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Sample records for 60co radiation accident

  1. Radiation accident of 60Co contamination. Mexico 1984

    The action taken to mitigate the consequences of a radiation accident occuring in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, is described, when a no longer in use cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, with radioactive pellets still inside, was sold, unwittingly as ordinary scrap to be finally made into reinforced steel rods. The finished metallic items, unknowingly contaminated with cobalt-60, were subsequently sold in central and northern Mexico and in the United States of America. The junkyard, transport vehicle, several foundries and some streets of two cities and the road between them were also made radioactive by the accident. The discovery of and search for the radioactive metallic products is described as is their final disposal and the decontamination of the affected sites. Individual and collective radiation doses is estimated. (author)

  2. Clinical data from one year follow-up of victims of the radiation accident with 60Co in Bulgaria.

    Djounova, J; Guleva, I; Negoicheva, K; Mileva, I; Panova, D; Rupova, I

    2014-09-01

    A severe radiation accident occurred on 14 June 2011 in an industrial irradiation facility for medical equipment sterilization in Bulgaria. Five people were exposed for 5-10 min to a 60Co source containing 137 TBq. The Emergency Department of the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP), Bulgaria, put into practice the plans for providing medical care in radiation accidents and the procedures developed for assessment of injury severity, the decision-making algorithm regarding subsequent treatment, and the therapy for persons affected. The activities performed for initial assessment of the severity of injury of irradiated patients were published in 2012. Based on predictive assessments of the severity of radiation damage, it was decided that the victims required hospitalization at a specialized hematology clinic. Percy Hospital in Paris was chosen for this purpose. The aim of this report is to present the results of 1-y follow-up for three of the victims. Sadly, 1 mo after the accident, Patient 4 died from a heart attack. The medical opinion was that this was not a direct outcome of the irradiation. Patient 5 was only followed up for 4 mo (118 d) because medical follow-up is voluntary, and despite repeated calls, the patient did not respond. Medical examinations by a physician as well as hematology and biochemical tests were performed using standard laboratory methods. The obtained results were compared to the victims' personal reference limits obtained from annual health monitoring. After the accident, the recovery to normal content of peripheral blood cells was observed in all victims. Nevertheless, there were observed cases of thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and leucocytopenia at various times after exposure. During the period of observation, morphological changes in red blood cells such as anisomicrocitosis, macrocytes, megalocytes, and polychromatic erythrocytes were demonstrated. During the 1-y observation period, all victims showed

  3. Follow-up observation of five cases of severe or moderate degree bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness in 60Co radiation accident in Shanghai

    Objective: A 60Co radiation accident occurred in Shanghai on June 25, 1990. All the five victims including two suffering from severe degree and three from moderate degree of bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness, were clinically cured after the critical stage. They were followed-up for 18 months to observe the late effect of radiation. Methods: After discharge on Dec. 3, 1990, they were subjected to periodical systematic examination and related treatment. Results: The results of the early 18 months systematic periodical survey after the accident were as follows: (1) the values of blood and bone marrow picture, number of hemopoietic progenitors were all decreased; (2) the erythrocyto-plasmic enzymes and protein composition of erythrocytic membrane were abnormal; (3) the immunologic function, especially the cellular immunity, wa defective; (4) the crystalline lensed appeared slightly opaque and retina vessels dilated; (5) on chromosome karyotype analysis most of remaining aberrations were of stable types and offered the major evidence of dose-response relationship while the yields of dicentrics plus rings of instable type declined strikingly; (6) the microcirculation of nail fold and bulbar conjunctiva showed distal-contractile dysfunction, while the levels of serum AT-1 and AT-2 did not return to normal; (7) the number of spermatozoa was decreased in the semen, with a dose-dependently decreased survival rate and mobility; and (8) some endocrinologic functions did not return to normal. Conclusion: Based on the above results, it is indicated that although these patients were clinically cured from the critical stage, they should be followed up for long-term observation at molecular, cellular and whole body levels by multiple disciplines. The authors suggest a preliminary plan for long-term follow-up survey to evaluate biological effects of radiation

  4. ONE CASE OF LEUKEMIA INDUCED BY 60Co ACCIDENT

    邵松生; 冯嘉林; 等

    1995-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomes in a case of 60Co γ rays accident were examined at 2.5h after exposure.The frequency of the dicentrics plus centric rings was 89% and exposure dose was estimated to be 4.78 (4.53-4.88)GY.The examinations of lymphocyte chromosome aberration within follow-up 12a showed that the incidence of Dic+R reduced with lg regrssion(r=-0.9895).While the number of ceels with stable aberration remained unchanged and showed a tendency to increase.During the period of leukemia,bone marrow cell chromosome aberrations were studied by method of G-banding.Of 13 cells observed,4 cells belonged to normal karyotypes.Among 9 aberration cells,12 aberrations were detected.The majority of which were classified as translocation,deletion and inversion,Numeric aberrations were-9,12,20-,22,-y.This case suggested that acute lymphocytic leukemia was induced after radiation accident.

  5. Severe acute radiation syndrome. Treatment of a lethally 60Co-source irradiated accident victim in China with HLA-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and mesenchymal stem cells

    This is a case report of a 32-year-old man exposed to a total body dose of 14.5 Gy γ-radiation in a lethal 60Co-source irradiation accident in 2008 in China. Frequent nausea, vomiting and marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were observed from 30 min to 45 h after exposure. HLA-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplantation combined with infusion of mesenchymal stem cells was used at Day 7. Rapid hematopoietic recovery, stable donor engraftment and healing of radioactive skin ulceration were achieved during Days 18-36. The patient finally developed intestinal obstruction and died of multi-organ failure on Day 62, although intestinal obstruction was successfully released by emergency bowel resection. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis of 60Co intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Lynch, Bart; Men, Chunhua; Aleman, Dionne M.; Dempsey, James F.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we perform a scientific comparative analysis of using 60Co beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In particular, we evaluate the treatment plan quality obtained with (i) 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co IMRT; (ii) different numbers of static multileaf collimator (MLC) delivered 60Co beams and (iii) a helical tomotherapy 60Co beam geometry. We employ a convex fluence map optimization (FMO) model, which allows for the comparison of plan quality between different beam energies and configurations for a given case. A total of 25 clinical patient cases that each contain volumetric CT studies, primary and secondary delineated targets, and contoured structures were studied: 5 head-and-neck (H&N), 5 prostate, 5 central nervous system (CNS), 5 breast and 5 lung cases. The DICOM plan data were anonymized and exported to the University of Florida optimized radiation therapy (UFORT) treatment planning system. The FMO problem was solved for each case for 5-71 equidistant beams as well as a helical geometry for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung cases, and for 3-7 equidistant beams in the upper hemisphere for breast cases, all with 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co dose models. In all cases, 95% of the target volumes received at least the prescribed dose with clinical sparing criteria for critical organs being met for all structures that were not wholly or partially contained within the target volume. Improvements in critical organ sparing were found with an increasing number of equidistant 60Co beams, yet were marginal above 9 beams for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung. Breast cases produced similar plans for 3-7 beams. A helical 60Co beam geometry achieved similar plan quality as static plans with 11 equidistant 60Co beams. Furthermore, 18 MV plans were initially found not to provide the same target coverage as 6 MV and 60Co plans; however, adjusting the trade-offs in the optimization model allowed equivalent target coverage for 18 MV. For plans with comparable target coverage

  7. Effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on crystalline proteins

    In order to study the effects of 60 Co gamma radiation on crystalline proteins an in vitro system was set up. For that, aqueous solutions from bovine crystalline were used irradiated with 0, 5.000, 10.000, 15.000, 20.000 and 25.000 Gy. The treatment led to protein alterations determined by different methods. By turbidimetry the formation of aggregates that increased with the radiation dose was revealed. The same observation was done from viscosity data and from the UV spectrum of the samples. From amino acid analysis and fluorimetry determinations, tryptophan appeared as the most sensitive amino acid. An increase in the free-S H-groups was also observed. After the standardization of the method, the radio modifier capability of glutathione, amino ethyl thiourea, mercapto ethyl alanine and dimethyl sulfoxide was tested. The results showed that in the presence of those substances the radiation effect was diminished. (author)

  8. Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and

  9. Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and

  10. Manufacture of 60Co source irradiation facility and measurement of radiation filed

    60Co source radiation facility is an important equipment to produce reference radiation filed, according to national standard, the scattered dose rate must be less than 5% of the total dose rate in the reference radiation filed. Scattered radiation contribution and uniformity of reference radiation field are important parameters to describe the radiation performance of 60CO source irradiation device, Monte Carlo method was used to study the scattered radiation and uniformity of the reference radiation filed to provide theoretical basis for the design of 60CO source irradiating device in order to avoid economic losses caused by design mistakes. When 60CO source irradiating device was manufactured, PTW ionization chamber was used to measure the irradiation field. The results showed that the scattered radiation and uniformity of the radiation filed were in good agreement with the simulation results. The radiation performance met the design requirements. (authors)

  11. Radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  12. Effect of 60Co radiation on peritoneal cells

    This work deals with the effect of 60Co gamma irradiation on the levels and quality of peritoneal cells of albino mice. The cells were obtained from peritoneal exudate, fixed and stained in 30% glacial acetic acid containing 0,5% cristal violet. Os exudates from irradiated and control animals the qualitative analysis and the counting of different cell populations were performed one hour, three days and six days after irradiation with 9 Gy. All the cell populations from the peritoneal exudate shown a decrease 3 days after the irradiation with 9.0. Gy but the different cellular populations dimished in unlike proportions. The data reaffirm the discrepance in radiosensivity of the diverse peritoneal cell populations. (author)

  13. Disturbed tooth formation by 60Co-gamma-ray radiation

    The molar of guinea pigs was irradiated with 60Co-#betta# ray for daily observations of the manifestation of disturbed tooth formation by microradiography and the time registration by tetracycline-labelling. Irradiation first injured young blast cells of the dentin in the growth phase, dental pulp cells, and cells of the enamel. The portion composed of injured cells formed a depressed ''constriction'' from the dental pulp side toward the border between the enamel and dentin. The cells of the enamel injured by irradiation in the growth phase later formed a very thin irregular stroma. In contrast, cells in the differentiation or subsequent phase at the time of irradiation and cells probably having started to grow after irradiation proceeded with formation of a normal stroma and calcification. No uniform relation was obtained between the histological staining of the organic stroma of normal or abnormal dentin and calcification. Labelling with tetracycline revealed that the irradiation conditions in the present study provoked hardly any changes in the speed of tooth eruption. (Chiba, N.)

  14. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  15. A description of 60Co gamma irradiation facilities in the Radiation Biology and Health Physics branch

    The Radiation Biology and Health Physics Branch manages three 60Co irradiation facilities, to (Gammabeam 150C, Gammacell 200 and Gammacell 220) provide a range of dose rates suitable for variety of applications. This report describes the physical characteristics of the facilities, a description of the dosimetry and operating procedures. (author). 6 refs., tabs., figs

  16. The effects of exposure of {sup 60}Co on the oxidant/antioxidant status among radiation victims

    Demir, Mustafa E-mail: mmdemir@e-kolay.net; Konukoglu, Dildar; Kabasakal, Levent; Yelke, Hakan Kadir; Ergen, Kadir; Ahmed, Sabbir

    2002-07-01

    This retrospective study has been performed with radiation victims who were accidentally exposed to a {sup 60}Co source and its release into the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of elevated radiation exposures on plasma level, on erythrocyte thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level and on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels. Patients were treated in different hospitals with different symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, along with severe anemia in some patients. Blood samples were collected 3-5 days following the radiation accident. Increases in plasma (6.25{+-}0.90 nmol ml{sup -1}) and erythrocyte TBARS levels (330.5{+-}30.5 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) were found in comparison to a healthy group (3.72{+-}0.68 nmol ml{sup -1} and 150.7{+-}20.5 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}, respectively) at a significant level (p<0.001). Erythrocyte GSH levels (5.2{+-}0.30 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) were found to be decreased among the victims (healthy group: 10.2{+-}0.7 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) at the same significance level (p<0.001). These observations confirm a significant change induced by radiation in the oxidant/antioxidant status among the victims. It is suggested here that antioxidant supplementation therapy might be effective in preventing the harmful effects of {sup 60}Co radiation among radiation victims.

  17. Effects of 60Co γ-radiation on the embryo development of goldfish

    The effects of 60Co γ-radiation on the development of goldfish embryos were investigated by different doses and different dose rate. The results showed that 0.5-1.0 Gy 60Co γ-radiation could speed up the development of embryos, but did not cause higher hatching rate. 0.5-1.0 Gy 60Co γ-radiation caused hyperradiosensitivity on goldfish embryos, whereas 2.0-4.0 Gy caused increased radioresistance. Embryos at 4-8 cell stage showed higher survival rate and lower abnormal embryo rate than embryos at multicellular stage or early gastrula stage when radiated at the same dose and dose rate. The results also showed that the radiation at low dose rate (lower than 1.0 Gy/min) could cause more serious damage than the relative higher dose rate (1.0 Gy/min). Early embryos radiated at 1.0 Gy/min dose rate and lower than 2.5 Gy were suggested for the breeding. (authors)

  18. The effect of 60Co gamma radiation on human serum gamma-globulin

    The effect of 60Co gamma radiation on human serum gamma-globulin was studied in vitro experiments. Solutions of 0.5 percent gamma-globulin were exposed to 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad doses 60Co gamma irradiation. Experiments showed that electrophoretic mobility of serum gamma-globulin decreased after gamma irradiation. No significant change in gamma-globulin UV absorption spectrum was observed at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad doses. Gamma-globulin becomes progressively less soluble in water as the radiation doses is increased. Radiation induced transformation into insoluble gamma-globulin agregates and scission products. (author)

  19. Cataract production in mice by fractionated doses of 12C particles or 60Co gamma radiation

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the sparing effects of long-term dose fractionation with high LET 12C ions and 60Co gamma radiation. Because cataract examinations could be performed nondestructively, mice dedicated to studies of life shortening and carcinogenic response to photons and heavy charged particles were available for study. The project's staffing was such that slit-lamp biomicroscopic examinations could be performed only on CB6F1 male mice that received single or fractionated doses of 225 MeV/amu 12C ions and animals that received a single or fractionated dose of 60Co gamma radiation of 4.17 Gy. A total of 24 fractionated doses were administered weekly. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the severity of cataract response was evaluated at three sample times following the single dose or first fractionated dose

  20. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo, I. Mortality

    A study was conducted on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10,15,20 and 25 Gy of 60Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality was the parameter used to evaluated the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Susceptibility decreased with increasing embryo age and with decreased radiation dose. Estimated LD50 values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). The survival curves obtained for each embryo stage are discussed on the basis of the multitarget theory. (author)

  1. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The...... clinical tolerances. CONCLUSIONS: A commercial (60)Co MR-IGRT device can produce highly conformal IMRT treatment plans similar in quality to linac IMRT for a variety of disease sites. Additional work is in progress to evaluate the clinical benefit of other novel features of this MR-IGRT system....

  2. Effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria Glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryos: mortality, malformation and hatching

    A study was carried out on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy of 60 Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality, malformation and hatching were the parameters used to evaluate the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Estimated L D50 values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher in the blastula, gastrula and young trochophore stages. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were observed, such as head malformations, exogastrulas, shell malformations, and embryos with everted stomodeum, with nonspecific malformations being the most frequent. The types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied. The dose of 15 Gy was sufficient to greatly reduce the number of hatching snails regardless of the embryonic stage irradiated. We conclude that the effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on B. glabrata embryos presented a specific pattern. (author)

  3. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  4. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    WANG Yan-Ping; LUO Yin-Hong; WANG Wei; ZHANG Ke-Ying; GUO Hong-Xia; GUO Xiao-Qiang; WANG Yuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established.The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically,and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out.The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated,and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained.

  5. Determination of the sterilizing gamma radiation dose of 60Co to ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS imagos (col. bruchidae)

    This paper relates the results of experiments dealing with irradiation of adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831). The insects were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 20 krad gamma radiation of a 60Co source. After irradiation, the adults were kept for observation on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) var. Jalo, in a controlled environmen t chamber at 30 +- 10C and 70 +- 5% relative humidity. Continuous weighing at weekly intervals was done 22 times, showing, by weight loss in percent, that the sterilizing dose for adults was 10,65 krad. It could also be observed that losses of less than 0,5% occured at 9 krad. For a possible employment on commercial scale, the ideal radiation dose for bean desinfestation would be 10 krad, after which no weight loss occurrence. (Author)

  6. Inhibition of MAPK and PKC pathways by 60Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    Objective: To investigate the signal transduction pathways inhibited by 60Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Methods: The cultured VSMC were irradiated with 60Co γ-radiation of 3.5, 7.0 and 14 Gy respectively. VSMC proliferation was measured by 3H-TdR incorporation, while PKC, MAPK activities were determined by radioactivity assay. Results: Proliferation of VSMC was inhibited by 7.0, 14 Gy 60Co γ-irradiation and the activities of PKC, MAPK were decreased significantly. Conclusion: Inhibitory effect of 7.0, 14 Gy 60Co γ-irradiation on proliferation of VSMC might be resulted from decrease of the activity of PKC, MAPK

  7. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  8. Radiation esophagitis in the opossum: radioprotection with indomethacin. [/sup 60/Co

    Northway, M.G.; Libshitz, H.I.; Osborne, B.M.; Feldman, M.S.; Mamel, J.J.; West, J.H.; Szwarc, I.A.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-five opossums were evaluated before irradiation by fiberoptic endoscopy and air-contrast barium esophagram examination. All animals received 2250 rad /sup 60/Co-irradiated in a single exposure to the entire esophagus and lower exophageal sphincter. Animals received treatment with indomethacin. Acute esophagitis occurred 7 to 10 days postirradiation in control animals and was characterized by erythema, ulceration, and sloughing of esophageal mucosa as determined by air-contrast barium esophagram, endoscopy, and histology. Prostaglandin-treated animals showed more severe evidence of esophagitis than control animals. Indomethacin-treated animals showed no signs or only mild esophagitis posttreatment. It is concluded that indomethacin treatment may significantly reduce the severity of radiation esophagitis perhaps by blockade of prostaglandin synthesis.

  9. A case of radiation gastroduodenitis caused by 60Co-irradiation therapy for hepatoma

    A 56-year-old man with hepatoma, who had been treated with total 3,960 rad of 60Co-irradiation 2 months previously, was readmitted to the hospital because of fever and anemia. Following admission, he passed tarry stools every day. Barium meal examination revealed esophageal varices and erosive gastritis of the antrum. At endoscopy, many hemorrhagic erosions were found in the gastric antrum and the first part of duodenum, which were located in the irradiation area. Since repeated blood transfusion failed to improve anemia, a complete fasting with intravenous hyperalimentation and antacid therapy were started. Two months later, feeding was started and thereafter continued without any appreciable GI bleeding or worsening of anemia. Endoscopic examination at this time revealed only a few erosions scattered over the edematous antral mucosa as well as the proximal duodenum. IVH, antacids and abstinence from food seem to be an effective measure in the treatment of radiation injury of the gut. (author)

  10. Preliminary Study on the Quantitative Value Transfer Method of Absorbed Dose to Water in 60Co γ Radiation

    SONG Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorbed dose to water in 60Co γ radiation is the basic physics quantity in the quantitative value system of radiation therapy, it is very necessary for radiation therapy. The study on the quantitative value transfer method of absorbed dose to water in 60Co γ Radiation could provide important technical support to the establishment of Chinese absorbed dose to water quantity system. Based on PTW-30013 ionization chamber, PMMA water phantom and 3D mobile platform, quantitative value transfer standard instrument was established, combined with the requirement of IAEA-TRS398, developed preliminary study of 60Co absorbed dose to water quantity value transfer method. After the quantity value transfer, the expanded uncertainty of absorbed dose to water calibration factor of PTW-30013 was 0.90% (k=2, the expanded uncertainty of absorbed dose to water of 60Co γ reference radiation in Radiation Metrology Center (SSDL of IAEA was 1.4% (k=2. The results showed that, this value transfer method can reduce the uncertainty of 60Co absorbed dose to water effectively in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory.

  11. Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-07-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative

  12. Some gamma radiation (60Co) effects on Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptira-Calliphoridae)

    The effect of different gama radiation (60Co) doses on Chrysomya megcephala (Fabricius) have been studied under laboratory conditions, in the Entomology Section of Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. The insects were collected close to sucking animals brooding areas, identified and reared on artificial diet, being kept in a temperature (26 +- 20C) and humidity (66 +- 9%) controlled room, with 12L:12D photopheriod. A Gammabeam type 650 Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation source was used, with 28, 196x1010 Bq activity at the beginning of the experiment. The pupae were submitted to increasing gamma radiation doses. To determine lethal doses, treatments were carried out at four different ages and to determine the sterilizing doses two-three day pupae were used. It was noted pupae radiosensitivity decreased with age, LD50 varying from 14 - 513 Gy. The sterilizing dose for males was 40 Gy and for females 30 Gy. During the individuals life cycle, it was noted that there was a decrease in life expectancy (exo) of adults when the gamma radiation dose was increased. Treated males were more sensitive than females (Crossed with ''normals''), there occurring a marked reduction in the number of eggs and their viability when the used gamma radiation dose was increased. (author)

  13. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  14. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on defense function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    The effects of radiation on defense function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were studied following irradiation with 60Co γ radiation (30 - 3,000 rad) using PMN separated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The migration distances for all three measures of chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe (10-8 M), chemokinesis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe, and random migration tended to decrease with increasing dose, showing 0.0054 μm/rad (p -5 M) in conjunction with cytochalasin B (CB, 5 μg/ml) there was a significant dose trend, showing the dose effects of decreasing 0.0022 % release/rad for BGL and 0.0030 % release/rad for LYZ with increasing dose. In superoxide anion (O2-) production, a slight and marginally significant linear dose trend was found. These results suggest that the defense function of PMN is not so resistant to radiation as predicted from the fact that PMN in the peripheral blood are differentiated and mature. It is thought that radiation inflicts substantially harmful effects on the defense function of peripheral PMN. (author)

  15. The radiation effect of 60Co gamma rays on polycarbonate detector

    The irradiation of polymeric materials with ionizing radiation (gamma rays, X rays, accelerated electrons, ion beams) leads to the formation of very reactive intermediates products (excited states, ions and free radicals), which result in rearrangements and/or formation of new bonds. The effects of these reactions are formation of oxidized products, grafts, scission of main chain (degradation) or cross-linking. Often the two processes (degradation - cross- linking) occur simultaneously, and the outcome of the process is determined by a competition between the reactions. Polycarbonate detectors are used as a particle track detector for neutrons and alpha particles detection. This work aims to study the ionizing radiation dose response of polycarbonate samples using spectrophotometric technique. A commercially available polycarbonate was analysed and its dosimetric characteristics were studied: radiation-induced absorption spectra, ambient light, temperature and humidity influence, pre- and post-irradiation stability, reproducibility and dose range useful response. Samples of polycarbonate (3 x 1 cm2) were irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation in free air at electronic equilibrium with absorbed doses between 1 and 95 kGy. When exposed to gamma radiation the polycarbonate detectors undergoes changes in their optical response, the colour variation is used for determining the absorbed dose. A Shimadzu UV-2101PC spectrophotometer was used for scanning the absorption spectra and measuring the optical density of film detectors irradiated with different radiation doses. Polycarbonate film detector are easy to prepare and to analyse, of good optical quality, inexpensive and of small size. The dosimetric accuracy can be affect by environmental conditions so, the detectors must be stored in appropriate conditions. The reproducibility of the detectors response can be improved by careful monitoring of optical densities before irradiation. The dose response curve presents linear

  16. The radiation effect of 60Co gamma rays on polycarbonate detector

    The irradiation of polymeric materials with ionizing radiation (gamma rays, X rays, accelerated electrons, ion beams) leads to the formation of very reactive intermediates products (excited states, ions and free radicals), which result in rearrangements and/or formation of new bonds. The effects of these reactions are formation of oxidized products, grafts, scission of main chain (degradation) or cross-linking. Often the two processes (degradation - cross- linking) occur simultaneously, and the outcome of the process is determined by a competition between the reactions. Polycarbonate detectors are used as a particle track detector for neutrons and alpha particles detection. This work aims to study the ionizing radiation dose response of polycarbonate samples using spectrophotometric technique. A commercially available polycarbonate was analysed and its dosimetric characteristics were studied: radiation-induced absorption spectra, ambient light, temperature and humidity influence, pre- and post-irradiation stability, reproducibility and dose range useful response. Samples of polycarbonate (3 x 1 cm2) were irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation in free air at electronic equilibrium with absorbed doses between 1 and 95 kGy. When exposed to gamma radiation the polycarbonate detectors undergoes changes in their optical response, the colour variation is used for determining the absorbed dose. A Shimadzu UV- 2101PC spectrophotometer was used for scanning the absorption spectra and measuring the optical density of film detectors irradiated with different radiation doses. Polycarbonate film detector are easy to prepare and to analyse, of good optical quality, inexpensive and of small size. The dosimetric accuracy can be affect by environmental conditions so, the detectors must be stored in appropriate conditions. The reproducibility of the detectors response can be improved by careful monitoring of optical densities before irradiation. The dose response curve presents linear

  17. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of 60Co

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with 60 Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50 and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of 125 I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35± 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 106 cpm/mouse) of 125 I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 106 cpm/mouse) of 125 I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal muscle and they did not pass the blood - brain

  18. Serum asparate aminotransferase levels following cadmium and/or 60Co radiation

    A total of 216 young adult male Sprague‐Dawley rats were used. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (IP) every 3 days for 29 days for a total of 9 injections with 0, 1.0, or 2.5 mg Cd/kg body wt. Twenty‐four hrs after the last Cd injection (day 30), each animal was subjected to an acute sublethal total‐body exposure of 0, 3.62 or 5.43 gray of gamma (60Co) radiation at a dose rate of 3.04 gray/min. Eight rats from each of the 9 groups were sacrificed by cardiac exsanguination on post‐irradiation day 1, 7, or 21. A significant high‐dose cadmium‐induced increase in AST enzyme was observed at days 1 and 7; however, by day 21 levels had returned to normal. The results suggest that high‐dose cadmium increases were dose and time‐dependent. No significant differences in AST values were observed between radiation only groups, days, or doses. However, significant dose‐related differences were observed between high‐dose cadmium and means, as well as between high and low‐dose cadmium doses at days 1, 7, and 21. When the co‐insult was used, significant differences were seen between the high cadmium‐high radiation group and the mean at day one

  19. Effect of 60Co radiation-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate on mechanical properties of bamboo

    In order to investigate the effect of radiation grafting on mechanical properties of bamboo, the original and carbonized bamboo soaked with monomer MMA were radiation grafted by 60Co γ rays with the doses of 60-220 kGy. The results showed that compared with original blanks, treated with MMA and irradiated with the dose of 180 kGy the specific gravity, bending strength modulus of elasticity of original bamboo increased by 6.7%, 4.4%, and 28%, meanwhile its oven-dried radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage decreased by 38.9%, 47.4%, and 32.9%, respectively. What is more, treated with MMA and irradiated with the doses of 140 kGy the specific gravity and modulus of elasticity of carbonized bamboo increased by 6.8% and 20%, while its oven-dried radial, tangential, volumetric shrinkage decreased by 11%, 4.6% and 12%, respectively. The study reveals that mechanical properties of original and carbonized bamboo can be enhanced by radiation grafting copolymerization with suitable absorbed doses, which may be valuable for the further research of developing new bamboo plastic composites. (authors)

  20. Onset of behavioral effects in mice exposed to 10-Gy 60Co radiation

    Maier, D.M.; Landauer, M.R.

    1990-10-01

    The effects of 10 Gray (Gy)60Co radiation on social behavior, locomotor activity, and body weight were assessed in individually housed male Swiss-Webster mice. In Experiment 1, aggressive behavior was evaluated prior to irradiation and for 7 d postirradiation by placing an untreated intruder in the irradiated or sham-irradiated resident's home cage for 5 min. Offensive aggressive behavior was not affected significantly by radiation until day 7 postirradiation, when attack latency increased, the frequency and duration of fighting decreased, and the frequency of bites, lunges, and chases decreased. Untreated intruder mice paired with irradiated resident mice showed a decrease in the duration of defensive upright postures, squeaks, and escapes on day 7 postirradiation. In Experiment 2, locomotor activity and body weight were monitored for 7 d postirradiation. Body weight was decreased in irradiated mice beginning 4 d postirradiation. Locomotor activity was suppressed in irradiated animals 90 min after irradiation and remained depressed throughout the 7-d testing period.

  1. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to {sup 60}Co radiation

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: priscilavsilva@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Hojeije, Khalil Y. [Floresta Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a {sup 60}Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  2. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to 60Co radiation

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a 60Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  3. Change of free radicals and chemical structure of Moso bamboo with 60Co γ radiation

    After 60Co γ radiation, absolutely dry bamboo powder produced free radicals and its chemical composition and structure changed. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to measure the spectrum of the free radicals and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the γ-ray radiated bamboo powder. The test results reveal that when the spectral splitting factor (g) of the bamboo free radicals is 2.0033, and the intensity of free radicals increase with the absorbed dosage of irradiation according to exponential law. After irradiation of 200 kGy, the O/C atomic number ratio in the bamboo surface increases slightly, C-C and C-H content increases, C-O and C=O content decreases, and -O-C=O content increases to 1.5 times over that of the original, which indicates some oxygen-containing functional groups occur and oxidation state of carbon increases in the bamboo surface. (authors)

  4. Protective effect of catecholestrogens against 60Co γ-ray radiation injury in mice

    When 10-week-old male BALB/c mice received whole-body irradiation with a single dose of 8 Gy 60Co γ-ray and catecholestrogen 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) was subcutaneously injected 3 hours before and after the irradiation, 30-day survival rate of the mice was 70%, while the survival rate of the mice administered the other test samples was as follows; 2-hydroxyestrone, 20%; 2-hydroxyestriol, 20%; 4-hydroxyestradiol, 0%; 2-methoxyestrone, 0%; 2-methoxyestradiol, 0%; 2-methoxyestriol, 0%; estrone, 0%; estradiol, 5%; estriol, 0%; control, 5%. Lipid peroxide level in the liver of mice markedly increased on the 4th day after the irradiation. However, this increase in the lipid peroxide level was significantly suppressed by the administration of 2-OHE2. The radiation-induced anemia, leukopenia, and atrophy of the thymus were significantly protected by the administration of 2-OHE2. These results indicate that 2-OHE2 had a potent inhibitory effect on radiation injury. (author)

  5. Determination of the mean energy necessary for the production of an ion pair in air by 60Co gamma radiation

    On the basis of an ionometric and a calorimetric method for determining the absorbed dose in graphite the following values of the mean energy for ion pair production by 60Co gamma radiation has been obtained in dry air: (33.87 +- 0.34) J/C. The errors of the method are discussed. The result is compared with recently published values. (author)

  6. Preparation of low molecular weight chitosan by a combination of chemical treatment and 60Co gamma radiation

    A low molecular weight chitosan finds potential applications in agriculture, medicine, personal health care, cosmetics etc. Chitosan undergoes depolymerization when exposed to ionizing radiation, therefore 60 Co gamma rays or electron beam irradiation appears to be the most promising way to prepare a low molecular weight chitosan

  7. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 107 were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth

  8. Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co; Estudo da dependencia energetica de detectores de radiacao gama para {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: rediniz@ipen.b, E-mail: vcsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors

  9. Radiation effects of 60Co γ-rays on expression of CDKN1A mRNA in human lymphocytoblast

    Objective: To study effect of 60Co γ-rays radiation with different doses on expression of CDKN1A gene mRNA in human lymphocytoblast cultured for different time. Methods: After human lymphocytoblasts were irradiated by the 60Co γ-rays with various doses of 0, 0.2, 1, 3, 5 and 10 Gy, and cells were separately cultured for sustaining survival during 0, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The total RNA was extracted from each sample and the real-time PCR was conducted to observe the gene CDKN1A mRNA level changes in lymphocytoblasts exposed to various radiation doses for various cultured time. Results: Expressive levels of the CDKN1A mRNA in lymphocytoblasts gradually went up with increasing radiation doses, which showed γ-rays dose dependent from 0 Gy to 5 Gy (P<0.05), and reach the peak when cells were cultured for 24 h after exposing to radiation while displayed an expressive downtrend during the later stage of cell culture. Conclusion: Increase of the CDKN1A mRNA expression level in human lymphocytoblasts after exposing to 60Co γ-rays radiation within 24 hours of culture shows a dose dependent way, which may be used to evaluate the ionizing radiation dose. (authors)

  10. Dominant lethal effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY, 1818)

    Germ cell mutations are used in ecotoxicological studies as biomarkers of population effects and indicators of ecological changes. Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater mollusk, is a good experimental model for biomonitoring studies due to its biological characteristics and the ecological importance of this invertebrate group. The dominant lethal test was established in B. glabrata for the detection of germ cell mutations. Results with chemical mutagens showed that this system is efficient, specific and sensitive in the evaluation of germ cell mutations induced by reference mutagens. In this work, the dominant lethal effects of gamma radiation of 60Co were studied. A preliminary experiment was done to establish the dose range and to estimate the chronology of spermatogenesis in B. glabrata. This estimate is possible because of the uniformity in response to ionizing radiation between germ cells at homologous stages of spermatogenesis in widely different species. In general, pre-meiotic germ cells are less sensitive to the induction of lethal dominant mutations than post-meiotic cells. This effect can be attributed to: young gametogenic cells - mitotically active - have greater repair ability from sub-lethal DNA damage and there is a selective elimination of the damaged cells. In our system: induction of lethal dominant mutations causes an increase in the frequency of malformations and, cytotoxic effect is displayed as a reduction in the crossing rates. Total duration of spermatogenesis was estimated in approximately 36 days, with the following distribution of stages: 1 to 13 days - spermatogonia, 14 to 20 days - spermatocytes, 21 to 36 days - spermatids and spermatozoa. Based on this chronology, irradiated wild-type snails with 2,5; 10 and 20Gy and crossed with non-irradiated albino snails after 7, 17, 23, 30 and 36 days. The frequencies of malformations in the heterozygous wild-type offspring of the nonirradiated albino snails were used as indicator of germ cell

  11. Study of gamma radiation from 60Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a 60Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA2 activity analysis, lethality assay (LD50). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with 99mTc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA2 activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis. Biodistribution studies showed

  12. Radiation accidents in hospitals

    Some of the radiation accidents that have occurred in Indian hospitals and causes that led to them are reviewed. Proper organization of radiation safety minimizes such accidents. It has been pointed out that there must be technical competence and mental preparedness to tackle emergencies when they do infrequently occur. (M.G.B.)

  13. A new parallel-plate graphite ionization chamber as a 60Co gamma radiation reference instrument

    The calibration procedure in radiotherapy treatments is very important and a sensitive task due to the high doses delivered to the patients. Generally, the air-kerma cavity standards for 60Co gamma rays are graphite cavity ionization chambers. In this work a new parallel-plate graphite ionization chamber was studied to analyze its potential use as a reference instrument. In order to evaluate its performance in 60Co beams, it was submitted to several characterization tests. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken using the EGSnrc code to study the influence of the chamber components on its response. The results obtained showed that this new ionization chamber presented a satisfactory performance in all evaluated tests. - Highlights: ► A new ionization chamber was characterized as a reference dosimeter for 60Co beams. ► The EGSnrc code was used to determine the influence of the chamber components. ► The characterization test results were within the recommended limits. ► The results showed that this dosimeter may be used as a reference dosimeter

  14. Radiation-induced micronucleus formation in mice bone marrow after exposure to different doses of 60Co gamma radiation

    The frequency of micronuclei formation in the polychromatic erythrocytes and normochromatic erythrocytes was studied at 12 and 24th post-irradiation in mice bone marrow whole-body exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 Gy of 60Co gamma radiation. It was observed that the frequency of MPCE (micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes) and MNCE (micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes) increased with increase in exposure dose in both intervals studied. The data analyzed using the linear quadratic (Y+C+αD+βD2) equation. It was found that the data for MPCE and MNCE fitted best for linear quadratic model. (The PCE/NCE ratio declined with increase in exposure dose in both intervals and this decline was dose related. (author). 28 refs., 1 tab

  15. Radiation effects of polyolefin elastomer by 60Co γ-rays

    Polyolefin elastomer was irradiated in air or N2 to different doses by 60Co γ-rays. Gel fraction, mechanic performance and flame retarding property of the irradiated POE were investigated. G value of the POE crosslinked in air or N2 is 0.13 and 0.14, respectively. Gel fraction of the irradiated POE increased with both absorbed dose and sensitizer content, and the value of tensile strength and oxygen index (OI) increased to some extent after irradiation. The value of break at elongation decreased slightly after irradiation. (authors)

  16. Radiation quality of tritium: A comparison with 60Co gamma rays

    In a previous study, microdosimetric simulations were performed for tritium uniformly distributed in a medium, and for tritium bound to biologically critical sites of dimensions from 10 nm to 2 μm. Results of local energy density, i.e. energy deposition in microscopic regions, are different for these two cases. Based on the spatial distribution of energy deposition, dose mean lineal energies are calculated for tritium in the forms of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT). The dose mean lineal energies of OBT are about a factor of 1.7 higher than those of HTO in a wide range of target dimensions of biological interest. The results are consistent with radiobiological findings that OBT is about twice as effective as HTO. In this study, the same calculations were performed for 60Co gamma rays in a wide range of target dimensions of biological interest (10 nm to 2 μm). Compared with 60Co gamma rays, the estimated relative biological effectiveness could vary from 1.3 to 3.5 for HTO, and 2.3 to 5.6 for OBT. The results are consistent with radiobiological findings for various biological endpoints in different biological systems that OBT is about twice as effective as HTO. (authors)

  17. Combined reactor neutron beam and {sup 60}Co γ-ray radiation effects on CMOS APS image sensors

    Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jiangkun; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Zhigang; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 China (China)

    2015-02-15

    The combined reactor neutron beam and {sup 60}Co γ-ray radiation effects on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been discussed and some new experimental phenomena are presented. The samples are manufactured in the standard 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Two samples were first exposed to {sup 60}Co γ-rays up to the total ionizing dose (TID) level of 200 krad(Si) at the dose rates of 50.0 and 0.2 rad(Si)/s, and then exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence). One sample was first exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence), and then exposed to {sup 60}Co γ-rays up to the TID level of 200 krad(Si) at the dose rate of 0.2 rad(Si)/s. The mean dark signal (K{sub D}), the dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), and the noise (V{sub N}) versus the total dose and neutron fluence has been investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors have been analyzed, especially for the interaction induced by neutron displacement damage and TID damage.

