20 ?g/dL) or not exposed (BLL < 5 ?g/dL). Parents of eligible children were mailed surveys to consent to participation and elicit information on potential confounders. On consent, children were matched to educational records for fourth grade Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examinations. Seemingly unrelated regression was used to evaluate the relation between scaled scores on all sections of the examination (math, reading, language arts, science, and social studies) with exposure status, controlling for demographics, social status indicators, health indicators, and district-based poverty indicators. RESULTS: A total of 1133 families responded to the survey and consented to have educational records released; 43% of children were considered exposed. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, lead exposure was associated with significantly lower scores in all sections of the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examinations (range: science, ? = -5.21, P = .01; reading, ? = -8.91, P = .003). Children who were black, had a parent with less than a high-school education, and were classified by parents as having less than excellent health had significantly lower performance on all examination components. CONCLUSIONS: Children with moderate lead poisoning in early childhood performed significantly lower on all components of elementary school end-of-grade examinations compared with unexposed children. Household level social status and childhood health indicators partially explain decreased examination scores.

Magzamen S; Imm P; Amato MS; Havlena JA; Anderson HA; Moore CF; Kanarek MS

2013-11-01

48

Teaching Number Sense for 6th Graders in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on two excerpts from a 6th grade Taiwanese class, describing how a teacher examined and promoted his students’ development of number sense. It illustrates an effort to integrate number sense activities into the mathematics curriculum in ways that encourage exploration, discussion, thinking and reasoning. The results indicate that number sense can be developed through well-designed number sense activities, effective teaching, and a good learning environment. It also demonstrates that students’ number sense and mathematical thinking can be promoted through the use of multiple representations.

Der-Ching Yang; Chun-Jen Hsu

2009-01-01

49

Let's Waste Less Waste. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 4. [Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This publication, the fifth in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for fourth grade students focusing on the waste management. Litter is cited as one problem that very young children can comprehend and solve. They…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

50

6th interventional MRI symposium. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ongoing progress in the field of interventional MRI and the great success of our last symposium 2004 in Boston have stimulated us to organize the 6th Interventional MRI Symposium to be held September 15-16, 2006 in Leipzig. This meeting will highlight ground-breaking research as well as cutting-edge reports from many groups. The symposium also provides a forum to network with leaders and innovators in the field. Session topics are: intraoperative MRI, vascular applications, targeted drug delivery, cryotherapy, thermometry, pulse sequences, LITT, percutaneous procedures, navigation, robotics, focused ultrasound. (uke)

2006-01-01

51

Proceedings of the 6th NUCEF seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th NUCEF Seminar was held at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI on February 20, 2003 under the joint auspices of JAERI and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The NUCEF Seminar aims at discussions and information exchanges by scientists in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle backend. This seminar consists of a plenary session, two oral sessions on criticality safety and radioactive waste disposal, a panel discussion on fuel reprocessing / partitioning and poster presentations on nuclear fuel cycle and waste disposal. Thirteen papers were presented in the oral sessions (including the plenary session and the panel discussion) and 30 papers were presented in the poster presentation, and 265 persons participated in this seminar. This report compiles the papers submitted and the related discussions. The 43 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.

2003-02-20

52

Fifth-Grade Elementary School Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions about the Fungus Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted with four fifth-grade children from a public elementary school. The purpose was to investigate children’s conceptions and misconceptions about the fungus kingdom both before and after a teaching intervention, using the interview and observation techniques of qualitative research. At both sets of interviews, the students were asked questions about molds, yeast, and mushrooms and about their feeding styles, reproduction, and living conditions. Interviews were tape recorded. The students received six hours of instruction after the pre-interviews. Student misconceptions before and after instruction were identified by qualitative analysis of verbatim responses. Results indicated that before instruction students had many misconceptions like “mold and yeast are not living organisms”, “fungi are plants”, “fungi mean mushroom” etc. Although they changed most of their misconceptions after the instruction, they still had conceptions that were inconsistent with the scientific perspective. Children’s persistent misconceptions, incomplete explanations, and over-generalizations are also discussed in this paper.

Nermin BULUNUZ; Olga S. JARRETT; M?zrap BULUNUZ

2008-01-01

53

PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

2005-11-01

54

6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: poster presentations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and basic research. The immunodeficiency presentations dealt with novel, rare class-switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies, attenuation of adverse events following IVIg treatment, association of immunoglobulin (Ig)G trough levels and protection against acute infection in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and the reduction of class-switched memory B cells in patients with specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, pregnancy and postpartum-related relapses in multiple sclerosis and refractory myositis, as well as experiences with subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with multi-focal motor neuropathy, were the topics presented in the autoimmunity session. The interaction of dendritic cell (DC)-SIGN and alpha2,6-sialylated IgG Fc and its impact on human DCs, the enrichment of sialylated IgG in plasma-derived IgG, as wells as prion surveillance and monitoring of anti-measles titres in immunoglobulin products, were covered in the basic science session. In summary, the presentations illustrated the breadth of immunoglobulin therapy usage and highlighted the progress that is being made in diverse areas of basic and clinical research, extending our understanding of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin action and contributing to improved patient care. PMID:19883425

Fernandez-Cruz, E; Kaveri, S V; Peter, H-H; Durandy, A; Cantoni, N; Quinti, I; Sorensen, R; Bussel, J B; Danieli, M G; Winkelmann, A; Bayry, J; Käsermann, F; Späth, P; Helbert, M; Salama, A; van Schaik, I N; Yuki, N

2009-12-01

55

6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: poster presentations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and basic research. The immunodeficiency presentations dealt with novel, rare class-switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies, attenuation of adverse events following IVIg treatment, association of immunoglobulin (Ig)G trough levels and protection against acute infection in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and the reduction of class-switched memory B cells in patients with specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, pregnancy and postpartum-related relapses in multiple sclerosis and refractory myositis, as well as experiences with subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with multi-focal motor neuropathy, were the topics presented in the autoimmunity session. The interaction of dendritic cell (DC)-SIGN and alpha2,6-sialylated IgG Fc and its impact on human DCs, the enrichment of sialylated IgG in plasma-derived IgG, as wells as prion surveillance and monitoring of anti-measles titres in immunoglobulin products, were covered in the basic science session. In summary, the presentations illustrated the breadth of immunoglobulin therapy usage and highlighted the progress that is being made in diverse areas of basic and clinical research, extending our understanding of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin action and contributing to improved patient care.

Fernandez-Cruz E; Kaveri SV; Peter HH; Durandy A; Cantoni N; Quinti I; Sorensen R; Bussel JB; Danieli MG; Winkelmann A; Bayry J; Käsermann F; Späth P; Helbert M; Salama A; van Schaik IN; Yuki N

2009-12-01

56

6th International Meshing Roundtable '97  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

White, D.

1997-09-01

57

Project CHOICE: #79. A Career Unit for Grades 5 and 6. Kern County Petroleum. (Agribusiness and Natural Resources Career Cluster).  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching unit, Kern County Petroleum, is one in a series of curriculum guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking 5th and 6th grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. These ten lessons about petroleum…

Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

58

6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC.1,2 As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in Fc?RII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements of antibody druggability (Abbott, Bayer, Pierre Fabre, Merrimack, Pfizer), enhancing IgG pharmacokinetics (Abbott, Chugai), progress in manufacturing (Genmab, Icosagen Cell Factory, Lonza, Pierre Fabre) and the development of biosimilar antibodies (Biocon, Sandoz, Triskel) were also discussed. Last but not least, identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against new therapeutic targets (Genentech, Genmab, Imclone/Lilly, Vaccinex) including Notch, cMet, TGF?RII, SEMA4D, novel development in immunotherapy and prophylaxis against influenza (Crucell), anti-tumor activity of immunostimulatory antibodies (MedImmune/Astra Zeneca) and translations to clinical studies including immunogenicity issues (Amgen, Novartis, University of Debrecen) were presented.

2011-01-01

59

15th AINSE nuclear and particle conference at the 6th APPC and 11th AIP congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1994 AINSE conference was held in Brisbane, at Griffith University in conjunction with the 6th APPC and the 11th Australian Institute of Physics Congress. It focused on physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear reactions and scattering, neut...

1994-01-01

60

An Assessment of nutrition education in selected counties in New York State elementary schools (kindergarten through fifth grade).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which nutrition education is implemented in selected counties in New York State elementary schools (kindergarten through fifth grade) and explore how nutrition knowledge is presented in the classroom and what factors support it. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. SETTING: New York State elementary schools in selected counties. PARTICIPANTS: New York State elementary school teachers (n = 137). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hours spent teaching nutrition; nutrition topics, methods of teaching, education resources, and aspects of the school environment that may influence nutrition education. ANALYSIS: Crosstabs with a chi-square statistic and ANOVA. RESULTS: Eighty-three percent of teachers taught some nutrition (9.0 ± 10.5 hours) during the academic year. Teachers taught lessons about finding and choosing healthy food (61%), relationship between diet and health (54%), and MyPyramid (52%) most often. Suburban teachers (12.4 ± 12.5 hours) taught significantly (P = .006) more hours of nutrition than rural teachers (4.2 ± 3.9 hours). Teachers at schools with fewer than 80% nonwhite students taught significantly (P = .02) more (10.4 ± 11.4 hours) compared to schools with greater than 80% nonwhite students (5.6 ± 6.4 hours). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Teachers reported that nutrition education is important and that they are willing to teach nutrition. Efforts should be made that support integrated nutrition topics, methods of instruction, and availability of resources.

Watts SO; Piñero DJ; Alter MM; Lancaster KJ

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

The effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training. This study is a control group pre-test post-test experimental research. The research was conducted to students who were enrolled in an elementary school in Konya, Turkey. While research’s experimental group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students), control group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students). Vocational group guidance was conducted to experimental group for 9 weeks once a week. The views of experimental and control group students towards apprenticeship education were measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B (AEEF-B) at pre-test post-test phases. In this research, applied vocational group guidance program includes views and behaviours which can be measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B. Group discussion and homework techniques were used to gain vocational views and behaviours in vocational group guidance. After analysis there have been found significant difference between experimental and control groups’ AEEF-B pre-test post-test average scores at 0.01 level. Findings showed that vocational group guidance method had a positive effect against negative ideas to apprenticeship education. In addition, vocational group guidance method has been found to be effective in changing 8th year elementary school students’ negative views towards apprenticeship education to positive views. This program is compatible as long as it is used in vocational guidance activities of 8th year elementary school students.

Abdullah Ishiklar

2012-01-01

62

Archaeology and Intercultural Education in the Elementary Grades: An Example from Minnesota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advocates the use of archaeology and anthropology as tools for delivering multicultural education in the elementary setting. Argues that archaeology demonstrates to children the ways that various cultures have solved problems related to a common set of human needs. Discusses curriculum design and includes two lesson plans. (DSK)

Whiting, Nancy Carolyn

1998-01-01

63

La mirada de las profesoras coordinadoras de la intervención pedagógica en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo/ Coordinators’ Perspective on the Pedagogical Intervention in the Study Program “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente artículo científico surge del proceso de intervención pedagógica (IP) que se realiza como parte de la formación docente en las carreras de la División de Educación Básica en la Universidad Nacional y pretende destacar las acciones del proceso de práctica profesional supervisada ejecutado en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica, desde la visión de las académicas responsables de la coordinación de dic (more) ho proceso. Para ello, se comparte una serie de acciones de coordinación que requiere el proceso de práctica y que son fundamentales para su desarrollo y exitosa culminación. Se sistematizan en tres áreas principales con su correspondiente análisis: acciones de coordinación, acciones de inducción y acciones de cierre de la intervención pedagógica. Asimismo, se retoman las opiniones del estudiantado y profesorado de apoyo en la valoración de dichas acciones. Entre los principales aportes del artículo se destaca que el proceso de intervención pedagógica es mucho más que la formulación conjunta de un programa de curso o de instrumentos, ya que implica una serie de estrategias de coordinación entre las profesoras responsables de la intervención pedagógica, para complementar el proceso y permitir hacer de la práctica un espacio de aprovechamiento y reflexión sobre la realidad educativa. Se genera, además, el análisis y trabajo en equipo, para la constante retroalimentación del estudiantado y del mismo proceso, lo cual permite perfilar la práctica profesional renovada y fortalecer la formación universitaria, al ser el proceso de IP de la División de Educación Básica un espacio de investigación permanente. Abstract in english This scientific paper is the result of the pedagogical intervention process carried out as part of teacher training in the study programs of the Basic Education Division at Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica). It aims at bringing into focus the tasks of the supervised professional practice process conducted in the study program of “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”, from the perspective of the coordinators of (more) this process. The coordination tasks that are essential for the development and successful completion of the professional practice process are analyzed and systematized in three main areas: coordination, induction, and conclusion of the pedagogical intervention tasks. The opinions of students and faculty members are considered in the evaluation. One of the main contributions of this paper is calling attention to the pedagogical intervention process, which involves not only the joint preparation of a course program, but also a number of coordination strategies among the persons in charge of the pedagogical intervention to complete the process and take advantage of the practice to think carefully on the educational reality. This study has been also an opportunity of analysis and teamwork focused on continuous feedback to students and to the process itself, giving a new shape to the professional practice, and strengthening university training where the pedagogical intervention process of the Basic Education Division is a permanent research platform.

Camacho Oviedo, Maureen; Rojas Acevedo, Kattia

2013-12-01

64

Exemplary Technology Integrators in the Elementary School: The Impact in a Gifth-Grade Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the daily teaching practices of an elementary teacher who was identified as being an exemplary integrator of technology in her classroom. In addition to this inquiry, a collection of audio and video clips from the observations and interviews was used to create DVD resources to be used in a Midwestern university’s teacher education program. Excerpts from these resources are included to allow readers the opportunity to evaluate such products for their possible effectiveness in encouraging teacher candidates to be innovative users of technology in their classrooms, as well as provide evidentiary support for the assertions presented.

Savilla Banister

2005-01-01

65

Development of a Top-View Numeric Coding Teaching-Learning Trajectory within an Elementary Grades 3-D Visualization Design Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explicates the development of top-view numeric coding of 3-D cube structures within a design research project focused on 3-D visualization skills for elementary grades children. It describes children's conceptual development of 3-D cube structures using concrete models, conventional 2-D pictures and abstract top-view numeric…

Sack, Jacqueline J.

2013-01-01

66

A Research Summary: The Effects of Grade Retention on Elementary Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research summary presents findings and restates policy conclusions as to whether grade retention or promotion is more beneficial for students with serious academic problems. It is claimed that research to date does not provide a conclusive answer to this issue, that serious methodological problems prohibit all but tentative conclusions, and…

Baenen, Nancy R.; And Others

67

Screening of Phonological Awareness in the Early Elementary Grades: An IRT Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory…

Vloedgraven, Judith M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-01-01

68

The Latest State of the First Grade of Elementary School Textbooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elementary education course books have been distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Education since 2005/2006 academic year. These course books are revised every year and prepared again with minor corrections. In this research, teachers were asked about their viewpoints on the final states of the course books that are revised and renewed every year. Thus, course books prepared according to the new teaching program were analyzed, aiming that the deficiencies in the books would be detected and so it would be found out how to apply the program more effectively and efficiently. Additionally, it was tried to find answers to the questions of the latest state of the books and to what extend the books would be compensating for the needs. Looking at the results of the research in general, we can conclude that elementary school teachers are mostly satisfied with the changes made in the books but teachers are not satisfied for example length of texts. And this indicates that the reviews and changes made in the books are not sufficient although they are suitable to their goals. So the reviews and changes made in the books are not sufficient although they are suitable to their goals. Beside that available teacher guidance books are insufficient in satisfying the teachers’ needs. In order to apply the program more effectively and efficiently, the teaching methods in the books should be diversified, the number of activities and their contents should be revised and the questions prepared in accordance with various goals should be reviewed.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved

Sema Altun Yalçin; Sinan Yalçin

2013-01-01

69

The 15th AINSE nuclear and particle conference at the 6th APPC and 11th AIP congress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1994 AINSE conference was held in Brisbane, at Griffith University in conjunction with the 6th APPC and the 11th Australian Institute of Physics Congress. It focused on physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear reactions and scattering, neutrinos and dark matter. The proceedings booklet contains the conference programme and talks summaries. Seventy one papers out of the 73 contributions were indexed separately for inclusion in the INIS database.

NONE

1994-12-31

70

The 15th AINSE nuclear and particle conference at the 6th APPC and 11th AIP congress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1994 AINSE conference was held in Brisbane, at Griffith University in conjunction with the 6th APPC and the 11th Australian Institute of Physics Congress. It focused on physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear reactions and scattering, neutrinos and dark matter. The proceedings booklet contains the conference programme and talks summaries. Seventy one papers out of the 73 contributions were indexed separately for inclusion in the INIS database

1994-01-01

71

6th International Conference on Biophysics & Synchrotron Radiation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Rdiation was held at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, from August 4-8, 1998, with pre-conference activities on August 3. Over 300 attendees and 65 presenters participated in the conference that was collaboratively hosted by the University of Chicago, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources and the Advanced Photon Source.

Moffat, Keith

1999-08-03

72

An Analysis of Rx for Discovery Reading for Elementary Students Below Grade Level in Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Rx for Discovery Reading® is an intervention developed by the National Institute for Learning Development to impact the reading abilities of students below grade level in reading. For this study, the areas of phonological processing, decoding, and fluency were investigated using pre- and post-test scores from the KTEA-II, GORT, and DIBELS. The problem studied was whether Rx for Discovery Reading® would raise the mean standard scores in these three areas. Using a small-group format, twenty-nine students were involved in the intervention for fifty forty-five minute sessions over one school year. Eight NILD educational therapists in a variety of geographical areas implemented the intervention. At the conclusion of the field test, the data were examined, discovering that the students had significantly higher post-test standard scores compared to the pre-test standard scores. These results demonstrate that this intervention may contribute greatly in enabling students become more proficient readers, overcoming a reading deficit.

Susan Kay Stanley

2009-01-01

73

Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Annual report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include developing a model laboratory/classroom for teacher education, providing financial incentives for students with technical majors to complete the program, and emphasizing issues of equity and minority participation in mathematics, science and technology education through recruitment procedures and in course content.

Flick, L.B.

1995-12-31

74

Research Examination of the Options to Increase the Education Effectiveness in the Technical Subjects at the 7th Grade of Elementary School Using Hypertext Educational Material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The utilization of hypertext educational material is going to be solved in this paper as a source using which the effectiveness of education the technical subjects at the 7th grade of elementary school can be increased. As a comparison between reached results in the control and experimental groups of pupils we used final didactical examination, which was evaluated using statistical methods. As a necessity for the pedagogical experiment we verified our hypotheses.

L'ubomír ZÁCOK

2010-01-01

75

Proceedings of the 6th nuclear science and technology conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The 6th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 2 - 4 December, 1996 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

1996-01-01

76

6th Krakow-Winnipeg Conference on Advanced Bioimaging Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from 1997 researchers have been meet in Krakow, Poland for the Krakow-Winnipeg conference on MRI. The scope of the conference includes the latest technical advances in biomedical imaging including molecular imaging and nanotechnology. Other topics for presentation include recent developments in whole body MRI, multi-transmit technology and gradient-free MRI. Book of Abstracts from the 6th Conference contains 29 abstracts of Oral Presentations and 11 abstracts of Posters.

2011-01-01

77

Lições de identidade presentes em livros didáticos de séries iniciais Identity lessons in early grades of elementary school textbooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É indubitável o papel que os livros didáticos ocupam nas salas de aula de todo o país, mesmo com o crescente avanço das novas tecnologias. Mais do que um recurso largamente utilizado por professoras e professores em suas práticas educativas, os livros didáticos são artefatos culturais que produzem saberes. Neles estão presentes e circulam as mais diversas pedagogias culturais, as quais ensinam lições que vão muito além dos conteúdos curriculares, convidando alunos e alunas a ocuparem determinadas posições de sujeito. A partir de tais considerações, o presente trabalho se dedica à análise das pedagogias culturais presentes e atuantes nos livros didáticos, mais especificamente, a análise está centrada na assim chamada pedagogia do gauchismo, termo cunhado para designar as diversas formas como as pessoas aprendem a ser gaúchas, em diversas instâncias sociais e culturais. O estudo compara de que maneira a pedagogia do gauchismo está presente em livros de História das Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental, no período que vai de 1960 a 2005, suas recorrências e rupturas. As análises apontam para uma predominância de uma determinada forma de se entender a identidade gaúcha, relacionando-a, sobretudo, à figura emblemática e mítica do gaúcho. Esta representação predominante constitui uma forte pedagogia cultural, produtora de saberes, a qual ensina uma maneira de ser gaúcho, convidando alunos e alunas a ocuparem posições de sujeito e a se constituírem identitariamente a partir de tal pedagogia.While men technologies spread throughout the country, the role that textbooks play in classrooms is unquestionable. Further than a tool widely used by teachers (men and women) in their educational practices, textbooks are cultural artefacts producing knowledge. Multiple cultural pedagogies are present and circulate in them, teaching lessons that go much beyond the curricular content, encouraging students (men or women) to be in particular subject positions. From these observations, the present paper is devoted to analysing the current, active and cultural pedagogies in textbooks, most specifically the so-called gauchismo pedagogy, a term that was coined to designate how people learn to be a "Gaucho" (someone from Rio Grande do Sul state) in different social and cultural situations. The study has investigated how the gauchismo pedagogy is present in early grades of elementary school history textbooks, from 1960 to 2005, its recurrences and ruptures. Data points to a prevailing way to understand the Gaucho identity, particularly relating it to the symbolic and mythic Gaucho. This prevailing representation is a strong cultural pedagogy, producing knowledge, which teaches how to be a Gaucho, encouraging students to be in subject positions and identifying with this pedagogy.

Letícia Fonseca Richthofen de Freitas

2009-01-01

78

Grade 7-9 Students’ Perceptions of Energy and Related Concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to determine how, after the implementation of the new elementary school Science and Technology Course curriculum, 7th and 9th grade students perceive, construct in their mind the concept of energy and related concepts; and how the perceptions change over time. Thus, a questionnaire consisting of four open-ended questions was administrated to a total of 120 among 6th-, 7th- and 8th-grade students. A qualitative analysis of the data indicated that students have difficulties in constructing the concepts of energy, energy supply, form of energy and transportation of energy.

Kemal Yürümezo?lu; Sinan Ayaz; Aytekin Çökelez

2009-01-01

79

Proceedings of the 6th symposium on advanced photon research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at JAERI-Kansai in Kyoto on November 4-5, 2004. The symposium has been held once a year since 1999, to promote the advanced photon research through speeches, information exchanges, discussion by researchers on the front line of advanced photon research in Japan and abroad, not only reports of latest research results and plans at Advanced Photon Research Center. The numbers of speeches were 16, including 5 invited speeches, and the numbers of poster presentations were 56, including the report of presentations and cooperative research and joint research performed in FY2003. The 56 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

2005-01-01

80

The AMES network in the 6th Framework Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The AMES (Ageing Materials European Strategy) European network started its activity in 1993 with the aim of studying ageing mechanisms and remedial procedures for structural materials used for nuclear reactor components. Operated by JRC-IE, it has been supporting the co-ordination of the project cluster throughout the 4th and 5th EURATOM Framework Programs, carrying out projects on with plant life management implications. Among them we can list the development of non-destructive techniques applied to thermal ageing and neutron embrittlement monitoring (AMES-NDT and GRETE), improved surveillance for VVER 440 reactors (COBRA), dosimetry (AMESDOSIMETRY, MADAM and REDOS), chemical composition effects on neutron embrittlement (PISA) and advanced fracture mechanics for integrity assessment (FRAME). Main frame of the network in the 5th Framework Programme is the ATHENA project, which is aimed at summarizing the obtained achievements and edit guidelines on important issues like the Master Curve, Effect of chemical composition on embrittlement rate in RPV steels, Re-embrittlement models validation after VVER-440 annealing and open issues in embrittlement of VVER type reactors. In the 6th EURATOM Framework Programme started in 2003 the network will be part of a broader initiative on PLIM including in a more integrated way NESC, ENIQ, NET and AMALIA networks. This paper shows an overview of the concluded projects, achievements of the running ones and open issues tackled in the 6th EURATOM FWP and a summary of the plans for a new broader network on NPP Plant Life management (SAFELIFE). (author)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

1984-01-01

82

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 1), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 1, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

|This is Part 1 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 1 includes the commentary for chapters 1 through 5. Topics covered include congruence, numbers and number bases, subtraction of numbers, division of numbers, and elementary geometry. References to the student text are cited. (RH)|

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

83

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

84

Effects of Teachers' Reading-Aloud Styles on Vocabulary Acquisition and Comprehension of Students in the Early Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Effects of just reading, performance reading, and interactional reading-aloud styles on learning were assessed for 117 first graders and 129 third graders. Results reveal that reading-aloud styles produced statistically significant effects on vocabulary acquisition and comprehension and similar results at each grade level. Vocabulary acquisition…

Brabham, Edna Greene; Lynch-Brown, Carol

2002-01-01

85

Elementary Students’ Levels of Realization of Basic Concepts related with Environment Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores elementary students’ levels of recognition of basic concepts about environmental problems. 86 students at 6th, 7th and 8th grades studying in central elementary schools of K?r?kkale participated in this study. Students’ awareness and preliminary knowledge of environmental problems and their sensitivities towards environment were determined by using open ended questions. According to the findings of this study, the students were mostly aware of the environmental problems stemming from environmental contamination, air pollution and waste materials. Moreover, the students mostly answered the questions correctly regarding with the environmental problems they frequently face in daily life whereas the answers to the questions regarding with the current environmental problems that are infrequently handled in educational institutions such as greenhouse effect, global warming etc. were occasionally incorrect; and in certain cases, the answers even contained a number of misconceptions. Moreover, the levels of students’ sensitivity towards environment were found to be sufficient.

Murat Demirba?; Hüseyin Miraç Pekta?

2009-01-01

86

THE FREQUENCY OF CULTURE-SPECIFIC ELEMENTS IN THE ELT COURSEBOOKS AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing cultural elements within the textbook contents is crucial for foreign language learners so that they can attain the authentic language appropriately involving some culture specific expressions that are commonly used in communication. Therefore, it is important for Turkish English learners to understand target culture for effective intercultural interactions. However, most of the course materials at elementary education in Turkey avoid including culture specific expressions as most of the course book writers are not native speakers but Turkish. The present paper pins down this issue by figuring out how much the course books focus on the culture specific expressions in foreign language teaching. To do this, three different randomly selected course books from the 6th, 7th and 8th grades at elementary education in Turkey have been evaluated in terms of the culture specific expressions. After analysing the course books the list and percentage of the cultural expressions will be portrayed.

?smail ÇAKIR

2010-01-01

87

Comparison of reading skills between cochlear implantation and normal hearing children in second and third grade elementary in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Abstract   Background and Aim: Reading skill is necessary for academic achievement, that deaf children have problems in this skill due to hearing impairment. Use of cochlear implant can improve auditory inputs. The aim of this study was to investigate the reading skills of children with cochlear implants and comparing that with normal ones.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytic study was done on 24 children with cochlear implant and 24 normal ones that was selected from second and third grades students of Tehran primary schools. Children's reading performance was assessed by Nama reading test and the data were analyzed using T-test, linear regression and Pearson correlations.     Results: The results showed that the means of reading scores of normal children were significantly greater than the cochlear implanted ones (P<0.01). Also, there was a significant relationship between reading skills and period of cochlear implant (P<0.01).   Conclusion: Cochlear implanted children showed weaker performance in reading skills than normal ones due to less access to auditory and Phonological information. It seems that early surgery and cochlear implant before the age of language learning can be partially compensated reading defects of deaf children.   Key words: Reading skills, Cochlear implantation, Second and third grade.  

Farzad Weisi; Mohammad Rahim Shahbodaghi; Hosshang Dadgar; Ali Reza Moradi; Soghrat Faghihzadeh

2012-01-01

88

Semiologia neurológica numa população de escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental Neurologic examination of a group of children attending first grade of a elementary school  

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Full Text Available Avaliamos escolares de primeira série do ensino fundamental, utilizando semiologia neurológica. Foram convidados, sem o conhecimento prévio do desempenho escolar, todos os alunos que frequentavam 5 classes de primeira série do primeiro grau de uma escola pública escolhida ao acaso, no município de Itatiba / São Paulo, cujos pais assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram excluídos aqueles cujos pais não assinaram esse termo ou não compareceram a 3 consultas agendadas em dias diferentes. Utilizou-se o Exame Neurológico Tradicional (ENT) (Lefèvre, 1972). Considerou-se como normal a realização de todas as provas do ENT e as medidas do perímetro craniano propostas por Diament & Rodrigues (1976). Os dados foram armazenados em banco de dados do programa Epi6 (Epidemiologic Information). Os resultados foram analisados pelo cálculo de porcentagem e pelo teste c2. O nível de significância foi 0,05. Foram avaliados 124 alunos. O ENT foi normal em 87 (70,16%) e alterado em 37 (29,83%) escolares. Entre as alterações, foram observados: leve tremor, leve hipotonia muscular, atraso na aquisição da fala, macrocefalia, microcefalia, hiperatividade, síndrome de nervo craniano e paresia facial central. Um escolar apresentou síndrome de liberação piramidal nos membros inferiores.We evaluated children in the first grade of a elementary school using neurological examination. With no previous knowledgement of their educational performance, were invited all children attending five classes of the first grade of an elementary public school chosen randomly, in Itatiba / Sao Paulo / Brazil, whose parents assigned a Commitment Term for participation in this research. Children who missed three evaluations in different days or whose parents did not assigned the Commitment Term were excluded. The Traditional Neurological Examination (ENT) (Lefevre, 1972) was applied. It was considered for normal the measurement of the skull circumference, proposed by Diament & Rodrigues (1976), and the application of all ENT items. The data were stored in a database of the Epi6 Program (Epidemiologic Information), and analyzed by percentage calculation and by the c2 test. The significance level was 0.05. Children evaluated were 124. The ENT results were normal in 87 (70.16%) and altered in 37 (29.83%). Among the alterations, there were observed: light tremor, light muscular hypotonia, speech acquisition delay, macrocephaly, microcephaly, hyperactivity, cranial nerve syndrome, central facial paralysis. One child presented corticospinal tract impairment syndrome of the distal lower extremities.

VANDA M. G. GONÇALVES; JOSIANE M. F. TONELOTTO; SOLANGE G. RAVANINI

2000-01-01

89

Semiologia neurológica numa população de escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental/ Neurologic examination of a group of children attending first grade of a elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliamos escolares de primeira série do ensino fundamental, utilizando semiologia neurológica. Foram convidados, sem o conhecimento prévio do desempenho escolar, todos os alunos que frequentavam 5 classes de primeira série do primeiro grau de uma escola pública escolhida ao acaso, no município de Itatiba / São Paulo, cujos pais assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram excluídos aqueles cujos pais não assinaram esse termo ou não compareceram (more) a 3 consultas agendadas em dias diferentes. Utilizou-se o Exame Neurológico Tradicional (ENT) (Lefèvre, 1972). Considerou-se como normal a realização de todas as provas do ENT e as medidas do perímetro craniano propostas por Diament & Rodrigues (1976). Os dados foram armazenados em banco de dados do programa Epi6 (Epidemiologic Information). Os resultados foram analisados pelo cálculo de porcentagem e pelo teste c2. O nível de significância foi 0,05. Foram avaliados 124 alunos. O ENT foi normal em 87 (70,16%) e alterado em 37 (29,83%) escolares. Entre as alterações, foram observados: leve tremor, leve hipotonia muscular, atraso na aquisição da fala, macrocefalia, microcefalia, hiperatividade, síndrome de nervo craniano e paresia facial central. Um escolar apresentou síndrome de liberação piramidal nos membros inferiores. Abstract in english We evaluated children in the first grade of a elementary school using neurological examination. With no previous knowledgement of their educational performance, were invited all children attending five classes of the first grade of an elementary public school chosen randomly, in Itatiba / Sao Paulo / Brazil, whose parents assigned a Commitment Term for participation in this research. Children who missed three evaluations in different days or whose parents did not assigned (more) the Commitment Term were excluded. The Traditional Neurological Examination (ENT) (Lefevre, 1972) was applied. It was considered for normal the measurement of the skull circumference, proposed by Diament & Rodrigues (1976), and the application of all ENT items. The data were stored in a database of the Epi6 Program (Epidemiologic Information), and analyzed by percentage calculation and by the c2 test. The significance level was 0.05. Children evaluated were 124. The ENT results were normal in 87 (70.16%) and altered in 37 (29.83%). Among the alterations, there were observed: light tremor, light muscular hypotonia, speech acquisition delay, macrocephaly, microcephaly, hyperactivity, cranial nerve syndrome, central facial paralysis. One child presented corticospinal tract impairment syndrome of the distal lower extremities.

GONÇALVES, VANDA M. G.; TONELOTTO, JOSIANE M. F.; RAVANINI, SOLANGE G.

2000-03-01

90

Professores das primeiras séries do ensino fundamental e relações estabelecidas com o conhecimento Teachers of the first grades of elementary education and the relations established with knowledge  

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Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta análise realizada sobre as relações estabelecidas pelo professor com o conhecimento no exercício da docência, nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental em escolas públicas. Foi possível verificar que as professoras entrevistadas estabelecem relação utilitária e superficial, seja com o conhecimento científico, seja com o conhecimento das disciplinas escolares, em decorrência de aprendizado ocorrido nos momentos de formação inicial ou de formação continuada e referido à sua aplicabilidade prática, bem como daquilo que o exercício docente proporciona e exige dos professores em sua lida cotidiana. Além disso, destaca-se a valorização de conhecimento adquirido com a experiência.This paper presents an analysis conducted on the relationship established by the teacher with knowledge in the teaching activity, in the initial grades of elementary education in public schools. It was possible to verify that the interviewed teachers establish a utilitarian and superficial relationship, either with scientific knowledge or with the knowledge on school subjects. This type of relationship is caused by the kind of learning developed in moments of initial or continued formation and related to its practical applicability, as well as by what the teaching activity provides and demands from the teachers in their daily work. Moreover, the valorizing of knowledge acquired with the experience is highlighted.

