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Academic performance of peruvian elementary school children: The case of schools in Lima at the 6th grade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El estudio que se informa examinó de qué manera el rendimiento académico en diversas áreas del aprendizaje tales como ortografía, lectura y aritmética estuvo asociado con diferentes variables relacionadas con niños (por ejemplo: género, inteligencia y edad). Asimismo, se consideraron algunas variabl [...] es distales como estatus socioeconómico y tipo de colegio. En el estudio participaron 1.129 niños que cursaban 6to grado de educación primaria en Lima Metropolitana (Perú). Los estudiantes completaron cuatro pruebas: En el área de lectura fueron examinados con un subtest de la prueba Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE) Lectura de Palabras y Pseudo - palabras (Cuetos & Ramos, 1999). En el área de Aritmética fueron evaluados con el Subtest de Facilidad Numérica de Ekstrom, French y Harman (1979) y en el caso de Ortografía se aplicó la Prueba de Rendimiento Ortográfico (Dioses, 2001). La variable inteligencia fue medida con la Prueba de Matrices Progresivas de Raven (Raven, J., Raven, J.C. & Court, 2004). Debido a la estructura jerárquica de los datos (estudiantes dentro de clases y clases dentro de escuelas) se aplicó análisis multinivel para cada variable académica (ortografía, lectura y aritmética). Los resultados revelaron un gran impacto en primer lugar del tipo de escuela: los alumnos de escuelas privadas rindieron mejor que los de escuelas públicas en todas las áreas académicas; en segundo lugar, la variable inteligencia juega un rol esencial, cuanto mayor es el coeficiente intelectual del estudiante, mejor es el rendimiento académico, y parcialmente del género; las niñas mostraron un mejor desempeño en comparación con los niños en el área de ortografía. Se discuten en detalle algunas repercusiones pedagógicas. Abstract in english Education is in general the basis for development in any country in the world. In the education al field, several international assessments (Pisa, 2006) reflect the great gap that yet subsists among developing countries, in which the case of Peru is not an exception. There have been many national an [...] d international academic achievement evaluations that examine the skills and knowledge of students not only in Peru but also in other Latin American countries in different academic domains. One of these examples is the Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (LLECE), in which Peru participated, in order to evaluate and compare the performance achieved by Latin American students of 3rd and 6th grade in core areas like Language, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences. Peru ranks, together with other Latin countries, with scores below the average (Regional Office for Education of UNESCO, 2008). The low ranking of the Peruvian educational system carries heavy implications and consequences, especially to the intellectual and social development of learning disabled Peruvian children. Understanding the relation between academic performance and child development is of paramount importance. The present study examines how spelling, reading and arithmetic performances are associated to various child variables (gender, intelligence, and age), and distal variables such as Socio-Economic Status (SES) or type of school. The subjects in the study were 1.129 elementary school children who were in the 6th grade (11 - 12 years old) in Metropolitan Lima, Perú. Children completed four different tests: In the reading area, the subtest of Procesos Lectores (PROLEC-SE; Cuetos & Ramos, 1999), Reading of Word and Pseudo-word; in the Arithmetic domain, the Number Facility from the Kit of Factor Referenced Cognitive Tests of Ekstrom, French, and Harman (1979) and in the spelling domain, the Spelling Achievement Test from Dioses (2001) was used. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices Test (Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, 2004, updated edition). Some preliminary analyses were conducted beforehand in order to overview and examine the structure of the data. Following this, a

Denisse L., Manrique Millones; Karla, Van Leeuwen; Pol, Ghesquière.

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Exam and assessment of contents of social sciences in 5th and 6th grade of elementary school. Capacities, concepts, and procedures  

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Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to analyze the exams of 5th and 6th grade of Elementary School about social sciences. In this paper we will analyze the contents of history and geography and the mental operations necessary to respond to the questions of the exams. This investigation has been realised on 69 exams and 745 questions picked up in five schools of the Region of Murcia. The study of these instruments of assessment has allowed us to establish different categories between the capacities, the contents and the format of examination.

Cosme Jesús Gómez Carrasco

2012-04-01

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Tarefas aritméticas para o 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental / Arithmetic tasks for the 6th grade of Elementary School  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo apresentamos e discutimos o produto educacional desenvolvido junto ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Matemática da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. O propósito do trabalho foi desenvolver tarefas que tivessem como característica principal constituírem-se em situações-problem [...] a que estimulassem a produção de significados de estudantes em sala de aula. A estrutura matemática subjacente à situaçãoproblema envolveu as operações de adição e subtração de números naturais. O processo de elaboração desse produto teve como foco a produção de um conjunto de tarefas para serem utilizadas em salas de aula de matemática do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental e que pudessem servir de protótipo para a elaboração de novas tarefas pelo professor. Abstract in english In this article, we discuss educational material developed by the graduate program in mathematics education of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. The purpose of the work was to develop tasks whose main feature was problem situations that stimulate the meaning production of students in the class [...] room. The mathematical structure underlying the situation-problem involved the addition and subtraction of natural numbers. The process of developing the educational material focused on the production of a set of tasks to be used in 6th grade math classes and that could serve as a prototype for the development of new tasks by the teacher.

Maria Helena Marques, Loth; Amarildo Melchiades da, Silva.

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Influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º a 6º primaria / Influence of Peruvian television advertising in unhealthy food consumption in 4th to 6th grade elementary scholars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La exposición a la publicidad televisiva promueve el consumo de alimentos no saludables, constituyendo un riesgo para el aumento del sobrepeso y obesidad. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia de la publicidad televisiva peruana en el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares de 4º [...] a 6º de primaria. Diseño: Descriptivo de asociación cruzada. Lugar: Institución Educativa Nº 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Escolares entre 9 y 12 años de edad. Intervenciones: Se aplicó dos encuestas previamente validadas y probadas en prueba piloto, a 120 escolares de ambos sexos que asistieron a clases y que tuvieron consentimiento informado firmado por sus padres. Principales medidas de resultados: Tiempo de ver televisión y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Resultados: Los estudiantes en promedio vieron televisión más de 7 horas diarias (DS 1,17). Los programas más vistos fueron los que estaban dirigidos a público mayor de 14 años. Los alimentos no saludables más publicitados y comprados fueron galletas y bebidas azucaradas. Se encontró asociación significativa entre alimentos no saludables más vistos en TV y consumo de alimentos no saludables. Conclusiones: Existió relación entre la publicidad televisiva y el consumo de alimentos no saludables en escolares del nivel primario. Abstract in english Background: Exposure to television advertising promoting unhealthy food consumption may increase overweight and obesity risk in children. Objectives: To determine the influence of Peruvian television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in 4th to 6th grade children. Design: Descriptive cro [...] ss-association. Setting: Educational Institution No. 7072, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Peru. Participants: Schoolchildren aged 9 to 12 years. Interventions: Two previously validated tests were applied to 120 students of both sexes who attended classes and whose parents had signed informed consent. Main outcome measures: Time watching TV and unhealthy food consumption. Results: Students watched TV more than 7 hours per day (DS 1.17) average. Most popular programs were those directed to over 14 year-old public. Most unhealthy foods advertised and purchased were biscuits and sugary drinks. Significant association was found between unhealthy foods most watched by TV and unhealthy food consumption. Conclusions: There was relationship between television advertising and consumption of unhealthy foods in elementary level scholars.

Rojas-Huayllani, Evelin C.; Delgado-Pérez, Doris H..

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????????????????????????????? Using Debate in the 6th Grade Social Studies: Promoting Student Information Literacy  

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Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Big6????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of applying debate in the 6th grade social studies to promote students’ information literacy and their understanding of the subject matters. The debate topics, which came from the 6th grade social studies textbook, were “Should the legislation protect human cloning” and “If the Internet brings more good than harm to elementary students”.The debate activities were designed on the base of the Big6 information literacy model. It comprises six stages which are Task Definition, Information Seeking Strategy, Location & Access, Use of Information, Synthesis, and Evaluation.This study lasted a semester, and the data was gathered through participant observation, interviews, and document analysis. The results showed that debate could be used in the 6th grade social studies curriculum. Through collaboratively designing debate activities between teachers, it is easier to integrate information literacy instruction into the curriculum. Furthermore, to systematically design the information literacy curriculum is another important issue.

Lin Ching Chen

2010-06-01

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Problem Solving, metacognition and epistemological beliefs in 6th, 7th and 8th grade students  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills (self confidence related to problem solving skill, self-control in problem solving, avoidance of problem solving, the epistemological beliefs (source of knowing, certainty of knowledge, development of knowledge, justification for knowing and the metacognition of the 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to establish the relationships among them. The study sample consists of the 13 public and private elementary schools in the central districts of Hatay and Adana province and the 1111 students in the 6th, 7th and 8th grade in these schools. “Problem Solving Inventory for Children”, “Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children (Jr. MAI – (B Forms” and “Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire” was used as data collection tools. Independent groups t-test, one way analysis of variance and stepwise regression analysis methods were used for data analysis in the study. As the result of the data analysis, it was found that the averages of the self confidence related to problem solving skills of the female and male students were close to each other, the female students’ averages of avoidance of problem solving were higher than the male students’, the male students’ points of self-control in problem solving were higher than the female students’ and the female students’ points of epistemological beliefs and metacognition were higher than the male students???. In addition, it was found out that the students’ development levels of problem solving, epistemological beliefs and metacognition of the students were at medium-level and a developmental process was not followed in the second stage of the elementary education. Another finding is that the metacognition and justification for knowing significantly predicted the points of self confidence related to problem solving skill of the students who participated in the study, the metacognition, gender and source of knowing significantly predicted the students’ points of self-control in problem solving and metacognition, source of knowing and gender variables significantly predicted the students’ points of avoidance of problem solving.

Ayten ?flazo?lu Saban

2012-10-01

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A Teacher's Mediation of a Thinking-Aloud Discussion in a 6th Grade Mathematics Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a Vygotsky-inspired analysis of how a teacher mediated a "thinking aloud" whole-group discussion in a 6th grade mathematics classroom. This discussion centered on finding patterns in a triangular array of consecutive numbers as a phase towards building recursive and direct algebraic formulas. By a "thinking aloud" discussion…

Zolkower, Betina; Shreyar, Sam

2007-01-01

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How Portfolio Use Affects Students’ Learning and Their Attitudes toward 6th Grade Science Lesson  

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Full Text Available The study examined that whether process of portfolio use enhances students’ learning in 6th grade science lesson and whether portfolio use effects attitudes of the students toward the science subject. At the research, pretest-posttest control group design was applied to 114 6th grade students during 2006 in a southern city of Turkey. The experimental group attended science lessons supported with portfolio use as a teaching approach whereas no change was made in the way of teaching of the control group. An achievement test and attitude scales of science were applied to the both groups as pre- and post-tests. The experimental group demonstrated higher achievement and better attitude toward the science lesson than the control group demonstrated. The students in experimental group commented that portfolios made their learning meaningful and helped them to learn better.

Mehtap ÇAKAN

2010-08-01

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Evaluation of the Teachers’ Views about Grade 6th Science and Technology Text Book Set  

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Full Text Available This study has been done in order to get teachers’ views about Science and Technology Text Book Set which prepared according to new teaching program for 6th grade. A questionnaire related to book set’s (Student Text Book, Student Work Book and Teacher Guide Book content, visual design, assessment and language was prepared to get teachers’ views about these subjects. The 38 science education teachers were working in different cities. And the evaluation of book set was made according to the teachers viewpoints. The findings were presented with alternative solutions for the problems.

Elif BAKAR

2009-04-01

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Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in teacher professional development workshops offered through the Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI); workshop attendees frame the activities as lessons appropriate for their 6th grade students; participants who use the lessons and resources in their classrooms provide iterative feedback, which is used to improve the resources for other teachers involved in the project.

Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

2012-12-01

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Usability of a Web-Based Teaching Software: “Vitamin 6th Grade Mathematics Module  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate usability of the Vitamin 6th Grade Mathematics Module program interface. The program was made available to 12 students at a school with most frequently used 11-question task list and the results were recorded in an evaluation form. During the course of the test, participating students were asked to think loud. The tests were conducted one-on-one with each participant with 2 observers. In the evaluation phase, it was considered whether the test was completed or not. In addition, participating students’ behavior and statements were taken into consideration. At the end of the test, users found the program usable but they also made some suggestions.

Gamze YILMAZ

2013-04-01

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Relationship Between 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Students’ Self-Efficacy Towards Geometry and Their Geometric Thinking Levels  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the relation between the self-efficacy of elementary school students in geometry and their geometric thinking levels. In the Study, the aim is also to determine whether the self-efficacy for the geometry of elementary school students differs with gender, grade, math achievements, pre-school education factors. The study which was designed on a relational model is based on 110 randomly selected students of a primary school in Bursa, Y?ld?r?m from the 6th, 7th and 8th grade. In the study, in order to collect data "Van Hiele Geometry Test", "Towards Geometry Self-Efficacy Scale" and personal information forms were used. Independent groups T-test, ANOVA and Pearson Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze data. The study results showed that geometry self-efficacy significantly differs with mathematics achievement, gender and class levels and also showed that geometry self-efficacy and geometric thinking levels consist statistically a positive but weak relationship between. According to the findings, some suggestions to improve geometry self-efficacy and geometrical thinking levels of elementary school students are presented.

Kür?at YEN?LMEZ

2013-12-01

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How to solve environmental problems: propositions from children of the 6th grade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study considers a standardized Portuguese literacy test (PASE LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA) that all children in the Azorean Archipelago (Portugal) complete once they finish sixth grade. The 2007 test included a composition focused on their perspectives on the environment, global warming and other major problems and potential solutions.

Gabriel, Rosalina; Arroz, Ana Margarida Moura; A?vila, So?nia

2009-01-01

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Controlling maternal feeding practices associated with decreased dieting behavior in 6th grade children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Controlling maternal feeding practices (CMFPs) have been linked to increased caloric intake, disinhibited eating, and obesity in children. Its relationship to child dieting behavior however is unknown. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined whether controlling feeding practices are associated with increased or decreased dieting behavior in children. CMFP was assessed in 3rd grade by the question, ...

2010-01-01

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Effectiveness of the Responsible Social Values Program for 6th grade students in one rural school district.  

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The present study reports the effectiveness of an abstinence-based program (the Responsible Social Values Program) designed for 6th grade students in a rural school district. To assess whether this 6-hr. abstinence-based program changed students' knowledge of their sexual development during adolescence, attitudes toward early sexual involvement, intentions regarding sexual involvement, views related to expected consequences of being sexually involved, and views related to expected outcomes of being sexually involved, a pre-experimental one-group, pretest-posttest design was employed. Analysis indicated that the curriculum was effective in terms of improving scores for each of the constructs measured. Immediately after the 6-hr. program, more students stated that they planned to avoid having sex until marriage (70%) than prior to the program (50%). Replication with a control group and longer term follow-up testing is necessary. PMID:12585524

Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Jordan, Timothy R; Yoo, Laurie M; Hart, Raymond

2002-12-01

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Investigating of the Number Perception and Nonroutine Problem Solving Skills of 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Students  

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Full Text Available The purposes of the study are to determine the number perception and nonroutine problem solving skills of students and to examine the possible relationship between these skills. The relational scanning model was used in the study. The study group consists of a total of 240 6th, 7th and 8th grade students from four primary schools in the Erzurum City Center in the 2009-2010 academic year. The simple random sampling model was used to determine the participant primary schools. The “Number Perception Test” and “Nonroutine Problem Solving Test” including problems requiring deduction, induction and spatial reasoning were used to gather data. In the analysis of the data gathered from the tests percentage and frequency values, One-Way ANOVA, independent t-test and correlation analysis were used. In the study, it is determined that these students levels of number perception and nonroutine problem solving skills are low and there is a positive relationship between these skills.

Cemalettin I?IK

2011-04-01

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The Effect of Interactive Computer Animations Accompanied with Experiments on Grade 6th Students’ Achievements and Attitudes toward Science  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of instruction including interactive computer animations accompanied with experiments over traditionally designed Instruction in 6th grade students’ physics achievement and attitudes toward science. In this study, a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. As a data collection instruments, physics achievement test and attitude scale toward science were administered to experimental and control group. In the experimental group, the materials were used while doing the experiments and then they did the same experiments interactively on the computer. In the control group, the experiments were done only by materials and the students did not use the computer during the experiments. The findings indicated that there was no significant difference between groups with respect to achievement before the treatment and there was a significant difference between the groups in favor of experimental groups after the treatment. The means of attitude towards science showed no significant difference between the groups before and after treatment.

E. Akp?nar

2007-06-01

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[Elementary Career Education Units: Grade 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with traditional subject matter and topics in elementary grades K-7 and in special education. Developed by teachers in the Radford, Virginia, schools, the units make use of resource persons from outside the school, occupational information,…

Radford City Schools, VA.

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Student learning of key concepts and skills in inquiry science: A longitudinal study of 4th and 6th grade students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study arose out of the need to measure the validity of the hands-on, inquiry-based approach to science learning, as articulated in the National Science Education Standards. It addressed the question of whether the use of hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum promotes improved student understanding of science content and problem-solving and scientific reasoning skills. It measured 4th and 6th grade student learning in five skills (comparing, graphing, investigating, measuring, predicting) and five concepts (objects in the sky, properties, variables, units of measure, life cycle). Data were collected in 1997 and 1999 from two elementary schools in one suburban Pittsburgh school district, where hands-on curriculum units were implemented starting in 1997. A performance-based assessment instrument was devised. Findings were compared by school and by year and showed significant improvement in student learning over the two years. Students improved significantly in the skills of comparing and measuring and in the concepts of objects in the sky, variables, and the life cycle. Additionally, in the repeated measures group, significant improvement was also indicated in the skill of graphing and the concepts of properties and units of measure. No significant differences were found in the skills of investigating and predicting. Student scores in the school with somewhat lower socio-economic status increased more significantly. The study supports the key principles that guided the development of the National Science Education Standards and comprehensive science education programs aligned with them. The results support including the elements of systemic reform, i.e., hands-on curriculum materials, ongoing professional development, centralized materials support, assessment, and community involvement, in all schools.

Davison, Reeny De Vos

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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do ensino fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise.PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise. RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise.

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise.PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was submitted to tests that evaluated the temporal auditory aspects (Duration Pattern Sequence, Pitch Pattern Sequence and Gap-in-Noise. RESULTS: the tests that assess auditory temporal aspects were not affected by the variables gender, age, music activity performance and, hand preference. The speech therapy variable was statistically significant on Gap in Noise Test. The subtests of the Educational Achievements' Test had the greatest influence on the Duration and Frequency Pattern Sequence performance were writing followed by reading and arithmetic. CONCLUSION: data analysis revealed a correlation between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. It should be noted that the tests that evaluate the temporal ordering tasks (Frequency Pattern Sequence and Duration Pattern Sequence are influenced by the Academic Achievement Test performance. However this does not occur with the test that evaluates the temporal resolution (Gap-in-Noise.

Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto

2012-01-01

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Process evaluation for a school-based physical activity intervention for 6th- and 7th-grade boys: reach, dose, and fidelity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose was to evaluate the reach, dose, and fidelity of Guys Only Activity for Life (G.O.A.L.), a 7-week pilot intervention conducted from February to March 2011 to increase 6th and 7th grade boys' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). One middle school was randomly assigned to the G.O.A.L. intervention and another from the same urban school district in the Midwestern U.S. to a comparison condition. Thirty boys, ages 10-14 years, participated in each school. The intervention, guided by the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), consisted of a 90-min after-school physical activity club 4 days/week and one motivational interviewing session with a registered (school) nurse. Data were gathered via attendance records, club observations, heart rate monitors, audio-taping of motivational interviewing sessions, and surveys. On average boys attended the club 2.11 days/week (SD=.86). A trained independent process evaluator reported that the physical activity club instructors provided the boys with the opportunity for a mean of 25.8 min/day of MVPA. Using a four-point Likert scale (1=disagree a lot; 4=agree a lot), the process evaluator perceived that the club was delivered with high fidelity and adherence to the underlying theories (M=3.48; SD=0.39). Sessions with the nurse lasted an average of 13 min, 29 s. All boys attended. Two trained independent coders indicated that the nurse demonstrated at least beginning proficiency for all tasks associated with motivational interviewing, with the exception of using sufficient open- as opposed to closed-ended questions and reflections compared to questions. Fidelity related to session delivery and adherence to the theories was high (M=3.83; SD=0.19). The process evaluation data indicated that strategies are needed to increase attendance and boys' MVPA during the club time. PMID:24121658

Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Wesolek, Stacey M; Lo, Yun-Jia

2014-02-01

23

Need Assessment for Root Canal Therapy (RCT of the First Molars in Elementary School Students of Tehrans 6th Municipal District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Although there have been several epidemiologic studies on first permanent molar caries in Iranian students, the need for endodontic therapy has not been investigated so far.The purpose of this study was to assess the need for first molar root canal therapy in 7- to 11-year-old schoolchildren and its association with age, gender, and parent education level. Materials and Methods: We selected 885 students (572 girls and 313 boys from 12 elementary schools, using a random cluster sampling method. We recorded the subjects identities and examined their maxillary and mandibular first molars with a mirror and an explorer. In case of any doubts about the need for endodontic therapy, we performed vitality tests and/or obtained periapical radiography. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: In 26 students (3% there was an indication for endodontic treatment of the first molars. Of these, 18 teeth were in mandible and 8 in the maxilla. The need for endodontic therapy was significantly related to the subjects age and the parents' education level. We did not detect a significant association between gender and the need for endodontic therapy. Conclusion: We recommend pit and fissure sealant plus fluoride therapy, beginning with the eruption of the first permanent molars- especially in the mandible.

M Bahrani

2007-08-01

24

Predictors of the Elementary School Proficiency Exams and Issues of Equality in Educational Facilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is to determine whether school/student, classroom/student, teacher/student ratio, and the Human Development Index (I.G.E.) rates by province predict a province's total 6th and 7th grade Elementary School Proficiency Exam (SBS) scores. To determine the relationships between the province's total 6th and 7th grade SBS…

Erdogan, Irfan; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz; Cifcili, Vakur

2011-01-01

25

The Growing Classroom: A Garden-Based Science and Nutrition Curriculum for 2nd through 6th Grades. Book 2: Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide for teaching science is Book Two in Project Life Lab's (Santa Cruz, California) three-part curriculum for a garden-based science and nutrition program for grades 2-6. The curriculum is designed for use as an integrated program, but the books can be used independently. It is suggested that the use of student journals can greatly enhance…

Appel, Gary; And Others

26

The Growing Classroom: A Garden-Based Science and Nutrition Curriculum for 2nd through 6th Grades. Book 3: Nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide for teaching nutrition is Book Three in Project Life Lab's (Santa Cruz, California) three-part curriculum for a garden-based science and nutrition program for grades 2-6. The curriculum is designed for use as an integrated program, but the books can be used independently. It is suggested that the use of student journals can greatly…

Appel, Gary; And Others

27

The Growing Classroom: A Garden-Based Science and Nutrition Curriculum for 2nd through 6th Grades. Book 1: Becoming a Farmer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide for starting a school garden is Book One in Project Life Lab's (Santa Cruz, California) three-part curriculum for a garden-based science and nutrition program for grades 2-6. The curriculum is designed for use as an integrated program, but the books can be used independently. It is suggested that the use of student journals can greatly…

Appel, Gary; And Others

28

Modeling the relationships between cognitive-linguistic skills and writing in Chinese among elementary grades students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study is a four-year longitudinal study examining the important predictors of writing of 340 Chinese children in elementary grades. Children’s transcription skills (handwriting skills and spelling), and syntactic skills in grade 1 were significant predictors of text writing in grade 1–4 while ideation in grade 1 only contributed to text writing in grade 2. Stroke order knowledge was shown as an important handwriting skill in Chinese reflecting the characteristics of the Chines...

2013-01-01

29

School-Based Accountability and the Distribution of Teacher Quality across Grades in Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

We use North Carolina data to explore whether the quality of teachers in the lower elementary grades (K-2) falls short of teacher quality in the upper grades (3-5) and to examine the hypothesis that school accountability pressures contribute to such quality shortfalls. Our concern with the early grades arises from recent studies highlighting how…

Fuller, Sarah C.; Ladd, Helen F.

2013-01-01

30

The different grades students’ understanding levels of the concept of religion in turkish elementary education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to examine the different grades students’ understanding levels of the concept of religion in elementary education. A total of 107 different grades students taken from elementary schools were asked the concept in using open ended question developed by the researcher. Obtained data showed that students couldn’t understand the concept correctly and scientifically and the majority of the students had a misconception about the concept such as worshipping, worships, bei...

C?ekin, Abdulkadir

2013-01-01

31

Legal culture of the Latvian youth: example of the senior-grade elementary school pupils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the research – to define the content, functions, manifestations, forms of the concept of legal culture and to investigate the specific character of the legal culture of Latvian senior-grade elementary school pupils, developing proposals for improvement of acquisition of the legal culture by elementary school pupils. Thus, no research studies of legal culture are actually being made in Latvia, and also attention is insufficiently paid to it in the studies of law, and in political ...

Mihailovs, Ivans Ja?nis

2013-01-01

32

Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle school grade level groups. Overall, results supported that disruptive behavior is highly important in evaluating risk status in lower grade levels and that academically engaged behavior becomes more pertinent as students reach higher grade levels. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:23816230

Chafouleas, Sandra M; Kilgus, Stephen P; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Welsh, Megan; Christ, Theodore J

2013-06-01

33

Fifth-Grade Turkish Elementary School Students' Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels with Regard to Text Types  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…

Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy

2010-01-01

34

Food: Images of America. Social Studies Unit, Elementary Grades 2-6.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary school (grades 2-6) unit on American food over the last century. Using authentic visuals including paintings, advertising, label art, documentary photography, and a movie still, the guide offers…

Franklin, Edward; And Others

35

A Meta-Analysis of Writing Instruction for Students in the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to identify effective instructional practices for teaching writing to elementary grade students, we conducted a meta-analysis of the writing intervention literature, focusing our efforts on true and quasi-experiments. We located 115 documents that included the statistics for computing an effect size (ES). We calculated an average…

Graham, Steve; McKeown, Debra; Kiuhara, Sharlene; Harris, Karen R.

2012-01-01

36

Fourth-Grade Students' Motivational Changes in an Elementary Physical Education Running Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice were used to examine fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program. In fall and spring of the school year, participants (N = 113; 66 boys, 47 girls) completed questionnaires assessing achievement goals, expectancy beliefs,…

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Bruene, April

2006-01-01

37

Black-White Differences on IQ and Grades: The Mediating Role of Elementary Cognitive Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between IQ scores and elementary cognitive task (ECT) performance is well established, with variance on each largely reflecting the general factor of intelligence, or g. Also ubiquitous are Black-White mean differences on IQ and measures of academic success, like grade point average (GPA). Given C. Spearman's (Spearman, C. (1927).…

Pesta, Bryan J.; Poznanski, Peter J.

2008-01-01

38

How Wide Is a Squid Eye? Integrating Mathematics into Public Library Programs for the Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Although public library programs for the elementary grades offer explorations in a wide range of topics in which mathematics plays a role, are all too rare: Mathematics offerings are typically limited to homework help. Participating in out-of-school activities that embed mathematics in authentic ways bolsters children's skill development,…

Kliman, Marlene; Jaumot-Pascual, Nuria; Martin, Valerie

2013-01-01

39

Mathematics Reform and Teacher Quality in Elementary Grades: Assessments, Teacher Licensure, and Certification  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the gap in mathematics standards, assessments and accountability, and teacher licensure and certification requirements in mathematics for elementary grades. We found states delineated mathematics academic standards in specific content areas. Licensure and certification requirements were weak indicators since they lacked the specificity…

Georges, Annie; Borman, Kathryn M.; Lee, Reginald S.

2010-01-01

40

Impacto de um programa de competências em alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade / Impact of a skill development intervention in 5th and 6th grade students / Impacto de un programa intervención em alunos del segundo ciclo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo consistiuem avaliar um programa de intervenção junto a alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade nas seguintes dimensões: tomada de decisão, conhecimentos sobre sexualidade, competências sociais, assertividade e autoconceito. Metodologia: Participaram 145 alunos, distribuídos [...] pelos grupos controle e experimental. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: TCU Decision-Making; Questionário de Conhecimentos sobre Sexualidade; Assertion Self-Statement Test- Revised; Questionário de Competências Sociais; Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Os resultados revelaram diferenças no pós-teste entre os grupos ao nível da sexualidade. Verificaram-se diferenças do pré-teste para o pós-teste no grupo experimental nos níveis da sexualidade, da assertividade e das competências sociais. No grupo experimental encontraram-se associações positivas entre tomada de decisão, competências sociais e assertividade, bem como entre sexualidade, competências sociais e autoconceito, no pós-teste. Os preditores da assertividade no pós-teste foram tomada de decisão, sexualidade e competências sociais. Como conclusão, os resultados enfatizam a importância de intervenção junto a adolescentes, particularmente na tomada de decisão, na sexualidade e nas competências sociais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar un programa de intervención con alumnos del 2º ciclo de escolaridad en las siguientes dimensiones: Toma de Decisión, Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad, Habilidades Sociales, Asertividad y Autoconcepto. Metodología: Participaron 145 alumnos, distribuidos en g [...] rupo control y experimental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: TCU Decision-Making; Cuestionario de Conocimientos sobre Sexualidad; AssertionSelf-Statement Test-Revised; Cuestionario de Habilidades Sociais; Piers-Harris Children'sSelf-Concept Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en el post-test entre los grupos en cuanto a la sexualidad. Se verificaron diferencias del pre-test para el post-teste en el grupo experimental, cuanto a sexualidad, asertividad y habilidades sociales. Se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre toma de decisión, habilidades sociales y asertividad, así como entre sexualidad,habilidades sociales yautoconcepto, en el post-test en el grupo experimental. Los predictores de la asertividad en el post-test fueron toma de decisión, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Los resultados destacan la importancia de la intervención con adolescentes particularmente en la toma de decisiones, sexualidad y habilidades sociales. Abstract in english In this study we evaluate an intervention program in the following dimensions: Decision Making, Knowledge on Sexuality, Social Skills, Assertiveness and Self-Concept with students in 5th and 6th grade. Methodology: 145 students participated in the study divided by control and experimental group. The [...] instruments used were: Decision-Making TCU, Knowledge on Sexuality Questionnaire; Assertion Self-Statement Test-Revised;Social Skills Questionnaire, and Piers-Harris Children's Self- Concept Scale. The results indicate differences at post-test between the groups on knowledge regarding sexuality. There were also differences from pre-test to post-test in the experimental group on knowledge on sexuality, assertiveness and social skills. Positive associations among decision making, social skills and assertiveness were found as well as among knowledge on sexuality, social skills and self-concept, in the experimental group, in the pos-test. Finally, the predictors of assertiveness regarding health behaviors, in the pos-test were: decision making, knowledge regarding sexuality and social skills. The results emphasize the importance of intervention for adolescents in terms of health promotion particularly in decision making, sexuality and social skills.

Marta, Melo; M. Graça, Pereira; Jorge, Silvério.

 
 
 
 
41

Integrated STEM in Elementary Grades Using Distributed Agent-based Computation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate how the integration of visual agent-based programming and computationally augmented physical structures can support curricular integration across STEM domains for elementary grade students. We introduce ViMAP-Tangible, a socio-technically distributed computational learning environment, which integrates ultrasonic sensors with the ViMAP visual programming language using a distributed computation infrastructure. In this paper, we report a study in which 3rd and ...

Sengupta, Pratim; Krishnan, Gokul; Wright, Mason

2014-01-01

42

Effect of Selected Exercises on Elementary School Third Grade Girl Students' Motor Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose:The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected exercises on motor development in elementary school third grade girl students in Ahwaz City, Iran.Methods:The present study was semi-experimental, performed as field and using experimental and control groups. The statistical population included all third grade girl students of elementary schools of Ahvaz city (10,500 subjects. Forty of whom were randomly selected (cluster stage and then were divided randomly into two experimental (N=20, M age=8.9 ? 0.49 and control (N=20, M age=8.9 ? 0.48 groups. Experimental group was given training for eight weeks, 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 45 minutes. To measure motor development, the Test of Gross Motor Development, edition2 (TGMD-2; 2002 was applied. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test.Results:The results showed statistically significant differences between control and experimental groups regarding locomotion skills (8.433, p < 0.05, manipulation skills (10.951, P < 0.001 and overall motor development (13.203, p < 0.001. In fact, selected exercises impacted on the motor development of subjects and led to their motor development progress.Conclusions:The selected exercises can be used as an appropriate plan to improve motor skill development in third grade of elementary school.