  18. Combined reactor neutron beam and 60Co γ-ray radiation effects on CMOS APS image sensors

    Zujun Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The combined reactor neutron beam and 60Co γ-ray radiation effects on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS active pixel sensors (APS have been discussed and some new experimental phenomena are presented. The samples are manufactured in the standard 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Two samples were first exposed to 60Co γ-rays up to the total ionizing dose (TID level of 200 krad(Si at the dose rates of 50.0 and 0.2 rad(Si/s, and then exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 1011 n/cm2 (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence. One sample was first exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 1011 n/cm2 (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence, and then exposed to 60Co γ-rays up to the TID level of 200 krad(Si at the dose rate of 0.2 rad(Si/s. The mean dark signal (KD, the dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU, and the noise (VN versus the total dose and neutron fluence has been investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors have been analyzed, especially for the interaction induced by neutron displacement damage and TID damage.

  19. Combined reactor neutron beam and 60Co γ-ray radiation effects on CMOS APS image sensors

    The combined reactor neutron beam and 60Co γ-ray radiation effects on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been discussed and some new experimental phenomena are presented. The samples are manufactured in the standard 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Two samples were first exposed to 60Co γ-rays up to the total ionizing dose (TID) level of 200 krad(Si) at the dose rates of 50.0 and 0.2 rad(Si)/s, and then exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 1011 n/cm2 (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence). One sample was first exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 1011 n/cm2 (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence), and then exposed to 60Co γ-rays up to the TID level of 200 krad(Si) at the dose rate of 0.2 rad(Si)/s. The mean dark signal (KD), the dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), and the noise (VN) versus the total dose and neutron fluence has been investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors have been analyzed, especially for the interaction induced by neutron displacement damage and TID damage

  20. Study of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co na peconha de Apis mellifera: aspectos bioquimicos, farmacologicos e imunologicos

    Costa, Helena

    2001-07-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA{sub 2} activity analysis, lethality assay (LD{sub 50}). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with {sup 99m}Tc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA{sub 2} activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis

  1. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analyzing the impact of 60Co gamma radiation (low doses) in M. rosenbergii. •LD50 identified in 30 Gy; Irradiated exhibits morphological changes than control. •Significantly decreased HSI and histological changes in irradiated groups. •Aberration severities increased as increased of dose level. •Biomonitoring tool in determining low dose radiation pollution in aquatic ecosystem. -- Abstract: This study was framed to investigate the 60Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of 60Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could

  2. Study on change of free radicals of bamboo with 60Co γ radiation

    Bamboo samples collected in mountain areas of Fujian province were mechanically pulverized into saw dust. This breaks the covalent bonds of bamboo molecules and free radicals are formed. ESR characterization of the bamboo saw dust samples of 20, 200 and 500 mesh showed that the relative intensity of the 500 mesh saw dust was the highest, and that of the 20 mesh was the lowest(g=2.0033). After 60Co γ-ray irradiation,the intensity of free radicals increased sharply. At>100 kGy, the free radicals tended to be saturated at about 40 times of the free radicals produced mechanically. The intensity of free radicals increased exponentially with the dose below 100 kGy, and decay coefficients of the free radicals in the three samples were different. (authors)

  3. A prototype of an ionization chamber for gamma radiation beams of 60Co: Experimental and Monte Carlo preliminary results

    Ionization chambers are the most widely used instruments for dosimetry in radiotherapy. With the aim to test new configurations and materials using low-cost and easily-available components, verify the possibility of its application in the gamma radiation field of 60Co and fulfill the need of a chamber for scientific metrological purposes, in this paper the prototype of a plane-parallel ionization chamber has been designed and built, and its performance has been studied at the SSDL of KARAJ. The front wall and back wall of the chamber were made of graphite and Plexiglas respectively, as opposed to the one type of material in commercially available chambers. The collecting electrode has a diameter of 20 mm. The sensitive volume is 0.63 cm3. It was found that the Leakage current, the short-term stability and the polarity effect were within the international recommendations. The results were compared with those of a reference cylindrical chamber. The maximum difference observed in this comparison was 1.1%. The relative uncertainty was below 0.2%. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulation was undertaken using MCNP4C code and the relative difference of 1.9% was observed compared to the experiment. As a result the chamber presented a satisfactory performance in all evaluated tests in Gamma radiation field of 60Co. -- Highlights: • The prototype of a plane-parallel Ionization Chamber was designed. • Its performance was studied in Gamma radiation field of 60Co. • The response of the chamber was measured and compared with that of the cylindrical ionization chamber. • The chamber was simulated using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. • The Leakage current, the short-term stability and the polarity effect were within the international recommendations

  4. Study about the sensibility in vitro of different strains of Vibrio cholera 01 exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation

    The presence of some microorganisms in food, or the metabolites originated during their own multiplication may bring several diseases to humans: intoxications and food borne infections. Among the agents that may cause those diseases, we find Vibrio cholerae 01. In this experiment, the studies are focused on the radiosensibility in vitro of four strains of V. cholerae 01, exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation of 60 Co. The results are compared with other data related to bacterial food borne diseases, including water. (author)

  5. COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. (authors)

  6. Comparison of the standards of absorbed dose to water of the METAS and the BIPM for 60Co gamma radiation

    A comparison of the standards of absorbed dose to water of the Swiss Federal Office of Metrology and Accreditation (METAS), Switzerland and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co gamma radiation. The results show that the METAS and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water are in agreement, yielding a comparison result of 1.0001 for the mean ratio of the calibration coefficients for the transfer chambers, the difference from unity being within the combined standard uncertainty (0.0054). (authors)

  7. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  8. Destruction of Radiation-Resistant Micro-Organisms on Surgical Sutures by 60Co-Irradiation Under Manufacturing Conditions

    Any process adopted for producing sterile medical products must be demonstrated to produce sterility under reproducible manufacturing conditions. In addition, a margin of safety is required to guard against non-sterility due to undetected departures from standard operating practices. This study reports the results of exposure to 60Co γ-rays of surgical sutures intentionally contaminated with known radiation-resistant organisms, including St. faecalis, M. radiodurans and B. pumilus, under normal manufacturing conditions. Additionally, the results of over 20 000 sterility tests under prolonged incubation are reported to indicate that routine sterility testing of radiation-sterilized sutures is adequate to detect radiation survivors. The nature and level of the natural contaminants of surgical sutures before sterilization is tabulated and discussed from the standpoint of the safety factor inherent in the process. (author)

  9. Tl response of KMgF3 :Lu+PTFE depending on the dose of gamma radiation of 60Co

    Due to the great interest in Tl dosimetry for measuring the levels of radiation doses, as environmental as in the different medical radiation applications in different laboratories of the World it is continued in the searching of new Tl materials with optimum dosimetric characteristics and low cost. In this work the obtained results when irradiating Tl dosemeters of KMgF3 :Lu + PTFE with gamma radiation of 60 Co are presented. Such results showed that this material presents linearity of response depending on the dose between 0.016 to 100 Gy. Although it is continued with the characterization tests it is able to say that this Tl new material can be used for dosimetric aims. (Author)

  10. Response of avocado genotypes to improvement through {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Respuesta de diversos genotipos de aguacate al mejoramiento por radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Cruz, E. De la; Rubi A, M.; Garcia A, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Ten avocado genotypes were subjected to gamma radiation from 0 to 45 Gy in 1993. Vegetative and reproductive data were analysed in a factorial design. Genotypes differed significative on height and fruit number. Radiation affected significative fruit number but not tree height. ''Hass'' showed strongest interaction between genotype and doses, for fruit number. (Author)

  11. Characterization and performance study of high-dose 60Co gamma-ray calibration laboratory for radiation processing

    The 60Co gamma-ray irradiation facility for high absorbed dose calibration at radiation processing dose level was originally designed and constructed in JAERI. Uncertainty in absorbed dose given at JAERI was estimated by reviewing its characteristics and dosimetry performance. Dosimeter calibration equipment consists of the two plaque 60Co gamma-ray radiation sources giving different dose rate range of 5-200 Gy/h and 400 Gy/h-20 kGy/h, a dosimeter holder stage with high-reproducible positioning, a parallel-plate ionization chamber for accurate measurement of exposure-rates, and an auxiliary temperature/humidity-controlled irradiation vessel for dosimeter calibration under specific irradiation condition. The characteristics of the irradiation field and dosimetry performance are sufficient to give a known dose to working dosimeters to be calibrated for absorbed doses in the range of 0.5 Gy to 160 kGy within a reasonable operation time, 8 h, with an uncertainty of ±2.2% at a 95% confidence level. Calibration of dosimeters giving known doses by transfer dosimetry employing alanine dosimeters calibrated at JAERI is also achievable with an uncertainty of ±3.4% at a 95% confidence level. (author)

  12. Effect of 60Co-gamma radiation on the random walk error of interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes

    2010-01-01

    Two 60Co-gamma radiation experiments were launched to explore the radiation effect on optical components and interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). In optical components radiation experiment, the result showed that polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber coil loss was the most affected parameter in all the RWC (random walk coefficient) related parameters, compared with the weak sensitivity of other components parameters. In the IFOG radiation experiment, the RWC performance degradation was found to be almost due to an increase of the PM fiber attenuation. Based on the experiment result, a RWC prediction model in radiation, which is obtained by embedding PM fiber loss expression into the RWC model, was built following a power law of dose and dose rate. An IFOG RWC in space radiation environment was predicted from radiation dose and dose rate by the RWC prediction model. This RWC value calculated from test data is fully accorded to the RWC value predicted from radiation dose.

  13. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  14. Use of 60Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from 60Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from 60Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  15. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Stalin, A.; Broos, K.V. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadiq Bukhari, A., E-mail: abjmc@yahoo.in [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Syed Mohamed, H.E. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Singhal, R.K. [Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India); Venu-Babu, P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analyzing the impact of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation (low doses) in M. rosenbergii. •LD{sub 50} identified in 30 Gy; Irradiated exhibits morphological changes than control. •Significantly decreased HSI and histological changes in irradiated groups. •Aberration severities increased as increased of dose level. •Biomonitoring tool in determining low dose radiation pollution in aquatic ecosystem. -- Abstract: This study was framed to investigate the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD{sub 50} value of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of

  16. Effects of 60Co γ-ray partial radiation on chromosome aberration in human peripheral blood in vitro

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 60Co γ-ray partial radiation on chromosome aberration in human peripheral blood in vitro. Methods: The samples of heparinized peripheral whole blood from 3 healthy persons were exposed to 60Co γ-rays at the doses between 0 and 8 Gy with the dose rate of 0.35 Gy/min at the temperature of 37 ℃ ,and then mixed with the unirradiated blood samples of the Microscopy was used to observe the chromosome aberration double (centromere + centromere) and the biological dose was estimated thereby. Results: The amounts of double centromere + centromere were increased along with the dose of irradiation in all groups. The estimated biological dose was higher than the 1/3 of the irradiation dose when the dose was between 0.5 to 2 Gy, and was close to the 1/3 of the irradiation dose when the dose was between 4 to 8 Gy. Conclusion: Chromosome aberration can be used as a biomarker in estimation of uneven irradiation. (authors)

  17. Study on the therapeutic effect of cytokine on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Co γ ray exposure

    Objective: To examine the therapeutic effect of combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Coγ ray exposure in beagles. Methods: Sixteen beagles were randomly divided into the control (n=5), symptomatic treatment group (n=5) and cytokine treatment group (n=6). All the beagles in the three groups were exposed to the whole-body irradiation of 60Co γ ray at a dose of 4.5 Gy. The animals in the second group accepted active symptomatic treatment. The animals in the cytokine treatment group were sub-cutaneously administered rhIL -11 and rhG -CSF besides active symptomatic treatment. Hemogram of peripheral blood, pristine apoptosis and necrosis ratio of nucleated cells, the content of IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma and formation of bone marrow were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect. Results: In the cytokine treatment group, the animal' survival rate 45 days after exposure was increased and hemogram of peripheral blood was improved significantly. The rate of pristine apoptosis and necrosis of nucleated cell declined obviously. Early, the content of both IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma was up significantly, then the content of IL-2 rapidly descended, but that of IFN-γ was relatively stable. Conclusion: The combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF significantly improved the recovery of hematopoietic and immunological function. (authors)

  18. Response of avocado genotypes to improvement through 60Co gamma radiation

    Ten avocado genotypes were subjected to gamma radiation from 0 to 45 Gy in 1993. Vegetative and reproductive data were analysed in a factorial design. Genotypes differed significative on height and fruit number. Radiation affected significative fruit number but not tree height. ''Hass'' showed strongest interaction between genotype and doses, for fruit number. (Author)

  19. Information at radiation accidents

    This study was undertaken in order to plan an information strategy for possible future accidents involving radioactivity. Six health visitors and six farmers working in the districts of Norway which received the largest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were interviewed. The questions were intended to give an indication of their knowledge about radioactivity and radiation, as well as their needs for information in case of a future accident. The results indicate a relatively low educational background in radiation physics and risk estimation. On the other hand the two groups showed a remarkable skill and interest in doing their own evaluation on the background of information that was linked to their daily life. It is suggested that planning of information in this field is done in close cooperation with the potential users of the information

  20. Prescription dose analysis and evaluation of carcinoma of breast on 60Co radiation beam

    To report the outcome of breast cancer patients treated radically by External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) and Chemotherapy. Radiation therapy along with chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. In breast tumour management the role of post mastectomy chest wall irradiation in improving the local control is well known. It is important to practice optimal radiation therapy in order to achieve high loco-regional control with minimal morbidity

  1. Evaluation of 60Co radiation effect in the survival of different mouse strains. Radiomodifiers and celular response

    The radiomodifier capacity of proteose-peptone (PP), imidazole derivatives such as azomycin and levamisole against an 8 or 9 Gy single dose of 60Co irradiation of mice from IPEN animal house was evaluated, being the biological responses compared with other mouse strains. It is concluded that PP, azomycin and PP + azomycin behaved as radioprotectors, while lavamisole appeared as a radiossensitizer. The various strains showed differences in their survival indexes. The changes in body weight curves of mice from all the experiments were followed during 30 days. Qualitative and quantitative analysis 2 hours, 3 and 6 days after irradiation of typical macrophages, mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes), polimorphonuclear and mast cells from peritonium of test animals showed that radiation interfered in a differential way in the kinetics of peritoneal cells. (author)

  2. Radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by /sup 60/Co-. gamma. -radiation and formation of L(+)-. beta. -methylcholine

    Loester, Heinz; Strack, Erich; Seim, Hermann

    1986-06-01

    The radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-radiation was examined to obtain optically active ..beta..-methylcholine. It was found that the radiolysis leads to a number of trimethylammonium bases but to no other betaines. (+)-..beta..-Methylcholine and acetonyltrimethylammonium could be identified by means of common analytical methods. The amounts of methylamines formed by irradiation were very small. Racemization of the D(+)-carnitine did not occur during irradiation, L(-)-carnitine was not found when an enzymatical determination method was used. The fact that (+)-..beta..-methylcholine was formed from D(+)-carnitine is pharmacologically important, because acetyl-L(+)-..beta..-methylcholine has a strong interaction with muscarinic receptors.

  3. Radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by 60Co-γ-radiation and formation of L(+)-β-methylcholine

    The radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by 60Co-γ-radiation was examined to obtain optically active β-methylcholine. It was found that the radiolysis leads to a number of trimethylammonium bases but to no other betaines. (+)-β-Methylcholine and acetonyltrimethylammonium could be identified by means of common analytical methods. The amounts of methylamines formed by irradiation were very small. Racemization of the D(+)-carnitine did not occur during irradiation, L(-)-carnitine was not found when an enzymatical determination method was used. The fact that (+)-β-methylcholine was formed from D(+)-carnitine is pharmacologically important, because acetyl-L(+)-β-methylcholine has a strong interaction with muscarinic receptors. (author)

  4. Comparison of the standards of air kerma of the OMH and the BIPM for 60Co gamma radiation

    A direct comparison between the standards for air kerma of the Orszagos Meresugyi Hivatal (OMH) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been carried out in the 60Co radiation beams of the BIPM. The result, expressed as a ratio of the OMH and the BIPM standards for air kerma, indicates a relative difference of 10.9 x 10-3 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.2 x 10-3. This new result agrees at the level of 0.4 x 10-3 with the earlier direct comparisons performed in 1986 and 1994, as modified in 2001 by the application of wall and axial non-uniformity correction factors, calculated for the OMH standards using the Monte Carlo method. (authors)

  5. COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation

    Buermann, L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Oborin, A.V. [D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dobrovosky, J. [3 Slovensky Metrologicky Ustav (SMU), Bratislava (Slovakia); Milevsky, V.S. [Belarussian State Institute for Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Walwyn Salas, G. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Habana (Cuba); Lapenas, A. [Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre of the Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia)

    2009-12-15

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. (authors)

  6. Effect of gamma radiation (60Co) on the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus coffee (Coffea arabica L.)

    Coffee is a major product on the world market. Its acceptance depends strongly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its aroma and flavor. One of the most important aspects of coffee culture today is the cup quality as such all segments of coffee production network are concentrating efforts to improve this trait. Foods that have been contaminated with fungi may contain may produce many mycotoxins including ochratoxim A (OTA). To prevent OTA in foodstuffs, it is necessary detect the producing fungi early. Ionizing radiation is a safe, environmentally clean, energy efficient process that can be used to increase the quality and reducing the microbiological contamination of the coffee. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different gamma radiation doses (0.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0 kGy) on the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus in coffee (Coffee arabica L.). The analysis were performed to determine the fungi contamination the results were expressed as the viable counts per gram of sample (CFU/g) coffee samples irradiated and unirradiated. The results shows that microbiological contamination of coffee disagrees when increase doses of irradiation. The radiation doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0 kGy used resulted in a elimination of the number of Aspergillus ochraceus CFU/g when compared to the nonirradiated control group. Under the present conditions, gamma radiation was found to be an alternative for the control of Aspergillus ochraceus. (author)

  7. Biological changes in Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera:Muscidae), induced by gamma radiation (60 Co)

    This work was carried out in the Entomology Section of the Centre of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the present research work was to investigate some effects of gamma radiation on the various stages of M. domestica life cycle. (author)

  8. Effects of 60Co radiation on the rabbit lung surfactant system

    Rabbits were irradiated under sodium pentobarbital anethesia with 3,000 rad of 60Cobalt radiation in either a single dose or five fractions. At different intervals over one month post-irradiation, an ultrastructural study of the alveolar membrane and alveolar macrophages was performed; lung lavage fluid was studied for phosopholipid weight and composition, and for surface tension properties. With both radiation schedules, a surface tension defect of the pulmonary washings, a transitory weight increase of the alveolar phospholipids and the development of an interstitial edema could be observed. The surface tension defect could be explained by ultrastructural changes in surfactant and changes in alveolar phospholipid weight or composition at early times after irradiation (2 and 7 days). However, this explanation is invalid for late effects (28 days). The proposed hypothesis is an impairment of other components of surfactant system

  9. The protector role of Mn2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to 60Co gamma radiation

    The radiation is present on all over the world and can be classified, according to the effect that produces on matter, as non-ionizing and ionizing. The ionizing radiations transfer a sufficient amount of energy to the molecule and charged atoms called ions can be formatted. The biological organisms have approximately 70% of water and when submit to the incident radiation occur the radiolysis of water. Water radiolysis produces highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) known as free radicals. The ROS can interact with all important biomolecules like lipid, protein and DNA. This interaction can cause the loss of functions of theses molecules and thus lead to cell death. The manganese is a heavy metal that at low concentrations is essential for the biological system, since it is cofactor for action of several enzymes. At high concentrations the manganese is toxic to the organisms. Recently was observed that manganese can have a protector role against oxidative stress. In this work, it was studied the anti-oxidant role of manganese in cells submitted to gamma irradiation. It was performed the determination of two oxidative stress indicators: lipid peroxidation and determination of thiol group, the results presented suggest that the manganese had protective role against lipid damage and in this way, has an antioxidant role. (author)

  10. Effects of 60Co γ-rays radiation on biological characters of Platanus acerifolia Willd. weed and seedlings

    The dry seeds of Platanus acerifolia Willd. were irradiated by different doses of 60Co γ-rays, and the effect of the radiation on M1 were investigated. Results showed that the seed germination rate, emerged seedling rate and survival seedling rate of Platanus aceriflia Willd. Decreased with dose increase at the dose of 50-400 Gy, as well as the plant height, fresh weight and length of root. The radiation inhibited the seeding growth significantly. Compared with CK, the true leaf emerging time of samples irradiated at 50-250 Gy was late for 2, 5, 9 and 14d, respectively. But the young seedlings of samples treated at 300-400 Gy were severely twisted and abnormal, and gradually died after 15d. Based on the data of seeding rate and root growth, it is concluded that the semi-lethal radiation dose of Platanus acerifolia Willd. dry seed was 50 Gy, and the suitable dose range for radiation breeding was 50 to 250 Gy. (authors)

  11. Response of the alanine/ESR dosimetry system to MV x-rays relative to 60Co radiation

    The measurand relevant in dosimetry for radiation therapy is the absorbed dose to water, DW. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has established a secondary standard for DW for high-energy photon and electron radiation based on electron spin resonance (ESR) of the amino acid alanine. Since the calibration is usually performed using 60Co radiation while a huge part of the external radiation therapy is done with high-energy x-rays from linear accelerators, determination of the response is an important issue. The results presented in this paper are the most accurate ones available today with uncertainties assigned to the relative response for 8 MV and 16 MV of the order of 0.3%. The experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc software package. In the appendix, it is demonstrated how mean values from repetitive irradiations and their uncertainties are obtained in a consistent way using Bayesian statistics, even in the presence of at first sight inconsistent data. It is important to note that the formulae derived to obtain the final results follow from first principles, without recurring to ad hoc solutions or simple recipes and are valid for all kinds of repetitive measurements

  12. Effects of 60Co gamma radiations on the conduction properties of frog sciatic nerve

    The effect of Co60 gamma radiations on the amplitude, detection period and duration of the action potential of sciatic nerves of Rana tigrina frogs have been studied. Dose levels of upto 120 kR were employed. Irradiation of the nerves with dose levels upto 30 kR does not seem to affect the action of potential profiles. The amplitude falls rapidly thereafter, registering less than 5% of the original value after irradiation by a dose of 120 kR. Qualitatively similar behaviour is seen in the case of detection period and duration of action potential. These results are examined in the light of data already collected through experiments on the effect of Co60 gamma rays on the enzyme acetyl-cholinesterase (AchE). (author)

  13. An investigation on the radiation sensitivity of DNA conformations to 60Co gamma rays by using Geant4 toolkit

    To investigate the impact of conformational properties of genetic material of living cells on radiation-induced DNA damage, single strand breaks (SSB), double strand breaks (DSB) and some microdosimetric quantities of A, B and Z-DNA conformations caused by 60Co gamma rays, have been calculated. Based on a previous B-DNA geometrical model, models of A and Z forms have been developed. Simple 34 base pairs segments of each model repeated in high number and secondary electron spectrum of 60Co gamma rays have been simulated in a volume of a typical animal cell nucleus. All simulations in this study have been performed by using the Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking 4)-DNA extension of the Geant4 toolkit. The results showed that, B-DNA has the lowest yield of simple strand breaks with 2.23 × 10−10 Gy−1 Da−1 and 1.0 × 10−11 Gy−1 Da−1 for the SSB and DSB damage yield, respectively. The A-DNA has the highest SSB yield with 3.59 × 10−10 Gy−1 Da−1 and the Z-DNA has the highest DSB yields with 1.8 × 10−11 Gy−1 Da−1. It has been concluded that there is a direct correlation between the hit probability, mean specific imparted energy and SSB yield in each model of DNA. Moreover, there is a direct correlation between the DSB yield and both the mean lineal energy and topological characteristics of each model

  14. An investigation on the radiation sensitivity of DNA conformations to {sup 60}Co gamma rays by using Geant4 toolkit

    Semsarha, F. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB), University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goliaei, B., E-mail: goliaei@ibb.ut.ac.ir [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB), University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G.; Khalafi, H. [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzakhanian, L. [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the impact of conformational properties of genetic material of living cells on radiation-induced DNA damage, single strand breaks (SSB), double strand breaks (DSB) and some microdosimetric quantities of A, B and Z-DNA conformations caused by {sup 60}Co gamma rays, have been calculated. Based on a previous B-DNA geometrical model, models of A and Z forms have been developed. Simple 34 base pairs segments of each model repeated in high number and secondary electron spectrum of {sup 60}Co gamma rays have been simulated in a volume of a typical animal cell nucleus. All simulations in this study have been performed by using the Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking 4)-DNA extension of the Geant4 toolkit. The results showed that, B-DNA has the lowest yield of simple strand breaks with 2.23 × 10{sup −10} Gy{sup −1} Da{sup −1} and 1.0 × 10{sup −11} Gy{sup −1} Da{sup −1} for the SSB and DSB damage yield, respectively. The A-DNA has the highest SSB yield with 3.59 × 10{sup −10} Gy{sup −1} Da{sup −1} and the Z-DNA has the highest DSB yields with 1.8 × 10{sup −11} Gy{sup −1} Da{sup −1}. It has been concluded that there is a direct correlation between the hit probability, mean specific imparted energy and SSB yield in each model of DNA. Moreover, there is a direct correlation between the DSB yield and both the mean lineal energy and topological characteristics of each model.

  15. Use of 60 Co gamma radiation to expend the shell life of packaged sliced loaves

    The evaluation of conservation of sliced loaves (bread cut into slices). baked by five bakeries of Piracicaba, after gamma irradiation and maintained into polyethylene begs of low density, of 47,5 and 85 μm of thicknesses is shown. The sliced loaves were put into the bags and thermo-sealed by hand, like they were handled by the bakers. After this, they were irradiated with doses of 0.0: 2.0; 4.0; 6.0; 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation in a irradiation chamber of Cobalt-60 at a dose rate of 2,68 kGy per hour, at the room temperature (280 C). After irradiation the samples were maintained under at the room temperature (26 - 340 C), and humidity, as similar as possible to the conditions of the markets, bakeries and shops they were sold. The samples were evaluated every days and if any of them presented sign of contamination. It was threw away because it was inappropriate for human consumption. (author)

  16. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  17. Aspects of the immune response against proteic antigens submitted to the effects of 60Co gamma radiation

    Considering the effects of gamma radiation on proteins and the capacity of the immune system to recognize modified macromolecules, we decided to evaluate some immunological aspects of B10.PL mice exposed to native or irradiated ovalbumin and bothrops toxin-1 (BthTx-1). In order to evaluate possible structural modifications of the molecules after being irradiated (60Co gamma rays), bothrops toxin-1 was analysed by electrophoresis, while ovalbumin was submitted to analytical size exclusion chromatography. The toxin was also analysed by ESI-mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that radiation promoted modifications on both the molecules. Aiming to compare the toxicity of the native and irradiated forms of the toxin, an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, using CHO cells, was performed. According to our results, the modified toxin was 5 folds less toxic than its native counterpart. Sera of animals immunized with the native and irradiated proteins were analyzed in order to evaluate levels of IgG, as well as to quantify specific isotopes. While the native proteins induced a predominant Th2 response, the irradiated molecules apparently promoted a switch towards a Th1 pattern. We also performed a cell proliferation assay with splenocytes from mice immunized with either the native or the irradiated proteins, cultured in the presence of the antigens. Our results indicate that both the forms of the proteins induced a similar proliferative response. These data indicate a potential use of detoxified proteins as antigens for immunization. (author)

  18. High dose rate sup 60 Co-RALS intraluminal radiation therapy for advanced biliary tract cancer with obstructive jaundice

    Tamada, Toshiaki; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Iwata, Kazuro; Ohishi, Hajime; Uchida, Hideo (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    High-dose-rate intraluminal irradiation with a {sup 60}Co remote afterloading system, using our newly developed applicator, was performed in 15 cases of advanced biliary tract cancer (2 gallbladder cancers, 13 cholangiocarcinomas). The applicator which was thin with an outer diameter of 14 Fr had a double lumen which included a small lumen for a guide wire for easy exchange to a drainage tube. Therefore, the irradiation procedure could be easily finished in a short time within little distress to the patient. The tumor marker CA1 19-9 was useful in assessing the therapeutic effect and follow-up observation after treatment. The average tube-free period and survival time were 5.9 months and 8.3 months, respectively. Histopathological examination of the cases autopsied showed that the combination of intraluminal (30 Gy) and external (30 Gy) irradiation offered good local control of the cancer that was within 1 cm from the source. Cholangiocarcinoma with relatively short length of obstruction, stage III or stage IV when the cancer infiltration was localized around the bile duct, achieved a comparatively long survival time. It was suggested that the combined use of high-dose-rate intraluminal radiotherapy, with precisely delivered radical radiation to tumors localized in the bile duct wall, and external radiotherapy delivered as additional radiation to the surrounding bile duct would provide radiotherapeutic advantage and contribute to survival after treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer. (author).

  19. Resposta de sementes de amendoim a diferentes doses de radiação gama (60Co Response of peanut seeds to different levels of gamma radiation (60Co

    Tatiana da S. Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A radiação gama, proveniente da fonte de 60Co, é bastante utilizada para esterilização, visando a prevenção da decomposição e a toxidez de origem microbiana em diversos produtos. O grau de radiossensibilidade de um embrião vegetal depende da espécie, do estágio de seu desenvolvimento durante a radiação, da dose empregada e do critério usado para medir o efeito biológico, sendo comumente utilizado o teste de germinação. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a sensibilidade do amendoim a radiação gama e seus efeitos na germinação, no vigor e na micoflora das sementes da cultivar BRS Havana, irradiadas com uma fonte de 60Co, tipo gammacell, com taxa de dosagem de 12,5 kGy h-1. As doses testadas em kGy foram as seguintes: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0; 12,0; 15,0; 18,0; 21,0 e 24,0. Com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que as doses acima de 3,0 kGy prejudicaram a viabilidade das sementes e as doses acima de 12 kGy comprometeram totalmente o vigor e a germinação das sementes de amendoim. A radiação a partir da dose 2,0 kGy eliminou os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus niger e, a partir da dose 3,0 kGy, eliminou o Aspergillus glaucus. O Penicilium spp. permaneceu em mais de 30% das sementes em todos os tratamentos com radiação, não sendo eliminado até a dose de 24 kGy.The gamma radiation from 60Co source is widely used for sterilization aiming at preventing decomposition and toxicity from microbes in several products. The degree of radiosensitvity of a plant embryo depends on the species, the development stage during radiation, doses used and the criteria used to measure the biological effect, the germination test, being commonly used.This work aimed to study the peanut sensitivity to gamma radiation and its effects in the germination, in the vigour and seeds microflora of cultivar BRS Havana, irradiated with 60Co source, type gammacell with rate of dosage of 12.5 kGy h-1. The tested doses were the

  20. Relationship of Dose of Total-Body 60Co Radiation to Incidence of Mammary Neoplasia In Female Rats

    Female, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on the 40th day of age to a single dose of total-body 60Co gamma radiation. AH animals were studied for the presence of mammary neoplasia, for a 360-day period, by removing surgically each mammary tumor and subjecting each to histological examination. The overall survival rate was 96% and was not less than 94% in any group. Three of 75 control, non-exposed rats developed a total of 3 mammary neoplasms. Three of 54 rats exposed to 15.6 R developed 4 mammary neoplasms. Three of 54 rats exposed to 31.2 R developed 5 mammary neoplasms. Nine of 54 rats exposed to 62.5 R developed 13 mammary neoplasms. Eighteen of 54 rats exposed to 125 R developed 23 mammary neoplasms. Thirty-two of 54 rats exposed to 250 R developed 54 mammary neoplasms. Forty of 54 rats exposed to 500 R developed 105 mammary neoplasms. It appears that both the per cent of rats with mammary neoplasia and the total number of mammary neoplasms increases in a reasonably regular manner with increasing dose, when studied for one year post-exposure. These findings are in agreement with a previous report from this laboratory. (author)

  1. Study of the action of 60Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of food borne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5kGy in a 60Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98kGy for S. poona and 0.72 e 0.88kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  2. Study of the action of 60Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of foodborne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy in a 60Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09 kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98 kGy for S. poona and 0.72 and 0.88 kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5 kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  3. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident

  4. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co; Estudo bioquimico e farmacologico das crotaminas nativa e irradiada com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with {sup 60} Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60} Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD{sub 50} and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of {sup 125} I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35{+-} 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal

  5. Gamma radiation effects of {sup 60} Co on Bombyx mori (Lep., Bombycidae) modifying the silk fiber production; Influencia da radiacao gama ({sup 60} Co) na producao de fios de seda em Bombyx mori(Lep.,Bombycidae)

    Carneiro Junior, Francisco [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil); Bendassolli, Jose A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The present work aimed to verify the biological effects of the application of different doses of gamma radiation during the fifth instar of the silkworm catepillar. Sevently eight silkworm caterpillars (Bombyx mori) were irradiated with {gamma}{sup 60} Co radiation at the initial period of the fifth instar. The caterpillars were divided and classified in six batches of thirteen individuals each. Treatments 1 through 5 received 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy, respectively, and the control, also consisted of thirteen caterpillars, was not irradiated. The results showed a general increase in the silk fiber content in the irradiated batches compared to the control. The weight of the silk cocoons was higher with increasing doses of irradiation, from 20 to 80 Gy, respectively, followed by a decrease in weight in the treatment irradiated with 100 Gy. the results obtained in this experiment enable the conclusion that the radiation applied to the caterpillars significantly influenced the production of silk fiber in this species. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Study on the radiation research of differentiation state oxalis triaggularis purpurea regeneration system by 60Co γ-rays

    To study the mutation method of Oxalis triangularis purpurea, the Oxalis triangularis purpurea regeneration system generated from the leaf was irradiated by 60Co γ-rays. It shows that the number of adventitious bud and root induced from the differentiation state Oxalis triangularis purpurea regeneration system are cut down with the increment of absorbed doses. After growth seedling length has not distinctly reduced while the absorbed dose is 10 Gy. And it has reduced at 25 Gy and 50 Gy of 60Co γ-rays irradiation with the differentiation state tissue of Oxalis triangularis purpurea. The mutation, such as leaf number, leaf colour and leaf shape mutation, mainly the leaf number mutation (76% of the total mutation) occur in the 60Co γ-rays irradiated group. The M2 mutation rate is 2.9%, and the main mutations are leaf number mutations. (authors)

  7. Effects of γ (60Co) and β (90Sr) radiations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1): induction of micronuclei and cell death

    Among various types of ionising radiation, the beta emitter radionuclides are involved in many sectors of human activity, such as nuclear medicine, nuclear industries and biomedicine, with a consequent increased risk of accidental, occupational or therapeutic exposure. Despite their recognized importance, there is little information about the effect of beta particles at the cellular level when compared to other types of ionizing radiation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 90Sr, a pure, highly energetic beta source, on CHO-K1 cells and to compare them with data obtained with 60Co. CHO-K1 cells irradiated with different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 Gy) of 60Co (0.34 Gy.min-1) and 90Sr (0.23 Gy.min-1) were processed for analysis of clonogenic death, induction of micronuclei (MN) and necrotic and apoptotic death. The survival curves obtained for both types of radiation were better fitted by the linear-quadratic model and were similar. However, the cytogenetic results showed that both the proportion of micronucleated cells and the magnitude of radioinduced lesions demonstrated by the analysis of MN distribution were significantly higher in cells irradiated with 60Co than in cells irradiated with 90Sr, whereas 90Sr was more damaging than 60Co in terms of cell death induction. Necrosis was the major type of death observed in CHO-K1 cells. The data obtained suggest that the low incidence of micronucleated cells after exposure to 90Sr may be a consequence of selective elimination of severely damaged cells from the population by the necrotic process at a higher rate than observed with 60Co exposure. The data obtained also demonstrated the need to use several parameters for a better estimate of cellular sensitivity to the action of genotoxic agents, which would be important in terms of radiobiology, oncology and therapeutics. (author)

  8. Aspects of the immune response against proteic antigens submitted to the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Aspectos da resposta imune frente a antigenos proteicos irradiados com {sup 60}Co

    Alves, Janaina Baptista. E-mail: janabap@gmail.com

    2004-07-01

    Considering the effects of gamma radiation on proteins and the capacity of the immune system to recognize modified macromolecules, we decided to evaluate some immunological aspects of B10.PL mice exposed to native or irradiated ovalbumin and bothrops toxin-1 (BthTx-1). In order to evaluate possible structural modifications of the molecules after being irradiated ({sup 60}Co gamma rays), bothrops toxin-1 was analysed by electrophoresis, while ovalbumin was submitted to analytical size exclusion chromatography. The toxin was also analysed by ESI-mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that radiation promoted modifications on both the molecules. Aiming to compare the toxicity of the native and irradiated forms of the toxin, an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, using CHO cells, was performed. According to our results, the modified toxin was 5 folds less toxic than its native counterpart. Sera of animals immunized with the native and irradiated proteins were analyzed in order to evaluate levels of IgG, as well as to quantify specific isotopes. While the native proteins induced a predominant Th2 response, the irradiated molecules apparently promoted a switch towards a Th1 pattern. We also performed a cell proliferation assay with splenocytes from mice immunized with either the native or the irradiated proteins, cultured in the presence of the antigens. Our results indicate that both the forms of the proteins induced a similar proliferative response. These data indicate a potential use of detoxified proteins as antigens for immunization. (author)