Marieta Gouvêa de Oliveira Penna

2012-01-01

91

The Impact of Positive Behavior Intervention Training for Teachers On Referral Rates for Misbehavior, Special Education Evaluation and Student Reading Achievement in the Elementary Grades  

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Full Text Available A professional development program which trained whole school staffs in the use of positive behavioral interventions for the purpose of reducing referral rates of students for misbehavior and special education evaluation. The program focused on training teachers and paraprofessionals in behavior management strategies to increase “high approval teaching,” to develop structured and organized classroomenvironments, to engage in contingent teaching, and to improve the overall school climate. The findings suggest that training whole school staffs is an efficient way to reduce referrals for student misbehavior, to reduce the number of conduct-based referrals for special education evaluation and to impact positively on student achievement vis-à-vis reading performance. The data demonstrate that increasing on-task behavior in classrooms and reducing misbehavior results in increased student achievement. This work stresses the importance of teaching prosocial and proacademic behaviors to elementary grade students, how these behaviors are critical to school success, and the way in which school principals can provide leadership for this work.

Susan Polirstok, Ed.D.; Jay Gottlieb, Ph.D.

2006-01-01

92

Professores das primeiras séries do ensino fundamental e relações estabelecidas com o conhecimento/ Teachers of the first grades of elementary education and the relations established with knowledge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta análise realizada sobre as relações estabelecidas pelo professor com o conhecimento no exercício da docência, nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental em escolas públicas. Foi possível verificar que as professoras entrevistadas estabelecem relação utilitária e superficial, seja com o conhecimento científico, seja com o conhecimento das disciplinas escolares, em decorrência de aprendizado ocorrido nos momentos de formação inicial ou de (more) formação continuada e referido à sua aplicabilidade prática, bem como daquilo que o exercício docente proporciona e exige dos professores em sua lida cotidiana. Além disso, destaca-se a valorização de conhecimento adquirido com a experiência. Abstract in english This paper presents an analysis conducted on the relationship established by the teacher with knowledge in the teaching activity, in the initial grades of elementary education in public schools. It was possible to verify that the interviewed teachers establish a utilitarian and superficial relationship, either with scientific knowledge or with the knowledge on school subjects. This type of relationship is caused by the kind of learning developed in moments of initial or c (more) ontinued formation and related to its practical applicability, as well as by what the teaching activity provides and demands from the teachers in their daily work. Moreover, the valorizing of knowledge acquired with the experience is highlighted.

Penna, Marieta Gouvêa de Oliveira

2012-06-01

93

The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels  

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Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS 15.0/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘t test’ was used for determine the difference among the groups and ‘Pearson Moment Correlation Analysis’ was used for determine correlation among variables. In this study different abilities were examined in the subhead of Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, and General Ability. It was found in this study that there is a meaningful relation between Sef-Esttem and Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, General Ability, Assertiveness. In the view of the preceding findings, and in the scope of academic success this study is discussed and leads other investigations and applications.

Hakan Sar?çam; Elifcan Y?lmaz; Arzu Gülbahçe; Öner Gülbahçe; Mehmet Çardak

2013-01-01

94

6th International Congress of the Croatian Society of Nuclear Medicine in Opatija 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 6th International Congress of the Croatian Society of Nuclear Medicine gives an overview of present-day nuclear medicine. The congress shows that Croatian nuclear medicine follows the general trends of the European nuclear medicine.

Dodig D; Tezak S; Hui? D; Poropat M; Kasal B; Schicha H

2008-01-01

95

6th International Congress of the Croatian Society of Nuclear Medicine in Opatija 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Congress of the Croatian Society of Nuclear Medicine gives an overview of present-day nuclear medicine. The congress shows that Croatian nuclear medicine follows the general trends of the European nuclear medicine. PMID:18589489

Dodig, D; Tezak, S; Hui?, D; Poropat, M; Kasal, B; Schicha, H

2008-01-01

96

Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

97

Aluno-autor: a aprendizagem da escrita literária nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental/ Student-author: learning literary writing in the early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Pesquisa etnográfica sobre a escrita do texto literário realizada numa turma de 4º ano do ensino fundamental municipal de Curitiba. O estudo parte do conceito de aluno-autor, criado por Catherine Tauveron para sustentar o argumento de que a escola pode desenvolver nas crianças pequenas uma postura de autor. O artigo analisa dois textos produzidos por alunos, sendo um deles uma narrativa, e o outro, uma fábula. Paralelamente, apresenta as estratégias adotadas pelo pr (more) ofessor para familiarizar os alunos com as características dos gêneros literários, como forma de nortear a sua escrita, de modo a contemplarem em seus textos os elementos da arquitetura desses gêneros, como tema, intriga, narrador, ponto de vista, personagem, estrutura, sequência, coerência, verossimilhança, espaço e tempo. Enfatiza, ainda, o papel do professor como responsável por instigar a reflexão dos alunos sobre sua escrita e criar as condições pedagógicas para que escrevam com prazer, autonomia e criatividade. Abstract in english This is an ethnographic research on literary text writing carried out with a 4th grade class of a municipal elementary school in Curitiba, Brazil. The study is based on Catherine Tauveron's concept of student-author, which supports that schools can induce the development of author's attitude in small children. The paper analyzes two texts prepared by students: a narrative and a fable. It also presents the strategies used by the teacher to familiarize students with the cha (more) racteristics of literary genres, as a means to organize their writing, so that they include elements of the common architecture of genres in their texts, such as theme, intrigue, narrator, point of view, character, structure, sequence, coherence, verisimilitude, space and time. It also emphasizes the role of teachers as responsible for enticing students to think about their writing and creating the pedagogic conditions so students write with pleasure, autonomy and creativity.

Dalla-Bona, Elisa Maria; Bufrem, Leilah Santiago

2013-03-01

98

Aluno-autor: a aprendizagem da escrita literária nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental Student-author: learning literary writing in the early grades of elementary school  

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Full Text Available Pesquisa etnográfica sobre a escrita do texto literário realizada numa turma de 4º ano do ensino fundamental municipal de Curitiba. O estudo parte do conceito de aluno-autor, criado por Catherine Tauveron para sustentar o argumento de que a escola pode desenvolver nas crianças pequenas uma postura de autor. O artigo analisa dois textos produzidos por alunos, sendo um deles uma narrativa, e o outro, uma fábula. Paralelamente, apresenta as estratégias adotadas pelo professor para familiarizar os alunos com as características dos gêneros literários, como forma de nortear a sua escrita, de modo a contemplarem em seus textos os elementos da arquitetura desses gêneros, como tema, intriga, narrador, ponto de vista, personagem, estrutura, sequência, coerência, verossimilhança, espaço e tempo. Enfatiza, ainda, o papel do professor como responsável por instigar a reflexão dos alunos sobre sua escrita e criar as condições pedagógicas para que escrevam com prazer, autonomia e criatividade.This is an ethnographic research on literary text writing carried out with a 4th grade class of a municipal elementary school in Curitiba, Brazil. The study is based on Catherine Tauveron's concept of student-author, which supports that schools can induce the development of author's attitude in small children. The paper analyzes two texts prepared by students: a narrative and a fable. It also presents the strategies used by the teacher to familiarize students with the characteristics of literary genres, as a means to organize their writing, so that they include elements of the common architecture of genres in their texts, such as theme, intrigue, narrator, point of view, character, structure, sequence, coherence, verisimilitude, space and time. It also emphasizes the role of teachers as responsible for enticing students to think about their writing and creating the pedagogic conditions so students write with pleasure, autonomy and creativity.

Elisa Maria Dalla-Bona; Leilah Santiago Bufrem

2013-01-01

99

Quality of school life and self-concept among elementary school students  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate, how much the dimensions of Children Self-Concept Scale, “Behavior”, “Intellectual and school status”, “Physical appearance and attributes”, “Anxiety”, “Popularity” and “Happiness” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions about quality of life in their school’s. The participants of the study consist of 493 students (235 girls and 258 boys) who attended to 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades from four elementary schools located in Adana central province, Turkey. Quality of School Life Scale (QSLS) and “Children Self-Concept Scale” were used as data collection tools. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to analyze the gathered data. Results show that, all dimensions of Children Self-concept Scale have significant correlations with quality of school life (p<.001). Results of hierarchic regression analysis show that, the variables of “Behavior”, “Popularity”, “Happiness”, “Intellectual and school status” and “Anxiety” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of school life significantly; but the variable of “Physical appearance and attributes” has no significant contribution to the estimation. It was found that, the variable of “Behavior” has the highest contribution to the estimation of students’ quality of school life among these five variables which could be account for 29.2% of the total variance of elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of their school life.

Mediha Sar?; Fulya Cenkseven

2008-01-01

100

O Livro didático nas séries iniciais: os "Diversos olhares" para uma coleção de geografia / TEXTBOOKS AND THE FIRST GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: several “points of view” for an edited textbook of Geography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea to make a research on the use of the textbook of Geography in the first grades of theelementary school emerged from several discussions during the Course of Geography at the FaculdadeCatólica de Uberlândia-MG. The subject is controversial and there are divergences in what relatesto its importance and use by teachers. We then chose an edition for analysis which is used inseveral state public schools in Uberlândia-MG. We tried to identify and analyze the way somegeographical concepts – that are in our opinion fundamental for the understanding of thegeographical space – are approached in the textbooks. To understand the pedagogic proposal ofsome textbooks of Geography for the first grades of the elementary school it is necessary to evaluate the methodological referential used by the author - or authors - and the criteria that motivate itschoice by teachers and schools. We compared the books content that is suggested by the Secretariade Estado da Educação de Minas Gerais (Education Secretary of the State) to the book content ofthe chosen edition. The objective is not to demerit the work, but to point out ways and someimportant criteria for the choice of textbooks for the first grades of the elementary school. Thisinstrument should not foment discrimination, impartiality or neutrality. It should offer elements sothat teachers and students exercise their potential and creativity on the proposed themes, as a toolto be efficiently used in classrooms.

Jakes Paulo Félix dos Santos; Suely Aparecida Gomes

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

NOTES ON THE 6TH SOUTH AFRICAN ARMOURED DIVISION POSTAL UNIT  

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Full Text Available In February, 1943 the nucleus of the (6th South African Armoured Division was stationed at Premier Mine, Transvaal. From then onwards units which eventuallv werl to become part of the Division, joined this nucleus from various parts of the country.

Jan Ploeger

2012-01-01

102

Proceedings of the 6th Korea-China Joint workshop on nuclear waste management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This proceedings contains articles of 6th Korea-China Joint workshop on nuclear waste management. It was held on November 16-17, 2005 in Kyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 3 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Nuclear fuel cycle, Radioactive waste treatment, Radwaste disposal and decontamination and decommissioning. (Yi, J. H.)

NONE

2005-11-15

103

Proceedings of the 6th Korea-China Joint workshop on nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proceedings contains articles of 6th Korea-China Joint workshop on nuclear waste management. It was held on November 16-17, 2005 in Kyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 3 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Nuclear fuel cycle, Radioactive waste treatment, Radwaste disposal and decontamination and decommissioning. (Yi, J. H.)

2005-01-01

104

Recurrent 6th nerve palsy in a child following different live attenuated vaccines: case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy in the paediatric age group is uncommon, but has been described following viral and bacterial infections. It has also been temporally associated with immunization, but has not been previously described following two different live attenuated vaccines. Case presentation A case is presented of a 12 month old Caucasian boy with recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy following measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines, given on separate occasions with complete recovery following each episode. No alternate underlying etiology was identified despite extensive investigations and review. Conclusions The majority of benign 6th nerve palsies do not have a sinister cause and have an excellent prognosis, with recovery expected in most cases. The exact pathophysiology is unknown, although hypotheses including autoimmune mechanisms and direct viral invasion could explain the pathophysiology behind immunization related nerve palsies. It is important to rule out other aetiologies with thorough history, physical examination and investigations. There is limited information in the literature regarding the safety of a repeat dose of a live vaccine in this setting. Future immunizations should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Cheng Daryl R; Crawford Nigel W; Hayman Michael; Buckley Christopher; Buttery Jim P

2012-01-01

105

Highlights of the 6th World Congress in Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 6th World Congress in Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery took place in Cape Town, South Africa, in February 2013. The congress is the largest meeting in the field of congenital and paediatric heart disease and attracts a global audience of specialists with the aim of sharing the latest multidisciplinary developments in research and clinical practice. The congress was commended as a huge success and this article aims to give a general flavor of the diverse meeting through detailing a few specific highlights from the various tracks.

Hayes N; Chubb H; Narayan S; Qureshi S

2013-05-01

106

6th meeting of the World Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 6th World Congress of the World Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (WSPID), which was recently held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 18 and 22 November 2009, attracted 2401 attendees from 90 countries representing six continents. The WSPID, founded in 1994 by Professor Saldana Gonzalez of the Mexican Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, is a network of pediatric infectious diseases societies dedicated to the treatment and prevention of pediatric infectious diseases. All the regional societies from Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia, Australasia and Africa have participated in the WSPID.

Falade AG

2010-03-01

107

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

1997-01-01

108

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

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Full Text Available Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

B. Wagner; A. Francke; R. Sulpizio; G. Zanchetta; K. Lindhorst; S. Krastel; H. Vogel; J. Rethemeyer; G. Daut; A. Grazhdani; B. Lushaj; S. Trajanovski

2012-01-01

109

Accelerated Reader[R]: What Are the Lasting Effects on the Reading Habits of Middle School Students Exposed to Accelerated Reader[R] in Elementary Grades?  

Science.gov (United States)

Promoted by effective advertising and disseminated by word of mouth, many schools have adopted Accelerated Reader[R] as a supplementary reading program or as their primary reading program. Accelerated Reader[R]'s philosophy is that by using the system, students are motivated to read more and better books. A study investigated whether seventh grade

Pavonetti, Linda M.; Brimmer, Kathryn M.; Cipielewski, James F.

110

Demonstration of Combined Efforts in School-Wide Academic and Behavioral Systems and Incidence of Reading and Behavior Challenges in Early Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support. Students in the district are provided a continuum of reading and/or behavioral support based on…

McIntosh, Kent; Chard, David J.; Boland, Joseph B.; Horner, Robert H.

2006-01-01

111

Fabrication of DUPIC Fuel for the 6th Irradiation Test at HANARO Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, 15 DUPIC pellets and two mini-elements were fabricated to precisely investigate the thermal characteristics of DUPIC fuel. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets with 10.221?10.278 g/cm3 (94.5?95.0 % of T.D.) of sintered density and less than Ra 0.96 ?m of surface roughness satisfying the specifications of DUPIC fuel for the 6th irradiation test have been remotely fabricated at hot cell. 5 DUPIC pellets including 3 pellets equipped with thermal sensor in the center of the pellet were loaded in a mini-element. Endcap welding of the mini-element was performed by Nd:YAG laser. The DUPIC mini-elements assembled in an instrumented rig will be irradiated at HANARO research reactor.

2006-01-01

112

Uranium groundwater anomalies and L'Aquila earthquake, 6th April 2009 (Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of chemical and physical groundwater parameters has been carried out worldwide in seismogenic areas with the aim to test possible correlations between their spatial and temporal variations and strain processes. Uranium (U) groundwater anomalies were observed during the preparation phases of the recent L'Aquila earthquake of 6th April 2009 in the cataclastic rocks near the overthrust fault crossing the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The results suggest that U may be used as a potential strain indicator of geodynamic processes occurring before the seismic swarm and the main earthquake shock. Moreover, this justifies the different radon patterns before and after the main shock: the radon releases during and after the earthquake are much than more during the preparatory period because the process does not include only the microfracturing induced by stress-strain activation, but also radon increases accompanying groundwater U anomalies.

2010-01-01

113

Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

2010-01-01

114

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas) entre cinco e oito anos de idade, sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994) e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar.PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigating the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls) with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994); lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school performance and phonological processing were observed.

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto Tenório; Clara Regina Brandão de Ávila

2012-01-01

115

Elementary School Teachers' Manipulative Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from 503 inservice elementary teachers, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' background characteristics, teachers' beliefs about manipulatives, and the frequency with which teachers use manipulatives as part of their mathematics instruction. Findings from the study show that teachers' grade level and beliefs about…

Uribe-Florez, Lida J.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

2010-01-01

116

Metalinguistic awareness and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children / Consciência metalingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the influence of phonological, lexical and syntactic awareness in written language acquisition. The main hypothesis underlying the research was that metalinguistic abilities could facilitate written language acquisition. Subjects were 65 first-grade students at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The materials used to measure levels of metalinguistic awareness were applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing assessment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistical analysis showed positive and significant correlation between initial levels of phonological and syntactic awareness and final performance in reading and writing evaluation. Lexical awareness was significantly correlated solely with final level of reading. These results suggest the importance of performing pedagogical activities in early school life in order to develop metalinguistic awareness.

Sylvia Domingos Barrera; Maria Regina Maluf

2003-01-01

117

Synopsis of the 6th Walker's Cay Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy  

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Full Text Available Abstract The 6th annual Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy Colloquium at Walker's Cay was held under the auspices of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute on March 10–13, 2004. The Colloquium consisted of a select group of 34 scientists representing academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The main goal of this gathering was to promote in a peaceful and comfortable environment exchanges between basic and clinical science. The secondary benefit was to inspire novel bench to bedside ventures and at the same time provide feed back about promising and/or disappointing clinical results that could help re-frame some scientific question or guide the design of future trials. Several topics were covered that included tumor antigen discovery and validation, platforms for vaccine development, tolerance, immune suppression and tumor escape mechanisms, adoptive T cell therapy and dendritic cell-based therapies, clinical trials and assessment of response. Here we report salient points raised by speakers or by the audience during animated discussion that followed each individual presentation.

Kast W Martin; Levitsky Hyam; Marincola Francesco M

2004-01-01

118

The role of a basic surgical skills laboratory as viewed by medical students (6th year).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last academic year, a training period in a surgical skills laboratory, using plastic models, was included as a part of the 'Cirurgia 3' ('Surgery 3', 6th year) programme of Faculdade Medicina Lisboa. To evaluate the training period, a structured, anonymous questionnaire was administered at the end, seeking students' responses on their satisfaction in attending the course. A global view of the answers points out students' favourable opinion of the laboratory-training period: concerning students' perceived goals for attending the course, a high degree of satisfaction was reported (globally 73% of computed scores were rated as 'good' or 'very good'); the teaching/learning environment and the delivered content got 90% 'very good' and 'good' ratings; teaching staff performance got the highest percentage of rating scores 'very good' and 'good' (95%). These ratings were dependent on variables that are unlikely to be a reflection only of glamour and seduction (clear explanations and clear demonstration of each component of the skill) and were less dependent on other variables such as 'enthusiasm for teaching' and 'relationship with students', which could be expected to be influenced by the charisma of the tutors. Helping students learn and train in surgical skills in a laboratory is challenging and our results affirm that the environment and the content were valuable for the understanding of the subject, while sessions planning and appropriate teaching technique are essential when practical skills are to be taught and learned. PMID:11371295

da Costa, Paulo M.; Santos, José; Maio, Rui; Santos, Antónia; Paredes, Fernando

2001-03-01

119

Proceedings of the 6th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been recognized that neutron diffraction is an important means of research which can obtain the information on the positions of hydrogen atoms and water molecules which bear important roles in physiological functions, but due to the shortage of the diffractometers that give sufficient diffraction intensity, the utilization has not advanced. By the improvement of neutron flux due to the realization of the JRR-3M and the recent remarkable progress of biochemistry and biophysics, the structural analysis at atomic and molecular levels of the matters of living bodies and the elucidation of physiological functions have become to be carried out. The neutron diffractometer for the matters of living bodies aims at the top class in the world, and has been discussed by the experts in the world in five workshops. As the result, the neutron diffractometer was constructed, and the Gragg reflection from the single crystal of lysozyme protein was successfully observed for the first time in Japan. The 6th workshop was held on March 25, 1995 at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the lecture by Dr. B.P. Schoenborn was given, and the examples of the application of neutron imaging plates were reported. The important contents of the publications are summarized in this report. (K.I.).

1995-03-25

120

O estudo do tratamento da informação nos livros didáticos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental/ A study of the usage of information in text books from the beginning grades of elementary teaching  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo investiga o tratamento da informação expresso em livros didáticos brasileiros apresentados em três coleções analisadas pelo PNLD (2000 e 2004) que foram recomendadas com distinção das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. As atividades foram analisadas a partir dos tipos de gráficos e conteúdos matemáticos abordados nas tarefas analisadas. Considerando o importante papel que os livros didáticos assumem na educação brasileira esse estudo a (more) ponta-nos que o trabalho com tratamento da informação, realizado pelos livros didáticos, encontra-se distante de possibilitar aos alunos a construção de procedimentos para coletar, organizar, comunicar e interpretar dados. O tratamento da informação, na maioria das coleções analisadas, não é explorado no decorrer de todos os livros didáticos, aparecendo apenas no capítulo de estatística e probabilidade. Abstract in english The present research deals with the use of information expressed in Brazilian text books in three collections analized by PNLD ( National Plan of Didatic Book ) ( 2000 and 2004 ) which were recommended with distinction for the beginning grades of elementary teaching. The activities were analyzed for the type of graphics and maths contents. Considering the important role that text books play on Brazilian education, this study shows us that the work with the use of informat (more) ion within text books is not giving students the constructive procedures needed to collect, organize, communicate and interpret information. There is little use of information in the majority of the analyzed collections, appearing only in the statistics and probability chapters.

Lemos, Maria Patrícia Freitas de

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

O estudo do tratamento da informação nos livros didáticos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental A study of the usage of information in text books from the beginning grades of elementary teaching  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga o tratamento da informação expresso em livros didáticos brasileiros apresentados em três coleções analisadas pelo PNLD (2000 e 2004) que foram recomendadas com distinção das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. As atividades foram analisadas a partir dos tipos de gráficos e conteúdos matemáticos abordados nas tarefas analisadas. Considerando o importante papel que os livros didáticos assumem na educação brasileira esse estudo aponta-nos que o trabalho com tratamento da informação, realizado pelos livros didáticos, encontra-se distante de possibilitar aos alunos a construção de procedimentos para coletar, organizar, comunicar e interpretar dados. O tratamento da informação, na maioria das coleções analisadas, não é explorado no decorrer de todos os livros didáticos, aparecendo apenas no capítulo de estatística e probabilidade.The present research deals with the use of information expressed in Brazilian text books in three collections analized by PNLD ( National Plan of Didatic Book ) ( 2000 and 2004 ) which were recommended with distinction for the beginning grades of elementary teaching. The activities were analyzed for the type of graphics and maths contents. Considering the important role that text books play on Brazilian education, this study shows us that the work with the use of information within text books is not giving students the constructive procedures needed to collect, organize, communicate and interpret information. There is little use of information in the majority of the analyzed collections, appearing only in the statistics and probability chapters.

Maria Patrícia Freitas de Lemos

2006-01-01

122

Letramento escolar de estudantes de 1ª e 2ª séries do ensino fundamental de escola pública/ Formal literacy of first and second grade students of a public elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar e comparar o desempenho em letramento escolar de indivíduos de 1ª e 2ª séries do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública antes e após Programas de Práticas Reflexivas de Linguagem (PPRL). MÉTODOS: Participaram desta pesquisa 97 escolares de 1ª série e 149 de 2ª série entre os anos de 2006 e 2008. Os indivíduos realizaram triagens do letramento escolar antes e após PPRL. Estes tiveram a duração média de quatro meses; foram realizados (more) em situação coletiva e em parceria com os professores das classes selecionadas. Foram elaborados segundo os temas norteadores: promoção de práticas de letramento; conscientização sobre o uso da voz e dos níveis de ruído nas escolas; promoção de narrativas orais e escritas, envolvendo a metalinguagem e principalmente a consciência fonológica e promoção de práticas de leitura e compreensão de leitura. Ao término de cada programa, foram realizadas triagens finais, com a finalidade de analisar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares antes e após a realização dos programas. Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas no desempenho entre as séries tanto nas triagens iniciais, quanto nas finais nas provas de ditado, leitura de palavras e frases e cloze de frases. CONCLUSÃO: A 2ª série apresentou resultados melhores do que a 1ª série. Os resultados foram mais significativos nas provas que demandaram conhecimento mais aprofundado da relação fonema-grafema e vice-versa, sugerindo que o letramento escolar é necessário quando o letramento social não se faz presente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the school literacy performance of 1st and 2nd grades elementary school individuals of a public school, before and after Reflexive Practices in Language Programs (RPLP). METHODS: Ninety-seven students of the 1st grade and 149 of the 2nd grade, between the years 2006 and 2008, took part in this study. The subjects were submitted to school literacy screenings before and after the RPLP. The programs had an average duration of four months, (more) and were carried out in a collective situation in classrooms, and in partnership with the teachers of the selected classes. They were prepared according to the guiding themes: promotion of literacy practices; awareness about use of voice and noise levels at school; promotion of oral and written narratives, involving meta-language and, mainly, phonological awareness and the promotion of reading practices and reading comprehension. At the end of each program, final screenings were carried out in order to analyze and compare students' performance before and after their implementation. Data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Significant performance differences were found between 1st and 2nd grades, in both initial and final screenings, in the subtests dictation, words and sentences reading and sentence cloze were found. CONCLUSION: Second grade had better results than first grade. The results were more significant in subtests that required deeper understanding of the phoneme-grapheme association and vice-versa, suggesting that school literacy is necessary when social literacy is not present.

Cárnio, Maria Silvia; Pereira, Marília Barbieri; Alves, Débora Cristina; Andrade, Rosangela Viana

2011-03-01

123

Variação lingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental/ Linguistic variation and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a influência da variação lingüística sobre a aquisição da linguagem escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 65 alunos de três classes da primeira série de uma escola pública de ensino fundamental. O material utilizado para avaliar o nível de variação lingüística das crianças foi aplicado no início do ano escolar. As provas utilizadas para avaliar os níveis de leitura e escrita foram aplicadas no início e final do ano l (more) etivo. A análise estatística mostrou correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis iniciais de variação lingüística e o desempenho final das crianças em leitura, sugerindo que a utilização de linguagem não-padrão pelos alunos pode dificultar o processo de alfabetização, sobretudo quando não trabalhada adequadamente pelas professoras. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a importância de uma efetiva difusão dos conhecimentos lingüísticos e sociolingüísticos, através dos cursos de formação de professores alfabetizadores. Abstract in english This research aimed to investigate the influence of different linguistic patterns in written language acquisition.. Subjects were 65 first grade students at a public school. The material used to measure levels of linguistic variation was applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing assessment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistics analysis showed negative and significant (more) correlation between initial levels of linguistic variation and final performance in reading evaluation. These results suggest that different linguistic patterns can difficult the written language acquisition if they aren?t well working by the teachers that need to know and to use the linguistic and sociolinguistic knowledge in their literacy practice.

Barrera, Sylvia Domingos; Maluf, Maria Regina

2004-06-01

124

Consciência metalingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental/ Metalinguistic awareness and literacy: a study carried out among first elementary grade children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a influência da consciência fonológica, lexical e sintática, sobre a aquisição da linguagem escrita. Esperava-se que as crianças com níveis mais elevados de consciência metalingüística apresentassem desempenho superior na aprendizagem da leitura e escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 65 alunos da 1ª série do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública de São Paulo. Os instrumentos utilizados para avaliar os níveis de cons (more) ciência metalingüística foram aplicados no início do ano escolar. As provas utilizadas para avaliar os níveis de leitura e escrita foram aplicadas no início e final do ano letivo. A análise estatística mostrou correlações positivas significativas entre os níveis iniciais de consciência fonológica e sintática e o desempenho final das crianças em leitura e escrita. A consciência lexical mostrou-se correlacionada apenas com o resultado final em leitura. Tais resultados sugerem a importância de se favorecer o desenvolvimento da consciência metalingüística nas séries escolares iniciais. Abstract in english This research aimed to investigate the influence of phonological, lexical and syntactic awareness in written language acquisition. The main hypothesis underlying the research was that metalinguistic abilities could facilitate written language acquisition. Subjects were 65 first-grade students at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The materials used to measure levels of metalinguistic awareness were applied at the beginning of the school year. Reading and writing asses (more) sment tests were applied both at the beginning and the end of the school year so as to evaluate acquisition levels. Statistical analysis showed positive and significant correlation between initial levels of phonological and syntactic awareness and final performance in reading and writing evaluation. Lexical awareness was significantly correlated solely with final level of reading. These results suggest the importance of performing pedagogical activities in early school life in order to develop metalinguistic awareness.

Barrera, Sylvia Domingos; Maluf, Maria Regina

2003-01-01

125

Best practice in nursing care of dyspnea: The 6th vital sign in individuals with COPD  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this paper is to highlight evidence and key nursing practice, education, organization and policy recommendations from the original and revised Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline, Nursing Care of Dyspnea:  The 6th Vital Sign in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This paper introduces the notion of dyspnea as the sixth vital sign and presents evidence from the RNAO Best Practice Guideline and other relevant literature to support and enhance nursing care of dyspnea in clients with COPD. Background: COPD is an increasingly serious health issue. Nurses have significant opportunity to positively influence client outcomes and quality of life by assessing dyspnea, identifying problems, and applying appropriate evidence-based interventions. Best practice guidelines developed by the RNAO provide a framework to enhance nursing practice and client care. Design: A panel of nurses was assembled for the initial development of the guideline and more recently, the revision to the original guideline. Method: A structured evidence review based on the scope of the original guideline and supported by three clinical questions was conducted to capture the relevant literature and guidelines published since the original publication. Results: As a result of this work recommendations for nursing practice and education are discussed. Organizational and policy recommendations are also outlined. Conclusions: Nurses have opportunity to positively influence client outcomes and quality of life by assessing dyspnea, identifying problems, and applying appropriate evidence-based interventions. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Recommendations made in the best practice guideline will enhance nursing care of dyspnea in clients with COPD and dyspnea should be recognized as the sixth vital sign in individuals with COPD.

Patricia Hill Bailey; Christina McMillan Boyles; Julie Duff Cloutier; Ann Bartlett; Donna Goodridge; Meeran Manji; Brenda Dusek

2013-01-01

126

Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental/ Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem por conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% r (more) esponderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental. Abstract in english The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls). A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20 (more) % replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Bottaro, Silvania M.; Giugliani, Elsa R. J.

2008-07-01

127

Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem por conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% responderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental.The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls). A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20% replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Silvania M. Bottaro; Elsa R. J. Giugliani

2008-01-01

128

Hyperthermia in clinical oncology. 6th European BSD users' conference, Berlin, October 2-3, 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th Users' Conference is organized in 1992 in Berlin, where regional and local hyperthermia is clinically applied since 1989. The contributions of this conference are summarized in the present issue and cover all important fields of hyperthermia. (orig./MG).

Wust, P.; Felix, R.

1992-11-01

129

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research on April 14, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research April 14, 2011 On the NIH CampusNatcher AuditoriumBethesda, MD The event is free and open to the public. Registration will be open soon on the meeting website. See http://painconsortium.nih.gov/index.html

130

Early Grades Ideas.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Presents four teaching activities suitable for students in early elementary grades. The activities focus on creating a database for student use, a bulletin board which uses a visual diagram of modular programing, a program (with listing) which uses graphics to present a birthday greeting, and a random number program. (JN)|

Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

1985-01-01

131

6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010: November 29-December 1, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC. As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration FDA. The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in Fc?RII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements of antibody druggability (Abbott, Bayer, Pierre Fabre, Merrimack, Pfizer), enhancing IgG pharmacokinetics (Abbott, Chugai), progress in manufacturing (Genmab, Icosagen Cell Factory, Lonza, Pierre Fabre) and the development of biosimilar antibodies (Biocon, Sandoz, Triskel) were also discussed. Last but not least, identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against new therapeutic targets (Genentech, Genmab, Imclone/Lilly, Vaccinex) including Notch, cMet, TGFbRII, SEMA4D, novel development in immunotherapy and prophylaxis against influenza (Crucell), anti-tumor activity of immunostimulatory antibodies (MedImmune/Astra Zeneca) and translations to clinical studies including immunogenicity issues (Amgen, Novartis, University of Debrecen) were presented. PMID:21441785

Beck, Alain; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M

2011-03-01

132

6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010: November 29-December 1, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC. As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration FDA. The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in Fc?RII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements of antibody druggability (Abbott, Bayer, Pierre Fabre, Merrimack, Pfizer), enhancing IgG pharmacokinetics (Abbott, Chugai), progress in manufacturing (Genmab, Icosagen Cell Factory, Lonza, Pierre Fabre) and the development of biosimilar antibodies (Biocon, Sandoz, Triskel) were also discussed. Last but not least, identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against new therapeutic targets (Genentech, Genmab, Imclone/Lilly, Vaccinex) including Notch, cMet, TGFbRII, SEMA4D, novel development in immunotherapy and prophylaxis against influenza (Crucell), anti-tumor activity of immunostimulatory antibodies (MedImmune/Astra Zeneca) and translations to clinical studies including immunogenicity issues (Amgen, Novartis, University of Debrecen) were presented.