Sabah Bakhtiari

2011-11-01

43

No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

Social Education, 2005

2005-01-01

44

Easy as 1, 2, 3: Exploring the Implementation of Standards-Based Grading in Wake County Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Wake County Public School System's (WCPSS) 102 elementary schools have implemented standards-based grading. This grading practice is aligned with North Carolina's Student Accountability Standards and the WCPSS Promotion/Intervention policy. Standards-based report cards were designed to reflect student mastery of state standards and provide an…

Paeplow, Colleen Graham

2011-01-01

45

Effect of retention in elementary grades on transition to middle school.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors investigated the effects of retention in grades 1 to 5 on students' reading and math achievement, teacher-rated engagement, and student-reported school belonging in middle school. From a multiethnic sample (N=784) of children who scored below the median on a test of literacy in grade 1, an average of 75 students subsequently retained in grades 1 to 5 were matched with an average of 299 continuously promoted students on the basis of propensity to be retained in the elementary grades. A total of 20 imputed datasets were analyzed, all of which showed good balance across the 67 baseline covariates used to calculate propensity scores. The hypothesis that retained students, who are "old for grade" when they make the transition to middle school, would have a more difficult transition to middle school than promoted peers was tested with 3-level, piecewise growth modeling. Piece 1 included assessments prior to the transition to middle school, and piece 2 included assessments after the transition. Retained and continuously promoted students did not differ on any of the outcome measures during the year prior to transition, nor did they differ in their post-transition trajectories. Discrepancies between these results and results of prior research are discussed in terms of demographic and generational differences as well as differences in methodological rigor. PMID:23816229

Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-man; Puckett, Stevie; Cerda, Carissa Analise

2013-06-01

46

The Effectiveness of Scaffolding Interactive Activities in Developing the English Listening Comprehension Skills of the Sixth Grade Elementary Schoolgirls in Jeddah  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of scaffolding interactive activities in developing the English listening comprehension skills of sixth grade elementary schoolgirls in Jeddah. The subjects in this study were 50 sixth grade pupils at an elementary school in Jeddah. They were assigned to two groups--control and…

Al-Yami, Salwa Ahmed

2008-01-01

47

The Examination of the Culture Perception of the Elementary 8th Grade Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study has been made in order to examine the perceptions of elementary 8th grade students related to the concept of culture. In the study in which qualitative research model has been used, data have been gathered by using the interview technique and written expression, and the data that have been obtained have been analyzed by using the descriptive analysis method. As a result of data analysis, it has been determined that the students make different definitions related to the concept of culture, and that they associate culture with the past. It has been determined that higher the level of education of the parents, the more elevated the degree of ability of the students to associate culture with the past and the present. Planning the studies in this direction also in different education levels will be significant in terms of providing the integrity related to the subject.

?hsan ÜNLÜ

2012-04-01

48

Fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice were used to examine fourth-grade students' motivational changes in an elementary physical education running program. In fall and spring of the school year, participants (N = 113; 66 boys, 47 girls) completed questionnaires assessing achievement goals, expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, and intention for future running participation. They also completed a timed 1-mile (1.6 km) run. The number of laps they ran/walked during the school year was used to assess students' persistence/effort. Results indicated the students improved their run but became less motivated about running while participating in a year-long running program. Children's beliefs about how good they were in the running program (i.e., expectancy beliefs) and their perceptions of how interesting and fun it was (i.e., interest) emerged as the strongest positive predictors of their motivation for running over time. These findings provide strong empirical evidence that expectancy beliefs and interest are essential to children's motivation in elementary physical education. PMID:16898276

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E; Bruene, April

2006-06-01

49

Dietary intake based on physical activity level in Korean elementary school students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exerci...

Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A.; Kim, Jung-hyun; Kim, Yuri; Lim, Yunsook

2010-01-01

50

Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

51

Teacher-Student Agreement on "Bullies and Kids They Pick On" in Elementary School Classrooms: Gender and Grade Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examined teacher-student agreement on the measure: "bullies and kids they pick on" in 38 (15 first, 12 third, and 11 fifth grade) elementary school classrooms. Overall agreement between teachers and students was low, 7.9%. The frequency of bully-victim dyads reported by teachers and victim prominence were positive…

Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.; Gest, Scott

2013-01-01

52

Upper Elementary School Children's Understanding and Solution of a Quantitative Problem inside and outside the Mathematics Class  

Science.gov (United States)

We confronted 151, 5th and 6th elementary grade pupils with a quantitative problem in a mathematics or religion class, to examine the influence of the context on pupils' understanding and solution of such problems inside and outside the mathematics class. Pupils were first asked to solve a problem about fair sharing either during a mathematics or…

Dewolf, Tinne; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

2011-01-01

53

Mathematics Anxiety Among 4th And 5th Grade Turkish Elementary School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a sample of 4th and 5th graders, this study investigated whether students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to a group of variables. A total of 249 students participated in the study. “The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students” and “The Personal Information Form” were used for data collection. Independent samples t-tests, Oneway Anova and Schefee test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to gender, whether they liked mathematics class or not, whether they liked their mathematics teachers or not and the achievement level in mathematics. Female students reported significantly higher mathematics anxiety than males. Students who liked mathematics class and those who liked their mathematics teachers had lower anxiety. Students with higher achievement in mathematics reported lower degrees of mathematics anxiety. However, results did not show any significant difference in students’ mathematics anxiety with respect to their grade level and gender-stereotypes about success in mathematics.

Fulya Yüksel-?ahin

2008-10-01

54

6th International Symposium on Retroviral Nucleocapsid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are widespread in all living organisms and, in some instances such as for HIV, can be a serious threat to the human health. The retroviral nucleocapsid is the inner structure of the virus where several hundred nucleocapsid protein (NC molecules coat the dimeric, genomic RNA. During the past twenty years, NC was found to play multiple roles in the viral life cycle (Fig. 1, notably during the copying of the genomic RNA into the proviral DNA by viral reverse transcriptase and integrase, and is therefore considered to be a prime target for anti-HIV therapy. The 6th NC symposium was held in the beautiful city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on the 20th and 21st of September 2007. All aspects of NC biology, from structure to function and to anti-HIV vaccination, were covered during this meeting.

Mély Yves

2008-02-01

55

Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Annual report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include developing a model laboratory/classroom...

L. B. Flick

1995-01-01

56

Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Final report, September 1, 1992--February 28, 1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include documenting activities and procedures f...

L. B. Flick

1995-01-01

57

Race, Socio-Economic Situation, Achievement, IQ, and Teacher Ratings of Students' Behavior as Factors Relating to Anxiety in Upper Elementary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The replication study concludes that anxiety among middle class white students is neither greater nor equal to that of lower class blacks. Entire 5th and 6th grade classes of eight elementary schools, ranging from inner city public to suburban private, comprised the sample (n=1,200). (Author/DB)

Hawkes, Thomas H.; Furst, Norma F.

1971-01-01

58

6th International Meshing Roundtable '97  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

White, D.

1997-09-01

59

Trajectories of Math and Reading Achievement in Low Achieving Children in Elementary School: Effects of Early and Later Retention in Grade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the effects of retention or promotion in first grade on growth trajectories in mathematics and reading achievement over the elementary school years (grades 1–5). From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance, 363 children who were either promoted (n = 251) or retained (n = 112) in first grade could be successfully matched on 72 background variables. Achievement was measured annually using Woodcock-Johns...

Moser, Stephanie E.; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

2012-01-01

60

The effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a group guidance program to elementary 8th grade students’ views towards apprenticeship training. This study is a control group pre-test post-test experimental research. The research was conducted to students who were enrolled in an elementary school in Konya, Turkey. While research’s experimental group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students, control group was constituted of 11 female and 14 male students (total: 25 students. Vocational group guidance was conducted to experimental group for 9 weeks once a week. The views of experimental and control group students towards apprenticeship education were measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B (AEEF-B at pre-test post-test phases. In this research, applied vocational group guidance program includes views and behaviours which can be measured by Apprenticeship Education Evaluation Form-B. Group discussion and homework techniques were used to gain vocational views and behaviours in vocational group guidance. After analysis there have been found significant difference between experimental and control groups’ AEEF-B pre-test post-test average scores at 0.01 level. Findings showed that vocational group guidance method had a positive effect against negative ideas to apprenticeship education. In addition, vocational group guidance method has been found to be effective in changing 8th year elementary school students’ negative views towards apprenticeship education to positive views. This program is compatible as long as it is used in vocational guidance activities of 8th year elementary school students.

Abdullah Ishiklar

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Teleconferencing across Borders: Promoting Literacy--and More--in the Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronicles the experiences of teachers and elementary students from the United States and Costa Rica as they participated in a videoconferencing project, initiated by Costa Rican students and made possible by CATE, Center for Applied Technologies in Education. Notes that the distance learning experience enhanced academic, technological and…

Szente, Judit

2003-01-01

62

Math Literacy through French Language Learning: Connecting with the Common Core in the Lower Elementary Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the reported proven positive results of early world Language (WL) study are improved cognitive abilities and "higher achievement test scores in reading and math" (Stewart: 11), which are expected student performance outcomes for the Common Core Standards. The future viability of Foreign Language in Elementary Schools (FLES)…

Davis-Wiley, Patricia; Miller, Roy V.

2013-01-01

63

Longitudinal Predictors of Chinese Word Reading and Spelling among Elementary Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The longitudinal predictive power of four important reading-related skills (phonological skills, rapid naming, orthographic skills, and morphological awareness) to Chinese word reading and writing to dictation (i.e., spelling) was examined in a 3-year longitudinal study among 251 Chinese elementary students. Rapid naming, orthographic skills, and…

Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Yau-Kai; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa; Lo, Lap-Yan

2013-01-01

64

Archaeology and Intercultural Education in the Elementary Grades: An Example from Minnesota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advocates the use of archaeology and anthropology as tools for delivering multicultural education in the elementary setting. Argues that archaeology demonstrates to children the ways that various cultures have solved problems related to a common set of human needs. Discusses curriculum design and includes two lesson plans. (DSK)

Whiting, Nancy Carolyn

1998-01-01

65

The Effects of Accelerated Math Utilization on Grade Equivalency Score at a Selected Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Accelerated Math utilization on students' grade equivalency scores. Twelve students for both experimental and control groups were randomly selected from 37 students enrolled in math in grades four through six. The experimental group consisted of the students who actively participated in…

Kariuki, Patrick; Gentry, Christi

2010-01-01

66

Prevalence of Elevated Blood Pressure in Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic 6th Graders  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood pressure screening was conducted on 4,311 (Hispanic n = 763 [17.7%], White n = 2,566 [59.5%], African American n = 610 [14.1%], Asian n = 136 [3.2%], Multiracial n = 231 [5.4%], and Native American n = 5 [0.1%]) 6th-grade students enrolled in Seminole County, Florida, Public Schools from August to December 2005. Prevalence of obesity was 21%…

Tarlton, Patricia A.

2007-01-01

67

The Influence of RET’s on Elementary and Secondary Grade Teachers’ Views of Scientific Inquiry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores in-service elementary and secondary science teachers’ conceptions of the Nature of Scientific Inquiry and the influence of participation in two different Research Experience for Teacher (RET) programs had on these conceptions. Participant teachers attended one of two six week RET programs in which they worked with scientists to engage in scientific inquiry. Before and after the RETs, teachers completed th...

2012-01-01

68

The Influence of RET’s on Elementary and Secondary Grade Teachers’ Views of Scientific Inquiry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores in-service elementary and secondary science teachers’ conceptions of the Nature of Scientific Inquiry and the influence of participation in two different Research Experience for Teacher (RET) programs had on these conceptions. Participant teachers attended one of two six week RET programs in which they worked with scientists to engage in scientific inquiry. Before and after the RETs, teachers completed the View...

2013-01-01

69

Learning to teach science for all in the elementary grades: What do preservice teachers bring?  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit in the goal of recent reforms is the question: What does it mean to prepare teachers to teach science for all? Through a teacher research study, I have encountered characteristics that may assist prospective elementary teachers in developing effective, inclusive science instruction. I describe these strengths, link them to requirements for teaching, and suggest how science teacher educators might draw on the strengths of their own students to support teaching practices aimed at universal scientific literacy. My conceptual framework is constructed from scholarship concerning best practice in elementary science education, as well as that which describes the dispositions of successful teachers of diverse learners. This study is based on a model of teacher research framed by the concept of research as praxis and phenomenological research methodology. The findings describe the research participants' strengths thematically as propensity for inquiry, attention to children, and awareness of school/society relationships. I view these as potentially productive aspects of knowledge and dispositions about science and about children that I could draw on to further students' development as elementary science teachers.

Howes, Elaine V.

2002-11-01

70

General and test anxiety, shyness, and grade point average of elementary school children of divorced and nondivorced parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

116 boys and girls in elementary Grades 4, 5, and 6 were administered the General Anxiety Scale, Test Anxiety Scale, and the Shyness Scale. Their GPAs were obtained from school records as were Normal Curve Equivalents from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills given the previous school year. Children of divorced parents (n = 31) had lower GPAs than children of nondivorced parents (n = 85). The girls had higher GPAs and general anxiety scores than the boys. The students who scored lower on test anxiety had higher Normal Curve Equivalents. Pearson correlations were significant for scores on Test Anxiety with those on general anxiety (r = .57), GPA (r = -.25), and Normal Curve Equivalents (r = -.26). Normal Curve Equivalents correlated significantly with GPA (r = .66), but shyness did not correlate significantly with any other measure. PMID:8197288

Call, G; Beer, J; Beer, J

1994-04-01

71

6th National Conference on Transportation Asset Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 250 attendees benefited from the technical presentations and facilitated discussions conducted at the 6th National Conference on Transportation Asset Management, which was held November 13, 2005, in Kansas City, Missouri. The conference was orga...

K. A. Zimmerman L. A. Sweet

2006-01-01

72

Exemplary Technology Integrators in the Elementary School: The Impact in a Gifth-Grade Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the daily teaching practices of an elementary teacher who was identified as being an exemplary integrator of technology in her classroom. In addition to this inquiry, a collection of audio and video clips from the observations and interviews was used to create DVD resources to be used in a Midwestern university’s teacher education program. Excerpts from these resources are included to allow readers the opportunity to evaluate such products for their possible effectiveness in encouraging teacher candidates to be innovative users of technology in their classrooms, as well as provide evidentiary support for the assertions presented.

Savilla Banister

2005-02-01

73

The Relationship of a Given Group of Elementary Children's Rankings of Social Studies with Other Subject Matter in Grades Three and Five.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between social studies preference and other subject matter preferences of elementary children over a two-year period is analyzed. A forced-choice test requiring students to rank order five basic subjects was administered to 75 pupils in randomly selected third-grade classes. Students represented the socioeconomic structure of an…

Rushdoony, Haig A.

74

La mirada de las profesoras coordinadoras de la intervención pedagógica en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo / Coordinators’ Perspective on the Pedagogical Intervention in the Study Program “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo científico surge del proceso de intervención pedagógica (IP) que se realiza como parte de la formación docente en las carreras de la División de Educación Básica en la Universidad Nacional y pretende destacar las acciones del proceso de práctica profesional supervisada ejecutado [...] en la carrera de Pedagogía con Énfasis en I y II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica, desde la visión de las académicas responsables de la coordinación de dicho proceso. Para ello, se comparte una serie de acciones de coordinación que requiere el proceso de práctica y que son fundamentales para su desarrollo y exitosa culminación. Se sistematizan en tres áreas principales con su correspondiente análisis: acciones de coordinación, acciones de inducción y acciones de cierre de la intervención pedagógica. Asimismo, se retoman las opiniones del estudiantado y profesorado de apoyo en la valoración de dichas acciones. Entre los principales aportes del artículo se destaca que el proceso de intervención pedagógica es mucho más que la formulación conjunta de un programa de curso o de instrumentos, ya que implica una serie de estrategias de coordinación entre las profesoras responsables de la intervención pedagógica, para complementar el proceso y permitir hacer de la práctica un espacio de aprovechamiento y reflexión sobre la realidad educativa. Se genera, además, el análisis y trabajo en equipo, para la constante retroalimentación del estudiantado y del mismo proceso, lo cual permite perfilar la práctica profesional renovada y fortalecer la formación universitaria, al ser el proceso de IP de la División de Educación Básica un espacio de investigación permanente. Abstract in english This scientific paper is the result of the pedagogical intervention process carried out as part of teacher training in the study programs of the Basic Education Division at Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica). It aims at bringing into focus the tasks of the supervised professional practice process con [...] ducted in the study program of “Pedagogy with a specialization in the 1st to 6th grades of the Basic General Education”, from the perspective of the coordinators of this process. The coordination tasks that are essential for the development and successful completion of the professional practice process are analyzed and systematized in three main areas: coordination, induction, and conclusion of the pedagogical intervention tasks. The opinions of students and faculty members are considered in the evaluation. One of the main contributions of this paper is calling attention to the pedagogical intervention process, which involves not only the joint preparation of a course program, but also a number of coordination strategies among the persons in charge of the pedagogical intervention to complete the process and take advantage of the practice to think carefully on the educational reality. This study has been also an opportunity of analysis and teamwork focused on continuous feedback to students and to the process itself, giving a new shape to the professional practice, and strengthening university training where the pedagogical intervention process of the Basic Education Division is a permanent research platform.

Camacho Oviedo, Maureen; Rojas Acevedo, Kattia.

75

Electricity and Magnetism. Fifth Grade. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication presents the background, support documents, and the accompanying 16 units needed to teach electricity and magnetism to fifth grade students. Included are materials lists, a discussion of the use of process skill terminology, a list of unit objectives, a vocabulary list, background information for teachers, and the 16 units. Topics…

Anchorage School District, AK.

76

Trajectories of Math and Reading Achievement in Low Achieving Children in Elementary School: Effects of Early and Later Retention in Grade.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of retention or promotion in first grade on growth trajectories in mathematics and reading achievement over the elementary school years (grades 1-5). From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance, 363 children who were either promoted (n = 251) or retained (n = 112) in first grade could be successfully matched on 72 background variables. Achievement was measured annually using Woodcock-Johnson W scores; scores of retained children were shifted back one year to permit same-grade comparisons. Using longitudinal growth curve analysis, trajectories of math and reading scores for promoted and retained children were compared. Retained children received a one year boost in achievement; this boost fully dissipated by the end of elementary school. The pattern of subsequent retention in grades 2, 3 and 4 and placement in special education of the sample during the elementary school years is also described and their effects are explored. Policy implications for interventions for low achieving children are considered. PMID:23335818

Moser, Stephanie E; West, Stephen G; Hughes, Jan N

2012-08-01

77

Teacher student relationship quality type in elementary grades: Effects on trajectories for achievement and engagement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Teacher, peer, and student reports of the quality of the teacher-student relationship were obtained for an ethnically diverse and academically at-risk sample of 706 second and third grade students. Cluster analysis identified four types of relationships based on the consistency of child reports of support and conflict in the relationship with reports of others: Congruent positive, Congruent Negative, Incongruent Child Negative and Incongruent Child Positive. The cluster solution evidenced goo...

Wu, Jiun-yu; Hughes, Jan N.; Kwok, Oi-man

2010-01-01

78

Study on utilization status of internet and needs assessment for developing nutrition education programs among elementary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was to investigate utilization status of internet, health/nutrition websites among children, and to assess the needs for developing nutrition websites and education programs for children. The survey questionnaire was administered to 5-6th grade students (n=434) at two elementary schools. About 32% used the internet every day while 19.5% used it whenever they needed, showing significant differences in internet usage by gender (p<0.01). Although the subjects used the internet frequen...

Ahn, Yun; Kim, Kyung-won

2007-01-01

79

The aurora, Mars, and more! Increasing science content in elementary grades through art and literacy programs in earth and space science  

Science.gov (United States)

Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. One unintended result is that teachers in grades where science is tested must play catch-up with students for them to be successful on the assessment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy, social studies, and math into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Dancing Lights program, developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, is a science, art, and literacy program about the aurora designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. It mirrors other successful literacy programs and will provide a basis for the literacy program being developed for the upcoming MAVEN mission to Mars. We will present early findings, as well as "lessons learned" during our development and implementation of the Dancing Lights program and will highlight our goals for the MAVEN mission literacy program.

Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.

2011-12-01

80

Teacher-student relationship quality type in elementary grades: Effects on trajectories for achievement and engagement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teacher, peer, and student reports of the quality of the teacher-student relationship were obtained for an ethnically diverse and academically at-risk sample of 706 second- and third-grade students. Cluster analysis identified four types of relationships based on the consistency of child reports of support and conflict in the relationship with reports of others: Congruent Positive, Congruent Negative, Incongruent Child Negative, and Incongruent Child Positive. The cluster solution evidenced good internal consistency and construct validity. Group membership predicted growth trajectories for teacher-rated engagement and standardized achievement scores over the following three years, above prior performance. The predictive associations between child reports of teacher support and conflict and the measured outcomes depended on whether child reports were consistent or inconsistent with reports of others. Study findings have implications for theory development, assessment of teacher-student relationships, and teacher professional development. PMID:20728688

Wu, Jiun-Yu; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-Man

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

An Analysis of Rx for Discovery Reading for Elementary Students Below Grade Level in Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Rx for Discovery Reading® is an intervention developed by the National Institute for Learning Development to impact the reading abilities of students below grade level in reading. For this study, the areas of phonological processing, decoding, and fluency were investigated using pre- and post-test scores from the KTEA-II, GORT, and DIBELS. The problem studied was whether Rx for Discovery Reading® would raise the mean standard scores in these three areas. Using a small-group format, twenty-nine students were involved in the intervention for fifty forty-five minute sessions over one school year. Eight NILD educational therapists in a variety of geographical areas implemented the intervention. At the conclusion of the field test, the data were examined, discovering that the students had significantly higher post-test standard scores compared to the pre-test standard scores. These results demonstrate that this intervention may contribute greatly in enabling students become more proficient readers, overcoming a reading deficit.

Susan Kay Stanley

2009-06-01

82

Analyzing stories told by an elementary science teacher in a fifth-grade classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze and interpret the stories told by one teacher, Ms. M, in a fifth grade science classroom. In this study, stories are defined as teacher utterances that are used in first person or third person narrative view, and are related to an experience that occurred outside the classroom. This research answers questions concerning: (a) what types of stories Ms. M tells during science instruction; (b) when these stories occur in the classroom; and (c) what pedagogical functions do these stories serve in the classroom. Utilizing theories on the social construction of knowledge and narrative cognition, stories told may be formed through multiple paths that follow no logical expression to make sense of the context and to connect to its audience. Therefore, this study provides insight into how Ms. M made sense of science with her stories and the ways in which they worked with her students. The results illlustrated that the types of stories found with Ms. M were autobiographical, biographical, fictional, or based on current events. These stories occurred when the teacher initiated the discussion by bringing forth a definition, a question or reinforcing a concept. However, the stories were triggered by students to a greater degree with their questions, concerns, observations or their own stories or explanations. Finally, all pedagogical functions of stories were identified with Ms. M's stories: promotion of engagement or attention of students, building community, clarifying concepts or vocabulary, activation and building of background knowledge and disclosure of teacher role and voice. Ms. M stories exemplified her sense-making of science and connections to her own life that her students were eventually able to make for themselves.

Trotman, Alicia M.

83

6th International Probabilistic Workshop - 32. Darmstädter Massivbauseminar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

These are the proceedings of the 6th International Probabilistic Workshop, formerly known as Dresden Probabilistic Symposium or International Probabilistic Symposium. The workshop was held twice in Dresden, then it moved to Vienna, Berlin, Ghent and finally to Darmstadt in 2008. All of the conference cities feature some specialities. However, Darmstadt features a very special property: The element number 110 was named Darmstadtium after Darmstadt: There are only very few cities worldwide afte...

Graubner, Carl-alexander; Schmidt, Holger; Proske, Dirk

2008-01-01

84

Proceedings of the 6th nuclear science and technology conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 2 - 4 December, 1996 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

1996-12-02

85

6th Krakow-Winnipeg Conference on Advanced Bioimaging Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from 1997 researchers have been meet in Krakow, Poland for the Krakow-Winnipeg conference on MRI. The scope of the conference includes the latest technical advances in biomedical imaging including molecular imaging and nanotechnology. Other topics for presentation include recent developments in whole body MRI, multi-transmit technology and gradient-free MRI. Book of Abstracts from the 6th Conference contains 29 abstracts of Oral Presentations and 11 abstracts of Posters.

2011-09-07

86

Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure  

Science.gov (United States)

Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

87

Outside Learning: It's Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a partnership with elementary teachers at Main Elementary School in Rome, Georgia, 42 children (one third-grade class and one fourth-grade class) learned how to use newspapers to rebuild slopes on their schoolgrounds that had been eroded by runoff

Outlaw, Mary E.; Bell, Steven H.

2001-10-01

88

6th International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proceedings book contains the papers presented at 6th International Symposium on solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies held at Mojacar (Almeria) in September 28-October 2, 1992, The sessions were: 1.- Advanced components and systems: - Concentrators, - Volumetric and direct absorption receivers - Dish/Stirling 2.- Electricity Generation: - Central receiver systems - Distributed collector systems - Dish/Stirling systems - Economics - Potential for improvement 3.- Thermal/Chemical applications: - Chemical production - Detoxification of Hazardous waste and Solar desalination - Materials testing 4.- Long term research 5.- Test facilities

1993-01-01

89

Proceedings of 6th World Wide Web Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

The Proceedings of 6th World Wide Web Conference, held April 7-11, 1997, are now available. Accessing all of the proceedings or selected portions is easy since users may select readings by author or topic or simply search through all of them. Topics are arranged under General Content, GUIs (graphical user interfaces) and Tech(nical materials). The audience for these materials is quite wide: from someone involved in long-term planning to another writing code to someone else considering the structure of information on their own web site. Examples of topics include URNs, web security, design principles, protocols, and a charging and payment model.

90

Grade 7-9 Students’ Perceptions of Energy and Related Concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to determine how, after the implementation of the new elementary school Science and Technology Course curriculum, 7th and 9th grade students perceive, construct in their mind the concept of energy and related concepts; and how the perceptions change over time. Thus, a questionnaire consisting of four open-ended questions was administrated to a total of 120 among 6th-, 7th- and 8th-grade students. A qualitative analysis of the data indicated that students have difficulties in constructing the concepts of energy, energy supply, form of energy and transportation of energy.

Aytekin Çökelez

2009-12-01

91

The effects of a classroom-based social skills training program on the levels of assertiveness and aggressiveness of fourth-grade elementary school students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an classroom-based social skills training program on the levels of assertiveness and aggressiveness of fourth-grade elementary students. Subjects of the study are composed of 51 fourth-grade students. Twenty five of these students are assigned to experimental group and 26 of them are assigned to control group. Social skills training program was implemented to the experimental group for 10 weeks. However, no procedure was applied to the control group. The data obtained before and after the program were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results of the study revealed that the classroom-based social skills training program was effective in increasing the level of assertiveness of students in experimental group, but the program was not effective in decreasing the the level of aggressiveness.

Asl? Uz Ba?

2010-09-01

92

6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics  

CERN Document Server

The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

2014-01-01

93

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

94

Assessing the Impact of Teacher Professional Development on Science Instruction in the Early Elementary Grades in Rural US Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extent to which significant changes after one year of a longitudinal, state-funded teacher professional development program were sustained during the second year. Participants taught in elementary schools located in small, rural school districts in the state of California in the United States. The research examined changes…

Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy

2013-01-01

95

Dairy Industry. Grade 3. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on the occupational clusters of health and manufacturing, this unit entitled "The Dairy Industry" is one of four grade 3 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC)…

Briggs, Gail; And Others

96

Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

1983-08-30

97

Octupole deformation in "2"2"6Th  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sources of "2"3"0U - resulting from the ?"- decay of "2"3"0Pa produced in the reaction "2"3"2Th(p,3n) with 34 MeV protons - were purified and used to determine the half life of the 230.4 keV 1"- state in "2"2"6Th. Using the Doppler shift method, following ? decay of "2"3"0U, a value T_1_/_2 = 3.5 ± 1.2 ps was determined. The half life of the 226.4 keV 4"+ state was also measured as T_1_/_2 = 145 ± 20 ps. The absolute probabilities in Weisskopf units of the 230 keV and 158 keV ? transitions depopulating the 1"- state were determined as (2.50 ± 0.86) x 10"-"3 and (4.54 ± 1.55) x 10"-"3 respectively. Experimental values of the intrinsic dipole moment, D_0, and of D_0/Q_0, were determined as 0.27 ± 0.05 e.fm and (3.5 ± 1.0) x 10"-"4 fm"-"1. These data have been compared with theories and experiment. (authors)

1999-01-01

98

Gender-Based Content of Educational Materials for the Study of Serbian Language in Lower-Stage Grades of Elementary Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analysis of educational materials for the study of Serbian language in lower-stage grades of elementary education (intended for students from 7 through 11 years old from gender perspective. The first part of the paper presents the process of institutionalization of gender-based education in the Republic of Serbia after the year 2000, when gender issues became highlighted as an integral part of the overall reform of education within the implementation of education for democracy and civil society. Declarative commitment to developing gender sensitivity has led to changes in the curriculum for elementary education and, presumably, changes in the selection of educational materials for different school subjects. The authors intended to determine whether educational materials for Serbian language honor the principle of gender equality in the selection of literary texts. The presence and nature of gender-based content in reading books from different publishers, for second and third grade, was determined by using the method of content analysis. The aim was to establish empirical evidence that would show the degree of gender sensitivity of analyzed educational materials and their compliance with the strategic commitment to gender mainstreaming in education. The authors are aware of the range of this micro-level research, and the impossibility to reach general conclusions, however, in their opinion, the obtained data may shed a light on at least one part of the mosaic of the complex relationship of education, educational material and gender equality in contemporary Serbian society. The following conclusions were drawn: (a the analyzed educational material serves the function of developing gender sensitivity; (b the principle of gender equality is respected in selection of the material; (c the distinguished gender characteristics go beyond the so-called traditional gender pattern.

Vesna Trifunovic

2014-02-01

99

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 1), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 1, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This is Part 1 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 1 includes the commentary for chapters 1 through 5. Topics covered include congruence, numbers and number bases, subtraction of numbers, division of numbers, and elementary geometry. References to the student text are cited. (RH)

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

100

Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Symposium of the European VLBI Network, held in Bonn on 25-28 June 2002. The initial aim of these biennial gatherings of European VLBI practitioners was to review in a timely manner new results and technical developments related to Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Now, however, interest and participation in the EVN Symposia reaches far beyond Europe, reflecting the fact that scientific research and development programs are carried out to a high degree in international and often truly global collaborations. More than 120 scientists from around the world registered for participation in the Symposium. The Symposium was hosted by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie and was held at the Gustav Stresemann Institut. In addition to the scientific sessions and poster presentations, the program included an EVN Users Meeting, an MPIfR versus Rest-of-the-World football match (highly appropriate given the competing World Cup event!), a visit to the MPIfR's 100m radio telescope in Effelsberg, and a Conference Dinner held in the nearby old walled town of Bad Müunstereifel. To maximize the usefulness of these proceedings (and possibly as a daring precedent) the Editors decided to demand the written versions of talks and posters and to complete the editorial work before the meeting, and to deliver the book to the participants at the beginning of the Symposium. We thank the authors for their cooperation in delivering publication-ready electronic manuscripts and for meeting the strict deadlines. It is highly gratifying that only a handful of the 100 presentations are not represented in this volume. The editors have made minor changes to some of the contributions in order to improve readability, and take responsibility for any errors arising from these changes. Besides the authors, many individuals have contributed to the preparation of the meeting and its proceedings. In addition to many members of the MPIfR staff, we especially wish to thank: W. Alef, U. Bach, E. Fürst, E. Fingas, L. Fuhrmann, L. Gurvits, N. Junkes, M. Kadler, A. Kraus, E. Middelberg, P. Müller, B. Naunheim, J. Schmidt, and R. Schwartz. Financial support for the Symposium came from the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, from the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission (IHP - Infrastructure Cooperation Networks, contract number HPRI-CT-1999-400003), and from the Max Planck Research Prize for International Collaboration.