  9. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate Hass sometido a radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A, J.M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Biologia, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO{sub 2}/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  10. Characterization of 60Co and 137Cs beams from irradiator Shepherd 81 - 14D of LNMRI/IRD in radiation protection

    The objective of this work is the characterization of 60Co beams and the 137Cs irradiator Shepherd 81-14D acquired by the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionising Radiation of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (LNMRI /IRD), for use in calibration of measuring instruments of gamma radiation in air kerma and ambient dose equivalent, irradiation of films and TLD's. Field homogeneity measurements were carried out, calculated input and output time of the source and commissioning of sources. (author)

  11. Treatment of pituitaary dependent cushing's syndrome with closed stereotactic radiosurgery by means of 60Co gamma radiation

    Four patients with pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome treated with external irradiation to the pituitary using 60Co gamma irradiation given with a stereotactic technique. The size of the sella turcica was normal or slightly enlarged in all patients. The doses given varied between 7000 and 10000 rad, and the observation time ranged between 14 and 20 months. Three of the patients showed complete clinical remission and one marked improvement. One patient developed ACTH insufficiency, while none developed insufficient secretion of other pituitary hormones. No complications of the irradiation were observed. (author)

  12. Effect of the ionizing radiation of the 60Co on the radiological properties of guar gum and carboxymethylcellulose for the food industry use

    Hydrosoluble polysaccharides or gums are long chain polymers that dissolve or disperse in water. When added to foods, they change rheological characteristics, stabilize emulsions, promote particle suspension, control crystallization and inhibit sineresis of processed foods. Guar gum is an hydro soluble polysaccharide obtained from the seed of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. Carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC) is an homopolisaccharide prepared by the treatment of alkaline cellulose with sodium monochloroacetate. This work presents the results of the study of radiation effects on the viscosity of guar gum and CMC used for the food industry when irradiated with 60 Co ionizing radiation. (author)

  13. Combination of 60Co γ-radiation, misonidazole, and maltose tetrapalmitate in the treatment of Dunning prostatic tumor in the rat

    Maltose tetrapalmitate (MTP), a synthetic nontoxic immunoadjuvant, the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO), and 60Co γ-radiation, alone or in combination, were used in the management of Dunning prostatic tumor in the rat. Nine groups of 10 rats each were used to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities. Tumor growth rates and animal survival times were determined for each group. Radiation was more effective when combined with MTP, but the adjuvant must be present when radiation is given for synergism to occur. MISO was as effective as MTP when used with radiation, but combining them cancels out their individual effects. In a clinical situation it would be advantageous to use separately the synergisms existing between MISO and radiation on the one hand and MTP and radiation on the other hand

  14. Intra-arterial administration of carboplatin plus lower dosage radiation of 60CO as induction treatment in advanced oral cancer

    Conventional pre-operative chemoradiotherapy often causes severe side effects, which may result in interruption of the treatment and delay of decided operation. Carboplatin (CBDCA) is one of the effective chemotherapeutants for head and neck cancer. We treated 23 patients with advanced oral cancers by a combination of intra-arterial administration of Carboplatin and 60CO radiotherapy. The dosage of Carboplatin was between 20 mg and 35 mg per square meter of body surface. The dosage of external 60CO irradiation was 2 Gy per day and 30 to 60 Gy in total. We evaluated clinical response, toxicity and survival of this therapy of all the patients. Histologic response was also evaluated in some of them. All cancers responded to the regional chemoradiotherapy and demonstrated remission. Two (8%) completed response rate (CR) and 16 (69%) partial response rate (PR) were achieved. The accumulated five-year overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier method was 73.9%. Fourteen patients (60.8%) showed no evidence of disease (NED) within five years after the therapy. All patients had stomatitis, but most of them were not so severe. The major hematological toxicity was leukopenia, but it was from mild to moderate and reversible. Our study showed that this therapy provided low toxicity, high clinical and histological response rate. (author)

  15. Comparisons of the standards for air kerma of the PTB and the BIPM for 60Co and 137Cs gamma radiation

    Direct comparisons of the standards for air kerma of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) were carried out in the 60Co and 137 Cs radiation beams of the BIPM in 2000. The results, expressed as ratios of the PTB and the BIPM standards for air kerma, indicate a relative difference in 60Co of 9.9 x 10-3 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.8 x 10-3, and in 137Cs of 6.4 x 10-3 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.8 x 10-3. The earlier comparisons in 60Co γ rays made in 1971 (direct) and 1989 (indirect) resulted in an agreement of the two standards within 2 x 10-3. The differences obtained now are due to the application of new correction factors for wall effects and point source non-uniformity of the beam, kwall and kpn, for the PTB standards, which were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. (authors)

  16. Comparisons of the standards for air kerma of the PTB and the BIPM for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Buermann, L.; Kramer, H.M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    Direct comparisons of the standards for air kerma of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) were carried out in the {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs radiation beams of the BIPM in 2000. The results, expressed as ratios of the PTB and the BIPM standards for air kerma, indicate a relative difference in {sup 60}Co of 9.9 x 10{sup -3} with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.8 x 10{sup -3}, and in {sup 137}Cs of 6.4 x 10{sup -3} with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.8 x 10{sup -3}. The earlier comparisons in {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays made in 1971 (direct) and 1989 (indirect) resulted in an agreement of the two standards within 2 x 10{sup -3}. The differences obtained now are due to the application of new correction factors for wall effects and point source non-uniformity of the beam, k{sub wall} and k{sub pn}, for the PTB standards, which were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. (authors)

  17. Direct MC conversion of absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water for 60Co radiation.

    Lye, J E; Butler, D J; Franich, R D; Harty, P D; Oliver, C P; Ramanathan, G; Webb, D V; Wright, T

    2013-06-01

    The ARPANSA calibration service for (60)Co gamma rays is based on a primary standard graphite calorimeter that measures absorbed dose to graphite. Measurements with the calorimeter are converted to the absorbed dose to water using the calculation of the ratio of the absorbed dose in the calorimeter to the absorbed dose in a water phantom. ARPANSA has recently changed the basis of this calculation from a photon fluence scaling method to a direct Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The MC conversion uses an EGSnrc model of the cobalt source that has been validated against water tank and graphite phantom measurements, a step that is required to quantify uncertainties in the underlying interaction coefficients in the MC code. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 showed an agreement of 0.9973 (53). PMID:23152147

  18. A study on the radiative mutation on the seeds of Adzuki bean by 60Co γ ray

    The seeds of Adzuki bean were irradiated by 60Co γ ray of 0-700 Gy. The results showed that: (1) The sub-lethal dose (LD50) was 389 Gy and the early seedling leaf at M1 showed incised, chlorotic, yellow, mosaic and curly edge. The absorbed dose was related with the rate of misshaped leaf. chromosomal aberration, chromosome bridge and fragment of M1 in the tip were observed. If the seed was irradiated with 400 Gy, the rate of abnormal cell at the root was more than 10%. The relationship between pollen fertility and irradiation dose was negative correlated. When the irradiation dose was 387 Gy, the pollen fertility was 50% in the seeds of Adzuki bean. (2) The optimum irradiation dose for the seed of Adzuki bean is 400 Gy in the M1 and M2

  19. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  20. Ionizing radiation from 60Co and electron accelerator in reducing the population of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs: evaluation of acceptance by consumer

    Salmonella sp. is one of the main microorganisms that causes outbreaks of food borne diseases associated to poultry, and among its derivatives, the chicken meatballs are getting the favorites of the consumer. In the attempt to improve microbiological food safety, a method that has been hardly studied is the irradiation. To study the viability of the use o ionizing radiation originated from 60 Co and electrons accelerator in the reduction of Salmonella sp., frozen chickens meatballs were inoculated with 104 CFU/g of Salmonella sp., with needle and syringe. Subsequently they were exposure to doses of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy and Salmonella sp. was enumerated. Chicken meatballs were exposed to doses 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and submitted to sensory analysis. The gamma radiation from 60CO was effective in the reduction of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs. The ionizing radiation originated from electron beam was not effective in the conditions applied in this research. The commercial chicken meatballs prepared with chicken meat, mixed up with soy protein, seasoning and anti-oxidants additives did not loose their sensorial quality when exposure to doses of 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and, in a general way, the consumers showed to be disposed to buy the irradiation product (author)

  1. 60Co levels in the seawater regions

    In order to assess the contribution from nuclear power facilities to the 60Co levels in seawater regions, it is essential to grasp the background values of 60Co. The following matters are described: 60Co sources and the respective inputs; nuclear test fallout and nuclear power plants; the 60Co levels in overseas countries; the 60Co levels in Japan; the 60Co levels from nuclear power plants in Fukui prefecture. In the seawater regions around Japan, there have been numerous instances of 60Co detection; several pCi/kg of dry earth in sea bottom earth and about 1 pCi/kg of raw material in marine life can be considered as the background levels due to nuclear test fallout and nuclear-powered submarines. In the seawater regions of Fukui prefecture, the 60Co levels appreciably exceeded the above background due to the nuclear power plants, which are insignificant concerning the radiation exposure of the local people. (Mori, K.)

  2. Energy response of GR-200A thermoluminescence dosemeters to 60Co and to monoenergetic synchrotron radiation in the energy range 28-40 keV.

    Emiro, F; Di Lillo, F; Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Longo, R; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-01

    The response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosemeters (type GR-200A) to monoenergetic radiation of energy 28, 35, 38 and 40 keV was evaluated with respect to irradiation with a calibrated (60)Co gamma-ray source. High-precision measurements of the relative air kerma response performed at the SYRMEP beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy) showed a significant deviation of the average response to low-energy X-rays from that to (60)Co, with an over-response from 6 % (at 28 keV) to 22 % (at 40 keV). These data are not consistent with literature data for these dosemeters, where model predictions gave deviation from unity of the relative air kerma response of about 10 %. The authors conclude for the need of additional determinations of the low-energy relative response of GR-200A dosemeters, covering a wider range of monoenergetic energies sampled at a fine energy step, as planned in future experiments by their group at the ELETTRA facility. PMID:25737582

  3. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  4. Measurement of 60CO gamma radiation induced attenuation in multimode step-index POF at 530 nm

    Kovačević Milan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As optical fibres are used ever more extensively in space applications, nuclear industry, medicine and high-energy physics experiments, it has become essential to investigate the influence of ionizing radiation on their characteristics. In this work, the radiation-induced attenuation at 530 nm is investigated experimentally in step-index multimode polymethyl-methacrylate plastic optical fibres exposed to low dose-rate gamma radiation. Cumulative doses ranged from 50 Gy to 500 Gy. The radiation induced attenuation has been empirically found to obey the power law RIA= aDb, where D is the total radiation dose and a and b are the constants determined by fitting.

  5. Effect of 60Co gamma radiation on insects infesting rice during storage. Part III. Oryzaephylus surinamensis L., Cryptolestes pusillus S. and Cryptolestes ferrugineus S. (Cucujidae; Coleoptera)

    Losses in rice grain in quantity and quality during storage are caused by insects infestations. In this paper the effect of 60Co gamma radiation on the mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis L., Cryptolestes pusillus S. and Cryptolestes ferrugineus S. adults was study. Insects were irradiated with doses from 0,20 to 1,00 kGy at dose rates from 0,97 to 0,94 kGy.h-1. After the treatment, the radiation damages were evaluated taking in consideration the sterility and mortality produced in the irradiated populations. According to the experimental results it was confirmed that irradiation doses from 0,40 to 0,60 kGy were effective to control the insects pests of stored rice in Cuba

  6. Improving the Content of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus by 60Coγ Radiation%60Coγ射线辐射诱变提高长春花生物碱含量

    赵剑; 李建国

    2009-01-01

    本实验采用长春花种子为材料,用60Coγ射线不同剂量处理,统计处理萌发率和成株率,并观察当代表型变异率和进行回归模型分析.结果分析60Coγ射线辐照长春花种子的半致死剂量平均为174 Gy,照射长春花种子的较适宜剂量为200 Gy.我们观察到长春花M,代生长初期有明显的叶形不对称、叶缘卷曲等致变现象,各种畸形叶出现频率与辐照剂量大小有关.通过辐照,我们得到长春花高杆变异、矮杆变异等变异植株,并利用HPLC检测发现高杆变异株型长春花生物碱含量比未照射的CK多出24%.

  7. Estimation of radiation dose received by the victims in a Chinese radiation accident

    In April 1999, a radiation accident happened in Henan province, China. In this accident, A 60 Co ex-service therapy radiation source was purchased by a waster purchase company, then some persons break the lead pot and taken out the stainless steel drawer with the radiation source, then sell the drawer to another small company, and the buyer reserved the drawer in his bed room until all of his family members shoot their cookies. During the event, seven persons received overdose exposure, the dose rang is about 1.0 - 6.0Gy, especially, all of the buyer family members meet with bad radiation damage. In order to assess the accident consequences and cure the patients of the bad radiation damage, it is necessary to estimate the doses of the Victims in the accident. In the dose reconstruction of the accident victims, we adopted biologic dose method, experiment-simulating method with an anthropomorphic phantom, and theory simulating method with Monte Carlo to estimate the doses of the victims. In this paper, the frame of the accident and the Monte Carlo method in our work will be described, the main dose results of the three methods mentioned above will be reported and a comparison analysis will be presented

  8. Seabuckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1) counters radiation damage by regulating time kinetics of apoptosis in jejunal crypts in total body 60Co-gamma-irradiated mice

    The radioprotective properties of plant Hippophae rhamnoides L. (common name Seabuckthorn, family Eleagnaceae) were reported and treatment with SBL-1 (herbal preparation from Seabuckthorn leaves), before whole body exposure to 60Co-gamma-rays (10 Gy), rendered >90% survivors in mice population, while 100% mortality was observed in non-SBL-1 treated, 60Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) controls. Purpose of this study was to investigate the early as well as late modifying effects of SBL-1 on radiation induced apoptosis in jejunal crypts and m-RNA levels and protein levels of Bcl2 and Bax. A 30 day study was performed with 8-9 weeks old inbred male Swiss albino Strain 'A mice. Histology study was performed with jejunum to record the time dependent changes in the number of apoptotic cells in Crypts of Lieberkuhn; quantitative reverse polymerase chain reaction was performed to record the time kinetic of changes in m-RNA levels of BcI-2 and Bax genes. The changes in BcI-2 and Bax proteins were also recorded by western blotting. One time administration of SBL-1, prior to lethal whole body irradiation (10 Gy), significantly (p< 0.05) countered the radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells, Bax levels, and decrease in BcI-2 in a time dependent manner from 24 h till day 30. This study demonstrated that one of the underlying mechanisms of SBL-1 for countering radiation induced GI syndrome was by altering the time kinetics of apoptosis in cryptal cells; besides reducing the early damage. (author)

  9. The use of ionising radiation from 60CO gamma source in controlling mouldiness in dried cocoa beans

    Mouldiness in stored cocoa beans in Ghana and the production of aflatoxin have been studied. Based on actual weight of discarded beans, mouldy beans have been estimated to constitute 0.13 % and 0.00002 % of marketable beans at the farmers' level and the buying agents' depots respectively in the Tafo District. This is contrasted with an estimated value of 0.16 % obtained in a questionnaire type study involving farmers. Estimated mouldy beans at the Tema port was 0.69 % per year (based on the cut test) representing a financial loss of $1,688,637.19 per year at $989/T should the mouldy beans be discarded. Fifty-eight (58) internally- and externally- borne fungal species were isolated from dried cocoa beans. Of these, forty-eight (48) were internally- borne and ten (10) were superficial. Twenty-nine (29) of the internally occurring fungi have been recorded for the first time on cocoa beans in Ghana. Twenty-six (26) of the fungi isolated belong to Aspergillus group. They included A. parasiticus and A. flavus, which can produce aflatoxins. Five (5) belong to Penicillium, eight (8) to Fusarium and nineteen (19) to other species. Ionising radiation effectively controlled fungi associated with mouldiness in cocoa beans in a dose - dependent manner. A radiation dose of 6 kGy completely inactivated the moulds. A. flavus and A. tamarii were the most radiation - resistant moulds encountered. The moisture content of the beans before, during and after irradiation influenced the effect of radiation. The relative humidity during storage and the type of packaging also influenced the radiation effect. Conidia of A. flavus subjected to moist heat at temperatures 20 0C to 60 0C for 2.5, 5 and 10 min respectively were not significantly affected by heating up to 50 0C. Heating an aqueous conidial suspension at 60 0C for at least 2.5 min reduced the number of fungal colonies by at least 5 log cycles when the suspension was assayed on agar plate media. Heating at 59 0C for 10 min

  10. Emergency department radiation accident protocol.

    Leonard, R B; Ricks, R C

    1980-09-01

    Every emergency department faces the potential problem of handling one or more victims of a radiation accident. While emergency departments near nuclear power plants or isotope production laboratories probably have a detailed protocol for such emergencies, a similar protocol is needed for the emergency department that may have to handle an isolated event, such as a vehicular accident that spills radioactive material and contaminates passengers or bystanders. This communication attempts to answer that need, presenting a step-by-step protocol for decontamination of a radiation victim, the rationale on which each step is based, a list of needed supplies, and a short summary of decorporation procedures that should be started in the emergency department. PMID:7425419

  11. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  12. Survey on risk perception of radiation following an incident involving a stuck 60Co source in Henan Province, China

    In July 2009, an incident involving a stuck Co-60 source led hundreds of thousands of people to escape Qi County, Henan Province, China, although no medical or environmental consequences were related to the incident. To investigate knowledge about radiation, public risk-perception of radiation, and evaluation of the official response, a survey was conducted in Qi and Hui County (control). Face-to-face questionnaire interviews were conducted among three groups with different educational backgrounds. In total, 1340 valid questionnaires were collected from people interviewed. Knowledge about radiation was low in all groups in both counties, although knowledge in Qi County was higher than that in Hui County (control). More than 40 % respondents supported construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in China, while only a few supported constructing NPPs in their vicinity. The main reasons for the mass escape following the incident were assumed to be lack of knowledge about radiation, misinformation, the government's failure to disclose information in time and imitation of group behaviour. Over 60 % in Group I and II trusted the local government. About 64 % disapproved the response of the Qi County government. After the incident, the population in Qi County still knows little about radiation. Although people trust the government, they are dissatisfied with the response of the local government regarding the incident. (authors)

  13. Effect of gamma radiation (60Co) on the organoleptic and nutritive properties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. mulatinho)

    The study of the influence of gamma radiation on the organoleptic and nutritive properties of kidney beans is presented. Samples of this vegetable were irradiated with 15 krad and stored for five months. Immediately after irradiation and monthly, sensory evaluations and chemical analysis of the vitamins thiamin (B1) and riboflavin (B2) were accomplished in the samples. The results showed an evident influence of radiation during its application since the higher losses occurred immediately after this treatment, mainly in riboflavin, which from the total losses observed, 47,9% occurred during irradiation. The riboflavin is much more sensitive to gamma radiation and in terms of organoleptic properties it was observed the development of an undesirable flavor and a hardening of the texture in the irradiated samples. However, at the end of the experiment no difference was found between control and irradiated samples

  14. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K1 of the air-kerma standards of the NIM, China and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D.; Wang, K.; Fan, Y.; Jin, S.; Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for air kerma of the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in November 2015. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the NIM and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 0.9997 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.7 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Prophylaxis of radiation pneumonitis by means of oxyphenbutazone (Tanderil) in postoperative 60Co telegamma therapy of patients with breast cancer

    The radiation pneumonitis of 44 patients suffering from breast cancer was treated prophylactically with 400-600 mg/day oxyphenbutazone (OPB) during and 15-20 days after postoperative radiotherapy. The development of the radiation pneumonitis was investigated by clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic examination of the lungs before and up to 24 months after OPB treatment. Only in 8% a clinically manifest pneumonitis could be revealed compared to 35% in 125 untreated controls. Radiographically proved and intensified pulmonary markings as well as infiltrative alterations and fibrosis were found in 55.8% of the treated patients and in 78.4% of the controls. According to perfusion scintigraphy and measured activities the capillary perfusion exhibited similar regularities in both groups with a frequency rate of 77.3% to 90% (OPB patients to controls). The OPB prophylaxis resulted not only in a decrease of frequency and degree of severity of the radiation injuries but also in favorable prerequisites for nearly complete repair of the damages

  16. Damage to plasmid DNA produced by 60Co-gamma radiation and subsequent repair processes in E. coli with and without SOS induction

    This study was carried out to provide information on the question as to whether radiation-induced separation of double-stranded DNA in E. coli is followed by repair processes leading to the formation of replicable material. For the detection of those double-strand breaks, E. coli was first transformed using enzymatically linearised dBR 322-DNA. This served as a reference standard to compare the transformations using radiated DNA. DNA was either exposed to increasing doses of 60Co-gamma radiation or separated into one oc-fraction and one lin-fraction following exposure to 30 Gy. The DNA samples thus obtained were then used to transform three different strains of E. coli (wild strain, SFX, SFXrecA-). In order to improve the repair yield, the cells were additionally SOS-induced using ultraviolet radiation. The mutation rates were a measure of the number of errors occurring during the various repair processes. Restriction analysis was carried out to characterise the resulting mutants in greater detail. (orig./MG)

  17. Definition of spatial distribution of the absorbed dose of γ-radiation source 60Co for installation URI

    The study of energy distribution among different objects (as well as forms of energy absorption in them) being researched in radiation chemistry, radiobiology and micro-dosimetry has become one of the actual problems recently. Impossibility of practical parameters definition makes the theoretical solution of the problem one of the major tasks in this field. The most probable primary processes of interaction the γ-radiation with subjects of inquiry are Compton dispersion and photoeffect. Therefore in this work on the base of Compton dispersion and photoeffect an entire spectrum of dispersive γ-quanta and δ-electrons formed in the result of monoenergetic γ-quanta interaction with different media (gaseous, liquid, solid) is calculated. The flux density of γ-quanta in any part of cylindrical working volume is determined. Section of interaction of monoenergetic γ-quanta with the medium is calculated by the equation of Klein-Nishina-Tamm and Bete. Depending on energy spectrum of δ-electrons obtained in the result of the interaction their average energy is determined by means of stepping method. Interaction process cross-sectional of δ-electrons with the medium is determined by the equation of Grizinsky. The account proceeded up to value of δ-electrons energy approached to value of medium ionization energy. Dose rate received by a calculation way on the formula: P = k·φi (k - the constant of transition from density of a flow to a dose) to within ±5 % coincides with experimental values. The account was carried out on the basis of installations available in Section of Radiation Researches National Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, and on the basis of the mathematical program Mathcad

  18. Genetic effects of a combination of chronic 60Co-γ-radiation and lead nitrate on barley waxy-locus

    Using a highly sensitive test-system of a waxy change in pollen grains of waxy barley it was shown that chronic irradiation at dose-rates of 4.2-10.8x10-5 Gy/c increased the level of the induced waxy-reversions by 3.6-8.0 times in comparison with the spontaneous level. The introduction of lead nitrate to a soil-sand mixture modified the value of mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of radiation on barley waxy-locus

  19. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of 60 Co

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co60, in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co60 in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico in samples of you hoist of all the treatments

  20. Soil compaction and gamma radiation (60Co) in the development of the cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m-3 - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m-3 - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  1. A comparison of the biological effects of 125I seeds continuous low-dose-rate radiation and 60Co high-dose-rate gamma radiation on non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Zhongmin Wang

    Full Text Available To compare the biological effects of 125I seeds continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR radiation and 60Co γ-ray high-dose-rate (HDR radiation on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells.A549, H1299 and BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 125I seeds CLDR radiation or 60Co γ-ray HDR radiation. The survival fraction was determined using a colony-forming assay. The cell cycle progression and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry (FCM. The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, PARP, cleaved-PARP, BAX and Bcl-2 were detected by western blot assay.After irradiation with 125I seeds CLDR radiation, there was a lower survival fraction, more pronounced cell cycle arrest (G1 arrest and G2/M arrest in A549 and H1299 cells, respectively and a higher apoptotic ratio for A549 and H1299 cells than after 60Co γ-ray HDR radiation. Moreover, western blot assays revealed that 125I seeds CLDR radiation remarkably up-regulated the expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP proteins and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins in A549 and H1299 cells compared with 60Co γ-ray HDR radiation. However, there was little change in the apoptotic ratio and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in normal BEAS-2B cells receiving the same treatment.125I seeds CLDR radiation led to remarkable growth inhibition of A549 and H1299 cells compared with 60Co HDR γ-ray radiation; A549 cells were the most sensitive to radiation, followed by H1299 cells. In contrast, normal BEAS-2B cells were relatively radio-resistant. The imbalance of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the activation of caspase-3 and PARP proteins might play a key role in the anti-proliferative effects induced by 125I seeds CLDR radiation, although other possibilities have not been excluded and will be investigated in future studies.

  2. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on toxicity and hemorrhagic, myonecrotic, and edema-forming activities of Cerastes cerastes venom

    Antisera are used as effective antidotes against the local effects of snake bites. To improve antisera production and extend the life of surrogates used to produce antibodies, the chronic effects of venom toxicity must be reduced. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to reduce the local effects associated with viperid snake bites by evaluating in NMRI mice the toxicity and edematic, hemorrhagic, and myonecrotic activities of native and irradiated Cerastes cerastes venoms. These results indicated that the toxicity of irradiated venoms (1 and 2 kGy) decreased as compared with that of native venom. The edematic and hemorrhagic activities were also reduced in the detoxified samples, particularly with the 2-kGy radiation dose. Furthermore, the creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity was significantly increased in the serum and decreased in the myocardium after envenomation with native venom, but no significant enzymatic changes were observed in mice envenomated with irradiated venom. Histopathologic evaluation showed that native venom caused severe degenerative changes in the myocardium. In the case of 2-kGy-irradiated venom, no tissue alterations were observed. These results indicate that irradiation of venom with a 2-kGy dose may offer an effective method for reducing the chronic toxic effects of venom in immunized animals. (author)

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Diethyltoluamide (DEET) in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussels non-irradiated and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation

    Recent studies have identified the presence of several emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. The occurrence in different environmental matrices has been continuously reported, highlighting the need for toxicity studies. The DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient used in most insect repellents, and is present in many commercially available formulations. Apart from chemical pollutants, aquatic organisms are subject to exposure of ionizing radiation from natural sources or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DEET in organisms irradiated and non-irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation, and the effects that radiation causes in lysosomes of hemocytes of Perna perna mussel. For this purpose, assays were performed to identify the acute toxicity of DEET concentration and the dose of gamma radiation able to cause mortality. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays were carried out to assess the stability of the lysosomal membrane in organisms exposed to ionizing radiation and DEET. According to the results obtained in acute toxicity tests, the concentration of DEET that causes mortality of 50% exposed organisms (LC50) is 114,27 mg L-1, and the radiation dose that causes mortality (LD50) is 1068 Gy. In the cytotoxicity assays, the concentration of the non-observed effect (NOEC) for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms 0.0001 mg L-1 and observed effect concentration (LOEC) at concentrations above this. The IC25 (72h) for non-irradiated organisms was 0.0003 mg L-1 and IC50 (72h) was 0.0008 mg L-1 for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. Despite of the concentrations of effect found in this study were higher than in the environment, both measurements are in the same order of magnitude and should be also take into account the possible synergistic effects of DEET with other contaminants in the aquatic environment. (author)

  4. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses (60Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e) The

  5. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the 60Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B1, B2 and B6 protein content, biological evaluation in rats [Food intake and Weight gain (in grams), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  6. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 of the absorbed dose to water standards of the PTB, Germany and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Krauss, A.

    2016-01-01

    An indirect comparison has been made of the standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co radiation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), Germany and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The measurements at the BIPM were carried out in October 2015. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and evaluated as a ratio of the PTB and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9977 with a combined standard uncertainty of 3.8 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. KEY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation

    Büermann, L.; Oborin, A. V.; Dobrovosky, J.; Milevsky, V. S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Lapenas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Effect of the ionizing radiation of the {sup 60}Co on the radiological properties of guar gum and carboxymethylcellulose for the food industry use; Efeito da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co sobre propriedades radiologicas da goma guar e carboximetilcelulose para uso na industria alimenticia

    Vieira, Fernando Fabris; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Hydrosoluble polysaccharides or gums are long chain polymers that dissolve or disperse in water. When added to foods, they change rheological characteristics, stabilize emulsions, promote particle suspension, control crystallization and inhibit sineresis of processed foods. Guar gum is an hydro soluble polysaccharide obtained from the seed of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. Carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC) is an homopolisaccharide prepared by the treatment of alkaline cellulose with sodium monochloroacetate. This work presents the results of the study of radiation effects on the viscosity of guar gum and CMC used for the food industry when irradiated with {sup 60} Co ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Effects of {gamma} ({sup 60}Co) and {beta} ({sup 90}Sr) radiations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1): induction of micronuclei and cell death; Efeitos das radiacoes {gamma} ({sup 60}Co) e {beta} ({sup 90}Sr) em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1): inducao de micronucleos e morte celular

    Murakami, Daniella

    2003-07-01

    Among various types of ionising radiation, the beta emitter radionuclides are involved in many sectors of human activity, such as nuclear medicine, nuclear industries and biomedicine, with a consequent increased risk of accidental, occupational or therapeutic exposure. Despite their recognized importance, there is little information about the effect of beta particles at the cellular level when compared to other types of ionizing radiation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of {sup 90}Sr, a pure, highly energetic beta source, on CHO-K1 cells and to compare them with data obtained with {sup 60}Co. CHO-K1 cells irradiated with different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 Gy) of {sup 60}Co (0.34 Gy.min{sup -1}) and {sup 90}Sr (0.23 Gy.min{sup -1}) were processed for analysis of clonogenic death, induction of micronuclei (MN) and necrotic and apoptotic death. The survival curves obtained for both types of radiation were better fitted by the linear-quadratic model and were similar. However, the cytogenetic results showed that both the proportion of micronucleated cells and the magnitude of radioinduced lesions demonstrated by the analysis of MN distribution were significantly higher in cells irradiated with {sup 60}Co than in cells irradiated with {sup 90}Sr, whereas {sup 90}Sr was more damaging than {sup 60}Co in terms of cell death induction. Necrosis was the major type of death observed in CHO-K1 cells. The data obtained suggest that the low incidence of micronucleated cells after exposure to {sup 90}Sr may be a consequence of selective elimination of severely damaged cells from the population by the necrotic process at a higher rate than observed with {sup 60}Co exposure. The data obtained also demonstrated the need to use several parameters for a better estimate of cellular sensitivity to the action of genotoxic agents, which would be important in terms of radiobiology, oncology and therapeutics. (author)

  10. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  11. Medical response and management of radiation accidents

    An overview is provided of educational programs and principles essential to the appropriate medical management of radiation accident victims. Such an education program will provide details of the physical properties of radiation, of the sources of radiation exposure, of radiation protection standards and of biological radiation effects. The medical management of individuals involved in radiation accidents is discussed. Such management includes emergency medical stabilization, locating and quantitating the level and degree of internal and/or external contamination, wound decontamination, medical surveillance and the evaluation and treatment of local radiation injuries

  12. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  13. Radiation Accident Experience: Causes and Lessons Learned

    Since inception of the nuclear energy program in the United States of America, the Atomic. Energy Commission (USAEC) has maintained an extensive system for the reporting and review of radiation accidents in USAEC federal and licensing activities. Accidents required to be reported fall-into two main categories: (1) Accidents causing or threatening to cause radiation exposure to industrial workers or to the general public; (2) Accidents causing damage to or shutdown of facilities, or damage to public property. While many of the reported accidents carry with them the potential for exposure of persons to radioactivity, the cases reported, in this analysis are limited to those where certain prescribed levels of exposure have been exceeded or where significant uptake by the critical organ has occurred. This paper presents detailed analyses of the accident experience encountered in USAEC programs over the past nine years, including: (1) A breakdown of the types of work activities in the nuclear industry under which radiation accidents have occurred; (2) Characterization of the causes of such accidents as related to the types of work activities; (3) Lessons to be learned both in avoiding such accidents and in emergency planning, should such accidents occur. (author)

  14. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  15. Comparative effects of protracted exposures to 60Co γ-radiation and 239Pu α-radiation on breeding performance in female mice

    Breeding performances are compared of hybrid female mice given 239Pu(5 or 10μCikg-1 body mass in 1 per cent trisodium citrate via the tail-vein), or kept in a 10rad/day or 20rad/day 60Co γ-irradiation field (but mated in the control area), or unirradiated. Ovarian dose-rates from the injected plutonium were initially 0.8 and 1.7 rad/day, changing little thereafter; actual γ-ray dose-rates to breeding females averaged around 8 and 16 rad/day respectively. Both γ-ray treatments affected reproductive performance more than the plutonium injections, with respect to duration of fertility and to offspring per litter in successive 4-weekly periods, though overall mean litter-sizes were not significantly less than controls. The r.b.e. for these effects on reproduction, attributed to germ-cell killing, is about 2.5 for the α particles vs. γ-rays, lower than for testis mass reduction in males. This low r.b.e. may be connected with inhomogeneity of α-particle dose within the ovary, but it is known that fission neutron versus gamma r.b.e.'s for impairment of female fertility are also lower than those for impairment of male fertility. (Author)

  16. Radiation Effects of 60Co γ-Rays on Expression of CDKN1A mRNA in Human Lymphocytoblast%60Co γ射线照射正常人淋巴母细胞诱导CDKN1A基因mRNA表达水平的变化

    朱昊; 施展; 何颖; 沈先荣; 王国卿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study effect of 60Co γ-rays radiation with different doses on expression of CDKN1A gene mRNA in human lymphocytoblasl cultured for different time. Methods After human lym-phocytoblasts were irradiated by the 60Co γ-rays with various doses of 0, 0. 2, 1,3,5 and 10 Gy,and cells were separately cultured for sustaining survival during 0, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The total RNA was extracted from each sample and the real-time PCR was conducted to observe the gene CDKN1A mR-NA level changes in lymphocytoblasts exposed to various radiation doses for various cultured time. Results Expressive levels of the CDKNIA mRNA in lymphocytoblasts gradually went up with increasing radiation doses, which showed γ-rays dose dependent from 0 Gy to 5 Gy (P <0. 05), and reach the peak when cells were cultured for 24 h after exposing to radiation while displayed an expressive downtrend during the later stage of cell culture. Conclusion Increase of the CDKN1A mRNA expression level in human lymphocytoblasts after exposing to 60Co γ-rays radiation within 24 hours of culture shows a dose dependent way, which may be used to evaluate the ionizing radiation dose.%目的 探讨不同剂量60Co γ射线在不同培养时间后对人淋巴母细胞AHH-1细胞CDKNIA基因mRNA表达的影响.方法 用不同剂量(0、0.2、1、3、5、10Gy)的60Coγ射线照射正常人淋巴母细胞AHH-1细胞,在不同维持存活培养时间(0、4、24、48、72、96 h)内收集细胞,抽提总RNA,用实时PCR方法检测细胞中CDKNIA基因mRNA表达水平,观察其随辐照剂量和培养时间的变化.结果 AHH-1细胞中CDKN1A基因 mRNA的表达水平随辐照剂量的加大而增加,在0~5Gy之间具有一定剂量依赖性关系(P<0.05);辐照后培养24 h时基因表达达到峰值,24h之后呈现下降趋势.结论 不同剂量γ射线照射人AHH-1细胞会导致CDKNIA基因表达水平在培养24h内随辐射剂量增加而升高,这种剂量依赖性关系可能适用于电离辐射剂量的估算.

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of radiation accident situation

    The publication contains the classification of neutron spectra from different neutron sources, a chapter on neutron absorption by the human body, a diagram for neutron and photon dose estimation and for classifying persons involved in a radiation accident, the description of detectors and methods used for radiation accident analysis, a chapter on the interpretation of data from an accidental dosimetric system, and annexes. (H.S.)