Beck A; Wurch T; Reichert JM

2011-03-01

133

Teaching Communication Skills Effectively: Can It Be Accomplished in the Elementary Schools?  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to introduce communication skills to elementary students, a basic communication lesson was taught to 8 different groups of students (3rd, 5th, and 6th graders) with approximately 15 students in each group. The groups met for 25-minute sessions. One mixed-age group met for 60 minutes. Four objectives were formulated for each class,…

Zaremba, Alan

134

Matematicas para la Escuela Elemental-Nuevas Orientaciones (Elementary School Mathematics-New Directions).  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary Mathematics need to be reevaluated and to be changed because: Mathematical knowledge has advanced, a more effective transition from one grade to the next is needed; standard elementary mathematics is inadequate, lacking the more interesting asp...

E. Deans

1965-01-01

135

Turbulence and molecular processes in combustion; Toyota Conference, 6th, Shizuoka, Japan, Oct. 11-14, 1992  

Science.gov (United States)

Papers from the conference are presented. The program was divided into the following six sessions: turbulent combustion -- theory and modeling; elementary reactions 1; elementary reactions 2; kinetics and modeling; turbulent combustion -- experiment and modeling; and turbulent combustion -- modeling and simulation. For individual titles, see A95-87171 through A95-87198.

Takeno, Tadao

136

The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009). Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Ni?de city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

Kamil ??eri

2010-01-01

137

ELEMENTARY 8 TH GRADE STUDENT’S LEVEL OF ABILITY TO APPLY SPELLING RULES AND PUNCTUATION MARKS ?LKÖ?RET?M 8. SINIF Ö?RENC?LER?N?N NOKTALAMA ??ARETLER? ?LE YAZIM KURALLARINI UYGULAYAB?LME DÜZEY?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a written text, in order to clarify the narration and reinforce the comprehensibility for readers to understand it accurately and properly, it is required to pay attention while applying spelling rules and using punctuation marks appropriately in their proper places. Regardless of their levels, when students’ written texts are analyzed, it is found that erroneous sentences mostly focus on punctuation and spelling rules. Due to the fact that these errors cannot be corrected, problems related to insufficient use of mother tongue are encountered. Because of this reason, the aim of the present study is to determine students’ level of ability to apply spelling rules and punctuation marks at elementary schools’ 8 th grade, which is the last phase of obligatory education. In this study, two written texts which were chosen from Turkish Language course books of secondary education were used to collect data. In the ligth of the findings, the students’ achievement levels of ability to apply spelling rules and use punctuation Marks in an appropriate way were determined. Yaz?l? bir metinde anlat?m? belirginle?tirmek, yaz?n?n tam ve do?ru bir ?ekilde anla??lmas?n? kuvvetlendirmek için noktalama i?aretlerinin yerli yerinde kullan?lmas?na ve yaz?m kurallar?na uyulmas?na dikkat edilmesi gerekir. Hangi seviyede olursa olsun ö?rencilerin yaz?l? anlat?m metinleri incelendi?inde hatal? cümlelerin daha çok noktalama ve yaz?m kurallar? üzerine yo?unla?t??? görülmektedir. Bu hatalar?n giderilememesinden kaynaklanan ana dili kullanma yetersizli?i sorunuyla kar??la??lmaktad?r. Bu yüzden ara?t?rman?n amac? zorunlu e?itimin son a?amas? olan ilkö?retim 8. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin noktalama i?aretleri ile yaz?m kurallar?n? do?ru uygulayabilme düzeylerini tespit etmektir. Bu ara?t?rma betimsel nitelikte bir alan ara?t?rmas?d?r. Ara?t?rmada veri toplamak amac?yla ilkö?retim ikinci kademe Türkçe ders kitaplar?ndan se¬çilen iki metin kullan?lm??t?r. Elde edilen bulgular sonunda ö?rencilerin noktalama i?aretlerini do?ru kullanabilme ile yaz?m kurallar?n? do?ru uygulayabilme ba?ar?s? düzeyleri belirlenmi?tir.

Hasan BA?CI

2011-01-01

138

Auditory Display : 6th International Symposium, CMMR/ICAD 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 18-22, 2009 - Revised Papers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval, CMMR 2009, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in May 2009. The 25 revised full papers presented were specially reviewed and corrected for this proceedings volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display.

2010-01-01

139

The Effectiveness of the Portfolio on Achievement and Permanence in the “Systems of Body Structures” Unit in the Sixth Grade Science and Technology Lesson  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the portfolio on students’ achievement and permanence of their acquired learning’s in “Systems of Body Structures” unit in sixth grade science and technology lesson in elementary school. This study was implemented on two different classes of 6th grade students in Ankara city, Hamdullah Suphi Elementary School affiliated to Ministry of National Education. In one of this classes, subjects of the “Systems of Body Structures” unit was given portfolio, while in other class subjects of the “Systems of Body Structures” unit was given direct instruction method. Before the application achievement test was given to in both groups as a pre test. And after the application the test was given to in both groups as a post test. Achievement test was given to both groups after three months of application finished as a permanence test. Independent sample test was used to compare data which was collected from the study. The results analysis of data showed that experimental group had a significantly higher score with respect to post test scores related to “Systems of Body Structures” unit than control group. Besides, the results of permanence test showed that knowledge which was taught was more permanent in experimental group than control group.

Ezgi GÜVEN; Mustafa AYDO?DU

140

Development of heuristic bias detection in elementary school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although human reasoning is often biased by intuitive heuristics, recent studies have shown that adults and adolescents detect the biased nature of their judgments. The present study focused on the development of this critical bias sensitivity by examining the detection skills of young children in elementary school. Third and 6th graders were presented with child-friendly versions of classic base-rate problems in which a cued heuristic response could be inconsistent or consistent with the base rates. After each problem children were asked to indicate their subjective response confidence to assess their bias detection skills. Results indicated that 6th graders showed a clear confidence decrease when they gave a heuristic response that conflicted with the base rates. However, this confidence decrease was not observed for 3rd graders, suggesting that they did not yet acknowledge that their judgment was not fully warranted. Implications for the development of efficient training programs and the debate on human rationality are discussed.

De Neys W; Feremans V

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

Field trip guide-book of the 6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pre-sympoisum and post-symposium field trip guide-book of the 6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Association. The symposium was held in Milan (Italy) in 2009.

Basso Daniela; Bracchi Valentina

2009-01-01

142

Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana/ Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en México. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las m (more) ismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist natu (more) re that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

Postigo, Yolanda; López-Manjón, Asunción

2012-06-01

143

Publication of Proceedings for the 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003) was held from June 22 to June 26 at the Coolfont Resort and Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. The Workshop was hosted by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) of the University of Maryland, College Park and by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. As its name implies this was the sixth in a series of biennial workshops devoted to exchanging information and ideas on high power microwave sources and components. The applications addressed included particle accelerators, radar, HPM, space exploration, neutron sources and plasma heating and current driven in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. This Final Report includes a brief description of the RF 2003 Workshop and the distribution of the published proceedings.

Victor L. Granatstein

2004-08-08

144

Publishing the Proceedings for the 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003) was held from June 22 to June 26 at the Coolfont Resort and Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. The Workshop was hosted by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) of the University of Maryland, College Park and by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. As its name implies this was the sixth in a series of biennial workshops devoted to exchanging information and ideas on high power microwave sources and components. The applications addressed included particle accelerators, radar, HPM, space exploration, neutron sources and plasma heating and current driven in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. This Final Report includes a brief description of the RF 2003 Workshop and the distribution of the published proceedings.

2004-01-01

145

6th COSTAM/SFRR (ASEAN/Malaysia) International Workshop on Micronutrients, Oxidative Stress, and the Environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 6(th) COSTAM/SFRR (ASEAN/Malaysia) workshop, "Micronutrients, Oxidative Stress, and the Environment," was held from June 29 to July 2 at Holiday Inn Damai Beach Resort in Kuching, Sarawak. Two hundred twenty participants from 17 countries presented recent advances on natural antioxidants in the area of oxidative stress and molecular aspects of nutrition. Natural products and research are an important program in academic institutions and are experiencing unprecedented interest and growth by the scientific community and public health authorities. Progress is being driven by better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the relation between oxidative stress and micronutrient action. The gathering of scientists from around the world was fruitful, and we hope that future work will be developed by the formal and informal interactions that took place in this beautiful tropical setting.

Nesaretnam K; Sies H

2006-11-01

146

6th COSTAM/SFRR (ASEAN/Malaysia) International Workshop on Micronutrients, Oxidative Stress, and the Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6(th) COSTAM/SFRR (ASEAN/Malaysia) workshop, "Micronutrients, Oxidative Stress, and the Environment," was held from June 29 to July 2 at Holiday Inn Damai Beach Resort in Kuching, Sarawak. Two hundred twenty participants from 17 countries presented recent advances on natural antioxidants in the area of oxidative stress and molecular aspects of nutrition. Natural products and research are an important program in academic institutions and are experiencing unprecedented interest and growth by the scientific community and public health authorities. Progress is being driven by better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the relation between oxidative stress and micronutrient action. The gathering of scientists from around the world was fruitful, and we hope that future work will be developed by the formal and informal interactions that took place in this beautiful tropical setting. PMID:17034360

Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Sies, Helmut

147

Special Issue for the 6th International Conference on Applied Financial Economics, Samos, Greece, 2-4 July 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea behind this issue was to publish the full papers of selected works presented in the 6th International Applied Financial Economics (AFE) Conference, which took place at the premises of the Research and Training Institute of East Aegean (INEAG) in Samos Island, Greece, 2-4 July 2009. Despite their short history, the AFE Conferences, co-organized by INEAG, the Department of Statistics and Actuarial-Financial Mathematics of the University of the Aegean, the University of Athens and other Academic Institutions, have already gained worldwide reputation and have been established as a forum in which academics, researchers and professional experts in the field of finance from all over the world come together, interact, exchange ideas and present their research.

Alexandros E. Milionis; Hayette Gatfaoui

2010-01-01

148

Teacher's Manual for Outdoor Studies: Geneva Sixth Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Written for teachers who lead their 6th grade students on a 3-day field experience program at the Rogers Environmental Education Center in Sherburne, New York, this manual provides objectives, materials, and procedures for activities which help students learn about the natural environment--pond life, trees, ecology of the forest floor, stream…

Mitchinson, Don F.

149

Improving Reading Comprehension of Intermediate Grade Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This practicum was designed to improve reading comprehension of intermediate grade children attending compensatory education classes in a Florida elementary school. It involved 11 students in grades 2 through 5 who were low achievers in reading and/or math. It was designed to improve reading comprehension by providing training using six specific…

Nachman, Leah B.

150

Inverses and Elementary Matrices  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this module is to explore the properties of inverse matrices. Our principal tool for this exploration is the expression of elementary row operations as left multiplications by elementary matrices.

Smith, David

2002-12-05

151

Elementary Science Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

2007-01-01

152

Youth Service-Learning and Community Service Among 6th-through 12th-Grade Students in the United States: 1996 and 1999 (Statistics in Brief).  

Science.gov (United States)

Involving America's students in community service activities is one of the objectives established under the third National Education Goal for the year 2000, which seeks to prepare students for responsible citizenship. Over the past 10 years, legislative i...

C. Chapman B. Kleiner

1999-01-01

153

Solving Word Problems for Life, Grades 6-8  

CERN Multimedia

Solving Word Problems for Life, Grades 6-8 offers students who struggle with math a daily opportunity to improve their skills. The book offers 180 math word problems. The first 30 focus on 6th-grade math standards, the second 30 on 7th-grade standards, and the last 30 on 8th-grade standards. There is also a section of more difficult, extra-credit problems titled "Hard-Hat Thinking". All of the activities are designed to strengthen basic math skills and problem-solving ability. Six visual cuesÑa hammer for adding, a screwdriver for subtracting, gears for multiplying, a saw for dividin

Brown, Melony A

2009-01-01

154

The use of mobile learning by 6th-year medical students in a minimally-supported environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to identify the impact of minimal support on medical students' mobile learning activities. Methods: The study was performed at the Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, on 129 medical students in their 7th year. The study consisted of a quantitative survey of the students, focussing on their mobile learning activities during their 6th year, while using their own mobile devices (such as smart phones) for mobile learning activities. In addition, their perceptions of barriers to, and advantages of, using mobile devices were investigated. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo. Results: All students used their mobile device as telephones and used most of the sophisticated applications. There was significantly less usage made of medical applications, such as clinical guidelines and medical reference tools. Barriers were screen size, cost, limited memory and battery. Advantages were time-saving, ease of access and use. Few students (14 highlighted lack of institutional support as a problem. Conclusions: Lack of support does not mean lack of usage. It does, however, mean predominantly simple usage. Given the importance of mobile devices in modern medical practice, this has strong negative implications for the professional preparedness of students studying in such environments.

Ken Masters; Zahra Al-Rawahi

2012-01-01

155

Bioinformatics as a driver, not a passenger, of translational biomedical research: Perspectives from the 6th Benelux bioinformatics conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The 6th Benelux Bioinformatics Conference (BBC11) held in Luxembourg on 12 and 13 December 2011 attracted around 200 participants, including internationally-renowned guest speakers and more than 100 peer-reviewed submissions from 3 continents. Researchers from the public and private sectors convened at BBC11 to discuss advances and challenges in a wide spectrum of application areas. A key theme of the conference was the contribution of bioinformatics to enable and accelerate translational and clinical research. The BBC11 stressed the need for stronger collaborating efforts across disciplines and institutions. The demonstration of the clinical relevance of systems approaches and of next-generation sequencing-based measurement technologies are among the existing opportunities for increasing impact in translational research. Translational bioinformatics will benefit from research models that strike a balance between the importance of protecting intellectual property and the need to openly access scientific and technological advances. The full conference proceedings are freely available at http://www.bbc11.lu.

Azuaje Francisco J; Heymann Michaël; Ternes Anne-Marie; Wienecke-Baldacchino Anke; Struck Daniel; Moes Danièle; Schneider Reinhard

2012-01-01

156

[Attractiveness of France for international clinical trials in 2012: 6(th) survey assessed by Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 2002, the Leem (French Association of Pharmaceutical Companies) has conducted a survey every two years to update the attractiveness of France for international clinical trials. Thirty companies (68% of the French market) have participated in this 6(th) survey which involved 79 countries, a greater number of Phases I/II, II and III studies (420 versus 352 in 2010), a relatively stable number of included patients (246,895 versus 249,704 in 2010) and a greater number of centers (32,965 versus 24,337 in 2010). The evolution of time-lines for the go-ahead by French Authorities is heterogeneous (shorter time-lines by the French National Agency of Drug and Health Products Safety [ANSM] but longer time-lines by Research Ethics Comittees [CPP]). The time-lines for first hospital contracts remain stable. France ranks at an average position among European countries in regards to quantitative and qualitative data, and its state-of-art in early stages is still recognized. Its good performance in oncology and orphan diseases are major assets of competitiveness.

Lassale C; Sibenaler C; Béhier JM; Barthélémy P; Plétan Y; Courcier S

2013-01-01

157

Abstract Book of the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry, Risø, Roskilde, Denmark, 2-6th Sept. 2013  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report compiled all abstracts presented in the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry at Risø, Roskilde, Denmark in 2-6th Sept. 2013. Total 35 participants registered to the workshop, among them 18 from Sweden, 5 from Denmark, 3 from Finland, and 3 from Norway, there are also 6 participants from Germany, France, Slovenia, Korea, Turkey, and China. The workshop consists two part, 3 days lab practices and 2 days lectures/presentation. 3 lab practices were organized, i.e. (1) Radiochemical separation of Pu and ICP-MS measurement of Pu isotopes; (2) Radiochemical separation of 210Po and 226Ra and their alpha spectrometry measurement; and (3) Radiochemical separation of 55Fe, 63Ni, 90Sr and their LSC measurement. Among them, each participant can participate in 2 lab practices. 15 invited lectures are given by the experts in their specific fields, 8 oral and 6 poster presentations are given by the participants. The abstracts of all presentations are included in this report.

2013-01-01

158

New safe medicines faster: A proposal for a key action within the European union's 6th framework programme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The global competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical industry is under threat. Technology currently available for the development of new medicines is unable to match the pace of drug discovery and design; and the ever-growing demand for safety, efficacy and quality documentation has increased the cost and time involved in getting new medicines on the market. Although the pharmaceutical industry is one of the strongest in Europe in terms of research, innovation, exports and employment, there are severe restrictions on its ability to create wealth and launch safe drugs for the treatment of common and rare afflictions. The present situation should not be allowed to continue. For this reason, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) has proposed a key action under the title "New safe medicines faster" for the forthcoming EU 6th RTD framework programme. The key action has three main objectives: to seek new technologies capable of more effective selection of potential drug candidates for innovative medicines while accommodating safety demands; to use such technologies to speed up the pharmaceutical development process and eliminate bottlenecks created by initial exploratory drug research; and to cultivate a pan-European interdisciplinary network that bridges the gap between industry, academia and regulatory authorities. By involving regulatory authorities early on and fuelling research and innovation with EU money it should be possible to create a new set of recognised European standards whereby new safe medicines can be brought onto the market faster and cheaper.

Bjerrum OJ

2000-01-01

159

Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

Harbeck M; Seifert L; Hänsch S; Wagner DM; Birdsell D; Parise KL; Wiechmann I; Grupe G; Thomas A; Keim P; Zöller L; Bramanti B; Riehm JM; Scholz HC

2013-05-01

160

SOME THOUGHTS ON THE DEMISE OF ROMAN INFLUENCE IN NORTH AFRICA, 5th/ 6th CENTURY AD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When one thinks of the once mighty Roman Empire, a vision of the proverbial “eternal city” of Rome with its beautiful white colonnaded marble buildings comes to mind. However, Rome did not last eternally, in fact, more than 200 years before the traditional date of the “fall” of the Roman Empire in the West (AD 476), the Golden Age of Rome had shifted towards the southern shore of the Mediterranean, to the previously rather neglected provinces of North Africa. From the 2nd century AD until it was overrun by the Vandals in the 5th century, Roman North Africa enjoyed a period of unequalled prosperity; during the Vandal reign Roman influence still endured in small measure, followed by a brief renaissance under the Byzantines in the 6th century, but after the Arab conquest in the late 7th century it vanished as completely as if the Romans had never set foot in North Africa. The exceptional prosperity of North Africa at a time when the rest of the Empire was already in a state of decline, and the complete disappearance of any Roman influence whatsoever on the culture and language of a region which was at the time the most Romanized of all the Roman provinces, will be discussed in this article.

L. Cilliers

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

[The comparison of 4th, 5th and 6th year medical students knowledge of rules and practical skills in the interpretation of electrocardiograms at Jagiellonian University].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The electrocardiogram (ECG) examination is one of the most frequent administered diagnostic tests. It is commonly ordered by General Practitioners, and it has became a routinely administered examination during admission to the hospital. During their studies, medical students has numerous opportunities to review and interpret the results of these tests. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of our research was to statistically compare and contrast the knowledge of the rules and practical skills in the interpretation of ECGs in 4th, 5th and 6th year medical students at Jagiellonian University. We wanted to better define in which year the students acquire the most of their clinical skills and determine if 6th year students have sufficient knowledge and skills to adequately perform in their future career. We additionally wanted to understand from which source students draw their knowledge of the ECG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The population of 249- 4th, 5th and 6th year medical students of Jagiellonian University were asked to reply to an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts. The fist part contains four simple ECGs (STEMI, RBBB, PVC, normogram--sinus rhythm). The second part contained six questions regarding their theoretical knowledge. The third part contained seven questions which evaluated the students' background and approach to the problem. Students filled the questionnaire without prior preparation to avoid the short-term "examination knowledge". RESULTS: The question that was most frequent answered correctly was question regarding the proper time (in milliseconds) of QRS complex (24.1%). Differences in the percentage of correct answers to questionnaire amongst 4th and 5th year students were statistically uncharacteristic. The percentage of correct answers of 6th year students increased by about 16% (p < 0.0001). The comparison of answers between 6th year students - who in prior semester completed a cardiology course (group A 6th year) and 6th year students who did not yet complete cardiology course (group B 6th year) showed significant improvement in group A in the percentage of correct answers for all questions about ECG. The percentage of correct answers in group A was an average 62% and in group B 45.5% (p < 0.00025). In case of 4th and 5th year students, the picture was uncharacteristic. Self study of ECG had a significant, positive influence in the percentage of correct answers amongst respondents, especially in the 6th year student population. Improvement was also seen in 4th and 5th students, but to a lesser degree. Among the 6th year students who benefited from self study, their percentage of correct answers was nearly two times then that of their fellow of 6th year students who did not self study (p < 0.0001). Only 3 of questioned students stated that they felt that their present knowledge of ECG is sufficient. CONCLUSIONS: 4th and 5th year students have comparable knowledge of ECG. 6th year students showed a significantly improved ability to interpret the ECG, especially those who had already completed cardiology course in present term. The increase in skills of interpretation of ECG is gained primarily by self study.

Pud?o J; Wierdak M; Macio? K; Gumul K; Lelakowski J

2012-01-01

162

Modeling of Synergy Between 4th and 6th Harmonic Absorptions of Fast Waves on Injected Beams in DIII-D Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent moderate to high harmonic fast wave heating and current drive experiments in DIII-D, a synergy effect was observed when the 6th harmonic 90 MHz fast wave power is applied to the plasma preheated by neutral beams and the 4th harmonic 60 MHz fast wave. In this paper, we investigate how the synergy can occur using ORBIT-RF coupled with AORSA. Preliminary simulations suggest that damping of 4th harmonic FW on beam ions accelerates them above the injection energy, which may allow significant damping of 6th harmonic FW on beam ion tails to produce synergy.

2011-12-23

163

Entre continuidades e rupturas: uma investigação sobre o ensino e aprendizagem da História na transição do quinto para o sexto ano do Ensino Fundamental/ Between continuities and ruptures: an investigation on teaching and learning History in the transition from the fifth to the sixth grade in Elementary School  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas análises a partir das investigações realizadas por uma pesquisa em uma escola do Ensino Fundamental tendo como fundamentação teórica o campo da Educação Histórica. Buscamos perceber, a partir de observações da aula de História, como os alunos e o professor exteriorizam os principais desafios e dificuldades da transição da quarta série (5º ano) para a quinta série (6º ano). Neste trabalho, dialogamos com pes (more) quisadores como Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). Com isso, pudemos abordar questões que revelam qual a relação do professor com a teoria da história a partir de sua prática em sala de aula. Foram observadas também as abordagens e relações dos sujeitos alunos e professor com o conhecimento histórico, bem como as estratégias didáticas com relação ao uso do livro didático. Abstract in english This article aims to present some analysis from the experience offered by a field research conducted in an Elementary School from the precepts of History Education. It is intended to discuss issues related to the school's fifth grade (6 years) from a public school, for example, the teaching strategies and the relationship of students with the knowledge of history. We search from observations of History lessons, as students and teacher externalize the main challenges and d (more) ifficulties of the transition from fourth grade (5 years) for the fifth grade (6 years), based on these observations and the talking with researchers of Education and the Teaching of History Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). With this we lift questions that reveal what relation has the fifth-grade teacher with the initial years. We also observed the relationship of subjects and approaches among themselves and with the historical knowledge and the teaching strategies with respect to textbooks.

Cainelli, Marlene Rosa

2011-12-01

164

Entre continuidades e rupturas: uma investigação sobre o ensino e aprendizagem da História na transição do quinto para o sexto ano do Ensino Fundamental Between continuities and ruptures: an investigation on teaching and learning History in the transition from the fifth to the sixth grade in Elementary School  

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Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas análises a partir das investigações realizadas por uma pesquisa em uma escola do Ensino Fundamental tendo como fundamentação teórica o campo da Educação Histórica. Buscamos perceber, a partir de observações da aula de História, como os alunos e o professor exteriorizam os principais desafios e dificuldades da transição da quarta série (5º ano) para a quinta série (6º ano). Neste trabalho, dialogamos com pesquisadores como Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). Com isso, pudemos abordar questões que revelam qual a relação do professor com a teoria da história a partir de sua prática em sala de aula. Foram observadas também as abordagens e relações dos sujeitos alunos e professor com o conhecimento histórico, bem como as estratégias didáticas com relação ao uso do livro didático.This article aims to present some analysis from the experience offered by a field research conducted in an Elementary School from the precepts of History Education. It is intended to discuss issues related to the school's fifth grade (6 years) from a public school, for example, the teaching strategies and the relationship of students with the knowledge of history. We search from observations of History lessons, as students and teacher externalize the main challenges and difficulties of the transition from fourth grade (5 years) for the fifth grade (6 years), based on these observations and the talking with researchers of Education and the Teaching of History Barca (2009), Malerba (2011), Schmidt (2009) e Rüsen (2010). With this we lift questions that reveal what relation has the fifth-grade teacher with the initial years. We also observed the relationship of subjects and approaches among themselves and with the historical knowledge and the teaching strategies with respect to textbooks.

Marlene Rosa Cainelli

2011-01-01

165

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 2), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 2, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

|This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through 10. Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions. (RH)|

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

166

Desempenho de escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas de habilidades metafonológicas e de leitura - PROHMELE/ Performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades at the metalinguistics skills and reading proof - PROHMELE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Elaborar uma bateria de provas que se propõe a avaliar o processamento de habilidades necessárias para a aquisição do sistema de escrita alfabético do Português do Brasil, e caracterizar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental nas provas desta bateria. MÉTODOS: Foram elaboradas provas específicas para este fim, seguindo os princípios fonológicos da língua portuguesa do Brasil. Foram avaliados 120 escolares de 1? (more) ? a 4ª séries, sendo 30 de cada série escolar divididos em quatro grupos, respectivamente GI, GII, GIII e GIV. As provas elaboradas e aplicadas foram: prova de habilidades metafonológicas (identificação e manipulação de sílabas e fonemas, além de repetição de não-palavras); prova de leitura (leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras). RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos nas habilidades metafonológicas com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 4ª série sucessivamente. Também houve diferenças quanto ao tempo de leitura de palavras reais e de pseudopalavras, com as médias diminuindo da 1ª à 3ª série, mantendo-se igual ou próximo entre esta e a 4ª série. CONCLUSÃO: Os desempenhos foram se tornando superiores da 1ª à 4ª série, sendo que os escolares obtiveram desempenhos superiores nas provas de identificação em relação às provas de manipulação, assim como os desempenhos nas provas silábicas foram superiores aos das provas fonêmicas. Há uma prevalência da rota fonológica nas séries iniciais (1ª e 2ª) com as outras séries, especialmente a 4ª, usando mais a rota lexical. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To elaborate specific tests to evaluate the processing of abilities necessary to the acquisition of the alphabetic writing system of Brazilian Portuguese, and to characterize and compare the performance of elementary school students from 1st to 4th grades on the proposed test. METHODS: Specific tests were elaborated following the phonological principles of Brazilian Portuguese. One hundred and twenty students from 1st to 4th grade of a public elementary school we (more) re divided into four groups of 30 subjects: GI, GII, GIII and GIV. The tests were: tests of metalinguistic abilities (syllable and phoneme identification and manipulation, and nonwords repetition); reading tests (reading of real words and pseudowords). RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences among the groups for metalinguistic abilities, with averages decreasing successively from 1st to 4th grade. Differences were also found for time of real words and of pseudowords reading, with averages decreasing from 1st to 3rd grade, and remaining equal or close between 3rd and 4th grades. CONCLUSION: The performances were gradually increasing from 1st to 4th grade, and the students obtained superior performances on the identification tasks, when compared to manipulation tasks, as well as the performances on the syllabic tasks were superior to the phonemic tasks. There was a prevalence of the phonological route in the initial grades (1st and 2nd), while 4th graders preferred the lexical route.

Cunha, Vera Lúcia Orlandi; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

2009-01-01

167

CfDS 2006: the 6th European Dark-Skies Symposium, Portsmouth, 2006 September 15-16  

Science.gov (United States)

The BAA's Campaign for Dark Skies took its turn in 2006 to stage the 6th European Dark-Skies Symposium, similar events having been held in previous years in Switzerland, Germany, France and Belgium. The event was the best attended to date, with more than 150 delegates from eleven European countries, the USA and even South Africa. Between sessions, delegates were given a tour of the night skies of the world in the South Downs Planetarium, where Dr John Mason simulated the effects of light pollution. This was followed by a visit to the Clanfield Observatory, courtesy of the Hampshire Astronomical Group, later in the evening, where the real night sky and a little real light pollution (!) were observed. The whole event was kindly sponsored by the BAA and Abacus Lighting Ltd. A principal aim of the two-day symposium was to advise planners and other decision-makers, and those who make, choose and install lighting, about the legal and moral issues surrounding light pollution. It is not, of course, the Campaign's intention to ban lighting, but to ensure that where outdoor lighting is required, it is designed and installed correctly, thereby causing little or no nuisance and reducing energy costs. These non-astronomical aspects were very much to the fore on the first day of the conference, which was opened by one of CfDS' best allies in Parliament, Lembit Opik MP. Mr Opik expressed his delight at seeing so many delegates, and confirmed his continuing support for the initiatives CfDS pursues within Parliament: for example its discussions with DEFRA on the subject of the proposed planning directive (PPS 23) on light pollution

Mizon, R.

2006-12-01

168

EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development  

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Full Text Available Abstract While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006) and FP7 (2007-2013), has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1) fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2) development of new malaria drugs, (3) research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4) research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA) was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined - and well confined - area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria.

Holtel Andreas; Troye-Blomberg Marita; Penas-Jimenez Inmaculada

2011-01-01

169

6TH Asia-Pacific Congress on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins & 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australasian College of Tropical Medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

On behalf of the International Society for Toxinology and the Australasian College of Tropical Medicine, we have great pleasure in welcoming you to this, the 6th ASIA- PACIFIC CONGRESS ON ANIMAL, PLANT AND MICROBIAL TOXINS and the 11th ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC M...

2002-01-01

170

The area of the fault, the dislocation, the stress drop and the seismic moment of the Friuli earthquake of May 6th, 1976  

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Full Text Available With different approximate methods are estimated thevalues of the area of the fault, of the dislocation, of the stress drop and ofthe seismic moment of the Friuli earthquake of May 6th, 1976. Some considerationsfollow on the possibility to forecast the earthquake and on itsrelation to the subsequent event of September 11th.

M. Caputo

1976-01-01

171

6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book.  

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Full Text Available The 6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton took place in Milan, on July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book are available in this special issue 2009 of the Museologia Scientifica e Naturalistica.

2009-01-01

172

A concepção sobre saúde do escolar entre professores do ensino fundamental (1ª a 4ª séries)/ The concept of student health as viewed by early elementary school teachers (1st- 4th grades)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo investiga a concepção sobre a saúde do escolar entre os docentes do ensino fundamental e caracteriza a formação desses profissionais nessa temática. Utilizou-se metodologia qualitativa, numa amostra constituída por 45 professores. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado e posteriormente analisados seguindo a proposta de análise temática. Observou-se que 77,7% dos docentes estudaram conteúdos de saúde e 33,33% apr (more) esentam dificuldades em trabalhar essa temática, principalmente por falta de material didático adequado. Com relação aos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais no tema transversal saúde, 75,55% dos entrevistados participaram dessa capacitação. Observa-se que os professores do ensino fundamental necessitam uma capacitação específica e maior suporte com relação à prática da saúde escolar. Abstract in english The study investigated the attitudes of early elementary school teachers towards student health and characterized their training in this area. Using qualitative methodology, a sample of forty-five teachers responded to a semi-structured questionnaire, subsequently analyzed in accord with the proposed topical approach. Findings showed that 77.7% of the teachers had studied health content, while 33.33% encountered problems working with this topic, chiefly because they lacke (more) d suitable teaching material. Further, 75.55% had taken part in training related to Brazil's National Curriculum Parameters and the transversal theme of health. When asked about the importance of addressing the health topic, 28.33% referred to the need to take care of one's health. In conclusion, early elementary teachers need specific training and greater support in dealing with the topic.

Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Rocha, Vera Maria; Souza, Djanira Brasilino de

2005-08-01

173

A concepção sobre saúde do escolar entre professores do ensino fundamental (1ª a 4ª séries) The concept of student health as viewed by early elementary school teachers (1st- 4th grades)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga a concepção sobre a saúde do escolar entre os docentes do ensino fundamental e caracteriza a formação desses profissionais nessa temática. Utilizou-se metodologia qualitativa, numa amostra constituída por 45 professores. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado e posteriormente analisados seguindo a proposta de análise temática. Observou-se que 77,7% dos docentes estudaram conteúdos de saúde e 33,33% apresentam dificuldades em trabalhar essa temática, principalmente por falta de material didático adequado. Com relação aos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais no tema transversal saúde, 75,55% dos entrevistados participaram dessa capacitação. Observa-se que os professores do ensino fundamental necessitam uma capacitação específica e maior suporte com relação à prática da saúde escolar.The study investigated the attitudes of early elementary school teachers towards student health and characterized their training in this area. Using qualitative methodology, a sample of forty-five teachers responded to a semi-structured questionnaire, subsequently analyzed in accord with the proposed topical approach. Findings showed that 77.7% of the teachers had studied health content, while 33.33% encountered problems working with this topic, chiefly because they lacked suitable teaching material. Further, 75.55% had taken part in training related to Brazil's National Curriculum Parameters and the transversal theme of health. When asked about the importance of addressing the health topic, 28.33% referred to the need to take care of one's health. In conclusion, early elementary teachers need specific training and greater support in dealing with the topic.