Ros, Eduardo; Porcas, Richard W.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Zensus, J. Anton

 
 
 
 
101

Sex education in Slovenian primary school from 6th to 9th grade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Origin: Sexuality has existed ever since of the man kind. Freud discovered that children go through five stages of sexual development, which prepares them for a healthy adulthood. Modern-day advocates of sexuality who support this thesis are adding that sexuality is not limited to sexual intercourse, but is a constituent part of healthy human relations. World Health Organization plays an important role in the introduction of sex education in school programs and also unites medical-health para...

2012-01-01

102

The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

2008-01-01

103

PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics  

Science.gov (United States)

After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the Humanities (NAVF), The Norwegian Physical Society, The Community of Karmøy, Hydro Aluminium Karmøy, Statoil, Laborel, Aanderaa Instruments and also by other local firms and institutions. The financial as well as practical support from all of these sources is gratefully acknowledged. We will in particular express our appreciation for the indispensable help from cand. real. Konrad Bardsen and his colleagues at the gymnasium where the daily scientific activity, and also major parts of the social program, took place. The meeting could not have been organized nor carried through without the professional help from Karen-Margrete Hovland, backed by her sister Alice and a team of hard-working graduate students from Bergen: Erling Andersen, Håvard Helstrup, Torbjørn Rogde and Espen Staubo. We thank all of our speakers for a smooth cooperation. * The logo of the meeting, Seidmennene på Skrattaskjaer (Old Norse: seidmann = "shaman", skrattasker = wizard or troll skerry) has resulted in colorful interpretations and comments. The organizing committee noticed, with satisfaction, that the logo had been correctly identified in one of the contributions. The still curious reader may read about this thousand year old historic event in the sagas of the NORSE KINGS by Snorri Sturluson, in the saga of Olav Trygvason.

Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

1990-01-01

104

Habilidades de letramento após intervenção fonoaudiológica em crianças do 1º ano do ensino fundamental / Literacy abilities of first grade elementary school children after speech and language intervention  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia de um Programa Fonoaudiológico de Estimulação do Letramento - PFEL, em crianças do 1° ano do Ensino Fundamental, em relação à efetividade deste nas habilidades de letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e leitura. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete crianças, de ambos os gê [...] neros, com média de idade de sete anos e um mês, cursando o 1º ano do Ensino Fundamental realizaram avaliação, pré e após intervenção fonoaudiológica, do letramento, consciência fonológica, vocabulário e nível de leitura. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação pré-PFEL a média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento foi de 28,90%; todos os sujeitos apresentaram alteração no vocabulário; obtiveram escore médio de 24,65 no CONFIAS e a maioria das crianças avaliadas encontrava-se no nível logográfico de leitura. Pós-PFEL os sujeitos apresentaram média percentual de acertos na prova de letramento igual a 40,05%; mantiveram déficit no vocabulário; escore médio no CONFIAS de 34,62 e a maioria dos sujeitos permaneceu no nível logográfico. CONCLUSÃO: O programa desenvolvido nesse estudo mostrou-se eficaz, promovendo mudanças qualitativas relevantes no vocabulário, letramento, consciência fonológica e leitura, apesar de quantitativamente, os resultados não evidenciarem significância estatística. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the effectiveness of the Speech-Language Pathology Program of Literacy Stimulation (PFEL) over literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading abilities of first grade elementary school children. METHODS: Thirty seven children of both genders, who attended the first grade [...] of elementary school and had, in average, seven years and one month of age participated in this study. Subjects carried out pre and post speech-language intervention assessments regarding literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary and reading level. RESULTS: In the assessment carried out before PFEL, the percentual mean of correct answers in the literacy test was 28.90%; all subjects showed vocabulary deficits; the mean score on the CONFIAS test was 24.65, and the majority of the children assessed were at the logographic level of reading. In the post-PFEL assessment, subjects showed a mean percentage of correct answers in the literacy test of 40.05%; they kept the vocabulary deficit and remained at the logographic level of reading; the mean CONFIAS score was 34.62. CONCLUSION: The literacy program developed in this study was effective in promoting relevant qualitative changes in vocabulary, literacy, phonological awareness and reading abilities, even though the quantitative results did not show statistically significant differences.

Carmen Lúcia Romão, Brito; Catharina Pinto Queirós, Uzêda; Jaqueline Gonçalves, Vieira; Laura Giotto, Cavalheiro.

105

Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

106

Quality of school life and self-concept among elementary school students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate, how much the dimensions of Children Self-Concept Scale, “Behavior”, “Intellectual and school status”, “Physical appearance and attributes”, “Anxiety”, “Popularity” and “Happiness” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions about quality of life in their school’s. The participants of the study consist of 493 students (235 girls and 258 boys who attended to 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades from four elementary schools located in Adana central province, Turkey. Quality of School Life Scale (QSLS and “Children Self-Concept Scale” were used as data collection tools. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to analyze the gathered data. Results show that, all dimensions of Children Self-concept Scale have significant correlations with quality of school life (p<.001. Results of hierarchic regression analysis show that, the variables of “Behavior”, “Popularity”, “Happiness”, “Intellectual and school status” and “Anxiety” estimated the elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of school life significantly; but the variable of “Physical appearance and attributes” has no significant contribution to the estimation. It was found that, the variable of “Behavior” has the highest contribution to the estimation of students’ quality of school life among these five variables which could be account for 29.2% of the total variance of elementary school students’ perceptions of quality of their school life.

Mediha Sar?

2008-10-01

107

Proceedings of the 6th Korea-China Joint workshop on nuclear waste management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This proceedings contains articles of 6th Korea-China Joint workshop on nuclear waste management. It was held on November 16-17, 2005 in Kyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 3 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Nuclear fuel cycle, Radioactive waste treatment, Radwaste disposal and decontamination and decommissioning. (Yi, J. H.)

NONE

2005-11-15

108

Ubiquitous Wireless Laptops in Upper Elementary Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

This quasi-experimental investigation considers the second year of implementation of wireless laptops (1:1 ratio) in three 6th grade mathematics classrooms in one school compared to non-laptop classrooms (5:1 ratio) in seven other schools in the district. Comprehensive mathematics software from CompassLearning delivered via the internet was…

Clariana, Roy

2009-01-01

109

Proceedings of the 6th Many-core Applications Research Community (MARC) Symposium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In continuation of a successful series of events, the 6th symposium of the Many-core Applications Research Community (MARC) took place at ONERA research center in Toulouse. On July 19th and 20th 2012, researchers from different fields presented their current and future work on many-core hardware architectures, their programming models, and the resulting research questions for the upcoming generation of heterogeneous parallel systems.

Noulard, Eric

2012-01-01

110

6th International Symposium on Clinical Applications of Serum Free Light Chain Analysis (plus Hevylite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 6th International Symposium on Clinical Applications of Serum Free Light Chain Analysis (plus Hevylite was held in Bath, UK on 23rd and 24th September 2010. This Symposium included measurements in monoclonal gammopathies, myeloma kidney and inflammatory diseases; data from the Multi-centre, Phase III, Randomised control trial on extended haemodialysis with the Gambro protein-leaking HCO 1100 dialyser; and presentations on Hevylite (intact immunoglobulin kappa/lambda ratios in a variety of clinical situations.

Guest Editor: A.R. Bradwell

2011-08-01

111

Grading physical education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As regards to the evaluation of the physical education, teachers and sports educators have inconsistent and heterogeneous opinions. The first group is convinced that the one-word grades are the way to go; the second group is all for the numeric grading; the third group vouches for the narrative and the fourth wants to eliminate the grades altogether. Our present regulations on examining, evaluating and advancement of students to the next grade in our nine-level elementary schools are cemented...

Zorc, Barbara

2011-01-01

112

A Comparison of Elementary/K-8 and Middle Schools' Suspension Rates  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to examine the suspension percentages among three sixth-grade transition groups: (a) students who attended elementary or K-8 schools in sixth grade and K-8 schools in seventh grade, (b) students who attended elementary or K-8 schools in sixth grade and middle schools in seventh grade, and (c) students who attended middle…

Arcia, Emily

2007-01-01

113

A study of 6th-order polynomial type 3D yield function and its application  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Yoshida et al. proposed a 6th-order polynomial type 3D yield function (Yoshida model) with user friendly parameter identification scheme ([1]). This yield function has some advantages. One of the advantages is high flexibility to describe anisotropic properties. Besides, it does not need additional parameters to apply for 3D (solid) FE analysis. Authors implemented this model into commercial FEM code LS-DYNA via the user material subroutine. In this study, this yield function is applied for simulation of earing evolution of AA5042 during drawing and ironing processes and good results are obtained. As the reason for high accuracy, anisotropic properties are discussed.

Amaishi, Toshirou; Fukiharu, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

114

Construction and analysis of a 1/6th-scale concrete containment model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the features and preliminary analysis of a 1/6th-scale reinforced concrete containment model, which is being constructed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The model LWR containment building was designed and is being built to the ASME code by United Engineers and Constructors Inc. The containment model will be tested to failure to determine its behavior to static overpressurization. The results from testing the heavily instrumented containment will be used to assess the capability of analytical methods

1986-08-01

115

Construction and analysis of a 1/6th-scale concrete containment model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the features and preliminary analysis of a 1/6th-scale reinforced concrete containment model, which is being constructed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The model LWR containment building was designed and is being built to the ASME code by United Engineers and Constructors Inc. The containment model will be tested to failure to determine its behavior to static overpressurization. The results from testing the heavily instrumented containment will be used to assess the capability of analytical methods. 16 figs

1986-05-21

116

IAEA International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties. 6th meeting of the Technical Steering Committee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the Consultant Meeting 6th Meeting of the Technical Steering Committee for the International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties' held on 16-17 September 2004 at Plas Tan-Y-Bwlch, Maentwrog, Gwynedd, UK. The purposes of the meeting were to review the matters and actions identified in the previous meeting, undertake a review of the current status of the database and to make recommendations for actions for the next year. The purposes of the meeting were fully met. This report contains the current status of the identified actions as well as a summary of the recommendations on enhancements to the database. (author)

2004-09-16

117

Papers presented at the 6th H-mode workshop (Seeon, Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 6th H-mode workshop was held at Kloster Seeon (Germany) during the period of September 22-24, 1997. Contribution to this workshop is reported. Reports include. 1. Role of Nonuniform Superthermal Ions for Internal Transport Barriers. 2. Electric Field Bifurcation and Transition in the Core Plasma of CHS. 3. Formation and Termination of High Ion Temperature Mode in Heliotron/torsatron Plasmas. 4. Transition to an Enhanced Internal Transport Barrier. 5. Physics of Collapses - Probabilistic Occurrence of ELMs and Crashes -. (J.P.N.)

NONE

1997-10-01

118

6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010: November 29–December 1, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC.1,2 As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the...

Beck, Alain; Wurch, Thierry

2011-01-01

119

Examining elementary students' perceptions of engineers  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a national focus on improving K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. The integration of engineering education from kindergarten through high school (K-12) has been identified as key to sustaining the U.S. economy and standard of living. Misconceptions about the nature of engineering may deter children from even considering this profession. Currently, there are few research studies on young children's perceptions of engineers, and such research can be used to support children along STEM pathways. The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of engineers for children enrolled in a gifted and talented outreach program. Participants included students enrolled in two structural engineering classes: one for 3rd and 4th graders and another for 5th and 6th grade students. Participants represented an age group that is not typically exposed to engineering. This research was framed within a constructivist theoretical framework, and qualitative research methods were utilized to develop a rich understanding of the perspectives of students enrolled in the engineering classes. Data collection included student pre- and post-questionnaires, Draw-an-Engineer tasks, and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis entailed the use of open and axial coding. Trustworthiness of data was determined through triangulation of multiple data sources. Results demonstrated how children describe the work of engineers, objects associated with engineering, tools used or created by engineers, and professional characteristics of engineers. In addition, images of engineers were discussed and influences on students' perceptions of engineers were identified. The findings of this study have implications for the development of formal and informal K-12 curricula and programs that focus on improving students' understanding and engagement in engineering. Implications for researchers interested in studying children's perceptions were also discussed.

Oware, Euridice A.

120

Mathematics Reform and Teacher Quality in Elementary Grades: Assessments, Teacher Licensure, and Certification Reforma matema?tica y calidad docente en la escuela primaria: Evaluaciones, licencias y certificacio?n docente Reforma matema?tica e qualidade de professores no Ensino Fundamental: Avaliac?o?es, licenciamento e certificac?a?o de professores  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyzed the gap in mathematics standards, assessments and accountability, and teacher licensure and certification requirements in mathematics for elementary grades. We found states delineated mathematics academic standards in specific content areas. Licensure and certification requirements were weak indicators since they lacked the specificity of conceptual and procedural knowledge that could strengthen mathematics content knowledge and inform instructional practices. The most recent chan...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Irradiation experiments of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oarai Gas Loop-1, OGL-1, is an in-pile helium gas loop, installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), for irradiation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels at high pressure and temperature. The present report describes results of fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the 6th-12th OGL-1 fuel assemblies. The 6th-8th assemblies used coated fuel particles produced by a small-scale fluidized bed. On the other hand, the 9th-12th assemblies used trial manufacturing fuels, produced with a large-scale fluidized bed for mass production of the fuel for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed. For the 9th assembly loaded with the first mass-product fuel, the fission gas release, R/B of "8"8Kr, was relatively high, 1.5x10"-"5, and various defects were observed in the ceramography of the irradiated coating layers. Afterwards, a decrease was achieved in the through-coating failure fractions at the fabrication. Correspondingly, the R/B of "8"8Kr for the 12th assembly was reduced to an excellent value of 2x10"-"6. Thus, the production technology and the irradiation performance of the HTTR design fuels were successfully demonstrated. (author)

1994-01-01

122

Elementary supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supersymmetric harmonic oscillator has been constructed from elementary quantum mechanics and some of its properties are discussed. Introducing supercoordinates, one easily generates more general examples of N = 1 and N = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics

1985-01-01

123

Elementary supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is constructed from elementary quantum mechanics and some of its properties are discussed. Introducing supercoordinates one easily generates more general examples of N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. (orig.)

1985-07-30

124

A reputation for success (or failure): the association of peer academic reputations with academic self-concept, effort, and performance across the upper elementary grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The associations between children's academic reputations among peers and their academic self-concept, effort, and performance were examined in a longitudinal study of 427 students initially enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Assessments were completed in the fall and spring of 2 consecutive school years and in the fall of a 3rd school year. Peer academic reputation (PAR) correlated moderately strongly with teacher-rated skills and changed over time as a function of grades earned at the prior assessment. Path-analytic models indicated bidirectional associations between PAR and academic self-concept, teacher-rated academic effort, and grade point average. There was little evidence that changes in self-concept mediated the association between PAR and effort and GPA or that changes in effort mediated the association between PAR and GPA. Results suggest that peers may possess unique information about classmates' academic functioning, that children's PARs are psychologically meaningful, and that these reputations may serve as a useful marker of processes that forecast future academic engagement and performance. PMID:18473632

Gest, Scott D; Rulison, Kelly L; Davidson, Alice J; Welsh, Janet A

2008-05-01

125

6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics  

CERN Document Server

The growth in the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology fields over the last few years has been remarkable.. The analysis of the datasets of Next Generation Sequencing needs new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Also Systems Biology has also been emerging as an alternative to the reductionist view that dominated biological research in the last decades. This book presents the results of the  6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, 28-30th March, 2012 which brought together interdisciplinary scientists that have a strong background in the biological and computational sciences.

Luscombe, Nicholas; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Rodríguez, Juan

2012-01-01

126

6th conference of German judges at administrative courts held at Kassel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nine working groups, the 6th conference of German judges at administrative courts, held at the beginning of May 1980, primarily dealt with the question as to where the limits are set to legal protection by administrative courts, and with the further creation of public law by judges at administrative courts. Working group No. I turned to the control of decisions made during legal proceedings at administrative courts concerning the Federal Act for Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Law. In doing so, they dealt especially with the decisions on Kalkar and Muelheim-Kaerlich, made by the Federal Constitutional Court. This working group came to the result that hand in hand with a cutdown of the judicial intensity of control we will further observe legal protection shifting into the field of administrative proceedings. (HSCH)

1980-06-01

127

Corrosion investigation for iron artifacts dug out at the 6th Yamato ancient tomb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed corrosion depth for some iron artifacts dug out at the 6th Yamato ancient tomb in Nara prefecture using X-ray CT for the purpose of estimation for long stability of iron material in the ground as a part of the natural analog study related to the research of the high-level nuclear waste disposal. These samples are three big and 17 small iron artifacts which are called 'Tetsutei' like as horseshoe iron plate. It is considered that the most of them had been buried in a slightly oxidizing or reducing environment. The analysis result shows the maximum corrosion depth is 1.6 mm for about 1500 years. This paper presents an outline of this study. (author)

2005-01-01

128

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental / Phonological processing and school performance in early grades of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonológico de escolares da 1ª e 2ª séries, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existência de correlações entre essas variáveis. MÉTODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas) entre cinco e oito anos de idade, [...] sem queixas relacionadas à fala ou à aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994) e pelas provas de nomeação rápida, repetição de pseudopalavras e consciência fonológica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonológico. A análise estatística se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificação de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior média de acertos para leitura. Não houve diferença significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2ª série mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmética, quando comparados aos alunos da 1ª série. Ao contrário dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmética e consciência fonológica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memória fonológica não diferenciaram as séries. Na 1ª série, encontraram-se correlações positivas entre o acesso ao léxico mental e a consciência fonológica, entre leitura e escrita e consciência fonológica, e entre aritmética e consciência fonológica. Na 2ª série, identificaram-se correlações positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmética e com a consciência fonológica, acesso ao léxico com memória fonológica e consciência fonológica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares da 2ª série apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciência fonológica quando comparados aos alunos 1ª, apesar da maioria ter alcançado classificação inferior à esperada para a série, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variáveis do processamento fonológico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to characterize school performance and phonological processing of First and Second Grade students according to the following variables: gender; writing, arithmetic, and reading performance; lexical phonological access; phonological short-term memory; and phonological awareness, investigatin [...] g the presence of correlations between groups and among variables. METHOD: eighty-eight students (boys and girls) with ages between 05 years and 08 years, without speech or learning complaints, took part in the study. Participants had their performance assessed on: writing, reading and arithmetic tasks; subtests of the School Performance Test (Stein, 1994); lexical access; short term phonological memory; and skills related to phonological processing. Data were tabulated and analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of school performance variables and phonological processing. Spearman coefficient was used to check the correlation among such variables. The confidence interval adopted was 95%. RESULTS: most students showed lower performance on School Performance Test' subtests, with higher mean accuracy as for reading. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls. In the First Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations between lexical access and phonological awareness; reading and writing and phonological awareness; arithmetic and phonological awareness were observed. In the Second Grade group, good to moderate positive correlations among writing, reading and arithmetic; phonological awareness, lexical access, phonological memory and phonological awareness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: second grade students showed better performance on writing, reading and phonological awareness. In contrast to performance on writing, reading and arithmetic, performance on lexical access and phonological memory did not differ between grades. Good to moderate positive correlations between school perf

Sabrina Mª Pimentel da Cunha Pinto, Tenório; Clara Regina Brandão de, Ávila.

129

FOREWORD: 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF 2013) was held in Beijing, China, 19-22 September 2013, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University and Jiangsu University. The co-organizers were Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy and Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for CO2 Utilization and Reduction. The sponsor of the conference was Concepts NREC. The First International Conference on Pumps and Systems (May 1992), the Second International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1995), the Third International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1998), and the Fourth International Conference on Pumps and Fans (26-29 August 2002) were all held in Beijing and were organized by the late famous Chinese professor on fluid machinery and engineering, Professor Zuyan Mei of Tsinghua University. The conference was interrupted by the death of Professor Mei in 2003. In order to commemorate Professor Mei, the organizing committee of ICPF decided to continue organizing the conference series. The Fifth Conference on Pumps and Systems (2010 ICPF) took place in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 18-21 October 2010, and it was jointly organized by Zhejiang University and Tsinghua University. With the development of renewable energy and new energy in China and in the world, some small types of compressor and some types of pump, as well as wind turbines are developing very fast; therefore the ICPF2013 conference included compressors and wind turbines. The theme of the conference was the application of renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The content of the conference was the basic study, design and experimental study of compressors, fans, blowers and pumps; the CFD application on pumps and fans, their transient behavior, unsteady flows and multi-phase flow; other fluid machinery and devices, such as, wind turbines, turbochargers and reversible pump-turbines, clearance and sealing, jets, filters and mixers; and their engineering application and their system behavior, especially, the application of the renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The objective of the conference was to provide an opportunity for researchers, engineers and students to report on the latest developments in the fields of pumps, compressors, fans and turbochargers, as well as systems. The participants were encouraged to present their work in progress with a short lead time, and the conference promoted discussion of the problems encountered. The ICPF2013 brought together 191 scientists and researchers from 14 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for pumps and fans, which would enhance the sustainable development of fluid machinery and fluid engineering. The Scientific Committee selected 166 technical papers on the following topics: (i) Principles of Fluid Machinery, (ii) Pumps, (iii) Compressors, Fans and Turbochargers, (iv) Turbines, (v) Cavitation and Multiphase Flow, (vi) Systems and Other Fluid Machinery, and 10 invited plenary and invited session lectures, which were presented at the conference, to be included in the proceedings. All the papers of ICPF2013, which were published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ICPF2013, those are Yulin Wu, Zhengwei Wang, Shouqi Yuan, Weidong Shi, Shuhong Liu, Xingqi Luo and Fujun Wang. We sincerely hope that the 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines is a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing modern fluid machines. Professor Yulin Wu Chairman of the Local Organizing Committee 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013) October 2013 Th

Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Yuan, Shouqi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Shuhong; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

2013-12-01

130

PREFACE: The 6th International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on multi-phase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing, and so on. Also, from the environmental viewpoint, multi-phase flows need to be investigated to overcome global warming. Multi-phase flows originally have non-linear features because they are multi-phased. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The non-linear interaction causes the multi-phase flows to be very difficult to understand phenomena. The International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multi-phase Flows (ISMTMF) is a unique symposium. The target of the symposium is to exchange the state-of-the-art knowledge on the measurement techniques for non-linear multi-phase flows. Measurement technique is the key technology to understanding non-linear phenomena. The ISMTMF began in 1995 in Nanjing, China. The symposium has continuously been held every two or three years. The ISMTMF-2008 was held in Okinawa, Japan as the 6th symposium of ISMTMF on 15-17 December 2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China and Japan have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for more than 1000 years. Please enjoy Okinawa and experience its history to enhance our international communication. The present symposium was attended by 124 participants, the program included 107 contributions with 5 plenary lectures, 2 keynote lectures, and 100 oral regular paper presentations. The topics include, besides the ordinary measurement techniques for multiphase flows, acoustic and electric sensors, bubbles and microbubbles, computed tomography, gas-liquid interface, laser-imaging and PIV, oil/coal/drop and spray, solid and powder, spectral and multi-physics. This volume includes the presented papers at ISMTMF-2008. In addition to this volume, ten selected papers will be published in a special issue of Measurement Science and Technology. We would like to express special thanks to all the participants and the contributors to the symposium, and also to the supporting organizations; The Japanese Society for Multiphase Flow, The Chinese Society for Measurement, National Natural Science Foundation of China, The Chinese Academy of Science, and University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. Koji Okamoto Chair of 6th ISMTMF and proceedings editor The University of Tokyo, Japan Yuichi Murai Proceedings co-editor Hokkaido University, Japan

Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi

2009-02-01

131

1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

Hansen, E

2006-02-01

132

Addressing Priorities for Elementary School Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings from international assessments present an opportunity to reconsider mathematics education across the grades. If concepts taught in elementary grades lay the foundation for continued study, then children's introduction to school mathematics deserves particular attention. We consider Davydov's theory (1966), which sequences…

Venenciano, Linda; Dougherty, Barbara

2014-01-01

133

Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study  

Science.gov (United States)

During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

2011-09-01

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Synopsis of the 6th Walker's Cay Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The 6th annual Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy Colloquium at Walker's Cay was held under the auspices of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute on March 10–13, 2004. The Colloquium consisted of a select group of 34 scientists representing academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The main goal of this gathering was to promote in a peaceful and comfortable environment exchanges between basic and clinical science. The secondary benefit was to inspire novel bench to bedside ventures and at the same time provide feed back about promising and/or disappointing clinical results that could help re-frame some scientific question or guide the design of future trials. Several topics were covered that included tumor antigen discovery and validation, platforms for vaccine development, tolerance, immune suppression and tumor escape mechanisms, adoptive T cell therapy and dendritic cell-based therapies, clinical trials and assessment of response. Here we report salient points raised by speakers or by the audience during animated discussion that followed each individual presentation.

Marincola Francesco M

2004-06-01

135

The 6th questionnaire report of safety control in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The questionnaire has been done every three years from 1986 for the ultimate purpose of safe medical examinations and this 6th one was performed for the objective period of April 1, 1998-March 31, 2001. Subjects were 1,254 nuclear medicine facilities and answers were obtained in 86.2%. Questionnaire concerned the personnel involved in nuclear medical examinations (medical doctors and pharmacists as well as radiology technologists), instruments (an investigation was additionally conducted on Anger-type camera), accidents experienced, matters possibly leading to accident, improvement in safety control, serious trouble and breakage of the instrument, requests for the instrument manufacturers and so on. Summaries were: numbers of medical radiology technologist increased and a considerable and small number of doctors and pharmacists, respectively, were found involved; tests in vitro were decreased; SPECT-camera with 2 or 3 detectors increased; check rate for imaging instruments was about 80%; cases of actual and possible accident increased but not serious; improvements for automatic operation and of safety sensor were required; mind for preventing accident was important; many requests for the manufacturers were proposed. (K.H.)

2002-08-01

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Letramento escolar de estudantes de 1ª e 2ª séries do ensino fundamental de escola pública / Formal literacy of first and second grade students of a public elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar e comparar o desempenho em letramento escolar de indivíduos de 1ª e 2ª séries do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública antes e após Programas de Práticas Reflexivas de Linguagem (PPRL). MÉTODOS: Participaram desta pesquisa 97 escolares de 1ª série e 149 de 2ª série entre os a [...] nos de 2006 e 2008. Os indivíduos realizaram triagens do letramento escolar antes e após PPRL. Estes tiveram a duração média de quatro meses; foram realizados em situação coletiva e em parceria com os professores das classes selecionadas. Foram elaborados segundo os temas norteadores: promoção de práticas de letramento; conscientização sobre o uso da voz e dos níveis de ruído nas escolas; promoção de narrativas orais e escritas, envolvendo a metalinguagem e principalmente a consciência fonológica e promoção de práticas de leitura e compreensão de leitura. Ao término de cada programa, foram realizadas triagens finais, com a finalidade de analisar e comparar o desempenho dos escolares antes e após a realização dos programas. Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas no desempenho entre as séries tanto nas triagens iniciais, quanto nas finais nas provas de ditado, leitura de palavras e frases e cloze de frases. CONCLUSÃO: A 2ª série apresentou resultados melhores do que a 1ª série. Os resultados foram mais significativos nas provas que demandaram conhecimento mais aprofundado da relação fonema-grafema e vice-versa, sugerindo que o letramento escolar é necessário quando o letramento social não se faz presente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the school literacy performance of 1st and 2nd grades elementary school individuals of a public school, before and after Reflexive Practices in Language Programs (RPLP). METHODS: Ninety-seven students of the 1st grade and 149 of the 2nd grade, between the years 20 [...] 06 and 2008, took part in this study. The subjects were submitted to school literacy screenings before and after the RPLP. The programs had an average duration of four months, and were carried out in a collective situation in classrooms, and in partnership with the teachers of the selected classes. They were prepared according to the guiding themes: promotion of literacy practices; awareness about use of voice and noise levels at school; promotion of oral and written narratives, involving meta-language and, mainly, phonological awareness and the promotion of reading practices and reading comprehension. At the end of each program, final screenings were carried out in order to analyze and compare students' performance before and after their implementation. Data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Significant performance differences were found between 1st and 2nd grades, in both initial and final screenings, in the subtests dictation, words and sentences reading and sentence cloze were found. CONCLUSION: Second grade had better results than first grade. The results were more significant in subtests that required deeper understanding of the phoneme-grapheme association and vice-versa, suggesting that school literacy is necessary when social literacy is not present.

Maria Silvia, Cárnio; Marília Barbieri, Pereira; Débora Cristina, Alves; Rosangela Viana, Andrade.

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Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem por conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% responderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental.The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls. A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20% replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Silvania M. Bottaro

2008-07-01

138

Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental / Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem p [...] or conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% responderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental. Abstract in english The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls). A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. [...] The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20% replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Silvania M., Bottaro; Elsa R. J., Giugliani.

139

Estudo exploratório sobre aleitamento materno entre escolares de quinta série do Ensino Fundamental / Exploratory survey of fifth-grade elementary students in relation to breastfeeding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo avaliou conhecimentos, percepções, crenças e vivências em relação ao aleitamento materno em 564 escolares, de ambos os sexos, da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental. O questionário usado continha 25 questões objetivas. Aplicou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e teste t, considerando a amostragem p [...] or conglomerado. Os escolares consideraram o leite materno o melhor alimento para o bebê, mas 60% optariam pela amamentação exclusiva de seus filhos. Menos de 20% responderam que a criança pode mamar até dois anos ou mais, aproximadamente ¼ acredita que o bebê deve começar a receber outros alimentos aos seis meses, e mais de 80% acredita que o consumo de chás e água é necessário. Detectaram-se as seguintes crenças: existência de leite fraco, chá é bom para cólicas, a amamentação deixa o peito caído, tamanho da mama influencia no volume de leite e a lactação deve ser interrompida com o aparecimento dos dentes. Destacaram também a participação do pai na amamentação, porém 70% relataram que ele pode ajudar dando mamadeira. Evidencia-se a necessidade de ações que promovam uma postura mais favorável à amamentação no Ensino Fundamental. Abstract in english The present study assessed the knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and experiences related to breastfeeding as expressed by 564 fifth-grade students (both boys and girls). A questionnaire was used, containing 25 objective questions. The t test and chi-squared test were used, based on cluster sampling. [...] The students consistently viewed maternal breast milk as the best food for infants, although only 60% would choose exclusive breastfeeding for their own children. Fewer than 20% replied that children could be breastfed until two years of age. Approximately one-fourth believed that infants should begin receiving other foods at 6 months of age, and 80% also believed in the need for tea and water. Other beliefs included: that breast milk is weak or thin; that tea is good for infant colic; that breastfeeding makes the breasts flaccid; that breast size influences the amount of milk; and that breastfeeding should be interrupted as soon as the infant's first teeth appear. They highlighted the importance of the father participating in the breastfeeding process, but 70% said that the father could help by giving the baby a bottle. There is also an evident need for primary schools to promote measures for a more favorable position towards breastfeeding.

Silvania M., Bottaro; Elsa R. J., Giugliani.

140

Matematicas para la Escuela Elemental-Nuevas Orientaciones (Elementary School Mathematics-New Directions).  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary Mathematics need to be reevaluated and to be changed because: Mathematical knowledge has advanced, a more effective transition from one grade to the next is needed; standard elementary mathematics is inadequate, lacking the more interesting asp...