  18. Recent regional key comparison results for air kerma and absorbed dose to water in X-rays and 60Co radiation

    Degrees of equivalence (DoE) of the national standards as a result of periodically organized supporting key or supplementary comparisons are essential to maintain the calibration and measurement capabilities CMC lines in the database of the CIPM MRA. All the primary and secondary' standard dosimetry laboratories belong to at least one of the APMP, AFRIMETS, COOMET, EURAMET, and SIM Regional Metrology Organizations. Most of their host country's NMIs have signed the CIPM MRA and these NMIs or Designated Institutes (DI) in 32 countries worldwide have published dosimetry CMC's. From these 941 claims, 222 relate to the calibration of a wide variety of dosemeters in term of air kerma or absorbed dose to water being used in diagnostic or therapy practice in hospitals. In the case of low and medium energy X-ray beam qualities, one regional key comparison (APMP.RI (I)-K3) has been published and has some results that do not fully support the stated uncertainties of the participants. The other two similar comparisons (APMP.RI (I)-K-2, SIM.RI (I)-K-2) are still ongoing. For air kerma of the 60Co beam from the APMP.RI(I)-K1, SIM.RI(I)-K1 and EURAMET.RI(I)-K1 comparisons there are two results among the twenty-one recently established DoE values that is outside the expanded uncertainty. Further technical details of regional comparisons including the stated uncertainty budgets for the calibration of a typical therapy ionization chamber will be presented in the poster. Concerning the future regional key and supplementary comparison program the most important issues are the following: - encourage the dosimetry laboratories to organise and coordinate these comparisons, - more economic arrangement of the X-ray comparisons on the basis of the generic beam qualities of the 85 standard qualities, - organization of supplementary comparisons in term of air kerma length to support the CT dose measurements, - using dedicated mammography X-ray tube for air kerma comparisons of mammography

  19. Effect of ~(60)CoRadiation to the Proliferation, Growth and Antioxidant Characteristics of in vitro Garlic(Allium sativum L.)Plantlets%~(60)Co-γ射线辐照对大蒜试管苗增殖、生长及抗氧化特性的影响

    曾旋睿; 蒋芳玲; 吴震; 郭菊叶; 靳慧卿

    2009-01-01

    Using the in vitro plantlets from anthotaxy of garlic variet Ershuizao'as material, effect of different dosage radiation to the plantlets were studied in this paper. The results showed, with 0~16 Gy radiation dosages, there is no death in garlic plantlets. Subter-1Gy radiation have unapparent effect to garlic plantlets, radiations more than 4Gy led to restrain of proliferation and growth of plantlets, restraining degree enhanced a-long with the increasing dosages. Simultaneity, radiations also influence generation rate of superoxide radical (O_2~-· ), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidse (POD) and ctalase (CAT) of garlic plantlets.%以大蒜品种'二水早'花序轴离体培养形成的试管苗为材料,用不同剂量~(60)Co-γ射线进行辐照处理,研究了辐照对试管苗增殖、生长及其超氧阴离子(O_2~- · )产生速率和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的影响.结果表明,试管苗在0~16 Gy的辐照剂量范围内均没有死亡,1 Gy以下的辐照剂量对大蒜试管苗生长和抗氧化特性没有显著影响,4 Gy以上的辐照剂量抑制试管苗增殖和生长,抑制程度随着辐照剂量的提高而加强.~( 60) Co-γ射线辐照不同程度地影响大蒜试管苗的O_2~- · 产生速率及SOD、POD和CAT的活性.

  20. Long-term follow-up of radiation accident patients in Peru: Review of two cases

    Overexposure to radioactive sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography may result in severe health consequences. This report assesses the initial clinical status and the medical and psychological long-term follow-up of two radiation accident patients from Peru during the mid-to-late 1990's: one patient exposed to a radiotherapy 60Co source in Arequipa, the other patient to a 192Ir source in Yanango. Commonalities and differences are described. The main causes in both accidents were human error and the failure to apply appropriate safety guidelines and standard operating procedures. Education and training of the personnel working with radiation sources are essential to prevent accidents. The experience gained from the medical management of the two patients is valuable for future treatment of such patients. (authors)

  1. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  2. Medical Planning and Care in Radiation Accidents

    As part of a broad effort intended to mitigate the consequences of radiation accidents, the United States Atomic Energy Commission has developed a program to train physicians and to orient hospital staffs in the treatment of accident victims. Seminars have been conducted to date for approximately 120 physicians on medical planning and care in radiation accidents. This paper presents the scope and specific topics covered in the seminars, together with an analysis of. experience gained during development and presentation of the seminars. More recently the program has been expanded to encompass orientation of hospital administrators and other para-medical personnel on the handling and admittance of victims of radiation accidents. The latter problem is the subject of a new color film premiered at the Symposium. (author)

  3. Estimating radiation doses from reactor accidents

    In order to plan for emergency response to reactor accidents involving large radiation releases, it is necessary to determine the medical resources, such as diagnostic laboratory tests, hospital facilities and convalescent care, needed to care for a large population exposed to radiation. A determination of the needed medical resources is difficult because of the widely varying sensitivity humans exhibit to radiation exposure and because of the large number of assumptions involved in predicting radiation dispersion. This paper demonstrates a simple method for approximating medical needs in response to a severe reactor accident. The method requires a model for radiation dispersion from the accident and data for population distribution surrounding the reactor. With this information, tables developed in this paper may be used to project medical needs. The needs identified by this methodology may be compared against the actual medical resources of nearby communities to determine the size of the area impacted

  4. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R4M4

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of 60Co in the generation R4M4 (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  5. Seeds of Camargue rice (Oryza Sativa L. Var Cigalon) and their responses to exposure to 60-Co gamma radiations. Study of the natural phenomenon of radiation protection

    Within the frame of a project aiming at improving a technique of experimental mutagenesis (seed processing by cobalt-60 gamma rays), this research thesis reports the radiobiological characterization of Cigalon rice seeds, the adjustment of techniques of radiation protection, and the definition of processing and irradiation conditions which could reduce the undesirable physiological effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on rice seeds. The author reports the study of variations of physiological radio-sensitivity. Damages are assessed by comparing the growth of irradiated seeds with that of non-irradiated seeds. The mechanism of radiation natural protection is studied by comparing an inhibition in distilled water at two temperatures (5 and 24 C) with that obtained with cysteamine (an efficient radiation protection compound)

  6. Change in the radiation dose at a point where an inhomogeneity partly covers the radiation field from a 60Co-γ-source

    Measurements and calculations have been made in order to study the change of the radiation dose in a point when an inhomogeneity covers parts of the radiation field from a Co 60-source. An ionization chamber, placed in a water phantom, was used for the measurements. As inhomogeneity an air cavity was used. The measuring point was placed on the central axis of the radiation field during the measurement. The air cavity was moved in front of the measuring point 0.5 - 1 cm by steps laterally, i.e. along a line perpendicular to the radiation direction. Measurements were made at different depths behind the air cavity. The air cavity was placed at different distances from the front plate of the water phantom. Measurements and calculations show that the change of the radiation dose, when the edge of the air cavity passes the measuring point, varies with the depth distance to the air cavity. The greatest deviation is near the air cavity and at a great distance behind this. The change of the radiation dose is less than 2 percent at distances greater than 2 cm from the edge of the air cavity laterally. This change is independent of the depth distance to the air cavity. The maximum deviation 1 cm from the edge of the air cavity is 5 percent independent of the distance tothe air cavity. Used methods of calculation can be extended to be used for irregular inhomogeneities but this requires knowledge of the three-dimensional extension of the inhomogeneity. (M.S.)

  7. Research and construction of 60Co container inspection system

    The author presents a special kind of container inspection system, in which the radiation source is a 60Co industrial radiography source of 100-300 Ci. By the adoption of special high sensitivity array detector and other technical solutions, this 60Co container inspection system possesses nice properties. Its 'image quality indicator (IQI)' and 'contrast indicator (CI)' for 100 mm steel plate are equal to 0.7% and 2.5% respectively. Its 'steel penetration (SP)' is about 240 mm. The 60Co container inspection system is much cheaper and more reliable than the accelerator inspection system, and the area for its installation and operation is much smaller. The 'Steel Penetration (SP)' of 60Co system is much higher than that of X-ray machine inspection system. The another merit of 60Co system is the feasibility of designing and constructing a movable type

  8. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Diethyltoluamide (DEET) in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussels non-irradiated and irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Avaliacao da citotoxicidade do dietiltoluamida (DEET) em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) irradiados e nao irradiados com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Martini, Gisela de Assis

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have identified the presence of several emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. The occurrence in different environmental matrices has been continuously reported, highlighting the need for toxicity studies. The DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient used in most insect repellents, and is present in many commercially available formulations. Apart from chemical pollutants, aquatic organisms are subject to exposure of ionizing radiation from natural sources or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DEET in organisms irradiated and non-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, and the effects that radiation causes in lysosomes of hemocytes of Perna perna mussel. For this purpose, assays were performed to identify the acute toxicity of DEET concentration and the dose of gamma radiation able to cause mortality. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays were carried out to assess the stability of the lysosomal membrane in organisms exposed to ionizing radiation and DEET. According to the results obtained in acute toxicity tests, the concentration of DEET that causes mortality of 50% exposed organisms (LC50) is 114,27 mg L{sup -1}, and the radiation dose that causes mortality (LD50) is 1068 Gy. In the cytotoxicity assays, the concentration of the non-observed effect (NOEC) for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms 0.0001 mg L-1 and observed effect concentration (LOEC) at concentrations above this. The IC25 (72h) for non-irradiated organisms was 0.0003 mg L-1 and IC50 (72h) was 0.0008 mg L{sup -1} for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. Despite of the concentrations of effect found in this study were higher than in the environment, both measurements are in the same order of magnitude and should be also take into account the possible synergistic effects of DEET with other contaminants in the aquatic environment. (author)

  9. Gamma ({sup 60}CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae);Efeito da radiacao gama ({sup 60}CO) sobre a proteina arcelina e avaliacao de linhagens de feijoeiro a Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-07-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  11. Development of radiation dose assessment system for radiation accident (RADARAC)

    The possibility of radiation accident is very rare, but cannot be regarded as zero. Medical treatments are quite essential for a heavily exposed person in an occurrence of a radiation accident. Radiation dose distribution in a human body is useful information to carry out effectively the medical treatments. A radiation transport calculation utilizing the Monte Carlo method has an advantageous in the analysis of radiation dose inside of the body, which cannot be measured. An input file, which describes models for the accident condition and quantities of interest, should be prepared to execute the radiation transport calculation. Since the accident situation, however, cannot be prospected, many complicated procedures are needed to make effectively the input file soon after the occurrence of the accident. In addition, the calculated doses are to be given in output files, which usually include much information concerning the radiation transport calculation. Thus, Radiation Dose Assessment system for Radiation Accident (RADARAC) was developed to derive effectively radiation dose by using the MCNPX or MCNP code. RADARAC mainly consists of two parts. One part is RADARAC-INPUT, which involves three programs. A user can interactively set up necessary resources to make input files for the codes, with graphical user interfaces in a personnel computer. The input file includes information concerning the geometric structure of the radiation source and the exposed person, emission of radiations during the accident, physical quantities of interest and so on. The other part is RADARAC-DOSE, which has one program. The results of radiation doses can be effectively indicated with numerical tables, graphs and color figures visibly depicting dose distribution by using this program. These results are obtained from the outputs of the radiation transport calculations. It is confirmed that the system can effectively make input files with a few thousand lines and indicate more than 20

  12. Severe radiation accidents and the environment

    In severe radiation accidents with releases of radionuclides into the environment, high enough radiation doses are formed to potentially cause direct radiation injury of natural ecosystems. The dose fields characterizing the irradiation of plants, animals and humans in radioactive contamination of the environment are highly heterogeneous, and irradiation of natural objects per se has features such as non-equidosal effects. In other words, humans and various objects in the natural environment can receive different absorbed doses for an equal density of radioactive fallout. 5 refs

  13. Development of irradiator {sup 60}Co sources

    Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: rcmosca@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    According to a recent report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) / WHO (2008-2010), the global impact of cancer more than doubled in 30 years. In this report, it was estimated that occurred about 12 million new cancer cases and 7 million deaths. In Brazil in 2010, with estimates for the year 2011, point to the occurrence of 489,270 new cases of cancer. Among the possibilities for cancer treatment, radiotherapy is one of the most important therapeutic and resources used to combat it. However, inherent complications of treatment can occur such as tiredness, loss of appetite, radiodermatitis and in more extreme cases late radionecrosis. In order to reproduce a point of radionecrosis in the vicinity of radiodermatitis to mimic these effects in animals, producing a model for assessment of tissue repair, we propose the setting up of an irradiator source of collimated {sup 60}Co. The development of was based on 11 sources of {sup 60}Co with 1 mm thickness that were inserted by inference in stainless steel 'gate-source' screw (patent pending) and later adjusted in a cross-shaped arrangement reinforced so that the beam radiation is directed to a target point, saving for other regions around this target point. The main use of this irradiator with sources of {sup 60}Co is just one cause radionecrosis point (target point) of approximately 5 mm{sup 2} with a surrounding and adjacent area of radiodermatitis around about 8 to 10 mm{sup 2} in laboratory animals for subsequent coating with epidermal-dermal matrix populated by a cell culture of human fibroblasts, keratinocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. With that said, its use will be valuable for evaluation of curative treatments against the bone and radionecrosis or palliative treatment rather than as it is currently assumed. (author)

  14. Development of irradiator 60Co sources

    According to a recent report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) / WHO (2008-2010), the global impact of cancer more than doubled in 30 years. In this report, it was estimated that occurred about 12 million new cancer cases and 7 million deaths. In Brazil in 2010, with estimates for the year 2011, point to the occurrence of 489,270 new cases of cancer. Among the possibilities for cancer treatment, radiotherapy is one of the most important therapeutic and resources used to combat it. However, inherent complications of treatment can occur such as tiredness, loss of appetite, radiodermatitis and in more extreme cases late radionecrosis. In order to reproduce a point of radionecrosis in the vicinity of radiodermatitis to mimic these effects in animals, producing a model for assessment of tissue repair, we propose the setting up of an irradiator source of collimated 60Co. The development of was based on 11 sources of 60Co with 1 mm thickness that were inserted by inference in stainless steel 'gate-source' screw (patent pending) and later adjusted in a cross-shaped arrangement reinforced so that the beam radiation is directed to a target point, saving for other regions around this target point. The main use of this irradiator with sources of 60Co is just one cause radionecrosis point (target point) of approximately 5 mm2 with a surrounding and adjacent area of radiodermatitis around about 8 to 10 mm2 in laboratory animals for subsequent coating with epidermal-dermal matrix populated by a cell culture of human fibroblasts, keratinocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. With that said, its use will be valuable for evaluation of curative treatments against the bone and radionecrosis or palliative treatment rather than as it is currently assumed. (author)

  15. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management

    As an early response to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011: - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers /responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE official participants and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the-art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation

  16. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  17. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp; Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli e Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of food borne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98kGy for S. poona and 0.72 e 0.88kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  18. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp;Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of foodborne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09 kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98 kGy for S. poona and 0.72 and 0.88 kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5 kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  19. Emergency medical management of radiation accident. Lessons learned from the JCO criticality accident

    A criticality accident occurred at the JCO nuclear fuel processing plant in Tokai-mura, Japan at 10:35 am on September 30, 1999. Three workers while working nearby were exposed to high doses of radiation, especially rich in neutron. They suffered from the acute radiation syndrome and two of them were still under medical treatment. This criticality accident taught us significant lessons of radiation protection for the personnels, e.g. physicians, nurses and firemen who are expected to rescue radiation-exposed patients in radiation accidents. In this article, medical management of radiation accident, e.g. treatment of patient, with high-dosed radiation-exposure and with internal contamination of radioactive nuclides and estimation of individual radiation dose, were briefly explained. The Japanese Association for Medical Management of Radiation Accident was founded on August 29, 1997, in order to promote the mutual communication of physicians who have to be engaged in treatment of radiation-exposed patients. (author)

  20. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    A revised document on ''Mutual Emergency Assistance for Radiation Accidents'' jointly prepared by the Agency with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO) was issued in 1980 as TECDOC-237. The present document lists the additional information received after publication of the 1980 edition and is issued as a Supplement to TECDOC-237 (1980 Edition). Some useful information contained in TECDOC-237 such as the IAEA arrangement and the WHO Collaborating Centres for Radiation Emergency Assistance are reprinted for ready reference

  1. Toxoplasma gondii: effects of 60 Co ionizing radiation in the viability and infectivity, detected in vitro in LLC-MK2 cells and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, promotes devasting disease in fetus and AIDS patients. The longlife immunity of natural infection is inefficient in eliminate tissue infective cysts. Few immunization programs were tested, mostly with attenuated strains. Ionizing radiation were used with successful in vaccine production, without reproductive ability with a relatively normal physiology until reproduction. Here, we tested several schedules of 60 Co irradiation of tachzoites from RH strain of T. gondii, from peritoneal exudate or suspensions of LLC-MK2 infected cells, to optimize the viability and sterility of the irradiated agents. The tachzoites were exposed to 50, 100 and 200 Gy in a GammaCell 220 at 366 Gy/h. The viability was tested by motility, integrity and Trypan Blue dye exclusion. All irradiation schedules maintained a high (>90%) viability of the parasites. Dilutions were injected in C57Bl/6j mice with induction of specific antibodies, no clinical disease but uncertain sterility. Infection of LLC--MK2 cells showed that viable and reproductive parasites were often found in 50 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradied cells, with no growth occuring with 200 Gy irradiated tachzoites. Our data show that 200 Gy 60 Co irradiation blocks the reproductive capacity without affecting the short term viability of tachzoites of T. gondii. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig

  2. Toxoplasma gondii: effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiation in the viability and infectivity, detected in vitro in LLC-MK2 cells and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice

    Hiramoto, Roberto M.; Almeida, Beatriz S.V.; Cardoso, Roselaine P.A.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, promotes devasting disease in fetus and AIDS patients. The longlife immunity of natural infection is inefficient in eliminate tissue infective cysts. Few immunization programs were tested, mostly with attenuated strains. Ionizing radiation were used with successful in vaccine production, without reproductive ability with a relatively normal physiology until reproduction. Here, we tested several schedules of {sup 60} Co irradiation of tachzoites from RH strain of T. gondii, from peritoneal exudate or suspensions of LLC-MK2 infected cells, to optimize the viability and sterility of the irradiated agents. The tachzoites were exposed to 50, 100 and 200 Gy in a GammaCell 220 at 366 Gy/h. The viability was tested by motility, integrity and Trypan Blue dye exclusion. All irradiation schedules maintained a high (>90%) viability of the parasites. Dilutions were injected in C57Bl/6j mice with induction of specific antibodies, no clinical disease but uncertain sterility. Infection of LLC--MK2 cells showed that viable and reproductive parasites were often found in 50 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradied cells, with no growth occuring with 200 Gy irradiated tachzoites. Our data show that 200 Gy {sup 60} Co irradiation blocks the reproductive capacity without affecting the short term viability of tachzoites of T. gondii. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig.

  3. The management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    The author defines the objectives and the coverage of two radiation accident courses presented in 1990 by the US Radiation Emergency Assistance Centre and Training Site of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities together with some Australian Medical institutions. It is estimated that the courses, directed towards physicians, radiotherapists and nurses gave plenty practical advices and details on how to go about radiation accident managements. A manual on handling radiation accidents is also to be prepared after the courses

  4. Medical basis for radiation accident preparedness

    The International Conference on The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness was organized by the staff of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) of the Medical and Health Sciences Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The philosophical importance of relating, through investigation and education, the intellectual resources of higher education to the important social problems associated with energy, health, and the environment was the foundation of the meeting. The symposium, held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, was the ninth since 1960 of a series of international conferences addressing the various aspects of radiation accidents. The approach of this most recent conference differed somewhat from that of those preceding it, in that it sought an international review of the gamut of the medical aspects of radiation injury, not only for the experts in the field, but also for other physicians and scientists who, in view of current events, have had the need to know thrust upon them. Individual entries were made for the separate papers

  5. Dose-dependent and gender-related radiation-induced transcription alterations of Gadd45a and Ier5 in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma ray emitted by 60Co

    Growth arrest DNA damage-inducible 45a gene (Gadd45a) and immediate early response gene 5 (Ier5) have been emphasised as ideal radiation bio-markers in several reports. However, some aspects of radiation-induced transcriptional alterations of these genes are unknown. In this study, gender-dependency and dose-dependency as two factors that may affect radiation induced transcription of Gadd45a and Ier5 genes were investigated. Human lymphocyte cells from six healthy voluntary blood donors (three women and three men) were irradiated in vitro with doses of 0.5-4.0 Gy from a 60Co source and RNA isolated 4 h later using the High Pure RNA Isolation Kit. Dose and gender dependency of radiation-induced transcriptional alterations of Gadd45a and Ier5 genes were studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that as a whole, Gadd45a and Ier5 gave responses to gamma rays, while the responses were independent of radiation doses. Therefore, regardless of radiation dose, Gadd45a and Ier5 can be considered potential radiation bio-markers. Besides, although radiation-induced transcriptional alterations of Gadd45a in female and male lymphocyte samples were insignificant at 0.5 Gy, at other doses, their quantities in female samples were at a significantly higher level than in male samples. Radiation induced transcription of Ier5 of females samples had a reduction in comparison with male samples at 1 and 2 Gy, but at doses of 0.5 and 4 Gy, females were significantly more susceptible to radiation-induced transcriptional alteration of Ier5. (authors)

  6. Effect of dose fractionation of 60Co gamma radiation on longevity and reproduction of Sitophilus granarius (L., 1785) (Col., Curculionidae) in wheat

    The effects of fractionated doses of gamma radiation in different interval of time on longevity and reproductivity of Sitophilus granarius (L., 1785) are studied. Gamma radiation was provided at dose rate of 1.56 kGy/hour by a Cobalt 60 source (Gammabeam-650). The insects were divided in two sets: one was irradiated at acute doses and the other in fractionated doses, with interval of 48 hours. Both sets received doses of 0,40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100Gy. Mortality and and emergency were determined weekly. (M.A.C.)

  7. Psychological Aspects of Acute Radiation Accidents

    This paper generally describes personality structure and needs and then relates these to the psychological aspects of radiation injury. Three levels in the personality structure are defined as child, adult, and parent. This is followed by a description of two major need systems the first of which, if not met, results in the death of the individual and the second, if not met, results in significant emotional disruption of the individual. This is followed by a discussion of coping phases and stress patterns of radiation injury, including the effects of the illusion of immunity characterized by the feeling that ''things can happen to others, but not to me'', and the ''nuclear mystique'' which is characterized by a magical quality attached to radiation due partly to the lack of sense organ response to radiation exposure. Following impact, treatment in the reactive.phase, which includes moderate and severe emotional reactions, involves a series of compensating emotions. These include the illusion of centrality, the feeling of abandonment, altruism, and amorality. The ''aftermath'' reaction is treated from the standpoint of the ''tormenting memory'', the ''amnesiac reaction'', the ''fear of recurrence'' and the individual’s need to cope with both his medical condition and reactions of others to his condition. The recovery phase is treated from the standpoint of unacceptable and acceptable disability. Finally, a recommended psychological treatment for the physician to use in radiation accident cases is made involving the individual's psychological needs, as well as the physician's psychological role which includes: authoritative support, acceptance, optimism, and avoidance of the appearance of an overly scientific approach. Effective organizing, planning or training for the care of radiation accident cases must consider the psychological factors developed. Recommendations for mental health programs which include employee screening and counselling programs are made

  8. Metabolism of 60Co in mollusca

    After mollusca were bred in 60Co-labeled sea water or were given 60Co-labeled feed for certain hours, their tissues including the liver were removed as experimental samples. 60Co metabolism was observed by the Sephadex gel filtration profile. A gel chromatogram of the liver in gastropoda showed a marked peak of 60Co on the high-molecular side. Although the peak was observed on both high- and low-molecular sides in pelecypoda, it was more marked on the high-molecular side than on the low-molecular side. In cephalopoda, the peak pattern was similar to that in the other mollusca, but the proportion of low-molecular components was comparatively large. The gel filtration profile of 60Co in various tissues of cephalopoda revealed the incorporation of 60Co into the high-molecular components in blood, three peaks in the kidneys, and the incorporation of 60Co into the low-molecular components in the branchial heart. The metabolism of 60Co was dependent upon the chemical form of Co in gastropoda, and organic 60Co was specifically observed in the high-molecular components. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. 低剂量60Co-γ辐射对棉铃虫蛾羽化、寿命、趋光行为和性信息素滴度的影响%Effects of low-dose 60Coradiation on the emergence, longevity,phototactic behavior and sex pheromone titer in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) adults

    闫硕; 朱家林; 张璟; 朱威龙; 张青文; 刘小侠

    2012-01-01

    To illustrate the effects of low-dose 60Coradiation on the development, phototactic behavior and sex pheromone titer in Helicoverpa armigera ( Hübner) , we examined the emergence rate, the deformity rate and longevity of H. armigera adults under five doses of radiation, and determined the rate of phototaxis and sex pheromone titer of H. armigera by phototactic behavior trial and pheromone extraction method. The results indicated that ( 1) there were no effects of 60Coradiation on adult emergence, deformity and longevity of the moth except for the irradiation of 20 Gy, under which the emergence rate was remarkably decreased by 16. 67% ( female) and 20. 00% ( male) , and the deformity rate was increased by 10.00% (both female and male). (2) Both in photophase and scotophase, the rate of phototaxis and sex pheromone titer were increased. The biggest jump of the rate of phototaxis occurred in 3-day-old females in photophase (28. 33%±3. 33% -91. 67% ±4.41% ) , while that of sex pheromone titer occurred in 5-day-old females in scotophase (36. 27 ±4. 26 ng -59. 13 ±4. 63 ng) , indicating that this dose irradiation (50 Gy) probably promoted the occurrence of phototactic behavior and the production of sex pheromone, while the radiation at five doses had no significant effects on phototaxis. (3) There was a declining trend following an increasing trend of the rate of phototaxis and sex pheromone titer as age increased. The biggest jump of the rate of phototaxis occurred in females in photophase and males in scotophase both after radiation (91.67%±4.41% -3.33%±1.67%), while that of sex pheromone titer occurred in females in scotophase after radiation (71. 00 ± 5. 22 ng - 3. 63 ± 1.47 ng). (4) There were no obvious differences in the emergence rate, the deformity rate, longevity and the rate of phototaxis between females and males in most treatments. This research may provide some theoretical basis for exploring the changes in phototaxis and physiological and

  10. The combined effect of the gamma radiations of 60 Co and different chemicals on the cells of the radicular vegetative tip of Allium sativum L

    The gamma ionizing radiations used alone in the treatment of Allium Sativum L. affected differently the cells belonging to the two zones of the root causing modifications of the cellular parameters which have been previously estimated. Data in the literature established that the damage of the interphasic nucleus of the cells determines the obstruction of the DNA synthesis and the delay of the cell mitosis. Sparrow, A. H., Miller, M. W. and Al-Rubeai confirmed the existence of a relationship between the nuclear volumes and the radiosensitivity of the different types of cells. The aim of this experiment was to counteract the harmful effect of gamma radiations at cellular level with the help of combined treatments, namely, the gamma radiations associated with different chemicals having radioprotective effects. The biological significance of the obtained values was established by statistical calculations with the help of the Student (t) test. The values of the estimated cellular parameters, NV, ICV, CV, NCR showed that, although there were certain fluctuations, their values were not always significant. (author)

  11. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    In 1963 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document, WP.35, dated 23 November 1963, based on information provided by a number of its Member States on the type of radiological assistance that they might be able to make available in the event of a radiation emergency in another country at the request of that country. The document was subsequently revised in 1968 and 1971 with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). In 1979, an expanded questionnaire to ascertain what could be required by the State in the event of a major radiation accident, was sent jointly by these organizations with the participation of the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO), to all their Member States. The text of the expanded questionnaire is reproduced. The present document lists all the information, received up to mid 1980, that contains offers of assistance made by a State. It also lists information on the assistance that might be required by the State. In general, the replies have been reproduced in the form in which they were received, although a few changes in presentation have been introduced in the interest of brevity and clarity. Some countries have pointed out that their replies are necessarily of a general character and that the full extent of the assistance they would be capable of providing could be determined only after a specific request had been received. The information given in this document should therefore be regarded only as a guide to the type of radiological assistance that might be available and/or needed. Other available international assistance includes that provided by the Agency through the IAEA Radiation (Emergency) Assistance Procedures, by WHO through its system of Collaborating Centres on human radiation pathology, and by various States via regional or inter-countries' agreements on

  12. Handling of Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    Many types of radiation accidents can theoretically be foreseen, ranging from minor spills of radioactive materials within a laboratory to serious accidents characterized by the presence of intense radiation fields and the uncontrolled release of large quantities of radioactive contaminants. They could lead to the irradiation and contamination of persons and the contamination of premises and the natural environment. As a result of the great emphasis that has been placed on safety in the development of nuclear energy programmes and in the use of radiation sources, accidents involving the serious overexposure of persons are in fact very rare. Nevertheless such accidents can occur and it is necessary to plan in advance for those that can be,reasonably foreseen. The handling of serious radiation accidents requires the co-operation of experts with diverse qualifications and experience: radiation monitoring and dosimetry specialists; medical doctors experienced in diagnosing and treating radiation injury; nuclear safety, decontamination and waste management specialists; public relations officers; and many others. This symposium, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization as part of a co-ordinated programme, was designed to enable these specialists to discuss their problems on a very broad basis. The meeting was attended by 212 participants from 34 countries and 9 international organizations. In his opening address Professor Zheludev reminded the participants that the good safety record of the nuclear industry must not give rise to complacency and that we must all learn as much as possible from reported accidents in order to be ready to deal promptly and effectively with those that may be encountered in the future. It is noteworthy that some of the most severe injuries reported were suffered by persons who found lost-sources and carried them for long periods without any knowledge of the dangers involved. Organizational

  13. Effect of 60Co gamma radiation on the levels of phenolic compounds from crude extracts of bark of Spondias luta L

    Spondias luta L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajazeira, is a plant widespread in several regions of Brazil, famous for containing phenolic compounds, which are responsible for your characteristic astringent. Ionizing radiations have the ability to cross the material, ionizing atoms and molecules, causing changes in atoms and molecules important. It is known ionizing radiation promotes quantitative and qualitative changes in plant materials, increasing, decreasing or inactivating secondary substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation as a modifier of the activity of the phenolic compounds of the bark extract of S. luta L. Methods: For the dosage of phenol extracts (control, irradiated with 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy) were diluted in methanol to a final concentration of 200 mg / L. In test tubes were added 50 μL of extract plus 1 ml of distilled water and 500 μl of Folin (diluted 1:10). After 10 minutes in a dark chamber was added 2.5 ml of calcium carbonate to 20% and the content of the tube was homogenized. After 20 minutes was performed with a spectrophotometer at 735 nm. The assay was performed in triplicate and calculated from a standard curve solution of gallic acid and expressed in μEAG (GAE/mg extract). Results: The control extracts, irradiated to 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy, had, respectively, 6.25, 6.70, 6.25, 6.85, 6.45 μEAG/mg of extract. Conclusion: The results showed no significant change in the amount of phenolic compounds, showing that these compounds are radioresistant extract these doses. (author)

  14. Effect of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the levels of phenolic compounds from crude extracts of bark of Spondias luta L

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Melo, Mychely S., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: mychely.melo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academinco de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Spondias luta L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajazeira, is a plant widespread in several regions of Brazil, famous for containing phenolic compounds, which are responsible for your characteristic astringent. Ionizing radiations have the ability to cross the material, ionizing atoms and molecules, causing changes in atoms and molecules important. It is known ionizing radiation promotes quantitative and qualitative changes in plant materials, increasing, decreasing or inactivating secondary substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation as a modifier of the activity of the phenolic compounds of the bark extract of S. luta L. Methods: For the dosage of phenol extracts (control, irradiated with 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy) were diluted in methanol to a final concentration of 200 mg / L. In test tubes were added 50 μL of extract plus 1 ml of distilled water and 500 μl of Folin (diluted 1:10). After 10 minutes in a dark chamber was added 2.5 ml of calcium carbonate to 20% and the content of the tube was homogenized. After 20 minutes was performed with a spectrophotometer at 735 nm. The assay was performed in triplicate and calculated from a standard curve solution of gallic acid and expressed in μEAG (GAE/mg extract). Results: The control extracts, irradiated to 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy, had, respectively, 6.25, 6.70, 6.25, 6.85, 6.45 μEAG/mg of extract. Conclusion: The results showed no significant change in the amount of phenolic compounds, showing that these compounds are radioresistant extract these doses. (author)

  15. Evaluating the effect of gamma radiation (60Co) on protein arcelin and its influence in the resistance of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh., 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different gamma doses of Cobalt-60 on arcelin protein in the manifestation of resistance to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh., 1833). Seeds of four lines of Phaseolus vulgaris carriers of arcelin protein (Arcelin-1, Arcelin-2, Arcelin-3 and Arcelin-4) and a cultivar without this protein were used as control (IAC-Carioca Akyta) obtained from the Instituto Agronomico do Estado de Sao Paulo - Nucleo Experimental de Campinas (IAC), were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, of the panoramic type, from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares/CNEN/SP. The activity was approximately 2218.79 Ci, and the dose rate 0.678 kGy/h. The doses used were 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. The results showed that the radiation doses did not influence the parameters evaluated in the resistance because a high degree of antibiose in the Arcelin-1 and Arcelin-2 lines was maintained. The Arcelin-3 and Arcelin-4 lines also maintained their behavior less expressive of resistance by antibiose only prolonging the period from egg to adult. The electrophoretic analysis of the lines and cultivar were not changed in relation to the radiation doses. But there was a decrease in relation to the intensity of color of the bands (absorbance) with the increase of the doses. (author)

  16. The micronucleus assay in radiation accidents

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a standardised and validated technique for bio dosimetry. Automated scoring of micronuclei allows large scale applications as in population triage in case of radiation accidents or malevolent use of radioactive sources. The dose detection limit (95% confidence) of the micronucleus assay for individual dose assessment is restricted to 0.2 Gy but can be decreased to 0.1 Gy by scoring centromeres in micronuclei using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the past the micronucleus assay was applied for a number of large scale bio monitoring studies of nuclear power plant workers and hospital workers. Baseline micronucleus frequencies depend strongly on age and gender. The assay was also already used for bio dosimetry of radiation accidents. In a multiple endpoint bio dosimetry study for dose assessment of a worker exposed accidentally in 2003 to X-rays, a good agreement was obtained between dose estimates resulting from the micronucleus assay, the scoring of dicentrics and translocations. Automated scoring of micronuclei in combination with centromere signals, allowing systematic bio dosimetry of exposed populations, remains a challenge for the future.

  17. The influence of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the action of phenolic compounds Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan in the microbiological control of crude extracts

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique F. dos; Silva, Edvane B. da, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR); Sena, Kesia Xisto da Fonseca R. de; Silva, Bruna L., E-mail: kxfrs@bol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Lima, Claudia S. de A., E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2009-07-01

    Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, known popularly as angico is a tree founded in northeastern of Brazil, and has great economic and ecological interest. These trees are characterized by high levels of tannins. To evaluate the influence of gamma radiation in plant extracts of barks and leaves of angico, we got extracts of barks and leaves in 70% ethanol, which was filtered and evaporated until dryness. It were classified in four groups (non-irradiated, 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy). The total phenols were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteau method, and the tannins, using the precipitation of casein. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was observed using the paper disk diffusion methods against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, acid-alcohol-resistant bacteria: and yeasts. The halos greater than 10 mm were considered actives. It was also performed the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using Gram positive and alcohol-acid resistant bacteria. The results showed that tannins of A. colubrina, were 52 to 57% of total phenols, and leaves, 58 to 60%. The percentage of total phenols and tannins in the barks and leaves of A. colubrina have not statistically significant change when compared with the irradiated control. These results suggest that A. colubrina has antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and alcohol-acid -resistant bacteria, confirmed by MIC. The extracts of leaves it was additionally actives against the Gram-negative and against the yeast C. albicans. These results show that the gamma radiation has not influence about the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of barks and leaves of A. colubrina. (author)

  18. The influence of 60Co gamma radiation on the action of phenolic compounds Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan in the microbiological control of crude extracts

    Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, known popularly as angico is a tree founded in northeastern of Brazil, and has great economic and ecological interest. These trees are characterized by high levels of tannins. To evaluate the influence of gamma radiation in plant extracts of barks and leaves of angico, we got extracts of barks and leaves in 70% ethanol, which was filtered and evaporated until dryness. It were classified in four groups (non-irradiated, 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy). The total phenols were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteau method, and the tannins, using the precipitation of casein. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was observed using the paper disk diffusion methods against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, acid-alcohol-resistant bacteria: and yeasts. The halos greater than 10 mm were considered actives. It was also performed the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using Gram positive and alcohol-acid resistant bacteria. The results showed that tannins of A. colubrina, were 52 to 57% of total phenols, and leaves, 58 to 60%. The percentage of total phenols and tannins in the barks and leaves of A. colubrina have not statistically significant change when compared with the irradiated control. These results suggest that A. colubrina has antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and alcohol-acid -resistant bacteria, confirmed by MIC. The extracts of leaves it was additionally actives against the Gram-negative and against the yeast C. albicans. These results show that the gamma radiation has not influence about the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of barks and leaves of A. colubrina. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation 60Co effect on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of different cultivars of soybean grains (Glycine max (L.))