Marcos Henrique Fernandes; Vera Maria Rocha; Djanira Brasilino de Souza

2005-01-01

174

Conference scene: Summary of the 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories with international participation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories (RAML) conferences have acquired a reputation for standing out as the most prominent and efficient meetings in the national community of laboratory medicine, being a landmark of the development in this field in Romania and an active affiliation to international forums. This year, the conference setting was Piatra Neamt, in the northeast part of Romania, which produced a friendly and stimulating professional environment. As in previous years, leading experts in the fields of laboratory medicine attended the event. This year, we enjoyed the opportunity to have such distinguished guests as the members of the executive board of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC); Graham Beastall, IFCC President; Päivi Hannele Laitinen, IFCC secretary; and Grazyna Sypniewska, IFCC Communication and Publication Division, and editor of the electronic journal of the IFCC. As usual, the conference program included all aspects of clinical laboratory activity, with a special focus on technology development, instrumentation and laboratory management. Fully aware of the fact that the complexity and depth of laboratory practice have undergone an impressive and rapid evolution, the specific goals of the event were to increase knowledge in the fundamentals of new molecular investigation, areas which show the tendency to become routine in our daily activity. In addition, laboratory management and the place of medical laboratories in the process of translational medicine were subjects of focus. The 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories was held from Wednesday 1st to Saturday 4th of June 2011. A total of 273 participants from all local branches of the Association attended. The scientific program included seven plenary sessions where 22 lectures and 18 short communications were delivered, and three poster sessions with 44 poster presentations. Session topics covered issues of laboratory diagnostics in hematology, biochemistry, immunology, oncology, microbiology and metabolic diseases. A prominent consideration was given to value added to laboratory medicine in the frame of managed care and quality management. The Conference was accompanied by a laboratory equipment and reagents exhibition with the participation of nine companies, also sponsors of the conference. Three workshops pointed out the presence of the most well known of them: Abbott, Roche and Nobis.

Carasevici E

2011-10-01

175

Análise comparativa do desempenho textual de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental com e sem queixa de dificuldades na linguagem escrita Comparative analysis of textual performance in student of fourth and fifth grade of elementary school with and without complaint of disabilities in writing language  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho na produção textual e a compreensão leitora de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental, com e sem queixa de dificuldades de linguagem escrita, relacionando-as às práticas de letramento experenciadas por esses estudantes. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 21 pré-adolescentes, de quarta e quinta série de duas escolas públicas, com queixa de dificuldade de linguagem escrita e 21 controles da mesma sala de aula, quanto à produção textual, compreensão textual e práticas de letramento. As produções textuais foram avaliadas segundo o protocolo de níveis textuais. RESULTADOS: não há diferença estatística entre os grupos de estudo e controle, em ambas as séries, na habilidade de compreensão textual. Em relação à produção textual, na quarta série os itens que apresentaram diferença estatística foram: situacionalidade, aceitabilidade, repetição, progressão e intencionalidade. Já na quinta série, os itens alterados foram a aceitabilidade e a progressão. Todos os sujeitos apresentaram práticas de letramento insuficientes. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferença estatística entre o grupo controle e de estudo em algumas categorias textuais, sobretudo, aceitabilidade e progressão. De um modo geral, ambos os grupos apresentaram desempenhos textuais abaixo do esperado para sua escolaridade, fato que parece estar relacionado a práticas de letramento insuficientes, tanto na escola como no ambiente familiar.PURPOSE: compare the textual performance of production and the reading comprehension of students in fourth and fifth grade of elementary school, with and without complaints of desabilities in the writing language, relating them with the practices of literacy experienced by these students. METHODS: 21 were assessed pre-adolescents in 4th and 5th grade of public schools,with complaint of desability in writing language and 21 controls in the same classroom, on the textual production, textual comprehension and practices of literacy. The textual productions were evaluated following the protocol of textual levels. RESULTS: there isn't statistical difference between the study groups and control in both grades in the ability textual understanding. Regarding the textual production in the 4th grade the items that showed changes were: situational, acceptability, repetition, progression, and intentionality. Already in the 5th grade, the items changed to acceptability and progress. All subjects had insufficient practice of literacy. CONCLUSION: there was a statistical difference between the control group and the study in some textual categories, particularly acceptability and progress. In general, both groups were lower than expected textual performance for your schooling, a fact that seems to be related to inadequate practices of literacy as much in the school as the family environment.

Vanessa Deuschle-Araújo; Ana Paula Ramos de Souza

2010-01-01

176

Análise comparativa do desempenho textual de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental com e sem queixa de dificuldades na linguagem escrita/ Comparative analysis of textual performance in student of fourth and fifth grade of elementary school with and without complaint of disabilities in writing language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho na produção textual e a compreensão leitora de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental, com e sem queixa de dificuldades de linguagem escrita, relacionando-as às práticas de letramento experenciadas por esses estudantes. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 21 pré-adolescentes, de quarta e quinta série de duas escolas públicas, com queixa de dificuldade de linguagem escrita e 21 controles da mesma sala de aula, quanto à pr (more) odução textual, compreensão textual e práticas de letramento. As produções textuais foram avaliadas segundo o protocolo de níveis textuais. RESULTADOS: não há diferença estatística entre os grupos de estudo e controle, em ambas as séries, na habilidade de compreensão textual. Em relação à produção textual, na quarta série os itens que apresentaram diferença estatística foram: situacionalidade, aceitabilidade, repetição, progressão e intencionalidade. Já na quinta série, os itens alterados foram a aceitabilidade e a progressão. Todos os sujeitos apresentaram práticas de letramento insuficientes. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferença estatística entre o grupo controle e de estudo em algumas categorias textuais, sobretudo, aceitabilidade e progressão. De um modo geral, ambos os grupos apresentaram desempenhos textuais abaixo do esperado para sua escolaridade, fato que parece estar relacionado a práticas de letramento insuficientes, tanto na escola como no ambiente familiar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: compare the textual performance of production and the reading comprehension of students in fourth and fifth grade of elementary school, with and without complaints of desabilities in the writing language, relating them with the practices of literacy experienced by these students. METHODS: 21 were assessed pre-adolescents in 4th and 5th grade of public schools,with complaint of desability in writing language and 21 controls in the same classroom, on the textual pr (more) oduction, textual comprehension and practices of literacy. The textual productions were evaluated following the protocol of textual levels. RESULTS: there isn't statistical difference between the study groups and control in both grades in the ability textual understanding. Regarding the textual production in the 4th grade the items that showed changes were: situational, acceptability, repetition, progression, and intentionality. Already in the 5th grade, the items changed to acceptability and progress. All subjects had insufficient practice of literacy. CONCLUSION: there was a statistical difference between the control group and the study in some textual categories, particularly acceptability and progress. In general, both groups were lower than expected textual performance for your schooling, a fact that seems to be related to inadequate practices of literacy as much in the school as the family environment.

Deuschle-Araújo, Vanessa; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

2010-08-01

177

Does the Timing of Grade Retention Make a Difference? Examining the Effects of Early versus Later Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

|Research examining the effectiveness of grade retention has provided overwhelming and seemingly irrefutable evidence that grade retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful practice. However, proponents of grade retention often advocate that retention in the early elementary grades (e.g., kindergarten, first and second grade) is the…

Silberglitt, Benjamin; Jimerson, Shane R.; Burns, Matthew K.; Appleton, James J.

2006-01-01

178

A Comparison between Elementary School Students' Mental Models and Visualizations in Textbooks for the Concept of Atom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed for two major goals, which are to describe students' mental models about atom concept from 6th to 8th grade and to compare students' mental models with visual representations of atom in textbooks. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected with 4 open-ended questions including drawings which were quantified using the…

Polat-Yaseen, Zeynep

2012-01-01

179

Sexual Harassment of Girls in Elementary School: A Concealed Phenomenon within a Heterosexual Romantic Discourse  

Science.gov (United States)

|The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of young girls' experiences of peer sexual harassment in elementary school and of normalizing processes of school-related sexualized violence. Six focus group interviews with girls in Grade 1 through 6 were carried out in an elementary school in the northern part of Sweden. A content analyses…

Gadin, Katja Gillander

2012-01-01

180

An Evaluation of Changes in the Curriculum in Elementary School Level in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in the curriculum of 1-5 grades in Elementary Schools and the efficiency of school administrator in managing change in the change process. The questionnaire was applied to the school administrators for the elementary schools of Usak province of Turkiye. The questionnaire comprises 3 open-ended…

Helvaci, M. Akif

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Elementary particle theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references. (WHK)

Marciano, W.J.

1984-12-01

182

Elementary particle theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

1984-01-01

183

Topics in Elementary Geometry  

CERN Multimedia

Presents classical results from geometry, such as Pythagoras' theorem, the nine-point circle, Morley's triangle, and Poncelet's polygons. This book contains geometric theorems and covers a range of topics in elementary plane Euclidean geometry

Bottema, O

2009-01-01

184

Effect of 5E instructional model in student success in primary school 6th year circulatory system topic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental group. Appropriate activities using the 5E instructional model were used in the experimental group, while traditional teaching using question and answer methods was applied with the control group. To compare the treatments, the percentage of correct statements and t test results were used. While initial levels of the experimental group and the control group were the same, a significant difference occurred in favor of the experimental group as a result of the application.

Osman CARDAK; Musa DIKMENLI; Ozge SARITAS

2008-01-01

185

Antropometria de escolares ao ingresso no ensino fundamental na cidade de Belém, Pará, 2001 School aged anthropometry when enrolling in the first grade of elementary school in the city of Belém, Pará, 2001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar a antropometria em escolares da primeira série da rede pública estadual em Belém, Pará, como instrumento de vigilância nutricional e estudar as associações entre o estado nutricional e características biológicas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados nutricionalmente 793 escolares, pelos escores z de estatura/idade e peso/estatura, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. As variáveis biológicas e socioeconômicas foram: sexo, idade, naturalidade, idade de ingresso da criança na escola e escolaridade materna. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado ao relacionar o estado nutricional com as variáveis. RESULTADOS: em 637 escolares observamos 16,6% de baixa estatura e risco de baixa estatura, 4,5% de desnutrição e risco de desnutrição, 7,4% de sobrepeso e obesidade. Não houve associação significante entre estado nutricional e sexo. A maioria das crianças nasceu na capital, ingressou tardiamente na escola e tinham mães com escolaridade >4 anos. Observou-se correlação significante entre obesidade e baixa estatura com menor escolaridade materna; risco de desnutrição e baixa estatura com o ingresso escolar tardio; e obesidade e estatura normal com o ingresso regular. CONCLUSÕES: a menor escolaridade materna e o ingresso tardio escolar estão associados à presença de desvios nutricionais. A vigilância nutricional escolar é importante para avaliar, tratar e prevenir os riscos para saúde e nutrição infantil.OBJECTIVES: to perform anthropometric measurements in elementary school students of the public school system of the State of Belém, Pará, as a tool for nutritional surveillance and to study associations between nutritional status and biological, social and economic characteristics. METHODS: 793 students were assessed for their nutritional status, by z scores of height/age and weight /height according to the World Health Organization criteria. Biological, social and economic variables were: gender, age, place of birth, age of school enrolment and maternal education level. The chi square test was used to relate nutritional status to variables. RESULTS: of the 637 students assessed, 16.6% were of low stature or in risk of low stature, 4.5% malnourished or in risk of malnourishment, 7.4% were overweight or obese. There was no significant association between nutritional status and gender. The majority of the children was born in the capital, was enrolled late in school and had mothers with education level of >4 years. There was a significant correlation between obesity and low stature with low maternal education level; malnutrition risk and low stature with late school enrolment; and obesity and normal stature with regular enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: low maternal school level and late school enrollment are associated to nutritional problems. School nutritional surveillance is important to assess, treat and prevent children's health and nutrition risks.

Olga Maria Domingues das Neves; Anne Lise Dias Brasil; Laélia Maria Barra Feio Brasil; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

2006-01-01

186

Glacier Change Investigation for Early Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Few opportunities exist for early elementary students to do inquiry or guided inquiry into topics dealing with climate change and glaciers. "Flubber" offers a simulation for the movement of glacial ice. It is inexpensive to make, stores well, and can be re-used. Students of all ages enjoy watching, measuring, and thinking about flubber and what it represents. As the interest in ice sheets continues to build, activities that both help to illustrate how glaciers move and provide a launch pad for student-driven investigations need to be available to teachers. With support from the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), a set of activities has been developed to provide opportunities for early elementary students to develop inquiry skills within the standards for early elementary grades bands in the National Science Education Standards. Lesson plans, instructions for making and using "Flubber", student worksheets, teacher guides with glacier and climate change information, and a chart of the National Science Education Standards applicable to the activities are available to elementary teachers wishing to introduce their students to glaciers and climate change.

Hintz, R. S.; Landis, C.

2008-12-01

187

Conceptual change among middle school students studying elementary thermodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies the conceptual changes and factors affecting eighth- grade physical science students (n=180) investigating elementary thermodynamics. Classifies three types of students regarding their learning methods: converging, progressing, and oscillating. Reports that original intuitive conceptions are difficult to change and that students engaged in activities requiring sustained reflection make greater cognitive gains.

Lewis, Eileen

2006-05-31

188

Locus of control in rural southern elementary gifted students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The locus of control as measured by the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was investigated for 68 rural, southern elementary gifted students, ages 8 to 14 years. The scores became more internal with older ages, and the girls (n = 34) tended to have more internal locus of control across grades.

Karnes FA; D'Ilio VR

1991-12-01

189

Locus of control in rural southern elementary gifted students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The locus of control as measured by the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was investigated for 68 rural, southern elementary gifted students, ages 8 to 14 years. The scores became more internal with older ages, and the girls (n = 34) tended to have more internal locus of control across grades. PMID:1784686

Karnes, F A; D'Ilio, V R

1991-12-01

190

September 11: An Elementary School at Ground Zero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes what happened at New York City's Public School 234 after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11. The prekindergarten through grade 5 elementary school of 655 students was located near ground zero. Emphasizes efforts to ensure students' immediate safety and security, provide rapid evacuation, and move to another…

Lehmuller, Pierre; Switzer, Anna

2002-01-01

191

Teachers Guide to Economic Concepts: Grade 7-9.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This grades 7-9 teachers guide is one of five resource guides to aid teachers in helping students in South Dakota to achieve a high degree of economic literacy. It is felt that schools must prepare students at all grade levels to develop an understanding of the economy in which they live. This guide was specifically prepared to assist elementary

McCabe, Milo F.

192

Early Grade Repetition and Inattention Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors analyze the occurrence of grade repetition and inattention in children diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Method: The participant group consisted of 310 patients with NF1 and a control group of 242 individuals. The number of grade repetitions for each participant during his or her time in elementary, middle, and…

Coude, Francois X.; Mignot, Claire; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Munnich, Arnold

2007-01-01

193

Staging system for breast cancer: revisions for the 6th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since its inception, the AJCC staging system for breast cancer has been in an almost constant state of evolution, striving with each revision to reflect the most up-to-date clinical research as well as the widespread consensus among physicians about appropriate diagnostic and treatment standards. To date, these revisions have essentially represented a "fine-tuning" of the initial judgment that tumor size, lymph node status, and presence of distant metastases are the most significant prognostic factors for breast cancer. With the problems of standardization and reproducibility being resolved, it is likely that histologic grade will join this group of independent markers and be incorporated into the AJCC staging system in the near future. Over the last 15 years. considerable attention has been focused on the discovery of new markers visualized with immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR that may be validated as independent prognostic indicators (reviewed by Mirza et al). To date, the usefulness of many of these markers has been limited by lack of standardization in measurement techniques, but several show great promise for the future. By increasing the number of prognostic markers that can give independent information about patient outcome, physicians will be better able to determine optimal treatment approaches for individual patients.

Singletary SE; Allred C; Ashley P; Bassett LW; Berry D; Bland KI; Borgen PI; Clark GM; Edge SB; Hayes DF; Hughes LL; Hutter RV; Morrow M; Page DL; Recht A; Theriault RL; Thor A; Weaver DL; Wieand HS; Greene FL

2003-08-01

194

Pupils’ Conception of Organic Foods and Healthy Eating in School : QUALITATIVE INSIGHTS FROM FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS WITH 5th AND 7th GRADE PUPILS IN A COPENHAGEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adult habits, including unhealthy eating patterns, are largely established during a person´s childhood and early youth. In this connection, public schools are important health promoting platforms due to their potential for encouraging interest, knowledge and learning about health related issues. The main aim of the study was to shed light on primary and lower secondary school pupils´ everyday experience with food, nutrition, ecology and health in connection to public organic school food, using the municipality of Copenhagen as a case. We have examined how a procurement and provision strategy that primarily originates from “backstage agents” such as engaged politicians and civil servants and governed by administrative priorities, is perceived among agents at the front stage arena - the school. Furthermore we have investigated to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and the underlying organic supply chain principles, and to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the “organicness” of the food program and classroom initiatives in subjects related to ecology and health. In February 2008, we approached a public school which proved willing to participate in our study. Subsequently, over a period of four weeks, we designed an interview guide used to conduct focus group interviews with pupils from grades 5 and 7, which were then transcribed. In general, pupils were very interested in ecology as a subject. However it seems that they do not see a very strong connection between the healthy, organic meals offered at school and class room activities related to health and ecology. The pupils did not feel that they had been involved in the decision to establish organic and healthy food procurement. As a result they held that they did not feel very committed or engaged in the school provision initiative, and the organic and healthy food procurement was not highly sought after on the part of the pupils. This appears to justify a distinction between the perspective that front stage actors have, including pupils, and the perspective of politicians and planners that operate back stage. The distance between these two stages, which tends to increase in large scale municipal school food systems, is an important challenge to address when planning school food interventions. There seems to be a potential for linking organic school food service more closely with curricular activities, and for linking issues of healthier eating and organic food supply. There is also a need for greater involvement of the pupils and other front stage actors when the food service system and food related curricular activities are planned.

Andersen, Stine; Burkal, Anna

2010-01-01

195

Prognostic factors and significance of the revised 6th edition of the AJCC classification in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: To compare the 4th edition 1992 and 6th edition 2002 of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems, to evaluate the paranasopharyngeal structures and lymph node involvement, and to define the prognostic significance of the above factors to overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: CT images of 162 patients, who were diagnosed with NPC and received irradiation alone or chemotherapy and irradiation, were retrospectively reviewed. CT scans, performed prior to and after the completion of treatment, were reviewed. Results: The parapharyngeal space was found to be involved very commonly (98%). 50 of 162 patients (31%) displayed parapharyngeal extension of the tumor to degree A, 59 patients (36%) showed degree B, and 50 patients (31%) degree C nasopharyngeal extension. According to the AJCC 6th edition 2002, patients were distributed into stages IIA, IIB, III, IVA, and IVB. By contrast, using the AJCC 4th edition 1992, patients were distributed into stages III and IV only. After a median follow up of 71.1 months, median survival was 60.7 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 71.3% and a 3-year survival rate of 62.2%. Multivariate analysis identified age, degree of parapharyngeal lateral extension, cavernous-sinus-infiltration, and size of infiltrated lymph nodes as independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: The 6th revision of TNM staging reported herein, provides a more uniform distribution of patients between stages. The degree of tumor extension into the parapharyngeal space should be considered in future TNM staging revisions. (orig.)

2006-01-01

196

Prognostic factors and significance of the revised 6th edition of the AJCC classification in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To compare the 4th edition 1992 and 6th edition 2002 of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems, to evaluate the paranasopharyngeal structures and lymph node involvement, and to define the prognostic significance of the above factors to overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: CT images of 162 patients, who were diagnosed with NPC and received irradiation alone or chemotherapy and irradiation, were retrospectively reviewed. CT scans, performed prior to and after the completion of treatment, were reviewed. Results: The parapharyngeal space was found to be involved very commonly (98%). 50 of 162 patients (31%) displayed parapharyngeal extension of the tumor to degree A, 59 patients (36%) showed degree B, and 50 patients (31%) degree C nasopharyngeal extension. According to the AJCC 6th edition 2002, patients were distributed into stages IIA, IIB, III, IVA, and IVB. By contrast, using the AJCC 4th edition 1992, patients were distributed into stages III and IV only. After a median follow up of 71.1 months, median survival was 60.7 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 71.3% and a 3-year survival rate of 62.2%. Multivariate analysis identified age, degree of parapharyngeal lateral extension, cavernous-sinus-infiltration, and size of infiltrated lymph nodes as independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: The 6th revision of TNM staging reported herein, provides a more uniform distribution of patients between stages. The degree of tumor extension into the parapharyngeal space should be considered in future TNM staging revisions. (orig.)

Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Karanikolas, D.; Sarafopoulos, A.; Ikonomou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Dept. of Radiology, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); Katodritis, N. [Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center, Nicosia (Cyprus); Samantas, E. [' ' Agii Anargiri' ' Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Zamboglou, N.; Tselis, N. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Fountzilas, G. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, ' ' Papageorgiou' ' General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) Data Office, Athens (Greece)

2006-08-15

197

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

NONE

2003-03-01

198

Elementary cycles of time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elementary particles, i.e. the basic constituents of nature, are characterized by quantum recurrences in time. The flow of time of every physical system can be therefore decomposed in elementary cycles of time. This allows us to enforce the local nature of relativistic time, yielding interesting unified descriptions of fundamental aspects of modern physics, as shown in recent publications. Every particle can be regarded as a reference clock with time resolution of the order of the Compton time particle, many orders of magnitude more accurate than the atomic clocks. Here we report basic implications about the resulting notion of time.

Dolce Donatello

2013-01-01

199

Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

2013-04-01

200

O ensino de física nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental na rede municipal de ensino do Recife segundo os seus docentes/ Physics teaching in the initial grades of elementary school in the rede municipal de ensino do Recife by their teachers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investiga como esta o ensino de física nos 4º e 5º anos do Ensino Fundamental (EF) na Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. Para realizá-lo contamos com 145 questionários respondidos por docentes do EF I desta rede, espalhados por toda a cidade. Estes questionários nos mostram que existe uma política real de escolha do livro didático de ciencias; que a carga horária semanal dispensada para a disciplina ciencias e, na sua maioria de duas horas e a maio (more) ria dos docentes acredita ser suficiente; que o material mais utilizado para a preparação da aula é mesmo o livro didático, mas são utilizados outros como revistas, musicas etc; mais da metade dos docentes, embora considerem a física relevante aos seus alunos, não gostam de abordá-la em sala e sentem-se inseguros para fazê-lo; os assuntos mais trabalhados de física são o eletromagnetismo, energia e física térmica e apresenta algumas sugestões dos professores para a melhoria do ensino de ciencias. Abstract in english This paper investigates how is the physics teaching in the forth and fifth years of elementary school in the Rede Municipal de Ensino do Recife. To realize it we have 145 questionnaires answered by teachers of initial grade of this network, spread throughout the city. These questionnaires showed that there is a real political choice of textbook science; that the weekly waived for the subject Science is mostly of two hours and the majority of teachers believed to be suffic (more) ient; the material most used to preparation of the lesson is the textbook, but others are used as magazines, music, etc.; more than half of teachers, although considering the Physics relevant to their students, do not like to approach it in class and they feel insecure to do it; the subjects more worked of Physics are electromagnetism, energy and thermal physics and presents some suggestions for teachers to improve Science teaching.

Rodrigues, Micaías Andrade; Teixeira, Francimar Martins

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Preparing Rural Elementary Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

|During the past 14 years, the elementary rural teacher training program at Brigham Young University (BYU), Utah, has successfully provided an 8-week student teaching experience which has assisted more than 250 prospective teachers in comparing their lifestyle and interests with those of rural America. Student participants are required to live…

Campbell, Milo K.

202

Elementary concepts of topology  

CERN Multimedia

Concise work presents topological concepts in clear, elementary fashion without sacrificing their profundity or exactness. Author proceeds from basics of set-theoretic topology, through topological theorems and questions based on concept of the algebraic complex, to the concept of Betti groups.

Alexandroff, Paul

1961-01-01

203

Playing Golf Is Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

Golf is a lifelong activity that people of all ages can enjoy if they experience success and have fun. Early involvement in the sport facilitates the development of the ability to strike an object with an implement. Striking with implements can be challenging for young children and teachers, but golf can be taught in all elementary school settings…

Goldman, Jill S.; Pfluge, Kevin F.

2010-01-01

204

Preparing Rural Elementary Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes Brigham Young University's elementary rural teacher training program which has successfully provided rural student teaching experiences for over 250 prospective teachers since 1973. Details live-in experience, financial structure, reciprocal benefits, and school district-university cooperation in teacher preparation. (NEC)

Campbell, Milo K.

1986-01-01

205

Impact of Grade and Disability on the Instructional Context of Inclusive Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated general education classrooms in one elementary school to determine impact of grade and disability on interactions among students, teachers, and the environment (i.e., instructional context). Twelve students were randomly selected from four strata (mild disabilities/grades 1-2; mild disabilities grades 3-5; severe…

Dymond, Stacy K.; Russell, Douglas L.

2004-01-01

206

Acceleration: It's Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

|Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

Willis, Mariam

2012-01-01

207

Analysis of the 2nd Ispra test on the 1/6TH scale model of the SNR-300 fast breeder reactor with the PISCES-2 DELK code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a numerical simulation of the 2nd test carried out at the JRC in Ispra (Italy) in the 1/6th scale vessel model of the SNR-300 LMFBR. The computer code used for the analysis was the hybrid code PISCES-2D-ELK, being an explicit finite difference code capable of simulating fluids and structures in an Eulerian reference frame, a Lagrange reference frame and having a thin shell option available. The analysis was performed for a total transient time of 10 ms and the results are presented in the form of contour-velocity vector plots at several intervals. The evolution of some important parameters such as the impulse and strain at the shieldtank, the pressure and impulse at the vessel roof (waterhammer) and the strain profiles of the shieldtank and the main vessel are compared with the measured experimental results. (orig./GL).

1981-08-21

208

6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 6th Regional Symposium of the IFAA held in Milano, from 1 to 5 July 2009, follows the 5th Regional meeting in Ferrara (2005) and the 9th International Symposium held in Zagreb (2007). The Symposium was jointly organized by the University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Geological Sciences and Geotechnologies, and by the University of Genova, Dip.Te.Ris. Geologists and paleontologists of the University of Genova have been studying coralline-rich outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin since the end of the XIX Century (G. Rovereto, M. Airoldi, S. Conti, V.I. Mastrorilli), producing the scientific descriptions of dozens of new species, the types of which are housed in the Genova Dip.Te.Ris.This volume represetn the abstract book and the field trip guide book edited for the symposium.

Daniela Basso; Annalisa Caragnano; Valentina Bracch; Francesca Benzoni

2009-01-01

209

Elementary particles and cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)

2000-01-01

210

Re-Evaluation of 6th Edition of AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Proposed Improvement Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: To use magnetic resonance imaging to re-evaluate and improve the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of the data from 924 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging examinations and received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Results: The T classification, N classification, and stage group were independent predictors. No significant differences in the local failure hazards between adjacent T categories were observed between Stage T2b and T1, Stage T2b and T2a, and Stage T2b and T3. Although the disease failure hazards for Stage T1 were similar to those for Stage T2a, those for Stage T2b were similar to those for Stage T3. Survival curves of the different T/N subsets showed a better segregation when Stage T2a was downstaged to T1, T2b and T3 were incorporated into T2, and the nodal greatest dimension was rejected. The disease failure hazard for T3N0-N1 subsets were similar to those of the T1-T2N1 subsets belonging to Stage II; the same result was found for the T4N0-N2 subsets in the sixth American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. However, the staging system we propose shows more consistent hazards within the same stage group and better survival discrimination among T categories, N categories, and overall stages. Conclusion: Using the 6th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system produces an acceptable distribution of patient numbers and segregation of survival curves among the different stage groups. The prognostic accuracy of the staging system could be improved by recategorizing the T, N, and group stage criteria.

2009-04-01

211

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

212

Introduction to elementary particles  

CERN Document Server

This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat

Griffiths, David J

2008-01-01

213

Elementary Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Multimedia

This is a graduate course on elementary quantum mechanics written for the benefit of undergraduate and graduate students. It is the English version of physics/0003106, which I did at the suggestion of several students from different countries. The topics included refer to the postulates of quantum mechanics, one-dimensional barriers and wells, angular momentum and spin, WKB method, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, quantum scattering, and partial waves

Rosu, H C

2000-01-01

214

Graded Differential Geometry of Graded Matrix Algebras  

CERN Document Server

We study the graded derivation-based noncommutative differential geometry of the $Z_2$-graded algebra ${\\bf M}(n| m)$ of complex $(n+m)\\times(n+m)$-matrices with the ``usual block matrix grading'' (for $n\

Grosse, Harald; Grosse, Harald; Reiter, Gert

1999-01-01

215

Improving science inquiry with elementary students of diverse backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of an inquiry-based instructional intervention on (a) children's ability to conduct science inquiry overall and to use specific skills in inquiry, and (b) narrowing the gaps in children's ability among demographic subgroups of students. The intervention consisted of instructional units, teacher workshops, and classroom practices. The study involved 25 third- and fourth-grade students from six elementary schools representing diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Quantitative results demonstrated that the intervention enhanced the inquiry ability of all students regardless of grade, achievement, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), home language, and English proficiency. Particularly, low-achieving, low-SES, and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) exited students made impressive gains. The study adds to the existing literature on designing learning environments that foster science inquiry of all elementary students.

Cuevas, Peggy; Lee, Okhee; Hart, Juliet; Deaktor, Rachael

2005-03-01

216

A física nas séries iniciais (2ª a 5ª) do ensino fundamental: desenvolvimento e aplicação de um programa visando a qualificação de professores/ The physics in the first four grades of elementary school: developing and applying a program for teachers qualification  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho descrevemos uma proposta para melhorar o ensino de física nas séries do ensino fundamental. Com este objetivo foi desenvolvido um programa que visa qualificar professores. O programa é estruturado em módulos, que contemplam diversos instrumentos e estratégias pedagógicas. Cada módulo começa com aulas de laboratório, seguido de uma interação em sala de aula com textos que abordam história da ciência, física do cotidiano e discussão de conceito (more) s físicos. Por fim, cada módulo utiliza recursos multimídia, disponíveis na internet. O programa foi aplicado em curso de extensão da UFRGS para doze professoras do Colégio São Bento, em Criciúma, SC, e em minicurso no II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física no Instituto de Física da UFRGS. As professoras do Colégio São Bento aplicaram os conteúdos de física aos alunos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental através de oficinas intituladas "Física para Crianças" e fizeram adaptações, quando necessárias, para adequar os conteúdos e estratégias aos interesses e características dos estudantes. Abstract in english In this paper we describe a proposal to improve the teaching of physics in the first four grades of elementary school. With this aim was developed a teachers qualification program. The program is structured in parts which include several instruments and pedagogic strategies. Each part starts with laboratory classes followed by class interaction with texts specially produced to the project. These texts contains science history, everyday physics and introduction to physical (more) concepts. Then multimedia recourses available in the internet are used. The program was applied in an extension course at Federal University of Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS) to twelve teachers of Colégio São Bento, at Criciuma, SC. It was also used in a course in the II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física at Instituto de Física/UFRGS. The teachers of Colégio São Bento applied the physics content to children workshops entitled "Physics to Children" and made adaptations, when necessary, to adequate the content and strategies to the pupils interests and characteristics.

Damasio, Felipe; Steffani, Maria Helena

2008-12-01

217

Elementary Statistics Tables  

CERN Multimedia

This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

Neave, Henry R

2012-01-01

218

Elementary Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Multimedia

This is the first graduate course on elementary quantum mechanics in Internet written in Romanian for the benefit of Romanian speaking students (Romania and Moldova). It is a translation (with corrections) of the Spanish version of the course (physics/9808031, English translation is under consideration), which I did at the request of students of physics in Bucharest. The topics included refer to the postulates of quantum mechanics, one-dimensional barriers and wells, angular momentum and spin, WKB method, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, quantum scattering, and partial waves

Rosu, H C

2000-01-01

219

???????? ?????????????? ?????? GRADE 4 C ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????-?ONFORM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? Grade 4 ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????-conform. ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? «Conform» (????-C) ?? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? Grade-4. ????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????-C ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????, ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????-? ?? 6 ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????????? (???) ????????? ? ???????? ????? ????? 250 ??. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????-?, ????? ??? ????????????, ????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? 12%, ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????-C ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? 1300 ???, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? 11%. ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ????-C ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????? – ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????.

?. ?. ???????; ?. ?. ????????; ?. ?. ????; ?. ?. ?????????

2011-01-01

220

5/6th nephrectomy in combination with high salt diet and nitric oxide synthase inhibition to induce chronic kidney disease in the Lewis rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global problem. Slowing CKD progression is a major health priority. Since CKD is characterized by complex derangements of homeostasis, integrative animal models are necessary to study development and progression of CKD. To study development of CKD and novel therapeutic interventions in CKD, we use the 5/6th nephrectomy ablation model, a well known experimental model of progressive renal disease, resembling several aspects of human CKD. The gross reduction in renal mass causes progressive glomerular and tubulo-interstitial injury, loss of remnant nephrons and development of systemic and glomerular hypertension. It is also associated with progressive intrarenal capillary loss, inflammation and glomerulosclerosis. Risk factors for CKD invariably impact on endothelial function. To mimic this, we combine removal of 5/6th of renal mass with nitric oxide (NO) depletion and a high salt diet. After arrival and acclimatization, animals receive a NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-Arginine) (L-NNA) supplemented to drinking water (20 mg/L) for a period of 4 weeks, followed by right sided uninephrectomy. One week later, a subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) is performed on the left side. After SNX, animals are allowed to recover for two days followed by LNNA in drinking water (20 mg/L) for a further period of 4 weeks. A high salt diet (6%), supplemented in ground chow (see time line Figure 1), is continued throughout the experiment. Progression of renal failure is followed over time by measuring plasma urea, systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. By six weeks after SNX, renal failure has developed. Renal function is measured using 'gold standard' inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearance technology. This model of CKD is characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), hypertension (systolic blood pressure>150 mmHg), proteinuria (> 50 mg/24 hr) and mild uremia (>10 mM). Histological features include tubulo-interstitial damage reflected by inflammation, tubular atrophy and fibrosis and focal glomerulosclerosis leading to massive reduction of healthy glomeruli within the remnant population (<10%). Follow-up until 12 weeks after SNX shows further progression of CKD. PMID:23851420

van Koppen, Arianne; Verhaar, Marianne C; Bongartz, Lennart G; Joles, Jaap A

2013-07-03

 
 
 
 
221

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Accreditation:Impact on Elementary Student Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, 848 Georgia public elementary schools that house third- and fifth-grades in the same building use the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) accreditation as a school improvement model. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether elementary schools that are SACS accredited increased their levels of academic achievement at a higher rate over a five-year period than elementary schools that were not SACS accredited as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). Independent variables included accreditation status, socioeconomic status (SES) of schools, and baseline scores of academic achievement. Dependent variables included mathematics and reading achievement scores. There was a statistically significant difference found when examining the SES of schools and baseline scores of the elementary schools. SACS accredited elementary schools had higher SES and higher baseline scores in third- and fifth grade mathematics and reading. However, the multiple regression model indicated no statistically significant differences in gain scores between SACS accredited and non-SACS accredited elementary schools in third- and fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement during the five year period examined in this study.