E. Deans

1965-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

6th International Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization TAPHOS 2011. 14th - 17th June, Tübingen, Germany.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nebelsick J.H., Friedrich J.-P. and Dynowski J.F. (eds., 2011. 6th International Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization. Taphos 2011. Tübingen, 14th-17th June 2011. Annali dell’Università di Ferrara, Sez.Museologia Scientifica e Naturalistica, volume speciale

James H. Nebelsick

2011-09-01

142

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research on April 14, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIH Pain Consortium is holding its 6th Symposium on Advances in Pain Research April 14, 2011 On the NIH CampusNatcher AuditoriumBethesda, MD The event is free and open to the public. Registration will be open soon on the meeting website. See http://painconsortium.nih.gov/index.html

143

Comparison of 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations regarding generalization patterns / Estudo comparativo da eficácia de estratégias e representações usadas por estudantes da escola básica em problemas relativos à generalização de padrões  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são estudadas as estratégias e representações usadas por alunos turcos de diferentes séries (da 6ª a 8ª) quando resolvendo problemas que envolvem a busca de padrões lineares e quadráticos. Os dados foram coletados a partir da aplicação de testes específicos em 246 alunos e de entrevista [...] s clínicas com 18 desses alunos. Os resultados apontam que a eficácia nos padrões de generalização aumentam positivamente de uma série escolar para outra, bem como aumenta a variedade das estratégias de generalização. Enquanto alunos de diferentes momentos da escolarização usam estratégias recursivas para resolver os problemas relativos à busca de padrões, mas a quantidade de estudantes que mobilizam estratégias explícitas é relativamente pequena. Alunos de séries mais avançadas usam vários tipos de representações no processo de generalizar, ao passo que alunos das séries mais iniciais, de modo acentuado, preferem a representação numérica. Abstract in english The study aims to compare and determine 6th-8th graders' efficiencies, strategies and representations of student from different grades (from 6th to 8th) when dealing with problems related to linear and quadratic patterns. Research data was obtained from tests applied to 246 students and clinical int [...] erviews implemented with 18 students. It was shown that when grade increases students' efficiencies of generalizing pattern improve in a positive way in all levels. Besides this, as learning levels of 6th and 8th grade students increase, the variety in pattern generalization strategies changed at least in all types of patterns. While students at different learning levels generally used recursive strategy to solve all the problems, the number of the students using explicit strategies is relatively low. The students of high levels use many types of representation in generalization; in contrast, the weak level students prefer mostly numerical representations.

Yasar, Akkan.

144

PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see composition below) and additional reviewers we wish to thank here for their kind help. Among the 194 abstracts initially received, 121 communications have been accepted for presentation, 109 of which having been actually presented (oral or poster form) at the conference, as well as 4 invited plenary lectures. The presentations for each session topic, and the geographic distribution of the delegates, are given in tables below. It is our hope that ICIPE 2008 has contributed to maintaining existing interactions and fostering new ones. We take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their valuable contributions and the excellent atmosphere of the meeting. The next ICIPE conference is planned to take place in the USA in May 2010. It will be organized by Alain J Kassab of the University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, and will take place on the UCF campus. Further details regarding ICIPE 2010 conference will be made available on the ICIPE 2008 website during the fall of 2008, and will also be disseminated directly to individuals having attended previous ICIPE meetings. The editorial committee of ICIPE 2008, Marc Bonnet - Guest Editor Stéphane André - Associate guest editor Andrei Constantinescu - Associate guest editor Abdellatif El Badia - Associate guest editor Yvon Jarny - Associate guest editor Denis Maillet - Associate guest editor Scientific Committee: ICIPE 2008 ChairmanM. Bonnet (Ecole Polytech., France) SecretariesS. André (Nancy-U., France) A. Constantinescu (Ecole Polytech., France) Honorary membersO. M. Alifanov (Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia) J. V. Beck (Mich. State U., USA) Members G. Alessandrini (U. Trieste, Italy)R. Kress (U. Goettingen, Germany) J. S. Alves (Inst. Sup. Tecnico, Portugal) S. Kubo (Osaka U., Japan) S. Andrieux (EDF, France) K. J. Langenberg (U. Kassel, Germany) S. Arridge (U. College, London, UK) C. Leniliot (U. Provence, France) M. Azaiez (U. Bordeaux, France) D. Lesnic (U. Leeds, UK) J.-C. Batsale (U. Bordeaux, France) W. Lionheart (U. Manchester, UK) M. Bertero (U. Genova, Italy) D. Maillet (Nancy-U., France) J. Blum (U.

Bonnet, Marc

2008-07-01

145

Turbulence and molecular processes in combustion; Toyota Conference, 6th, Shizuoka, Japan, Oct. 11-14, 1992  

Science.gov (United States)

Papers from the conference are presented. The program was divided into the following six sessions: turbulent combustion -- theory and modeling; elementary reactions 1; elementary reactions 2; kinetics and modeling; turbulent combustion -- experiment and modeling; and turbulent combustion -- modeling and simulation. For individual titles, see A95-87171 through A95-87198.

Takeno, Tadao

146

Finite element calculations to predict the behaviour of the Sandia 1/6th scale reinforced concrete containment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finite element axisymmetric studies have been undertaken pertaining to the Sandia 1/6th scale reinforced concrete containment building to predict its response to internal static overpressurization. The main predictions are that the hoop rebar will yield at 0.95 MPa (138 psi) and that the periphery of the basemat will be subject to excessive uplift at 1.13 MPa (164 psi) when the tensile rebar at the pole of the basemat reaches its ultimate tensile strength (UTS). (author)

1987-04-06

147

Decentralization under the 6th Schedule of the Indian Constitution: A Study in the Context of Karbi Anglong District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The literal meaning of decentralization is transferring of decision making powers and functions to the local bodies with a view to inject greater degree of efficiency in administration. The Panchayats as the means of rapid socio-economic development of rural areas has been in operation in different parts of India including in the plain districts of Assam. However, in the hill states of the North East and in the hill districts of the present Assam, the implementation of the concept of Panchayati Raj can hardly be imagined as almost all the hill tribes of the region live a nomadic life changing their habitat after frequent intervals. To suit the needs and aspirations of the hill tribes of the North East India, the 6th Schedule has been inserted in the Indian Constitution which provides a decentralized administration to the hill tribes including the Karbis of the present Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The provisions of decentralization provided under the 6th Schedule of the constitution have been able to fulfill the hopes and aspirations of the people of Karbi Anglong district of Assam to a certain extent but still a lot more needed to be done in this regard. Based on primary and secondary data, the paper studies the provisions of decentralization for the Karbi Anglong district under the 6th Schedule of the Indian constitution and assesses performance of the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC in terms of development.

Lutfur Rahman Choudhury

2013-07-01

148

Elementary Algebra  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course "is a study of the basic skills and concepts of elementary algebra, including language and operations on sets, operations on signed numbers, simple linear equations and inequalities in one variable, operations on polynomials (including beginning techniques of factoring), integer exponents, brief introduction to radicals, introduction to graphing, and applications." The course has seven chapters: Basic algebra principles; Linear equations and set theory; Inequalities & absolute values; Graphs of linear equations; Exponents, monomials, and polynomials; Factoring polynomials and solving quadratic equations; and Rational and radical expressions and equations. Each is broken into two or three lessons containing objectives, readings, multimedia components, and sample problems. The Topic View section of the site provides the concepts taught in the course in either alphabetical or sequential order for educators looking for more specific and targeted supporting materials for an introductory algebra classroom.

2008-07-17

149

Riesgo de caries en los niños de tercer grado de la escuela “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” / Risk of dental caries in 3rd grade schoolchildren from “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” elementary school.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo transversal para determinar el riesgo de caries mediante el empleo de un modelo de predicción (tabla de riesgo) en 64 infantes que cursan el tercer grado en la escuela “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” en Santa Clara, en el período comprendido de s [...] eptiembre a mayo del 2006. Para la estimación del riesgo de caries en niños se utilizó un modelo que emplea predictores factibles de medir en nuestros servicios estomatológicos, garantizando la identificación de factores de riesgo asociados con la enfermedad. La recogida de la información se llevó a cabo por el método de encuesta, mediante examen clínico, observación, mediciones y entrevistas individuales. Se pudo observar que el 19,4 % de los examinados se encontró en la categoría de alto riesgo. Se destaca que el factor de riesgo que más se asoció con otros de manera significativa o muy significativa fue el de hábitos nocivos, seguido por antecedentes de caries y caries en familiares. Consideramos que el empleo de este modelo de predicción resulta de vital importancia para garantizar la identificación de factores asociados con la enfermedad y favorecer la proyección estratégica en función de prevenir el inicio de esta. Abstract in english A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the risk of dental caries in 64 third-grade children from “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” elementary school located in Santa Clara city, Villa Clara province, in the period from September 2005 to May 2006. For carie [...] s risk estimation, a model comprising feasible predictors that may be measured in our dental services was used, thus assuring the detection of disease-related risk factors. The surveying method based on clinical exam, observation, measurement and individual interviews made data collection possible. It was stressed that the most significant risk factor was harmful habits, followed by a history of dental caries in the children and their relatives. It was considered that the use of a predictive model is of vital importance to ensure detection of risk factors associated to the disease and to encourage strategic actions to prevent the onset of caries.

Toledo Reyes, Lilian; Rodríguez Pérez, Lilian; Ramos Hurtado, Isabel.

150

Riesgo de caries en los niños de tercer grado de la escuela “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” Risk of dental caries in 3rd grade schoolchildren from “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” elementary school.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo transversal para determinar el riesgo de caries mediante el empleo de un modelo de predicción (tabla de riesgo en 64 infantes que cursan el tercer grado en la escuela “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” en Santa Clara, en el período comprendido de septiembre a mayo del 2006. Para la estimación del riesgo de caries en niños se utilizó un modelo que emplea predictores factibles de medir en nuestros servicios estomatológicos, garantizando la identificación de factores de riesgo asociados con la enfermedad. La recogida de la información se llevó a cabo por el método de encuesta, mediante examen clínico, observación, mediciones y entrevistas individuales. Se pudo observar que el 19,4 % de los examinados se encontró en la categoría de alto riesgo. Se destaca que el factor de riesgo que más se asoció con otros de manera significativa o muy significativa fue el de hábitos nocivos, seguido por antecedentes de caries y caries en familiares. Consideramos que el empleo de este modelo de predicción resulta de vital importancia para garantizar la identificación de factores asociados con la enfermedad y favorecer la proyección estratégica en función de prevenir el inicio de esta.A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the risk of dental caries in 64 third-grade children from “Fernando Cuesta Piloto” elementary school located in Santa Clara city, Villa Clara province, in the period from September 2005 to May 2006. For caries risk estimation, a model comprising feasible predictors that may be measured in our dental services was used, thus assuring the detection of disease-related risk factors. The surveying method based on clinical exam, observation, measurement and individual interviews made data collection possible. It was stressed that the most significant risk factor was harmful habits, followed by a history of dental caries in the children and their relatives. It was considered that the use of a predictive model is of vital importance to ensure detection of risk factors associated to the disease and to encourage strategic actions to prevent the onset of caries.

Lilian Toledo Reyes

2007-09-01

151

Saxon Elementary School Math. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

Science.gov (United States)

"Saxon Elementary School Math," published by Harcourt Achieve, is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 5. A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Elementary School Math" is its use of a distributed approach, as opposed to a chapter-based approach, for instruction and assessment. The program is built on the premise that students…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

2007-01-01

152

Saxon Elementary School Math. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

Science.gov (United States)

"Saxon Elementary School Math," published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 5. A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Elementary School Math" is its use of a distributed approach, as opposed to a chapter-based approach, for instruction and assessment. The program is built on the premise that…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

153

Association between the Number of Unfamiliar Vegetables and Dietary Factors of Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite well established health benefits, today's children do not eat enough vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the number of unfamiliar foods in the vegetable food group and the preference for these foods and dietary factors. Subjects were 1,072 children in 5th and 6th grades from elementary schools located in 4 cities in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. A two-page questionnaire consisted of questions asking about the subjects' preference and familiarity for 64 foods in the vegetable group, preferences for three fast foods, four types of vegetable dishes, and six tastes. Also included in the questionnaire were questions assessing subjects' adherence to national dietary guidelines. The subjects were divided into quintiles according to the number of unfamiliar vegetables; the 1st quintile (N=226) was children who had less than 14 unfamiliar vegetables and the 5th quintile (N=229) was more than 29. Compared to the children in the other quintiles, the children in the 5th quintile had a significantly lower adherence to national dietary guidelines regarding consumptions of vegetable and protein sources, regular exercise, awareness of desirable height and weight, and reading food labels, as well as total (Ptastes (Pfood preferences and dietary habits. PMID:24551831

Song, Kyunghee; Lee, Hongmie

2013-12-01

154

Long-term impact of undergraduate science reform courses on the pedagogical content knowledge of kindergarten through sixth grade inservice teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the long-term impact of faculty-created reformed undergraduate science courses on the pedagogical content knowledge of kindergarten-6th grade inservice elementary teachers who took these reform courses during their undergraduate programs. On-site case studies were completed with 35 faculty instructors teaching entry-level undergraduate science courses at 20 higher education institutions, and 91 elementary inservice teachers. The sample was selected from a national population of diverse colleges and universities that had undergone reform in one or more of their undergraduate science courses. The data collection protocol involved classroom observations, interviews, artifact analysis, semi-structured interviews, and field notes from multiple instruments and sources. Data were collected during on-site visits from instructors and their graduated students. Quantitative and qualitative analysis identified variations in faculty instructors', as well as inservice teachers', perceptions and observations of the intended and enacted teaching goals, instruction, student difficulties, and rationale for teaching a specific science concept in observed science lessons. These perceptions and observations, identified as science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), varied significantly among both faculty instructors and inservice elementary teachers who experienced the undergraduate reformed science courses taught by these same faculty instructors.

Turner, Donna P.

155

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

2002-12-12

156

Staying Alive: Social Studies in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Social studies, particularly in the elementary grades, has been pushed to the back burner in schools. Time is the biggest nemesis. Increased attention to math and language arts under the federal No Child Left Behind law is squeezing out social studies. Many states have standards in social studies so teachers are expected to cover the topic, but…

Pascopella, Angela

2005-01-01

157

Elementary School Science: A Perspective for Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is designed to show prospective teachers how to design and implement an activity-oriented science program for the elementary grades. Science content and methods are presented through activities to be done by readers allowing them to master the design of a teaching unit by constructing or adapting a unit. Discussions include scientific…

Zeitler, William R.; Barufaldi, James P.

158

Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. A written report on the science objectives and design features of the Rover is required. The program includes specific learning objectives in research skills, language arts (reading scientific literature, preparing a verbal presentation and writing a report), mathematics, science and engineering.The model will be mostly a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost (estimated cost of less than 10-25) of mostly found objects and simple art supplies.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

2005-05-01

159

Utilisation des micro-ordinateurs en ecriture aux cycles primaire et moyen: methodes, roles, attitudes et produits. L'education et la technologie (Writing with Microcomputers in the Elementary Grades: Process, Roles, Attitudes, and Products. Education and Technology Series).  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined and compared writing with and without microcomputers in elementary schools. Specifically, the study examined (1) how the products of writing instruction with a computer differ from the products of traditionally taught writing, (2) the process of teaching writing, (3) teacher-pupil roles when pupils are writing, (4) teacher…

Larter, Sylvia; And Others

160

Validity of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment for Predicting First Grade Readiness  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA) was administered to all kindergarten students enrolled in two rural elementary schools in the fall of 2004. Eight months later, the reading portion of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, 6th Edition (MRT-6) was administered. Teachers were asked to indicate whether they had concerns about each student's…

Panter, Janet E.; Bracken, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Elementary Science Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

2007-01-01

162

Solution of the 6th dynamic AER benchmark using the coupled core DYN3D/ATHLET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th dynamic benchmark is a logical continuation of the work to validate systematically coupled neutron kinetics/thermohydraulics code systems for the estimation of the transient behaviour of WWER type nuclear power plant which was started in the 5th dynamic benchmark. This benchmark concerns a double ended break of the main steam line (asymmetrical MSLB) in a WWER plant. The core is at the end of first cycle in full power conditions. The asymmetric leak causes a different depressurization of all steam generators. New features in comparison to the 5th dynamic benchmark were included: asymmetric operation of the feed water system, consideration of incomplete coolant mixing in the reactor vessel, and the definition of a fixed isothermal recriticality temperature for normalising the nuclear data (Authors)

2001-12-01

163

Publishing the Proceedings for the 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003) was held from June 22 to June 26 at the Coolfont Resort and Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. The Workshop was hosted by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) of the University of Maryland, College Park and by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. As its name implies this was the sixth in a series of biennial workshops devoted to exchanging information and ideas on high power microwave sources and components. The applications addressed included particle accelerators, radar, HPM, space exploration, neutron sources and plasma heating and current driven in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. This Final Report includes a brief description of the RF 2003 Workshop and the distribution of the published proceedings

2004-01-01

164

Special Issue for the 6th International Conference on Applied Financial Economics, Samos, Greece, 2-4 July 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea behind this issue was to publish the full papers of selected works presented in the 6th International Applied Financial Economics (AFE Conference, which took place at the premises of the Research and Training Institute of East Aegean (INEAG in Samos Island, Greece, 2-4 July 2009. Despite their short history, the AFE Conferences, co-organized by INEAG, the Department of Statistics and Actuarial-Financial Mathematics of the University of the Aegean, the University of Athens and other Academic Institutions, have already gained worldwide reputation and have been established as a forum in which academics, researchers and professional experts in the field of finance from all over the world come together, interact, exchange ideas and present their research.

Alexandros E. Milionis

2010-01-01

165

Proceedings of 6th International Microbeam Workshop/12th L.H. Gray Workshop Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology

2003-03-29

166

coast - 6th edition  

COAST Northern Ireland Environment Agency issue 06 2010 FREE ‘Celebrating and promoting the coastal wildlife, maritime heritage and marine environments of Northern Ireland.’ Airborne lidar a welcome addition Binevenagh ...

167

Age and Its Effect on Language Arts Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of California Standards Tests (CST) for 2nd through 6th Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

Entrance age in kindergarten has been a controversial issue as the range from the youngest to the oldest student spans up to 24 months. This range leaves a heterogeneous gap for teachers who are already differentiating for their English Language Learners, struggling students, and high achieving students. This is compounded by the fact that the…

DeBerry, Karen E.

2011-01-01

168

Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Teacher In-Service Program Enabling 6th-12th Grade Rural Teachers to Integrate Holocaust Studies into Their Curricula: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Changing demography and ensuing incidents of backlash, growing intolerance, and prejudice led a group of educators from seven different schools in two rural counties of northwestern Washington State to organize a National Endowment for the Humanities sponsored series of Holocaust education inservice workshops. The obstacles they overcame in…

Wolpow, Ray; Johnson, Natalie N.; Wognild, Kristin N.

2002-01-01

169

Accreditation proposal for control systems in electrical engineering for 6th level in European Qualification Framework (EQF)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The progress of science and technology emphasizes the connection between different domains and disciplines. The technology development and changing demands of the labour market require upgrading and renewing of learning outcomes in higher education, especially in engineering fields. The Life Long Learning (LLL) procedure must be the platform offering the required qualifications for the demands of companies and engineering professionals all over the world in order to support their competitiveness. In this paper we describe an improved proposal for accreditation of one important subject in engineering, namely Control Systems. The described procedure could be applied in the frame of LLL and also in classical engineering education systems, such as university and college education, in order to harmonize the recognition of engineering degrees in Europe and outside the Europe. Furthermore we state the necessary learning outcomes in the subject of Control Systems in engineering at Bachelor level (6th level of European Qualification Framework (EQF) and propose a process to test the qualifications. © 2013 IEEE.

Tsirigotis, Georgios; Friesel, Anna

2013-01-01

170

[Attractiveness of France for international clinical trials in 2012: 6(th) survey assessed by Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2002, the Leem (French Association of Pharmaceutical Companies) has conducted a survey every two years to update the attractiveness of France for international clinical trials. Thirty companies (68% of the French market) have participated in this 6(th) survey which involved 79 countries, a greater number of Phases I/II, II and III studies (420 versus 352 in 2010), a relatively stable number of included patients (246,895 versus 249,704 in 2010) and a greater number of centers (32,965 versus 24,337 in 2010). The evolution of time-lines for the go-ahead by French Authorities is heterogeneous (shorter time-lines by the French National Agency of Drug and Health Products Safety [ANSM] but longer time-lines by Research Ethics Comittees [CPP]). The time-lines for first hospital contracts remain stable. France ranks at an average position among European countries in regards to quantitative and qualitative data, and its state-of-art in early stages is still recognized. Its good performance in oncology and orphan diseases are major assets of competitiveness. PMID:23484655

Lassale, Catherine; Sibenaler, Claire; Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Barthélémy, Philippe; Plétan, Yannick; Courcier, Soizic

2013-01-01

171

Abstract Book of the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry, Risø, Roskilde, Denmark, 2-6th Sept. 2013  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report compiled all abstracts presented in the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry at Risø, Roskilde, Denmark in 2-6th Sept. 2013. Total 35 participants registered to the workshop, among them 18 from Sweden, 5 from Denmark, 3 from Finland, and 3 from Norway, there are also 6 participants from Germany, France, Slovenia, Korea, Turkey, and China. The workshop consists two part, 3 days lab practices and 2 days lectures/presentation. 3 lab practices were organized, i.e. (1) Radiochemical separation of Pu and ICP-MS measurement of Pu isotopes; (2) Radiochemical separation of 210Po and 226Ra and their alpha spectrometry measurement; and (3) Radiochemical separation of 55Fe, 63Ni, 90Sr and their LSC measurement. Among them, each participant can participate in 2 lab practices. 15 invited lectures are given by the experts in their specific fields, 8 oral and 6 poster presentations are given by the participants. The abstracts of all presentations are included in this report.

2013-01-01

172

Transformational leadership and the elementary school principal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to establish a link between transformational leadership behavior in principals and increased student learning measured by Indiana's annual achievement test. A secondary focus was to determine if transformational leadership led to increased levels of teacher satisfaction, willingness to give extra effort, and subordinate perception of principal effectiveness. This study was conducted in Indiana elementary schools with grade configurations of K–6. The sample was ...

1998-01-01

173

A Study of the Relationship of the Factors of Organizational Climates of Low Socio-Economic Status Elementary Schools to the Political Orientations of Fifth Grade Students. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study proposed to determine how 5th grade students' political orientations result from such social characteristics as their sex, age, socio-economic status and race, and secondly, how student political orientations are influenced by the organization of their school. Emphasis was upon examining the organizational climate in an effort to see if…

Arkley, Alfred S.

174

Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 2), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 2, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through 10. Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions. (RH)

Beatty, Leslie; And Others

175

EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development.  

Science.gov (United States)

While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006) and FP7 (2007-2013), has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1) fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2) development of new malaria drugs, (3) research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4) research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA) was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined--and well confined--area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria. PMID:21235784

Holtel, Andreas; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Penas-Jimenez, Inmaculada

2011-01-01

176

Bone loss during partial weight bearing (1/6th gravity) is mitigated by resistance and aerobic exercise in mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronauts on long duration missions continue to experience bone loss, as much as 1–2% each month, for up to 4.5 years after a mission. Mechanical loading of bone with exercise has been shown to increase bone formation, mass, and geometry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two exercise protocols during a period of reduced gravitational loading (1/6th body weight) in mice. Since muscle contractions via resistance exercise impart the largest physiological loads on the skeleton, we hypothesized that resistance training (via vertical tower climbing) would better protect against the deleterious musculoskeletal effects of reduced gravitational weight bearing when compared to endurance exercise (treadmill running). Young adult female BALB/cBYJ mice were randomly assigned to three groups: 1/6 g (G/6; n=6), 1/6 g with treadmill running (G/6+RUN; n=8), or 1/6 g with vertical tower climbing (G/6+CLB; n=9). Exercise was performed five times per week. Reduced weight bearing for 21 days was achieved through a novel harness suspension system. Treadmill velocity (12–20 m/min) and daily run time duration (32–51 min) increased incrementally throughout the study. Bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at proximal metaphysis and mid-diaphysis tibia were assessed by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 21 and standard dynamic histomorphometry was performed on undemineralized sections of the mid-diaphysis after tissue harvest. G/6 caused a significant decrease (Pexercise and resistance training, through treadmill running or climb training mitigates decrements in vBMD during 21 days of reduced weight bearing. Consistent with our hypothesis, tower climb training, most pronounced in the tibia mid-diaphysis, provides a more potent osteogenic response compared to treadmill running.

Boudreaux, R. D.; Metzger, C. E.; Macias, B. R.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Hogan, H. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.

2014-06-01

177

Departmentalize Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

In elementary schools today, most students receive their education in a single classroom from one teacher who is responsible for teaching language arts, social studies, math, and science. The self-contained classroom organization is predicated on the assumption that an elementary school teacher is a Jack (or Jill)-of-all-trades who is equally…

Chan, Tak Cheung; Jarman, Delbert

2004-01-01

178

Effect of 5E Instructional Model in Student Success in Primary School 6th Year Circulatory System Topic  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental…

Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge

2008-01-01

179

Laser 2004 Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research (LASER 2004) held in Pozna?, Poland, 24–27 May 2004  

CERN Multimedia

6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research, LASER 2004, held in Poznan, Poland, 24-27 May, 2004 Researchers and graduate students interested in the Mössbauer Effect and its applications will find this volume indispensable. The volume presents the most recent developments in the methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume 162, 1-4

B?aszczak, Z; Marinova, K

2006-01-01

180

The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus  

Science.gov (United States)

In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French…

Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rodriguez, David R.; Miller, Scott T.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Superinvolution gradings on $M_{n,m}(F)$  

CERN Document Server

In this paper two main types of the group gradings of $M_{n,m}(F)$, which is fine and elementary, respected by a superinvolution are studied over an algebraically closed field $F$ of characteristic zero.

Tvalavadze, M

2006-01-01

182

Math Manipulatives to Increase 4th Grade Student Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

This research project was completed with twenty-nine fourth grade students from Shawnee Elementary, a school in the Chippewa Valley School District. It began in April 2012 and the data collection was completed by June 2012. The purpose of this project was to see if utilizing math manipulatives in an elementary classroom will increase student…

Couture, Katie

2012-01-01

183

Bringing Science Public Outreach to Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Many science "museums” already offer fantastic programs for the general public, and even some aimed at elementary school kids. However, these venues are usually located in large cities and are only occasionally used as tools for enriching science education in public schools. Here we present preliminary work to establish exciting educational enrichment environments for public schools that do not easily have access to such facilities. This program is aimed at motivating children's interest in science beyond what they learn in the classroom setting. In this program, we use the experience and experiments/demonstrations developed at a large science museum (in this case, The St. Louis Science Center) and take them into a local elementary school. At the same time, students from the University of Missouri are getting trained on how to present these outreach materials and work with the local elementary schools. Our pilot study has started with implementation of presentations/demonstrations at Benton Elementary School within the Columbia Public School district, Missouri. The school has recently adopted a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) centered learning system throughout all grade levels (K-5), and is therefore receptive to this effort. We have implemented a program in which we have given a series of scientific demonstrations at each grade level's lunch hour. Further enrichment ideas and plans include: addition demonstrations, hands-on experiments, and question and answer sessions. However, the application of these events would be to compliment the curriculum for the appropriate grade level at that time. The focus of this project is to develop public communications which links science museums, college students and local public schools with an emphasis on encouraging college science majors to share their knowledge and to strengthen their ability to work in a public environment.

Miller, Lucas; Speck, A.; Tinnin, A.

2012-01-01

184

Conference scene: Summary of the 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories with international participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories (RAML) conferences have acquired a reputation for standing out as the most prominent and efficient meetings in the national community of laboratory medicine, being a landmark of the development in this field in Romania and an active affiliation to international forums. This year, the conference setting was Piatra Neamt, in the northeast part of Romania, which produced a friendly and stimulating professional environment. As in previous years, leading experts in the fields of laboratory medicine attended the event. This year, we enjoyed the opportunity to have such distinguished guests as the members of the executive board of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC); Graham Beastall, IFCC President; Päivi Hannele Laitinen, IFCC secretary; and Grazyna Sypniewska, IFCC Communication and Publication Division, and editor of the electronic journal of the IFCC. As usual, the conference program included all aspects of clinical laboratory activity, with a special focus on technology development, instrumentation and laboratory management. Fully aware of the fact that the complexity and depth of laboratory practice have undergone an impressive and rapid evolution, the specific goals of the event were to increase knowledge in the fundamentals of new molecular investigation, areas which show the tendency to become routine in our daily activity. In addition, laboratory management and the place of medical laboratories in the process of translational medicine were subjects of focus. The 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories was held from Wednesday 1st to Saturday 4th of June 2011. A total of 273 participants from all local branches of the Association attended. The scientific program included seven plenary sessions where 22 lectures and 18 short communications were delivered, and three poster sessions with 44 poster presentations. Session topics covered issues of laboratory diagnostics in hematology, biochemistry, immunology, oncology, microbiology and metabolic diseases. A prominent consideration was given to value added to laboratory medicine in the frame of managed care and quality management. The Conference was accompanied by a laboratory equipment and reagents exhibition with the participation of nine companies, also sponsors of the conference. Three workshops pointed out the presence of the most well known of them: Abbott, Roche and Nobis. PMID:22003916

Carasevici, Eugen

2011-10-01

185

The Predictors of Internet Addiction Behaviours for Taiwanese Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there has been considerable research which has explored factors related to internet addiction, few studies have investigated elementary school students' involvement in this behaviour pattern. Participants in the present study were 1045 children in grades 3 to 6 from elementary schools in Taiwan. Students completed surveys on their…

Lan, Chu M.; Lee, Yu H.

2013-01-01

186

Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

Bazzy, Zadda M.

2010-01-01

187

The Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Performance of Elementary Brass Players.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the effects of breath management instruction on the performance of 61 elementary brass players in in grades 4, 5, and 6. Shows that breathing instruction within group lessons was effective in improving the breathing and performance of elementary brass players. Includes references. (CMK)

Sehmann, Karin Harfst

2000-01-01

188

Social Activism in Elementary Science Education: A Science, Technology, and Society Approach to Teach Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students' science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school…

Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie

2006-01-01

189

Effects of sustained teacher professional development on the classroom science instruction of elementary school teachers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sustained teacher professional development in science education affects the classroom instruction of elementary school teachers in third through sixth grade over a three-year time period. The teachers in the study were all elementary endorsed and prepared to be generalists in the content areas.

2012-01-01

190

A Comparison between Elementary School Students' Mental Models and Visualizations in Textbooks for the Concept of Atom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed for two major goals, which are to describe students' mental models about atom concept from 6th to 8th grade and to compare students' mental models with visual representations of atom in textbooks. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected with 4 open-ended questions including drawings which were quantified using the…

Polat-Yaseen, Zeynep

2012-01-01

191

A New Elementary Mathematics Curriculum: Practice, Learning and Assessment - Some Classroom Episodes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to present the new and innovative mathematics curriculum for elementary levels that is being implemented in the Portuguese basic education system (students from 1st to 9th grade) through an overview of an ongoing study of implementation/experimentation of this curriculum. A speci?c mechanism was implemented in the ?eld to provide scienti?c and pedagogical support to the development of the new elementary mathematics curriculum (NPMEB) implementation at all grade ...