    With the increase of the world population, creative strategies will be necessary to control food production. To achieve this challenge, new cultivars have been development, though different techniques and characteristics. To improve food conservation, a plant of methods can be used. The use of Cobalto-60 radiation is a secure and useful method to increase the life time of foods. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soybean, some alterations must be studied. This study has the objective to determinate this alterations caused by irradiation (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked grain of five different cultivars of soybean (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48), this study includes analysis of time cooking and hydratation, and chemical analysis of proximate composition, in vitro digestibility of proteins, percentage of deamidation , phenolics compounds, trypsin inhibitors and tannins. The amount of water absorbed by each grain varied from 14.00 to 16.66mL, and the time cooking varied from 119.67 to 291.33 minutes. The values found for ash were 4.90 to 6.08%, for protein from 21.23 to 36.99%, for fat from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble staple fibres from 1.37 to 4.03% and insoluble staple fibres from 15.97 to 18.87%. The deamidation percentage in the different samples varied of 17,34 to 57.79% and the digestibility in vitro from 84.45 to 89.11%. Inside of the anti nutritional factors, the total compounds phenolics varied from 3.9 to 9.7 mg/g, the units of trypsin inhibited from 24.75 to 57.53 UTI/g and the tannins from 0.02 to 0.32 mg/g. For the physical analyses it showed differences in the time of hydratation among them and the irradiation promoted reduction in the time, but not in the amount of absorbed water; in the cooking time it had reduction with the increase of the doses of radiation; the differences found in the proximate composition did not have influence with the irradiation, but with the different cultivars; for the digestibility

  20. A trial of anticancer drug injection into cervical metastatic lymph nodes. Focus on therapeutic response when combined with 60Co external radiation

    Control of metastatic lymph nodes, especially enlarged nodes with adhesion, is extremely difficult. We treated metastatic lymph nodes with adhesion by intranodal injection (INI) of anticancer agents and obtained prolonged control of metastasis. Sixteen patients with a total of 23 metastatic lymph nodes with adhesion that were not indicated for surgical removal were studied. INI of peplomycin (14.0±10.4 mg), CDDP (10.0±0 mg), CBDCA (60.0±37.3 mg), methotrexate (28.5±27.1 mg), and 5-FU (311.1±194.9 mg) was given to all, 1, 10, 7, and 8 patients, respectively. External radiation with cobalt 60 (2 Gy/time, 42.8±9.7 Gy) was given to all but 3 patients. The results obtained were as follows: Except for one patient in whom the therapeutic responses could not be evaluated, all subjects had remission of swollen lymph nodes. The remission rates ranged from 99.6% to 14.3% (average, 51.3±27.8%). In three patients, metastatic lymph nodes became small enough to be surgically removed without recurrence. Of the remaining 13 patients, 11 had no re-enlargement for at least 3 months after the end of INI. Three patients are still alive (observation periods, 57, 6, and 6 months). Eleven patients died of uncontrolled primary lesions, distant metastases, or metastatic lymph nodes despite treatment with INI and radiation. The remaining two patients died of cardiovascular disease and pneumonia. Of the 13 patients who died, 6 (37.5% of all patients) survived for 10 months or more from the start of INI, and the remaining 7 survived for about 5 months. The mean duration of survival was 11.8±13.9 months. Finally, INI controlled metastatic lymph nodes although the therapeutic response was unclear in one patient and could not be evaluated in another. In conclusion, INI is an useful treatment for large metastatic lymph nodes that adhere to surrounding tissue and cannot undergo lymphectomy. (author)

  1. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: cell and humoral immunity in spleen and gut of isogenic mice immunized with 60Co irradiated tachyzoites

    We are developing a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using ionizing radiation as a tool. Here we analyzed the production of systemic and intestinal immunity, with protection studies, in several strains of inbred mice, by oral or parenteral route, using 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain, with challenge with cysts of ME- 49 strain. C57Bl/6j, BALB/c and C57Bl/6j IFN-γ-/- mice were immunized with 107 irradiated tachyzoites, be parenteral or oral route. Those preparations, both by parenteral or oral routes, induced the production of specific IgG, mainly of the lgG2b subclass, and IgA immunoglobulins in serum, , as determined by ELISA. IgM production was negligible. Parenteral immunized mice showed higher IgG avidity maturation, as compared to oral immunized mice. Fecal excretion of IgG, IgA and IgM was detected in stools of immunized animals, more intense in oral immunized mice. In cellular immunity studies, induced by antigen, with detection of cytokine production by quantitative real-time PCR, there are a great production of IFN-y by spleen cells, with lower levels in Peyer patches cells, where there are a greater IL-2 production. Challenge studies in immunized mice demonstrated protection to infection in all used schedules, greater in BALB/c mice. C57Bl/6j IFN-γ -/- mice, when immunized, showed no signs of disease and produced similar or greater levels of antibodies than wild type mice. They also excreted S-lgA and S-IgM in stools, but with low numbers of brain cysts in parenteral immunized mice, despite similar mortality. Our data points to a fair possibility of use of those irradiated parasites as an oral vaccine, devised to use for veterinary or wild felines vaccination, reducing the production of oocysts by those hosts and interrupting the chain transmission of human toxoplasmosis. (author)

  2. Humoral immune response against native or 60Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or 60Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a 60Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}; Efecto de la radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co en la variabilidad de frijol chino [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F. [CSAEGro, Iguala, Guerrero, Tel and Fax 01 733 (33) 24328 (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [IREGEP (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-07-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of {sup 60}Co in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 4} (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  4. A comparison of the 60Co gamma radiation hardness, breakdown characteristics and the effect of SiN x capping on InAlN and AlGaN HEMTs for space applications

    Smith, M. D.; O'Mahony, D.; Vitobello, F.; Muschitiello, M.; Costantino, A.; Barnes, A. R.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Electrical performance and stability of InAlN and AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) subjected 9.1 mrad of 60Co gamma radiation and off-state voltage step-stressing until breakdown are reported. Comparison with commercially available production-level AlGaN HEMT devices, which showed negligible drift in DC performance throughout all experiments, suggests degradation mechanisms must be managed and suppressed through development of advanced epitaxial and surface passivation techniques in order to fully exploit the robustness of the III-nitride material system. Of the research level devices without dielectric layer surface capping, InAlN HEMTs exhibited the greater stability compared with AlGaN under off-state bias stressing and gamma irradiation in terms of their DC characteristics, although AlGaN HEMTs had significantly higher breakdown voltages. The effect of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition SiN x surface capping is explored, highlighting the sensitivity of InAlN HEMT performance to surface passivation techniques. InAlN-SiN x HEMTs suffered more from trap related degradation than AlGaN-SiN x devices in terms of radiation hardness and step-stress characteristics, attributed to an increased capturing of carriers in traps at the InAlN/SiN x interface.

  5. Emergency room management of radiation accidents

    Emergency room management of radioactively contaminated patients who have an associated medical injury requiring immediate attention must be handled with care. Radioactive contamination of the skin of a worker is not a medical emergency and is usually dealt with at the plant. Effective preplanning and on-the-scene triage will allow the seriously injured and contaminated patients to get the medical care they need with a minimum of confusion and interference. Immediate medical and surgical priorities always take precedence over radiation injuries and radioactive contamination. Probably the most difficult aspect of emergency management is the rarity of such accidents and hence the unfamiliarity of the medical staff with the appropriate procedures. The authors discuss how the answer to these problems is preplanning, having a simple and workable procedure and finally having 24-h access to experts

  6. Application of cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in radiation accident in Xinzhou City of Shanxi Province

    The authors report a radiation accident on November 19, 1992 in Xinzhou City of Shanxi Province, China. A woman patient, aged 24, with undetermined history of radiation exposure, was proved to have been exposed to high dose irradiation in the light of chromosome aberration in peripheral lymphocytes. The absorbed dose estimated based on the frequency of dicentrics plus rings was equivalent to 2.30 Gy of homogeneous whole body irradiation with the 95% confidence limit of 2.07-2.50 Gy. With this diagnosis, the following advice was offered: (1) immediate search for the radiation source with a view to eradicating as soon as possible the menace to the safety and health of local inhabitants; (2) medical surveillance of potentially irradiated people, estimation of exposure dose, and taking proper measures; and (3) appropriate treatment of the patient. After energetic effort, an abandoned sealed 60Co source was at last found. At the 38-70th days after the accident, the frequencies of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei were examined by cytokinesis-block micronucleus method for 34 individuals. Exposure doses were estimated by using the cytogenetic technique. The results of micronucleus and dicentric plus ring assays were similar, so that CB micronucleus method can be used for estimating exposure dose to individuals

  7. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    Full text: a) On July 5 and 8, 2005, Two patients with bone marrow suppression were successively hospitalized by the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University. Examination results showed that the patients seemed to get suspicious radiation disease. On July 13, 2005, a radioactive source was found in the patients' dwelling. The radiation source is Iridium-192 with 0.5 Ci(1.85 x 1010Bq) radioactivity. The radiation source is a metal bar which is a kind of radioactive industrial detection source for welding. The source is currently stored in the urban radioactive waste storehouse of Heilongjiang province. After finding the radioactive source on July 13, The Haerbin municipal government initiated an emergency response plan and developed medical rescue, radioactive source examination and case detection through organizing ministries involving health, environmental protection and public security. After receiving a report at 17:00 on July 14, 2005, Chinese Ministry of Health immediately sent experts to the spot for investigation, dose estimation and direction of patients' rescue. Health authority carried out physical examination twice on 113 residents within 30 meters to the source, among which 4 got radiation sickness, 5 showed abnormal hemotogram, and others showed no abnormal response. Of 4 patients with radiation sickness, one 81 year old patient has died of severe bone marrow form of sub acute radiation sickness coupled with lung infection and prostrate apparatus at 13:00 on Oct., 20. Two children have been treated in Beitaiping Road Hospital in Beijing, another patient has been treated in local hospital. b) Biological dosimetry using conventional chromosome aberration analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been shown as a reliable and useful tool in medical management of radiation accident victims. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the victims were cultured using conventional culture medium with colchicine added at the beginning. Chromosome

  8. The preventation of radiation accidents in radiation therapy

    The radio-therapy planning system (RTPS) has improved the speed and accuracy of dose calculation and has come to be used in most hospitals in recent years. The RTPS calculated monitor unit (MU) defines the dose delivered to the patient. Radiation accidents caused by wrong MU calculated by erroneous basic data registration has frequently been reported in Japan. We investigated the MU calculated with the RTPS of this hospital. The measurement value resulted in the permissible error range set by the AAPM13 TG24 report. The basic data registered in the RTPS of this hospital and calculated MU were proven to be proper. (author)

  9. Risk evaluation for protection of the public in radiation accidents

    Evaluation of the risk that would be involved in the exposure of the public in the event of a radiation accident requires information on the biological consequences expected of such an exposure. This report defines a range of reference doses of radiation and their corresponding risks to the public in the event of a radiation accident. The reference doses and the considerations on which they were based will be used for assessing the hazards of nuclear installations and for policy decisions by the authorities responsible for measures taken to safeguards the public in the case of a nuclear accident.

  10. Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

  11. Talk of radiation related with the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    Fukushima Daiichi accident brought about public anxiety for radiation hazards. It would be important to deepen public understanding of radiation hazards and protection. This article was prepared for their better understanding and consisted of eight topics such as (1) occurrence and development of the accident, (2) radioactive materials, radiation, dose and their units, (3) radioactive materials (nuclides) released from reactor accident and their pathway to human body, (4) evacuation, (5) regulation on food's radioactivity, (6) radiation medical care, (7) effects of radiation on human being and (8) radiation monitoring. Release rate of radioactivity from damaged power plants was reduced significantly as low as one-ten millionth of peak value and environmental radiation monitoring data around became stable. It would be highly wished that alert area and planned refuge area were cancelled as early as possible and residents took back to their normal life. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Sorption of 60 Co on inorganic solids

    The behavior of sorption of the 60 Co in aqueous solution under static conditions to different values of pH of the aqueous solution (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10) on MgO, MnO2, SnO, TiO2, activated carbon and calcinate hydrotalcite was investigated. It was found that the best sorbents of the 60 Co was the MnO2, activated carbon and TiO2 whose sorption was incremented when increasing the pH value of the aqueous solutions, in the one case of the hydrated oxides, the 60 Co interacted with the electrically charged surface of the sorbents that depends on the pH of the solution and of the point of zero charge (zpc) of the sorbent. (Author)

  13. 60Co-γ射线对彩色马蹄莲Parfait的辐照效应及其在高温高湿胁迫下的生理响应%Effects of 60 Co-γ Ray Radiation on Color Lily ‘ Parfait' and Their Physiological Responses to High Temperature and Humidity

    陆波; 郑玉红; 陈默; 彭峰; 束晓春; 高风

    2014-01-01

    为了研究物理射线辐射对彩色马蹄莲外部性状和生理特性的影响,分别采用20、40、60和80 Gy的60Co-γ射线对彩色马蹄莲Parfait丛生芽进行辐照.结果表明,除80Gy辐射的丛生芽全部死亡外,其余剂量辐射处理后的组培苗叶形指数和株高呈逐渐降低的趋势,增殖系数逐渐增加,且呈现出剂量效应,但辐射对叶片叶绿素总量影响不大;对诱导苗进行温室越夏高温栽培,发现对照及3个剂量辐射处理的幼苗成活率分别为38.54%、19.10%、56.77%和41.27%;在模拟高温高湿条件下,辐射处理后组培苗的SOD和CAT和活力及MDA的含量在6h时达到峰值,之后逐渐下降,且各处理大都高于对照;40Gy处理的各项指标变化幅度最大,这与其较高的越夏存活率相吻合.以上结果表明60、40Gy的剂量分别为诱导彩色马蹄莲形态和抗性变异较为适宜的剂量,同时也说明60 Co-γ射线辐射可以作为培育彩色马蹄莲新品种的一种有效途径.

  14. Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents

    Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241Am accident. (author)

  15. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  16. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by 60CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to 60Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  17. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by {sup 60}CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  18. Effect of 60Co-gamma whole-body irradiation on serum amylase level

    Changes of serum amylase activity in rats, after several doses of acut 60Co-gamma irradiation as a function of time were investigated. These changes proved to be of no diagnostic value in early radiation damage. (author)

  19. Handbook for medical management of persons exposed in radiation accidents

    The document is intended as a rapid reference handbook for the use of physicians who may be called upon to handle the cases of radiation emergency. It deals mainly with the diagnosis and treatment procedures which should be followed by medical officers. The handbook has following sections : basic radiobiology, classification of radiation accidents and preparedness for medical intervention, management of external radiation exposure, management of radioactive contamination, and action plan for handling radiation facilities. It is advisable to have a separate medical unit for proper management of persons exposed in radiation accidents. Infrastructure and facilities required in such a set-up are described. Names and addresses of : (1) physicians in India who have specialized in medical management of radiation injuries, and (2)medical doctors trained in radiation protection and occupational health in different states of India are listed in an appendix. (M.G.B.). 10 refs., figs., tabs

  20. Follow-up study of a pregnant woman 16 years after exposure in the Xinzhou radiation accident

    To investigate the late effects of radiation on child-bearing women, a follow-up study was performed on a 39-year-old survivor 16 years after a 60Co radiation accident. The woman, Fang, was 19 weeks pregnant at the time of exposure. Physical examinations, a full range of clinical laboratory and imaging tests, as well as cytogenetic analyses were conducted to evaluate Fang's current health conditions. Fang shows the appearance of premature ageing and has a decreased menstrual period. Laboratory studies and imaging tests suggest nodular goitre disease and osteoporosis. Otherwise, no apparent abnormalities were found in the major organs. No malignant tumours were detected by either tumour markers or imaging tests. However, the existence of chromosome aberrations warrants long-term follow-up for tumour incidence in the future. Fang became pregnant 8 years after the accident, but suffered a miscarriage due to the death of the foetus at 6 months into the pregnancy. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the intrauterine death of the foetus might be associated with the previous exposure. There is no evidence of malignant tumours as of the date of the follow-up study. Non-cancerous diseases, i.e. thyroid disease and osteoporosis, which may be related to radiation exposure, are the major manifestations of the long-term effects of the accident. (note)

  1. Fabrication, qualification and calibration of 60 Co sealed sources

    Argentina produces about 5% of the worldwide production of 60 Co radioisotope (3,000,000 of Ci/year) whose main application is the radio sterilization of disposable medical consumables, the radiating therapy, and the food preservation for human consumption. From 1985 to the present 56,000,000 Ci were produced. At first all the generated 60 Co was exported in bulk to the sealed sources producers, but now the local production of sources has been consolidated and 100% of the 60 Co is used to manufacture sealed sources. That is a successful production of around 400 sealed sources, 70% of which have been made during the last three years. Mainly 95% of the sealed sources for industrial applications were exported to the United States, Europe, Japan and China. These countries are the main importation centers. The local and regional markets are the most important users of the sources for x-ray radiography. At present 8% of the total sources that were produced are used as x-ray sources. The present work describes the development of the sequence of manufacture of simple and double encapsulated radioactive sources, which includes the in-process inspection, the certification of the sealed sources according the designation E66646 (5,7) of the ISO 2919:1999(E) standard and a statistical quality control analysis of the penetration of the seam weld of the end caps. (author)

  2. Effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp; Efeito da radiacao gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao e qualidade de pimenta in natura e em polpa

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the

  3. Determination of the correction factor for attenuation, dispersion and production of electrons (Kwall) in the wall of graphite of a ionization chamber Pattern National Type CC01 in fields of gamma radiation of 60Co

    It was determined the Kwall correction factor for the wall of graphite of the chamber of the pattern national type CC01 series 133 for a radiation field Gamma of 60Co. With this end to measured the currents of ionization l(x) as function of the thickness of the wall of the chamber: X=4,8,12,16 and 20 mm.The mensurations for each thickness consisting of three groups, of sizes n = 30 or 60 data for each group; obtaining 8 complete groups of mensurations independent in eight different dates.The determinate the factor carried out using three regression models: lineal, logarithmic and quadratic, models that were tried to validate with the tests of : i) Shapiro-Wilk and χ2 for the normality of the entrance data ii) Tests of Bartlett for variances homogeneity among groups for each thickness iii) The tests of Duncan for the stockings among groups of each thickness, and iv) The tests of adjustment lack (LOF) for the models used. Nevertheless, alone the models of the group of corresponding mensurations at 01-03-2000 17-08-2001 they can be validated by LOF, but not for tests of normality and homogeneity of variances. Among other assignable causes of variation we have: i) The values captured by the system of mensuration of the variables of it influences: pressure, temperature and relative humidity dont belong together with the existent ones to the moment to capture the l(x). ii) The mensuration room presents flows of air, for what was suited o diminish their volume and to eliminate the flows of air. iii) A protocol settled down of taking of measures that it consisted in: - Pre-irradiation 5 minutes the chamber after the change of polarity and hood change, with a period of stabilization of 5 minutes after the pre-irradiation. - Pre-irradiation for 5 minutes before the taking of the readings, with the object of eliminating variation sources assigned to currents of escapes or due variations to transitory. iv) To realize corrections for relative humidity of agreement with the

  4. Follow-up of pregnant woman 16 years after exposure in Xinzhou radiation accident

    Objective: To investigate the late effect of radiation on child-bearing women, through observing 'Fang', a 19-week-pregnant woman at age of 23, who was exposed to 60Co radiation in Shanxi Xinzhou radiation accident in November, 1992 and diagnosed as moderate bone marrow type acute radiation sickness and recovered after 16 year of follow-up treatment. Methods: Clinical data including medical history, physical examination, laboratory data, imaging findings and consulting relevant departments were reviewed. Results: The followed-up woman 'Fang' often felt weak and caught cold after recovery. When she was 32 years old (9 years after radiation), her hair turned grey, but without hair loss. Her menstrual quantitiy was lessened since 31 years old (8 years after radiation). She was remarried and pregnant twice in the same year. At the first time she underwent artificial abortion and the second child suffered from intrauterine death after 6 months of pregnancy. The physical examination found bilateral degree I thyroid enlargement and sparse armpit hair. The laboratory test showed the increased levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TMAb) and the decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Unstable chromosome aberrations were totally lost and stable aberrations in chromosomes were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The dose estimated with the residue chromosome aberration was 0.76 Gy. Other laboratory results were normal. Ultrasonic test showed diffuse lesion in bilateral thyroid and multiple cystic nodules in right lobe of thyroid, which was considered to be nodular goiter. The examination of bone mineral density (BMD) showed osteoporosis from the second to the fourth lumber vertebra. There were no diseases associated with radiation based on the consultation from related departments. Conclusions: Intrauterine death after 6 months of pregnancy might be associated with the previous exposure. There is no evidence of

  5. The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

  6. Radiation accident Hospital San Juan de Dios August - September 1996

    In Costa Rica, a radiation accident occurred in 1996. It took place at the Radiotherapy Service of the San Juan de Dios Hospital, which affected 115 patients. The Unit of Radiotherapy made a mistake in the calibration of the new bundle because of the change of external faeces of cobalt 60 (Alycon II). The work is a retrospective study that describes what happened in this accident, and the medical consequences that derived from it

  7. Preparation of hospitals for handling victims of radiation accidents

    This chapter is devoted to a generalized discussion of the inter-and intraorganizational structure of hospitals for handling radiation emergencies of the kind suggested above as well as the isolated remote minor accident involving radiation. The general elements of hospital planning for radiation accidents have been discussed and a detailed protocol for handling the radioactive patient is presented. Minor additions and emphasis to parts of these earlier works are summarized, reflecting experiences gained in receiving simulated radioactively contaminated victims in drills at St. Luke's Hospital of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Two accidents were simulated involving mock radioactive materials over a two year period. One such ''accident'' was staged at A-B-E Airport, Lehigh County, in 1981 and the other in the Saucon Valley in 1983. It should be mentioned that in neither case was the release of radioactive material possible, in reality, as portrayed. In planning mock radiation accident drills for emergency care units and support staff, one is best-advised not to pay too much attention to the logic of how the release occurred but rather that there are victims who must be treated, decontaminated and evaluated for the necessity of continued medical care

  8. Accident of radiation exposure and/or contamination with radionuclide

    The accident of exposure is defined to be an unintentional one leading to deleterious outcome. This paper reviews the historical and recent accidents involving those mainly dealt in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan and reported in foreign countries, and describes Japanese medical system for coping with the exposure. Hazardous events of radiation exposure are reported as early as within 1 year after discovery of X-ray by Roentgen (1895). In Japan, there are accidents of exposure to the crew of fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru by nuclear experiment at Bikini Atoll (1954), of exposure by stolen 192Ir source (1972) and by Tokai Criticality Accident (1999). More recently, accidents dealt in NIRS are 13 incidents in 2000-2011: serious cases are 3 skin injuries of electronic industry workers by soft X-ray at 50-91 Gy (2000), and of a high school student at 9 Gy (2001) in the science lesson. The decontamination, dosimetry, radiological protection and support of temporary entrance of evacuees have been conducted by NIRS at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (2011). Foreign information of 19 severely exposed accidents from 2000 to 2012 are described partly or thoroughly for 18 countries. In Japan, the medical system for coping with the exposure is now under re-construction on the impact of the Fukushima Accident. Its concept stands on the aspects that the system is essentially built up not only for prefectures having nuclear power plant and their neighboring ones, but also those with facilities dealing with radioisotopes, and that those undertaking subjects are thoroughly responsible for concurrent support of medicare at radiation emergency. The guideline for medical education published in 2011 contains the item concerning the radiation/humans. (T.T.)

  9. Humoral immune response against native or {sup 60}Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: 0916@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: carlaseibert@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or {sup 60}Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  10. The radiation accident at Institute for Energy Technology Sept. 1982

    On September 2, 1982 a radiation accident with overexposure of one person happened at the gamma irradiation plant at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. This person died from the radiation injury 13 days later. In the report reference is made to the work of different groups and bodies in connection with the accident. An analysis of the causes of the accident is given. For admittance control to the irradiation area there were generally two independent door interlock systems, one irradiation source position related and the other radiation related. The latter was dismantled for repair at the time of the accident. A micro-switch failure left the source in an ushielded position, initiated a green light on the control panel and released the interlock system of the door. According to working instructions a mobile radiation monitor should have been checked for proper function and carried by anyone entering the irradiation room. This seems not to have been carried out correctly. The conditions set forth by the Norwegian Institute of Radiation Hygiene for the restarting of the irradiation plant are presented. (RF)

  11. Preparedness for handling radiation accidents in the Czech Republic

    Emergency planning in the Czech Republic is based on international recommendations by the ICRP and IAEA. An emergency system is being created at the national level for the case of a major accident (including a radiation accident). Although the protective measures concern a large group of people, immediate health impacts are expected to be rare. The protective measures include: sheltering (intervention level 5 to 50 mSv), evacuation (intervention level 50 to 500 mSv), administration of iodine, control of food and water, access control, personal protection, decontamination, control of agricultural produce, and medical care. The responsibilities of the various bodies involved are defined and their cooperation in the event of an accident is described. Another system is aimed at coping with radiation accidents at sites where ionizing radiation sources are being handled. Such accidents would involve small numbers or groups of individuals but the doses received might be high. Within the 1954-1993 period, 65 events of this kind occurred and 183 persons were subjected to medical treatment. The dosimetric control and medical aid system needed in such situations has been developed and tested. (M.D.) 4 tabs., 2 figs., 10 refs

  12. Analysis of the radiation accident in El Salvador

    On 5 February 1989 at 2 a.m. local time in a cobalt-60 industrial irradiation facility, a series of events started leading to one of the most serious radiation accidents in this type of installation. It took place in Soyapango, a city situated 5 km from San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. In this accident, three workers were involved in the first event and a further four in the second. When the accident took place, the activity level was approximately 0.66 PBq (18,000 Ci). The source became blocked when being lowered to its safe position, where upon the technician responsible for the irradiator entered the chamber in breach of the few inadequate safety procedures, accompanied by two colleagues from an adjacent department; the three workers suffered acute radiation exposure, with the result that one of them died six-and-a-half months later, the second had both his legs amputated at mid-thigh, while the third recovered completely. This article describes the irradiator, outlines the causes of the accident and analyses the economic and social repercussions, with the aim of helping teams responsible for radiation protection and safety in industrial irradiation facilities to identify potentially hazardous circumstances and avoid accidents. (author)

  13. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  14. Response of personal radiation detectors to simulated criticality accident pulses

    Personal radiation detection instruments (PRDIs) are often used to augment the protection provided by the installed criticality accident alarm system (CAAS). ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 provides examples of situations when PRDIs could be used, including hor ellipsisalarm system maintenance or testing, evacuation drills, activities in areas not normally occupied by personnel, or other special operations. These instruments were designed for use in radiological control applications. Consequently, documented performance capabilities under conditions typical of the initial pulse from a criticality accident are not readily available. This paper describes testing performed to demonstrate the capability of the PRDIs to respond to radiation pulses similar to that which would be expected to occur in the event of a criticality accident. Detector responses for low-power, oscillating, or slow excursions were either available from manufacturing data or bounded by the initial pulse

  15. Vehicle mobile 60Co container inspection system

    This paper presents a mobile 60Co container inspection system (CIS) and its performance. With all devices including industrial 60Co source, high sensitive gas-ionized array detector, image treatment and control system, inspection driving device on a vehicle, the vehicle mobile CIS has advantages of high agility and climate resistance, and it can complete emergent inspection. The mobile CIS contains equipment-vehicle and control-vehicle. Equipment-vehicle and object-container are still, while a folding detector gantry is moving through a folding rail on the equipment-vehicle and completes the inspection. the mobile CIS has the inspection characteristics similar to the fixed system and it can be used in worse circumstances. Its CI (Contrast Indicator) and IQI (Image Quality Indicator) for 100 mm steel plate attain to 0.5% and 2.5% respectively, and the SP (Space Penetration) is about 240 mm (Fe). Maximum dose per scanning is about 5 μGy, scanning speed is varied from 6 to 18 m/min, and maximum transformational speed is 90 km/h

  16. Sorption of {sup 60} Co on inorganic solids; Sorcion de {sup 60} Co en solidos inorganicos

    Granados C, F.; Bulbulian G, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mardel V, B. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The behavior of sorption of the {sup 60} Co in aqueous solution under static conditions to different values of pH of the aqueous solution (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10) on MgO, MnO{sub 2}, SnO, TiO{sub 2}, activated carbon and calcinate hydrotalcite was investigated. It was found that the best sorbents of the {sup 60} Co was the MnO{sub 2}, activated carbon and TiO{sub 2} whose sorption was incremented when increasing the pH value of the aqueous solutions, in the one case of the hydrated oxides, the {sup 60} Co interacted with the electrically charged surface of the sorbents that depends on the pH of the solution and of the point of zero charge (zpc) of the sorbent. (Author)

  17. Radiation safety and accident experience at gamma irradiation plants

    Gamma irradiation plants for the sterilization of medical products, preservation of food grains and for various other applications employ multikilocurie 60Co sealed sources inside shielded irradiation cells. A number of interlocks are provided between the cell entry door and the source raise mechanisms, in order to prevent the entry of any person to the cell when the source is in the exposed condition. The present paper gives the general safety features and the interlocks employed in these plants along with the safety features of irradiation plants at BARC, namely 106 Ci Isomed plant for the sterilization of medical products, 105 Ci FIPLY plant for research in food preservation and 105 Ci PANBIT plant for industrial research. Over the last two decades five cases of accidental exposure have been reported in literature in which the operator gained entry to the irradiation cell when the source was in the exposed condition. Two of these cases resulted in fatalities while the remaining three cases resulted in hospitalization of the exposed individuals for six to seven weeks. A brief outline of these accidental exposure cases and the causes of the accidents are discussed in this paper. (author). 19 refs

  18. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  19. Biological dosimetry in radiological protection: dose response curves elaboration for 60Co and 137Cs

    Ionizing radiation sources for pacific uses are being extensively utilized by modern society and the applications of these sources have raised the probability of the occurrence of accidents. The accidental exposition to radiation creates a necessity of the development of methods to evaluate dose quantity. This data could be obtained by the measurement of damage caused by radiation in the exposed person. The radiation dose can be estimated in exposed persons through physical methods (physical dosimetry) but the biological methods can't be dispensed, and among them, the cytogenetic one that makes use of chromosome aberrations (dicentric and centric ring) formed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to ionizing radiation. This method correlates the frequency of radioinduced aberrations with the estimated absorbed dose, as in vitro as in vivo, which is called cytogenetic dosimetry. By the introduction of improved new techniques in culture, in the interpretation of aberrations in the different analysers of slides and by the adoption of different statistical programs to analyse the data, significant differences are observed among laboratories in dose-response curves (calibration curves). The estimation of absorbed dose utilizing other laboratory calibration curves may introduce some uncertainties, so the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) advises that each laboratory elaborates your own dose-response curve for cytogenetic dosimetry. The results were obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of the healthy and no-smoking donors exposed to 60Co and 137Cs radiation, with dose rate of 5 cGy.min.-1. Six points of dose were determined 20,50,100,200,300,400 cGy and the control not irradiated. The analysed aberrations were of chromosomic type, dicentric and centric ring. The dose response curve for dicentrics were obtained by frequencies weighted in liner-quadratic mathematic model and the equation resulted were for 60Co: Y = (3 46 +- 2.14)10-4 cGy-1 + (3.45 +- 0

  20. Evaluating the effect of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on protein arcelin and its influence in the resistance of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh., 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); Avaliacao do efeito da radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) sobre a proteina arcelina e sua influencia na resistencia a Zabrotes subsfasciatus (Boh., 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Teixeira, Valeria Wanderley

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different gamma doses of Cobalt-60 on arcelin protein in the manifestation of resistance to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh., 1833). Seeds of four lines of Phaseolus vulgaris carriers of arcelin protein (Arcelin-1, Arcelin-2, Arcelin-3 and Arcelin-4) and a cultivar without this protein were used as control (IAC-Carioca Akyta) obtained from the Instituto Agronomico do Estado de Sao Paulo - Nucleo Experimental de Campinas (IAC), were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, of the panoramic type, from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares/CNEN/SP. The activity was approximately 2218.79 Ci, and the dose rate 0.678 kGy/h. The doses used were 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. The results showed that the radiation doses did not influence the parameters evaluated in the resistance because a high degree of antibiose in the Arcelin-1 and Arcelin-2 lines was maintained. The Arcelin-3 and Arcelin-4 lines also maintained their behavior less expressive of resistance by antibiose only prolonging the period from egg to adult. The electrophoretic analysis of the lines and cultivar were not changed in relation to the radiation doses. But there was a decrease in relation to the intensity of color of the bands (absorbance) with the increase of the doses. (author)

  1. Environmental Aftermath of the Radiation Accident at Tomsk-7

    Porfiriev, Boris N.; Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident’s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed.

  2. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co; Descripcion de caracteres morfologicos en arboles de aguacate (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, sometidos a radiacion gama de {sup 60} Co

    Sandoval R, L

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co{sup 60}, in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co{sup 60} in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico

  3. Radiation accidents affecting the eye and their treatment

    Eye injuries which can occur as a result of radiation accidents or leaks in nuclear power plants are described and their treatment discussed. The trauma may be due to mechanical or thermal influences or the result of exposure to chemicals or radioactivity. After stopping the bepharospasm careful inspection of the conjunctiva is mandatory. If the bulbus is intact, rinsing with a pulsating water jet (Waterpik) is recommended, while if it is perforated primary operative treatment of the injury must be performed before radiation demages sets in. It is pointed out that the special medical centers for the treatment of radiation damage are equipped for ophthalmic surgery. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation {sup 60}Co effect on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of different cultivars of soybean grains (Glycine max (L.));Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais de diferentes cultivares de graos de soja Glycine max (L.)

    Toledo, Tais Carolina Franqueira de

    2006-07-01

    With the increase of the world population, creative strategies will be necessary to control food production. To achieve this challenge, new cultivars have been development, though different techniques and characteristics. To improve food conservation, a plant of methods can be used. The use of Cobalto-60 radiation is a secure and useful method to increase the life time of foods. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soybean, some alterations must be studied. This study has the objective to determinate this alterations caused by irradiation (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked grain of five different cultivars of soybean (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48), this study includes analysis of time cooking and hydratation, and chemical analysis of proximate composition, in vitro digestibility of proteins, percentage of deamidation , phenolics compounds, trypsin inhibitors and tannins. The amount of water absorbed by each grain varied from 14.00 to 16.66mL, and the time cooking varied from 119.67 to 291.33 minutes. The values found for ash were 4.90 to 6.08%, for protein from 21.23 to 36.99%, for fat from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble staple fibres from 1.37 to 4.03% and insoluble staple fibres from 15.97 to 18.87%. The deamidation percentage in the different samples varied of 17,34 to 57.79% and the digestibility in vitro from 84.45 to 89.11%. Inside of the anti nutritional factors, the total compounds phenolics varied from 3.9 to 9.7 mg/g, the units of trypsin inhibited from 24.75 to 57.53 UTI/g and the tannins from 0.02 to 0.32 mg/g. For the physical analyses it showed differences in the time of hydratation among them and the irradiation promoted reduction in the time, but not in the amount of absorbed water; in the cooking time it had reduction with the increase of the doses of radiation; the differences found in the proximate composition did not have influence with the irradiation, but with the different cultivars; for the digestibility

  5. Soil to plant transfer of 137Cs and 60Co in Ferralsol, Nitisol and Acrisol

    In this study, soil to plant transfer factor values were determined for 137Cs and 60Co in radish (Raphanus sativus), maize (Zea mays L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) growing in gibbsite-, kaolinite- and iron-oxide-rich soils. After 3 years of experiment in lysimeters it was possible to identify the main soil properties able to modify the soil to plant transfer processes, e.g. exchangeable K and pH, for 137Cs, and organic matter for 60Co. Results of sequential chemical extraction were coherent with root uptake and allowed the recognition of the role of iron oxides on 137Cs behaviour and of Mn oxides on 60Co behaviour. This information should provide support for adequate choices of countermeasures to be applied on tropical soils in case of accident or for remediation purposes

  6. Follow-up of victim exposed in uterus 16 years after Xinzhou radiation accident

    Objective: To observe and study the late effects of intrauterine exposure to irradiation. Methods: A 16-year-old girl, borne by a woman exposed to 60Co irradiation during the Xinzhou radiation accident 16 years ago underwent inquiry, general medical examination. Conventional chromosome aberration analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to examine non-stability and stability shromosome aberrations, and China revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (CWISC) was used to detect IQ level. Results: Inquiry revealed no history of carcinoma and no family history of hereditary diseases. The girl often caught cold when she was a child, but she hadn't any other diseases. Menarche occurred when she was 12 years old, and she had not suffered from dysmenorrhea. Her development of body frame constitution was normal. She could not carry out addition and subtraction, but she could make simple verbal communication, writing and even reciting text. The results of the routine lab examination were within the normal range. Unstable chromosome aberrations were not shown, and the chromosome translocation rate was 2.3%. The dose that induced the chromosome injury was deduced as 0.81 Gy. The biological dose of the radiation that she was exposed to was inferred to be 1.85 Gy when she was in her mother's uterus. Ultrasonic sound showed nodular goiter and no malignant change. China's revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (CWISC) test results showed that speech, operation and full-scale IQ was 51, 50, and 46 respectively. The total intelligence was better than 0.01%, and worse than 99.90% of the population. Conclusions: Exposure in utero does not affect the body frame constitution development after birth of the fetus, but mental retardation is clear. No evidence of any tumor can be found for the children exposed to radiation before their birth. (authors)

  7. Gamma 60Co DL50/30 of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) DL50/30 raios gama de 60Co em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    Elaine Barros da Costa CARVALHO; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Mauricy Alves da MOTTA

    1999-01-01

    The variation of resistance to 60Co gamma-rays of Biomphalaria glabrata was studied. A population of 480 mollusks was observed during 30 days - distributed in 8 groups of snails isolated and 8 groups of snails in colonies - after exposure (30 snails per group per dose) to increasing doses of gamma radiation. Doses of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160, 320 and 640 Gy from a Gamma-cell 60Co irradiator, were applied to the test groups and two groups control (non-irradiated) of snails - isolated and colony...

  8. Theories of radiation effects and reactor accident analysis

    Muckerheide's paper was a public breakthrough on how one might assess the public health effects of low-level radiation. By the organization of a wealth of data, including the consequences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but not including Chernobyl, he was able to conclude that present radioactive waste disposal and cleanup efforts need to be much less arduous than forecast by the U.S. Department of Energy, which, together with regulators, uses the linear hypothesis of radiation damage to humans. While the linear hypothesis is strongly defended and even recommended for extension to noncarcinogenic pollutants, exploration of a conservative threshold for very low level exposures could save billions of dollars in disposing of radioactive waste, enhance the understanding of reactor accident consequences, and assist in the development of design and operating criteria pertaining to severe accidents. In this context, the authors discuss the major differences between design-basis and severe accidents. The authors propose that what should ultimately be done is to develop a regulatory formula for severe-accident analysis that relates the public health effects to the amount and type of radionuclides released and distributed by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to the following important questions should provide the basis of this study: (1) What should be the criteria for distinguishing between design-basis and severe accidents, and what should be the basis for these criteria? (2) How do, and should, these criteria differ for older plants, newer operating plants, type of plant (i.e., gas cooled, water cooled, and liquid metal), advanced designs, and plants of the former Soviet Union? (3) How safe is safe enough?