Darlene Y. Bruner; Lance Lamar Brantley

2004-01-01

222

Engineering at the Elementary Level  

Science.gov (United States)

Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

McGrew, Cheryl

2012-01-01

223

Digital Photography for Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary

Neckers, Matt

2009-01-01

224

«Gemelli cultores»: coppie agiografiche nella letteratura latina del VI secolo «Gemelli cultores»: hagiographic couples in the 6th-century Latin literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le fonti agiografiche, attentamente considerate, possono offrire un contributo non irrilevante allo studio del concetto di amicitia in ambito monastico. Il saggio prende in esame quattro coppie di santi-amici presenti nelle opere di alcuni dei maggiori protagonisti della storia letteraria del VI secolo in Occidente: Gregorio Magno, l'anonimo autore della Vita Fulgentii, Gregorio di Tours e il poeta Venanzio Fortunato. Emergerà la continuità tra il valore dell'amicizia, così come concepito e praticato dall'aristocrazia senatoria romana, e quello analogo coltivato nel monachesimo dei primi secoli, nonché uno stretto collegamento con l'esperienza eremitica.Hagiographic sources, when carefully examined, can make a significant contribution to the study of the concept of amicitia (friendship) in monastic life. The essay analyzes four couples of friends-saints who are included in the works of some of the leading figures of the 6th-century western literature: Pope Gregory I [Gregory I Magnus], the unknown author of Vita Fulgentii, Gregory of Tours and the poet Venantius Fortunatus. This study highlights that the friendship the Roman Senatorial aristocracy conceived and practiced was not different from this value as nourished by the early monasticism, besides stressing its strict connection to the hermit experience.

Edoardo Ferrarini

2010-01-01

225

UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) proposes to revise its dangerous substances labelling regulations to comply with the 6th Amendment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) proposes to revise its dangerous substances labelling regulations to comply with the 6th Amendment notification legislation of the European Economic Community (EEC). One of the proposals would add the classifications extremely flammable, very toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic, and dangerous to the environment, to the existing flammable, highly flammable, harmful, toxic, explosive, oxidizing, corrosive, and irritant. It is possible that no carcinogen in the UK or continental Europe will be labeled as such, but as a harmful or toxic substance, since the rules are designed to inform those handling the packages of the immediate risks associated with the product. The HSE proposals would also add 121 chemicals to the earlier list and reclassify about 800 products that are already listed. Comments on the proposals must be received by mid-Nov. 1980. A brief comparison of UK and US labeling proposals; possible UK legislation on the control of hazardous materials in the workplace and on the transportation of these substances; and the slow progress in the EEC/US discussions on the harmonization of the notification directive and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are also discussed.

1980-09-08

226

Levantamento planorbídico do Estado de São Paulo: sexta Região Administrativa/ Planorbidic survey of the 6th Administrative Region of the State of S.Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de conhecer a distribuição dos planorbídeos na sexta Região Administrativa do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com sede na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, foram realizadas, durante sete meses, coletas de moluscos em ambientes hídricos de toda área. Foi verificado que os planorbídeos mais comuns no território, por ordem de freqüência são: Drepanotrema lucidum, Biomphalaria intermedia, Biomphalaria peregrina e Biomphalaria tenagophila. A última espécie o (more) corre em poucos criadouros mas vem sendo responsabilizada pela transmissão natural da esquistossomose em Bebedouro, desde 1976. B.straminea prolifera em um córrego no município de Serrana e, em uma vala, de Ribeirão Preto. Os dados epidemiológicos e o baixo número de hospedeiros intermediários encontrados levam a crer que a possibilidade da doença disseminar-se pela região é pequena. Abstract in english A systematic survey was carried out in the area of the 6th Administrative Region of the State of S.Paulo, in order to discover the distributional patterns of planorbidic snails. Biomphalaria tenagophila is incriminated as the intermediary of Schistosoma mansoni in Bebedouro county where some human cases of the disease have been observed since 1976. Biomphalaria straminea lives at two breeding places - in Serrana and Ribeirão Preto. It is concluded that there is little possibility of schistosomiasis spreading in the studied area.

Vaz, Jorge Faria; Teles, Horacio Manuel Santana; Leite, Santa Poppe da Silva; Corrêa, Maria Auxiliadora; Dal Fabbro, Amaury Lellis; Rosa, Wandercy Santos

1986-10-01

227

Levantamento planorbídico do Estado de São Paulo: sexta Região Administrativa Planorbidic survey of the 6th Administrative Region of the State of S.Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a distribuição dos planorbídeos na sexta Região Administrativa do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com sede na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, foram realizadas, durante sete meses, coletas de moluscos em ambientes hídricos de toda área. Foi verificado que os planorbídeos mais comuns no território, por ordem de freqüência são: Drepanotrema lucidum, Biomphalaria intermedia, Biomphalaria peregrina e Biomphalaria tenagophila. A última espécie ocorre em poucos criadouros mas vem sendo responsabilizada pela transmissão natural da esquistossomose em Bebedouro, desde 1976. B.straminea prolifera em um córrego no município de Serrana e, em uma vala, de Ribeirão Preto. Os dados epidemiológicos e o baixo número de hospedeiros intermediários encontrados levam a crer que a possibilidade da doença disseminar-se pela região é pequena.A systematic survey was carried out in the area of the 6th Administrative Region of the State of S.Paulo, in order to discover the distributional patterns of planorbidic snails. Biomphalaria tenagophila is incriminated as the intermediary of Schistosoma mansoni in Bebedouro county where some human cases of the disease have been observed since 1976. Biomphalaria straminea lives at two breeding places - in Serrana and Ribeirão Preto. It is concluded that there is little possibility of schistosomiasis spreading in the studied area.

Jorge Faria Vaz; Horacio Manuel Santana Teles; Santa Poppe da Silva Leite; Maria Auxiliadora Corrêa; Amaury Lellis Dal Fabbro; Wandercy Santos Rosa

1986-01-01

228

[Evolutive study of the vectorcardiogram from the 14th day to the 6th month of life on the normal infant  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the purpose of a better evaluation of the changes of cardiac potentials during the early hemodynamic arrangement of the normal heart, the authors analyze the VCG of 10 normal children periodically recorded from the 14th day to the 6th month from birth. Rotation of QRS, T and P loops in the three planes, direction and voltage of principal planar and spatial vectors were analyzed. The QRS loop showed a balanced distribution between right and left ventricular forces in the second week and developed a leftward orientation from the 4th week to the 3rd month, as demonstrated both by the loss of clockwise rotation of horizontal QRS loop and by the progressive leftward and backward direction of intermediate vectors. The initial vectors were sketched or absent in the 14th day and increased successively until the typical Q loop. The voltage of terminal vectors did not change in the course of time, but the S loop in the horizontal plane lost its original clockwise rotation and shifted to middle posterior line. The T loop progressively shifted backward so that it was always posterior after the 30th day. The P loop in the frontal plane was similar to the adult's one while in the horizontal plane it often presented a figure-of-eight. The semeiological aspects and the electrogenic considerations of these changes were discussed.

Piccolo E; Raviele A; De Piccoli B; Delise P; Pascotto P; Artusi L

1977-01-01

229

NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 11th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field and the concurrent release of the 6th generation Pomme magnetic model  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is updated every five years based on candidate model submissions by research institutions worldwide. In the call for the 11th generation of IGRF, candidates were requested for the definitive main field in 2005, the predicted main field in 2010, and the predicted secular variation from 2010 to 2015. The NOAA/NGDC candidate models for IGRF-11 were produced from parent models parameterized in the same way as the 6th generation of our Pomme magnetic model. All models were based on CHAMP satellite measurements, while Ørsted satellite measurements were used for model validation. The internal field in Pomme-6 is described by a 2nd degree Taylor time series of spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of a scalar magnetic potential. Magnetic fields of ionospheric origin are avoided by careful data selection. Instead of co-estimating magnetospheric fields, we subtract a magnetospheric field model estimated previously from a more extensive data set covering all local times. From comparison with Örsted measurements and general considerations of magnetic field predictability, we attribute a root mean square (RMS) uncertainty of 1.3 nT to our candidate model for the main field in 2005, 2.5 nT to the predicted main field in 2010 and 26 nT/a to the predicted secular variation from 2010 to 2015.

Maus, S.; Manoj, C.; Rauberg, J.; Michaelis, I.; Lühr, H.

2010-10-01

230

Effects of the 6th September 2002 earthquake: damage amplification in the south-eastern sector of Palermo explained by GIS technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 6th September 2002 earthquake the highest damage level in Palermo was observed in the SE sector. This is a recent urbanization area where reinforced concrete structures predominate. A detailed analysis of soil properties in Palermo was carried out by City-GIS to investigate a possible role of nearsurface geology on earthquake effects. City-GIS is a tool dedicated to natural hazard evaluation in urban areas. The availability of high density of well log data (stratigraphic and geotechnical) allowed a realistic modeling of surface geology and physical-mechanical properties that control the seismic response. In wide zones of the above mentioned sector of Palermo, outcropping terrains are composed of thin calcarenite layers, lying above remarkably thick siltyclayey sands that overlay the Numidian Flysch, commonly considered the bedrock of Quaternary sediments. Since silty-clayey sands feature greater deformability properties (Young's modulus) and smaller resistance properties (undrained cohesion and shear resistance angle) than Numidian Flysch, these zones of the SE sector exhibit high values of the acoustic impedance contrast. Moreover, a quite wide portion of the study area, crossed by the Oreto River, is characterized by very thick alluvial deposits. Here, the significant lateral variations of the lithostratigraphic geometry may be an additional cause of strong site effects.

M. S. Giammarinaro; V. Canzoneri; P. Vallone; A. Zuccarello

2003-01-01

231

Child Temperament, Teacher-Child Interactions, and Teacher-Child Relationships: A Longitudinal Investigation from First to Third Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

|The quality of children's relationships with teachers in early elementary grades has implications for their academic and behavioral outcomes in later grades (e.g., Hamre & Pianta, 2001). The current study uses data from the NICHD SECCYD to extend work from a recent study of first grade (Rudasill & Rimm-Kaufman, 2009) by examining connections…

Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz.

2011-01-01

232

Cumulative Advantages and the Emergence of Social and Ethnic Inequality: Matthew Effects in Reading and Mathematics Development within Elementary Schools?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the development of social and ethnic disparities in academic achievement in elementary schooling. It investigated whether reading and mathematics development in 136 mixed-ability classes shows path-dependent processes of cumulative advantage (Matthew effects) from Grades 4 to 6 (Grade 4 mean age = 10.62, SD = 0.57) resulting…

Baumert, Jurgen; Nagy, Gabriel; Lehmann, Rainer

2012-01-01

233

The Effects of Reading from the Screen on the Reading Motivation Levels of Elementary 5th Graders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to explore the effects of reading from the screen on elementary 5th grade students' reading motivation levels. It used the randomized control-group pretest-posttest model, which is a true experimental design. The study group consisted of 60 students, 30 experimental and 30 control, who were attending the 5th grade of a public…

Aydemir, Zeynep; Ozturk, Ergun

2012-01-01

234

Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center, Volume 2  

Science.gov (United States)

The author designed this book, like Volume I of the set, to give elementary school librarians a quick, enjoyable way to coordinate with teachers to teach information literacy and literacy skills aligned with national standards. The chapters in the book include: (1) Kindergarten Lesson Plans; (2) First-Grade Lesson Plans; (3) Second-Grade Lesson…

Keeling, Joyce

2005-01-01

235

Constructivism in the elementary school curricula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the 5th grade elementary school curricula of Turkish, English, Mathematics, and Science and Technology courses were congruent with the principles and standards of the constructivist education. Qualitative research methods were used in this small-scale case study which was conducted in a private elementary school in Ankara. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analyses in the academic year of 2007-2008. The population of interest consisted of 2 school directors, 1 Turkish teacher, 3 English teachers, 4 Mathematics teachers, and 3 Science and Technology teachers. Descriptive analytical framework was employed for the analysis of the interviews. A rubric and a list of standards were used so as to provide a set of criteria for the analyses of the data. The findings indicate that the performances of the curricula under investigation are congruent with the principles of the constructivist education. Similarly, the stated and unstated intents of the curricula are congruent with their performances and the standards of the constructivist education. However, in-depth analyses of the findings signify that in certain areas of the curricula such as the contents, learning processes, evaluation processes, the use of the information technology, and the other resources are marked by some difficulties and ambiguity.

Nehir SERT

2008-01-01

236

Elementary Linear Algebra  

Science.gov (United States)

This online textbook, Elementary Linear Algebra, is made available by Keith Matthews of the Department of Mathematics at the University of Queensland. Sections are organized into chapters such as Linear Equations, Matrices, Subspaces, Determinants, Complex Numbers, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Identifying Second Degree Equations, and Three-dimensional Geometry. Each chapter features problems with the solutions available on-site. This is an excellent companion guide for college students taking linear algebra. In addition, the site includes an exact arithmetic matrix program, CMAT, that "performs exact calculations on matrices whose elements are rational numbers, complex rational numbers or numbers from a finite field of p (prime) elements." This program makes it easier to calculate problems such as the reduced row echelon form, the determinant, and the characteristic polynomial of a matrix.

Matthews, Keith R.

1991-01-01

237

Elementary GLOBE: Cloud Fun  

Science.gov (United States)

A learning activity for the "Do You Know That Clouds Have Names?" book in the Elementary GLOBE series. Each student will be given the opportunity to create their own cumulus cloud out of white paper and mount it on blue paper. Students will also complete the Cloud Fun Student Activity Sheet that includes a description of the cloud and what the weather was like on the day the cloud was observed. The purpose of the activity is to help students identify cumulus clouds and observe the weather conditions on days that they see cumulus clouds. Students will learn about a cumulus cloud's shape and appearance, how to verbally describe cumulus clouds, and what the weather is generally like when these clouds appear in the sky.

2008-12-01

238

Supersymmetry of elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some difficulties, connected with correct application of supersymmetry mathematical tools in the field and elementary particle theory are pointed out. The role of Grassman algebra in the usual field theory and the role of Lee superalgebra in supertransformations mixing bosons and fermions are shown. Grassman algebra in the theory of supersymmetries plays a role of numerical field. A supersymmetrical model, when indexes {i} of Grassman algebra corresponding to ''color'', and indexes {?} of Lee superalgebra representations - to ''flavor'', is considered. It is marked that the problem of interpretation of Grassman algebra indexes is a key one for the theory of supersymmetries. In particular, it gives no possibility to come from the theory of supersymmetries to the usual field theory, whose indexes of Grassman algebra possess obvious physical meaning.

1986-01-01

239

Discerning Elementary Particles  

CERN Document Server

We extend the quantum-mechanical results of Muller & Saunders (2008) establishing the weak discernibility of an arbitrary number of similar fermions in finite-dimensional Hilbert-spaces in two ways: (a) from fermions to bosons for all finite-dimensional Hilbert-spaces; and (b) from finite-dimensional to infinite-dimensional Hilbert-spaces for all elementary particles. In both cases this is performed using operators whose physical significance is beyond doubt.This confutes the currently dominant view that (A) the quantum-mechanical description of similar particles conflicts with Leibniz's Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles (PII); and that (B) the only way to save PII is by adopting some pre-Kantian metaphysical notion such as Scotusian haecceittas or Adamsian primitive thisness. We take sides with Muller & Saunders (2008) against this currently dominant view, which has been expounded and defended by, among others, Schr\\"odinger, Margenau, Cortes, Dalla Chiara, Di Francia, Redhead, French, Tell...

Muller, F A

2009-01-01

240

Making Class Size Work in the Middle Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on the positive effects of class-size reduction (CSR) has occurred in the elementary level (Word, Johnston, Bain, Fulton, Zaharias, Lintz, Achilles, Folger, & Breda, 1990; Molnar, Smith, Zahorik, Palmer, Halbach, & Ehrle, 1999). Is CSR an important variable in improving education in the middle grades? Can small classes be achieved in…

Tienken, C. H.; Achilles, C. M.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Fetal Sex Determination using Non-Invasive Method of Cell-free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma of Pregnant Women During 6(th)- 10(th) Weeks of Gestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous years, identification of fetal cells in maternal blood circulation has caused a new revolution in non-invasive method of prenatal diagnosis. Low number of fetal cells in maternal blood and long-term survival after pregnancy limited the use of fetal cells in diagnostic and clinical applications. With the discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in plasma of pregnant women, access to genetic material of the fetus had become possible to determine early gender of a fetus in pregnancies at the risk of X-linked genetic conditions instead of applying invasive methods. Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the Y chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women at 6(th) to 10(th) weeks of gestation and then the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. Nested PCR was applied to detect the sequences of single copy SRY gene and multi copy DYS14 & DAZ genes on the Y chromosome of the male fetuses. At the end, all the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns. In 40 out of 42 born baby boys, the relevant gene sequences were identified and 95.2% sensitivity was obtained. Non-invasive early determination of fetal gender using cffDNA could be employed as a pre-test in the shortest possible time and with a high reliability to avoid applying invasive methods in cases where a fetus is at the risk of genetic diseases. PMID:23407464

Zargari, Maryam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Kamali, Koroush; Saliminejad, Kyomars; Esmaeilzadeh, Ali; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram

2011-10-01

242

Fetal Sex Determination using Non-Invasive Method of Cell-free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma of Pregnant Women During 6(th)- 10(th) Weeks of Gestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In previous years, identification of fetal cells in maternal blood circulation has caused a new revolution in non-invasive method of prenatal diagnosis. Low number of fetal cells in maternal blood and long-term survival after pregnancy limited the use of fetal cells in diagnostic and clinical applications. With the discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in plasma of pregnant women, access to genetic material of the fetus had become possible to determine early gender of a fetus in pregnancies at the risk of X-linked genetic conditions instead of applying invasive methods. Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the Y chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women at 6(th) to 10(th) weeks of gestation and then the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. Nested PCR was applied to detect the sequences of single copy SRY gene and multi copy DYS14 & DAZ genes on the Y chromosome of the male fetuses. At the end, all the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns. In 40 out of 42 born baby boys, the relevant gene sequences were identified and 95.2% sensitivity was obtained. Non-invasive early determination of fetal gender using cffDNA could be employed as a pre-test in the shortest possible time and with a high reliability to avoid applying invasive methods in cases where a fetus is at the risk of genetic diseases.

Zargari M; Sadeghi MR; Shahhosseiny MH; Kamali K; Saliminejad K; Esmaeilzadeh A; Khorshid HR

2011-10-01

243

Fetal Sex Determination using Non-Invasive Method of Cell-free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma of Pregnant Women During 6th- 10th Weeks of Gestation  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous years, identification of fetal cells in maternal blood circulation has caused a new revolution in non-invasive method of prenatal diagnosis. Low number of fetal cells in maternal blood and long-term survival after pregnancy limited the use of fetal cells in diagnostic and clinical applications. With the discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in plasma of pregnant women, access to genetic material of the fetus had become possible to determine early gender of a fetus in pregnancies at the risk of X-linked genetic conditions instead of applying invasive methods. Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the Y chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women at 6th to 10th weeks of gestation and then the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. Nested PCR was applied to detect the sequences of single copy SRY gene and multi copy DYS14 & DAZ genes on the Y chromosome of the male fetuses. At the end, all the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns. In 40 out of 42 born baby boys, the relevant gene sequences were identified and 95.2% sensitivity was obtained. Non-invasive early determination of fetal gender using cffDNA could be employed as a pre-test in the shortest possible time and with a high reliability to avoid applying invasive methods in cases where a fetus is at the risk of genetic diseases.

Zargari, Maryam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Kamali, Koroush; Saliminejad, Kyomars; Esmaeilzadeh, Ali; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram

2011-01-01

244

Early fetal gender determination using real-time PCR analysis of cell-free fetal DNA during 6th-10th weeks of gestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays, new advances in the use of cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma of pregnant women has provided the possibility of applying cffDNA in prenatal diagnosis as a non-invasive method. In contrary to the risks of invasive methods that affect both mother and fetus, applying cffDNA is proven to be highly effective with lower risk. One of the applications of prenatal diagnosis is fetal gender determination, which is important in fetuses at risk of sex-linked genetic diseases. In such cases by obtaining the basic information of the gender, necessary time management can be taken in therapeutic to significantly reduce the necessity of applying the invasive methods. Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the human Y-chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women with gestational age between 6th to 10th weeks and the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. Identification of SRY, DYS14 & DAZ sequences, which are not presentin the maternal genome, was performed using Real-Time PCR. All the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns to calculate the test accuracy. Considerable 97.3% sensitivity and 97.3% specificity were obtained in fetal gender determination which is significant in the first trimester of pregnancy. Only in one case, false positive result was obtained. Using non-invasive method of cffDNAs in the shortest time possible, as well as avoiding invasive tests for early determination of fetal gender, provides the opportunity of deciding and employing early treatment for fetuses at risk of genetic diseases.

Khorram Khorshid HR; Zargari M; Sadeghi MR; Edallatkhah H; Shahhosseiny MH; Kamali K

2013-01-01

245

Fuel grade methanol. Fuel grade metanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report concerns the production of fuel grade methanol based on the methanol process of Onsager. The production capacity of the plant is designed to be 2500 tons of fuel grade methanol per 24 hours. 3 drawings.

Andersen, M.S.

1988-02-01

246

Development of Elementary School Students’ Argumentativeness In Science Courses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of science courses founded on argumentative discourse activities on elementary school students’ tendencies to approach argumentative situations. A semester-long argumentative discourse integrated science courses were carried out with 7th Grade students (n=23), and 8th Grade students (n=24). To measure change in the students’ tendencies to approach argumentative situations, a 20-item Likert-type Argumentativeness Scale (AS) was administered to all the students as pretest and posttest, and 37 randomly selected students were individually interviewed at the end of the study. The results of statistical analysis of the AS indicated that both 7th and 8th Grade students’ argumentativeness significantly increased from prior to the end of this study. This significant increase was further supported by evidence from the qualitative data gathered through the interviews.

Osman Nafiz KAYA; Ziya KILIÇ

2008-01-01

247

Enhancing pre-service elementary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the impact of a reflective teaching method on pre-service elementary teachers’ conceptual understanding of the lunar phases, reasons for seasons, and simple electric circuits. Data were collected from 40 pre-service elementary teachers about their conceptual understanding of the lunar phases, reasons for seasons and day and night, and simple electric circuits pre and post instruction. Findings show that the instructional approach adopted by a science teacher educator had a significant impact on pre-serviceelementary school teachers’ conceptual understanding of lunar phases, seasonal changes and simple electric circuits. The discussion focuses on pre-service elementary school teachers’ misconceptions about the lunar phases, seasonal changes and simple electric circuits as revealed through their answers to the pre-test questions. Further discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for pre-service elementary school science teacher education.

Mehmet AYDEN?Z; Clara Lee BROWN

2010-01-01

248

The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way.

A. Hepworth, Richard

2010-01-01

249

The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product  

CERN Document Server

We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way.

Hepworth, Richard A

2007-01-01

250

Examining Elementary Education Pre-Service Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary education pre-service teachers? self-efficacy beliefs by gender, grade level and age. Participants were 163 elementary education pre-service teachers. An instrument titled “Music Education Self-Efficacy Scale” (Afacan, 2008) was used as a means of data collection. Descriptive statistics and t test was used to analyze the data. Results revealed that elementary education pre-service teachers? music education self-efficacy was, in general, moderate. Results revealed that participants? self-efficacy beliefs differ by gender, grade level and age. Women?s self-efficacy beliefs were higher than men. Junior (3rd year) students? self-efficacy was higher than sophomores (2nd year). Similarly, self-efficay scores of particiapants with an age of between 22 and 24 was higher than those with an age of between 19–21.

Deniz Beste ÇEV?K

2011-01-01

251

Increasing Academic Engagement during Writing Activities in an Urban Elementary Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this study, the authors examined the effects of a systematic functional assessment-based intervention (FABI) to identify the function of a third-grade student's off-task behavior and create a plan to increase academic engaged time (AET). The FABI was designed and implemented in an urban elementary school with a comprehensive, integrated,…

Aitken, Angelique; Harlan, Alison; Hankins, Katy; Michels, John; Moore, Tara C.; Oakes, Wendy P.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

2011-01-01

252

Socioeconomic Differences in Elementary Students ICT Beliefs and Out-of-School Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of the study was to explore possible links between student socioeconomic status (SES), beliefs about information and communication technologies (ICTs), and out-of-school learning resources. Grades 5 and 6 students (N = 345) who were enrolled in one private and six public elementary schools in Greece, located in areas with different…

Vekiri, Ioanna

2010-01-01

253

Finding and Understanding Talent among Elementary English Language Learners: Beyond Project Hope  

Science.gov (United States)

The under-identification and underrepresentation of English language learners (ELLs) in gifted programs remains a severe and pervasive problem in the field of gifted education (Yoon & Gentry, 2009, VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2007). This study focused on ELLs in grades K-5 from four elementary schools in Midwestern school districts (a) to…

Pereira, Nielsen

2011-01-01

254

Levels of Questioning in Current Elementary Textbooks: What the Future Holds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to determine the level of questioning according to Bloom's taxonomy, generated by test items that accompany selected fifth-grade science textbooks, an analysis of the tests provided by three of the most commonly used elementary science textbooks was completed. Additionally this analysis examined the extent to which each series…

Risner, Gregory P.; And Others

255

The Effects of Differentiated Instruction and Enrichment Pedagogy on Reading Achievement in Five Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study examined the effect of a differentiated, enriched reading program on students' oral reading fluency and comprehension using the schoolwide enrichment model-reading (SEM-R). Treatment and control conditions were randomly assigned to 63 teachers and 1,192 second through fifth grade students across five elementary schools.…

Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Muller, Lisa M.; Kaniskan, R. Burcu

2011-01-01

256

The Classroom Learning Environment as Perceived by Students in Arab Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment in Arab elementary schools were investigated. The sample included 261 students from Grades 5 and 6. The questionnaire was developed at an Arab college of teacher education by 16 fourth-year student teachers who were completing their studies toward a BEd degree. Articles on…

Khalil, Mahmood; Saar, Vered

2009-01-01

257

The State of Geographic Education in Selected Elementary Schools in Metro Manila, Philippines  

Science.gov (United States)

The article presents the state of geographic education in Manila, Philippines by examining the types of approaches in teaching geography in public, private and Montessori schools. As part of the social studies programme in Grade IV elementary education, the types of approaches to teaching geography are examined for their effectiveness and…

Lopez, Yany P.

2008-01-01

258

On the Fringes and Vague: Elementary Social Studies from Multiple Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares one state’s Grade Level Content Expectations (GLCEs) for elementary social studies with teacher candidates’ definitions of social studies and social studies textbooks.  In order examine the extent  to which each of the four primary subcategories of social studies (history, geography, civics, and economics) are prioritized, four sources of data were used: Michigan’s GLCEs, 190 teacher candidates’ definitions, elementary social studies textbooks, and social studies methods textbooks. Using a fully-mixed, concurrent, equal status mixed methods design (Leech & Onwuegbuzie, 2009), each of the four data sources revealed dominance toward history within the broader social studies umbrella. Despite Michigan’s mandate that history, geography, civics, and economics receive nearly equal attention in elementary social studies classrooms, economics and civics are underrepresented. With increased attention on standardized test scores and teachers’ salaries tied to those scores, it is imperative that elementary social studies teachers supplement resources in economics and civics. 

Derek L. Anderson

2011-01-01

259

Elementary Children’s Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a wide array of earth science concepts, from rock formation to the Earth’s interior. We analyzed interview data primarily to determine whether or not young children are capable of inferring understanding of the past based on present-day observation (retrodictive reasoning) in the context of Earth science. This work provides a basis from which curricula for teaching earth and environmental sciences can emerge, and suggests that new studies into the retrodictive reasoning abilities of young children are needed, including curricula that encourage inference of the past from modern observations.

Julie C. LIBARKIN; Matthew H. SCHNEPS

2012-01-01

260

Development of critical thinking among students in kindergarten through grade 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

A test to measure critical thinking ability in early elementary grades was designed and used to assess the development of one aspect of critical thinking, the detection of bias, in 102 students in kindergarten through fourth grade. The test was administered in a story-telling format. Analysis showed an age-related increase in critical thinking ability, with differences becoming significant at Grade 4. PMID:1766774

Soloff, S B; Houtz, J C

1991-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Development of critical thinking among students in kindergarten through grade 4.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A test to measure critical thinking ability in early elementary grades was designed and used to assess the development of one aspect of critical thinking, the detection of bias, in 102 students in kindergarten through fourth grade. The test was administered in a story-telling format. Analysis showed an age-related increase in critical thinking ability, with differences becoming significant at Grade 4.

Soloff SB; Houtz JC

1991-10-01

262

Twisted Graded Hecke Algebras  

CERN Document Server

We generalize graded Hecke algebras to include a twisting two-cocycle for the associated finite group. We give examples where the parameter spaces of the resulting twisted graded Hecke algebras are larger than that of the graded Hecke algebras. We prove that twisted graded Hecke algebras are particular types of deformations of a crossed product.

Witherspoon, S J

2005-01-01

263

The Integration of Creative Drama in an Inquiry-Based Elementary Program: The Effect on Student Attitude and Conceptual Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Creative drama activities designed to help children learn difficult science concepts were integrated into an inquiry-based elementary science program. Children (n = 38) in an upper elementary enrichment program at one primary school were the participants in this action research. The teacher-researcher taught students the Full Option Science System™ (FOSS) modules of sound (fourth grade) and solar energy (fifth grade) with the integration of creative drama activities in treatment classes. A 2 × 2 × (2) Mixed ANOVA was used to examine differences in the learning outcomes and attitudes toward science between groups (drama and non-drama) and grade levels (4th and 5th grades) over time (pre/post). Learning was measured using the tests included with the FOSS modules. A shortened version of the Three Dimension Elementary Science Attitude Survey measured attitudes toward science. Students in the drama treatment group had significantly higher learning gains ( F = 160.2, p < 0.001) than students in the non-drama control group with students in grade four reporting significantly greater learning outcomes ( F = 14.3, p < 0.001) than grade five. There was a significantly statistical decrease in student attitudes toward science ( F = 7.5, p < 0.01), though a small change. Creative drama was an effective strategy to increase science conceptual learning in this group of diverse elementary enrichment students when used as an active extension to the pre-existing inquiry-based science curriculum.

Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles; Shannon, David

2012-11-01

264

An evaluation on adequacy of sixth year elementary school mathematics curriculum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine adequacy of new 6th Years Elementary Mathematics Curriculum which was introduced in 2006. The determination consisted of attainability of objectives with suitability of patterns to structure of mathematics in the objectives. Experimental design was used in the study. The study carried out from a total of 120 students as experiment (60) and control (60) group. Mathematics lessons plans and the selected methods with respect to new program have been applied to the experiment group while the control group does their ordinary works in mathematics. As a result; students’ achievement both in mean success and achievement level in experiment group are higher than the control group. Both groups’ overall successes (0.56 and 0.36) were not satisfactory (?0.75). Thus, it can be said that both groups were not able to attain aimed targets with unconvinced teaching and learning process.

Ersen Yaz?c?

2009-01-01

265

Peer Assessment of Elementary Science Teaching Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, peer assessment was applied in assessing elementary science teaching skills. Preservice teachers taught a science topic as a team to their peers in an elementary science methods course. The peers participating in the science lesson assessed teacher-groups' elementary science teaching skills on an assessment form provided by the…

Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

2007-01-01

266

Uniform approximation by elementary operators  

CERN Multimedia

On a separable C*-algebra A every (completely) bounded map, which preserves closed two sided ideals, can be approximated uniformly by elementary operators if and only if A is a finite direct sum of C*-algebras of continuous sections vanishing at infinity of locally trivial C*-bundles of finite type.

Magajna, Bojan

2009-01-01

267

Fleming Elementary School, Freeport, Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes the building design of the elementary school named in the title, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, manufacturers/suppliers, and construction team; a general building description; and a case study of construction costs and specifications. Also provides the floor plan and…

Design Cost Data, 2002

2002-01-01

268

Improving Instruction in Elementary Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the possibility of linking essential skills within elementary content areas to Algozzine and Ysseldyke's model of effective instruction. Specifically, suggestions are offered for using handwriting and art to express ideas and feelings. The suggestions address the teaching principles of motivating students and providing…

Aber, M. Elaine; And Others

1994-01-01

269

Electrical elementary diagrams and operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)

Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Inc., Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: HumanFactors@netscape.ca

2005-07-01

270

Elementary Deuring-Heilbronn Phenomenon  

CERN Document Server

Adapting a technique of Pintz, we give an elementary demonstration of the Deuring phenomenon: a zero of \\zeta(s) off the critical line gives a lower bound on L(1,\\chi). The necessary tools are Dirichlet's 'method of the hyperbola', Euler summation, summation by parts, and the Polya-Vinogradov inequality.