Vale, Isabel; Fernandes, Domingos; Borralho, Anto?nio

2012-01-01

192

PREFACE: NC-AFM 2003: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct nanoscale and atomic resolution imaging is a key issue in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The invention of the dynamic force microscope in the early 1990s was an important step forward in this direction as this instrument provides a universal tool for measuring the topography and many other physical and chemical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale. Operation in the so-called non-contact mode now allows direct atomic resolution imaging of electrically insulating surfaces and nanostructures which has been an unsolved problem during the first decade of nanotechnology. Today, we face a most rapid development of the technique and an extension of its capabilities far beyond imaging; atomically resolved force spectroscopy provides information about local binding properties and researchers now develop sophisticated schemes of force controlled atomic manipulation with the tip of the force microscope. Progress in the field of non-contact force microscopy is discussed at the annually held NC-AFM conferences that are part of a series started in 1998 with a meeting in Osaka, Japan. The 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy took place in Dingle, Ireland, from 31 August to 3 September 2003 and this special issue is a compilation of the original publications of work presented at this meeting. The papers published here well reflect recent achievements, current trends and some of the challenging new directions in non-contact force microscopy that have been discussed during the most stimulating conference days in Dingle. Fundamental aspects of forces and dissipation relevant in imaging and spectroscopy have been covered by experimental and theoretical contributions yielding a more detailed understanding of tip--surface interaction in force microscopy. Novel and improved imaging and spectroscopy techniques have been introduced that either improve the performance of force microscopy or pave the way towards new functionalities and applications. With regard to studies on the specific systems investigated, there was a strong emphasis on oxides and ionics, as well as on organic systems. Following previous pioneering work in uncovering the atomic structure of insulating oxides with force microscopy, it was shown in the meeting that this important class of materials is now accessible for a quantitative atomic scale surface characterization. Single organic molecules and ordered organic layers are building blocks for functional nanostructures currently developed in many laboratories for applications in molecular electronics and sensor technologies. The Dingle conference impressively demonstrated that dynamic force microscopy is ready for its application as an analytical tool for these promising future nanotechnologies. The meeting was a great success scientifically and participants enjoyed the beauty of the conference site. I would like to thank all members of the international steering committee, the programme committee and the co-chairs, J Pethica, A Shluger and G Thornton, for their efforts in preparing the meeting. The members of the local organising committee, J Ballentine-Armstrong, G Cross, S Dunne, S Jarvis and Ö Özer, kept the meeting running smoothly and created a very pleasant atmosphere. The generous financial support from Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), is greatly appreciated; SFI is dramatically raising the profile of Irish science. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to N Couzin and the journal team from Institute of Physics Publishing for their editorial management and perfect co-operation in the preparation of this special issue.

Reichling, Michael

2004-02-01

193

The purple Codex Rossanensis: spectroscopic characterization and first evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a 6th century manuscript  

CERN Document Server

The Codex Rossanensis is a 6th century Bizantine illuminated manuscript written on purple parchment and conserved at the Museo Diocesano in Rossano Calabro, Italy. It is one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament. The challenge of the analysis of the Codex Rossanensis lies in the lack of analytical information on the pictorial media used in the Early Middle Ages. Even though old-medieval illuminated manuscripts have been deeply studied from the historical standpoint, they have been rarely described in their material composition. This paper presents the results obtained during the measurements campaign (June 2012 - November 2013). The spectroscopic analyses performed by Raman, micro-FTIR and XRF allowed for the complete characterization of the pictorial palette, the inks, the support and the material used in a previous restoration treatment. To the author knowledge the article shows the first experimental evidence of the usage of the elderberry lake in a 6th century illuminated ma...

Bicchieri, Marina

2014-01-01

194

New Simple Torque-Sensorless Torque Control for Quasi-Perfect Compensation of 6th Harmonic Torque Ripple Due to Nonsinusoidal Distribution of Back EMF of PMSM  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a new torque-sensorless torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method can almost perfectly compensate the 6th harmonic torque ripple that is caused by the nonsinusoidal distributions of the back EMF and rotor magnetic flux of PMSMs. The torque control system is, in principle, constructed on the basis of the vector control, but has two new dedicated speed-varying devices—a harmonic torque observer and current controller. The speed-varying harmonic torque observer can estimate the harmonic component over a wide speed range, even in the case where the produced torque is constant, and generate a suitable compensating signal. The speed-varying current controller shows stable control performance over a wide speed range, it can fully track the compensated current command containing the dc and 6th harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined and verified through extensive numerical experiments.

Shinnaka, Shinji; Kishida, Hideo

195

Medical students' skills in image interpretation before and after training: a comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula. PMID:22647422

Sendra-Portero, Francisco; Torales-Chaparro, Oscar E; Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J

2012-12-01

196

DEPARTMENTALIZATION OF READING IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.  

Science.gov (United States)

DEPARTMENTALIZATION IS A FORM OF GROUPING FOR INSTRUCTION, AN ADMINISTRATIVE METHOD FOR ASSIGNING PUPILS TO TEACHERS IN SOME PLANNED MANNER. SOME PRECEDENTS FOR THE RECENT REVIVAL OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES ARE CITED. THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION ORGANIZATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--A PROGRAM INVOLVING…

STOWE, ELAINE H.

197

Conceptual change among middle school students studying elementary thermodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies the conceptual changes and factors affecting eighth- grade physical science students (n=180) investigating elementary thermodynamics. Classifies three types of students regarding their learning methods: converging, progressing, and oscillating. Reports that original intuitive conceptions are difficult to change and that students engaged in activities requiring sustained reflection make greater cognitive gains.

Lewis, Eileen

2006-05-31

198

Swiss Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Forest Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates benefits and challenges of forest education in view of 257 Swiss elementary school teachers (1st-3rd grade), by means of a written questionnaire and 15 in-depth interviews. Two thirds of the teachers carried out forest education during normal lesson hours (mean visits = eight per year). Forests were clearly considered as…

Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Knecht, Sarah

2011-01-01

199

Physical Education (Skill) Performance Objectives: Elementary and Secondary.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of minimum physical education skill objectives, basic motor performances all elementary and secondary school children should be capable of demonstrating are presented in the form of specific drill instructions. Divided into grade levels for purposes of assessment, the exercises are intended to be ungraded activities. The rationale for this…

Shanks, Robb L.

200

The Evolution of a Learning Community for Elementary Education Majors  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns about the quality of math and science education in the elementary grades often focus on the shortage of well qualified teachers at that level, a shortage that reflects both a lack of interest among prospective teachers in teaching mathematics and science (Committee on Science, 2007), and the need for solid preparation in mathematics for…

Rogotzke, Kathy; Zoellner, Craig; Larson, Kacy; Fallis, Nancy

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Career Education in Elementary Schools: Exemplary Curriculum Guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A result of a State-funded workshop sponsored by Northwestern State University (Louisiana), the exemplary career education curriculum guide is designed for elementary grades K through six. An introductory chapter is followed by a chapter on resources which identifies specific materials (films, filmstrips, records, kits, books, pictures, and…

Natchitoches Parish School Board, LA.

202

Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years  

Science.gov (United States)

The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

2011-01-01

203

Mathematics Reform and Teacher Quality in Elementary Grades: Assessments, Teacher Licensure, and Certification Reforma matema?tica y calidad docente en la escuela primaria: Evaluaciones, licencias y certificacio?n docente Reforma matema?tica e qualidade de professores no Ensino Fundamental: Avaliac?o?es, licenciamento e certificac?a?o de professores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed the gap in mathematics standards, assessments and accountability, and teacher licensure and certification requirements in mathematics for elementary grades. We found states delineated mathematics academic standards in specific content areas. Licensure and certification requirements were weak indicators since they lacked the specificity of conceptual and procedural knowledge that could strengthen mathematics content knowledge and inform instructional practices. The most recent changes in licensure and certification requirements intended to affect teacher quality are not reaching a large proportion of elementary teachers; thus, their overall impact on teacher quality is likely to be limited. We discuss policy strategies for licensure and certification requirements likely to have a broader reach in addressing teacher quality at the elementary grades. Se analizaron las diferencias en esta?ndares, evaluaciones, procesos de rendicio?n de cuentas, y requisitos de certificacio?n docente en el a?rea de matema?ticas para la escuela primaria. Encontramos que los Estados determinaron los niveles acade?micos en matema?ticas en a?reas de contenido especi?ficos. Las licencias y los requisitos de certificacio?n son indicadores de?biles porque carecen de especificidad sobre conocimientos conceptuales y de procedimiento que podri?an reforzar los conocimientos acerca de los contenidos de matema?ticas e ayudar a mejorar a las pra?cticas de ensen?anza. Los cambios ma?s recientes en los modelos de licenciamiento y los requisitos de certificacio?n que intentan mejorar la calidad de la formacio?n de los docentes en el a?rea de matema?ticas no llegan a la mayori?a de los maestros de primaria, por lo que su impacto global es bastante limitado. Discutimos las estrategias de poli?tica para obtener la licencia y los requisitos de certificacio?n que podri?an tener un mayor alcance para mejorar la calidad de los docentes en la escuela primaria. Analisamos a brecha nos padro?es, nas avaliac?o?es e processos de prestac?a?o de contas, bem como o licenciamento e a certificac?a?o solicitados para o ensino de matema?tica do Ensino Fundamental. Encontramos estados determinaram padro?es acade?micos de matema?tica em a?reas especi?ficas de conteu?do. As solicitac?o?es de licenciamento e certificac?a?o foram indicadores fracos, uma vez que falta-lhes a especificidade do conhecimento conceitual e pra?tico que poderiam reforc?ar o conhecimento do conteu?do de matema?tica e aperfeic?oar as pra?ticas educativas. As recentes mudanc?as nas solicitac?o?es de licenciamento e certificac?a?o que buscaram afetar a qualidade docente na?o esta?o atingindo a maioria dos professores de Ensino Fundamental; desse modo, o impacto geral sobre a qualidade docente torna-se limitado. Discutimos estrate?gias poli?ticas de licenciamento e os requisitos de certificac?a?o que possam ter um alcance mais amplo no enderec?amento da qualidade docente no Ensino Fundamental.

Annie Georges

2010-06-01

204

"English Is Not Easy, but I like It!": An Exploratory Study of English Learning Attitudes amongst Elementary School Students in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the growing needs of proficient English speakers, the Taiwan Ministry of Education officially included English in standard elementary school curriculum since 2001. English courses at elementary level were extended from the fifth grade to the third grade since the fall of 2005. It is significant to examine whether the educational…

Chung, I-Fang; Huang, Yi-Cheng

2010-01-01

205

Technology Talk With a Grade Two Student  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this interview, elementary grade level student Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale discusses how he uses technology--ranging from Smart tables and Smart boards to computers and the Internet--both at home and in the classroom. He talks about how technology helps him solve word and mathematic problems as well as build LEGO robots.

Samuel Bradshaw-Truesdale

2013-06-01

206

Fractions in elementary education  

CERN Document Server

This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and...

Quinn, Frank

2013-01-01

207

Pupilsâ?? Conception of Organic Foods and Healthy Eating in School : QUALITATIVE INSIGHTS FROM FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS WITH 5th AND 7th GRADE PUPILS IN A COPENHAGEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adult habits, including unhealthy eating patterns, are largely established during a person´s childhood and early youth. In this connection, public schools are important health promoting platforms due to their potential for encouraging interest, knowledge and learning about health related issues. The main aim of the study was to shed light on primary and lower secondary school pupils´ everyday experience with food, nutrition, ecology and health in connection to public organic school food, using the municipality of Copenhagen as a case. We have examined how a procurement and provision strategy that primarily originates from â??backstage agentsâ? such as engaged politicians and civil servants and governed by administrative priorities, is perceived among agents at the front stage arena - the school. Furthermore we have investigated to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the â??organicnessâ? of the food program and the underlying organic supply chain principles, and to which degree the pupils experience a connection between the â??organicnessâ? of the food program and classroom initiatives in subjects related to ecology and health. In February 2008, we approached a public school which proved willing to participate in our study. Subsequently, over a period of four weeks, we designed an interview guide used to conduct focus group interviews with pupils from grades 5 and 7, which were then transcribed. In general, pupils were very interested in ecology as a subject. However it seems that they do not see a very strong connection between the healthy, organic meals offered at school and class room activities related to health and ecology. The pupils did not feel that they had been involved in the decision to establish organic and healthy food procurement. As a result they held that they did not feel very committed or engaged in the school provision initiative, and the organic and healthy food procurement was not highly sought after on the part of the pupils. This appears to justify a distinction between the perspective that front stage actors have, including pupils, and the perspective of politicians and planners that operate back stage. The distance between these two stages, which tends to increase in large scale municipal school food systems, is an important challenge to address when planning school food interventions. There seems to be a potential for linking organic school food service more closely with curricular activities, and for linking issues of healthier eating and organic food supply. There is also a need for greater involvement of the pupils and other front stage actors when the food service system and food related curricular activities are planned.

Andersen, Stine; Burkal, Anna

2010-01-01

208

Futebol: representações e práticas de escolares do ensino fundamental / Football: representations and practices of students of the elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo buscou caracterizar as práticas e identificar representações sociais de escolares sobre o futebol no âmbito da aulas de Educação Física Escolar. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa de tipo etnográfico, que utilizou observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, além de question [...] ário, em uma turma de 29 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental, em uma escola pública na cidade de Bauru - SP. Os resultados indicam que as mídias e a família são os principais elementos que constituem as representações dos alunos sobre o futebol, e que o modo como a prática do futebol é desenvolvida na escola ao mesmo tempo as constrói e realimenta. Concluímos que as representações sociais são um importante meio que orienta as relações dos alunos com o futebol, na medida em que influenciam a orientação e organização das suas condutas. Todavia, isto não torna homogêneas suas condutas e valores, pois os alunos buscam no futebol a satisfação de algo que é também pessoal, como diversão e amizades. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the practices and social representations of students about football within the Physical Education classes. This is a qualitative research of ethnographic type, which used participant observation and semi-structured interviews, as well as questionnaires, in a class of [...] 29 students from 6th grade of Elementary Education, in a private school in Bauru City-SP. The results indicate that the media and the family are the main elements that constitute the representations of students about football, and that the way football practice is developed at school simultaneously builds and feed them. We conclude that social representations rule the relationships of students with football, insofar as they guide and organize their behavior. However, this does not make their conduct and values homogenous, because the students seek in football the satisfaction of something that is also personal, as fun and friendship.

Leandro Del Giudice, Macagnan; Mauro, Betti.

209

A Cross Age Study of Elementary Students' Motivation towards Science Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of grade level and gender on elementary school students' motivation towards science learning. A total of 2231 sixth and eight grade students participated in the study. Data were collected through Students' Motivation towards Science Learning Questionnaire. Two-way Multivariate Analysis of…

Guvercin, Ozge; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

2010-01-01

210

Dance in physical education in second grade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is about the integration of creative movement in dancing games of physical education in second grade, why it is so important, its impact and how to prepare a lesson plan that concludes all that. It contains the examples of this lesson plans which fulfill the goals from the curriculum for physical education in second grade and its analyses in second grade of elementary school Skrilje, where there are 11 girls and 10 boys. In theoretical part I explained, what movement is and whi...

S?tor, Nina

2012-01-01

211

DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY CONCERNED WITH DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE REPORTED IN STATISTICAL TABLES WHICH ARE ACCOMPANIED BY DESCRIPTIVE COMMENTARY. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY, THE DEFINITION OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IS RESTRICTED TO INCLUDE ONLY THOSE SITUATIONS IN WHICH STUDENTS RECEIVE INSTRUCTION IN THE VARIOUS ACADEMIC…

American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

212

Playing Golf Is Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

Golf is a lifelong activity that people of all ages can enjoy if they experience success and have fun. Early involvement in the sport facilitates the development of the ability to strike an object with an implement. Striking with implements can be challenging for young children and teachers, but golf can be taught in all elementary school settings…

Goldman, Jill S.; Pfluge, Kevin F.

2010-01-01

213

Elementary particle interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to ?"+ and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics

1990-01-01

214

Elementary concepts of topology  

CERN Multimedia

Concise work presents topological concepts in clear, elementary fashion without sacrificing their profundity or exactness. Author proceeds from basics of set-theoretic topology, through topological theorems and questions based on concept of the algebraic complex, to the concept of Betti groups.

Alexandroff, Paul

1961-01-01

215

[Analysis of the Hungarian participation in the 6th European Union Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration in the thematic priority area of the life sciences].  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Union launched the 6th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration in 2002. Initially, Hungary participated in the 6th Framework Programme as an associate member, but since 2004 it has taken part as a Member State. Besides mobilizing their own resources, research organizations entering winning bids to framework programme tenders enjoy considerable financial support from the European Union, while participating states also contribute to the costs of the cooperation from their national budgets. Therefore, it is very important to recognize and evaluate the achievements of domestic participation. By collecting, processing and analyzing available data, the authors evaluate the bid activity and the successfulness of Hungarian research organizations in the thematic priority area covering life sciences of the 6th Framework Programme. When judging success, the authors not only consider the level of Community financial contribution, but also the participation of Hungarian researchers in international research networks. The article contains an analysis of the submitted and supported works from various aspects such as by year, calls for bids, research fields etc. for projects in the implementation of which Hungarian partners were also involved. The authors present the cost settlement methodologies applied, and traditional and new project types. They analyse the activity of coordinators and outline European expectations with regard to the participation of small and medium-sized enterprises and women. One of the important objectives of the analysis is to draw conclusions so that participants will be able to adapt them during the 7th Framework Programme, 2007-2013. PMID:17631471

Pörzse, Gábor; Temesi, Alfréda

2007-07-22

216

Replacement of the 5th and 6th level vanes of the low pressure part of the turbine 13K 125 in the TPP 'Oslomej' - Kichevo (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The condensation turbine 13K with nominal power of 125 MW is an axial three-cylindrical machine with inter-level steam heating and a 5-level heating system. The turbine consists: high-pressure cylinder FT; medium-pressure cylinder MP and low-pressure cylinder LP. The 5th level vanes of the LP cylinder have Baumann reinforcement and they are bound in packages of ten vanes each. During the 1994 overhaul, the following examinations were carried out: examination without destruction with penetrant and magnetic flux. It was found out that there were some defects and cracks on the 5th and 6th level vanes of the LP-rotor and some of the stellite plates had come off completely or some smaller parts were missing. At the places where stellite parts were missing the basic material was eroded to a large extent. On the basis of the report all damaged and loose stellite plates were removed, i.e. 50% of the 6th level and 87% of the 5th level. The turbine has since operated in such a condition and it has worked for additional 15000 working hours. During this period the condition of the vanes has been monitored and some examinations and measurements have been undertaken. It has been established that the current technical condition of the rotating 5th and 6th level vanes of the LP-turbine, where the stellite plates had been removed, indicates that they are seriously damaged and an urgent replacement of the vanes is absolutely necessary. (Author)

1997-10-09

217

Desarrollo funcional de competencias de producción de textos en alumnos con bajo desempeño en el último año de primaria / Functional development of competences in text production in of students with low performance in their last grade of elementary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan resultados de un estudio con evaluación pre y pos con tres grupos de comparación, realizado con el fin de probar tres tipos de estrategias de entrenamiento en producción de textos, las cuales son morfológica, jerárquica y funcionalmente distintas. Esto con la intención de promover tres [...] diferentes tipos de desligamiento funcional: intrasituacional, extrasituacional y transituacional. El programa de intervención fue implementado como taller de verano dirigido a 14 niños de sexto grado de una escuela primaria pública semi urbana, en el Estado de Morelos, México, con bajos niveles de desempeño en actividades de producción de textos. Las competencias de producción de textos fueron evaluadas con cuatro series de dos actividades: redactar reglamentos, redactar cuentos, elaborar párrafos descriptivos y escribir mensajes utilizando sinónimos. Para comparar los desempeños en evaluaciones antes y después, y entre grupos, fueron realizados análisis descriptivos de los promedios por grupo, utilizando un rango de valoración entre 0 y 4 por cada actividad. Asimismo fue probado un modelo de regresión estructural incluyendo como variable predictor a la situación experimental (grupo) y como variables a predecir, as cuatro competencias evaluadas. Los resultados mostraron que los niños del grupo transituacional mejoraron notablemente sus competencias de producción de textos en comparaciones pre y pos evaluación, asimismo, el modelo de regresión estructural mostró que en el post test la condición experimental tu un efecto significativo en los desempeños diferenciales, en tres de las cuatro competencias evaluadas. Abstract in english Preliminary results of a study with pre - post evaluation with three comparison groups are shown. This study has the purpose of testing three types of strategies for training in text production, which are morphologically, hierarchically and functionally different. This in order to promote three diff [...] erent types of functional relations: intrasituational, extrasituational and transituational. The intervention program was implemented as a summer workshop directed to 14 children of sixth grade in a semi urban area in the State of Morelos, Mexico, having low levels of performance in text production activities. The text production skills were assessed with four sets of two activities each one: writing regulations, writing stories, develop descriptive paragraphs and writing messages with use of synonymous. To compare the performance assessments before and after, and between groups, were descriptive analysis of group averages, using a valuation range between 0 and 4 for each activity. Also tested a structural regression model including as predictor variable to the experimental situation (group) and as variables to predict, the four skills evaluated. The results showed that the children of the transituacional group remarkably improved their competitions in text production from pre and post evaluations, furthermore, the structural regression model showed that in the post test, the experimental condition had a significant effect on the differential performance in three of the four skills assessed.

Bazán-Ramírez, Aldo; Urbina-Pérez, Diana; Domínguez-Márquez, Lorena; Mansillas-Cervantes, María I.; Gómez-Manjarrez, Itzel.

218

Unraveling the genetic underpinnings of myeloproliferative neoplasms and understanding their effect on disease course and response to therapy: proceedings from the 6th International Post-ASH Symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immediately after the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), a select group of clinical and laboratory investigators in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is summoned to a post-ASH conference on chronic myeloid leukemia and the BCR-ABL1-negative MPN. The 6th such meeting occurred on December 13–14,2011, in La Jolla, California, USA, under the direction of its founder,Dr. Tariq Mughal. The current document is the first of two reports on this post-ASH event and summarizes the most recent preclinical and clinical advances in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia,and primary myelofibrosis. PMID:22460584

Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Pardanani, Animesh; Bernard, Olivier A; Finazzi, Guido; Crispino, John D; Gisslinger, Heinz; Kralovics, Robert; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Bhalla, Kapil; Gupta, Vikas; Barosi, Giovanni; Gotlib, Jason; Guglielmelli, Paola; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Noel, Pierre; Cazzola, Mario; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Hoffman, Ronald; Barbui, Tiziano; Thiele, Juergen; Van Etten, Richard A; Mughal, Tariq; Tefferi, Ayalew

2012-05-01

219

Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

NONE

2003-03-01

220

Cooperating Teachers: To Grade or Not To Grade. A One-Act Play.  

Science.gov (United States)

This play, which addresses cooperating teachers' feelings about grading student teachers, was inspired by a doctoral student who was gathering data for her dissertation. She interviewed eight cooperating teachers, eight university supervisors, and seven directors of field experiences in elementary education from a midwestern state. The interviews…

Ramanathan, Hema; Benedetti, Teresa; Thorson, Annette

 
 
 
 
221

Elementary particles and cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)

2000-03-01

222

Introduction to elementary particles  

CERN Document Server

This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat

Griffiths, David J

2008-01-01

223

Mars Rover Model Celebration: Using Planetary Exploration To Enrich STEM Teaching In Elementary And Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The program culminates in a capstone event held at the University of Houston (or other central location in the other communities that will be involved) where the best models from each school or group are brought together for a celebratory showcase exhibit and judging. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Dominey, W.; Kapral, A.; Carlson, C.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

2011-12-01

224

6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 6th Regional Symposium of the IFAA held in Milano, from 1 to 5 July 2009, follows the 5th Regional meeting in Ferrara (2005 and the 9th International Symposium held in Zagreb (2007. The Symposium was jointly organized by the University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Geological Sciences and Geotechnologies, and by the University of Genova, Dip.Te.Ris. Geologists and paleontologists of the University of Genova have been studying coralline-rich outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin since the end of the XIX Century (G. Rovereto, M. Airoldi, S. Conti, V.I. Mastrorilli, producing the scientific descriptions of dozens of new species, the types of which are housed in the Genova Dip.Te.Ris.This volume represetn the abstract book and the field trip guide book edited for the symposium.

Francesca Benzoni

2009-10-01

225

Analysis of the 2nd Ispra test on the 1/6TH scale model of the SNR-300 fast breeder reactor with the PISCES-2 DELK code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a numerical simulation of the 2nd test carried out at the JRC in Ispra (Italy) in the 1/6th scale vessel model of the SNR-300 LMFBR. The computer code used for the analysis was the hybrid code PISCES-2D-ELK, being an explicit finite difference code capable of simulating fluids and structures in an Eulerian reference frame, a Lagrange reference frame and having a thin shell option available. The analysis was performed for a total transient time of 10 ms and the results are presented in the form of contour-velocity vector plots at several intervals. The evolution of some important parameters such as the impulse and strain at the shieldtank, the pressure and impulse at the vessel roof (waterhammer) and the strain profiles of the shieldtank and the main vessel are compared with the measured experimental results. (orig./GL)

1981-08-21

226

Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011  

CERN Multimedia

This book highlights the potential of getting benefits from various applications of computational intelligence techniques. The present book is structured such that to include a set of selected and extended papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011, held in Timisoara, Romania, from 19 to 21 May 2011. After a serious paper review performed by the Technical Program Committee only 116 submissions were accepted, leading to a paper acceptance ratio of 65 %. A further refinement was made after the symposium, based also on the assessment of the presentation quality. Concluding, this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of SACI 2011 and few invited papers authored by prominent specialists. The readers will benefit from gaining knowledge of the computational intelligence and on what problems can be solved in several areas; they will learn what kind of approaches is advised to use in order to solve these problems. A...

Precup, Radu-Emil; Preitl, Stefan

2012-01-01

227

Children's motivation in elementary physical education: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation. PMID:15532363

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

2004-03-01

228

Elementary Reading Fluency and Comprehension: Do Laptops Make a Difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether a one-to-one laptop program had an effect on the reading-fluency and comprehension scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students over a half-year period. Pre- and post-test scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM fluency and Maze-CBM comprehension tests were collected for 1,048 students attending six diverse, high-poverty elementary…

Bryan, Andrew

2011-01-01

229

Chicago school reform: An elementary school undergoes probation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the process of Probation as a tool for School Reform used in an urban school district of 550 Chicago elementary and secondary schools. A School Reform Act passed by the State of Illinois legislature defined the remediation process and delineated the eligible school sites. Chicago schools were subject to reforms and interventions when less than 15% of its students scored at or above grade level when participating on a nationally normed, standardized test. Naturalistic resea...

2001-01-01

230

Body mass index and health related quality of life in elementary school children: a pilot study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background We investigated the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) indicated by baseline health status in elementary school children. Methods Data were obtained via parents whose children enrolled in an elementary school, kindergarten to fourth grade, in southern Mississippi in spring 2004. Parents completed the SF-10 for Children™, a brief 10-item questionnaire designed to measure children's ...

2008-01-01

231

A Study of Training Needs of Elementary School Teachers in Jhunjhunu District of Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elementary school teachers instruct children from grades 1-8 in age group of 6-14 years. The Need of training for elementary and secondary teachers has been emphasized by many commissions and committees. The teacher occupies a very important place in society because he brings about the transfer of the intellectual tradition from one generation to the next. He maintains the level of technological skill and keeps the light of civilization burning bright. ...

2012-01-01

232

Elementary Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Multimedia

This is the first graduate course on elementary quantum mechanics in Internet written in Romanian for the benefit of Romanian speaking students (Romania and Moldova). It is a translation (with corrections) of the Spanish version of the course (physics/9808031, English translation is under consideration), which I did at the request of students of physics in Bucharest. The topics included refer to the postulates of quantum mechanics, one-dimensional barriers and wells, angular momentum and spin, WKB method, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, quantum scattering, and partial waves

Rosu, H C

2000-01-01

233

Elementary Statistics Tables  

CERN Document Server

This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

Neave, Henry R

2012-01-01

234

A física nas séries iniciais (2ª a 5ª) do ensino fundamental: desenvolvimento e aplicação de um programa visando a qualificação de professores / The physics in the first four grades of elementary school: developing and applying a program for teachers qualification  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho descrevemos uma proposta para melhorar o ensino de física nas séries do ensino fundamental. Com este objetivo foi desenvolvido um programa que visa qualificar professores. O programa é estruturado em módulos, que contemplam diversos instrumentos e estratégias pedagógicas. Cada módulo [...] começa com aulas de laboratório, seguido de uma interação em sala de aula com textos que abordam história da ciência, física do cotidiano e discussão de conceitos físicos. Por fim, cada módulo utiliza recursos multimídia, disponíveis na internet. O programa foi aplicado em curso de extensão da UFRGS para doze professoras do Colégio São Bento, em Criciúma, SC, e em minicurso no II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física no Instituto de Física da UFRGS. As professoras do Colégio São Bento aplicaram os conteúdos de física aos alunos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental através de oficinas intituladas "Física para Crianças" e fizeram adaptações, quando necessárias, para adequar os conteúdos e estratégias aos interesses e características dos estudantes. Abstract in english In this paper we describe a proposal to improve the teaching of physics in the first four grades of elementary school. With this aim was developed a teachers qualification program. The program is structured in parts which include several instruments and pedagogic strategies. Each part starts with la [...] boratory classes followed by class interaction with texts specially produced to the project. These texts contains science history, everyday physics and introduction to physical concepts. Then multimedia recourses available in the internet are used. The program was applied in an extension course at Federal University of Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS) to twelve teachers of Colégio São Bento, at Criciuma, SC. It was also used in a course in the II Encontro Estadual de Ensino de Física at Instituto de Física/UFRGS. The teachers of Colégio São Bento applied the physics content to children workshops entitled "Physics to Children" and made adaptations, when necessary, to adequate the content and strategies to the pupils interests and characteristics.

Felipe, Damasio; Maria Helena, Steffani.

235

DESCRIPTIVE GRADES IN INITIAL MATHEMATICAL TEACHING PARENT'S ATTITUDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation is very sensitive process in up bring-education work and it is important for comprehensive development of student. More often are fears of different kind, certain forms of unacceptable behavior, are connected with students failure in school and with school evaluation.Grade is feedback on achievements whose purpose is to provide timely information of current level and the steps that are ahead. Numerical grade reflects level of achievements, but there is no indication about elements that makes that grade. Descriptive grade contains key information's about the progress and for that kind of grade you need a lot of words. For student to be descriptively graded, teacher needs to be professionally educated and ready for detailed monitoring and evaluation of student's achievements. Teacher, using appropriate terminology, should successfully describe achievements of student's progress. The school is expected to teach students how to learn and to prepare them for lifelong learning. One of the important factors is also parents. During the time spent with teachers and parents a need has be shown to examine parent's attitudes about descriptive grades in nine-year elementary school. One of the courses that a descriptive grade cannot fully characterize the overall progress of students is mathematics. This course has been chosen because of the problems that parents have when their kids are in first two grades of nine-year elementary school, their attitudes about descriptive grades and difficulties they have when they try to understand student's achievements.

Dževad Burgi?

2014-04-01

236

Engineering at the Elementary Level  

Science.gov (United States)

Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

McGrew, Cheryl

2012-01-01

237

Digital Photography for Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…

Neckers, Matt

2009-01-01

238

Close Reading in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Close reading is a recommended instructional approach to meet the challenges of teaching complex texts. But close readings are more common in high school and college than in elementary schools. In this article, we identify the components of close reading that were developed after a group of elementary school teachers observed their colleges in…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2012-01-01

239

Invitational Education at Cooper Elementary  

Science.gov (United States)

In the summer of 1998, this author was appointed Principal at Cooper Elementary, one of 21 elementary schools in the Livonia Public Schools' district, the 5th largest district in the state of Michigan. Like many first-year principals, she was full of fresh ideas, lofty goals and endless enthusiasm to inspire students, staff and parents. Her…

Kalec, Ann W.

2004-01-01

240

Dynamics of Teacher-Student Relationships: Stability and Change across Elementary School and the Influence on Children's Academic Success  

Science.gov (United States)

This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students (mean age = 6.57 years, SD = 0.39). Teacher reports of warmth and conflict were collected in Grades 1-5. Achievement was tested in Grades 1 and 6. For conflict,…

Spilt, Jantine L.; Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center, Volume 2  

Science.gov (United States)

The author designed this book, like Volume I of the set, to give elementary school librarians a quick, enjoyable way to coordinate with teachers to teach information literacy and literacy skills aligned with national standards. The chapters in the book include: (1) Kindergarten Lesson Plans; (2) First-Grade Lesson Plans; (3) Second-Grade Lesson…

Keeling, Joyce

2005-01-01

242

Constructivism in the elementary school curricula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the 5th grade elementary school curricula of Turkish, English, Mathematics, and Science and Technology courses were congruent with the principles and standards of the constructivist education. Qualitative research methods were used in this small-scale case study which was conducted in a private elementary school in Ankara. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analyses in the academic year of 2007-2008. The population of interest consisted of 2 school directors, 1 Turkish teacher, 3 English teachers, 4 Mathematics teachers, and 3 Science and Technology teachers. Descriptive analytical framework was employed for the analysis of the interviews. A rubric and a list of standards were used so as to provide a set of criteria for the analyses of the data. The findings indicate that the performances of the curricula under investigation are congruent with the principles of the constructivist education. Similarly, the stated and unstated intents of the curricula are congruent with their performances and the standards of the constructivist education. However, in-depth analyses of the findings signify that in certain areas of the curricula such as the contents, learning processes, evaluation processes, the use of the information technology, and the other resources are marked by some difficulties and ambiguity.