  9. Possibilities for Improved Treatment of Persons Exposed in Radiation Accidents

    The number of persons exposed to acute radiation accidents continues to be small and the clinical experience in handling them is thus obviously limited. The great increase in use of radioactive materials and the growing number of power reactors constitute greatly augmented potential sites for accidents, but fortunately the number of accidents is not increasing. There appears to be some shift in the type of accidents, with a relative increase in those in which excessive dose to a small part of the body is the predominant feature. There has been little progress in treating local radiation injury but methods for handling the hematopoietic syndrome are definitely improved. With platelet transfusions we have a powerful aid in managing hemorrhage; the more difficult problem in persons with severe marrow depression is infection. The development of sterile environment facilities and the availability of better antibiotic therapy are important advances. Where these measures are not adequate, more experimental procedures give some promise: the injection of concentrated leukemic or normal leukocytes, the use of cross circulation, or the injection of allogeneic bone marrow. Classification of the injury and estimation of its severity are more effectively done now than a few years ago, and contribute to better treatment. (author)

  10. Ten years medical follow-up of four persons accidentally exposed to 60Co γ-rays

    Four cases of acute radiation injury resulting from accidental exposure to a 60Co source in February, 1972, were subject to early medical examination, and followed-up for 10 years. Their whole body exposure doses were estimated to be 55-147 rads. The results showed that in the individuals who had received a single dose below 147 rads, the temporary clinical picture, and the injuries in hemopoietic function and male reproductive system were all recoverable, but the chromosome aberrations yield returned to normal slowly. Ten years after the accident, all these 4 cases were in good health, and no cataract or malignant diseases were observed. No obvious abnormalities were found in their children. (author)

  11. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi (India)), on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Inst. of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents. (authors)

  12. Determination of the correction factor for attenuation, dispersion and production of electrons (K{sub wall}) in the wall of graphite of a ionization chamber Pattern National Type CC01 in fields of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co; Determinacion del factor de correccion por atenuacion, dispersion y produccion de electrones (K{sub wall}) en la pared de grafito de una Camara de Ionizacion Patron Nacional Tipo CC01 en campos de radiacion gamma de {sup 60} Co

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Morales P, J.; Cruz E, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-12-15

    It was determined the Kwall correction factor for the wall of graphite of the chamber of the pattern national type CC01 series 133 for a radiation field Gamma of {sup 60}Co. With this end to measured the currents of ionization l(x) as function of the thickness of the wall of the chamber: X=4,8,12,16 and 20 mm.The mensurations for each thickness consisting of three groups, of sizes n = 30 or 60 data for each group; obtaining 8 complete groups of mensurations independent in eight different dates.The determinate the factor carried out using three regression models: lineal, logarithmic and quadratic, models that were tried to validate with the tests of : i) Shapiro-Wilk and {chi}{sup 2} for the normality of the entrance data ii) Tests of Bartlett for variances homogeneity among groups for each thickness iii) The tests of Duncan for the stockings among groups of each thickness, and iv) The tests of adjustment lack (LOF) for the models used. Nevertheless, alone the models of the group of corresponding mensurations at 01-03-2000 17-08-2001 they can be validated by LOF, but not for tests of normality and homogeneity of variances. Among other assignable causes of variation we have: i) The values captured by the system of mensuration of the variables of it influences: pressure, temperature and relative humidity don{sup t} belong together with the existent ones to the moment to capture the l(x). ii) The mensuration room presents flows of air, for what was suited o diminish their volume and to eliminate the flows of air. iii) A protocol settled down of taking of measures that it consisted in: - Pre-irradiation 5 minutes the chamber after the change of polarity and hood change, with a period of stabilization of 5 minutes after the pre-irradiation. - Pre-irradiation for 5 minutes before the taking of the readings, with the object of eliminating variation sources assigned to currents of escapes or due variations to transitory. iv) To realize corrections for relative humidity of

  13. Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents

    The text of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, which was signed on 17 October 1963 by the Director General and by representatives of the Governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article IX will be notified to Members in an Addendum to this document

  14. Course on medical aspects of nuclear and radiation accidents. Proceedings

    The Tchernobyl event deflected the attention from other potential hazards related to ionizing radiation as can result from misfunction or misuse of radioactive sources widely applied in human medicine or in industry. It was only after the Goiania accident in Brazil that these radiation sources retrieved the attention they deserve. Around the world, great efforts have been undertaken by the producers and users of these sources, supported by scientific investigations and by legislative backing, to minimize to the greatest extent possible any risk to public health. Nevertheless, accidents involving serious overexposures of individuals cannot be excluded entirely for the future. It is therefore a matter of professional responsibility to carefully evaluate the experiences gathered in the wake of radiation accidents and proliferate this knowledge to those professionals-health physicists, decontamination specialists, medical and paramedical staff - that might be confronted with the consequences of an accident and from whose expertise and proper handling human lifes might depend. It was with this aim that the Atomic Energy Authority and the International Bureau of the Forschungszentrum Juelich undertook to organize a joint training course within the German-Egyptian governmental agreement on bilateral cooperation in scientific research and technological development signed on 11.4.1979. Selected experts from both sides convened and presented both compended text book knowledge as well as own recent scientific data reflecting the state of the art. This material was selected and prepared in order to fit the needs of the invited 25 Egyptian physicians and paramedical course participants who where to be given guidelines on how to react to radiation overexposure incidents. (orig.)

  15. Accumulation and excretion of 60Co by marine organisms

    The biological half-life of 60Co accumulated from seawater by marine fish was 20-50 days. It was slightly longer in the liver and muscles than in the whole body. Feed including natural feed organisms contributed more to the total body burden of 60Co than environmental waters. The total body burden of 60Co via feed varied according to the organism species, kinds of feed and the root of incorporation. Transfer ratio of 60Co from the water into the organisms was higher than that from the marine sediments having high affinity of Co into the organisms. The elevated water temperature promoted the biological activity, resulting in the increased bioaccumulation of radioactive Co. Concentration coefficients of 60Co by mollusca and seaweeds were generally high. In particular, organic 60Co was more likely to be accumulated than inorganic 60Co. The biological half-life of organic 60Co was longer than inorganic 60Co in mollusca, while it was the same as or shorter than inorganic 60Co in the other organisms. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; YAMASHITA, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at ...

  17. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist

  18. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  19. Changes of collagen metabolism induced by 60Co γ-ray external irradiation

    Objective: To study the changes and molecular mechanism of collagen metabolism induced by 60Co γ-ray external irradiation of local tissues. Methods: After the hip skin of rabbits was irradiated with 60Co γ-rays, the changes of collagen metabolism and collagen contents of the rabbits' skin of different sex groups were determined. Results: The γ-rays decreased the soluble collagen contents (especially type III) and increased the activity of MMPs in local tissues. Although the radiation affected the contents of serum SOD, 5-HT, and LPO, its influence on the contents in local tissues was not remarkable. There were changes of collagen metabolism in local tissues after radiation injury, but no differences were found in SOD, 5-HT, LPO, and glucosamine of tissues. Conclusion: The main mechanism of skin burn induced by 60Co γ-rays may be that the changes of collagen metabolism bring about the pathological effect

  20. Multicomponent risk inherent to nuclear or radiation accidents

    A nuclear or radiation emergency response planning is based on expected avertable doses for a short (4 hours, 2 days, 1 week) and a long (50 or 70 years) periods of time. On calculating the doses one should take into account not only the sources of ionizing radiation with their foreseen characteristics, e.g. a half-life, but also the possibility of their probabilistic transformations. It can be illustrated by the chronicle of Chernobyl accident, where for nine days it was impossible to envisage with reliability the quantities of released radionuclides due to many uncontrolled factors related to the scope and character of the zone wreckage. Any other developments of the accident, such as destruction of the under reactor support plate, sinking of the melted zone into a highly radioactive water down at the reactor cavity or changing of the wind could have resulted in a substantial contamination of 3 mln. Kiev and other densely populated area of Ukraine. Another factor to be taken into account in the emergency response is a way of an actual risk perception by the population. The article suggests an approach to take into account the time-dependent secondary sources of exposure and the disparity in accepting the hazard of real risk of an accident by the trained workers and population. (author)

  1. Medical emergency provisions in case of large-scale radiation accidents (literature review)

    Problems of planning population protection in case of severe radiation accidents are considered. Attention is paid to the state of these problems in the USSR and other contries as well as to IAEA directives. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents are used for illustration purposes. Organization of medical help during radiation accidents, provided for in national regulations and experience gained during Chernobyl NPP accident are considered. Conclusion is made on the necessity of forcasting accident consequences with regard to local, social, economical, geographic and other conditions. Availability of medical provision plans, related to elimination of accident aftereffects and skill training, is obligatory

  2. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  3. History of aid provision during radiation accidents in the Czech Republic and of radiation emergency reporting

    The history of radiation accidents and reported elevated exposures divided into the 1954-1978, 1979-1994 and 1995-2012 periods is described in detail. The spectrum of reported radiation events has changed during the years, now including e.g. retrieval of orphan sources, illicit traffic, etc. Since 1995 the agenda of radiation protection has been dealt with by the State Office of Nuclear Safety, where an Emergency Coordination Centre was established.

  4. Effects of different premature chromosome condensation method on dose-curve of 60Co γ-ray

    Objective: To study the effect of traditional method and improved method of the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) on the dose-effect curve of 60Co γ ray, for choosing the rapid and accurate biological dose estimating method for the accident emergency. Methods: Collected 3 healthy male cubits venous blood (23 to 28 years old), and irradiated by 0, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 Gy 60Co γ ray (absorbed dose rate: 0.635 Gy/min). Observed the relation of dose-effect curve in the 2 incubation time (50 hours and 60 hours) of the traditional method and improved method. Used the dose-effect curve to verify the exposure of 10.0 Gy (absorbed dose rate: 0.670 Gy/min). Results: (1) In the traditional method of 50-hour culture, the PCC cell count in 15.0 Gy and 20.0 Gy was of no statistical significance. But there were statistical significance in the traditional method of 60-hours culture and improved method (50-hour culture and 60-hour culture). Used the last 3 culture methods to make dose curve. (2) In the above 3 culture methods, the related coefficient between PCC ring and exposure dose was quite close (all of more than 0.996, P0.05), the morphology of regression straight lines almost overlap. (3) Used the above 3 dose-effect curves to estimate the irradiation results (10.0 Gy), the error was less than or equal to 8%, all of them were within the allowable range of the biological experiment (15%). Conclusion: The 3 dose-effect curves of the above 3 culture methods can apply to biological dose estimating of large doses of ionizing radiation damage. Especially the improved method of 50-hour culture,it is much faster to estimate and it should be regarded as the first choice in accident emergency. (authors)

  5. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP)

  6. Transfer of 60Co from midwater squid to sperm whales

    Sperm whales are notable squid-eaters. They feed mainly on medium to large-sized cephalopods at midwater levels and defecate near the surface. This suggests the existence of an upward transport of 60Co by sperm whales from the mesopelagic zone (150-1,200m). To elucidate this squid-whale route for this artificial radionuclide, 60Co content was determined in squid and in predator whales captured by commercial whaling. In the Cephalopoda livers 60Co levels of 30-500 mBq kg-1 wet were found and in the viscera of Odontoceti (toothed whales) 15-40 mBq kg-1 wet. About 0.3% of 60Co ingested was estimated to be retained in a 23-year-old male sperm whale. In the livers of Bryde's whales, 60Co levels of 40-80 mBq kg-1 wet were detected, but not in euphausiids and sardines, their possible prey. The level of Co in sperm whales was nearly the same as in Bryde's whales. Specific radioactivity 60Co/59Co in mBq μg-1 was several times higher in sperm whale (1.1-1.6) than in cephalopods (0.19-0.77). Eating prey with a high content of 60Co in the 1960's may have contributed to the present body burden in sperm whales with a long-life span. However, the origin of 60Co in Bryde's whales is unknown. (author)

  7. Monte Carlo dosimetry for 125I and 60Co in eye plaque therapy

    Monte Carlo calculations of radiation dosimetry using morse code are performed for 125I and 60Co point sources in a cylindrical head phantom that simulates the geometry of eye plaque therapy for choroidal melanoma. We obtain the dose variation in the eye at submillimeter intervals over distances as close as 1 mm and up to 2.5 cm from the source. The calculations for 125I are performed for the phantom media of water, protein, and a homogenized protein--water mixture simulating the composition of the eye. Relative dose functions for 125I for these phantom media are fitted to second-degree polynomials. Agreement is found with published results. The relative dose function for 60Co at eye position in the water head phantom is fitted to a third-degree polynomial and compared with that for 60Co at the center of a large water sphere. A boundary effect due to the head phantom--air interface on the dose distribution for 60Co is demonstrated. The dose falloff with distance is faster for the eye geometry compared with the bulk geometry. We also show that the relative dose distributions within the tumor are comparable for 125I and 60Co by comparing their relative dose functions. This result is consistent with the success of clinical trials of large melanoma treatments with 125I plaques

  8. ESR radiation dose evaluation on radiation exposure accident in England

    A technician of nondestructive inspection in England died because of radiation injury even though his exposure record with film badge indicated only 104 mSv of the lifelong exposure dose. After the request of the National Radiation Protection Board of Great Britain, the author conducted measurement of the exposure dose with ESR dosimetry. ESR spectra were measured on tooth enamel and bones of the finger and the upper arm taken from the dead technician. The exposure dose is obtained from the enhancement of the ESR signal intensity of CO2- after international irradiation. 14 and 12 Gy for tooth enamel, 7.2 and 4.2 Gy for the bones of the finger and the upper arm respectively. The bone samples may show smaller dose due to metabolism in the body. The technician is assumed to be exposed about 10 mSv at the fingers and the arms for each time on the inspection of pipings for more than 10 years. He used to wear the film badge on his waist. The author stresses the importance of preservation of extracted tooth as a exposure record for radiation workers. (T.H.)

  9. Principles of medical-hygienic prediction of the after-effects of radiation accident

    Basing on the experience in rendering medical aid to the injured persons after radiation accidents during years 1950-1993, the recommendations are given in respect of the procedure of preparation of the medical prognosis of the after-effects of radiation accident with the help of IAEA scale of severity radiation accident. It is pointed out that the prediction of hygienic after-effects of the radiation accident depends on a number of factors, the applied methods of weighing-out the benefit and harm of the introduced hygienic measures and remains to be the subject of further studies. 9 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. Radiation chemical research after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    On March 11, 2011 we had the Great East Japan Earthquake and induced tsunami, which attacked the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Due to the blackout of the NPS and no cooling water, the cores of the unit of -1, -2 and -3 reactors were melt down and hydrogen explosion took place at the unit -1, -3 and -4. In addition, seawater was injected to primary containment vessel, pressure reactor vessel and spent fuel pool. New radiation research projects appeared after the Fukushima Accident. Among the projects, (1) radiolysis of zeolite and management of zeolite waste, (2) effect of seawater injection, and (3) radiation induced dissolution of UO2 are selected and briefly presented. (author)

  11. Relevance of Fukushima Nuclear Accident to India: Nuclear Radiation Risk and Interventions to Mitigate Adverse Fallout

    Yadav Kapil, Varshney Neha, Aslesh OP, Karmakar MG, Pandav Chandrakant S

    2012-01-01

    The environmental radiation release from Fukushima nuclear power following tsunami in Japan has once again highlighted the omnipotent risk of radiation injury in the today’s world. India is at a real risk from radiation fallout both due to nuclear power plant accidents and nuclear warfare threat. The risk from nuclear radiation accident in India is further increased by the region being endemic for iodine deficiency as adverse effects following nuclear radiation fallout l...

  12. Impact of 60Co-γ-ray Sterilization of Tetracycline Hydrochloride Raw Materials%60Co-γ射线对盐酸四环素原料灭菌的研究

    黄波; 赵全如; 刘莉萍

    2014-01-01

    Different doses of 60Co-γ rays were compared for radiation sterilization on raw materials of tetracycline hydrochloride. By checking stability data, the optimal radiation dose of 60Co-γ rays on tetracycline hydrochloride raw materials was 9 kGy, at which its physical and chemical detection indicators were in line with the requirements of USP, and the sterility test results met the requirements..%采用不同剂量的60Co-γ射线对盐酸四环素原料进行辐射灭菌,结合稳定性考察数据,最终确定盐酸四环素原料的60Co-γ射线的辐射剂量为9 kGy时,其理化检测指标符合USP的要求,且无菌检查符合要求。

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME HEALTH INDICATORS OF VARIOUS RADIATION ACCIDENTS LIQUIDATORS

    V. M. Shubik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative investigation of morbidity and immunity of liquidators of radiation accidents occurred in South Urals (Kyshtym accident, at Chernobyl NPP and nuclear submarines (NS consequences. The most evident immunity and health changes were revealed for liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident (ChNPP. Investigations of Kyshtym accident liquidators revealed long-term immunological losses. Comparison of health indicators of Chernobyl and nuclear submarine accident liquidators reveals the possibility of combined influence of radiation and stress on the immunity and health.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation (60Co) on the main physical and chemical properties of health care packaging and their compounds paper and multilayer plastic film, used for health products sterilization

    Gamma radiation is one of the technologies applied for the sterilization of packaging systems containing products for health. During sterilization process it is critical that the properties of packages are maintained. In this study two samples of commercial pouch packaging comprised of surgical grade paper on one side and the other side multilayer plastic film were irradiated with gamma rays. The following doses were applied 25 kGy (1,57 kGy/h) and 50 kGy (1,48 kGy/h). One packaging sample was paper formed by softwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/polyethylene (PE). The second type of paper sample was made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on polyethylene terephthalate (ethylene) (PET)/polypropylene (PP). The effects of radiation on the physical and chemical properties of papers and multilayer plastic films, as well as the properties of the package were studied. The paper was the more radiation sensitive among the studied materials and radiation effects were more pronounced at brightness, pH, tearing resistance, bursting strength and tensile strength. Nonetheless, worst comparatively effects were noted on the sample made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers. The porosity of paper was enhanced by 50 kGy. In the case of plastic films, radiation effects on tensile strength was the most pronounced property for both samples. In the case of the packaging the sealing resistance decreased with radiation. The effects observed for the treatment at 50 kGy were more pronounced when compared to 25 kGy. This last is the dose which is usually applied to sterilize health products. A dosimetry study was performed during irradiation at 25 kGy, 40 kGy and 50 kGy and its importance may be reported by the average dose variation 20 %. (author)

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME HEALTH INDICATORS OF VARIOUS RADIATION ACCIDENTS LIQUIDATORS

    V. M. Shubik

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of comparative investigation of morbidity and immunity of liquidators of radiation accidents occurred in South Urals (Kyshtym accident), at Chernobyl NPP and nuclear submarines (NS) consequences. The most evident immunity and health changes were revealed for liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident (ChNPP). Investigations of Kyshtym accident liquidators revealed long-term immunological losses. Comparison of health indicators of Chernobyl and nuclear submarine acc...

  16. Problems of dosimetric evaluation of radiation accident situations with external irradiation in neutron and gamma field

    The problems are discussed of the dosimetric evaluation of radiation accident situations in a mixed gamma and neutron field. The methods and means of accident dosimetry should allow evaluation basically in three stages: (1) within 6 hours following an accident to classify persons according to radiation exposure; (2) to obtain data on the maximum absorbed dose with accuracy better than +-50% within 48 hours; (3) to establish depth dose values with accuracy better than +-20 to 25% within 3 to 6 days. Recommendations are shown related to safeguarding dosimetric systems for radiation accident situations in nuclear facilities. (B.S.)

  17. Radiation doses from contaminated food after a nuclear accident

    This report presents estimates of radiation doses from contaminated food after a hypothetical accident at a nuclear power plant. The calculations are made from assumptions intended to represent Swedish conditions. The accident scenario is based on a hypothetical core melt in a nuclear power reactor followed by a release to the atmosphere of iodine and caesium corresponding to 0.6% of the Forsmark unit 3 core inventory. The results are expressed in terms of average effective doses from contaminated food to individuals in the critical group living near the power plant, 2 km from the point of release, and living from locally produced foodstuffs. The calculations are made for a winter release and a summer release, and for dry and rainy conditions. Dynamic radioecological models are used, which have been developed from Danish experience with readioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and with fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The accidental release is estimated to cause doses in the summer season from 131I of circa 200 mSv to children and circa 30 mSv to adults based on a deposition during dry conditions of 11 MBq 131I m-2. The dosed from 134Cs and 137Cs are estimated at circa 20 mSv to children and adults in case of winter release and circa 160 mSv in case of summer release based on a deposition during dry conditions of 0.5 MBQ 134Cs and 0.4 MBq 137Cs m-2. The main reason for the large difference between the winter and the summer releases is the high sensitivity of cerals to direct contamination on month prior to harvest. In case of precipitation the doses are estimated at twice those for dry conditons. (author) 8 tabs., 16 ills., 13 refs

  18. Mutant in tobacco anther culture induced by 60Co γ-rays

    The tobacco anthers at uninucleate eccentric stage were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays for the purpose of inducing desirable mutants. The results showed that the induction frequency of plantlets increased following 1kR of 60Co γ-rays treatment. However, the time of plantlet induction was delayed and the percentage of responding anthers as well as the number of plantlets induced per anther significantly decreased after 3kR of 60Co γ-ray radiation which was considered as a semilethal exposure. The plantlet numbers induced per anther were extremely low following 6kR of 60Co γ-ray radiation. A white flower mutant appeared in the induced progenies. The tobacco leaf quality of this mutant were significantly improved as compared with its parental line. The mutant line has been tested and proved to have commercial value though the resistance to the black shank of tobacco slightly decreased as compared with the parental line

  19. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    Bomanji, Jamshed B.; NOVRUZOV, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with e...

  20. Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Radiation exposure assessment for determining appropriate medical treatment is discussed. The effects of ingesting food or inhaling air irradiated by accidental fallout are considered. Follow-up studies of the survivors of specific nuclear accidents are included in an attempt to evaluate long and short term health effects of accidents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Determination of Absorbed Dose in Large 60-Co Fields Radiotherapy

    Radiation in radiotherapy has selective impact on ill and healthy tissue. During the therapy the healthy tissue receives certain amount of dose. Therefore dose calculations in outer radiotherapy must be accurate because too high doses produce damage in healthy tissue and too low doses cannot ensure efficient treatment of cancer cells. A requirement on accuracy in the dose calculations has lead to improvement of detectors, and development of absolute and relative dosimetry. Determination of the dose distribution with use of computer is based on data provided by the relative dosimetry. This paper compares the percentage depth doses in cubic water phantoms of various dimensions with percentage depth doses calculated with use of Mayneord factor from the experimental depth doses measured in water phantom of large dimension. Depth doses in water phantoms were calculated by the model of empirical dosimetrical functions. The calculations were based on the assumption that large 60Co photon field exceeds the phantom's limits. The experimental basis for dose calculations by the model of empirical dosimetrical functions were exposure doses measured in air and dose reduction factors because of finite phantom dimensions. Calculations were performed by fortran 90 software. It was found that the deviation of dosimetric model was small in comparison to the experimental data. (author)

  2. Response of adrenal gland to whole body 60Co irradiation

    Whole body of the adult albino rates was exposed to 60Co radiation in a single dose of 600 R. Following irradiation the adrenal serotonin level was found higher till the end of 8th week except a fall on 14th day, whereas the blood 5HT level remained lower than the normal except a slight rise at the end of 1st week and dropped down at 14 days followed by a further rise. The blood catecholamine level was found increased at the end of 14th day followed by a fall at 4th and 8th weeks, but the levels were moving round the normal value. The histological studies of adrenal gland showed degranulation and hypertrophy of adrenal cortex and medullary cells at various intervals of post-irradiation. On the whole it is observed that maximum changes in the level of biogenic amines take place within 14 days after irradiation, and maximum rate of mortality also coincide with this period. Thus bringing out the fact that adrenal bioamines play an important role in the vital activities of the animals. (author)

  3. 60Co retention by a freshwater planktonic alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    This paper presents the results of various decontamination experiments aimed at evaluating 60Co retention by Scenedesmus obliquus, and the respective role played by absorption and adsorption in the contamination of the alga by this radionuclide. The physiological condition of cells is not involved in radiocobalt desorption, which seems to indicate that the phenomenon is of a passive nature. When the precontamination time is extended, the proportion of adsorbed 60Co decreases, and the final percentage of radionuclide retained increases. These results are confirmed by bringing cells into contact with a strong chelating agent. The elimination of 60Co in the presence of EDTA undergoes a sharp decrease which is correlated with the increase in the duration of the precontamination phase. The use of a weaker complexing agent, such as NaCl, leads to the hypothesis of there being 2 types of 60Co receptor on cell membranes. (author)

  4. 1945-1985-40 years of Nuclear Industry: an overview of important radiation accidents

    Approximately 180 radiation accidents which occurred in the world during the period 1945-1985 are summarized. The necessity of the availability of a database specifically oriented toward researchers interested in studying the different radiation accidents reported is emphasized. (M.A.C.)

  5. Personnel Monitoring of External Exposures Resulting from Radiation Accidents

    Part I. A brief review of methods and techniques for estimating the doses received from external sources in radiation accidents with emphasis on research and the development of improved methods is presented. Dosimetry methods such as film badges, ionization chambers, radio photoluminescence, radio thermoluminescence, conductivity, electronexoemission, track and activation detectors and individual alarm systems are discussed. Comparisons are made between their operational characteristics and the overall impression is broadly summarized. Part II. The mechanical model for expressing rems in connection with the present-day practice of personnel monitoring of external exposures is discussed. The necessary precision of dosimeters, the estimation of the exposure dose from dosimeter readings, the estimation of absorbed dose from exposure dose and, finally, dose-equivalent transformations are analysed. All necessary aspects of such transformations are mentioned. The role of the time estimation of the dose received and recovery during protracted accidental exposures are discussed. (author)

  6. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

  7. Summary of major accidents with radiation sources and lessons learned

    The paper reviews some of the major radiological accidents that have occurred around the world and identifies key lessons to be learned from them. It emphasizes the value of feedback from the reporting of accidents, the need for effective reporting mechanisms and, most important, the importance of acting on the lessons learned to ensure accident prevention. (author)

  8. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  9. Lessons Learned from the Radiological Accident In Mayapuri, New Delhi

    In the past, there were several reported incidents and accidents throughout the world due to inadvertent radiation exposure causing serious radiation injuries to members of the public due to the presence of radioactive sources in the public domain and scrap yards. In April 2010, for the first time in India, a radiation accident occurred due to the dismantling of a gamma cell, housing 60Co radioactive source pencils, by the workers in a scrap shop located in the Mayapuri area of New Delhi. This resulted in high radiation exposures to seven people, of whom one succumbed to radiation sickness. Officers from the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and personnel from national emergency response agencies were involved at various stages of source recovery operations. It was revealed that the accident due to a ‘legacy’ source originated from a university. Several actions have been initiated by the AERB to prevent such accidents in future and lessons learned by stakeholders. (author)

  10. Soil to plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in Ferralsol, Nitisol and Acrisol

    Wasserman, M.A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/no, Recreio, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br; Bartoly, F.; Viana, A.G.; Silva, M.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/no, Recreio, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos, EMBRAPA, R. Jardim Botanico 1024, CEP: 22460-000, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/no, Recreio, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    In this study, soil to plant transfer factor values were determined for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in radish (Raphanus sativus), maize (Zea mays L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) growing in gibbsite-, kaolinite- and iron-oxide-rich soils. After 3 years of experiment in lysimeters it was possible to identify the main soil properties able to modify the soil to plant transfer processes, e.g. exchangeable K and pH, for {sup 137}Cs, and organic matter for {sup 60}Co. Results of sequential chemical extraction were coherent with root uptake and allowed the recognition of the role of iron oxides on {sup 137}Cs behaviour and of Mn oxides on {sup 60}Co behaviour. This information should provide support for adequate choices of countermeasures to be applied on tropical soils in case of accident or for remediation purposes.

  11. Transfer and mobility of 137 Cs and 60 Co in oxisol and alfisol

    One manner to assess potential mobility of radionuclides in soils is the use of sequential extraction procedures. These procedures intend to provide the radionuclide partitioning in geochemical phases of soil affected by changes in physico-chemical conditions. In this study a new sequential chemical extraction protocol was choose to evaluate 60 Co and 137 Cs mobility under a large range of physico-chemical soil properties. The results of sequential procedure was further compared with soil to plant transfer factors data for maize and radish and with soil properties, showing rather consistent results. The 137 Cs distribution in soil showed that Fe oxides are the main sink for this element and after 14 years after contamination the 137 Cs was still available for plants. The 60 Co distribution showed that Mn oxides are the main sink for this element in Alfisol and 5 years after contamination no 60 Co was detected as bioavailable neither detectable in maize. The knowledge of the bio-geochemical behavior of radionuclides in soil system can be useful for risk assessment studies, to be applied in the case of nuclear accident or contamination scenarios. (author)

  12. [Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].

    Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. PMID:22920877

  13. A comparison of pdd for 60Co teletherapy units

    Although BJR supplement No 17 provides TAR and PDD tables for 60Co gamma rays, due to inherent differences hat exists among individual teletherapy machine and their source it is essential to measure TAR and PDD that are applicable for user's teletherapy unit. TAR and PDD values for different field sizes at 80 cm SSD, open field, gantry angle 0o, collimator angle 0o were determined in CIRUS 60Co teletherapy unit by ionization chamber NE2570/1B Farmer type. PDD for a standard field size 10 10 cm2, open field, gantry angle 0o,Collimate angle 0o were determined in MEDNIF FYC 2600H 60Co teletherapy unit by using ionization chamber RT101. That experimentally measured PDD values for both units were compared with published values in BJR supplement No 17. The experimentally measured values for CIRUS 60Co showed up to 0.8% deviation at maximum and that for MEDNIF 60Co showed up to 4.5% deviation at maximum. This study investigated the discrepancy between the BJR values and experimentally determined values for two teletherapy units in Nepal

  14. Concentration of 60Co by marine organisms through sediments

    Uptake of 60Co absorbed on sea sands by benthic marine organisms was observed in laboratory experiments, since the radioactive cobalt released from nuclear power plants or other establishments into coastal seawater trends to be absorbed on sea sediments and also various kinds of marine organisms live in bottom sediments. Few kinds of flatfishes (Limanda spp.) and shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris) were reared in aquariums contained seawater and sea sands which were highly contaminated with 60Co previously, and whole body retention and distribution of radioactivity were measured on the organisms taken up from the aquariums occasionally by a scintillation counter. Uptake of 60Co from ingested sea sands was also observed on the flatfishes administrating the contaminated sands orally. Concentration of 60Co by the flatfishes reared in the sands was not significant while the shrimp showed high retention of the radioactivity. The food habit of shrimp which usually feeds on organic detritus with other small benthic organisms is different from that of flatfishes, one of the carnivorous, and considered to bring the difference on the pathway of radionuclides concentration. Assimilation of 60Co via the digestive tract of flatfishes through the sands was estimated as about 10 per cent of the administrated radioactivity. (auth.)

  15. A positron 1D-ACAR spectrometer for the study of 60Co containing materials

    In order to study some micro-structural changes in irradiated nuclear reactor-pressure vessel steels using a positron annihilation technique, a new three-detector set-up, suitable for a positron 1-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (1D-ACAR) study of 60Co-containing materials, was developed. The design of the equipment as well as results from test measurements are described. (orig.)

  16. On the Spirulina platensis - 60 Co2+ bioaccumulation system

    Radiochemical studies, IR spectrometry and electron microscopy studies have been carried out with the purpose of establishing the mechanisms involved in the bioaccumulation of 60 Co2+ in the blue alga Spirulina platensis. By measuring the radioactivity it was determined that, without ionic competition, an one week old culture of Spirulina platensis can retain up to 65% of the 60 Co2+ ions from a slightly radioactive solution. Sodium carbonate is involved in the mechanism of the bioaccumulation of these β + γ - radiocations (a phenomenon evidenced by IR spectrometry). Electronic microscopy studies point out that the compounds resulted from the interaction between the exopolysaccharides and 60 Co2+ disperse in the solution. Thus, even though the radiocobalt is completely blocked up in complex compounds, it is not completely retained on the surface and inside of the alga. (authors)

  17. Radiation protection experience in Yugoslavia from the Vinca accident to nowadays

    This Paper is the expression of the author opinion about development of radiation protection in Yugoslavia from its beginning forty years ago, which might affect its status in the foreseeable future at the first decades of the 21st century. It focuses on key events in this field starting from the Vinca Accident, which happened in the October 1958, to nowadays. Shortly reviewed some of key events are: Vinca Accident; Foundation of the Radiation Protection Laboratory in the Vinca Institute; International Vinca Dosimetry Experiment; First National Symposium and foundation of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Association; International Intercomparison Experiment on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry and, International Summer Schools and Symposium on Radiation Protection organized in Yugoslavia. Finally, some specific experimental data obtained during and after Chernobyl Accident up to nowadays in radiation protection action in Yugoslavia are presented also. (author)

  18. Researches and Applications of ESR Dosimetry for Radiation Accident Dose Assessment

    The aim of this work was to establish methods suitable for practical dose assessment of people involved in ionising radiation accidents. Some biological materials of the human body and materials possibly carried or worn by people were taken as detection samples. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques, the basic dosimetric properties of selected materials were investigated in the range above the threshold dose of human acute haemopoietic radiation syndrome. The dosimetric properties involved included dose response properties of ESR signals, signal stabilities, distribution of background signals, the lowest detectable dose value, radiation conditions, environmental effects on the detecting process, etc. Several practical dose analytical indexes and detecting methods were set up. Some of them (bone, watch glass and tooth enamel) had also been successfully used in the dose assessment of people involved in three radiation accidents, including the Chernobyl reactor accident. This work further proves the important role of ESR techniques in radiation accident dose estimation. (author)

  19. Manual on the medical management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    This manual is concerned with accidents or emergencies which involve sources of ionizing radiation. It does not cover other forms of radiation such as non-ionizing radiation (ultra-violet, light, radiofrequency radiations), heat, etc. Most radiation accidents have involved individuals either at the workplace or with medical misadministrations; they have received external exposure from X-ray or gamma-ray sources or have been contaminated with radioactive material. A few members of the public have also been involved through misadventures with radioactive sources although these may not be thought of as accidents; more commonly, they are referred to as 'incidents'. For the purpose of this manual, there is not differentiation between an accident and an incident, as the medical care required is the same in both situations. Some of the reference papers are reprinted at the back of the manual. 17 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  20. RADIATION ACCIDENTS: EXPERIENCE OF MEDICAL PROTECTION AND MODERN STRATEGY OF PHARMACOLOGICAL MAINTENANCE

    A. N. Grebenyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of medical protection at radiation accidents is analyzed. It is shown, that medicines that have been in the arsenal of medical service during the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident satisfied their predestination in a whole and were rather effective for radiation protection. The modern strategy of pharmacological maintenance based on use of means and methods, allowing to keeping a life, health and professional serviceability of people in conditions of amazing action of a complex of factors of radiation accidents, is submitted.

  1. Decontamination of fermented chicken feet by 60Co irradiation

    Fermented chicken feet was treated by 60Co irradiation, and the aerobic plate count, enumeration of coliforms, pathogens and TBARS value were measured during storage. The results showed that, aerobic plate count of all irradiated samples was lower than control, and enumeration of coliforms, and pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Salmonella were not detected. TBARS value of all treatments was stable during 60 d storage. It could be concluded that 60Co irradiation of chicken feet was an effective method to prolong its shelf life. (authors)

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of Radiotherapy units wit 60Co

    The SSDL network of the IAEA performs, every year, quality audit tests for radiotherapy services (60 Co units and linear accelerators), and for national SSDL as well. Because of the SSDL-Mexico results in these tests and due to our enthusiasm and confidence in our work, a parallel test has been done , which is described in this talk as well as the results. Nowadays, a second parallel test goes up, which could confirm our optimism and open the possibility to our country to start a national dosimetric audit of 60 Co radiotherapy units. (Author)

  3. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

  4. Medical treatment of radiation damages and medical emergency planning in case of nuclear power plant incidents and accidents

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents and accidents, respectively, viz. contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definations used in the practical handling of incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. Reference is made to the Medical Radiation Protection Centers existing in the Federal Republic of Germany and the possibility of getting advices in case of radiation incidents and accidents. (orig.)