Stopple, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

271

Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

2010-01-01

272

Lower Grade Glioma  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower grade glioma is a type of cancer that develops in the glial cells of the brain. Glial cells support the brain’s nerve cells and keep them healthy. Tumors are classified into grades I, II, III or IV based on standards set by the World Health Organization. TCGA is including grades II and III in this specific study, as opposed to higher grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, which were studied in a separate project.

273

Elementary School Students’ Perceptions of Technology in their Pictorial Representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aimed to reveal elementary school students’ perceptions of technology through their pictorial representations and their written expressions based on their pictorial representations. Content analysis based on the qualitative research method along with art-based inquiry was applied. The “coding system for the concepts revealed from the research data” was implemented. Visual language used in pictorial representations produce messages, with its specialized codes. The degree of students to understand and explain their perception on technology composes the visual codes in this research. The study carried out with fifth-grade elementary school students was applied to a class of 28 students. The elementary school students participating in the present study had diverse perceptions of today’s technology, and most of their perceptions of technology were based on computer and electronic household appliances. Some students’ perceptions of technology were based on the Internet and mobile device technologies. Their perceived future technology was observed as human-computer interaction in the area of computer technology. Findings were discussed followed by relevant implications.

Suzan Duygu Eri?ti; Adile A?k?m Kurt

2011-01-01

274

The Meaning of Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that students see grades as an indicator of effort unconnected to the content of the course while teachers regard grades as a measure of achievement within a discipline. Discusses some of the current controversies and approaches concerning grades and how they relate to school reform. (MJP)

Teixeira, Serna E.

1996-01-01

275

Graded Bandgap Solar Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Graded bandgap solar cells were investigated that have a structure consisting of an N-type graded emitter and a base region with a constant bandgap. The emitter bandgap was 2.1 eV at the front surface and then graded to 1.74 eV at the N/P homojunction bas...

L. C. Olsen

1984-01-01

276

Traveling science: An elementary science enhancement program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traveling Science is an elementary science visitation program by two high school teachers (using scheduled release time) for every third to fifth grade student and teacher in Granville County, North Carolina (a total of sixty-one classes, 1,600 students-over 25,000 student contacts in three years). Teachers and students see and participate in hands-on, inquiry-based science done with inexpensive, readily available materials (usually less than 2% per class). Teachers become more confident and self-reliant with respect to science education, and students get increased exposure to hands-on science. In addition to the classroom visits (a total of six per year for each class), teachers receive a guide containing introductory and follow-up materials, and a monthly newsletter. Visit topics cover the physical, life and earth sciences; designed to stress the processes of science. We try to use topics of interest and relevance to students, such as toys, food, animals and playground activities. Teachers and schools also receive additional materials (posters and videos).

Gotlib, L.; Brown, S. [South Granvile High School, Creedmoor, NC (United States); Bibby, E. [Granville County Schools, Oxford, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

277

Understanding GRADE: an introduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluations (GRADE) is arguably the most widely used method for appraising studies to be included in systematic reviews and guidelines. In order to use the GRADE system or know how to interpret it when reading reviews, reading several articles and attending a workshop are required. Moreover, the GRADE system is not covered in standard medical textbooks. Here, we explain GRADE concisely with the use of examples so that students and other researchers can understand it. BACKGROUND: In order to use or interpret the GRADE system, reading several articles and attending a workshop is currently required. Moreover, the GRADE system is not covered in standard medical textbooks. METHODS: We read, synthesized, and digested the GRADE publications and contacted GRADE contributors for explanations where required. We composed a digested version of the system in a concise way a general medical audience could understand. RESULTS: We were able to explain the GRADE basics clearly and completely in under 1500 words. CONCLUSIONS: While advanced critical appraisal requires judgment, training, and practice, it is possible for a non-specialist to grasp GRADE basics very quickly.

Goldet G; Howick J

2013-02-01

278

Examining student-generated questions in an elementary science classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to better understand how teachers use an argument-based inquiry technique known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach to address issues on teaching, learning, negotiation, argumentation, and elaboration in an elementary science classroom. Within the SWH framework, this study traced the progress of promoting argumentation and negotiation (which led to student-generated questions) during a discussion in an elementary science classroom. Speech patterns during various classroom scenarios were analyzed to understand how teacher--student interactions influence learning. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative aspect of the study is an analysis of teacher--student interactions in the classroom using video recordings. The quantitative aspect uses descriptive statistics, tables, and plots to analyze the data. The subjects in this study were fifth grade students and teachers from an elementary school in the Midwest, during the academic years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The three teachers selected for this study teach at the same Midwestern elementary school. These teachers were purposely selected because they were using the SWH approach during the two years of the study. The results of this study suggest that all three teachers moved from using teacher-generated questions to student-generated questions as they became more familiar with the SWH approach. In addition, all three promoted the use of the components of arguments in their dialogs and discussions and encouraged students to elaborate, challenge, and rebut each other's ideas in a non-threatening environment. This research suggests that even young students, when actively participating in class discussions, are capable of connecting their claims and evidence and generating questions of a higher-order cognitive level. These findings demand the implementation of more professional development programs and the improvement in teacher education to help teachers confidently implement argumentative practices and develop pedagogical strategies to help students use them.

Diaz, Juan Francisco, Jr.

279

Health risk behaviour of elementary school children in Vojvodina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim To determine frequency, intercorrelation of health-risk behaviours among elementary school children and their correlation with sources of health-related information and social behaviour models.Methods Reasearch was conducted in the form of cross-sectional study. Sample included students from 5th to 8th grades of elementary school. Data were collected by interviewing students with questionnarie consisted of two parts: Risk Behaviour Scale and set of questions about sources of information, social behaviour models and socio-demographic characteristics. Risk Behaviour Scale measured following health-risk behaviors: use of psychoactive supstances (cigarettes, alcohol, illegal substances), risky behaviour in traffic, unsafe sexual behavior, inadequate nutrition and insufficient physical activity. Values p <0.05 were considered as statistical significant.Results Sample included 445 elementary school students aged 11 to 15 years of age. The most prominent health risk behaviours were unhealthy dietary habits, with 408 (91.1 %) students consumed fast food. Alcohol was the most frequent psiho-active substance used, in 261 (58.2 %) cases. Health-risk behaviours were more frequent among boys, older students, those with low school achievment and those who receive health-related information from peers and media. Statistically significant correlation between inadequate nutrition and physical inactivity was found (p=0.000). Alcohol use was significantly correlated with use of cigarettes (p=0.00) and illegal substances (p=0.00), risk sexual behaviour (p=0.00), risk behaviour in traffic (p=0.00) and physical inactivity (p=0.00). Conclusion All health-risk behaviours appeared in the same time in elementary school students and that could be a consequence of same individual and social factors which contribute to their occurence.

Sanja Šumonja; Mia Mari?

2012-01-01

280

PREFACE: MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011) MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011)  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of stress and strain on the electromagnetic properties of superconducting composite conductors is one of the key issues for the practical application of superconductivity. To discuss these subjects thoroughly, the International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (MEM) has been held regularly since 2001. The 6th workshop (MEM11) was held in Okinawa, Japan in 2011, which was the centennial of the discovery of superconductivity by Professor Kamerlingh Onnes, as well as the 25th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS). Although it was originally planned that MEM11 be held in Mito, the workshop venue was changed because of the serious disaster in the north of Japan on 11 March 2011. Sixty five scientists participated in this specialized workshop. Fifty six papers were presented in the following six sessions: (1) Intrinsic strain effects on low temperature superconductors (LTS) and HTS, (2) The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), (3) Strain evaluation by quantum beams, (4) Flux pinning properties of HTS, (5) Standardization and the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) and (6) High field magnets. Several large topics were presented and discussed at the workshop: the important progress in methods for non-invasive measurements of the local strain exerted on the superconducting components in superconducting wires and cables using quantum beam techniques. This approach provides powerful tools for investigating the effect of strain in composite superconductors; the intrinsic strain effects in LTS and HTS in the reversible strain region. Recently, it has become easier to determine quantitatively the strain dependence of critical current when the local strain is measured directly, and the mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the superconductors used in the ITER tokamak. This was a major topic at the workshop since the superconducting magnets are a critical component in this project. Standardization with respect to ITER was also discussed, as well as other topics related to improving the mechanical-electromagnetic properties of practical HTS, including (RE)BCO, BSCCO and MgB2 wires. From such exciting and excellent presentations, nineteen papers were selected and invited for publication in this special issue. At the end of the workshop, a senior member of the International community thanked our Japanese colleagues for their exceptional hospitality and for holding this important workshop at this difficult time.

Awaji, Satoshi; Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

On colimits and elementary embeddings  

CERN Multimedia

We give a sharper version of a theorem of Rosicky, Trnkova and Adamek, and a new proof of a theorem of Rosicky, both about colimit preservation between categories of structures. Unlike the original proofs, which use category-theoretic methods, we use set-theoretic arguments involving elementary embeddings given by large cardinals such as alpha-strongly compact and C^(n)-extendible cardinals.

Bagaria, Joan

2012-01-01

282

Periods and elementary real numbers  

CERN Multimedia

The periods, introduced by Kontsevich and Zagier, form a class of complex numbers which contains all algebraic numbers and several transcendental quantities. Little has been known about qualitative properties of periods. In this paper, we compare the periods with hierarchy of real numbers induced from computational complexities. In particular we prove that periods can be effectively approximated by elementary rational Cauchy sequences. As an application, we exhibit a computable real number which is not a period.

Yoshinaga, Masahiko

2008-01-01

283

Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2008-02-05

284

Black holes and elementary particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By attributing an intrinsic quantum friction coefficient to particles, these can be defined to have an internal temperature which is expressed in terms of h (Planck constant), k (Boltzmann constant) and m (mass), much in the same way as the Hawking's temperature of a black hole does. Black holes are, therefore, considered as ''elementary'' particles in the gravitational universe, and some arguments in favour of this assumption are given.

Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F. (Inst. de Optica ' ' Daza de Valdes' ' - C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain))

1981-05-09

285

Response to comments raised on "Surface deformation caused by April 6th 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy): A comparative analysis from ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR and ASTER" by Chini Marco; Bignami Christian and Salvatore Stramondo  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a response to the comments raised by Marco et al. referring to the work of Goudarzi et al. (2011) on "Surface deformation caused by the April 6th 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy): A comparative analysis from ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR and ASTER". While some of the issues raised by them are relevant and appropriate, the authors believe that some of their comments arose from misunderstanding and needs some elaboration. In this paper, we address their comments and clarify the ambiguities.

Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Woldai, Tsehaie; Tolpekin, Valentyn A.

2012-08-01

286

[Changes in academic motivation among elementary and junior high school students].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined changes in academic motivation among elementary and junior high school students. Based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000a), we focused on changes in autonomous and controlled motivation. In Study 1, we examined inter-individual changes in academic motivation among 5th to 9th grade students (N = 1 572) through a cross-sectional study. In Study 2, we examined intra-individual changes in academic motivation among students (N = 128) who were in transition from elementary to junior high school through a longitudinal study. All participants completed the Academic Motivation Scale (Nishimura, Kawamura, & Sakurai, 2011) that measured autonomous and controlled motivation. The results revealed that autonomous motivation decreased in the students from elementary to junior high school, while controlled motivation increased during the same period. This is a unique finding because a prior study conducted in a Western culture suggested that both motivations decrease gradually in school.

Nishimura T; Sakurai S

2013-02-01

287

No Sissy Boys Here: A Content Analysis of the Representation of Masculinity in Elementary School Reading Textbooks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the portrayal of gender characteristics in elementary school textbooks, particularly masculine and feminine stereotypes, examining first, third, and fifth grade literature textbooks using an evaluative instrument based on the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Despite publisher's guidelines and Title IX, males are still portrayed primarily in a…

Evans, Lorraine; Davies, Kimberly

2000-01-01

288

Relationship between Patterns of Personality of Campus Leaders and Scholastic Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Test of Holland's Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement as a function of principal personality and assistant principal personality in an elementary school setting. Student achievement, the dependent variable, was fifth grade campus mean scale scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test for reading, math, and science. Holland's…

Butler, Linda Ann

2010-01-01

289

Impact of a community based fire prevention intervention on fire safety knowledge and behavior in elementary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a community based fire prevention intervention directed only to parents on the fire safety knowledge and behavior in elementary school children. This was a prospective, quasi?randomized controlled study in which third and fourth grade studen...

Hwang, V; Duchossois, G P; Garcia?Espana, J F; Durbin, D R

290

Effects of Verbal and Graphic Performance Feedback on Behavior Support Plan Implementation in a Public Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that performance feedback improves treatment integrity. This study compared the effects of verbal performance feedback and verbal plus graphic performance feedback on implementation of a student-specific behavior support plan (BSP) by members of a second-grade teaching team at a public elementary school. A consultant to…

Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Luiselli, James K.; Handler, Marcie W.

2007-01-01

291

Promoting Self-Determination in Early Elementary School: Teaching Self-Regulated Problem-Solving and Goal-Setting Skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper describes and validates a model of teaching in early elementary grades that infuses the self-determination skills of problem solving and goal setting into existing curricula and programs. Use of the "Self-Determination Learning Model of Instruction with 5- and 6-year-olds found the model effective in identifying student interests,…

Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

2003-01-01

292

Controlling program extraction in Elementary Linear Logic  

CERN Multimedia

We present an adaptation, based on program extraction in elementary linear logic, of Krivine & Leivant's system FA_2. This system allows to write higher-order equations in order to specify the computational content of extracted programs. The user can then prove a generic formula, using these equations as axioms, whose proof can be extracted into programs that normalize in elementary time and satisfy the specifications. Finally, we show that every elementary recursive functions can be implemented in this system.

Lasson, Marc

2010-01-01

293

Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. AIMS: This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. SAMPLE: Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). RESULTS: Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

Guay F; Chanal J; Ratelle CF; Marsh HW; Larose S; Boivin M

2010-12-01

294

Low-grade central osteosarcoma of the rib: a case report and brief review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low-grade central osteosarcoma is a rare variant of osteosarcoma which comprises less than 1-2% of all osteosarcomas. Most low-grade osteosarcomas involve long bones, most commonly distal femur, and proximal tibia. Histologically this tumor is difficult to diagnose, and an unusual location makes this diagnosis even more challenging. Here we report a case of low-grade osteosarcoma presenting as a chest wall mass involving the left 6th-8th ribs. This unusual site of presentation significantly added to the diagnostic difficulties of this rare tumor with challenging histologic features. To the best of our knowledge, only six cases of low-grade central osteosarcoma of the ribs have been reported in the English literature.

Moghadamfalahi M; Alatassi H

2013-01-01

295

Relação entre criatividade e traços temperamentais em estudantes do ensino fundamental/ Relationship between creativity and temperamental traits in a sample of elementary school students/ Relación entre creatividad y rasgos temperamentales de estudiantes de educación básica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A percepção da ausência de pesquisas nacionais que investiguem a relação entre criatividade e temperamento desenvolvidas com crianças e adolescentes motivou o presente estudo, conduzido junto a 142 estudantes de 6o ao 9o ano do Ensino Fundamental (84 do sexo feminino e 58 masculino), com idades entre 11 e 14 anos (M=12,8 anos; DP=1,10). Dois instrumentos foram utilizados: Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil e Student Styles Questionnaire, cujos resultados indicar (more) am que as dimensões temperamentais extroversão e intuição foram as que mais se relacionaram ao desempenho em criatividade (apresentando correlações significativas com os fatores Enriquecimento de Ideias, Preparação Criativa e Criatividade Total). Influência significativa da variável sexo foi encontrada em relação às dimensões racional e emotiva do temperamento, ao passo que a variável série e sua interação com sexo mostrou-se importante em um fator da criatividade (Aspectos Cognitivos). Abstract in spanish La percepción de la ausencia de investigaciones nacionales que estudien la relación entre creatividad y temperamento desarrollada con niños y adolescentes motivó el presente estudio. Participaron 142 estudiantes de sexto a noveno curso de la educación básica (84 mujeres y 58 hombres), con edades entre 11 y 14 años (M = 12,8 años, SD = 1,10). Se utilizaron dos instrumentos: Test de Creatividad Infantil Figurativo y el Student Styles Questionnaire, cuyos resultados (more) indicaron que las dimensiones temperamentales extraversión e intuición fueron las que más se relacionaron al desempeño en creatividad (presentando correlaciones significativas con los factores (enriquecimiento de ideas, preparación creativa y el total de la creatividad). Influencia significativa de la variable sexo fue encontrada con relación a las dimensiones racional y emocional del temperamento, mientras que el curso y su interacción con el sexo se mostró importante en los aspectos cognitivos de la creatividad. Abstract in english The perception of lack of national research focused on investigating the relationship between creativity and temperament developed with children and adolescents motivated the present study, conducted among 142 students from 6th to 9th grade of elementary school (84 female and 58 male), aged between 11 and 14 years (M=12.8 years; SD=1.10). Two instruments were used: Test of Figural Creativity for Children and Student Styles Questionnaire. The results indicated that the tem (more) peramental dimensions extraversion and intuition were the most related to performance on creativity (showing significant correlations with the factors Enrichment of Ideas, Creative Preparation and total creativity). Significant influence of gender was found in relation to rational and emotional dimensions of temperament, while the grade variable and its interaction with gender was found in Cognitive factor of creativity.

Nakano, Tatiana de Cássia; Castro, Lívia Rech de

2013-08-01

296

The multifaceted impact of peer relations on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior.

Powers CJ; Bierman KL

2013-06-01

297

Assessing moderate to vigorous physical activity in rural West Virginia elementary school physical education classes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Physical education (PE) provides a natural opportunity for students to be physically active during the school day; however, the amount and intensity of this activity varies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that students engage in MVPA for at least 50% of their PE class period. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the amount of MVPA that occurs during elementary school PE. METHODS: Accelerometer data were collected from 203 students (100 2nd grade; 103 5th grade) in 10 West Virginia elementary schools. At each school, PE teachers identified three 2nd grade classes and three 5th grade classes in which to collect the physical activity data. For each selected class, the teachers identified the first 4 students on their alphabetic roll to wear the accelerometers. PE teachers recorded the date and time of the class and the gender of the students wearing the accelerometers. RESULTS: Using 5-second epochs and Puyau's cut-offs, results indicated that, on average, students engaged in MVPA for 27% of their PE class. No significant differences were observed in MVPA between 2nd and 5th grade students or between males and females. Male and female students spent equal amounts of PE class in MVPA. CONCLUSION: Findings support policy to increase the required minimum amount of MVPA during each PE class.

Matthews-Ewald MR; Moore LC; Harris CV; Bradlyn AS; Frost SS

2013-07-01

298

Instrumentation in elementary particle physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs

1987-06-19

299

Extremal branes as elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The supersymmetric p-branes of type II string theory can be interpreted after compactification as extremal black holes with zero entropy and infinite temperature. We show how the p-branes avoid this apparent, catastrophic instability by developing an infinite mass gap. Equivalently, these black holes behave like elementary particles: they are dressed by effective potentials that prevent absorption of impinging particles. In contrast, configurations with 2, 3, and 4 intersecting branes and their non-extremal extensions, behave increasingly like conventional black holes. These results extend and clarify earlier work by Holzhey and Wilczek in the context of four-dimensional dilaton gravity. (orig.)

1997-06-23

300

Normative values for the nearpoint of convergence of elementary schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nearpoint of convergence (NPC) values of 8 to 10 cm are widely used to diagnose binocular dysfunctions such as convergence insufficiency. However, there are no published age-related normative values in the literature to substantiate these values. METHODS: Subjects were 297 schoolchildren in kindergarten, third grade, and sixth grade who had passed a school-based Modified Clinical Technique vision screening. Each child had the NPC break and recovery taken three times using a standardized protocol developed by the Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study group. The examiners used an Astron International (ACR/21) Accommodative Rule with a movable column of 20/30 letters as the target. RESULTS: For each grade, the distribution of NPC break was right skewed, with a concentration of values between 1 and 6 cm. At least 85% of the subjects in each grade had an NPC break < or = 6 cm. NPC break values (mean +/- SD) were 3.3 +/- 2.6 cm for kindergartners, 4.1 +/- 2.4 cm for third graders, and 4.3 +/- 3.4 cm for sixth graders, and the means were found to be statistically different (analysis of variance, p = 0.031). NPC recoveries (mean +/- SD) for the three groups were 7.3 +/- 4.8 cm, 8.7 +/- 4.2 cm, and 7.2 +/- 3.9 cm, respectively, which were also significantly different (analysis of variance, p = 0.027). The recovery distributions were more symmetric and less skewed than those for break. For each grade level, there was a strong positive relationship between NPC recovery and NPC break, but the difference between NPC recovery and break had a low correlation with the NPC break. SUMMARY: Kindergartners had somewhat better NPC breaks than third or sixth graders, whereas no clear age trend was present for NPC recovery. A supporting study using a random sample of clinic patients (aged 10-12 years) suggests that patients with NPC breaks > 6 cm are more than twice as likely to be symptomatic than patients with NPC breaks < or = 6 cm. Based on these results and the NPC break distributions in this study, a clinical cutoff value of 6 cm is suggested for patients of elementary school age. A cutoff value in the 6- to 10-cm range is recommended for children of elementary school age in a screening context. The exact value within this range depends on the level of concern with identifying patients who have visual signs and symptoms associated with a receded NPC.

Hayes GJ; Cohen BE; Rouse MW; De Land PN

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220 Section 17.220...Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. This section applies to preschool...elementary, secondary, and adult education programs or activities...

2012-10-01

302

Concept Mapping in Science Class: A Case Study of Fifth Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this research project was to determine the effects of incorporating concept mapping on the achievement of fifth grade students in science class. The study was conducted with twenty-three students at Ata Elementary School, Trabzon, Turkey. The students were tested with teacher-constructed pre- and post tests containing 20…

Asan, Askin

2007-01-01

303

Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

304

Oral Language Expectations for African American Children in Grades 1 through 5  

Science.gov (United States)

Reference profiles for characterizing the language abilities of elementary-grade African American students are important for assessment and instructional planning. H. K. Craig and J. A. Washington (2002) reported performance for 100 typically developing preschoolers and kindergartners on 5 traditional language measures: mean length of…

Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.; Thompson, Connie A.

2005-01-01

305

A Multiliteracies Pedagogy: Exploring Semiotic Possibilities of a Disney Video in a Third Grade Diverse Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Disney videos are used across the US as important materials for teaching language arts and literacy in elementary schools. However, how pupils make meaning of the videos has not been sufficiently investigated in educational research. Twenty-five third-grade pupils were taught comprehension skills using "Sleeping Beauty." The students created their…

Ajayi, Lasisi

2011-01-01

306

Evaluation of MAA Program for 4-6 Grade Students by Its Participants as Adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The More Academically Able (MAA) class for students at the fourth to sixth grade levels of elementary school with I.Q.s higher than 120 had a significantly positive influence on its participants. Fifteen of the students involved were given a retrospective survey evaluating the program. The results showed the program as being beneficial.…

Huffman, Sondra

1983-01-01

307

Concept Mapping in Science Class: A Case Study of Fifth Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research project was to determine the effects of incorporating concept mapping on the achievement of fifth grade students in science class. The study was conducted with twenty-three students at Ata Elementary School, Trabzon, Turkey. The students were tested with teacher-constructed pre- and post tests containing 20…

Asan, Askin

2007-01-01

308

A Curriculum Plan for the Columbus Zoo Aquarium. Grades 3 through 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This curriculum plan is submitted as a framework for developing educational programs at the Columbus Zoo Aquarium (CZA) for elementary school students in grades 3 through 6. It is intended to provide support and assistance to those involved with CZA programs. Major sections include: (1) "Review of Columbus Zoo's Educational Programs"; (2)…

Alsdorf, Brian

309

Exploring Music Practice among Sixth-Grade Band and Orchestra Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to describe the practice motivation and regulation of sixth-grade instrumentalists (11-12 years of age). A sample of 224 US band and orchestra students, representing 85 elementary schools, completed a 36-item practice inventory and produced two narratives depicting a typical practice session and a practice episode…

Austin, James R.; Berg, Margaret Haefner

2006-01-01

310

Culture Connection Project: promoting multiculturalism in elementary schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To promote multiculturalism among grade school students through drama education. PARTICIPANTS: Grade 3-6 students (N = 665) from 6 targeted schools including lead-class students (n = 158) representing each school. SETTINGS: Elementary schools in Windsor-Essex County, Ontario, Canada. INTERVENTION: In this non-experimental design study, group discussions conducted with each lead class to explore students' understanding of multiculturalism were developed into an interactive drama performance and performed for all grades 3-6 students in their respective schools. A follow-up drama workshop was offered to each lead class one week after the drama performance. All students completed a 7-item questionnaire before and after the drama performance and after the drama workshop. Pre-test and post-test data collected were analyzed using T-test and ANOVA to determine the effects of drama education on students' attitudes toward multiculturalism. OUTCOMES: Statistical analysis at 0.05 significance level revealed that both the performance and the drama workshop heightened students' awareness of racism, and instilled cultural respect through "talking with others", "accepting others", and "believing that they can make a difference" in multiculturalism promotion. CONCLUSION: Drama education was an effective experiential tool for promoting multiculturalism in a school setting. The key to promoting inter-racial harmony is to respect and accept individual differences and to broaden the social determinants of health by providing culture safety care.

Matuk LY; Ruggirello T

2007-01-01

311

PRIMARY SCHOOL 6th CLASS STUDENTS’ SKILL OF USING THE TYPES OF WORDS ?LKÖ?RET?M ALTINCI SINIF Ö?RENC?LER?N?N KEL?ME TÜRLER?N? KULLANMA BECER?LER?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study has been made in order to detect the primary school 6th class students’skill of using the types of words. The study has a descriptive quality. Primary school 6th class students in Ankara make up the study environment. The participants consist of 211 6th class students from three socioeconomically different (low, middle and high) level in Ankara city center. Students were asked to write two informative and narrative texts in order to detect the skill of using the types of words. In order to determine the factors that effect the acquisition of using the types of words. A questionnaire is applied which contains the topics of sex, kindergarten education, parents’educational level. As a result, we found out that female students, the students with kindergarten education, have used more words type than men and students with no kindergarten education, respectively. We also observed that the education level of parents also affected the writing skill of students. In addition to that, effect on writing skill of the school environment and the socioeconomic level of school were found significant. Bu çal??ma evrenini Ankara’da ö?renim gören ilkö?retim 6. s?n?f ö?rencileri olu?turdu?u sosyoekonomik düzeyleri dü?ük, orta ve yüksek olan üç ilkö?retim okulunda gerçekle?tirilmi?tir. ?lkö?retim 6. s?n?fta okuyan 211 ö?renciye bilgilendirici ve öyküleyici türde iki farkl? metin yazd?r?lm??t?r. Çal??ma sonucunda k?z ö?rencilerin yazd?klar? metinlerde erkek ö?rencilere göre daha fazla kelime türünü kulland??? tespit edilmi?tir. Okul öncesi e?itim alan ö?rencilere ait metinlerde, okul öncesi e?itim almayan ö?rencilere göre kelime türlerine daha fazla yer verdikleri ayr?ca anne ve babalar?n?n e?itim seviyesinin ö?rencilerin kelime türlerini kullanma becerilerinde fark yaratt??? ve okulun bulundu?u çevrenin sosyoekonomik düzeyinin ö?rencilerin kelime türlerini kullanma becerileri üzerinde anlaml? fark olu?turdu?u tespit edilmi?tir.

Fatma AÇIK; Ekrem GÖZO?LU

2010-01-01

312

Repercussão clínica da reclassificação dos carcinomas diferenciados de tireóide de acordo com a 6ª edição do TNM Clinical repercussion of the 6th edition TNM staging system classification on differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A classificação TNM segundo a UICC é usada para avaliar os resultados do acompanhamento do carcinoma de tireóide. A 6ª edição modificou a descrição do tumor primário (T), dos linfonodos regionais (N) e dos grupos de estadiamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a habilidade das 5ª e 6ª edições em predizer resultados. As duas classificações foram aplicadas em uma análise retrospectiva de 90 pacientes do HUCFF. Sessenta e nove pacientes apresentavam carcinoma papilífero, 14 folicular, 4 células de Hürthle e 3 misto. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por um período médio de 58,3 meses. Ao final do acompanhamento, 49 pacientes estavam em remissão, 23 com doença persistente, 4 com recorrência tumoral, 11 com metástases e 3 evoluíram para o óbito. De acordo com a 6ª edição, 19 pacientes foram classificados como T1, comparado com 7 pela 5ª edição; 19 pacientes T2 comparado com 30; 14 classificados como T3 comparado com 10; 22 como T4 comparado com 27, e 16 pacientes como Tx. Ambas as edições mostraram remissões comparáveis para os estágios I, II e III. Para o estágio IV houve uma mudança significativa na remissão, entretanto não houve diferença comparando IV e IV C.The TNM classification of UICC is used for predicting the outcome of thyroid cancer. The 6th edition changed the description of primary tumor (T), regional lymph node (N) and the staging group. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of the 5th and the 6th editions to predict outcome. The two classifications were applied in a retrospective analysis of 90 patients from HUCFF. Sixty-nine patients had papillary carcinoma, 14 follicular, 4 Hürthle cell, and 3 mixed. Patients were followed for a mean period of 58.3 months. At the end of follow-up, 49 patients were disease-free, 23 persisted with disease, 4 had cervical recurrence, 11 had metastases and 3 died. According to the 6th edition, 19 patients were classified as T1, compared to 7 based on the 5th edition; 19 patients were T2 compared to 30; 14 were T3 compared to 10; 22 were T4 compared to 27, and 16 patients were Tx. Both editions showed comparable remissions for stages I, II, and III. For the stage IV there was a significant change in remission, however there was no difference comparing IV and IV C.

Vanessa M. Varandas; Sabrina Mendes Coelho; Ana Paula V. Soeiro; Cláudia Medina Coeli; Denise Pires de Carvalho; Alexandru Buescu; Mário Vaisman

2007-01-01

313

Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available software to support problem solving and understanding of real life situations. We emphasize the use of graphical and numerical techniques, rather than theoretical techniques, to investigate and analyze the behavior of the solutions of the difference equations.As an illustration of our approach, we will show a nontraditional and efficient way of introducing models from finance and economics. We will also present an interesting model of supply and demand with a lag time, which is called the cobweb theorem in economics. We introduce a sample of a research project on a technique of removing chaotic behavior from a chaotic system.

Mazen Shahin

2010-01-01

314

Prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida nos alunos da primeira série do ensino fundamental das redes pública estadual e privada de Londrina-PR, no ano de 2000 Reduced visual acuity prevalence in first grade school children of elementary state public and private schools of Londrina - PR, Brazil, in 2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida em estudantes da 1ª série do ensino fundamental das redes pública estadual e privada de Londrina -- PR, zona urbana; comparar essas prevalências; verificar e comparar a prevalência de escolares utilizando correção óptica por ocasião do teste de acuidade visual e descrever as causas da acuidade visual reduzida nessa população. Métodos: Teste de acuidade visual foi realizado em 1688 alunos das escolas públicas estaduais e 611 alunos das escolas privadas. As crianças com acuidade visual menor ou igual a 0,7 foram encaminhadas para exame oftalmológico. Resultados: A prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida foi de 17,1% na rede pública estadual e 19,8% na rede privada, cuja diferença não tem significância estatística. A prevalência de escolares usando óculos foi de 2,4% na rede estadual e de 3,6% na rede privada; sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre estes resultados. As causas de acuidade visual reduzida foram erro refracional, ambliopia, estrabismo e outras causas. Conclusão: A prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida entre escolares das redes pública estadual e privada foi estatisticamente igual, bem como a prevalência de escolares utilizando correção óptica. As causas de acuidade visual reduzida foram erro refracional, ambliopia, estrabismo, afacia por catarata congênita, catarata congênita zonular, persistência de vítreo primário hiperplásico, palidez do nervo óptico e alteração macular.Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of reduced visual acuity in students of elementary state public and private schools of Londrina's urban area; to compare the prevalence of reduced visual acuity in children of state public and private schools; to analyze and compare the prevalence of children wearing eye-glasses, and to describe the causes of reduced vision in this population. Methods: The visual acuity test was performed in 1688 school children of state public schools and in 611 school children of private schools. The children with visual acuity 0.7 or worse in one of the eyes were directed to a ophthalmic examination. Results: The reduced visual acuity prevalence in school children was 17.1% in state public schools, and 19.8% in private schools; this difference does not have statistical significance. The prevalence of children wearing eyeglasses was 2.4% in state public schools and 3.6% in private schools, without statistical significance between these results. The causes of reduced visual acuity were refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus and other causes. Conclusion: The prevalence of reduced visual acuity in students of elementary state public and private schools was statistically the same, as well as the prevalence of children wearing eyeglasses. The causes of reduced visual acuity were refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus, congenital cataract aphakia, zonular congenital cataract, persistent of the hyperplastic primary vitreous, optic nerve atrophy and macular disorder.