Nehir SERT

2008-01-01

243

Supersymmetry of elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some difficulties, connected with correct application of supersymmetry mathematical tools in the field and elementary particle theory are pointed out. The role of Grassman algebra in the usual field theory and the role of Lee superalgebra in supertransformations mixing bosons and fermions are shown. Grassman algebra in the theory of supersymmetries plays a role of numerical field. A supersymmetrical model, when indexes {i} of Grassman algebra corresponding to ''color'', and indexes {?} of Lee superalgebra representations - to ''flavor'', is considered. It is marked that the problem of interpretation of Grassman algebra indexes is a key one for the theory of supersymmetries. In particular, it gives no possibility to come from the theory of supersymmetries to the usual field theory, whose indexes of Grassman algebra possess obvious physical meaning

1986-01-01

244

Elementary differential geometry  

CERN Document Server

Curves and surfaces are objects that everyone can see, and many of the questions that can be asked about them are natural and easily understood Differential geometry is concerned with the precise mathematical formulation of some of these questions, and with trying to answer them using calculus techniques It is a subject that contains some of the most beautiful and profound results in mathematics yet many of these are accessible to higher-level undergraduates Elementary Differential Geometry presents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces while keeping the prerequisites to an absolute minimum Nothing more than first courses in linear algebra and multivariate calculus are required, and the most direct and straightforward approach is used at all times Numerous diagrams illustrate both the ideas in the text and the examples of curves and surfaces discussed there The book will provide an invaluable resource to all those taking a first course in differential geometry, for their lecture...

Pressley, Andrew

2001-01-01

245

???????? ?????????????? ?????? GRADE 4 C ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????-?ONFORM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? Grade 4 ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????-conform. ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? «Conform» (????-C ?? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? Grade-4. ????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????-C ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????, ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????-? ?? 6 ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????????? (??? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ????? 250 ??. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????-?, ????? ??? ????????????, ????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? 12%, ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????-C ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? 1300 ???, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? 11%. ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ????-C ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????? – ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????.

?. ?. ?????????

2011-10-01

246

The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island  

Science.gov (United States)

There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

2013-01-01

247

The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel  

Science.gov (United States)

The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first defused to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local production. This copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition.

Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

2014-01-01

248

cGMP: transition from bench to bedside: a report of the 6th International Conference on cGMP Generators, Effectors and Therapeutic Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Essential physiological homeostatic processes such as vascular tone, fluid balance, cardiorenal function, and sensory processes are regulated by the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP). Dysregulation of cGMP-dependent pathways plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, or erectile dysfunction. Thus, the cGMP pathway consisting of the cGMP-generating guanylyl cyclases, protein kinases, and phosphodiesterases (PDE) has evolved to an important drug target and is the focus of a wide variety of research fields ranging from unraveling mechanisms on the molecular level to understanding the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes by cGMP. Based on the results from basic and preclinical research, therapeutic drugs have been developed which modulate the cGMP pathway and are investigated in clinical trials. Riociguat, a nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator; recombinant B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP); or recombinant atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and PDE5 inhibitors are cGMP-modulating drugs that are already available for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, acute heart failure, and erectile dysfunction, respectively. The latest results from basic to clinical research on cGMP were presented on the 6th International Conference on cGMP in Erfurt, Germany, and are summarized in this article. PMID:24927824

Hoffmann, Linda S; Chen, Horng H

2014-08-01

249

Tasks of mining sciences in the light of the 6th National Mining Congress and the 20th Congress of Polish Technicians  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents a report from the 6th National Mining Congress held in Katowice on 24-25 September 1982 and the 20th Congress of the Polish Technicians held in Lodz on 8-10 October 1982. Participants to the congresses discussed development of coal mining and perspectives of coal processing in Poland. Black coal output should increase to 190 Mt by 1985 and to 200 Mt by 1990, which should permit about 30 Mt of coal to be exported and from 160 to 170 Mt to be left for Polish consumption. Coal output increase depends on a significant increase in investment and continuation of construction of 9 new coal mines and starting construction of another 3 coal mines. Development of black coal mining should go in the direction of increasing proportion of thin and very thin coal seams less than 1.5 m thick and coal seams located at large depths. The average mining depth should increase from 550 m in 1980 to 870 m by the year 2000. Development of technologies and equipment for efficient mining of thin and very thin coal seams is of particular importance for the Lublin basin. Black coal from the Nadwislanski region of the Upper Silesian basin rich in sulfur should be used as a raw material for coal processing (e.g. gasification). Problems of increasing occupational safety and reducing coal losses in underground coal mines in Poland are discussed. (33 refs.)

Pluta, L.

1983-01-01

250

The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus  

CERN Multimedia

In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, we used individual second and third Venus-Sun contact times to calculate the distance to the Sun. Ten of the sites in our network had amiable weather; 8 of which measured second contact and 5 of which measured third contact leading to consistent solar distance measurements of 152+/-30 million km and 163+/-30 million km respectively. The distance to the Sun at the time of the transit was 152.25 million km; therefore, our measurements are also consistent within 1sigma of the known value. The goal of our international school group network was to inspire the next generation of scientists using the excitement and accessibility of a rare astronom...

Faherty, Jacqueline K; Miller, Scott T

2012-01-01

251

NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 11th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field and the concurrent release of the 6th generation Pomme magnetic model  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is updated every five years based on candidate model submissions by research institutions worldwide. In the call for the 11th generation of IGRF, candidates were requested for the definitive main field in 2005, the predicted main field in 2010, and the predicted secular variation from 2010 to 2015. The NOAA/NGDC candidate models for IGRF-11 were produced from parent models parameterized in the same way as the 6th generation of our Pomme magnetic model. All models were based on CHAMP satellite measurements, while Ørsted satellite measurements were used for model validation. The internal field in Pomme-6 is described by a 2nd degree Taylor time series of spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of a scalar magnetic potential. Magnetic fields of ionospheric origin are avoided by careful data selection. Instead of co-estimating magnetospheric fields, we subtract a magnetospheric field model estimated previously from a more extensive data set covering all local times. From comparison with Örsted measurements and general considerations of magnetic field predictability, we attribute a root mean square (RMS) uncertainty of 1.3 nT to our candidate model for the main field in 2005, 2.5 nT to the predicted main field in 2010 and 26 nT/a to the predicted secular variation from 2010 to 2015.

Maus, S.; Manoj, C.; Rauberg, J.; Michaelis, I.; Lühr, H.

2010-10-01

252

Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

Millet, Ido

2010-01-01

253

Development of Elementary School Students’ Argumentativeness In Science Courses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of science courses founded on argumentative discourse activities on elementary school students’ tendencies to approach argumentative situations. A semester-long argumentative discourse integrated science courses were carried out with 7th Grade students (n=23, and 8th Grade students (n=24. To measure change in the students’ tendencies to approach argumentative situations, a 20-item Likert-type Argumentativeness Scale (AS was administered to all the students as pretest and posttest, and 37 randomly selected students were individually interviewed at the end of the study. The results of statistical analysis of the AS indicated that both 7th and 8th Grade students’ argumentativeness significantly increased from prior to the end of this study. This significant increase was further supported by evidence from the qualitative data gathered through the interviews.

Osman Nafiz KAYA

2008-04-01

254

Elementary approach to scattering theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expressions for the time-dependent scattering wave function, S-matrix elements, and the transition rate are derived using simple time-dependent perturbation theory as it is presented in elementary quantum-mechanics texts

1984-01-01

255

Fifth-Grade Bilingual Students and Precursors to "Subtractive Schooling."  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined Spanish-speaking children's attitudes about being and staying bilingual. Classroom observations and interviews with 15 fifth-grade students, 12 parents, and 2 teachers at a Texas elementary school indicated that despite being in a supportive bilingual environment, students believed they would have to struggle to maintain their…

Worthy, Jo; Rodriguez-Galindo, Alejandra; Assaf, Lori Czop; Martinez, Leticia; Cuero, Kimberley

2003-01-01

256

Laboratory Science in Clover. Curriculum Guide Grades 4-7.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide provides a laboratory approach to teaching elementary school science. A set of both cognitive and affective objectives is presented. Beginning with grade level 4, conceptual schemes for each level, with accompanying subconcepts, are presented, and a complete list of behavioral objectives associated with the conceptual schemes…

Clover School District, SC.

257

Making Class Size Work in the Middle Grades  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on the positive effects of class-size reduction (CSR) has occurred in the elementary level (Word, Johnston, Bain, Fulton, Zaharias, Lintz, Achilles, Folger, & Breda, 1990; Molnar, Smith, Zahorik, Palmer, Halbach, & Ehrle, 1999). Is CSR an important variable in improving education in the middle grades? Can small classes be achieved in…

Tienken, C. H.; Achilles, C. M.

2006-01-01

258

Fitness Portfolio Calibration for First- through Sixth-Grade Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed and calibrated health-related fitness portfolios for elementary students using the Rasch model, examining advantages and disadvantages. Physical educators graded the portfolios. Rating scores were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results indicate that using Rasch calibration, measurement problems related to conventional practice can be…

Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Zhu, Weimo

2001-01-01

259

Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

260

Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

 
 
 
 
261

Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

262

Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 5.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

263

Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

264

Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

265

Perceptual Stimulus Hiarchy (Sic) of Kindergarten, Third Grade, and Slow Readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between color cues, figure form, and size discrimination was investigated. Subjects were 28 kindergarten students selected at random from a lower socioeconomic elementary school and 28 grade-3 students from the same school. From a higher socioeconomic area school, 28 grade-3 students were selected. In addition, 12 slow readers in…

Webster, Bill; And Others

266

A Naturalistic Study on Whole Class Instruction in First Grade Reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, a study examined the application of whole class instruction as an alternative instructional strategy to ability grouping in first grade reading instruction. Subjects, 57 first-grade students in two classrooms attending an elementary school in a middle-class section of Orem, Utah, used the Companion Reading…

Harris, Bruce R.; Harrison Grant Von

267

Classroom Idea-Sparkers: Grading and Student Learning--Ideas for Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Grading is often seen as a point of conflict with students and, in upper elementary and beyond, with parents. It is a chore that consumes time and saps critical levels of energy better used for creative planning and preparation and face-to-face interactions with students. Grading is sometimes referred to as a "necessary evil," yet many teachers…

Wegwert, Joseph C.

2012-01-01

268

Examining Elementary Education Pre-Service Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary education pre-service teachers? self-efficacy beliefs by gender, grade level and age. Participants were 163 elementary education pre-service teachers. An instrument titled “Music Education Self-Efficacy Scale” (Afacan, 2008 was used as a means of data collection. Descriptive statistics and t test was used to analyze the data. Results revealed that elementary education pre-service teachers? music education self-efficacy was, in general, moderate. Results revealed that participants? self-efficacy beliefs differ by gender, grade level and age. Women?s self-efficacy beliefs were higher than men. Junior (3rd year students? self-efficacy was higher than sophomores (2nd year. Similarly, self-efficay scores of particiapants with an age of between 22 and 24 was higher than those with an age of between 19–21.

Deniz Beste ÇEV?K

2011-04-01

269

Instructional Models and the Development of Body Concept and Anxiety Reduction in Elementary School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a teacher-directed model (TDM) and a decision-sharing model (DSM) of instruction on the development of body-concept and reduction of anxiety in elementary-age children. The treatment groups consisted of 99 public school children, grades three and four, who participated in either a movement…

Keane, Francis J.

270

Levels of Questioning in Current Elementary Textbooks: What the Future Holds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to determine the level of questioning according to Bloom's taxonomy, generated by test items that accompany selected fifth-grade science textbooks, an analysis of the tests provided by three of the most commonly used elementary science textbooks was completed. Additionally this analysis examined the extent to which each series…

Risner, Gregory P.; And Others

271

Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

2011-01-01

272

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2010-01-01

273

The Teaching of Food Guide Pyramid Concepts by Nebraska Elementary School Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an analysis of food selection education using the Food Guide Pyramid for students in grades 1-4, over two-thirds of teachers (n=464) responded that nutrition should be a high priority in the elementary curriculum. Fewer than half teach pyramid concepts consistently or frequently, younger teachers (20-29) more rarely than older teachers.…

Martin, H. Darlene; Driskell, Judy A.

2001-01-01

274

Behavioral Competence and Academic Functioning among Early Elementary Children with Externalizing Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The positive effect of competent behaviors on academic functioning may outweigh the negative effect of externalizing problems. The current study examined this premise among children with externalizing problems in the early elementary years. Participants were 207 kindergarten through third-grade children and their parents and teachers. Results…

Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Susan

2012-01-01

275

Preventing Behavior Problems among Elementary Schoolchildren: Impact of a Universal School-Based Program in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: To evaluate the effect on problem behaviors of a universal school-based prevention curriculum of third grade students. Methods: Six regular classes in 1 elementary school were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 208) or control (n = 209) group. A 13-session program was offered to students in the intervention group. The Achenbach…

Hong, Lin; Yufeng, Wang; Agho, Kingsley; Jacobs, Jennifer

2011-01-01

276

Extended Text and the Writing Proficiency of Students in Urban Elementary Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of extended text writing on the writing proficiency of urban elementary school students was investigated with 39 fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms. Both quality of writing and use of writing conventions was better for students with extended writing practice, a result consistent for minority and European American students. (SLD)

Davis, Alan; And Others

1994-01-01

277

"Using" Computer Graphic Representations to Promote Learning in Elementary Science Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

This interdisciplinary activity promotes science, technology, and language arts and is well suited for upper elementary grade students. In the activity, students' research about a teacher-assigned weather phenomenon facilitates their study of the weather. When they have completed their research, students word process a paper summarizing their…

Lazaros, Edward J.; Spotts, Thomas H.

2009-01-01

278

Evaluating Mainstreaming in Urban Elementary Schools through an Analysis of Students' Weekly Schedules.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a study of the mainstreaming practices of a large urban school district, schedules of 844 mildly handicapped elementary students were examined. Schedule appropriateness was defined by three factors: assignments of handicapped students to a fixed group of regular students, to a grade-appropriate group, and for the full sequence of scheduled…

Sansone, Jan; Zigmond, Naomi

279

Student Voice in Elementary School Reform: Examining Youth Development in Fifth Graders  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research examines the developmental outcomes of elementary-aged students engaged in student voice efforts. Using a case study of fifth-grade girls, the authors compare their experiences to research examining secondary school. The authors find marked similarities in the growth of agency, belonging, competence--the ABCs of youth…

Mitra, Dana L.; Serriere, Stephanie C.

2012-01-01

280

Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated  

Science.gov (United States)

"Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics" is a core mathematics curriculum for students in prekindergarten through grade 6. The program aims to improve students' understanding of key math concepts through problem-solving instruction, hands-on activities, and math problems that involve reading and writing. The curriculum focuses on…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Evaluating Three Elementary Mathematics Programs for Presence of Eight Research-Based Instructional Design Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

The present review builds on earlier research that evaluated the curricular features of core math programs to improve the performances of students with or at risk for mathematics difficulties. In this review, three elementary math programs, at Grades 2 and 4, were evaluated for the presence of eight instructional principles. Math intervention…

Doabler, Christian T.; Fien, Hank; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Baker, Scott K.

2012-01-01

282

Elementary Teachers Integrate Music Activities into Regular Mathematics Lessons: Effects on Students' Mathematical Abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents exploratory research investigating the way teachers integrate music into their regular mathematics lessons as well as the effects of music-mathematics interdisciplinary lessons on elementary school students' mathematical abilities of modeling, strategy and application. Two teachers and two classes of first grade and…

An, Song; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Tillman, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

283

The Effects of Mass Merchandising on Elementary School Age Children's Book Selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was given to 866 students in the Westfield Public School (New Jersey) to ascertain whether or not elementary age children were strongly influenced by Corporate America in their reading selections. Respondents were in either second, third, or fourth grade. The children were asked three questions about their favorite character and favorite…

Long, Gregory A.

284

Socioeconomic Differences in Elementary Students ICT Beliefs and Out-of-School Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to explore possible links between student socioeconomic status (SES), beliefs about information and communication technologies (ICTs), and out-of-school learning resources. Grades 5 and 6 students (N = 345) who were enrolled in one private and six public elementary schools in Greece, located in areas with different…

Vekiri, Ioanna

2010-01-01

285

Locating Self in the World: Elementary School Children in Japan, Macau, and Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines how elementary school children locate themselves geographically and affectively in relation to the world. The study focused on fourth- and sixth-grade students in Japan, Macau, and Hong Kong (China). Discusses why Japanese children are less likely to locate themselves in an international sphere. Includes references. (CMK)

Parmenter, Lynne; Lam, Carol; Seto, Flora; Tomita, Yuichi

2000-01-01

286

Effects of Participation in a Martial Arts-Based Antibullying Program in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the Gentle Warrior Program, a traditional martial arts-based intervention to reduce aggression in children, as it was implemented in three elementary schools. The sample consisted of 254 children in grades 3, 4, and 5 who participated in the Gentle Warrior Program as part of a larger school violence intervention. Results…

Twemlow, Stuart W.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stephen W.

2008-01-01

287

Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

2013-01-01

288

The Diary of Calvin Fletcher--Using Primary Sources in the Elementary Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the use of primary sources in a fourth grade unit on Calvin Fletcher and the topic of transportation. Addresses the difficulties of using primary source material with elementary school students. Identifies ways for students to demonstrate their newly acquired knowledge. (CMK)

Morris, Ronald V.; Morgan-Fleming, Barbara; Janisch, Carole

2001-01-01

289

The Implementation of Positive Behavioral Support in an Elementary School: Processes, Procedures, and Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the processes and outcomes of a year of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in a North Texas elementary school serving kindergarten through grade 3 students. Included is a description of a school treatment package that incorporated components such as facilitation of the teaming process, a lottery-type system of intermittent…

Menendez, Anthony L.; Payne, Linda Donica; Mayton, Michel R.

2008-01-01

290

An Experimental Study for Effectiveness of Super-Learning Technique at Elementary Level in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to experience the effectiveness of super-learning technique of teaching at elementary level. The study was conducted with 8th grade students at a public sector school. Pre-test and post-test control group designs were used. Experimental and control groups were formed randomly, the experimental group (N = 62),…

Shafqat, Hussain; Muhammad, Sarwar; Imran, Yousaf; Naemullah; Inamullah

2010-01-01

291

Elementary Children’s Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5 about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a wide array of earth science concepts, from rock formation to the Earth’s interior. We analyzed interview data primarily to determine whether or not young children are capable of inferring understanding of the past based on present-day observation (retrodictive reasoning in the context of Earth science. This work provides a basis from which curricula for teaching earth and environmental sciences can emerge, and suggests that new studies into the retrodictive reasoning abilities of young children are needed, including curricula that encourage inference of the past from modern observations.

Julie C. LIBARKIN

2012-10-01

292

Property (T) for groups graded by root systems  

CERN Document Server

We introduce and study the class of groups graded by root systems. We prove that if {\\Phi} is an irreducible classical root system of rank at least 2 and G is a group graded by {\\Phi}, then under certain natural conditions on the grading, the union of the root subgroups is a Kazhdan subset of G. As the main application of this result we prove that for any reduced irreducible classical root system {\\Phi} of rank at least 2 and a finitely generated commutative ring R with 1, the Steinberg group St_{\\Phi}(R) and the elementary Chevalley group E_{\\Phi}(R) have property (T).

Ershov, Mikhail; Kassabov, Martin

2011-01-01

293

The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way.

A. Hepworth, Richard

2010-01-01

294

Redox-active phases and radionuclide equilibrium valence state in subsurface environments – New insights from 6th EC FP IP FUNMIG  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the 6th EC FP Integrated Project “Fundamental Processes of Radionuclide Migration” (FUNMIG), progress has been made to improve knowledge about the phases and reaction mechanisms involved in complex reduction processes of radionuclide contaminants in natural subsurface environments. This review paper gives an overview of the achievements made by the research groups involved in this project, and puts the scope and results of the studies in a more global context. Firstly, both thermodynamic and experimental evidence show that green rust is present and reactive in subsurface groundwater with a composition that spans the Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox boundary. Green rust has been shown to reduce Np(V), Se(VI) and Se(IV), but the pathways for the redox processes and the reaction products that result are complicated, and change as a function of the reaction parameters. Secondly, considerable evidence has emerged that Se(IV) is reduced on Fe(II)-bearing minerals which are ubiquitous in subsurface environments. The stable Se valence state in the presence of FeS2 has been shown to be Se(0). Also, natural dissolved humic substances that contain sufficient electron donating capacity are capable of interacting with, and possibly reducing, Se(IV) to lower valence states. Thirdly, the influence of HCO3- and organic ligands on the uptake and reduction of U(VI) on Fe(II)-bearing minerals was investigated. While it appeared that HCO3- decreased the extent of U(VI) uptake by the reducing surface, the fraction of reduced U(IV) in the solid phase increased with increasing HCO3- concentration. In contrast with the observations for HCO3-, organic ligands decreased both the extent of U uptake, as well as the fraction of U(IV) found in the solid phase. The studies performed within FUNMIG show that investigating reduction-oxidation mechanisms require (1) a detailed control over reaction conditions (anoxic atmosphere, purification of solid phases, initial radionuclide speciation), (2) a rigorous follow-up of reaction products (both solution chemistry and spectroscopic methods), and (3) the consideration of slow kinetics in the setting up of an experiment. These requirements make the study and assessment of redox processes one of the most demanding scientific challenges for geochemists who are asked to make predictions for radionuclide transport behaviour in the environment.

2012-02-01

295

An evaluation on adequacy of sixth year elementary school mathematics curriculum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine adequacy of new 6th Years Elementary Mathematics Curriculum which was introduced in 2006. The determination consisted of attainability of objectives with suitability of patterns to structure of mathematics in the objectives. Experimental design was used in the study. The study carried out from a total of 120 students as experiment (60 and control (60 group. Mathematics lessons plans and the selected methods with respect to new program have been applied to the experiment group while the control group does their ordinary works in mathematics. As a result; students’ achievement both in mean success and achievement level in experiment group are higher than the control group. Both groups’ overall successes (0.56 and 0.36 were not satisfactory (?0.75. Thus, it can be said that both groups were not able to attain aimed targets with unconvinced teaching and learning process.

Ersen Yaz?c?

2009-08-01

296

Some Cobweb Posets Digraphs' Elementary Properties and Questions  

CERN Document Server

A digraph that represents reasonably a scheduling problem should be a directed acyclic graph. Here down we shall deal with special kind of graded $DAGs$ named $KoDAGs$. For their definition and first primary properties see $ [1]$, where natural join of directed biparted graphs and their corresponding adjacency matrices is defined and then applied to investigate cobweb posets and their $Hasse$ digraphs called $KoDAGs$. In this report we extend the notion of cobweb poset while delivering some elementary consequences of the description and observations established in $[1]$.

Kwaniewski, A K

2008-01-01

297

Textiles as a Reflection of Ancient and Contemporary Maya Cultures: An Interdisciplinary Unit for 6th and 7th Grade Students at John F. Kennedy Middle School, Northampton, MA. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum unit on textiles is intended for middle school students who have previously studied the cultures of modern and ancient Latin America. The unit does not employ Spanish language skills. Its lessons apply to individual, small group, and whole group work, and may take from 30 minutes to three class periods. The guide lists necessary…

Schlichting, Kimberly

298

Peer Assessment of Elementary Science Teaching Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, peer assessment was applied in assessing elementary science teaching skills. Preservice teachers taught a science topic as a team to their peers in an elementary science methods course. The peers participating in the science lesson assessed teacher-groups' elementary science teaching skills on an assessment form provided by the…

Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

2007-01-01

299

Spontaneous Reasoning in Elementary Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates spontaneous reasoning of 709 French, Belgian, and British students in elementary dynamics using the relations between force, energy and motion as the study topic. Students were selected from the last year at secondary school to the third year at university.

Viennot, Laurence

2006-10-11

300

Electrical elementary diagrams and operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)

Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Inc., Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: HumanFactors@netscape.ca

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Assessment in Elementary Dance Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, two public school elementary dance educators share their experiences developing and implementing dance performance assessments. The assessments were developed for the State of Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to assess student learning in dance education and bring dance assessment to an equal platform…

Englebright, Krissa; Mahoney, Meg Robson

2012-01-01

302

Electrical elementary diagrams and operators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)

2005-06-12

303

Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"  

Science.gov (United States)

Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

Freemon, Jennifer

2012-01-01

304

Elementary Deuring-Heilbronn Phenomenon  

CERN Document Server

Adapting a technique of Pintz, we give an elementary demonstration of the Deuring phenomenon: a zero of \\zeta(s) off the critical line gives a lower bound on L(1,\\chi). The necessary tools are Dirichlet's 'method of the hyperbola', Euler summation, summation by parts, and the Polya-Vinogradov inequality.

Stopple, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

305

Learning science through talking science in elementary classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems, both drawings and spoken responses provide rich evidence of their understanding of the connections between science drawings and verbal explanations. In this forum contribution, we present several theoretical connections between everyday language and science communication and argue that building communication skills in science are essential. We also discuss how young participants should be valued and supported in research. Finally we discuss the need for multimodal research methods when the research participants are young.

Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

2014-03-01

306

Fitness portfolio calibration for first- through sixth-grade children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate health-relatedfitness portfolios for 1st-6th grade students using the many-faceted Rasch model, and examine advantages and disadvantages of a portfolio assessment system based on Rasch calibration. Nine hundred ninety-five studentsfrom 23 schools infirst-sixth grade, who completed three-six of nine health-related fitness portfolios, participated in this study. Ten physical education teachers performed the grading across various portfolios and grade levels. Students'portfolios were rated using 23 predeveloped rubrics, and their scores linked through several common portfolios that were used across schools. The rating scores were analyzed using the many-faceted Rasch model, with four defined facets: portfolio, rubric, student, and rater The model-data fit was very good, and a consistent grade difference wasfound, that is, older students scored higher in fitness knowledge than younger ones. With Rasch calibration, measurement problems in conventional portfolio assessments can be eliminated, and a valid and reliable assessment system can be developed. In addition, several other measurement advantages are provided by Rasch calibration (e.g., related facets can be examined and controlled simultaneously). A large sample size and a more complex process, however, are required in the calibration stage of developing such a system using the Rasch model. PMID:11770782

Kulinna, P H; Zhu, W

2001-12-01

307

Glaisher weights and graded Cartan matrices  

CERN Document Server

We present an identity for what we call the Glaisher weights. The Glaisher correspondence goes back to Euler. It describes a bijection between the set of p-regular partitions of n and the set of p-class regular partitions of n. We will associate a weight with each step of the Glaisher correspondence and give a refinement of a formula given by Uno and the last author. Our identityleads naturally to a conjectural formula for determinants and elementary divisors of the graded Cartan matrices of the Hecke algebra of type A.

Ando, Masanori; Yamada, Hiro-Fumi

2010-01-01

308

Cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception among 6 grade students in Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary schools in Jordan have included health education material in curricula to promote healthy lifestyles among younger school children. However, the relation between healthy lifestyles and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer has not been an explicit component in school curricula of younger age groups. We sought to explore the level of knowledge among 6th grade students as well as their attitudes with respect to cancer. This comes as part of a pilot project to develop an educational series on cancer prevention that aims to meet knowledge gaps specific to the community of students in this age group in Jordan. Methods: A questionnaire composed of items measuring knowledge about cancer and cancer prevention through healthy practices, attitudes towards cancer, and intentions to engage in healthy behaviors was developed. Questionnaires previously used in similar age groups elsewhere were used as a reference. Our questionnaire was reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Education - School Health & Nutrition Department. Sixth graders in a convenience sample of four schools selected by the Ministry of Education completed the self-administered questionnaire. Results: Ninety-six 6th graders from four schools answered the baseline survey, but 28% of the surveys were excluded from the analysis (data quality problems) leaving 69 student participants. In the original sample of 96 students, 48 (69.6%) were girls. Among the 69 student participants, 67 (97.1%) had heard of cancer, but fewer than 44 (63.8% knew it was not a contagious disease. Regarding fear, 29 (42%) would not play with a cancer patient. Concerning prevention of the most prevalent cancers in Jordan as research has shown that certain risk factors increase the chance that a person will develop cancer. The most common risk factors are smoking, Poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight, 25 (36.2%) knew breast cancer was preventable, and 28 (40.6%) and 24 (34.8%) knew this regarding lung and colorectal cancers, respectively. About 40 (57.8%) students identified healthy dietary behaviors (e.g., low fat, low sugar), but only six could identify the ideal frequency for exercise (60 minutes daily). Fifty-eight (84.1%) agreed that cigarettes harmed the health. However, only 21 (30.4%) found it easy to avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. Nine (13%) reported smoking water pipes, but only one reported smoking cigarettes. Forty-eight (69.6%) and 47 (68.1%) agreed that daily physical activity and healthy eating were important, respectively. Fifty-two (75.4%) students found it easy to eat healthy at home, but only 37 (53.6%) found it easy to do so at school. Finally, 63 (91.3%) students wanted to learn more about cancer. Conclusion: Although a significant number of our sample of students has heard about cancer and students exhibit some knowledge regarding healthy practices, our results show that knowledge gaps exist with regard to the nature of cancer as a noncontagious disease, the preventability of specific cancers, and the link between specific risk factors and cancer. PMID:22910516

Shihab, R A; Obeidat, N A; Bader, R K; Shtaiwi, A; Ayub, A; Hawari, F I

2012-01-01

309

Constructing difference: A comparative study of elementary science curriculum differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

The research described in this article was a comparative study of science curriculum differentiation at two elementary schools that served students from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Two schools in the same school district, Lake and Jefferson, were the sites for the research. Lake Elementary served a professional class and white neighborhood, but Jefferson Elementary served students from working-class/working poor and ethnically diverse backgrounds. The teachers and students in a fifth and sixth grade classroom at each school participated in the research. Research methods drew from ethnographic and linguistic traditions and focused on the microlevel everyday classroom interactions in which the curriculum is constructed. The results of the study show that the science curriculum was quite different between the two schools. The science curriculum at Lake emphasized organization and control for the purpose of preparing students for traditional notions of academic success and progress. At Jefferson, the science curriculum was constructed within an informal and conversational format in an effort to engage students in science. We suggest that it is difficult to determine if and how this curriculum differentiation might establish or enhance inequality in science education. Instead, we offer competing interpretations of the results that draw from current notions of best practice in the science education community.

Hayes, Michael T.; Deyhle, Donna

2001-05-01

310

Repetitive Microteaching:Learning to Teach Elementary Social Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of deliberate practice in the development of performance has been studied extensively in many contexts, such as in athletics. The construct of deliberate practice in the development of teacher performance has been receiving heightened examination lately, though the role of practice in the development of elementary social studies teachers remains essentially unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a repeated practice microteaching model on the teaching behaviors of 64 elementary preservice teachers (PSTs who taught the same social studies lessons to small groups of 4th-grade students four times in succession. PST reflection journals from all PSTs, observational transcripts of 14 teaching pairs, focus group interviews with the PSTs, and informal cooperating teacher interviews revealed that the PSTs’ lessons changed over the four successive teaching episodes. The PSTs became more comfortable and confident after teaching the same social studies lesson multiple times. PSTs also reported that their lessons became better, yet the qualitative data revealed that even though their teaching became more efficient and student work correctness improved, only a few PSTs increased the cognitive demand of their questions and activities. Nonetheless, most PSTs demonstrated increased use of social studies pedagogical content knowledge through their examples and discussions, as well as increased attention to student thinking. Repeated practice field experiences seem to hold potential for elementary PSTs to develop their use ofsocial studies pedagogical content knowledge

Derek L. ANDERSON

2012-11-01

311

The Relationships between Creativity, Drawing Ability, and Visual/Spatial Intelligence: A Study of Taiwan's Third-Grade Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the qualities of creativity, drawing ability, and visual/spatial intelligence of selected third-grade students in the Hsinchu area of Taiwan, Republic of China. The population for this study included approximately 11,653 third-grade students from 99 public elementary schools.…

Liu, Li-Ming

2007-01-01

312

The Effects of Background Music in the Classroom on the Productivity, Motivation, and Behavior of Fourth Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Many students in a fourth grade classroom at Logan Elementary School are expressing numerous types of negative behaviors, are not motivated to learn, and do not stay on-task. In an effort to change these students, an action research study was conducted that implemented background music in the classroom. There were ten fourth grade students who…

White, Kevin N.