  5. Dosimetric evaluation of Radiotherapy units wit {sup 60}Co; Evaluacion dosimetrica de unidades de radioterapia con {sup 60}Co

    Leon, B. Salinas de; Tovar M, V.; Becerril V, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The SSDL network of the IAEA performs, every year, quality audit tests for radiotherapy services ({sup 60} Co units and linear accelerators), and for national SSDL as well. Because of the SSDL-Mexico results in these tests and due to our enthusiasm and confidence in our work, a parallel test has been done , which is described in this talk as well as the results. Nowadays, a second parallel test goes up, which could confirm our optimism and open the possibility to our country to start a national dosimetric audit of {sup 60} Co radiotherapy units. (Author)

  6. The data correction algorithms in 60Co train inspection system

    Because of the physical characteristics of the 60Co train inspection system and the application of high-speed data collection system based on current integral, the original images have been distorted in a certain degree. Authors investigate into the reasons why the distortion comes into being, and accordingly present the data correction algorithm

  7. Development of 60Co cargo train inspection system

    The author introduces the research and development of 60Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  8. Responses of commercial broiler chicks to 60Co gamma-rays

    A total of 360 chicks of Nichols line at one-day old were used in this study. Within each sex, the chicks were divided into three exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 400 rads and 800 rads). The source of irradiation was 60Co gamma-rays. The results can be summarized as follows: Of the 360 chicks used in this study, only 10 chicks died during the experimental period. Radiation induced a reduction in body weight in both sexes during the growth period. Gamma-rays reduce the feed intake in both sexes. Moreover, the feed conversion ratio for the irradiated chicks was higher than that the non-irradiated birds. While red blood cells and hemoglobin content were higher in the irradiated chicks, white blood cells count and especially lymphocytes did not affect by 60Co gamma-rays. Gamma-rays had no effect on carcass, bone, meat and giblets as fractions of body weight in both sexes. Moreover, meat water content decreased and meat fat content increased in irradiated chicks. The total length and the total weight of the GI tract decreased due to 60Co gamma-rays. The response of the different regions of the GI tract to this rays is different. Moreover, the effect of this radiation on the GI tract is dependent upon the body weight irrespective of the sex. (orig./MG)

  9. National comparison of activity measurements of 131I, 60Co, and 133Ba in Indonesia

    National comparisons of radioactivity measurements of 131I and 60Co (in 2010) and of 133Ba (in 2011) were carried out within the framework of the National Radiation Metrology Laboratory Program of Indonesia, coordinated by PTKMR-BATAN. Eleven laboratories took part in the comparison, and all measurements were made using gamma spectrometry, on point sources with an activity between 2000 Bq and 6000 Bq. Several laboratories reported values which were more than 10% different from the reference value for 131I and 133Ba. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. This program will be continued with other radionuclides to maintain and control quality assurance for the local laboratories. - Highlights: • PTKMR-BATAN coordinated national comparison of 131I, 60Co and 133Ba. • Eleven laboratories took part in the comparison. • All measurements were done using gamma spectrometry methods. • For 131I and 133Ba, 3 laboratories have more than 10% difference from reference laboratory value

  10. The teratogenic effects of low dose 60Co γ-rays on the early pregnant rats

    The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 0.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy 60Co γ-rays at the 9th day after conception. The results: 60Co γ-rays at dose of 1.0 Gy could induced many defects: excenphaly, hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, cleft palate and cleft lip, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, shorten tail and absent tail in surviving fetuses. The growth retardation was found from the parameters of fetal weight, height, head circle and development of skeleton. In the group of radiation dose 0.5 Gy, only hydrocephalus, absent tail and growth retardation of skeleton appeared. The results suggest that low-dose exposure in the early pregnant rats can induce fetal defects and growth retardation. The probable mechanism of teratogen and growth retardation was discussed. The cAMP levels of brain and liver of rat fetuses were reported

  11. SV40 DNA amplification and reintegration in surviving hamster cells after 60Co γ-irradiation

    SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells were exposed to 60Co γ-irradiation and the fate of the integrated SV40 sequences was pursued over a period of 20 days following radiation exposure. As shown by colony hybridization, integrated SV40 sequences were amplified in surviving and non-surviving cells. At later times, however, clonal sublines of surviving cells grown for 20-30 cell generations after irradiation had lost most of their amplified SV40 copies but showed altered restriction fragment patterns indicating reintegration of SV40 sequences at new sites of the hamster genome. This suggest that 60Co γ-irradiation can generate mutations by inducing over-replication of chromosome segments that are then substrates of enzymatic rearrangements. (author)

  12. Experiments for inactivation of mycoplasms and bacteria in calf sera, using 60Co irradiation

    The use of 60Co gamma radiation to inactivate mycoplasms in calf serum, newborn calf serum, and fetal calf serum is reported. A dose of 3 kGy, independent of dose rate, was found to be sufficient for inactivation in the above sera of several mycoplasms, including Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma orale, M. arginini, M. hyorhinis, and M. bovis. The critical dose proved to be at 2 kGy. No difference was found to exist between the above species in susceptibility to irradiation in diluted sera (50% and 10% in Eagle MEM). Sensibility of wild mycoplasm strains was found to be identical with that of laboratory strains. Hence, 60Co gamma irradiation of sera appears to be a safe method by which to make sera free of mycoplasms. Bacillus subtilis in calf serum was inactivated by doses above 18 kGy, with the critical dose being 15 kGy. (author)

  13. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

  14. RADIATION ACCIDENTS: EXPERIENCE OF MEDICAL PROTECTION AND MODERN STRATEGY OF PHARMACOLOGICAL MAINTENANCE

    A. N. Grebenyuk; V. I. Legeza; V. V. Zatsepin

    2012-01-01

    Experience of medical protection at radiation accidents is analyzed. It is shown, that medicines that have been in the arsenal of medical service during the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident satisfied their predestination in a whole and were rather effective for radiation protection. The modern strategy of pharmacological maintenance based on use of means and methods, allowing to keeping a life, health and professional serviceability of people in condit...

  15. Relevance of Fukushima Nuclear Accident to India: Nuclear Radiation Risk and Interventions to Mitigate Adverse Fallout

    Yadav Kapil, Varshney Neha, Aslesh OP, Karmakar MG, Pandav Chandrakant S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental radiation release from Fukushima nuclear power following tsunami in Japan has once again highlighted the omnipotent risk of radiation injury in the today’s world. India is at a real risk from radiation fallout both due to nuclear power plant accidents and nuclear warfare threat. The risk from nuclear radiation accident in India is further increased by the region being endemic for iodine deficiency as adverse effects following nuclear radiation fallout like thyroid cancer is significantly higher in iodine deficient populations .There is need to institute disaster preparedness measures to mitigate the damage in case of a nuclear accident. Interventions to control adverse fallout of nuclear radiation include evacuation, sheltering and food controls as well as iodine prophylaxis

  16. Effects on agronomic traits of M1 by pollen of upland cotton irradiated by 60Co-γ ray

    [Objective] The aim was to provide reference for research on radiation and breeding of cotton pollen through irradiating common ripe pollen grain of upland cotton by 60Co-? Ray of varied doses. [Method] Ripe pollen grains of upland cotton were irradiated by 60Co-γ Ray with doses of 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively, to learn radiation effect and select appropriate dose. [Result] Most properties of M1 obviously showed variation when dose was over 10 Gy; vitality, growth, and fertility were greatly inhibited when dose was 15 Gy which was almost semi-lethal concentration, and variation species were richest at the same time, which provided materials for practical breeding. [Conclusion] 60Co-γ Ray of 15 Gy was more suitable for inducing research for ripe pollen grains of upland cotton

  17. HOTSPOT, Field Evaluation of Radiation Release from Nuclear Accident

    1 - Description of program or function: The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides, calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground survey measurements, and screening of plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Version 8 allows users to add their own custom radionuclide library and to create custom radionuclide mixtures. It also includes wet deposition to approximate the enhanced plume depletion and ground deposition due to the effects of rain. Additional release geometry options for TRITIUM RELEASE and GENERAL PLUME were added, as well as several other enhancements and improvements. See info (f1) from the main HOTSPOT menu for additional

  18. Decontamination of salmonella from the coastal fish meals by 60Co γ ray irradiation

    The decontamination fo salmonellae from fish meal samples by irradiation which 60Co γ ray was examined. Sixteen strains of Salmonella were used. A composite fish meal sample was prepared by mixing with different coastal meals, and after radiation sterilization at a dose of 20 kGy 60Co γ ray, which was employed as the salmonella-free meal sample. D10 values of test strains determined in buffered saline were found to range from 0.08 to 0.36 kGy, and inactivation factors at a dose of 1 kGy ranged from 102.8 to 1013. D10 values of test strains determined in the salmonella-free meal sample ranged from 0.59 to 1.64 kGy, and the inactivation factors at a dose of 10 kGy were found to range from 106.1 to 1017. Interestingly the D10 values of salmonellae determined in fish meal samples were 10 times as much compared with those determined in buffered saline. From the commercial aspects of coastal fish meal production, destruction of salmonellae in fish meals by 60Co γ ray irradiation was found to be much more practical than other methods such as dry heating and ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  19. Distribution of 60Co in steel samples from Hiroshima

    This paper describes ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of the 60Co activity distribution inside one 52 mm and one 41 mm thick steel sample. The samples had been exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb and were from the Aioi bridge and the Yokogawa bridge. Both samples were measured in a recent study aiming to back up model calculation of Hiroshima dosimetry. The 60Co activity distributions found in this study support the assumptions made in the previous study. - Highlights: ► The Co-60 activity distribution within two thick steel samples from Hiroshima was measured. ► Activities down to 0.1 mBq were measured using underground gamma-ray spectrometry systems. ► The distribution confirms assumptions made in previous studies. ► Further support to the Dosimetry System 02 is provided.

  20. Radiolytic degradation scheme for 60Co-irradiated corticosteroids

    Kane, M.P.; Tsuji, K.

    1983-01-01

    The cobalt 60 radiolytic degradation products have been identified in the following corticosteroids: cortisone, cortisone acetate, hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, isoflupredone acetate, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate, prednisolone, prednisolone acetate, and prednisone. Two major types of degradation processes have been identified: loss of the corticoid side chain on the D-ring to produce the C-17 ketone and conversion of the C-11 alcohol, if present, to the C-11 ketone. Minor degradation products derived from other changes affecting the side chain are also identified in several corticosteroids. These compounds are frequently associated in corticosteroids as process impurities or degradation compounds. No new radiolytic compounds unique to 60Co-irradiation have been found. The majority of corticosteroids have been shown to be stable to 60Co-irradiation. The rates of radiolytic degradation ranged from 0.2 to 1.4%/Mrad.

  1. Software program in 60Co container inspection system

    The author analyzes the features and limits of the present container inspection system in the world, and puts forward a new inspection apparatus with 60Co as radiography source and microcomputer network to complete inspecting image's acquisition, transmission, assignment, process, inspection, control and information management etc. The author emphasizes on task analysis and technical request in the system, discusses the software running environment and developing environment, the tasks logical division, and makes clear the design's idea, object and style

  2. Effects of 60Co administration on early placental cells

    The effects of 60Co administration on early placental cells were studied. Placental tissue and embryo obtained by induced abortion (6 - 13 weeks gestational age) were placed in the minimal essential medium (MEM) and irradiated with various doses of 60Co. After irradiation, the villi were cultured in a CO2 incubater at 370C. Cell growth process was observed every day with the phase-contrast microscope. Between 1 and 5 days epitheloid cells were dominant, but from about 7th day on fibroblastic cells dominated the culture. In placental tissue irradiated with 100, 200, 500 rad, fibroblastic cells began to grow earlier than in non-treated. Over 3000 rad 60Co inhibited the growth of cells and a culture was impossible. For each dose, the tissue was incubated for various periods of time, exposed to tritiated thymidine for the last hour and autoradiogram was prepared by the dipping method. The labeling index of irradiated trophoblasts showed a significant decrease compared with controls. A chromosome study was made in irradiated in vitro cell lines of fetus and placenta. There was no significant difference between the two cell lines concerning the frequency of chromosome aberration, which tended to increase as the chromosome becomes longer. It is concluded that the trophoblast is highly radiosensitive and that irradiation early in pregnancy may damage DNA synthesis in the trophoblast, and induce abortion. (author)

  3. Lessons learned from the Goiania accident: implications for future radiation accidents

    The article provides details of the Goiania accident, describing the human consequences, medical organization, clinical observations, internal contamination aspects as well as environmental contamination. Operations and recommendations emerged from the review and measures taken to mitigate their impact are also described. (B.C.A.). 16 refs, 02 tabs

  4. Comparison of the standards of absorbed dose to water of the OMH and the BIPM for 60Co γ rays

    A comparison of the standards of absorbed dose to water of the Orszagos Meresugyi Hivatal (OMH), Budapest, Hungary and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co radiation. The results show that the OMH and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water are in close agreement, the difference being within the estimated uncertainty. (authors)

  5. Assessment of the mobility and bioavailability of 60 Co and 137 Cs in contaminated soils

    Results of a classical sequential chemical extraction procedure for 137 Cs in an acid Oxisol showed that after 3 years of contamination radiocesium remains potentially available for transfer processes: 40% bio-available, 20% mobile under oxidizing conditions and 40% bound to Fe and Mn oxides (available under reducing conditions). At this time, the transfer factor obtained in this soil was higher than values obtained in basic Oxisol and was higher than values obtained in soils from temperate climate areas. Seven years after the contamination, the 137 Cs distribution in this acid Oxisol have been changed as consequence of changes in soil properties: 8% bioavailable, 16% mobile under oxidizing conditions, 43% bound to Fe and Mn oxides and 33% strongly bound to soil compounds. Changes in the 137 Cs distribution in this soil were followed by reductions in soil to plant transfer factor. Between 1996 and 2000, the 137 Cs distribution, 137 Cs soil to plant transfer factor and soil properties in the basic Oxisol remained almost the same. The 60 Co distribution showed that Mn oxides is the main sink for this element and four years after contamination no 60 Co was detected as bioavailable or detectable in plants. In this study the use of an alternative sequential chemical extraction protocol to evaluate 60 Co and 137 Cs mobility under a large range of physico-chemical soil properties has shown to be very consistent with soil to plant transfer factors data for maize. The knowledge of bio-geochemical behavior of radionuclides in soil system can be used for the risk assessment in the case of nuclear accident or contamination scenarios. (author)

  6. The accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in water-fish compartment system

    In relation with nuclear safety assessment, the parameter of radionuclide transfer in the environment is significantly needed for internal doses estimation received by public trough environment - food product - human pathways. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published the transfer parameter data for temperate zone in Technical Report Series 472. In order to complete the IAEA data, especially for tropical region, the accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) was experimentally studied based on the water-fish compartment system. The carp were cultured in 500L water containing 60Co of about 30 Bq.mL-1 in a water tank. The 60Co concentration in fish and water were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 60Co was accumulated and distributed in the fish tissues with the concentration ratio (CR) of 3.08 mL.g-1 1.55 mL.g-1 and 1.14 mL.g-1 for internal organs, bones, and muscle, respectively. The CR of 60Co in the fish will be useful in internal radiation dose estimation to human trough water-fish-human pathway, and will also complete the IAEA transfer parameter data for tropical region. (author)

  7. Regulations concerning protective measures against radiation in case of accidents connected with gamma radiography

    Pursuant to the 1938 Act on X-rays and radium, etc and the 1976 regulations on supervision and use of installations and apparatus which release radiation representing a hazard to health, the State Institute of Radiation Health issued these regulations laying down a series of protective measures in case of accidents when using gamma radiography. They entered into force on 1 July 1981

  8. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's α per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  9. Comparison of treatment in soybean grains between 60Co and e-beans applications

    Soybean is the most important oleaginous cultivated in Brazil, who is the second largest exported in the world, and generates high incomes, direct and indirectly, its oils could be used since to cook even to machine's fuel and the nutrients become basic for the feeding human being, beyond its by-products, that offer great diversities of products for the nourishing industry. Between the main factors that limit the attainment of high incomes, are the illnesses caused by microorganism like fungi, bacteria, and viruses that, in general, are difficult to control and cause damages on harvest of billions of dollar every year. An alternative to minimize the losses is preserving the grains through the irradiation that can come today from two different main sources: e-beam and 60Co. Beyond power to be off when it will not be in use, the source of e-beams machines does not need to be recharged, is easily available, possess high tax of dose and low energy. However the 60Co have low dose rate, high energy and the photons emission is continuous. This work aims to compare the effects of the radiation through viscosimetry, DNA Comet Assay and Cooking time techniques in soybean grains at doses 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0kGy irradiated in ambient temperature at 60Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) and in e-beam accelerator - Radiation Dynamics (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), 1.5 MeV- 25mA with the lower dose. (author)

  10. Microdosimetric spread for cell-sized targets exposed to 60Co, 192Ir and 125I sources

    The magnitude of the spread in specific energy deposition per cell may be a confounding factor in dose- response analysis motivating derivation of explicit data for the most common brachytherapy isotopes 125I and 192Ir, and for 60Co radiation frequently used as reference in RBE studies. The aim of this study is to analyse the microdosimetric spread as given by the frequency distribution of specific energy for a range of doses imparted by 125I, 192Ir and 60Co sources. An upgraded version of the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used for scoring energy deposition distributions in liquid water for each of the radiation qualities. Frequency distributions of specific energy were calculated according to the formalism of Kellerer and Chmelevsky. Results indicate that the magnitude of the microdosimetric spread increases with decreasing target size and decreasing energy of the radiation quality. Within the clinical relevant dose range (1 to 100 Gy), the spread does not exceed 4 % for 60Co, 5 % for 192Ir and 6 % for 125I. The frequency distributions can be accurately approximated with symmetrical normal distributions at doses down to 0.2 Gy for 60Co, 0.1 Gy for 192Ir and 0.08 Gy for 125I. (authors)

  11. Infection of tissue-culture cells with 60Co gamma-irradiated malaria sporozoites

    Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, attenuated by radiation from a 60Co source (8 or 15 krads) retain the ability to enter WI38 human embryonic lung cells in vitro. During the first 24 hours of incubation, the sporozoites appear to undergo normal development into exoerythrocytic trophozoites. Further development appears abnormal, although the trophozoites persist in culture cells for at least 48 hours. Parasite reactivities to fluorescent-labelled, sporozoite-specific antisera are normal up to 48 hours in culture. These observations suggest that sporozoites used in vaccine preparations may enter host cells and transform into exoerythrocytic trophozoites in vivo, but that maturation of the exoerythrocytic stage may be incomplete. (author)

  12. The influence of 60Co gamma irradiation for downy mildew infection on corn

    Corn seeds of Genjah kertas variety were irradiated with 60Co gamma in the range of 0 rad - 40.000 rads, at interval of 2000 rads, as preliminary investigation to obtain possibilities of corn mutation. Several agronomical effects of radiation on the seedling-plant such as seed germination, height of the seedling, ages of flowering, ages of harvesting, length and circle of the cob, 100U dry seeds weight, number and diameter of stomata, and percentage of downy mildew infection have been observed. The exact conclusion can be obtained only after testing the results of M2 and M3. (author)

  13. The 1998 calibration of Australian secondary standards of exposure and absorbed dose at 60Co

    New calibration factors are reported for several of the ionization chambers maintained at the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) and at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) as Australian secondary standards of exposure/air kerma and absorbed dose at 60Co. These calibration factors supplement or replace the calibration factors given in earlier reports. Updated 90Sr reference source data are given for the ARL chambers, and for two of the ANSTO chambers. These results confirm the stability of the secondary standards. A re-calibration of the ANSTO reference electrometer is reported. This was carried out using an improved method, which is fully described

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Radiation Shielding for HIC Transport Package Under the Hypothetical Accident Conditions

    A radiation shielding analysis under the hypothetical accident condition has been conducted using a computer program MCNP5 for a B-type HIC (High Integrated Container) Transport Package, which contains HIC with radioactive waste or spent resin, for transportation from nuclear power plat sites to disposal repository. Radiation source term is first carefully determined from the safety analysis reports related to HIC for appropriate calculation. And then MCNP5 is performed to obtain the minimum crevice between package lid and body, which meets the dose rate limit under the hypothetical accident conditions. Standards and codes of radiation shielding analysis related to the hypothetical accident condition are prescribed in Korea Nuclear Law, IAEA Safety Standards Series for Radioactive Material Transport and US 10CFR Part 71

  15. Analysis of Adolescent Awareness of Radiation: Marking the First Anniversary of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Marking the first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident, which took place on March 11th, 2011, the level of adolescent awareness and understanding of radiation was surveyed, and the results were then compared with those for adults with the same questionnaires conducted at similar times. A qualitative survey and frequency analysis were made for the design of the study methodology. Those surveyed were limited to 3rd grade middle school students, 15 years of age, who are the future generation. The questionnaire, which is a survey tool, was directly distributed to the students and 2,217 answers were analysed. The questionnaires were composed of 40 questions, and it was found that Cronbach's coefficient was high with 'self awareness of radiation' at 0.494, 'risk of radiation' at 0.843, 'benefit of radiation' at 0.748, 'radiological safety control' at 0.692, 'information sources of radiation' at 0.819, and 'impacts of Fukushima accident'. The results of the survey analysis showed that the students' knowledge of radiation was not very high with 67.4 points (69.5 points for adults) calculated on a maximum scale of 100 points (converted points). The impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident were found to be less significant to adolescents than adults, and the rate of answer of 'so' or ' very so' in the following questions demonstrates this well. It was also shown that the impacts of the Fukushima accident to adolescents were comparatively low with 27.0% (38.9% for adults) on the question of 'attitude changed against nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident,' 65.7%(86.6% for adults) on the question of 'the damages from the Fukushima accident was immeasurably huge,' and 65.0% (86.3% for adults) on 'the Fukushima accident contributed to raising awareness on the safety of nuclear power plants'. The adolescents had a high rate of 'average' answers on most of the questions compared with adults, and it can be construed that this resulted from adolescent awareness of

  16. Analysis of Adolescent Awareness of Radiation: Marking the First Anniversary of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Park, Bang Ju [Korean Science Reporters Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Marking the first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident, which took place on March 11th, 2011, the level of adolescent awareness and understanding of radiation was surveyed, and the results were then compared with those for adults with the same questionnaires conducted at similar times. A qualitative survey and frequency analysis were made for the design of the study methodology. Those surveyed were limited to 3rd grade middle school students, 15 years of age, who are the future generation. The questionnaire, which is a survey tool, was directly distributed to the students and 2,217 answers were analysed. The questionnaires were composed of 40 questions, and it was found that Cronbach's coefficient was high with 'self awareness of radiation' at 0.494, 'risk of radiation' at 0.843, 'benefit of radiation' at 0.748, 'radiological safety control' at 0.692, 'information sources of radiation' at 0.819, and 'impacts of Fukushima accident'. The results of the survey analysis showed that the students' knowledge of radiation was not very high with 67.4 points (69.5 points for adults) calculated on a maximum scale of 100 points (converted points). The impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident were found to be less significant to adolescents than adults, and the rate of answer of 'so' or ' very so' in the following questions demonstrates this well. It was also shown that the impacts of the Fukushima accident to adolescents were comparatively low with 27.0% (38.9% for adults) on the question of 'attitude changed against nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident,' 65.7%(86.6% for adults) on the question of 'the damages from the Fukushima accident was immeasurably huge,' and 65.0% (86.3% for adults) on 'the Fukushima accident contributed to raising awareness on the safety of nuclear power plants'. The adolescents had a high rate of &apos

  17. Sorption of 60 Co in natural zeolite (clinoptilolite)

    A Mexican zeolite (clinoptilolite) from Taxco, Guerrero, was partially stabilized with sodium cations. Radioactive Cobalt (60 Co) was used to study the Co 2+ sorption in the stabilized zeolite (Na+). It was found that sorption in general does not favour the diffusion of cobalt between framework, it explains because of it is a natural zeolite and its composition heterogeneous decrease its exchange capacity by the generated competence to the existence other type of exchange ions. The cobalt retention reached the highest level, around 0.408 m eq Co2+ /g in the Na-Clinoptilolite. The crystallinity of the aluminosilicates was maintained during experiments, it was verified by XRD patterns. (Author)

  18. Determination of 60Co sorption in natural clinoptilolite

    It was studied the clinoptilolite behavior coming from a deposit in Taxco, Guerrero in hydration and stabilization conditions with sodium for determining its sorption properties. The ion exchange process was carried out through gamma spectrometry using a CoCl2 solution marked with 60 Co at p H 6.5 in different contact times. It was observed a maximum sorption of 0.408 m eq Co+2/g mineral, from 0.314 m eq Co+2/g mineral correspond at ion exchange. (Author)

  19. [Radiation measures and trend after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident].

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2014-02-01

    The radioactive materials spread by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in March, 2011 caused NPP workers to be exposed to radiation above ordinance limits. The number of workers exposed to radiation within ordinance limits is increasing. Decontamination began at many places in Fukushima, although new laws were enforced in the decontamination work, in the current situation, medical examinations for radiation are limited due to a shortage of doctors. In this paper, I introduce the ordinances on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards and the revised points about radiation exposure doses of the NPP workers, as well as the new ordinance for decontamination. PMID:24605520

  20. Three years after the Chernobyl reactor accident: How high was the radiation exposure really?

    The author is an expert in radiological protection and radiation hygiene and on the basis of the current state of the art briefly answers some of the most frequently raised questions in connection with the reactor accident: (1) Which were the sources of the radiation exposure of the population? (2) How high are the resulting radiation doses? (3) Which radionuclides have entered the food chains, and how high is their contribution to the radiation exposure? (4) What is the long-term dose to children and adults due to the contamination of food? (5) What is the resulting radiation hazard? (MG)

  1. The accidents due to ionizing radiations - the situation on a half century

    This report takes stock updated in 2006, serious accidents occurred in the four sectors in civil, industrial, medical and military. Its goal is to provide an explanatory and critical review of the most representative accident that caused serious harm to victims. The report analyses for each accident, and whenever reliable data exist, the reasons for its occurrence, consequences for victims and possibly to the environment, remedial actions that have been made and medical treatments when they were innovative. Using a combination of accidents with common features, the report offers key lessons to be learned from these tragic events. This report is intended for practitioners of radiation protection in general and does not target particular experts in any technical or medical specialty. (N.C.)

  2. Effect of 60Co γ-rays on the lymphocyte subsets with monoclonal antibodies

    Three kinds of monoclonal antibodies (McAb), OkT4 McAb, OkT3 McAb and HI43, were used to identify T helper (Th). T suppresser (Ts) and B lymphocytes respectively. After lympbocytes were immediately exposed to 0.1 Gy, 0.25 Gy and 4 Gy 60Co γ-rays, 200 cells were counted to obtain the percentage of immunofluorescence positive cells. The results show that when the Th, Ts and B lymphocytes were irradiated by 0.1 Gy 60Co γ-rays, their abilities to combine with McAb decreased significantly. The radiation effect was more remarkable with increasing radiation dosage. Three kinds of the immunofluorescence positive cells percentages were analysed with weighted linear regression method. The relational coefficients (r) of Th, Ts and B lymphocytes were 0.8131, 0.8832 and 0.9086. The significant tests of regression coefficient showed that the radiosensitivities of Ts and B lymphocytes were higher than that of Th lymphocytes

  3. Grafting of HEMA onto dopamine coated stainless steel by 60Co-γ irradiation method

    A novel method for grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of stainless steel (SS) was explored by using 60Co-γ irradiation. The surface of SS was modified by coating of dopamine before radiation grafting. The grafting reaction was performed in a simultaneous irradiation condition. The chemical structures change of the surface before and after grafting was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The hydrophilicity of the samples was determined by water contact angle measurement in the comparison of the stainless steel in the conditions of pristine, dopamine coated and HEMA grafted. Surface morphology of the samples was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance properties of the samples were evaluated by Tafel polarization curve. The hemocompatibility of the samples were tested by platelet adhesion assay. - Highlights: • Poly-HEMA was grafted onto the surface of SS by 60Co-γ-ray irradiation. • Pristine SS was coated by dopamine to form a dense poly-dopamine film before radiation grafting. • The biocompatibility and hydrophility of SS were improved after the grafting of HEMA

  4. Medical management of two accidents by ionizing radiations

    Two cases of accidents of occupationally exposed personnel are presented, the first one was an accidental sharp exhibition to whole body that a 27 year-old worker suffered when being exposed to a source of Iridium 192 of 94 Curies. For this case it was diagnosed an hematopoiesis syndrome that it was responded to the handling prescribe until him recovery. The second case, a radiologist technical 22 year-old that was irradiated with a source of Iridium 192 of 79 Curies. The treatment consisted on cleaning, antibiotics, analgesic and inert ointment, being achieved recovery after several weeks

  5. The 1987 radiation accident in Goiania: medical and organizational experiences

    The present works describes the circumstances of the accident occurred on 13 September 1987, in Goiania (Brazil), when two scavengers removed a teletherapy device a 50.9 TBq (1375Ci) cesium source, from a clinic. They took the apparatus home and tried to dismantled it. The authors describe the circumstances of the event, the first aid measures taken on the site, and the medical structure organized to triage and treat the casualties. Aspects relating to hospital contamination control, the environment, and radioprotection and decontamination procedures are also discussed. (L.M.J.)

  6. Planning on a regional basis for a major radiation accident

    As a part of the Radiological Assistance Program, members of the Safety and Environmental Protection Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory have served as a response team for many years to the northeastern section of the United States. During this time, responses have been made to several significant incidents, including the accident at Three Mile Island. The planning and preparation for emergency response activities will be discussed. Included will be a review of instrument requirements, analytical and support equipment, modes of response, and communication needs. Interaction with and support from other response teams will be discussed. In particular, the lessons from the respone to Three Mile Island will be reviewed

  7. Study of {sup 60}Co as gamma source in backscatter gamma densitometers

    Gholipour Peyvandi, R.; Taheri, A.; Rahmanzadeh Tootkaleh, S.; Askari Lehdarboni, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Islami Rad, S.Z. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Univ. of Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physic

    2015-07-15

    In this work the performance of backscatter gamma densitometer is studied using {sup 60}Co as gamma source. The ability of the densitometer to determine the liquid's interfaces in multi-phase flows was assessed. The aim mainly was to investigate the possibility of using {sup 60}Co in this system. Furthermore, a comparison between {sup 60}Co and was done. The obtained results indicate that {sup 60}Co can be advantageous in this regard.

  8. Study of 60Co as gamma source in backscatter gamma densitometers

    In this work the performance of backscatter gamma densitometer is studied using 60Co as gamma source. The ability of the densitometer to determine the liquid's interfaces in multi-phase flows was assessed. The aim mainly was to investigate the possibility of using 60Co in this system. Furthermore, a comparison between 60Co and was done. The obtained results indicate that 60Co can be advantageous in this regard.

  9. 60 Co 放射源运输容器屏蔽性能检测%Shielding Performance Measurements on Container for 60 Co Radioactive Sources Transport

    孙洪超; 李国强; 闫峰; 庄大杰; 孙树堂; 王学新

    2015-01-01

    工业及医疗用放射源主要包括60 Co、137 Cs、131 I、32 P、153 Sm、99 Mo、90 Sr、89 Sr等核素,射线形式有α、β、γ、中子等。本文针对运输活动中γ辐射,使用现有的60 Co放射源运输容器,开展辐射屏蔽性能检测技术研究。通过模拟计算和实验测量,得到运输容器最大装载活动情况下外部辐射水平,并对计算和实验结果进行了比较。针对放射源在屏蔽容器中安放位置发生偏移和放射源在容器中安放方式不同对容器外部的辐射水平影响进行了相关研究。研究结果可对今后完善放射性物质运输容器的辐射屏蔽性能检测提供一定的借鉴。%Some radioactive sources are often used in irradiation industry and radiothera‐py ,such as 60Co ,137Cs ,131I ,32P ,153Sm ,99Mo ,90Sr ,89Sr and so on .The radiation includeα、β、γ and n .The radiation from γ sources are the mostly concerned during the transporting of radioactive sources .The shielding performance measurements on con‐tainer for 60Co radioactive sources transport were discussed by using both Monte Carlo method simulation calculation and experiment measurement . Some important factors w as discussed w hich could affect the results of shielding performance measurements . The layout of radioactive sources had a important impact on the monitoring results of the external radiation levels of radiation sources transport container .The results affor‐ded the contribution to the improvement of the radiation monitoring and management of radioactive material transportation package .

  10. Assessment of radiation consequences of cabins in a nuclear accident of the nuclear ship

    The author discussed about the spread routes of radioactive nuclides from reactor cabin to other cabins and their distributions in these cabins. Methods and formulas to estimate radioactivities of nuclides and doses received by crews in cabins were established. The radiation consequences of cabins in a nuclear accident was quantified and evaluated. The assessments indicates that the consequences of cabins is light and the doses to the staff will not exceed the dose limits prescribed in standards in a design basis accident, and the consequences of cabins is serious and the doses to the staff will exceed the dose limits prescribed in standards in serious accident. Some suggestions on emergency management and radiation protection were given

  11. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  12. The radiation accident at Institute for Energy Technology Sept. 1982. Some technical considerations

    On September 2, 1982 a radiation accident with overexposure of one person happened at the gamma irradiation plant at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. This person died from the radiation injury 13 days later. In the report reference is made to the work of different groups and bodies in connection with the accident. An analysis of the causes of the accident is given. For admittance control to the irradiation area there were generally two independent door interlock systems, one irradiation source position related and the other radiation related. The latter was dismantled for repair at the time of the accident. A micro-switch failure left the source in an unshielded position, initiated a green light on the control panel and released the interlock system of the door. According to working instructions a mobile radiation monitor should have been checked for proper function and carried by anyone entering the irradiation room. This seems not to have been carried out correctly. The conditions set forth for the restarting of the irradiation plant are presented. (orig./HP)

  13. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  14. Emergency reception of accidents and incidents in working with ionizing radiation

    This manual is intended to be a general manual for the responsible expert regarding radiation hygienics in order to assist him in establishing an organization for combat of accidents and incidents. First attention is paid considerations underlying emergency measures and aid, subsequently the demands and desirabilities in the practical organization are discussed. (author). 3 figs

  15. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME III

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  16. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME I

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  17. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME II

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  18. Fieldbus: technology application in a 60Co sterilization plant

    Process instrumentation was made by pressure signals in the 1940s. In the 1960s, 4-20 mA analogue signals were introduced. The development of digital processors in the 1970s sparked the use of computers to monitor and control instruments from a central point. In the 1980s smart sensors were developed and implemented in digital control, microprocessor environments. Fieldbus is a generic-term that describes a new digital communications network. The network is a digital, bi-directional, multidrop, serial-bus, and communications network used to link isolated field devices, such as controllers, transducers, actuators and sensors. Fieldbus technology may improve quality, reduce costs and increase efficiency because information is transmitted digitally without analog to digital or digital to analog converters, which also minimizes hardware errors. Fieldbus communication is based on two-wire communication, interconnecting all the components in the system. This paper introduces Fieldbus technology in a 60Co sterilization plant

  19. Retention of ingested (60)Co by a freshwater fish

    The experiment was carried out on a group of 10 carp receiving the soft tissue of previously contaminated lymnaea as food. Ingestion by carp of 45 daily rations, distributed over a 63-day period, resulted in a low retention of the radionuclide. The contamination kinetics showed that the steady state should be reached after only 225 days. The 60Co transfer factor was approximately 10−2 and the retention factor about 3.3 x 10−3. During the depuration phase, radiocobalt elimination by the carp developed in accordance with an exponential model based on the existence of two biological half-lives of 1.5 and 35 days which indicate a high Co turnover. During both phases of the experiment, urinary and branchial excretion appeared to be higher than faecal excretion

  20. Seed germination of peanuts irradiated with cobalt (60CO)

    This work was realized to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co) at doses 0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 4.00 kGy, on germination of seeds of peanut, cultivar BR1. Irradiation Department of Nuclear, UFPE, where he received after the irradiation, they were stored in packing of PET and polyethylene braided with a time of 90 days. Through the results, obtained monthly, concluded that the dose of 0.5 kGy was effective in the germination of seeds of peanut, not affecting its power of germination and overcoming the witness within 30 to 60 days. (author)

  1. Planning a 60Co Irradiation Facility for Fruit Preservation

    A conceptual design for a conveyor system is proposed for use in fruit irradiation. The seasonal nature of the fruit harvest requires that the 60Co source inventory should be sufficient to meet the demand at peak season, but this would be excessive at the beginning and towards the end of the harvest. Because of the short crop period the possibility of other irradiation services should be exploited to ensure full utilization of the facility. For successful extension of fruit shelf-life rigid practices in pre-irradiation treatment are essential and careful packaging is indispensable to the operation of the irradiator. Based on the time required for construction and equipment supply, a period of 18 months should be assumed for completion of the project. (author)

  2. Planning a 60Co irradiation facility for fruit preservation

    A conceptual design for a conveyor system is proposed for use in fruit irradiation. The seasonal nature of the fruit harvest requires that the 60Co source inventory should be sufficient to meet the demand at peak season, but this would be excessive at the beginning and towards the end of the harvest. Because of the short crop period the possibility of other irradiation services should be exploited to ensure full utilization of the facility. For successful extension of fruit shelf-life rigid practices in pre-irradiation treatment are essential and careful packaging is indispensable to the operation of the irradiator. Based on the time required for construction and equipment supply, a period of 18 months should be assumed for completion of the project. (author)

  3. Radiation accidents in a developing country: the Nigerian experience.

    Ketiku, K K; Ogunleye, O T

    1994-01-01

    A 32 year old Nigerian industrial radiographer was accidentally over-exposed to gamma rays while using a faulty gamma ray equipment with an iridium 192 source to take radiographs of oil pipe joints for the detection of cracks. He presented with clinical signs and symptoms of radiation over-exposure. When results of personnel monitoring confirmed radiation over-exposure this patient was immediately relieved of his job by his employers without any explanation or compensation. His condition was managed conservatively and he is being followed up indefinitely in the clinic. This paper as well discusses the management of acute radiation syndromes and the implications of the presently uncontrolled use of ionizing radiation in Nigeria. PMID:8080836

  4. Radiation application technologies used for countermeasures against Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Radiation application technologies had contributed to countermeasures against Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident. After the accident, such activities had been continued to assure the safety of damaged cores towards the settlement of the accident and countermeasures against radioactive materials discharged and diffused into the environment. As for recovery and removal of radioactive materials in the environment, development of cesium adsorbent using graft polymerization and trial of environmental restoration of agricultural land using plant breeding suitable for cesium absorption had been started. Database was available for evaluation of radiation resistance of polymer materials and equipments. Related with general-purpose cranes and robots used under high radiation environment, guideline of radiation life assessment of universal electric parts was proposed to limit total radiation doses. Radiation resistance of semiconductor devices of electric parts used for Quince robots was tested at cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation facility. Radiolysis of boiling pure water was tested under gamma-ray irradiation to clarify hydrogen generation mechanism. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Long-term followup of patients involved in radiation accidents