Gerson Jorge Aparecido Lopes; Antônio Marcelo Barbante Casella; Cristiane Assami Chuí

2002-01-01

315

Prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida nos alunos da primeira série do ensino fundamental das redes pública estadual e privada de Londrina-PR, no ano de 2000/ Reduced visual acuity prevalence in first grade school children of elementary state public and private schools of Londrina - PR, Brazil, in 2000  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida em estudantes da 1ª série do ensino fundamental das redes pública estadual e privada de Londrina -- PR, zona urbana; comparar essas prevalências; verificar e comparar a prevalência de escolares utilizando correção óptica por ocasião do teste de acuidade visual e descrever as causas da acuidade visual reduzida nessa população. Métodos: Teste de acuidade visual foi realizado em 1688 alunos das escol (more) as públicas estaduais e 611 alunos das escolas privadas. As crianças com acuidade visual menor ou igual a 0,7 foram encaminhadas para exame oftalmológico. Resultados: A prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida foi de 17,1% na rede pública estadual e 19,8% na rede privada, cuja diferença não tem significância estatística. A prevalência de escolares usando óculos foi de 2,4% na rede estadual e de 3,6% na rede privada; sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre estes resultados. As causas de acuidade visual reduzida foram erro refracional, ambliopia, estrabismo e outras causas. Conclusão: A prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida entre escolares das redes pública estadual e privada foi estatisticamente igual, bem como a prevalência de escolares utilizando correção óptica. As causas de acuidade visual reduzida foram erro refracional, ambliopia, estrabismo, afacia por catarata congênita, catarata congênita zonular, persistência de vítreo primário hiperplásico, palidez do nervo óptico e alteração macular. Abstract in english Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of reduced visual acuity in students of elementary state public and private schools of Londrina's urban area; to compare the prevalence of reduced visual acuity in children of state public and private schools; to analyze and compare the prevalence of children wearing eye-glasses, and to describe the causes of reduced vision in this population. Methods: The visual acuity test was performed in 1688 school children of state public schools a (more) nd in 611 school children of private schools. The children with visual acuity 0.7 or worse in one of the eyes were directed to a ophthalmic examination. Results: The reduced visual acuity prevalence in school children was 17.1% in state public schools, and 19.8% in private schools; this difference does not have statistical significance. The prevalence of children wearing eyeglasses was 2.4% in state public schools and 3.6% in private schools, without statistical significance between these results. The causes of reduced visual acuity were refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus and other causes. Conclusion: The prevalence of reduced visual acuity in students of elementary state public and private schools was statistically the same, as well as the prevalence of children wearing eyeglasses. The causes of reduced visual acuity were refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus, congenital cataract aphakia, zonular congenital cataract, persistent of the hyperplastic primary vitreous, optic nerve atrophy and macular disorder.

Lopes, Gerson Jorge Aparecido; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Chuí, Cristiane Assami

2002-12-01

316

Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band  

Science.gov (United States)

The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

Moore, Patience

2009-01-01

317

Some Formulae for Norms of Elementary Operators  

CERN Multimedia

We present a formula for the norm of an elementary operator on a C*-algebra that seems to be new. The formula involves (matrix) numerical ranges and a kind of geometrical mean for positive matrices, the tracial geometric mean, which seems not to have been studied previously and has interesting properties. In addition, we characterise compactness of elementary operators.

Timoney, R M

2005-01-01

318

Lubin-Tate extensions, an elementary approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We give an elementary proof of the assertion that the Lubin-Tate extension L?K is an Abelian extension whose Galois group is isomorphic to UK/NL/K(UL) for arbitrary fields K that have Henselian discrete valuation rings with finite residue fields. The term 'elementary' only means that the proofs are algebraic (that is, no transcedental methods are used)

2007-12-31

319

Functionally graded boron carbide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

1998-12-31

320

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

1991-12-01

322

Development of Interests and Competency Beliefs: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study of Fifth- to Eighth-Grade Students Using the ICA-R and Structural Equation Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

|The relative influence of interest and self-efficacy beliefs on each other over 1 year was examined in 2 longitudinal samples of students, 1 of elementary school students (Grade 5, N = 126) and 1 of middle school students (Grade 7, N = 221). Interest and competence ratings on the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and…

Tracey, Terence J. G.

2002-01-01

323

Impact of English Instruction at The Elementary Schools on The Students' Achievement of English at The Lower Secondary School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study is intended to examine the effect of time of learning, English teachers' characteristics, teaching and learning process characteristics, socio-economic context and students' characteristics in the teaching of English at the elementary schools on the students' achievement of English at the first year of lower secondary school. Two kinds of research designs were implemented, an ex post facto and a tracer study. Therefore, the data were collected in two ways in order to (1) discover the students' English achievement at the lower secondary school and (2) observe the prior English instruction at the elementary school. The study adopted the statistical analysis of multiple regressions. The subjects consisted of 172 students who obtained the English instruction at the third and fourth grades of the elementary school, 172 students' parents, and 31 English teachers in the five (5) sub districts of Pemerintah Kota Malang. The students were to do the communicative English test and fill out two kinds of questionnaires; whereas, the teachers were interviewed. The students' parents had also to fill out a questionnaire on their perception on the English instruction at the elementary school. The finding shows that there is an impact of the teaching English starting at the fourth grade of elementary school on the students' achievement of English at the first year of lower secondary school

Sri Rachmajanti

2008-01-01

324

Teaching energy awareness to the elementary age child  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report describes a 3-week workshop for elementary school teachers that had three components: (1) a review of the basic physical principles governing energy and its use; (2) an introduction to the many available teacher resources concerning energy; and (3) a one-week practicum where the teacher participants were able to field-test some of the materials they developed with elementary-age children. Lectures and demonstrations covered such basic topics as mechanics, heat, electricity, energy resources and uses. Teachers were provided with a wide variety of free or inexpensive printed materials and classroom resources. Some of these resources served as the basis for the construction of lesson plans or student activities. Audio-visual resources were previewed and evaluated. Participants performed several experiments and constructed many learning activities for use with elementary children. Field trips to solar and underground homes, to surface and deep coal mines, and to a hydro electric plant gave participants first-hand energy experiences. During the final week of the workshop, teachers participated in a practicum experience with sixty children enrolled in a special Energy Week program sponsored by The College of Education and The Alabama Museum. Four classrooms of fifteen children each were taught by teams of teachers who planned lessons, activities and field trips appropriate for the age of the children. The twenty-four participants are teachers in grades K-6 and represented school systems from across Alabama. They developed plans for teaching energy in their classroom. A final meeting on January 22, 1983 will provide an opportunity for participants to share their teaching experiences.

Jones, S.T.; Rountree, B.

1982-01-01

325

Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

2011-01-01

326

Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini; Mohd Maarof Moksin; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Monir Norozi; W. Mahmood Mat Yunus; Azmi Zakaria

2011-01-01

327

Physical properties of normal grade biodiesel and winter grade biodiesel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Sadrolhosseini AR; Moksin MM; Nang HL; Norozi M; Yunus WM; Zakaria A

2011-01-01

328

Physical properties of normal grade biodiesel and winter grade biodiesel.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429

Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

2011-03-25

329

Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students’ comprehension proficiencies. This experimental research study explores the use of an anticipatory reading guide with third grade struggling readers across multiple subject areas. Findings indicate that the experimental treatment group outperformed the control group by a statistically significant rate on both reading and content area measures, indicating that when struggling readers practice and use strategies to explicitly think what will be asked of them after reading the passage they perform at higher levels.

Evan Ortlieb

2013-01-01

330

Possible brain injury events and symptoms in elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Primary objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential mild brain injury incidents accompanied by behavioural changes in a non-clinical population of elementary school-aged children. The researchers also examined data regarding the occurrence of possible brain injuries among regular vs special education students. Research design: Survey study. Methods and procedures: The researchers distributed questionnaires through which parents or guardians of 692 first-to-fifth grade students provided information about possible brain injury incidents and associated behavioural changes. Main outcomes and results: Findings suggest that as many as one-third of children experience one or more incidents potentially resulting in brain injury before completing elementary school. Despite this, only 7.66% of the sample received positive screen results because of behavioural changes associated with a potential incident. None of the 53 children with positive screens were receiving special education services through the traumatic brain injury category of IDEA at the time of the screening. Positive screens were more common among students verified for special education than those enrolled in regular education. Specifically, 25.40% of positive screen results were for children identified with a disability warranting special education services; in contrast, only 5.90% of regular education students received positive screen results.

Hux K; Dymacek R; Childers C

2013-08-01

331

Possible brain injury events and symptoms in elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Primary objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential mild brain injury incidents accompanied by behavioural changes in a non-clinical population of elementary school-aged children. The researchers also examined data regarding the occurrence of possible brain injuries among regular vs special education students. Research design: Survey study. Methods and procedures: The researchers distributed questionnaires through which parents or guardians of 692 first-to-fifth grade students provided information about possible brain injury incidents and associated behavioural changes. Main outcomes and results: Findings suggest that as many as one-third of children experience one or more incidents potentially resulting in brain injury before completing elementary school. Despite this, only 7.66% of the sample received positive screen results because of behavioural changes associated with a potential incident. None of the 53 children with positive screens were receiving special education services through the traumatic brain injury category of IDEA at the time of the screening. Positive screens were more common among students verified for special education than those enrolled in regular education. Specifically, 25.40% of positive screen results were for children identified with a disability warranting special education services; in contrast, only 5.90% of regular education students received positive screen results.

Hux K; Dymacek R; Childers C

2013-01-01

332

Functionally Graded Materials VII.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit spatial variations, in composition and/or microstructure, which have been imposed for the specific purpose of controlling the resultant variations in the thermal, structural or functional properties. During the...

J. Gong L. Chen L. Zhang W. Pan

2003-01-01

333

Graded Majorana spinors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many mathematical and physical contexts, spinors are treated as Grassmann odd valued fields. We show that it is possible to extend the classification of reality conditions on such spinors by a new type of Majorana condition. In order to define this graded Majorana condition we make use of pseudo-conjugation, a rather unfamiliar extension of complex conjugation to supernumbers. Like the symplectic Majorana condition, the graded Majorana condition may be imposed, for example, in spacetimes in which the standard Majorana condition is inconsistent. However, in contrast to the symplectic condition, which requires duplicating the number of spinor fields, the graded condition can be imposed on a single Dirac spinor. We illustrate how graded Majorana spinors can be applied to supersymmetry by constructing a globally supersymmetric field theory in three-dimensional Euclidean space, an example of a spacetime where standard Majorana spinors do not exist.

2006-04-07

334

Measures of fit and discomfort for elementary school children in Serbia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Assessing physical ergonomic factors within the classroom environment creates new opportunities to support designs that promote student well-being. Student-aged anthropometric data helps guide proper desk fit assessment, therefore facilitating scholastic performance through the reduction of distractions such as physical discomfort. OBJECTIVE: This study reports dimensions of fit between student anthropometry and the desk environment (classroom seating conditions), for grade-school aged children in Serbia. Measurements of the children and their desks are compared to subjective reports of discomfort. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-seven elementary school students, grade 2 (ages 7-8; n=29) and grade 4 (ages 9-10; n=28), were enrolled in this study. All participants were from the same elementary school in the city of Nis, Serbia. METHODS: Seventeen anthropometric measurements of students were collected using standard anthropometric instruments. Eight measurements of student work desks and chairs were also collected. Students were evaluated by a physiatrist to assess health issues and completed a novel questionnaire about musculoskeletal discomfort for different body parts. Student fit to the classroom seat and desk was assessed structurally and subjectively. Data analysis included descriptive anthropometric measurements and inferential statistics including Chi square analysis. RESULTS: Results indicated age-related differences in body part discomfort for grade 2 and grade 4 students, arm discomfort reported over 50% of second grade students, and neck/upper back discomfort was reported as the highest of all body parts (32%) for students in the fourth grade. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric variables and preliminary analysis of fit as it relates to reported discomfort are discussed, as are external factors of backpack use and seated video/computer-game use. International comparisons of anthropometric data are discussed and serve to inform new considerations of ergonomics research for school children.

Feathers D; Pavlovic-Veselinovic S; Hedge A

2013-01-01

335

Reg geology: An elementary introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of these notes is to given an elementary introduction to the ideas underlying the Regge-type models. In lectures 1 and 2 the connection between the exchange models and the Regge form of the amplitude is shown. In lecture 3 the analytic continuation of the amplitude from the t-channel to the s-schanel is considered, leading to the Regge-type expression, and then (lecture 4), some phenomenological applications are discussed. Lectures 5 and 6 are a generalization of 3 and 4 to the scattering of non-zero spin particles. finally (lectures 7,8 and 9) Regge cuts are introduced and new phenomenological applications are discussed. (Author)

1973-01-01

336

Properties of elementary flare bursts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From a study of eight hard X-ray flares, all with durations of less than five minutes, it is found that these flares can be completely decomposed into short-lived bursts, called Elementary Flare Bursts (EFB). For each one flare the individual EFB's have approximatively the same Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM); average values range between 4 s +- 1 s) and 24 s (+- 5 s) for the different flares. Yet there are significant differences between the FWHM's for the individual EFB's of a flare. The EFB's are slightly asymmetric; rise time is approx. 0.9 of the decay time. Their half-widths decrease with increasing photon energy, proportional to Esup(-0.69+-0.05). (Auth.)

1978-01-01

337

Tracking and imaging elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider is one of the most powerful particle accelerators ever built. It smashes electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons, releasing as much as 100 billion electron volts of energy within each of four enormous detectors. Each burst of energy generates a spray of hundreds of elementary particles that are monitored by hundreds of thousands of sensors. In less than a second, an electronic system must sort through the data from some 50,000 electron-positron encounters, searching for just one or two head-on collisions that might lead to discoveries about the fundamental forces and the elementary particles of nature. When the electronic systems identify such a promising event, a picture of the data must be transmitted to the most ingenious image processor ever created. The device is the human brain. Computers cannot match the brain's capacity to recognize complicated patterns in the data collected by the LEP detectors. The work of understanding subnuclear events begins therefore through the visualization of objects that are trillions of times smaller than the eye can see and that move millions of times faster than the eye can follow. During the past decade, the authors and their colleagues at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) have attempted to design the perfect interface between the minds of physicists and the barrage of electronic signals from the LEP detectors. Using sophisticated computers, they translate raw data - 500,000 numbers from each event - into clear, meaningful images. With shapes, curves and colors, they represent the trajectories of particles, their type, their energy and many other properties

1991-01-01

338

Myopization factors affecting urban elementary school students in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate factors that may contribute to the myopization of urban elementary school students in Taiwan. METHODS: Grades 1 to 6 students of the same racial background (n = 1894; mean age, 6.3-11.3 years) in three schools, located in Tamsui, Taichung, and Tainan, were refracted to obtain the best corrected visual acuity. The refractive power needed for best corrected visual acuity was used for subsequent statistical analysis. On behalf of their children, parents also completed a questionnaire on six categories of potential myopization variables. Correlation between these variables and the increase or decrease in the refractive error was assessed. The predictive value of each variable was also calculated based on linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall mean refractive error in grades 1 to 6 was -0.37, -0.68, -1.33, -1.60, -1.90, and -2.51 D, respectively. The prevalence of myopia (-1.00 D or more minus) showed a significant difference between grades 2 and 3 and, again, between grades 5 and 6. In addition, 20 potential modulating factors were evaluated; 65.9% of the change in the refractive error could be explained by four: (1) lag in optimal correction, defined as a -1.00-D deficit between new refractive error and current optical correction; (2) outdoor spectacle wear; (3) spectacles for different working distances; and (4) hours spent on reading and writing on weekdays. In contrast, outdoor time and the intake frequency of 36 food items both held very low predictive values of 0.2% and 2.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Each variable associated with the refractive error has a different predictive value, either positive or negative. Ultimately, the interplay of these variables decides the outcome of the pattern and the degree of school myopia.

Cheng CY; Huang W; Su KC; Peng ML; Sun HY; Cheng HM

2013-04-01

339

6th technical report on personnel training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting. Separate abstracts were presented for 3 of the papers in this report. The remaining 9 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.).

1996-01-01

340

6th IT First Tuesday@CERN  

CERN Document Server

Thursday 12 May, 17:30-19:30, Main Auditorium, CERN Data management in the 21st Century: the Petabyte challenge A Petabyte is a million Gigabytes, the equivalent of over 200,000 DVDs. That may seem like an enormous amount of data, but managing such quantities of data is a reality in the world of science, and is increasingly becoming an imperative in the world of business. This IT First Tuesday@CERN presents the Petabyte challenge, and some of the emerging solutions, from both scientific and commercial perspectives. For CERN's Large Hadron Collider, a Grid solution has been chosen to provide the necessary distributed storage capacity for the anticipated 15 Petabytes of data per year that this collider will produce. IBM is CERN's storage partner in the CERN openlab for DataGrid applications, and is testing the companies innovative TotalStorage SAN distributed filesystem in CERN's demanding IT environment. For Lausanne-based VisioWave, managing stored video data provides an extreme storage challenge. For D...

François Grey

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

6th CTF3 Collaboration Meeting  

CERN Multimedia

The sixth CTF3 collaboration meeting was held at CERN from the 1st to the 2nd November 2000. This meeting was devoted to the CTF3 combiner ring, delay loop and transfer lines, with the participation of members of the CLIC study group at CERN and of collaborators from INFN-Frascati. The CTF3 status has been summarized by the project leader, and several members of the INFN-Frascati group have presented an overview of the design activity of the different components. Working group sessions have been held on beam optics, on diagnostics and equipment and on RF deflectors. The main conclusions from the working groups have been reported at the end of the meeting. Issues that have been addressed include prototype design and construction (RF deflectors, path-length tuning wigglers, extraction kicker and vacuum chamber sections) and deadlines for component specifications. The impedance budget for the ring, delay loop and transfer lines, its impact on the choice of beam-position monitors and the problem of beam stability...

6th CTF3 Collaboration Meeting

2000-01-01

342

6th technical report on personnel training  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting. Separate abstracts were presented for 3 of the papers in this report. The remaining 9 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

NONE

1996-09-01

343

Teacher qualification and the achievement gap in early primary grades.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act (P.L. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1245, 2002) holds schools accountable for reducing the academic achievement gap between the different ethnic groups and requires elementary school teachers to have at least a bachelors degree and a state certification. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the qualification requirement of NCLB to the goal of reducing the academic achievement gap. The study found that students with a certified teacher for most of their early school experience scored higher in reading than students who did not have a certified teacher. In addition, certification was associated with slightly narrowing the academic gap between African American and European American students across early elementary grades.

Donald Easton-Brooks; Alan Davis

2009-01-01

344

Prevalência de erros refrativos em escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental da região Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul/ Prevalence of refractive errors in first grade school children of elementary schools of Northeast region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar a prevalência de erros refrativos em estudantes de primeira série das escolas estaduais de Passo Fundo, cidade pólo da região Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 1608 alunos da primeira série do ensino fundamental de 26 escolas estaduais de Passo Fundo, atendidas em 2004. Os dados foram coletados no CEAE (Centro Especializado de Assistência ao Educando), que fez a triagem nas escolas, e no serviço especiali (more) zado, para onde foram encaminhados aqueles com testes alterados. RESULTADOS: Da amostra total, 172 (10,88%) apresentaram baixa de acuidade visual ou algum sintoma de problema visual, recebendo encaminhamento para atendimento oftalmológico. Apenas 88 (51,16%) dos encaminhados compareceram à consulta. A média de idade foi de 7,10 anos (DP= 1,38). Entre as crianças examinadas, 70,46% possuíam algum erro refracional, sendo a hipermetropia e o astigmatismo os mais comuns (encontrado em 45,45% e 10,23% dos alunos examinados, respectivamente). A miopia foi o erro refracional menos prevalente, presente em 10,23% dos escolares atendidos. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou prevalência de 3,92% de erros refrativos na população de escolares estudada, embora a abstenção elevada possa estar subestimando esse percentual. Percebe-se a necessidade da realização de programas que enfoquem uma maior adesão dos alunos ao encaminhamento, na tentativa de evitar o não diagnóstico de problemas oculares facilmente tratáveis na infância. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze the prevalence of refractive errors among first-graders in state schools of Passo Fundo, main city of the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1608 first-graders in 26 elementary state schools of Passo Fundo, evaluated in 2004. The data were collected by the CEAE (Specialized Center for Student Assistance), which was in charge of the screening at the schools, and by the specialized service, to w (more) hich those students with abnormal test results were referred. RESULTS: 172 (10.88%) of the sampled individuals showed poor visual acuity or some symptoms of visual disorders, and were then referred for specialized ophthalmic examination. However, only 88 (51.16%) of the referred patients turned up for the examination. The mean age was 7.10 years (DP= 1,38). Among all evaluated, 70,46% of them had some refractive disorder, of wich hyperopia and astigmatism were the most frequent ones, having been reported in 45.45% and 10.23% of the children, respectively. The myopia were the less frequent refractive disorder, reported in 10,23% of the school children who turned up for examination. CONCLUSION: The study showed a prevalence of 3,92% of refractive errors in the population studied, although the high abstention can be underestimating this percentage. We can realize, from that on, the need of the creation of programs focused in a bigger adhesion of the students to the reference to a specialized service, in the attempt of avoiding the lack of diagnosis of easily treatable disorders in childhood.

Estacia, Paulo; Stramari, Leandro Mazzoleni; Schuch, Silvia Bassani; Negrello, Danielle; Donato, Luciane

2007-10-01

345

PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION IN SPECIAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some of the student's in special elementary school does not continue their future education, because of a lot of different reasons. Professional orientation team must take all of the activities needed for approving on condition.

Zlatko PETREVSKI

2000-01-01

346

Systematics for Elastic Scattering of Elementary Particles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The function (do/dlnt)½ against (t)½ gives rise to a scaling law for elastic scattering of elementary particles on protons, for barycentral angles from 0 to 90°, and for laboratory momenta from 5 to 25 GeV/c.

Libby, Leona M.

347

REDUCE in elementary particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This preprint is the second part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains examples of calculations in quantum electrodynamics. 5 refs

1990-01-01

348

Elementary submodels and separable monotonically normal compacta  

CERN Multimedia

In this note, we use elementary submodels to prove that a separable monotonically normal compactum can be mapped on a separable metric space via a continuous function whose fibers have cardinality at most 2.

Eisworth, T

2006-01-01

349

Exploring the Impact of Handcraft Activities on the Creativity of Female Students at the Elementary Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creativity has been one of the interesting issues in the field of education and has been subject of some studies. But studying the effect of using handcraft on the enhancing learners’ creativity at early stages of education has not been focused on in many studies. Therefore, in this study an effort was made to explore the effect of using handcrafts on the enhancement of the creativity among the learners at elementary schools. The participants in this study were 64 female students who were selected randomly from elementary school learners at grade five in Tehran. For data collection Torrens Creativity Test was used and data gathering was done through pre-test and post-test. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and ANOVA analysis. The data analysis revealed that using handcraft as an instrument was significantly effective in enhancing students’ score in originality, flexibility and elaboration at the elementary grades, whereas; there was not any significant difference between their scores in fluency. The findings and their implications are discussed more in detail.

Amir Rezaei; Manijeh Zakariaie

2011-01-01

350

Estudo longitudinal da evolução ponderal de crianças pré-termo do nascimento até o sexto mês pós-termo Longitudinal study of weight gain in preterm infants from birth to the 6th post-term month  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se a dinâmica do crescimento em peso de 95 recém-nascidos pré-termo adequados para a idade gestacional, do nascimento até o sexto mês pós-termo. As crianças estudadas foram divididas em 4 grupos, segundo a idade em semanas com que nasceram - 33, 34, 35 e 36 semanas de gestação, respectivamente, tendo sido pesadas ao nascer e depois a cada 2 ou 4 semanas. Para cotejo dos resultados foram estudados os incrementos do peso para cada grupo nas mesmas idades corrigidas, tendo o seguimento sido efetuado até 64 semanas de idade pós-menstrual, equivalente ao sexto mês pós-termo. Os resultados evidenciaram que nas duas primeiras semanas de vida pós-natal o ganho ponderal foi pequeno, aumentando consideravelmente nas semanas subseqüentes, mantendo incremento periódico (VCI) quase constante nos 4 grupos nos primeiros meses de vida, porém a velocidade de crescimento por unidade (VCU) apresentou valores máximos no primeiro mês pós-natal e queda semelhante nos 4 grupos nos meses seguintes, com valores próximos aos de crianças de países desenvolvidos.The dynamics of weight gain were studied in 95 preterm adequate for gestational age infants between birth and their 6th post-term month. The infants were divided into 4 groups according to the number of weeks of gestation at birth, i.e., 33, 34, 35 and 36 weeks, respectively. To compare the results, weight gains were studied for each group of the same corrected ages up to the 64th week of post-menstrual age, corresponding to the 6th post-term month. Weigth gain was small during the first 2 weeks of post-natal life but increased considerably over the subsequent weeks with an almost constant periodical increment (GRI) being maintained in all 4 groups during the first months of life. However, unit growth rate (UGR) reached its highest value during the first post-natal month and decreased a similary in all 4 groups during the subsequent months, with values approximating to those reported for infants in developed countries.

Josepha Bandeira de Souza; Arthur Lopes Gonçalves; Gérson Mucillo

1992-01-01

351

Elementary particles as higher-dimensional tachyons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Elementary particles are described as higher-dimensional tachyonic modes. Their electromagnetic inertial mass would not match the gravitational mass unless their scalar hypercharge vanishes. The corresponding unified geometry surrounding an elementary electric monopole is extracted. Remarkably, the ingoing five-dimensional geodetic lines, associated with like-sign charged test particles, cannot classically penetrate the finite three-dimensional spherical core on which the extra-dimensional circle shrinks to a point. (orig.)

1986-09-04

352

Lubin-Tate extensions, an elementary approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We give an elementary proof of the assertion that the Lubin-Tate extension L{>=}K is an Abelian extension whose Galois group is isomorphic to U{sub K}/N{sub L/K}(U{sub L}) for arbitrary fields K that have Henselian discrete valuation rings with finite residue fields. The term 'elementary' only means that the proofs are algebraic (that is, no transcedental methods are used)

Ershov, Yu L [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2007-12-31

353

Research on and Application of Readability of Approved Elementary School English Textbooks in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since it became possible for textbooks to be published by private-sector publishers and be approved by the government, it has become obvious that we need more objective and simple evaluation methods not only for publishers, but also for schools. In many countries, readability is widely adopted as an evaluation criterion; however in Taiwan, the elementary school English textbooks are rarely evaluated according to readability. The present research examines the readability of different versions of elementary school English textbooks. The main purpose is to find a readability formula that can be used to evaluate elementary school English textbooks in Taiwan. In doing so, Fryinator readability software was employed to analyze variables, and four effective formulas (Flesch Reading Ease, Fog index , Flesch-Kincaid readability formula, and SMOG formula) were used to test grade level readability. By comparing the difficulty scale proclaimed by each textbook, it's expected that a formula can be used to account for evaluation results. The results show that the formulas frequently used to test readability are unable to correctly evaluate the difficulty scale of the textbooks. There is no readability formula which corresponds to the textbook evaluation criterion in Taiwan, therefore, a suitable formula needs to be established to evaluate elementary school English textbooks in Taiwan.

Pei-Jen Song; Cheng-Chang Jeng

2009-01-01

354

Service-Learning in Introductory Chemistry: Supplementing Chemistry Curriculum in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The pedagogy of service-learning is becoming an accepted method of connecting college classrooms to the community. A service-learning course component has been successfully incorporated into the second quarter of Introductory Chemistry (Chem 120) at Kalamazoo College. Students in Chem 120 design inquiry-based laboratory experiments related to course material for students in grades K 6. The Chem 120 students then conduct these experiments with assigned classes at a local elementary school. This project reinforces course material for the college students while supplementing the elementary school's science curriculum and exposing children to topics they otherwise would not learn. In addition to providing a context for college students to make connections between textbook concepts and real life processes, this project also offers a chance to improve other skills, such as problem solving and communication. Surveys of the Chem 120 students and comments from the elementary school community demonstrate that the project is successful overall and is a way to interest students at all levels in chemistry. This paper discusses the methods used to conduct and assess this service-learning project, survey results, comments from the elementary school community, and the effect of this project on the number of chemistry majors at Kalamazoo College.

Esson, Joan M.; Stevens-Truss, Regina; Thomas, Anne

2005-08-01

355

Elementary Science Indoors and Out: Teachers, Time, and Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we present the results from a mixed-methods research study aimed to document indoor and outdoor fifth grade science experiences in one school in the USA in the context of accountability and standardized testing. We used quantitative measures to explore students' science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels, and via qualitative measures, we examined views on science education and environmental issues from multiple sources, including the school's principal, teachers, and students. Students' science knowledge in each of the four objectives specified for grade 5 significantly improved during the school year. Qualitative data collected through interviews and observations found limited impressions of outdoor science. Findings revealed that, despite best intentions and a school culture that supported outdoor learning, it was very difficult in practice for teachers to supplement their classroom science instruction with outdoor activities. They felt constrained by time and heavy content demands and decided that the most efficient way of delivering science instruction was through traditional methods. Researchers discuss potentials and obstacles for the science community to consider in supporting teachers and preparing elementary school teachers to provide students with authentic experiential learning opportunities. We further confront teachers' and students' perceptions that science is always best and most efficiently learned inside the classroom through traditional text-driven instruction.

Carrier, Sarah J.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Thomson, Margareta M.

2013-10-01

356

School Size as a Factor in the Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study empirically assessed the relationship between school size and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ontario, Canada. Utilizing data from the Ontario provincial standardized test, the Educational Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), the results of 541 schools from ten school boards, were studied. A One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that overall, there was no statistically significant correlation between school size and student achievement. However, there were significant correlations with respect to levels of performance in both Grades three and six in some curricular areas. Also, further analysis at each independent achievement level revealed that the mean percentage of students achieving at stipulated provincial standards in Grade three writing and in Grade six reading, writing and mathematics were highest in large sized schools (schools with more than 420 students). Results further indicated that the mean percentage of students performing above provincial standards in Grade six reading and writing was also highest in large schools. Students in medium sized schools (between 246 and 420 students) also had the highest mean percentage of students performing above provincial standards in Grade three writing and in Grade six mathematics. The limitations and implications of the results are discussed, and relevant suggestions made.

Kerry Reimer Jones; Anthony Nnajiofor Ezeife

2011-01-01

357

Strongly graded hereditary orders  

CERN Multimedia

Let R be a Dedekind domain with global quotient field K. The purpose of this note is to provide a characterization of when a strongly graded R-order with semiprime 1-component is hereditary. This generalizes earlier work by the first author and G. Janusz (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 352 (2000), 3381-3410).

Haefner, J; Haefner, Jeremy; Pappacena, Christopher J.

2001-01-01

358

6th European conference on very-low energy consumption buildings 2002 - Forum for energy-efficient building; Passivhaus 02: Tagungsband zur 6. Europaeischen Passivhaustagung 2002 in Basel. 25. und 26. Januar 2002. Forum fuer energieeffiziente Bauweisen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These proceedings of the 6th European conference on very-low energy consumption buildings (the so-called 'Passive houses') that was held in Basle, Switzerland, in 2002 contain the 38 papers presented by internationally known researchers, architects and engineers in the conference's 11 sessions. The topics covered include: State-of-the-art of very-low energy consumption buildings - so-called 'passive' housing, multi-apartment houses, the passive house as a system, renovation to passive house standards, heating and ventilation in passive housing, technologies of the future, high-tech housing estates, modular concepts and inhabitant behaviour as well as 'passive' schools and offices. A further session - a 'future workshop' - was devoted to the topic 'Low energy, light tech'. An office building for 420 workers in Ulm, Germany, is treated in detail. The closing contribution of the conference 'A sustainable future with passive housing' presents a philosophical paper on sustainability and energy efficiency, which the author considers to be of utmost importance and worthy of state support. The proceedings include a list of contributors to the conference as well as a list of the exhibitors present at the accompanying exhibition.

Steinmann, M.

2002-07-01

359

Report on the 3'rd scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Forderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 4'th - Nov. 6'th, 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From November 4th- 6th 2011, the 3rd NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Like in the previous years, the meeting provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects for young colleagues in the fields of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. As kick-off to the scientific sessions, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Head of the Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology in Munich, gave an illustrious overview on the many fascinations of neuroimmunologic research. A particular highlight on the second day of the meeting was the award of the 1'st NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young academics in the field of experimental neurology. This award is posted for young colleagues under the age of 35 with a significant achievement in the field of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration and comprises an amount of 20.000 Euro, founded by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt. Germany. The first prize was awarded to Ivana Nikic from Martin Kerschensteiner's group in Munich for her brilliant work on a reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, published in Nature Medicine in 2011. This first prize award ceremony was a great incentive for the next call for proposals now upcoming in 2012.

Kleinschnitz C; Meuth SG; Magnus T; Korn T; Linker RA

2012-01-01

360

Report of 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors, Yayoi Research Group; 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, the lecture materials of Yayoi Research Group, 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors which was held at the University of Tokyo on March 25, 1996, are collected. This workshop was held also as 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This workshop has the character of the preparatory meeting for the session on `Interface effect in nuclear fusion energy system` of the international workshop `Interface effect in quantum energy system`, and 6 lectures and one comment were given. The topics were deuterium transport in Mo under deuterium ion implantation, the change of the stratum structure of graphite by hydrogen ion irradiation, the tritium behavior in opposing materials, the basic studies of the irradiation effects of solid breeding materials, the research on the behavior of hydroxyl group on the surface of solid breeding materials, the sweep gas effect on the surface of solid breeding materials, and the dynamic behavior of ion-implanted deuterium in proton-conductive oxides. (K.I.)

NONE

1996-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

A Multilevel-Based Study of School Policy for Tobacco Control in Relation to Cigarette Smoking among Children in Elementary Schools: Gender Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to comprehensively examine school-based tobacco policy status, implementation and students' perceived smoking at school in regard to gender-specific differences in smoking behavior. We conducted a multilevel-based study to assess two-level effects for smoking among 2350 grades three to six students in 26 randomly selected elementary

Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Fu-Li; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Chen, Ted; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Shi, Hon-Yi; Hu, Chih-Yang; Lee, Chien-Hung

2010-01-01

362

Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Substance Abuse and Violence in Elementary Students: A Randomized Control Study of the Michigan Model for Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In elementary grades, comprehensive health education curricula mostly have demonstrated effectiveness in addressing singular health issues. The Michigan Model for Health (MMH) was implemented and evaluated to determine its impact on multiple health issues, including social and emotional skills, prosocial behavior, and drug use and…

O'Neill, James M.; Clark, Jeffrey K.; Jones, James A.