2007-01-01

313

"I Learned How to Talk about a Book": Children's Perceptions of Literature Circles across Grade and Ability Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate students' perceptions of their experiences with literature circles across elementary grades. A stratified random sample of 24 diverse students in grades one, three, four, and five were individually interviewed to obtain perceptions of their attitudes toward literature circles and their…

Certo, Janine; Moxley, Kathleen; Reffitt, Kelly; Miller, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

314

Composite/elementary extended technicolor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose an extended technicolor model in which some of the fermions and technifermions are composite, while others are elementary. Isospin symmetry is broken in a new way: (UL, DL), UR are composite while DR is elementary. This leads to compositeness effects in the charge 2/3 quark mass matrix not present in the charge -1/3 quark mass matrix. The low-energy theory contains three generations of quarks and leptons plus a family of technifermions in the 7 rep of SO(7). The technicolor theory has a slowly running coupling constant, allowing ETC scales to be raised, and FCNC's to be suppressed. The model predicts the imminent observation of the following unobserved processes: D0-anti D0 mixing, K+ ? ?+?±e-+, Ks ? ?±e-+. (orig.)

1987-08-27

315

Elementary principles of linear accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables

1982-08-02

316

Elementary principles of linear accelerators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.

Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.

1983-09-01

317

Paleontology--Dinosaurs and Other Fossils: Digging into the Past. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book consists of two complete units on paleontology, dinosaurs, and fossils. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary…

Tanner, Joey

318

On Elementary Loops of Logic Programs  

CERN Document Server

Using the notion of an elementary loop, Gebser and Schaub refined the theorem on loop formulas due to Lin and Zhao by considering loop formulas of elementary loops only. In this article, we reformulate their definition of an elementary loop, extend it to disjunctive programs, and study several properties of elementary loops, including how maximal elementary loops are related to minimal unfounded sets. The results provide useful insights into the stable model semantics in terms of elementary loops. For a nondisjunctive program, using a graph-theoretic characterization of an elementary loop, we show that the problem of recognizing an elementary loop is tractable. On the other hand, we show that the corresponding problem is {\\sf coNP}-complete for a disjunctive program. Based on the notion of an elementary loop, we present the class of Head-Elementary-loop-Free (HEF) programs, which strictly generalizes the class of Head-Cycle-Free (HCF) programs due to Ben-Eliyahu and Dechter. Like an HCF program, an HEF progra...

Gebser, Martin; Lierler, Yuliya

2010-01-01

319

Almost Graded Prime Ideals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Graded commutative ring with unity over an abelian group were introduced by many authors such as T. Y. Lam and C. T. C. Wall, and almost prime ideals over commutative rings with unity were introduced by S.M. Batwadeker and P.K. Sharma, and this forced us to try to extend the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Approach: We develop the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Results: We extended some basic results about almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case, and then we gave a relationship between n-almost graded prime ideals and weakly graded prime ideals. Conclusion: The extended results about almost and n-almost graded prime ideals allow us to classify further properties about almost graded prime ideals. 2000 AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 13 A 02.

Ameer Jaber

2008-01-01

320

Pattern Grading System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pattern Grading System developed under this contract consists of three major subsystems: Digitizing, Grading and Plotting. Each of these subsystems is a computer program with accompanying directions for use.

1973-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Student and Parent Perceptions of Barriers to and Benefits of the School Breakfast Program in Elementary Schools in Southeast Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors impacting participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) for elementary school students in southeast Alabama. Methods: Focus groups were used to gather qualitative data from southeastern Alabama public school fourth and fifth grade students and their parents. Six student…

Sabol, Alexis; Struempler, Barbara J.; Zizza, Claire A.

2011-01-01

322

A Phenomenological Study of Homework from the Perspectives of Elementary Special Education Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has shown that students with learning disabilities often do not complete or submit their homework, which may lead to failing grades. The intent of this research was to examine the perceptions of elementary special teachers on assigning appropriate homework for these students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate…

Bennis, Candace L.

2011-01-01

323

The Effectiveness of an Inservice Program for Implementing an Activity Approach to Learning Mathematics in the Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of an inservice program designed to help elementary school teachers implement an activity approach to learning mathematics in their classroom using Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP). Thirty-eight kindergarten and first grade teachers participated. The success of the inservice program was judged…

McLeod, Douglas B.

324

Effects of Character Education on the Self-Esteem of Intellectually Able and Less Able Elementary Students in Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

This research study investigates effects of character education activities on the self-esteem of intellectually able and less able students in the lower elementary level in Kuwait. The participants were 39 students in grade three with an average age of eight years old. Students were first divided into two ability subgroups (intellectually able vs.…

Tannir, Abir; Al-Hroub, Anies

2013-01-01

325

The Longitudinal Effects of Residential Mobility on the Academic Achievement of Urban Elementary and Middle School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Residential stability matters to a young person's educational development, and the present housing crisis has disrupted the residential stability of many families. This study uses latent growth-curve modeling to examine how changing residences affects math and reading achievement from third through eighth grade among a sample of urban elementary…

Voight, Adam; Shinn, Marybeth; Nation, Maury

2012-01-01

326

How Do Elementary Textbooks Address Fractions? A Review of Mathematics Textbooks in the USA, Japan, and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

Textbooks play an important part in the design of instruction. This study analyzed the presentation of fractions in textbooks designed for the elementary grades in Kuwait, Japan, and the USA. The analysis focused on the physical characteristics of the books, the structure of the lessons, and the nature of the mathematical problems presented.…

Alajmi, Amal Hussain

2012-01-01

327

Does Food Insecurity at Home Affect Non-Cognitive Performance at School? A Longitudinal Analysis of Elementary Student Classroom Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper estimates models of the transitional effects of food insecurity experiences on children's non-cognitive performance in school classrooms using a panel of 4710 elementary students enrolled in 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade (1999-2003). In addition to an extensive set of child and household-level characteristics, we use information on U.S.…

Howard, Larry L.

2011-01-01

328

The Effect of an Enrichment Program on Developing Analytical, Creative, and Practical Abilities of Elementary Gifted Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated the effects of a school enrichment program on the analytical, creative, and practical abilities of elementary gifted students. Forty-two students (N = 42) from the fifth and sixth grade of the Al-Shawkany School in Saudi Arabia were randomly chosen to participate in the study according to two criteria: (a) being…

Aljughaiman, Abdullah M.; Ayoub, Alaa Eldin A.

2012-01-01

329

Back on the Backburner? Impact of Reducing State-Mandated Social Studies Testing on Elementary Teachers' Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have shown how elementary social studies instruction has been constrained or curtailed in states that do not test social studies as part of their mandated accountability system. South Carolina is a state that tests social studies as well as English, mathematics, and science in grades three through eight as part of its…

Vogler, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

330

PREFACE: MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011) MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011)  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of stress and strain on the electromagnetic properties of superconducting composite conductors is one of the key issues for the practical application of superconductivity. To discuss these subjects thoroughly, the International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (MEM) has been held regularly since 2001. The 6th workshop (MEM11) was held in Okinawa, Japan in 2011, which was the centennial of the discovery of superconductivity by Professor Kamerlingh Onnes, as well as the 25th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS). Although it was originally planned that MEM11 be held in Mito, the workshop venue was changed because of the serious disaster in the north of Japan on 11 March 2011. Sixty five scientists participated in this specialized workshop. Fifty six papers were presented in the following six sessions: (1) Intrinsic strain effects on low temperature superconductors (LTS) and HTS, (2) The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), (3) Strain evaluation by quantum beams, (4) Flux pinning properties of HTS, (5) Standardization and the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) and (6) High field magnets. Several large topics were presented and discussed at the workshop: the important progress in methods for non-invasive measurements of the local strain exerted on the superconducting components in superconducting wires and cables using quantum beam techniques. This approach provides powerful tools for investigating the effect of strain in composite superconductors; the intrinsic strain effects in LTS and HTS in the reversible strain region. Recently, it has become easier to determine quantitatively the strain dependence of critical current when the local strain is measured directly, and the mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the superconductors used in the ITER tokamak. This was a major topic at the workshop since the superconducting magnets are a critical component in this project. Standardization with respect to ITER was also discussed, as well as other topics related to improving the mechanical-electromagnetic properties of practical HTS, including (RE)BCO, BSCCO and MgB2 wires. From such exciting and excellent presentations, nineteen papers were selected and invited for publication in this special issue. At the end of the workshop, a senior member of the International community thanked our Japanese colleagues for their exceptional hospitality and for holding this important workshop at this difficult time.

Awaji, Satoshi; Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

2012-05-01

331

Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.

Keller, Stacy Kathryn

332

Design and implementation of injury prevention curricula for elementary schools: lessons learned  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Project objectives were to: (1) design and produce an easy-to-use, replicable comprehensive injury prevention curriculum for elementary schools; (2) pilot the program to determine instructors' ease in teaching the material and its usefulness in enhancing student knowledge and behavior change; (3) present material in subject-integrated, grade-specific lessons that would meet state and national student learning objectives; and (4) submit and obtain adoption of the curriculum by the ...

Azeredo, R.; Stephens-stidham, S.

2003-01-01

333

Becoming a fluent and automatic reader in the early elementary school years  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goals of this study were to (a) develop an empirically based model regarding the development of fluent and automatic reading in the early elementary school years and (b) determine whether fluent text-reading skills provided benefits for reading comprehension beyond those accounted for by fluent word decoding. First-, second-, and third-grade children completed a series of reading tasks targeting word and nonword processing, text reading, spelling knowledge, autonomous reading, and reading...

2006-01-01

334

Characteristics of General Education Reading Interventions Implemented in Elementary Schools for Students with Reading Difficulties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The implementation of response to intervention requires interventions for struggling students be provided through general education prior to referral for special education. We surveyed elementary teachers (K-3) in one state to examine the characteristics of the supplemental reading interventions that their students receive through general education. Findings reveal differences between grade levels in the amount of time interventions are provided to students, the providers of the intervention,...

Wanzek, Jeanne; Cavanaugh, Christie

2012-01-01

335

Dutch elementary school children’s attribution of meaning to written pseudowords  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grade two through six elementary school Dutch children were asked to perform a lexical decision task including 90 pseudowords constructed by changing one or two letters in a Dutch word. Subsequently, the children were asked about the meaning of pseudowords they had not crossed out and that they, apparently, had considered to be words. Multiple regression analyses on the lexical decision task showed that the older children were more hindered by the morphemic structure of a pseudoword than by i...

Tellings, Agnes; Bouts, Lex

2011-01-01

336

A Risk Model for Disordered Eating in Late Elementary School Boys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors tested the following risk model for disordered eating in late elementary school-age boys: Pubertal status is associated with increases in negative urgency, i.e., the tendency to act rashly when distressed; high levels of negative urgency then influence binge eating through psychosocial learning; and binge eating influences purging. A sample of 908 fifth grade boys completed questionnaire measures of puberty, negative urgency, dieting/thinness and eating expectancies, and eating pa...

Pearson, Carolyn M.; Combs, Jessica L.; Smith, Gregory T.

2010-01-01

337

The LA aggression scale for elementary school and upper secondary school students: Examination of psychometric properties of a new multidimensional measure of self- reported aggression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper introduces a new multidimensional scale LA (lestvica agresivnosti [Aggression Scale]) for measuring self-reported aggression in elementary and upper secondary school students in Slovenia. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using three elementary school samples (preliminary study: N=2777; main study: N=10427 and validity and test-retest study: N=191) representative of 4th and 8th grade students in Slovenia and one upper secondary school sam...

Kozina Ana

2013-01-01

338

The most elementary Bell inequalities  

CERN Document Server

Every nontrivial Bell inequality can be associated to a graph with some special properties. The simplest of these graphs is the pentagon. In this sense, any Bell inequality associated to a pentagon can be regarded as elementary. We show that there are three of them: one is a primitive Bell inequality inside the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and, surprisingly, it is not maximally violated by maximally entangled states. The other two are maximally violated by maximally entangled states and are related to the Clauser-Horne inequality and the I3322 inequality, respectively. We report experimental violations of the three inequalities with pairs of photons entangled in polarization.

Sadiq, Muhamad; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

2011-01-01

339

Elementary particles: discovered or constructed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a compelling and entertaining manner, the author suggests that the discovery theory in the world of elementary particles is not useful because experimental facts can be controverted and deconstructed and because nature does not reverse itself through data or through a choice between competing theories. What the author does suggest is that physicists understand the world particle physics as a process of construction rather than discovering that physicists look upon themselves as active creators of their world, searching, experimenting, reviewing and interpreting their findings within the contexts they have constructed

1982-01-01

340

A Simple Alternative to Grading  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

Potts, Glenda

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220...17.220 Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. This section applies to preschool, elementary...and adult education...

2009-10-01

342

Quantum mechanics from elementary view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics as well as interesting supplements up to the beginnings of quantum field theory. A comprehensive mathematical block facilitates the access. It is rich on examples and otherwise mostly not findable calculations, which make it so transparent in its results. It likes the historical relations and brings so the feeling how much has been grown from the past. It brings also a short outline about relativity theory up to the understanding of the term ''metrics''. The spotlight holds the term product space, by means of which quantum mechanics is put together to a practicable theory. A simpler notation for instance at the Dirac equation facilitates also the understanding. On the mathematical side it is above all the term distributive law as well as the term linear combination, which lead so simple transparent definitions fast to more general. Generally it is tried to find an as possible elementary access to at least not elementary connections. So may it be for many both instructive and interesting

2009-01-01

343

Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available software to support problem solving and understanding of real life situations. We emphasize the use of graphical and numerical techniques, rather than theoretical techniques, to investigate and analyze the behavior of the solutions of the difference equations.As an illustration of our approach, we will show a nontraditional and efficient way of introducing models from finance and economics. We will also present an interesting model of supply and demand with a lag time, which is called the cobweb theorem in economics. We introduce a sample of a research project on a technique of removing chaotic behavior from a chaotic system.

Mazen Shahin

2010-06-01

344

Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band  

Science.gov (United States)

The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

Moore, Patience

2009-01-01

345

Rosebush Fantasy Technique with Elementary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors present the rosebush fantasy drawing as a technique to use in elementary school counseling. The technique is suggested as an expressive arts method to access the emotional world of children in a non-verbal format. The specifics of presenting the technique and processing the drawing with elementary-aged students are…

Ray, Dee C.; Perkins, Sharon R.; Oden, Kathryn

2004-01-01

346

Effective Hand Washing in an Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary school is the perfect place to teach and reinforce the lifelong skill of effective handwashing for students and adults. One collaboration between an elementary school and a nursing education program to augment school health services without taxing the school budget is described. Nursing students spent 260 professional nursing service…

Hezel, Linda; Bartlett, Connie; Hileman, Judy Willis; Dillon, Lisa; Cessna, Tamara

2000-01-01

347

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP)

1991-01-01

348

Meal skipping relates to food choice, understanding of nutrition labeling, and prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using th...

2012-01-01

349

Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students’ comprehension proficiencies. This experimental research study explores the use of an anticipatory reading guide with third grade struggling readers across multiple subject areas. Findings indicate that the experimental treatment group outperformed the control group by a statistically significant rate on both reading and content area measures, indicating that when struggling readers practice and use strategies to explicitly think what will be asked of them after reading the passage they perform at higher levels.

Evan Ortlieb

2013-07-01

350

South Lake Elementary students enjoy gift of computers  

Science.gov (United States)

Nancy Nichols, principal of South Lake Elementary School, Titusville, Fla., joins students in teacher Michelle Butler's sixth grade class who are unwrapping computer equipment donated by Kennedy Space Center. South Lake is one of 13 Brevard County schools receiving 81 excess contractor computers thanks to an innovative educational outreach project spearheaded by the Nasa k-12 Education Services Office at ksc. The Astronaut Memorial Foundation, a strategic partner in the effort, and several schools in rural Florida and Georgia also received refurbished computers as part of the year-long project. Ksc employees put in about 3,300 volunteer hours to transform old, excess computers into upgraded, usable units. A total of $90,000 in upgraded computer equipment is being donated.

1999-01-01

351

Using Reading Grade Level to Assess Readability of Selected Plant and Soil Science Textbooks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reported is a study designed to determine whether reading grade level (RGL) assessment techniques used for elementary and secondary education textbooks would discriminate among plant and soil science textbooks. The study was to select the RGL indices suited to quantify the readability of these sources, and to identify the factors affecting…

Graveel, John G.; Fribourg, Henry A.

1987-01-01

352

A First-Grade Math Lesson with Sue Gehn. School Development Library [Videotape].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sue Gehn teaches first grade at Cottage Grove Elementary School in Cottage Grove, just outside of Madison, Wisconsin. She achieves excellence in mathematics by applying the concepts of Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI).The CGI approach is a philosophy founded on the notion that teachers must assess, and understand, the present knowledge that…

North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

353

Connections: Combining Environmental Education and Artwork in the Primary Grades for Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research study was designed to raise environmental awareness and improve the social responsibility and actions of students in Grades 2 and 3 at Montecito Elementary in Burnaby. Implemented was a strategy pairing environmental education lessons with artwork projects, to engage the students and improve their awareness of aquatic…

Day, Joanne

2004-01-01

354

Effects of Concept Cartoons on Mathematics Self-Efficacy of 7th Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of concept cartoons on the students' perception of their levels of self-efficacy towards mathematics. The research has been designed as the pre-test post-test with quasi experimental control group. The research participants are composed of 94 7th grade students attending an elementary school…

Sengul, Sare

2011-01-01

355

A Multiliteracies Pedagogy: Exploring Semiotic Possibilities of a Disney Video in a Third Grade Diverse Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Disney videos are used across the US as important materials for teaching language arts and literacy in elementary schools. However, how pupils make meaning of the videos has not been sufficiently investigated in educational research. Twenty-five third-grade pupils were taught comprehension skills using "Sleeping Beauty." The students created their…

Ajayi, Lasisi

2011-01-01

356

The Relationships among Language Ability, Emotion Regulation and Social Competence in Second-Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Relationships exist between language ability, emotion regulation, and social competence in preschool children. This study examines how these relationships function in elementary school children, and explores whether language ability partially mediates the relationship between emotion regulation and social competence. Second-grade students (N = 67)…

Monopoli, W. John; Kingston, Sharon

2012-01-01

357

What Do We Know about Effective Fourth-Grade Teachers and Their Classrooms? CELA Research Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research report summarizes the features associated with exemplary teaching at the upper elementary level drawn from available research. The report then compares the results from the author/researchers' own study of the nature of classroom talk, curriculum materials, organization of instruction, and evaluation in 30 fourth-grade classrooms in…

Allington, Richard L.; Johnston, Peter H.

358

The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

2009-01-01

359

Topics in elementary scattering theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these lectures a summary is given of some of the fundamental ideas and formalism used to describe and understand the interactions of elementary particles. A brief review of relativistic kinematics is followed by a discussion of Lorentz-invariant variables for describing two-body processes, phase space and plots, such as the Dalitz plot, which can be used to study some aspects of the dynamics of an interaction, relatively free from kinematic complications. A general description of scattering and decay is given and then, more specifically, some aspects of two-body interactions in the absence of spin are discussed. Finally, complications that arise when particle spin has to be taken into account are considered. (U.K.)

1979-09-27

360

Scalar products of elementary distributions  

CERN Multimedia

The field of real numbers being extended as a larger commutative field, we investigate the possibility of defining a scalar product for the distributions of finite discrete support. Then we focus on the most simple possible extension (which is an ordered field), we provide explicit formulas for this scalar product, and we exhibit a structure of positive definite inner-product space. In a one-dimensional application to the Schroedinger equation, the distributions supported by the origin are embedded into a bra-ket vector space, where the "singular" potential describing point interaction is defined in a natural way. A contact with the hyperreal numbers that arise in nonstandard analysis is possible but not essential, our extensions of $\\bf R$ and $\\bf C$ being obtained by a quite elementary method.

Droz-Vincent, Philippe

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Reg geology: An elementary introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of these notes is to given an elementary introduction to the ideas underlying the Regge-type models. In lectures 1 and 2 the connection between the exchange models and the Regge form of the amplitude is shown. In lecture 3 the analytic continuation of the amplitude from the t-channel to the s-schanel is considered, leading to the Regge-type expression, and then (lecture 4), some phenomenological applications are discussed. Lectures 5 and 6 are a generalization of 3 and 4 to the scattering of non-zero spin particles. finally (lectures 7,8 and 9) Regge cuts are introduced and new phenomenological applications are discussed. (Author)

1973-01-01

362

Attitudes of pre-service elementary teachers towards science: A cross-national study between the United States of America and Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Preservice elementary teachers' attitudes toward science have been the subject of investigation by science educators for decades. Many of the recent attempts pertaining to preservice elementary teachers by science educators have focused on the effects of science method courses on the attitudes and relationships between attitudes and other variables. The research literature lacks studies that compare attitudes of preservice elementary teachers toward science across two or more nations. The current study investigated the attitudes of preservice elementary teachers toward science in the U.S. and Turkey in order to see if there is a difference between the U.S. and Turkish preservice elementary teachers' attitudes toward science, and to investigate whether variables such as gender and the grade the preservice teachers wish to teach make a difference in preservice elementary teachers' attitudes towards science. The sample consisted of 1144 preservice elementary teachers. Of the 1144 preservice elementary teachers for whom complete information is available, it is known that 371 preservice elementary teachers were from the U.S. and 773 were from Turkey. The attitudes of preservice elementary teachers in the U.S. and Turkey were assessed by the data gathered using Turkish and American Preservice Elementary Teachers Attitude Scale (TAPETAS). This scale is a revised version of the Modified Fennema Sherman Attitude Scale (Doepken, Lawsky, and Padwa, 1999). Results of the current study indicated that both U.S. and Turkish preservice elementary teachers had positive attitudes toward science. However, U.S. preservice elementary teachers had more confidence in science. They found science more useful than their Turkish peers. They had more positive attitudes towards their previous science teachers and were less likely to stereotype science as a male domain. There were not any significant differences between the U.S. preservice elementary teachers due to gender and the grade they wanted to teach. There were significant differences between the Turkish preservice teachers due to gender. Discussion of the findings, implications of the study and recommendations for further research were presented.

Buldu, Nihal

363

Tracking and imaging elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider is one of the most powerful particle accelerators ever built. It smashes electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons, releasing as much as 100 billion electron volts of energy within each of four enormous detectors. Each burst of energy generates a spray of hundreds of elementary particles that are monitored by hundreds of thousands of sensors. In less than a second, an electronic system must sort through the data from some 50,000 electron-positron encounters, searching for just one or two head-on collisions that might lead to discoveries about the fundamental forces and the elementary particles of nature. When the electronic systems identify such a promising event, a picture of the data must be transmitted to the most ingenious image processor ever created. The device is the human brain. Computers cannot match the brain's capacity to recognize complicated patterns in the data collected by the LEP detectors. The work of understanding subnuclear events begins therefore through the visualization of objects that are trillions of times smaller than the eye can see and that move millions of times faster than the eye can follow. During the past decade, the authors and their colleagues at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) have attempted to design the perfect interface between the minds of physicists and the barrage of electronic signals from the LEP detectors. Using sophisticated computers, they translate raw data - 500,000 numbers from each event - into clear, meaningful images. With shapes, curves and colors, they represent the trajectories of particles, their type, their energy and many other properties

1991-01-01

364

Grading Exceptional Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

365

Graded Readers and Vocabulary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the potential for vocabulary learning using a corpus of 42 grade readers from one series of graded readers (seven at each of six levels in the series). It was found that in order to have 95% coverage of the running words at a level in the series, it was necessary to already know the vocabulary of the current level in the scheme.…

Nation, Paul; Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang

1999-01-01

366

Grading to Communicate  

Science.gov (United States)

High school teacher and instructional coach Tony Winger laments how traditional classroom grading practices lead to grades becoming a distraction from learning--a commodity students feel they work the system to attain--rather than a clear message to students and parents. Teachers' passion for their subjects is too often met with students'…

Winger, Tony

2005-01-01

367

Hypersymmetry: A Z3-graded generalization of supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a generalization of non-commutative geometry and gauge theories based on ternary Z3-graded structures. In the new algebraic structures we define, all products of two entities are left free, the only constraining relations being imposed on ternary products. These relations reflect the action of the Z3-group, which may be either trivial, i.e., abc=bca=cab, generalizing the usual commutativity, or non-trivial, i.e., abc=jbca, with j=e(2?i)/3. The usual Z2-graded structures such as Grassmann, Lie, and Clifford algebras are generalized to the Z3-graded case. Certain suggestions concerning the eventual use of these new structures in physics of elementary particles and fields are exposed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

1997-03-01

368

Ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence [electronic resource] : 6th international conference, UCAmI 2012, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, December 3-5, 2012, proceedings / José Bravo, Diego López-de-Ipiña, Francisco  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence, UCAmI 2012, held in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, in December 2012. The 70 research papers were carefully reviewed and selected from various submissions. The main focus of this book has been to explore how Ambient Intelligence can contribute towards smarter but still more sustainable environments. Beyond sustainable computing the proceedings also include research work describing progress on other key research topics for AmI such as human environment mobile-mediated (through NFC or AR) interaction, artificial intelligence techniques to foster user- and context-aware environment adaptation, future internet trends such as social networks analysis, linked data or crowd-sourcing applied to AmI, internet-connected object ecosystems collaborating to give place to smarter environments.

369

Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

370

Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Azmi Zakaria

2011-03-01

371

Elementary science education: Dilemmas facing preservice teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change processes, (b) to understand the nature of teaching and schooling, and (c) to understand the nature of teacher education itself through explicit discourse about these topics. In addition, development of greater partnerships among university faculty and schools though Partnership School models and other community-building efforts can afford prospective teachers more opportunities to enter the discourse; perhaps even as change agents.

Sullivan, Sherry Elaine

372

[Theoretical studies in elementary particle physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses theoretical research in elementary particles in the following areas; Photoproduction; W-top backgrounds to Higgs production; charged Higgs production; measuring strong coupling; polarization and Z'; and polarization of top quark

1990-01-01

373

Elementary process theory axiomatic introduction and applications  

CERN Multimedia

Modern physics lacks a unitary theory that applies to all four fundamental interactions. This PhD thesis is a proposal for a single, complete, and coherent scheme of mathematically formulated elementary laws of nature. While the first chapter presents the general background, the second chapter addresses the method by which the main result has been developed. The next three chapters rigorously introduce the Elementary Process Theory, its mathematical foundations, and its applications to physics, cosmology and philosophy of mind. The final two chapters discuss the results and present the conclusions. Summarizing, the Elementary Process Theory is a scheme of seven well-formed closed expressions, written in the mathematical language of set matrix theory – a generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. In the physical world, these seven expressions can be interpreted as elementary principles governing the universe at supersmall scale. The author critically confronts the theory with Quantum Mechanics and Genera...

Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

2011-01-01

374

Elementary School Math and Technology Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology education at the elementary level involves hands-on, appropriate activities to introduce children to tools and to enhance their personal growth, creativity, and understanding of the world. Manipulation of materials can make abstract mathematical concepts concrete. (SK)

Kirkwood, James J.

1992-01-01

375

An elementary proof of Apery's theorem  

CERN Document Server

We present a new `elementary' proof of the irrationality of $\\zeta(3)$ based on some recent `hypergeometric' ideas of Yu.Nesterenko, T.Rivoal, and K.Ball, and on Zeilberger's algorithm of creative telescoping.

Zudilin, W

2002-01-01

376

Elementary equivalence of Chevalley groups over fields  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is proved that (elementary) Chevalley groups $G_\\pi (\\Phi,K)$ and $G_{\\pi'}(\\Phi',K')$ (or $E_\\pi (\\Phi,K)$ and $E_{\\pi'}(\\Phi',K'))$ over infinite fields $K$ and $K'$ of characteristics $\

Bunina, E. I.

2007-01-01

377

Dynamics of Teacher-Student Relationships: Stability and Change across Elementary School and the Influence on Children’s Academic Success  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students. Teacher reports of Warmth and Conflict were collected in grades 1 to 5. Achievement was tested in grade 1 and 6. For Conflict, low-stable (normative), low-increasing, high-declining, and high-stable trajectories were found. For Warmth, high-declining (normative) and low-increasing patterns were found. Childr...

2012-01-01

378

Status of teaching elementary science for English learners in science, mathematics and technology centered magnet schools  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (2001), one in three students speaks a language other than English. Additionally, the Commission stated that a student is considered to be an English learner if the second language acquisition is English. In California more than 1.4 million English learners enter school speaking a variety of languages, and this number continues to rise. There is an imminent need to promote instructional strategies that support this group of diverse learners. Although this was not a California study, the results derived from the nationwide participants' responses provided a congruent assessment of the basic need to provide effective science teaching strategies to all English learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of elementary science teaching practices used with English learners in kindergarten through fifth grade in public mathematics, science, and technology-centered elementary magnet schools throughout the country. This descriptive research was designed to provide current information and to identify trends in the areas of curriculum and instruction for English learners in science themed magnet schools. This report described the status of elementary (grades K-5) school science instruction for English learners based on the responses of 116 elementary school teachers: 59 grade K-2, and 57 grade 3-5 teachers. Current research-based approaches support incorporating self-directed learning strategy, expository teaching strategy, active listening strategies, questioning strategies, wait time strategy, small group strategy, peer tutoring strategy, large group learning strategy, demonstrations strategy, formal debates strategy, review sessions strategy, mediated conversation strategy, cooperative learning strategy, and theme-based instruction into the curriculum to assist English learners in science education. Science Technology Society (STS) strategy, problem-based learning strategy, discovery learning strategy, constructivist learning strategy, learning cycle strategy, SCALE technique strategy, conceptual change strategy, inquiry-based strategy, cognitive academic language learning approach (CALLA) strategy, and learning from text strategy provide effective science teaching instruction to English learners. These science instructional strategies assist elementary science teachers by providing additional support to make science instruction more comprehensible for English learners.

Han, Alyson Kim

379

Proceedings: 6th BOP HX NDE Symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BOP (balance-of-plant) HX (heat exchanger) NDE (nondestructive examination) symposium has been held biennially since 1990. The sixth symposium, which took place in Scottsdale, Arizona, on June 19-21, 2000, consisted of short courses, technical paper presentations, and a technology fair. The 170-plus attendees included representatives from domestic and overseas nuclear utilities, petrochemical processing industries, NDE service and equipment organizations, heat exchanger manufacturers and inspection/repair organizations, research and university laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This meeting provided an opportunity for plant managers, engineers, technicians, and maintenance personnel to exchange lessons learned and owner experiences. The latest heat exchanger issues, as well as advances in NDE technologies applicable to balance-of-plant heat exchangers, were discussed

2000-06-19

380

6th CTF3 Collaboration Meeting  

CERN Multimedia

The sixth CTF3 collaboration meeting was held at CERN from the 1st to the 2nd November 2000. This meeting was devoted to the CTF3 combiner ring, delay loop and transfer lines, with the participation of members of the CLIC study group at CERN and of collaborators from INFN-Frascati. The CTF3 status has been summarized by the project leader, and several members of the INFN-Frascati group have presented an overview of the design activity of the different components. Working group sessions have been held on beam optics, on diagnostics and equipment and on RF deflectors. The main conclusions from the working groups have been reported at the end of the meeting. Issues that have been addressed include prototype design and construction (RF deflectors, path-length tuning wigglers, extraction kicker and vacuum chamber sections) and deadlines for component specifications. The impedance budget for the ring, delay loop and transfer lines, its impact on the choice of beam-position monitors and the problem of beam stability...