2011-01-01

363

The Effects of Praise Notes on the Disruptive Behaviors of Elementary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Residential Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of two secondary tier positive behavioral support strategies, teacher praise notes (TPNs) and peer praise notes (PPNs), were investigated using an alternating treatments single-subject design in residential classroom settings with eight elementary students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in grades one…

Kennedy, Christina

2010-01-01

364

Obtenção de dados normativos para desempenho no teste de Stroop num grupo de estudantes do ensino fundamental em Niterói Assessment of normative data of Stroop test performance in a group of elementary school students in Niterói  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste trabalho foram realizar um estudo de normatização para o teste de Stroop numa amostra brasileira, tradicionalmente aceita como medida de atenção seletiva e flexibilidade mental, usando como referência a versão Victoria do teste, bem como analisar diferenças no desempenho de estudantes de escolas das redes pública e particular, e também investigar diferenças quanto ao sexo, além de observar se aumento de idade e anos de escolaridade favorecem um melhor desempenho no teste. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e dois estudantes de duas escolas (uma particular e outra pública), na faixa etária de 12 a 14 anos, alunos da 6ªà8ªsérie do ensino fundamental, participaram da pesquisa após levantamento do rendimento escolar e entrevista inicial. RESULTADOS: Aanálise estatística dos resultados revelou que os alunos da escola pública tiveram um desempenho significativamente pior em relação aos da particular. Quanto à variável sexo, os resultados não foram significativos e, em relação à idade, o resultado não foi consistente, revelando que essa variável perde a significância quando analisada à luz das seis medidas dependentes do experimento. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem a influência das diferentes condições socioeconômicas, educacionais e culturais a que estão expostos os alunos das duas escolas como uma possível explicação para as diferenças observadas no desempenho no teste.OBJECTIVE: This study had two objectives to perform a normatization of the Stroop test in a Brazilian sample, traditionally accepted as a measure of selective attention and mental flexibility, using as a reference the Victoria test version and to analyze the performance of public and private schools students; investigating differences in regard to sex; to observe if the increase in age and years of education promote a better performance in the above mentioned task. METHODS: One hundred thirty two students of two schools (one private and the other public), in the age range from 12 to 14 years, students from 6th to 8th grades of elementary school, participated in the research, after data on school progress was compiled and the initial interview was conducted. RESULTS: The statistical analysis of the results revealed that the students of the public school had a significantly worse performance in relation to the students of the private school; as to the sex variable, the results were not significant and, as for age, the result was not consistent, revealing that that variable loses significance when analyzed in light of the six dependent measures of the experiment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the influence of the different socio-economic, educational and cultural conditions to which the students from the two schools are exposed, as a possible explanation for the differences observed in regard to the test performance.

Maria Teresa Duncan

2006-01-01

365

Sexual harassment of girls in elementary school: a concealed phenomenon within a heterosexual romantic discourse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of young girls' experiences of peer sexual harassment in elementary school and of normalizing processes of school-related sexualized violence. Six focus group interviews with girls in Grade 1 through 6 were carried out in an elementary school in the northern part of Sweden. A content analyses showed that young girls experienced verbal, nonverbal, and sexual assault behaviors at school. Sexual harassment as a concealed phenomenon and manifest within a romantic discourse were themes found in the analysis. A conclusion is that schools have to acknowledge behaviors related to sexual harassment as a potential problem even in young ages and develop methods to approach the subject also for this age group.

Gådin KG

2012-06-01

366

Depression in low-income elementary school children in South Korea: gender differences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors consisted of caregiver (perceived caregiving style), school (perceived school life and quality of peer relations), and neighborhood. The outcome variable was depression. The predictors of boys' depression were anxiety, perceived school life, and neighborhood. Predictors of girls' depression were anxiety, self-concept, caregiving style, and neighborhood. School nurses are encouraged to screen elementary school children for depressive symptoms and consider gender differences and environmental factors when intervening in depression. School-focused interventions may be more effective for boys; family-focused interventions may be more beneficial for girls.

Lee G; McCreary L; Kim MJ; Park CG; Jun WH; Yang S

2013-04-01

367

7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

2009-01-01

368

Voces de Olympo (Echoes from Mount Olympus). A Humanistic Approach to Latin for Children in the Sixth Grade: Teachers' Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide, developed for use in a sixth-grade FLES (foreign language in elementary school) program, embraces a visual-audiolingual approach to the teaching of Latin while providing a source of materials for the teaching of the culture of ancient Rome. The course is organized around eight major units on: (1) Jupiter and His Siblings,…

Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

369

The Effects of Georgia's Choice Curricular Reform Model on Third Grade Science Scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice reading curriculum on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from 2002 to 2008. In assessing the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model this causal comparative study examined the 105 elementary schools that…

Phemister, Art W.

2010-01-01

370

A Study To Determine the Effect of Writing Activities on Reading Comprehension on Second Grade Students at Linden School.  

Science.gov (United States)

|A study investigated what effect, if any, a planned program of writing activities had on reading comprehension. A group of second grade students from Linden Elementary School, West Virginia, were the subjects. Subjects were divided into a control (12 students) and an experimental (13 students) group. Both groups were given a pretest and a…

Collins, Linda

371

Causal relationships among academic delay of gratification, motivation, and self-regulated learning in elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Academic delay of gratification refers to the postponement of immediate rewards by students and the pursuit of more important, temporally remote academic goals. A path model was designed to identify the causal relationships among academic delay of gratification and motivation, self-regulated learning strategies (as specified in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire), and grades among 386 Chinese elementary school children. Academic delay of gratification was found to be positively related to motivation and metacognition. Cognitive strategy, resource management, and grades mediated these two factors and were indirectly related to academic delay of gratification.

Zhang L; Maruno S

2010-10-01

372

Grading of corneal transparency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To examine the academic literature on the grading of corneal transparency and to assess the potential use of objective image analysis. METHOD: Reference databases of academic literature were searched and relevant manuscripts reviewed. Annunziato, Efron (Millennium Edition) and Vistakon-Synoptik corneal oedema grading scale images were analysed objectively for relative intensity, edges detected, variation in intensity and maximum intensity. In addition, corneal oedema was induced in one subject using a low oxygen transmissibility (Dk/t) hydrogel contact lens worn for 3h under a light eye patch. Recovery from oedema was monitored over time using ultrasound pachymetry, high and low contrast visual acuity measures, bulbar hyperaemia grading and transparency image analysis of the test and control eyes. RESULTS: Several methods for assessing corneal transparency are described in the academic literature, but none have gained widespread use in clinical practice. The change in objective image analysis with printed scale grade was best described by quadratic parametric or sigmoid 3-parameter functions. 'Pupil image scales' (Annunziato and Vistakon-Synoptik) were best correlated to average intensity; however, the corneal section scale (Efron) was strongly correlated to variations in intensity. As expected, patching an eye wearing a low Dk/t hydrogel contact lens caused a significant (F = 119.2, p < 0.001) 14.3% increase in corneal thickness, which gradually recovered under open eye conditions. Corneal section image analysis was the most affected parameter and intensity variation across the slit width, in isolation, was the strongest correlate, accounting for 85.8% of the variance with time following patching, and 88.7% of the variance with corneal thickness. CONCLUSION: Corneal oedema is best determined objectively by the intensity variation across the width of a corneal section. This can be easily measured using a slit-lamp camera connected to a computer. Oedema due to soft contact lens wear is not easily determined over the pupil area by sclerotic scatter illumination techniques.

O'Donnell C; Wolffsohn JS

2004-12-01

373

POTATO-GRADING PLANT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A potato-grading plant comprises two loading hoppers, a heap cleaner, a machine for tubers sizing to fractions, sorting-out conveyor, conveyers for loading potato waste and potato. Storage hopper is arranged between sorting-out and loading conveyers, and at rear end on the side frames of the storage hopper the machine for tubers sizing to fractions with unloading conveyer is mounted.

KONONUCHENKO VALERII VASYLIOVY; MOROZ IVAN KHARYTONOVYCH

374

Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

J. E. Stone

1995-01-01

375

Mutation in the CPC motif-containing 6th transmembrane domain affects intracellular localization, trafficking and copper transport efficiency of ATP7A protein in mosaic mutant mice--an animal model of Menkes disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. ATP7A protein is a copper-transporting ATPase which plays a vital role in the maintenance of cellular copper homeostasis in mammals. This protein is retained within the trans-Golgi network, but after binding copper it can be translocated to the cell membrane to participate in the efflux of excess Cu. Mutation of the ATP7A gene in humans results in the severe neurodegenerative disorder, Menkes disease. The mouse ATP7A homolog encodes a protein that plays the same role in copper transport. Mosaic mutant mice display a lethal phenotype which resembles Menkes disease, although the underlying molecular defect has not been characterized until now. In the present study we identified a G to C nucleotide exchange in exon 15 of the Atp7a gene in mosaic mutants, which resulted in an arginine to proline substitution in the highly conserved 6th transmembrane domain of the ATP7A protein. This mutated protein was mislocalized in kidney cells isolated from mosaic mutant mice, and following exposure of these cells to increased copper concentrations it was not translocated to the plasma membrane. Disturbance of ATP7A function in mosaic mice results in increased copper accumulation in the small intestine and kidneys, and in Cu deficiency in the brain, liver and heart. Mouse models of Menkes disease belong to the mottled mutant group. The mosaic mutant represents another interesting animal model for Menkes disease that will be of value in research on copper metabolism and transport in mammals. PMID:22089129

Lenartowicz, Ma?gorzata; Grzmil, Pawe?; Shoukier, Moneef; Starzy?ski, Rafa?; Marciniak, Marcin; Lipi?ski, Pawe?

2011-11-16

376

Mutation in the CPC motif-containing 6th transmembrane domain affects intracellular localization, trafficking and copper transport efficiency of ATP7A protein in mosaic mutant mice--an animal model of Menkes disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Copper is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. ATP7A protein is a copper-transporting ATPase which plays a vital role in the maintenance of cellular copper homeostasis in mammals. This protein is retained within the trans-Golgi network, but after binding copper it can be translocated to the cell membrane to participate in the efflux of excess Cu. Mutation of the ATP7A gene in humans results in the severe neurodegenerative disorder, Menkes disease. The mouse ATP7A homolog encodes a protein that plays the same role in copper transport. Mosaic mutant mice display a lethal phenotype which resembles Menkes disease, although the underlying molecular defect has not been characterized until now. In the present study we identified a G to C nucleotide exchange in exon 15 of the Atp7a gene in mosaic mutants, which resulted in an arginine to proline substitution in the highly conserved 6th transmembrane domain of the ATP7A protein. This mutated protein was mislocalized in kidney cells isolated from mosaic mutant mice, and following exposure of these cells to increased copper concentrations it was not translocated to the plasma membrane. Disturbance of ATP7A function in mosaic mice results in increased copper accumulation in the small intestine and kidneys, and in Cu deficiency in the brain, liver and heart. Mouse models of Menkes disease belong to the mottled mutant group. The mosaic mutant represents another interesting animal model for Menkes disease that will be of value in research on copper metabolism and transport in mammals.

Lenartowicz M; Grzmil P; Shoukier M; Starzy?ski R; Marciniak M; Lipi?ski P

2012-02-01

377

Elementary education students’ perceptions of “good” citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how elementary pre-service teachers perceive of ‘good’ citizenship. Prior to any instruction in their methods courses, 309 pre-service elementary teachers from nine different states were asked to respond to the prompt “What is a good citizen?” The two most common responses were “helping others/community involvement” (n=180) and “following laws” (n=163). Using the framework created by Westheimer and Kahne (2004), the authors make the conclusion that a majority of undergraduates have adopted a “Personally Responsible” model of citizenship. The authors argue that social studies methods instructors should attempt to move students in the direction of adopting a more “justice-oriented” model of citizenship when teaching elementary students in their future classrooms.

Jason L. O'Brien; Jason M. Smith

2011-01-01

378

Carroll County hands-on elementary science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carroll County Hands-on Elementary Science is a nationally recognized Elementary Science Curriculum which has been disseminated in forty states, Puerto Rico, The Virgin Islands, Saipan, and Samoa. The curriculum is a non-textbook, process-based, constructivist approach to teaching science. Unique features of this curriculum include its teacher-written daily lesson plan format, its complete kit of science supplies, and its complete set of Spanish materials. In order to be included by the National Diffusion Network, Hands-on Elementary Science collected data to support the following claims: the program enhances teacher and student attitudes toward science; the program changes both the amount and the type of science instruction; the program is adaptable and transportable; the teacher training component is effective. The poster display will feature sample activities, data which demonstrates the effectiveness of the staff development plan, and samples which show the degree to which the program supports selected state curriculum frameworks.

Herlocker, H.G.; Dunkleberger, G.L. [Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

379

Unified field theories of elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present book is an introduction to a special field of theoretical elementary-particle physics. It is based on special courses which I have held in the past years at the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich in presence of students in already graduate semesters. It applies mainly to students with elementary physics as main topic of the study; I could imagine however that also a solid-state-physicist or a physicist of relativity theory open to particle physics stands with interest opposite to the circle of themes discussed therein. (orig./HSI).

1985-01-01

380

Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Analysis of Elementary Cellular Automata Boundary Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We presentthe findings of analysis of elementary cellular automata(ECA)boundary conditions. Fixed andvariable boundaries are attempted.The outputs of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) act as continuousinputs to the two boundaries of a one-dimensional (1-D) Elementary Cellular Automata (ECA)areanalyzed and compared.The results show superior randomness features and the output string has passedthe Diehard statistical battery of tests. The design has strong correlation immunity and it is inherentlyamenable for VLSI implementation.Thereforeitcan be considered to be agoodand viablecandidate forparallelpseudo random number generation.

K. Salman

2013-01-01

382

Relativistic diffusion of elementary particles with spin  

CERN Multimedia

We obtain a generalization of the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley for particles with spin. The diffusion equation is a classical version of an equation for the Wigner function of an elementary particle. The elementary particle is described by a unitary irreducible representation of the Poincare group realized in the Hilbert space of wave functions in the momentum space. The arbitrariness of the Wigner rotation appears as a gauge freedom of the diffusion equation. The spin is described as a connection of a fiber bundle over the momentum hyperbolic space (the mass-shell). Motion in an electromagnetic field, transport equations and equilibrium states are discussed.

Haba, Z

2009-01-01

383

Elementary particles and physics interaction unification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum theory and relativity theory are fundamental of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, which is the base of elementary particle physics, gauge field theory and basic force unification models. After a short introduction of relativistic equations of the main fields, the free scalar field, the free vector field, the free electromagnetic field and the free spinor field, and of elementary particles and basic interactions, gauge invariance and electromagnetic gauge field are detailed. Then the presentation of internal degrees of freedom, especially isospin, introduces gauge field theory of Yang-Mills. At last weak interactions and strong interactions are presented and lead to grand unification theory in conclusion

1985-01-01

384

27 February 2012- Thai Minister of Science and Technology P. Suraswadi with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis and CMS Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck signing the guest book in the 6th floor conference room, building 60 and visiting CMS underground experimental area at LHC Point 5.  

CERN Multimedia

27 February 2012- Thai Minister of Science and Technology P. Suraswadi with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis and CMS Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck signing the guest book in the 6th floor conference room, building 60 and visiting CMS underground experimental area at LHC Point 5.

Maximilien Brice

2012-01-01

385

5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging; 5. Deutsche Kardiodiagnostik-Tage 2013 mit 6. Leipziger Symposium Nichtinvasive Kardiovaskulaere Bildgebung. Herausforderungen und Grenzen der nicht-invasiven kardialen Bildgebung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

NONE

2013-04-01

386

LEARNER AUTONOMY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learner autonomy in foreign language learning involves students’ competence in decision making during their language learning process. One of the steps to be taken to develop learner autonomy in foreign language classes is to support students to develop the skill of decision making about their learning. Students’ involvement in decision making process effectively during their foreign language studies will help them develop their learner autonomy and learn a foreign language more efficient. The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of sixth grade students enrolled at elementary schools in Sivas city center towards learner autonomy in foreign language learning. Descriptive research method, which involves gathering data concerning current status of the phenomena, was used in the study. The study population is comprised of seventh grade students enrolled at elementary schools in Sivas city center in spring term of 2010-2011 academic year. Sample of the study consists of 975 students selected randomly. The stratified proportional random sampling procedure was used to select the schools. Learner Autonomy Questionnaire developed by Egel (2003) was used as the data collection tool. The questionnaire, developed to determine students’ opinions towards learner autonomy in foreign language learning, includes 44 items and nine sub-scales. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was measured to be .81. Frequency, percent, independent groups t test and Mann Whitney U test were utilized to analyze the data. Results with p<.05 were considered statistically significant. The study has not been completed yet and the study process is still going on both from the statistical process and interpretation of the findings. The research results proved that female students were better in readiness for self-direction, independent work in language learning, selection of content and assessment/motivation sub-scales. No statistically significant differences were found among the students views in importance of class/teacher, role of teacher: explanation/supervision, language learning activities, objectives/evaluation and other cultures sub-scales in terms of gender variable.

Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKS?Z; Ebru BOZPOLAT

2012-01-01

387

Elementary abelian 2 subgroups of compact Lie groups  

CERN Document Server

We classify elementary abelian 2 subgroups of compact simple Lie groups of adjoint type. This finishes the classification of elementary abelian $p$ subgroups of compact (or linear algebraic) simple groups of adjoint type.

Yu, Jun

2011-01-01

388

Functionally graded materials 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since a formulated concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was proposed in 1984 as a means of preparing thermal barrier materials, a coordinated research has been developed since 1986. The 125 papers presented here present state of the art research results and developments on FGM from the past decade. A wide spectra of topics are covered including design and modeling, fracture analysis, powder metallurgical processes, deposition and spray processes, reaction forming processes, novel processes, material evaluation for structural applications, organic and intelligent materials. Three reviews associated with national research programs on FGMs promoted in Japan and Germany, and the historical perspective of FGM research in Europe are presented as well

Shiota, Ichiro [Department of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoshinari [The Research Center for Cyclic Loop Systems for Processing and Maintenance, Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

1997-12-31

389

Stories from Tween Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors of this article, 4th grade and 6th grade teachers at Castle Rock Elementary School in Colorado, describe their efforts to engage their students in learning. Morgan recounts a math lesson in which he confirmed that 4th graders sometimes need extensive preparation and support to translate their impressive insights into the written word.…

Morgan, Bruce; Odom, Deb

2006-01-01

390

Diferencias en la Predictividad de la Lectura Entre Primer Año y Cuarto Año Básicos/ Differences in the Predictability of Reading Between First Grade and Fourth Grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en un seguimiento de 227 niños durante cuatro años. Fueron evaluados al iniciar el primer año básico con diversas pruebas psicolingüísticas predictivas y luego en lectura a fines del primero y del cuarto año. Se estudió la variación de la predictividad de la lectura entre ambos cursos, mediante matriz de correlaciones y regresión step-wise. Los resultados indican que el conocimiento de las letras y la conciencia f (more) onológica fueron los mejores predictores de la lectura del primer año. En cambio el conocimiento de las letras, de palabras escritas y de estructuras textuales predijo mejor la lectura a fines del cuarto año. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to present the issues of a follow-up study between 227 children of first and fourth grade of elementary school. They were tested with several psycholinguistic tests at the beginning of first grade and thereafter they were tested in reading at the end of the first and fourth grade. The variability in the prediction of the initial tests over the first and fourth grades was calculated by correlations and step-wise regression. The results show that (more) there is variability among the predictive variables between these grades. In first grade the most predictive tests were letter naming and phonological awareness. For fourth grade the most predictive tests were letter naming and knowledge ot written words and textual structures.

Bravo Valdivieso, Luis; Villalón, Malva; Orellana, Eugenia

2006-05-01

391

Diferencias en la Predictividad de la Lectura Entre Primer Año y Cuarto Año Básicos Differences in the Predictability of Reading Between First Grade and Fourth Grade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en un seguimiento de 227 niños durante cuatro años. Fueron evaluados al iniciar el primer año básico con diversas pruebas psicolingüísticas predictivas y luego en lectura a fines del primero y del cuarto año. Se estudió la variación de la predictividad de la lectura entre ambos cursos, mediante matriz de correlaciones y regresión step-wise. Los resultados indican que el conocimiento de las letras y la conciencia fonológica fueron los mejores predictores de la lectura del primer año. En cambio el conocimiento de las letras, de palabras escritas y de estructuras textuales predijo mejor la lectura a fines del cuarto año.The aim of this article is to present the issues of a follow-up study between 227 children of first and fourth grade of elementary school. They were tested with several psycholinguistic tests at the beginning of first grade and thereafter they were tested in reading at the end of the first and fourth grade. The variability in the prediction of the initial tests over the first and fourth grades was calculated by correlations and step-wise regression. The results show that there is variability among the predictive variables between these grades. In first grade the most predictive tests were letter naming and phonological awareness. For fourth grade the most predictive tests were letter naming and knowledge ot written words and textual structures.

Luis Bravo Valdivieso; Malva Villalón; Eugenia Orellana

2006-01-01

392

Bullying in Elementary School, High School, and College  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the continuity in being a bully, victim, or bully-victim from elementary school through college in 119 undergraduates. Of 25 who bullied in college, 18 (72%) had been bullied in high school and elementary school. Of 26 bullies in college, 14 (53.8%) had been bullies in high school and elementary school. Of 12 bully-victims…

Chapell, Mark S.; Hasselman, Stefanie L.; Kitchin, Theresa; Lomon, Safiya N.; MacIver, Kenneth W.; Sarullo, Patrick L.

2006-01-01

393

Elementary particles, holography and the BMS group  

CERN Document Server

In the context of asymptotically flat space-times, it has been suggested to label elementary particles as unitary irreducible representations of the BMS group. We analyse this idea in the spirit of the holographic principle advocating the use of this definition.

Dappiaggi, C

2005-01-01

394

Elementary particles, holography and the BMS group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of asymptotically flat space-times, it has been suggested to label elementary particles as unitary irreducible representations of the BMS group. We analyse this idea in the spirit of the holographic principle advocating the use of this definition.

Dappiaggi, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, INFN, Sezione di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)]. E-mail: claudio.dappiaggi@pv.infn.it

2005-06-02

395

Enhancing science education in the elementary schools  

CERN Multimedia

This article describes some collaborative activities of the authors, aimed at improving science education in elementary schools. These include curriculum enhancement, development of new apparatus (a wind tunnel), science-education web site contributions and production of a film about the physics of flight. The output of these projects is intended to be generally accessible or reproducible.

Cole, M W; Cole, Milton W.; Zembal-Saul, Carla

2002-01-01

396

The Sonic Surrounds of an Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

In this ethnographic study, we examined the musicking behaviors of schoolchildren at one American elementary school. The aim was to gain an understanding of the nature and context of rhythmic and melodic expressions made and heard by children, emanating from other children, as well as adults within the school environment. Time, place, and function…

Lum, Chee-Hoo; Campbell, Patricia Shehan

2007-01-01

397

Quantum chaos in elementary quantum mechanics  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce an analytical solution to the one of the most familiar problems from the elementary quantum mechanics textbooks. The following discussion provides simple illustrations to a number of general concepts of quantum chaology, along with some recent developments in the field and a historical perspective on the subject.

Dabaghian, Y

2004-01-01

398

An Elementary Formalism for General Relativity.  

Science.gov (United States)

An elementary formalism is developed for representing curved space-time which allows transparent qualitative explanation of general relativistic effects and is used to make a conceptual analysis of Einstein's principle of equivalence. A final section outlines a number of student activities. (Author/SK)

diSessa, Andrea A.

1981-01-01

399

ELEFUNT. Tests of Fortran Elementary Functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ELEFUNT is an aggressive test of one or more of the elementary function subroutines generally supplied with the support library accompanying a FORTRAN compiler. Functions tested are ALOG/ALOG10, ASIN/ACOS, ATAN, EXP, POWER, SIN/COS, SINH/COSH, SQRT, TAN/COTAN, and TANH.

Cody, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1980-03-14

400

Electric-dipole moments of elementary particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments setting limits on the electric-dipole moment, eD, of elementary particles are reviewed. The most sensitive tests of theory are with the neutron, for which D <= 6 X 10/sup -25/ cm. This value is compared with the various theoretical predictions. The experimental limit is incompatible with many, but not all, theories.

Ramsey, N.F. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Lyman Lab. of Physics)

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Public Montessori Elementary Schools: A Delicate Balance  

Science.gov (United States)

Public Montessori elementary schools have two challenges: They strive to achieve a child-centered Montessori environment and must also address the demands of state and federal requirements developed for more traditional educational settings. This study analyzes how schools were operating on both fronts. On the one hand, the study measured the…

Murray, Angela; Peyton, Vicki

2008-01-01

402

The periodic table of elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is shown that a periodic classification of elementary particles (eps) may be done with the basic properties of eps: viz. mass, spin and parity. Further application of spacing rule and GMO mass formulae show repetitions at very regular intervals. It is found that properties of eps are periodic function of rest mass. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

1994-01-01

403

Skinner's elementary verbal relations: Some new categories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Verbal Behavior (1957) B. F. Skinner identified and named five elementary verbal relations: mand, tact, intraverbal, textual and echoic. Because of their etymological commitment to visual and auditory stimuli respectively, the last two categories do not function well as general categories. Adding...

Michael, Jack

404

Elementary photophysical processes in microdisperse systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of the present contribution is focused on recent advances in the theory of elementary photophysical processes in self-aggregated microdisperse molecular assemblies, such as micelles, vesicles and microemulsions. Taking luminescence quenching as a typical example of reaction, we follow its dynamics in individual micelles, in micelles subject to solubilizate exchange, and in micellar clusters. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Barzykin, A.V. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432 (Russia); Tachiya, M. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

1996-04-01

405

Elementary and Middle School Reading Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this guide is to acquaint teachers with Avon's Nongraded Program and to make available to them a comprehensive set of guidelines relative to the concept of nongradedness and its subsequent implementation. The contents include a listing of the national sequence of change in elementary school organization, a discussion of the local…

Avon Public Schools, CT.

406

The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF6) was held 1-3 June, 2010 in Seoul, Korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. The year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first GAELF meeting, in 2000, and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. The theme of the meeting, "Half-time in LF Elimination: Teaming Up with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)," reflected significant integration of LF elimination programmes into a comprehensive initiative to control NTDs. Presentations on LF epidemiology, treatment, research, and programmes highlighted both accomplishments and remaining challenges.The WHO strategy to interrupt LF transmission is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) using two-drug combinations. After mapping the geographic distribution of LF, MDA is implemented for ? 5 years, followed by a period of post-MDA surveillance, and, ultimately, verification of LF elimination. Morbidity management further reduces disease burden.Of 81 countries considered LF-endemic in 2000, 52 (64.2%) have begun MDA; 10 (12.3%) others with low-level transmission are unlikely to require MDA. In 2008, ~695 million people were offered treatment (51.7% of the at-risk population); ~496 million participated. Approximately 22 million people have been protected from LF infection and disease, with savings of ~US $24.2 billion. Morbidity management programmes have been implemented in 27 (33.3%) countries.Significant challenges to LF elimination remain. These include: initiating MDA in the remaining 19 countries that require it; achieving full geographic coverage in countries where MDA has started; finding alternative strategies to address the problem of Loa loa co-endemicity in Central Africa; developing strategies to treat urban populations; initiating and sustaining MDA in settings of armed conflict; developing refined guidelines and procedures for stopping MDA, for post-MDA surveillance, and for verifying the elimination of LF; and integrating morbidity management into all LF elimination programmes. Scientific research and enhanced advocacy for NTDs remain critical for addressing these challenges.GAELF6 was characterized by enthusiasm and recognition that "teaming up with NTDs" offers opportunities for new partnerships, fresh perspectives, enhanced advocacy, and greater programmatic integration in a rapidly changing global health environment.

Addiss D

2010-01-01

407

The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF6) was held 1-3 June, 2010 in Seoul, Korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. The year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first GAELF meeting, in 2000, and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. The theme of the meeting, "Half-time in LF Elimination: Teaming Up with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)," reflected significant integration of LF elimination programmes into a comprehensive initiative to control NTDs. Presentations on LF epidemiology, treatment, research, and programmes highlighted both accomplishments and remaining challenges. The WHO strategy to interrupt LF transmission is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) using two-drug combinations. After mapping the geographic distribution of LF, MDA is implemented for ? 5 years, followed by a period of post-MDA surveillance, and, ultimately, verification of LF elimination. Morbidity management further reduces disease burden. Of 81 countries considered LF-endemic in 2000, 52 (64.2%) have begun MDA; 10 (12.3%) others with low-level transmission are unlikely to require MDA. In 2008, ~695 million people were offered treatment (51.7% of the at-risk population); ~496 million participated. Approximately 22 million people have been protected from LF infection and disease, with savings of ~US $24.2 billion. Morbidity management programmes have been implemented in 27 (33.3%) countries. Significant challenges to LF elimination remain. These include: initiating MDA in the remaining 19 countries that require it; achieving full geographic coverage in countries where MDA has started; finding alternative strategies to address the problem of Loa loa co-endemicity in Central Africa; developing strategies to treat urban populations; initiating and sustaining MDA in settings of armed conflict; developing refined guidelines and procedures for stopping MDA, for post-MDA surveillance, and for verifying the elimination of LF; and integrating morbidity management into all LF elimination programmes. Scientific research and enhanced advocacy for NTDs remain critical for addressing these challenges. GAELF6 was characterized by enthusiasm and recognition that "teaming up with NTDs" offers opportunities for new partnerships, fresh perspectives, enhanced advocacy, and greater programmatic integration in a rapidly changing global health environment.

Addiss David

2010-01-01

408

Sun protection at elementary schools: a cluster randomized trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Elementary schools represent both a source of childhood sun exposure and a setting for educational interventions. METHODS: Sun Protection of Florida's Children was a cluster randomized trial promoting hat use at (primary outcome) and outside of schools among fourth-grade students during August 8, 2006, through May 22, 2007. Twenty-two schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (1115 students) or control group (1376 students). Intervention schools received classroom sessions targeting sun protection attitudes and social norms. Each student attending an intervention school received two free wide-brimmed hats. Hat use at school was measured by direct observation and hat use outside of school was measured by self-report. A subgroup of 378 students (178 in the intervention group and 200 in the control group) underwent serial measurements of skin pigmentation to explore potential physiological effects of the intervention. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the intervention effect by accounting for the cluster randomized trial design. All P values were two-sided and were claimed as statistically significant at a level of .05. RESULTS: The percentage of students observed wearing hats at control schools remained essentially unchanged during the school year (baseline = 2%, fall = 0%, and spring = 1%) but increased statistically significantly at intervention schools (baseline = 2%, fall = 30%, and spring = 41%) (P < .001 for intervention effect comparing the change in rate of hat use over time at intervention vs control schools). Self-reported use of hats outside of school did not change statistically significantly during the study (control: baseline = 14%, fall = 14%, and spring = 11%; intervention: baseline = 24%, fall = 24%, and spring = 23%) nor did measures of skin pigmentation. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention increased use of hats among fourth-grade students at school but had no effect on self-reported wide-brimmed hat use outside of school or on measures of skin pigmentation.

Hunter S; Love-Jackson K; Abdulla R; Zhu W; Lee JH; Wells KJ; Roetzheim R

2010-04-01

409

The Situation of Turkish Textbooks of Elementary School 8th Grades in Acquiring A Common Vocabulary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vocabulary is one of the essential characteristics in preparing textbooks. Turkish textbooks should be prepared by examining carefully according to some vocabulary criteria. Turkish textbooks should be in a harmony with the levels of students in respect for total and different word counts, words used in text should be appropriate for students’ levels too.During education, textbooks are primary sources in letting students acquire vocabulary. So, preparing textbooks require a planning in respect for vocabulary. During primary school education, giving students a common vocabulary is an ultimately important issue. Having students common vocabulary contributes to social compromiseand increasing the quality of communication between people. Therefore, it is required that Turkish textbooks which were prepared by different publishing should have a high qualified common point.In this study, the quantity of 8th graders’ Turkish textbooks vocabulary from different publishing and the appropriateness of textbooks common vocabulary for second stage of primary School graders’ vocabulary have been evaluated.

Mehmet KURUDAYIO?LU; Özay KARADA?

2006-01-01

410

Determining the Learning Styles of Elementary School (1st-8th Grade) Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, individual differences are seen as important components in learning. They also affect teaching and learning processes in term of teachers and students. Learning styles is another accentuated element in point of individual differences. In this study, the learning styles of the teachers are surveyed by branches. The teachers are the most important elements in the education. Their role of creating learning environments for students appears with constructivism. The learning styles of the teachers are also important in managing learning process. In this study, learning styles of 223 primary school teachers in different branches in Turkey were determined. Learning styles were defined by Kolb’s learning style inventory and distributed based on branch. The correlation between teacher branches and learning styles was measured by Chi-Square test. The correlation with learning styles was also researched based on gender. Consequently while 48% of teachers have converger learning style, 24% of them have assimilator, 18% have accommodator, and 10% have diverger learning styles. If branches are examined, a similar distribution will be observed. The correlation between learning styles and branches was measured by Chi-square test, and no correlation was seen (Pearson Chi-Square=0.332, p>0.01). In the same way, no correlation between genders and learning styles was seen (Pearson Chi-Square=0.052, p>0.01).

Melih Koçako?lu

2010-01-01

411

Packaging & Other Structures. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book explores all kinds of packaging materials including bags, boxes, etc. and how they are used to protect and display products. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of packaging and structures; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for…

Benenson, Gary

412

Teaching Reading and Literature in Early Elementary Grades. Standards Consensus Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This book, part of a series which serve as guides for K-12 teachers who are striving to align lively, classroom-tested practices with standards, gathers together brief articles spotlighting suggestions for effective instruction. The book contains dozens of diverse and thought-provoking activities for helping very young readers to grow into the…

Wilson, Jennifer, Ed.

413