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

6th technical report on personnel training  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting. Separate abstracts were presented for 3 of the papers in this report. The remaining 9 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

NONE

1996-09-01

382

Minutes of 6th Meeting - ARCHIVE: Defra  

Mar 7, 2007 ... practically complete although returns are still outstanding from DfT,. DTI, EHS/\\DOENI .... http://www.cefas.co.uk/science/Workshops/WKCpH/flyerv2_220207.pd \\· f. Tributes to John .... GOOS AG (Met Office). Jane Hawkridge.

383

6th Anniversary of Wound manager®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since its inception in 1999, the continuing education program "certified wound manager®" (CWM; in accordance with §64 of the health-care and nursing law has successfully trained over 450 specialists from the nursing and medical field to become certified wound managers. The positive feedback from the already trained wound managers confirms the practical relevance of the certification program. With currently 41 instructors from Europe (A-CH-D-GB-NL, the certification program is to date the most comprehensive and practice-tested concept in German-speaking countries. The course CWM ® was the first European course in this field (according to ISO 9001:2000 to be certified by the TÜV (MOT. University approval (the process began in summer 2003 in London will soon be given (Bachelor's degree.

Peischl, Renate

2006-08-01

384

6th IT First Tuesday@CERN  

CERN Multimedia

Thursday 12 May, 17:30-19:30, Main Auditorium, CERN Data management in the 21st Century: the Petabyte challenge A Petabyte is a million Gigabytes, the equivalent of over 200,000 DVDs. That may seem like an enormous amount of data, but managing such quantities of data is a reality in the world of science, and is increasingly becoming an imperative in the world of business. This IT First Tuesday@CERN presents the Petabyte challenge, and some of the emerging solutions, from both scientific and commercial perspectives. For CERN's Large Hadron Collider, a Grid solution has been chosen to provide the necessary distributed storage capacity for the anticipated 15 Petabytes of data per year that this collider will produce. IBM is CERN's storage partner in the CERN openlab for DataGrid applications, and is testing the companies innovative TotalStorage SAN distributed filesystem in CERN's demanding IT environment. For Lausanne-based VisioWave, managing stored video data provides an extreme storage challenge. For D...

François Grey

2005-01-01

385

Mathematical investigation of polyhetra in elementary school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Slovenian elementary schools the curriculum addresses only the simplest polyhedra, such as prisms and pyramids. In my thesis I intended to show that also complex polyhedra can be the object of study in elementary schools. In the first, theoretical, part the definition and some properties of polyhedra are considered. Polyhedra are grouped for easier treatment. There are five Platonic solids, their surface consists of regular polygons. Archimedean solids are composed of different regular...

Svetlin, Petra

2012-01-01

386

Boys at Play: Football in Elementary Schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on the contribution of schoolboy football to three aspects of elementary education in late nineteenth and early twentieth century London schools. These are its benefits individually and collectively to scholars who played it, its role in promoting improved relationships between scholars and teachers in elementary schools and the role of football in identifying these schools as educational institutions that were to become focal points of local communities. Sources investig...

Colm Kerrigan

2006-01-01

387

Unified models based on elementary Weyl fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is supposed that elementary interactions act between multiplets of left-handed Weyl fields, labelled by flavour, and right-handed ones, labelled by colour quantum numbers. The possibility of obtaining parity-conserving e.m. and strong interactions between Dirac spinors and charge quantization is shown. The unobserved interactions can be forbidden at the elementary level, avoiding the introduction of very massive gauge bosons, by generalizing the Konopinski-Mahmoud model for leptons

1977-01-01

388

Elementary particles as higher-dimensional tachyons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elementary particles are described as higher-dimensional tachyonic modes. Their electromagnetic inertial mass would not match the gravitational mass unless their scalar hypercharge vanishes. The corresponding unified geometry surrounding an elementary electric monopole is extracted. Remarkably, the ingoing five-dimensional geodetic lines, associated with like-sign charged test particles, cannot classically penetrate the finite three-dimensional spherical core on which the extra-dimensional circle shrinks to a point. (orig.)

1986-09-04

389

Elementary Science Indoors and Out: Teachers, Time, and Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we present the results from a mixed-methods research study aimed to document indoor and outdoor fifth grade science experiences in one school in the USA in the context of accountability and standardized testing. We used quantitative measures to explore students' science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels, and via qualitative measures, we examined views on science education and environmental issues from multiple sources, including the school's principal, teachers, and students. Students' science knowledge in each of the four objectives specified for grade 5 significantly improved during the school year. Qualitative data collected through interviews and observations found limited impressions of outdoor science. Findings revealed that, despite best intentions and a school culture that supported outdoor learning, it was very difficult in practice for teachers to supplement their classroom science instruction with outdoor activities. They felt constrained by time and heavy content demands and decided that the most efficient way of delivering science instruction was through traditional methods. Researchers discuss potentials and obstacles for the science community to consider in supporting teachers and preparing elementary school teachers to provide students with authentic experiential learning opportunities. We further confront teachers' and students' perceptions that science is always best and most efficiently learned inside the classroom through traditional text-driven instruction.

Carrier, Sarah J.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Thomson, Margareta M.

2013-10-01

390

Elementary gates for quantum computation  

CERN Document Server

We show that a set of gates that consists of all one-bit quantum gates (U(2)) and the two-bit exclusive-or gate (that maps Boolean values (x,y) to (x,x \\oplus y)) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits n (U(2^n)) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized Deutsch-Toffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to one input bit if and only if the logical AND of all remaining input bits is satisfied. These gates play a central role in many proposed constructions of quantum computational networks. We derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two-and three-bit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for n-bit Deutsch-Toffoli gates, and make some observations about the number required for arbitrary n-bit unitary operations.

Barenco, A; Cleve, R; Di Vincenzo, D P; Margolus, N H; Shor, P W; Sleator, T; Smolin, J A; Weinfurter, H; Barenco, A; Bennett, C H; Cleve, R; DiVincenzo, D P; Margolus, N; Shor, P; Sleator, T; Smolin, J; Weinfurter, H

1995-01-01

391

Elementary gates for quantum computation  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that a set of gates that consists of all one-bit quantum gates [U(2)] and the two-bit exclusive-OR gate [that maps Boolean values (x,y) to (x,x?y)] is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits n [U(2n)] can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized Deutsch-Toffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to one input bit if and only if the logical and of all remaining input bits is satisfied. These gates play a central role in many proposed constructions of quantum computational networks. We derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two- and three-bit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for n-bit Deutsch-Toffoli gates, and make some observations about the number required for arbitrary n-bit unitary operations.

Barenco, Adriano; Bennett, Charles H.; Cleve, Richard; Divincenzo, David P.; Margolus, Norman; Shor, Peter; Sleator, Tycho; Smolin, John A.; Weinfurter, Harald

1995-11-01

392

Research in elementary particle physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Task A of this contract supports research in elementary particle physics using cryogenic particle detectors. We have developed superconducting aluminum tunnel-junction detectors sensitive to a variety of particle signals, and with potential application to a number of particle-physics problems. We have extended our range of technologies through a collaboration with Simon Labov, on niobium tri-layer junctions, and Jean-Paul Maneval, on high-Tc superconducting bolometers. We have new data on response to low-energy X-rays and to alpha-particle signals from large-volume detectors. The theoretical work under this contract (Task B) is a continued investigation of nonperturbative aspects of quantum gravity. A Monte Carlo calculation is proposed for Euclidian quantum gravity, based on the ''fifth-time action'' stabilization procedure. Results from the last year include a set of seven papers, summarized below, addressing various aspects of nonperturbative quantum gravity and QCD. Among the issues- addressed is the so-called ''problem of time'' in canonical quantum gravity

1992-01-01

393

Elementary particles in curved spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

2004-05-28

394

Body mass index and health related quality of life in elementary school children: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and health-related quality of life (HRQOL indicated by baseline health status in elementary school children. Methods Data were obtained via parents whose children enrolled in an elementary school, kindergarten to fourth grade, in southern Mississippi in spring 2004. Parents completed the SF-10 for Children™, a brief 10-item questionnaire designed to measure children's HRQOL on a voluntary basis. Results A total of 279 parents completed the questionnaires for their children. On average, physical and psychosocial summary scores, major indicators for HRQOL, were significantly higher among the elementary school children in our study relative to those from U.S. children overall (p Discussion This study can be used as baseline information to track changes over time, in BMI and health status among the elementary school children. In addition, this study can be used to investigate relationships between BMI, health status, intellectual ability, and performance in school. Conclusion The findings suggest that programs designed to encourage children to lose weight in a healthy manner, thus reducing their BMI, could improve the physical and psychosocial health, and subsequently increase HRQOL.

Cox Reagan G

2008-10-01

395

[National medical grading].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new, common system for grading medical graduates from the 6 Chilean Schools of Medicine has been agreed by consensus: the National Medical Grading. This was an evident need since up to now each school applied a different criterion to qualify its graduates; the resulting disparity in the scores with which graduates applied for the National calls in postgraduate training programs, general practice positions and the like, elicited uneasiness both among graduates and academic staff. In the new system, the final grade is calculated giving equal relative importance to the marks in licensure (60%), internships (30%) and final clinical examinations (10%). The National Medical Grading has been applied for the first time by the Ministry of Health in the 1989 call, and by the University of Chile and Catholic University's Medical Schools (call for postgraduate training programs). It is hoped that within 2 or 3 years a National Medical Examination will be designed and applied. PMID:2152236

Radrigàn, M E; Arteaga, E

1990-08-01

396

A Multilevel-Based Study of School Policy for Tobacco Control in Relation to Cigarette Smoking among Children in Elementary Schools: Gender Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to comprehensively examine school-based tobacco policy status, implementation and students' perceived smoking at school in regard to gender-specific differences in smoking behavior. We conducted a multilevel-based study to assess two-level effects for smoking among 2350 grades three to six students in 26 randomly selected elementary…

Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Fu-Li; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Chen, Ted; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Shi, Hon-Yi; Hu, Chih-Yang; Lee, Chien-Hung

2010-01-01

397

Increasing the Awareness of Elementary School-Age Girls to Evidence of Gender Bias through the Use of Self-Awareness and Career-Exploration Groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that elementary school-age girls are often unaware of gender bias from multiple sources that affect the way they perceive themselves and their future career possibilities, this practicum was designed to increase third- and fifth-grade girls' awareness of evidence of gender bias. Participating in the project were six third graders and six…

Corfield, Helena C.

398

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Achievement Effects of Four Early Elementary School Math Curricula: Findings for First and Second Graders"  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the relative effectiveness of four early elementary school math curricula: Investigations in Number, Data, and Space; Math Expressions; Saxon Math; and Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics. The study analyzed data on more than 8,000 first- and second-grade students in 110 schools in 12 districts in 10 states. In each of the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

2011-01-01

399

Candles in Our Windows  

Science.gov (United States)

"Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book, "The Christmas…

McGrath, Kathryn

2005-01-01

400

PLATO Elementary Math Software, Fairview Elementary, Dayton, Ohio. Preliminary Study. PLATO Evaluation Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of PLATO (registered) elementary school software in Fairview Elementary School, Dayton, Ohio, was studied. PLATO software had been used in Title I mathematics classes for the last 3 years. The Title I teacher used PLATO software as an integral part of her class instructional strategy. Mathematics achievement data were analyzed for 88 Title…

Quinn, David W.; Quinn, Nancy W.

 
 
 
 
401

Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the the...

Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini; Mohd. Maarof Moksin; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Monir Norozi; Mahmood Mat Yunus, W.; Azmi Zakaria

2011-01-01

402

Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission's Red Planet program: Bridging the gap in elementary school science through climate studies of Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of 2011 of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. In our interaction with elementary teachers, it is also apparent that many are uncomfortable with science concepts. In order for us to successfully address the Next Generation Science Standards, teachers must be able to reconcile all of the different requirements placed on them in a given school day and in a given school environment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Red Planet: Read, Write, Explore program, developed for the MAVEN mission, is a science, art, and literacy program designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. Red Planet tackles climate change through Mars' geologic history and makes Mars-Earth comparisons, while encouraging students to reflect on the environmental requirements needed to keep a biological organisms (including humans) happy, healthy, and alive. The Red Planet program is currently being pilot tested at Acres Green Elementary School in Colorado.

Wood, E. L.

2012-12-01

403

Gloss optical elementary representative surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roughness measurements are of main importance in characterizing the optical properties of papers and prints. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the surface size and the spacing of the measures to be optically representative of the surface structure. Paper is a multiscale medium, and the roughness parameters extracted from the three-dimensional (3D) surface mapping depend on both the size and the step of discretization. Ray tracing, based on optical geometry, could be a tool to model the light reflection on a paper surface. Ray-tracer software was therefore developed. A new optical device was used to measure paper surface topographies at various scales. Ray tracing simulations were then performed on the 3D mapping and compared to the scattering indicatrix obtained with a classical goniometer. Hence it was possible to identify a magnification for various types of paper grades that is optically representative of the specular gloss. PMID:18846185

Vernhes, Pierre; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Blayo, Anne; Pineaux, Bernard

2008-10-10

404

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 7  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

Arizona Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

405

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

406

Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

407

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

408

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

409

Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

410

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

411

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

412

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

413

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

414

Obtenção de dados normativos para desempenho no teste de Stroop num grupo de estudantes do ensino fundamental em Niterói Assessment of normative data of Stroop test performance in a group of elementary school students in Niterói  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste trabalho foram realizar um estudo de normatização para o teste de Stroop numa amostra brasileira, tradicionalmente aceita como medida de atenção seletiva e flexibilidade mental, usando como referência a versão Victoria do teste, bem como analisar diferenças no desempenho de estudantes de escolas das redes pública e particular, e também investigar diferenças quanto ao sexo, além de observar se aumento de idade e anos de escolaridade favorecem um melhor desempenho no teste. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e dois estudantes de duas escolas (uma particular e outra pública, na faixa etária de 12 a 14 anos, alunos da 6ªà8ªsérie do ensino fundamental, participaram da pesquisa após levantamento do rendimento escolar e entrevista inicial. RESULTADOS: Aanálise estatística dos resultados revelou que os alunos da escola pública tiveram um desempenho significativamente pior em relação aos da particular. Quanto à variável sexo, os resultados não foram significativos e, em relação à idade, o resultado não foi consistente, revelando que essa variável perde a significância quando analisada à luz das seis medidas dependentes do experimento. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem a influência das diferentes condições socioeconômicas, educacionais e culturais a que estão expostos os alunos das duas escolas como uma possível explicação para as diferenças observadas no desempenho no teste.OBJECTIVE: This study had two objectives to perform a normatization of the Stroop test in a Brazilian sample, traditionally accepted as a measure of selective attention and mental flexibility, using as a reference the Victoria test version and to analyze the performance of public and private schools students; investigating differences in regard to sex; to observe if the increase in age and years of education promote a better performance in the above mentioned task. METHODS: One hundred thirty two students of two schools (one private and the other public, in the age range from 12 to 14 years, students from 6th to 8th grades of elementary school, participated in the research, after data on school progress was compiled and the initial interview was conducted. RESULTS: The statistical analysis of the results revealed that the students of the public school had a significantly worse performance in relation to the students of the private school; as to the sex variable, the results were not significant and, as for age, the result was not consistent, revealing that that variable loses significance when analyzed in light of the six dependent measures of the experiment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the influence of the different socio-economic, educational and cultural conditions to which the students from the two schools are exposed, as a possible explanation for the differences observed in regard to the test performance.

Maria Teresa Duncan

2006-01-01

415

The Impact of Competition on Raising Mathematics Competency at Camelot Elementary School in Chesapeake, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1995, the Virginia Department of Education approved a federal mandate for No Child Left Behind 2001 Education Act implementing the Standards of Learning (SOL) in four content areas: Mathematics, Science, English, and History and Social Sciences. These new guidelines set forth learning and achievement expectations for content areas for grades K-12 in Virginia's Public Schools. Given the SOL mandates, Virginia's elementary teachers and school leaders utilized research for specific teaching methods intended to encourage score improvements on end of year mathematics tests. In 2001, the concept of the Math Sprint Competition was introduced to Camelot Elementary School in Chesapeake Virginia, by researchers at Elizabeth City State University of Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Camelot Elementary, a K-5 school, is a Title I school nestled in a lower middle class neighborhood and houses a high number of minority students. On average, these students achieve lower test score gains than students in higher socioeconomic status district schools. Defined as a test-review based in relay format that utilizes released SOL test items, Math Sprint promotes mathematical skills outlined in Virginia SOL's and encourages competition among students that motivated them to quickly pick up on new material and retain the old material in order to out-do the others. Research identified was based on specific relationships between student competition and statewide testing results in mathematics for grades three, four, and five at Camelot Elementary. Data was compiled from results of the Math Sprint Competition and research focused on methods for motivating students encouraged by the use of a math sprint competition. Individual Pearson Product Moment Correlations were conducted to determine which variables possess strong and statistically significant relationships. Significantly, positive results came from 2005 to 2010 math sprints data from which students participated.

Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.

2012-12-01

416

Urban school leadership for elementary science education: Meeting the needs of English Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Science education reform and state testing accountability call upon principals to become instructional leaders in science. Specifically, elementary school principals must take an active role in science instruction to effectively improve science education for all students including English Language Learners. As such, the research questioned posed in this study centered on How are elementary school principals addressing the academic needs of Latino Spanish-speaking English language learners within science education? This study employed a qualitative research design to identify the factors contributing to the exemplary performance in science, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), for English Language Learner students in three high poverty bilingual elementary schools based on a multiple case study. As part of the data collection process, interviews were conducted with three school principals, three science academic support teachers, and two 5th grade bilingual teachers. Additionally, observations were acquired through school principal shadowing. The findings revealed four attributes necessary for effective instructional leadership in science education. First, Positive School Culture was defined as the core that linked the other three instructional leadership attributes and thus increased their effectiveness. Second, Clear Goals and Expectations were set by making science a priority and ensuring that English language learners were transitioning from Spanish to English instruction by the fifth grade. Third, Critical Resourcing involved hiring a science academic support teacher, securing a science classroom on campus, and purchasing bilingual instructional materials. Fourth, principal led and supported Collaboration in which teachers met to discuss student performance based data in addition to curriculum and instruction. These research findings are vital because by implementing these best practices of elementary school principals, educators are positioned to lay the foundation for science needed for ELLs to continue their educational career with the tools needed to succeed in future science classes and in turn college, answering the call to effectively improve science within the educational system.

Alarcon, Maricela H.

417

The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children, 1997-98  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children in district 18 of Tehran educational organization were examined in the school year 1997-98. Other factors such as grade, nutritional status, breakfast eating habits and snack eating habits in the school were also studied. For this purpose 236 boys were selected by random sampling in 4 different schools. The children were randomly assigned to a group, with a low calorie snack (119 sub...

Sm, Alavi Naeini; Sa, Jazayeri; Moghaddam Banaem N; Afrooz Gh.A; Behboodi

2000-01-01

418

Mainstreaming and inclusion of students with learning disabilities: Perspectives of general educators in elementary and secondary schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to investigate the attitudes of general education teachers (K-12) toward the mainstreaming and inclusion of students with learning disabilities in regular education settings, and to determine the extent to which their attitudes were influenced by the grade levels they taught, and the amount of post-secondary coursework in special education they had taken.^ For the purposes of this study, questionnaires were sent to 700 elementary (N = 490) and secondary (N = 210) ...

1996-01-01

419

ELEMENTARY STUDENT SELF EFFICACY SCALE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOCUSED ON STUDENT LEARNING, PEER RELATIONS, AND RESISTING DRUG USE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item self efficacy scale and social support and social skills instruments. The results provide evidence for a valid and reliable 3-factor self efficacy scal...

2009-01-01

420

A sociocultural perspective on mediated activity in third grade science  

Science.gov (United States)

This ethnographic study of a third grade classroom examined elementary school science learning as a sociocultural accomplishment. The research focused on how a teacher helped his students acquire psychological tools for learning to think and engage in scientific practices as locally defined. Analyses of classroom discourse examined both how the teacher used mediational strategies to frame disciplinary knowledge in science as well as how students internalized and appropriated ways of knowing in science. The study documented and analyzed how students came to appropriate scientific knowledge as their own in an ongoing manner tied to their identities as student scientists. Implications for sociocultural theory in science education research are discussed.

Reveles, John M.; Kelly, Gregory J.; Durán, Richard P.

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
421

Research at JRC in Support of EU Climate Change Policy Making. Activities and results from the 6th framework program 2003-2006. Building blocks of a strategy for concerted action in the 7th framework program 2007-2013  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has focussed its resources to respond to the Scientific and Technical (S/T) challenges arising from the multi-faceted aspects of EU policy. It has done so by organising its activities around the main policy areas and by establishing synergies with other sources of S/T support available in the Member States and by collaborating with EU Agencies and International Organizations. Implementing and Monitoring the Kyoto Protocol and developing post-2012 climate change policy is definitely an area where an integrated approach to the provision of S/T support is required. There is a clear need to understand interactions between climate change, technological change, competitiveness and different regulatory and policy approaches (e.g. economic instruments and flexible mechanisms). A strong research base must underpin such objectives. This booklet presents the results of JRC research activities being conducted as part of the 6thFramework Program (2003-2006). Many of these activities are directly supporting the EU policy making process.

Raes, F. [Climate Change UnitInstitute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy); Runge-Metzger, A.; Falconer, Angela-Dawn [Climate and Energy Unit, Directorate C, Directorate-General for Environment, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

2005-07-01

422

Impact of the new international association for the study of lung cancer staging system in non-small cell lung cancer: With comparison to the union for international cancer control 6th tumor, node, metastasis edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the impact of the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system on staging and outcome of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With a total of 501 NSCLC patients with staging according to Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), 6th TNM (TNM-6) were reclassified according to the IASLC proposed TNM staging (TNM-7). The impact of TNM-7 in comparison with TNM-6 was evaluated at three levels: change in substage, staging, and outcome. The outcome measure was to compare the stage-specific overall survival of NSCLC between the two groups of patients. A total of 214 (42.7%) patients had changed TNM staging, and 101 (20.2%) patients had changed stage groupings in TNM-7 compared to TNM-6. Among 100 patients showing changed stage grouping, 72 (14.4%) showed upstage and 29 (5.8%) demonstrated downstage. The TNM-7 system resulted in better separation of survival curves among stage-specific NSCLC than TNM-6 system, especially in separation of stage IIA vs. IIB (p 0.023) and stage IIIB vs. IV (p < 0.001). TNM-7 for lung cancer appears to be superior in defining stage-specific survival groups than TNM-6, especially between stage IIA vs. stage IIB and stage IIIB vs. stage IV.

Lee, Myung Jae; Lee, So Won; Shim, Sung Shine; Ryu, Yon Ju; Kim, Yoo Kyung [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-15

423

Report on the 3'rd scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V. held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 4'th - Nov. 6'th, 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract From November 4th- 6th 2011, the 3rd NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Like in the previous years, the meeting provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects for young colleagues in the fields of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. As kick-off to the scientific sessions, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Head of the Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology in Munich, gave an illustrious overview on the many fascinations of neuroimmunologic research. A particular highlight on the second day of the meeting was the award of the 1'st NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young academics in the field of experimental neurology. This award is posted for young colleagues under the age of 35 with a significant achievement in the field of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration and comprises an amount of 20.000 Euro, founded by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt. Germany. The first prize was awarded to Ivana Nikic from Martin Kerschensteiner's group in Munich for her brilliant work on a reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, published in Nature Medicine in 2011. This first prize award ceremony was a great incentive for the next call for proposals now upcoming in 2012.

Kleinschnitz Christoph

2012-02-01

424

Report of 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors, Yayoi Research Group; 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, the lecture materials of Yayoi Research Group, 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors which was held at the University of Tokyo on March 25, 1996, are collected. This workshop was held also as 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This workshop has the character of the preparatory meeting for the session on 'Interface effect in nuclear fusion energy system' of the international workshop 'Interface effect in quantum energy system', and 6 lectures and one comment were given. The topics were deuterium transport in Mo under deuterium ion implantation, the change of the stratum structure of graphite by hydrogen ion irradiation, the tritium behavior in opposing materials, the basic studies of the irradiation effects of solid breeding materials, the research on the behavior of hydroxyl group on the surface of solid breeding materials, the sweep gas effect on the surface of solid breeding materials, and the dynamic behavior of ion-implanted deuterium in proton-conductive oxides. (K.I.)

1996-03-25

425

Topics in elementary particle physics  

Science.gov (United States)

The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate solution converges to known analytical solutions around the fixed point, around which the approximate solution is constructed. Although the closed-form solutions for Schroeder's equations can not always be approached analytically, by fitting the approximation solutions, one can still obtain closed-form solutions sometimes. Based on Schroeder's theory, approximate solutions for trajectories, velocities and potentials can also be constructed. The approximate solution is significantly useful to calculate the beta function in renormalization group trajectory. By "wrapping" the series solutions with the conjugations from different inverse functions, we generate different branches of the trajectory, and construct a counterexample for a folk theorem about limited cycles.

Jin, Xiang

426

Elementary education students’ perceptions of “good” citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how elementary pre-service teachers perceive of ‘good’ citizenship. Prior to any instruction in their methods courses, 309 pre-service elementary teachers from nine different states were asked to respond to the prompt “What is a good citizen?” The two most common responses were “helping others/community involvement” (n=180 and “following laws” (n=163. Using the framework created by Westheimer and Kahne (2004, the authors make the conclusion that a majority of undergraduates have adopted a “Personally Responsible” model of citizenship. The authors argue that social studies methods instructors should attempt to move students in the direction of adopting a more “justice-oriented” model of citizenship when teaching elementary students in their future classrooms.

Jason L. O'Brien

2011-05-01

427

Specifics for generalists: Teaching elementary physical education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality physical education offered at the elementary school level is critical for children tounderstand and develop healthy living. In most countries, physical education is taught by ageneralist teacher (i.e., an individual who has not undertaken extensive training in physicaleducation particularly at the elementary school level. Inadequate and inappropriatepreparation has been identified as a major barrier for an elementary generalist to developand implement a quality physical education program. The purpose of this paper is toidentify and discuss helpful strategies used to employ each fundamental component of aquality physical education program and is intended for a generalist audience. Morespecifically, the paper will explore (a the (disadvantage of teaching physical education as ageneralist teacher; (b the ability of physical education to address the whole child; (c theconfusion surrounding physical education and physical activity; and (d the strategies of asuccessful physical educator.

Amanda DE LISIO

2009-06-01

428

Carroll County hands-on elementary science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carroll County Hands-on Elementary Science is a nationally recognized Elementary Science Curriculum which has been disseminated in forty states, Puerto Rico, The Virgin Islands, Saipan, and Samoa. The curriculum is a non-textbook, process-based, constructivist approach to teaching science. Unique features of this curriculum include its teacher-written daily lesson plan format, its complete kit of science supplies, and its complete set of Spanish materials. In order to be included by the National Diffusion Network, Hands-on Elementary Science collected data to support the following claims: the program enhances teacher and student attitudes toward science; the program changes both the amount and the type of science instruction; the program is adaptable and transportable; the teacher training component is effective. The poster display will feature sample activities, data which demonstrates the effectiveness of the staff development plan, and samples which show the degree to which the program supports selected state curriculum frameworks.

Herlocker, H.G.; Dunkleberger, G.L. [Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

429

Do elementary particles survive composite systems?  

CERN Document Server

The "compositeness" or "elementarity" is investigated for s-wave composite states dynamically generated by energy-dependent and independent interactions. The bare mass of the corresponding fictitious elementary particle in an equivalent Yukawa model is shown to be infinite, indicating that the wave function renormalization constant Z is equal to zero. The idea can be equally applied to both resonant and bound states. In a special case of zero-energy bound states, the condition Z = 0 does not necessarily mean that the elementary particle has the infinite bare mass. We also emphasize arbitrariness in the "elementarity" leading to multiple interpretations of a physical state, which can be either a pure composite state with Z = 0 or an elementary particle with Z \

Nagahiro, Hideko

2014-01-01

430

The Use of Graphic Rules in Grade One to Help Identify Children at Risk of Handwriting Difficulties  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous researches on elementary grade handwriting revealed that pupils employ certain strategy when writing or drawing. The relationship between this strategy and the use of graphic rules has been documented but very little research has been devoted to the connection between the use of graphic rules and handwriting proficiency. Thus, this study…

Khalid, Puspa Inayat; Yunus, Jasmy; Adnan, Robiah; Harun, Mokhtar; Sudirman, Rubita; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi

2010-01-01

431

Project CHOICE: #114. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Self-Awareness. (Consumer and Family Studies Career Cluster).  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching unit, Self-Awareness, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Consumer and Family Studies…

Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

432

Learning Science in Grades 3-8 Using Probeware and Computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or…

Zucker, Andrew A.; Tinker, Robert; Staudt, Carolyn; Mansfield, Amie; Metcalf, Shari

2008-01-01

433

The Social Status of Aggressive Students across Contexts: The Role of Classroom Status Hierarchy, Academic Achievement, and Grade  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…

Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

2011-01-01

434

The effect of hearing impairment on mathematical skill of hearing-impaired elementary-school students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Hearing impairment can effect many educational abilities and will lead in a dealy in his growth. The objective of this research was to study the effect of hearing impairment on mathematical skill of hearing-impaired students of 4th grade of elementary in contrast with normal-hearing students.Methods: The project was cross-sectional and the tool used was the international standard booklet of mathematical questions. There has been 35 hearing-impaired students with range of m...

2012-01-01

435

Analysis of Elementary Cellular Automata Boundary Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We presentthe findings of analysis of elementary cellular automata(ECAboundary conditions. Fixed andvariable boundaries are attempted.The outputs of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs act as continuousinputs to the two boundaries of a one-dimensional (1-D Elementary Cellular Automata (ECAareanalyzed and compared.The results show superior randomness features and the output string has passedthe Diehard statistical battery of tests. The design has strong correlation immunity and it is inherentlyamenable for VLSI implementation.Thereforeitcan be considered to be agoodand viablecandidate forparallelpseudo random number generation.

K. Salman

2013-08-01

436

Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

437

Grades as Information  

Science.gov (United States)

We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

Grant, Darren

2007-01-01

438

MOOC and mechanized grading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As many others, we too are developping a Massive Online Open Course or MOOC. This MOOC will teach recursive programming for beginnners and makes an heavy use of an already existing infrastructure for mechanical grading. This paper presents some ideas on how to combine these two components along with some (untested) incentives in order to increase students' involvement.

Queinnec, Christian

2013-01-01

439

Mariana's fractions (grade 3)  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive five-part task students reason about fractions used to represent part of a whole or a location on a number line. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

440

English, Grade 8. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

The second of seven related guides, this curriculum guide for eighth grade English outlines opportunities for students to use the skills they have acquired previously, to be involved in well-planned educational experiences in critical thinking and in oral and written expression, and to develop an understanding of others. The first half of the…

Thompson, Sharon; And Others

 
 
 
 
441

LEARNER AUTONOMY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learner autonomy in foreign language learning involves students’ competence in decision making during their language learning process. One of the steps to be taken to develop learner autonomy in foreign language classes is to support students to develop the skill of decision making about their learning. Students’ involvement in decision making process effectively during their foreign language studies will help them develop their learner autonomy and learn a foreign language more efficient. The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of sixth grade students enrolled at elementary schools in Sivas city center towards learner autonomy in foreign language learning. Descriptive research method, which involves gathering data concerning current status of the phenomena, was used in the study. The study population is comprised of seventh grade students enrolled at elementary schools in Sivas city center in spring term of 2010-2011 academic year. Sample of the study consists of 975 students selected randomly. The stratified proportional random sampling procedure was used to select the schools. Learner Autonomy Questionnaire developed by Egel (2003 was used as the data collection tool. The questionnaire, developed to determine students’ opinions towards learner autonomy in foreign language learning, includes 44 items and nine sub-scales. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was measured to be .81. Frequency, percent, independent groups t test and Mann Whitney U test were utilized to analyze the data. Results with p<.05 were considered statistically significant. The study has not been completed yet and the study process is still going on both from the statistical process and interpretation of the findings. The research results proved that female students were better in readiness for self-direction, independent work in language learning, selection of content and assessment/motivation sub-scales. No statistically significant differences were found among the students views in importance of class/teacher, role of teacher: explanation/supervision, language learning activities, objectives/evaluation and other cultures sub-scales in terms of gender variable.

Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKS?Z

2012-12-01