    This paper discusses how followup of patients involved in accidental exposures should be tailored to the circumstances of the accident. The critical issues for long-term followup are divided into analysis at relatively low absorbed doses for carcinogenic effects, and such followup may take the form of epidemiologic studies that may need to be continued over a period of decades. With higher doses, direct or nonstochastic effects are important, and the exact followup scheme that should be utilized depends upon the patient, absorbed doses and tissues irradiated. In general, patients exceeding the REAC/TS guidelines for significant exposure are followed using the Navy protocol (NAVmed). Certainly, for significant exposures, appropriate medical consultation in design of the followup procedure is preferable to a routine protocol

  6. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Park, Bang Ju [Korean Science Reporters Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's {alpha} per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  7. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management. EG-SAM Interim Report

    As an early response to the Fukushima NPP accident, the ISOE Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011; - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers/responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE actors and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the- art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation protection job coverage during severe accident initial response and recovery

  8. A follow-up study program for persons irradiated in radiation accidents

    Clinical and epidemiologic follow-up studies of survivors of radiation accidents are a major part of the program of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where training is provided for physicians and paramedical staff concerned with radiation-accident victims. Guidelines have been developed for clinicians and epidemiologists to do follow-up studies after accidental exposures. The human radiobiological data so obtained are used to improve clinical care and emergency planning in nuclear-energy production. Other aims of these studies are to provide the best prophylactic and anticipatory care for possible late radiation effects, and to continually upgrade radiobiologic risk estimates by epidemiologic investigations. Routine annual clinical follow-up studies are recommended for those survivors who were severely injured, and others who showed clinical or laboratory evidence of the acute radiation syndrome. The extent and protocol for medical examinations will be described. In industrial plants located in the United States where annual physical examinations are routine, medical results obtained about the status of such persons are reported to REAC/TS. Persons involved but not seriously exposed in radiation accidents are contacted annually by phone or letter to ascertain their whereabouts and health status for epidemiologic data collection. Dosimetric guidelines categorizing the follow-up groups will be defined. These are related to total-body exposure levels, extent of local exposures, and residual body and lung burdens of transuranic elements. The follow-up studies are continued for life. The records are deposited in a centralized national radiation-accident registry in REAC/TS where the information is available to clinicians, radiobiologists, and epidemiologists. (author)

  9. Establishment of a production line for the fabrication of mega-curie sealed 60Co sources

    In order to change the status that highly radioactive 60Co sources in China are de- pendent on imports, the fabrication technology of sealed 60Co sources was successfully developed and a mega Curie production line was established. This paper describes the hot cell facilities for the 60Co source encapsulation and quality control, the model and main technical parameters of the sealed 60Co source, the fabrication process, some key techniques in the re- search and development of the sealed 60Co source, etc. (authors)

  10. Radiation accidents in the former Soviet Union: Medical consequences and experience in the application of radiation protection measures

    The Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Federation is a scientific center which has extensive archives containing scientific studies and information on radiation safety problems and occurrences since the early days of nuclear science and research and nuclear weapons tests in the Soviet Union. Some of this classified, top secret material has recently been published by Prof. L.A. Iljin in a renowned Russian scientific journal in the form of a review of radiation accidents in the Soviet Union, general medical reports, case reports, and the effects of nuclear weapons tests. He also added his own expert view of the accidents and their effects, and his conclusions relating to public health effects and required radiation protection policy. The article in this issue of Strahlenschutz Praxis is a German translation of excerpts from the original journal article. (orig./CB)

  11. Gamma 60 Co D L 50/30 of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    The variation of resistance to 60 Co gamma-rays of Biomphalaria glabrata was studied. A population of 480 mollusks was observed during 30 days - distributed in 8 groups of snails isolated and 8 groups of snails in colonies - after exposure (30 snails per group per dose) to increasing doses of gamma radiation. Doses of 10, 20 40, 60, 80, 160, 320 and 640 Gy from a Gamma-cell 60 Co irradiator, were applied to the test groups and two groups control (non-irradiated) of snails - isolated and colony - were kept apart. After have been exposed, the snails were drew back to the aquaria where they were maintained before. The survival was estimated on a daily score of the alive animals in each group-dose, starting after the irradiation exposure day. As a result, the survival self-fertilization forms (DL50/30=218.2 Gy) was found greater than in cross-fecundation forms. These data point to allow radio-resistance on the cross-fertilization forms - the sexual reproductive form - which is most found in nature. The lower radio-resistance of the cross-fertilization forms suggests the presence of some sex-linked hormonal factor related to this phenomenon. (author)

  12. Gamma {sup 60} Co D L {sub 50/30} of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    Carvalho, Elaine Barros da Costa; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Motta, Mauricy Alves da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1999-12-01

    The variation of resistance to {sup 60} Co gamma-rays of Biomphalaria glabrata was studied. A population of 480 mollusks was observed during 30 days - distributed in 8 groups of snails isolated and 8 groups of snails in colonies - after exposure (30 snails per group per dose) to increasing doses of gamma radiation. Doses of 10, 20 40, 60, 80, 160, 320 and 640 Gy from a Gamma-cell {sup 60} Co irradiator, were applied to the test groups and two groups control (non-irradiated) of snails - isolated and colony - were kept apart. After have been exposed, the snails were drew back to the aquaria where they were maintained before. The survival was estimated on a daily score of the alive animals in each group-dose, starting after the irradiation exposure day. As a result, the survival self-fertilization forms (DL{sub 50/30}=218.2 Gy) was found greater than in cross-fecundation forms. These data point to allow radio-resistance on the cross-fertilization forms - the sexual reproductive form - which is most found in nature. The lower radio-resistance of the cross-fertilization forms suggests the presence of some sex-linked hormonal factor related to this phenomenon. (author)

  13. Effects of testicular irradiation with 60Co in guinea pigs CAVIA PORCELLUS

    Improvements were made in restaint systems and in the technique of electroejaculation in guinea pigs, emphasizing safety, effectiveness and repetition. Arrangements for simultaneous testicular irradiation with 60Co in 5 animals and a phantom to test dose levels in the target region and scattering were also made. Effects of single and fractionated exposures on sperm were studied. A collimated point-shaped 60Co-machine calibrated to 7 R/min was used as radiation source. Groups of five 12 month aged male guinea pigs were exposed to either single testicular irradiation of 50, 100, 200 and 400 R or fractionated weekly testicular irradiation of 2, 5, 10 and 20 R, during 10 weeks. A last group was exposed to 4 fractionated testicular irradiations of 20 R at time intervals of 21 days and a group of 8 animals was used as control. Semen samples evaluations were made during 5 weeks before irradiation and in the subsequent 11 weeks. Abnormalities in sperm morphology were studied by William's method and phase contrast microscopy. Mean percentages of semen normal espermatzoons and spermatic abnormalities are shown in figures and photomicrographs. Marked differences on concentration, sperm motility and sperm abnormalities were found, but not on volume, in favour of 100 and 200 R single doses levels, as compared to fractionated 10 and 20 R. (Author)

  14. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

    Lucas de Oliveira, P.C.; Madruga, R.A.; Barbosa, N.P.U. [Uberaba School of Veterinary Medicine (UNIUBE), MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrolucaso@uol.com.br; Sakate, M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry

    2007-07-01

    Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca) venom, natural and irradiated from a {sup 60}Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transferase; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom. (author)

  15. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

    Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from 60Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca) venom, natural and irradiated from a 60Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transferase; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom. (author)

  16. Transference kinetics of 60Co in an aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem

    The dynamics of transportation, accumulation, disappearance and distribution of 60Co in a simulated aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem was studied by isotope-tracer technique. In the aquatic system, 60Co was transported and transformed via depositing, coupling with ions and adsorption. The absorption resulted in the redistribution and accumulation of 60Co in each compartment of the system. Specific activities of 60Co in water started sharply and gently decreased. The sediment accumulated a large amount of 60Co by adsorption and ion exchange. The hornwort (Ceralophyllum demersum) could also adsorb a large amount of 60Co in a short time, because of its large specific surface area. Fish (Carassius auratus) and snail (Bellamya purificata) had a poor capacity of adsorbing 60Co. The distribution of 60Co in the fish was mainly in the viscera, and the amount of 60Co in the snail flesh was greater than that in the shell. The amount of 60Co in individual compartment in the system was changed with time. The highest specific activity of 60Co in the bean of the terrestrial system remained in the root nodule. (authors)

  17. Accumulation, Toxicity And Elimination Of 60Co In Some Aquatic Bivalves

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the importance of some common bivalve oysters namely Caelatura teretiusculua and Caelatura companyoi as new radiobioindicators for 60Co in Egyptian aquatic environment.The uptake and accumulation of 60Co in water were followed for four weeks to evaluate the following:1-Maximum uptake as concentration factor values.2-The rate of survival of bivalves at different activity levels of 60Co to estimate its toxic effect.3-The lethal dose (LD50) of 60Co.4-The effect of ph of 60Co polluted water on survival of biota.5-The competitive effects of Zn+2 and Fe+3 with 60Co on the uptake and accumulation.6-The effect of biota weight on the uptake of 60Co.7-Elimination of the accumulated 60Co by such biota in water and in 10-4M ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent that enhance the bivalve to release the accumulated radioisotope.The results showed that 60Co was highly taken up by the investigated biota with high concentration factor values and that EDTA enhanced the decontamination of 60Co than water. It could be concluded that the investigated bivalves can be used as good radiobioindicators for pollution of water with 60Co.

  18. V.A. Baraboj. Chernobyl: ten years later. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Review of the book - Chernobyl: ten years later. Medical consequences of radiation accidents (Kiev, Chernobylinterinform, 1996) by V.A. Baraboj - is presented. The book is based on experimental data obtained by author and available data of other scientists. It is shown that experiments on rats irradiation demonstrate the same combination of symptoms as persons participated in Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the dosimetric, genetic, phenotypic features of exposed persons. Contributions of chemical hazardous pollutants and psychoemotional stress to the general pattern were also accounted. The importance of the book for specialists and public is accentuated

  19. Lessons learned from former radiation accidents on development of software tools for effective decision making support

    Pecha, Petr; Hofman, Radek; Kuča, P.

    Praha : T-SOFT a.s, 2009, 15-1-15-8. ISBN 978-80-254-5913-3. [11th International Conference on Present and Future of Crisis Management 2009. Praha (CZ), 23.11.2009-24.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Nuclear Accident * Lessons Learned * Software Support Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/pecha- lessons learned from former radiation accidents on development of software tools for effective decision making support.pdf

  20. Radiation protection protocol for environmental defense using nano-scopic water spray in nuclear accident

    Highlights: • New kind of radiation protection concept is introduced. • The shielding concept is accompanied with the water spray system. • Cheap and practical method is suggested. • The major impact is variable by the random emerging of fission products. - Abstract: The environmental defense system in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) using water spray is investigated. A new kind of radiation protection system modeling is introduced in the case of NPPs accidents. The spray system is added to the conventional radiation protection barriers for the nuclear defense in depth concept where the water is considered as nano-scopic molecular substance. The effectiveness of aqueous solution is verified in a NPPs accident. The quantitative simulation for solubility of radioactive material is performed by the Monte-Carlo method, which is produced in the nuclear fuels. The safety concept is newly modified in the multiple barriers for the post accident. The cheap and simple system is suggested for the ecological safety in the NPPs accident as the political protocol

  1. On a scale of a nuclear power plant accident resulting in emergency radiation doses

    Described is the technique to determine an accident scale resulting in emergency radiation doses on area, which do not require special emergency protection (Emergency Reference Level - ERL). Calculation results depend on the following parameters: amount of isotopes released from molten fuel element, amount of activity released from technological equipment; amount of activity released from technological space. It is shown that at 50 km distance a gamma radiation field created by the radioactive inert gases cloud does not produce a dose above 25 rem in the open areas, whatever meteorological conditions. Dangerous is iodine-131 effect through inhalation. At 50 km distance, according to Paskville, under A, B and C weather conditions, dose for children thyroid glands will be below 75 rem whatever accident, under D, E and F conditions, the establisched doses could be exceeded, although that would require 11 - 65% molten fuel elements. The most dangerous is the possible way of irradiation of children thyroid gland through contaminated grass-lands (along food chain: air - grass -cowmilk - thyroid gland). The worst conditions at the 50 km distance will be in F weather condition when accident scale is equal to 0.06%. If contaminated milk is excluded from the food at the settlement beginning from 50 km distance there is no need for activity localization special system. Presented radiation effect evaluations for 4 km distance from nuclear power plant in case of different accident scales show, that the protection against iodine isotopes shoubd be main task in providing technical nuclear power plant safety

  2. Influence of pH-buffer action on desorption behavior of 60Co adsorbed on sand

    In order to clarify influence of pH-buffer action of soil on desorption behavior of radionuclides absorbed on a soil, a batch type desorption experiment, in which a coastal sand adsorbed 60Co was contacted with an aqueous solution of 4, 7 or 10 in pH, was performed. When pH of the solution became higher, the desorption ratio of 60Co from the sand to the solution decreased, while the abundance ratio of non-cationic 60Co species increased. Relationship between the pH of solution and the desorption ratio of 60Co could been explained by a pH dependency of negative charge density on the sand surface. It was found that the non-cationic 60Co species in the solution was colloidal {60Co (OH)2}n, which was formed by hydrolysis of 60Co2+ at buffered pH. (author)

  3. Radiation protection lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident

    Lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident are discussed from the viewpoint of radiation protection in the situation of nuclear emergency. It became clear from the discussion that the protective measures should be practiced by taking into account the time profiles of the radiological disaster after the nuclear accident and that the land and coastal sea areas monitoring had to be practiced immediately after the nuclear accident and the communication methods to tell the public about the radiation information and the meaning of protective measures should be developed for mitigation of the sociological aspects of disaster impacts. And it was pointed out from the view point of practicing countermeasures that application of the reference levels, above which it was judged to be inappropriate to plan to allow exposure to occur, played an important role for practicing protective measures in an optimized way and that the quantities and units used for quantifying radiation exposure of individuals in terms of radiation doses have caused considerable communication problems. Finally, the occupational exposures and the public exposures that have been reported so far are shown, and it is concluded that there is no conclusive evidence on low dose exposures that would justify a modification of the radiation risk recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  4. Assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident

    Hofman, Radek; Šmídl, Václav

    Praha: FJFI ČVUT v Praze, 2009 - (Štěpán, V.), s. 74-74 ISBN 978-80-01-04430-8. [XXXI. Dny radiační ochrany. Kouty nad Desnou (CZ), 02.11.2009-06.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596; GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data assimilation * radiation protection * early phase * particle filter * cloud shine * dose rate * radiation accident * decision support * nuclear power plant * parameter estimation Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/hofman-assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident.pdf

  5. The Tokaimura accident I: evaluation of results with regard to radiation protection

    On September 30, a criticality accident occurred at the Conversion Testing Facility of Japan Nuclear Fuels Conversion Company Limited (JCO) at Tokaimura. Three workers were processing enriched 235U. In pouring 16 kg of Uranium solution in a precipitation tank they triggered a nuclear chain reaction that could only be stopped after 20 hours. The three workers were heavily irradiated by neutron and gamma radiation and immediately transported to hospital where they got the most sophisticated medical treatment. In the near vicinity increased neutron and gamma radiation was measured until some 800 m distance during the criticality period, whereas radioactivity releases to the atmosphere were small. This paper describes what happened in this facility, how criticality was stopped, the history of the radiation victims, measurement in the vicinity as well as protection measures for environment and population. This accident has been classified as INES level 4. (orig.)

  6. 'Rogue' cells observed in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Sevan' kaev, A.V.; Tsyb, A.F.; Zhloba, A.A.; Moiseenko, V.V. (Russian Academy of Medical Science, Obninsk (Russian Federation). Medical Radiological Research Centre); Lloyd, D.C. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)); Skrjabin, A.M. (Scientific Research Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Gomel (Belarus)); Climov, V.M. (Special Regional Hospital, Gomel (Belarus). Public Health)

    1993-03-01

    Eight 'rogue' lymphocyte metaphases containing a large number of aberrant chromosomes were noted during a survey of chromosomal damage in 328 Belarussian children. The study population comprised children of families living in territory contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident. The majority of the sample had been evacuated within 1 week from very heavily polluted territory to areas that had received much less fallout. Two hundred cells were scored per subject and one rogue cell was found in a child exposed in utero; one in a child conceived after the accident and six in the postnatally exposed group. The possibility that the damage was due to exposure to radio-iodine concentrated in the thyroid gland, or to radiation from incorporated hot particles' of an alpha or beta/gamma emitter is discussed. It is concluded that the damage to these cells is unlikely to have been caused by radiation. (Author).

  7. Radiation environment in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    The collection contains the full texts of all scientific contributions read on the conference. All these reports have been inputted to INIS. The topics covered include radioactive contamination of the environment, food products, Bulgarian population, safety standards, health hazards, genetic radiation effects, risk estimation, the necessity of iodine prophilaxis and some problems of occupational exposure of the personnel of the Kozloduj NPP

  8. Comparison of the standards for air kerma of the NMIJ and the BIPM for 60Co γ rays

    A first comparison of the standards for air kerma of the National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been carried out in 60Co radiation. It shows that the NMIJ and BIPM standards differ by 0.72 % with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.4 x 10-3. (authors)

  9. Analysis of radiation accidents/incidents in Japan by the revised INES

    Full text: The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) was originally developed in the 1990's for facilitating rapid communication to the media and the public regarding the safety significance of events mainly at nuclear power stations. It has been considered since the beginning of 2000's to include the use of radiation sources and the transport of radioactive materials under the background of discussion for radiation safety and security. Additional guidance for rating of transport and radiation source events were agreed in 2006. The regulatory authority of Japan (MEXT) made the working group for the evaluation and started to apply the revised INES to the radiation events in Japan in 2007. This paper describes the results of analysis of all the radiation events which were legally reported since 1958 to 2006 in Japan. The analysis was based on the opened materials which were issued by the nuclear safety commission (NSC) and the nuclear safety technology center (NUSTEC). Events are classified on the scale at seven levels: levels 4-7 are termed 'accidents and levels 1-3 incidents'. Events without safety significance are termed 'deviations' and are classified below scale at level 0. Events without relevance to radiological or nuclear safety are termed 'out of scale'. There were 148 radiation events in Japan. The maximum level of accidents was level 4, but no death was observed. Because the number of exposed individuals was about 10, the rating was increased by one level. Three accidents of level 4 were related to the non-destructive test (NDT) and occured in 1971, 1972 and 1979. Based on the lessoned and learned from these accidents, the countermeasures, such as the improvement of machine structure and the effective practice of education, were taken. (author)

  10. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of {sup 60}Co; Caracterizacao bioquimica e farmacologica da crotamina irradiada por raios gama de {sup 60}Co

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-07-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective

  11. The lessons to be learnt from media coverage of radiation issues related to the Fukushima accident

    Psychometric studies of perceptions of risk have shown that nuclear energy is one of the most dreaded phenomena experienced by human beings. People tend to perceive nuclear energy as a largely remote technology based on principles of physics that are difficult, if not impossible, to understand. Common perceptions are that nuclear energy is beyond the ordinary person's control and has potentially catastrophic consequences. By association, radioactive materials produced by atomic fission in nuclear reactors are perceived to be unfathomably dangerous and the radiation they emit, especially as a result of a reactor accident, is perceived to be insidious and potentially deadly. Journalists share these perceptions as readily as anyone else and undoubtedly brought these preconceptions to their work in covering the Fukushima nuclear accident. Partly as a result, media reportage of the consequences of radioactive emissions from the damaged Fukushima plant tended to be exaggerated, ill-informed and alarming. Media reporting tended to overstate radiation risks and convey inaccurate information for a number of additional reasons: The absence of a context or framework in which reporters and their audiences could understand and assess relative risks of radiation and compare these risks with other phenomena; The complexity of systems and units of measurement of radiation, radioactivity, dose rates and effective dose; Inconsistency in the presentation of radiation data by the Fukushima plant operator; the Government of Japan and its agencies; nuclear agencies internationally and in other countries; The propensity of media to seek the views of 'experts' likely to provide the most pessimistic, alarming or controversial interpretation of radiation consequences of a nuclear accident, and The absence of balancing views from authoritative, well-briefed and strongly-credentialled expert individuals or representatives of relevant agencies and regulators, either in Australia or

  12. (60)Co-γ irradiation affects the enzymatic antioxidant system of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhibin; Zhu, Shaowen; Weng, Qunfang

    2014-01-01

    Radio-(60Co), which emits γ rays, has been used worldwide in pest control. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of effective-low-power 60Co-γ irradiation on the enzymatic antioxidant system of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri. One day old female adults were exposed to 0.4 kGy 60Co-γ irradiation and on the, 6th h, 1st day, 2nd day, and 5th day post treatment, the mites were euthanized for biochemical analysis. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenoloxidase (PO) and acetylocholinesterase (AchE) were investigated. POD and CAT activities, as well as SOD were higher in the irradiated mites. We found that exposure to 60Coradiation resulted in increased activities of SOD, CAT, POD and decreased AchE activity. When the recovery time lasted till the 5th day, the activities of POD and PO were significantly lower than the control, whereas the SOD, CAT and AchE activities returned to control levels. Cells possess protein repair pathways to rescue oxidized proteins and restore their functions, but if these repair processes fail, oxidized proteins may become cytotoxic. Our results confirm the hypothesis that low dosages of 60Co-γ irradiation increase the level of oxidative stress in P. citri adults in a short time, causing meanwhile damage and sterility. The results of this study also indicate that stress caused by exposure to irradiation could inhibit the cholinergic system in P. citri. PMID:24853454

  13. 60Co-γ Irradiation Affects the Enzymatic Antioxidant System of the Citrus Red Mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Ke Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Radio-(60Co, which emits γ rays, has been used worldwide in pest control. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of effective-low-power 60Co-γ irradiation on the enzymatic antioxidant system of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri. One day old female adults were exposed to 0.4 kGy 60Co-γ irradiation and on the, 6th h, 1st day, 2nd day, and 5th day post treatment, the mites were euthanized for biochemical analysis. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, phenoloxidase (PO and acetylocholinesterase (AchE were investigated. POD and CAT activities, as well as SOD were higher in the irradiated mites. We found that exposure to 60Coradiation resulted in increased activities of SOD, CAT, POD and decreased AchE activity. When the recovery time lasted till the 5th day, the activities of POD and PO were significantly lower than the control, whereas the SOD, CAT and AchE activities returned to control levels. Cells possess protein repair pathways to rescue oxidized proteins and restore their functions, but if these repair processes fail, oxidized proteins may become cytotoxic. Our results confirm the hypothesis that low dosages of 60Co-γ irradiation increase the level of oxidative stress in P. citri adults in a short time, causing meanwhile damage and sterility. The results of this study also indicate that stress caused by exposure to irradiation could inhibit the cholinergic system in P. citri.

  14. Radiation safety for the emergency situation of the power plant accident. Radiation safety in society and its education

    Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunamis, and following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Accident brought about great impact on society in Japan. Accident analysis of inside reactor was studied by reactor physics or reactor engineering knowledge, while dissipation of a large amount of radioactive materials outside reactor facilities, and radiation and radioactivity effects on people by way of atmosphere, water and soil were dealt with radiation safety or radiation protection. Due to extremely low frequency and experience of an emergency, there occurred a great confusion in the response of electric power company concerned, relevant regulating competent authorities, local government and media, and related scholars and researchers, which caused great anxieties amount affected residents and people. This article described radiation safety in the society and its education. Referring to actual examples, how radiation safety or radiation protection knowledge should be dealt with emergency risk management in the society was discussed as well as problem of education related with nuclear power, radiation and prevention of disaster and fostering of personnel for relevant people. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Cobalt-60 simulation of LOCA [loss of coolant accident] radiation effects

    The consequences of simulating nuclear reactor loss of coolant accident (LOCA) radiation effects with Cobalt-60 gamma ray irradiators have been investigated. Based on radiation induced damage in polymer base materials, it was demonstrated that electron/photon induced radiation damage could be related on the basis of average absorbed radiation dose. This result was used to estimate the relative effectiveness of the mixed beta/gamma LOCA and Cobalt-60 radiation environments to damage both bare and jacketed polymer base electrical insulation materials. From the results obtained, it is concluded that present simulation techniques are a conservative method for simulating LOCA radiation effects and that the practices have probably substantially overstressed both bare and jacketed materials during qualification testing. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Outline of emergency care in a radiation accident and topics for further discussion

    Medical management in a criticality accident is described based on the authors' experiences, and some suggestions are made. The JCO criticality accident occurred in Tokai-mura on September 30, 1999, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare dispatched the authors to the site. They consulted with other experts and carried out medical examinations on people living within 350 m of the JCO site. They explained the gamma-radiation survey and about health hazards. Then they framed a public health plan of action before leaving Tokai-mura. At the time, there was no adequate system for interpreting the situation of for preparing for accidents. Based on these experiences, the authors concluded that good training, a care manual, and a system for the emergency phase and the follow-up phase are necessary. (K.H.)

  17. RADIATION-HYGIENIC AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE СHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: RESULTS AND PROGNOSIS

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An article is devoted to the analysis of the radiation situation in the dynamics during the years since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Data on the scope of activities fulfilled for the assessment of the territories radioactive contamination levels and foodstuffs contamination levels, on the values of the exposure doses for the population living on the contaminated territories, on the medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Basic norms and principles, used during the protective measures development and introduction, are considered, their effectiveness is demonstrated. Mistakes emerged during protective measures implementation are analyzed, the prognosis of the population exposure dose values for the 70-year period since the accident and main directions of activities for the contaminated territories remediation and normal life conditions restoration for the population at these territories are presented.

  18. Environmental radiation at Izu-Oshima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Environmental radiation at Izu-Oshima Island was observed 6 months after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP). A car-borne survey of the dose rate in air was conducted over the entire island and the results were compared with measurements performed in 2005 (i.e. before the accident). The activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs were also measured using a germanium detector. The dose rate in air was found to be 2.9±1.2 times higher than that in 2005 and 134Cs was detected on Izu-Oshima Island. These results are attributed to the accident at the F1-NPP. (authors)

  19. Agricultural production as a source of irradiation of populations in radiation accidents

    Radioactive contamination of the agricultural production sphere in case of a radiation accident with radionuclide release is one of the most important sources of additional irradiation for population. As a result, realisation of the measures for mitigating the consequences of the accident in agro-industrial complex assumes the leading role in total system of measures providing radiation safety. The possibility to obtain agricultural production meeting the radiological standards is one of the main indications of effectiveness of liquidation of the accident consequences. First, obtaining of agricultural production meeting the radiological standards provides decreasing of the total radiation dose. The evidence is obtained in the 8-year experience of liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident that the 70% decrease of the internal dose for population became possible through a complex of protection measures in agriculture (during the first year after the accident, the contribution of internal dose into the total one amounted to 45%, and that of external irradiation - 52%; for the 70-year period these values are 39% and 60%, respectively). Second, the possibility to obtain 'pure' agricultural production is one of the most important factors of psychological stability for population. Third, obtaining of consumable (as to radionuclide content) agricultural production in private small holdings is one of the guarantees of stability of demographic sector in the accident-affected zone. From the point of view of organization of agricultural production in liquidation of the consequences of accidents with radioactive releases into environment, some periods can be distinguished: (i) the first (early) period takes 10-12 days after the accident. The main measures in the field of agricultural production are in operative assessment of the radiological situation, organization of radiation survey, express classification of agricultural products ready to consumption. If radionuclide content

  20. The 10 recommendations for prevention of radiation accidents in industrial gamma radiography

    The Industrial Gamma Radiography, as part of Industrial Radiography, stands out as the most widespread and plays an important role in the quality control of different materials and devices. However, IAEA classifies industrial gamma radiography in the Category 2 as very dangerous due to the radiological risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. In March, 2012, a Brazilian Workshop on Prevention of Industrial Gamma Radiography Accident was performed by DIAPI/CNEN with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiological accidents with radioactive sources in this application. During this Workshop, IRD/CNEN conducted a survey with 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, aiming to select the most voted. This present work aims to perform a detailed statistical study to define the Top 10 Recommendations for industrial gamma radiography operator avoids radiological accidents and to prepare a brochure with these top 10 recommendations to be distributed to all industrial gamma radiography radiation workers. Data analysis was performed using the statistical method 'Frequency Distribution', among the 75 participants categorized as General, RPO, and Other Workers of the area. The results were obtained for each category, accounting for the total of 22 recommendations in its percentage and number of votes, and the top 10 recommendations were defined to prevent radiological accidents. The first place and most important recommendation is 'Always use a personal alarm monitor throughout the work'. One of the conclusions is that the brochure with the Top 10 Recommendations shows to be understandable and useful for dissemination and training of radiation workers to avoid radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography. (author)

  1. Qualities of Patin Fishball Irradiated by Gamma Rays (60Co)

    An experiment on patin fishball quality using gamma irradiation (60Co) has been conducted. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 3 and 5 kGy and stored in refrigerator at temperature 10 oC for sixty days. Samples were analysed every fifteen days, except content of fat and protein that analysed only at the beginning and the end of storage. The purpose of this experiment is to know the quality changes of patin fishball irradiated during storage, by measuring of chemical (content of fat, protein, water, TVB value, pH value) and microbiology (TPC aerobic and anaerobic bacteria) changes. The results showed that irradiation did not affect macro nutrient contents (content of fat, protein and water) of patin fishball during storage but irradiation can affect TVB and pH values. Irradiation at 1 kGy can reduce one logarithmic cycle of total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The storage life of irradiated patin fishball treated at 1, 3 and 5 kGy could be extended up to 15, 30 and 60 days, respectively. Control samples the storage life could be extended less than 15 days. (author)

  2. 60Co γ-irradiation induced mutation breeding of ginger

    Sprout rhizome and plumelet rhizome of Laiwu ginger were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at different doses (20, 25, 30 and 35 Gy), and the variations at the VM1, VM2, and VM3 generations were studied. The results showed that the inhibition effect of irradiation on the VM1 generation was found to be increased as the dose increased, and the sprout rhizome was more sensitive to γ-irradiation than the plumelet rhizome. The LD50 and LD60 dose of plumelet rhizomes were 20 and 25 Gy, respectively, and the optimum irradiation dose was 25Gy. The LD50 and LD60 dose of sprout rhizomes were below 20 Gy. Seven types of mutants were found and selected in VM2 generation. The induced mutation characters were unstable in the VM3 generation. Three mutant lines (GDC2531, PZC3026, ZLX2007) selected from VM3 generation showed high yield, and fresh weight of rhizomes increased 33.5%, 27.5% and 24.9%, respectively compared to control. (authors)

  3. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury

  4. Clinically observed effects in individuals exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in an unprecedented total number of 237 individuals who were suspected of suffering from acute radiation sickness (ARS). All patients had been exposed either as personnel at the reactor or as liquidators (rescue workers) in the first days after the accident. The diagnosis was confirmed in 134 cases. Of these, 41 had mild (Grade I) ARS; one additional patient is still disputed; all survived. Fifty patients had Grade II ARS, of whom one died. Seven patients out of 22 with Grade III ARS died. Of the most severely affected 21 patients, who suffered from Grade IV ARS, all but one died despite intensive treatment. Among the Grade IV ARS patients, gastrointestinal damage and radiation skin burns were the most common complicating factors. In the last ten years, nine of the ARS patients and five of the non-confirmed cases have died. Their deaths do not relate to the original severity of ARS and are, in the majority of cases, probably not directly attributable to the radiation exposure. To improve care for the victims of such exposures, a number of issues need to be addressed, such as: The reasons for the failure of the treatment of bone marrow transplantation made available to the most severely affected patients; immediate diagnosis and alternative modes of treatment; the best strategy for the medical management of the acutely exposed radiation accident victim in the future in view of new developments; and the quality of life of the surviving patients. It was realized almost immediately that from the medical point of view the persons acutely exposed as a result of an accident on this scale are difficult to manage, since specialized centres have a capacity for only a few patients. The experience gained from these patients has provided additional information about the mechanisms of acute radiation injury. 37 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  6. Analysis of the experience in participation of army medical service in medical arrangement in case of radiation accident

    The paper presented calculations of manpower and money funds for rendering aid to the injured persons in case of radiation accident. The authors offered a scheme of using medical anti-radial aids on various stages of radiation accident; immediately after the accident in case of non-predicted and controlled radiation exposure. Army Medical Service is capable of solving promptly the tasks of medical aid with the help of highly mobile specialized medical units, the use of which is stipulated in the system of the Russian Service of disaster medicine. 10 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

  8. External radiation exposure from Chernobyl accident in Brjansk region

    The main subjects of this research were: 1) the assessment of personal doses from external gamma-radiation to the people living in the western part of Brjansk region as the most contaminated area of Russian Republic and 2) estimation of the connection between these doses and some natural and social factors. We used personal dosemeters with two thermoluminescent LiF detectors and Harshaw 2000 D TL-reader. Dosemeters were calibrated in the State Center of Standards and Metrology (Leningrad). The intercomparison of our TLDs with TLDs from Sweden and Norway showed that the difference in measured doses did not exceed 5%

  9. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    Tabachny, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends.

  10. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends

  11. French regulatory requirements for the occupational radiation protection in severe accident situations and post-accident recovery

    Workers of the concerned company and other persons and teams called 'intervention personnel' (specialized firemen, first aider, etc.) are to be involved in radiological emergency situations. Radiation protection provisions for workers and for intervention personnel complement one another because they cover persons with different statutes (workers under the responsibility of an employer and persons acting within the framework of agreements with the public authorities or within the framework of the requisitions). Work or operations exposing workers to ionizing radiation in radiological emergency situations can be assigned only to workers satisfying all of the following conditions: classification in category A worker; free of any medical unfitness; on a list drawn up in advance for this purpose; having received appropriate information on the risks and the precautions to take during the work or the operation; not having received, during the preceding twelve months, a dose greater than one of the annual limit values for exposures subject to special authorization. In addition, the worker must be a volunteer to carry out the work or the operations concerned in radiological emergency situations and have individual dosimetry means appropriate for the situation. Intervention personnel are possibly composed of personnel from responding organizations, such as police officers, fire-fighters, medical personnel, drivers and crews of evacuation vehicles, or of workers employed by the head of the damaged plant. In order to determine their selection, training and medical and radiological monitoring conditions, intervention personnel are classified into two groups: personnel forming the special technical, medical and health intervention teams readied in advance to deal with radiological emergency situations and persons not belonging to special teams but intervening as part of the tasks within the scope of their competence. In case of an existing exposure situation (post-accident

  12. EXPERIENCE OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SITUATION IN THE BRYANSK REGION TERRITORY AFTER 25 YEARS SINCE THE DAY OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    L. N. Trapeznikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the experience of the radiation-hygienic monitoring system creation in the territory contaminated with the radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident and application of the radiation hygienic monitoring data for the assessment of protective measures efficiency. Radiation situation data for the territory of the Bryansk region after 25 years of Chernobyl accident and dynamics of the population average annual effective exposure dose are being presented.

  13. A preliminary study on doses of 60Co-γ ray for mutation breeding of roegneria

    Six groups from three species of Roegneria were radiated with eight ladders of 60Co-γ ray for finding the most suitable absorbed dose. The dose ladders were CK (O Gy), 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy. The half-lethal dose of six groups, generated by multi-Target Single Hit Model Equation, were from 59.6 Gy to 172.8 Gy. Germination percentage of seeds, height of seeding, plant survival percentage and setting percentage were investigated. The most suitable absorbed doses of each species primarily were deduced from these data. The research provide a valuable reference for Roegneria mutation breeding on choosing the absorbed does. (authors)

  14. Effects of 60Co irradiation on virulent Toxoplasma gondii and its use in experimental immunization

    The effects of 60Co irradiation on the virulence and immunogenicity of the RG strain of Toxoplasma gondii was studied by infecting batches of mice with graded inocula of tachyzoites that had been exposed to radiation doses ranging from 0 to 20 000 rad. While doses of 15 000 and 20 000 rads appeared to be effective, and 10 000 rad nearly effective in annulling the virulence, irradiation at 5000 rad was only partially effective in rendering the organisms avirulent and could achieve only a prolongation of survival time of the inoculated mice. The survivors of higher irradiation inocula showed no evidence of the development of the parasite in them, but could resist a limited virulent challenge. The use of a booster inoculation improved both the quality and the duration of protective effect. (author)

  15. Reliability of planar silicon transistors exposed to 60Co γ rays

    This report gives an account of results obtained during investigations on the reliability of silicon Planar Transistors, irradiated by the 60Co γ rays. We consider in a first part the variation of the average values of the parameters of the lots under test. Then, a more complete statistical study is carried out (distribution of the values of the parameters within the lots; research of correlations, etc. ). It is clearly stated and shown that evaluation of the degradation of the gain of transistors depends on: the conditions of measurement (voltage, current), after irradiation; the polarisation of the elements during irradiation; the origin of manufacture of the lots under test (4 manufacturers). We show then the difficulties met to predict the behaviour of the transistors under radiation stress, and attempt is made to define practical rules for design engineers. (author)

  16. The degradation of p-chloronitrobenzene in aqueous solution by 60Co-γ irradiation

    The degradation of p-Chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) in aqueous solution was investigated by 60Co-γ irradiation. The concentrations of p-CNB and inorganic ions generated during the irradiation process were measured by HPLC and Ion Chromatography technology. And also, the factors affecting degradation degree, such as absorbed dose, radiation aura, were studied in detail. It was found that the degradation degree of p-CNB and the concentrations of ions increased with absorbed dose. The presence of O2 was more favorable to the degradation of p-CNB. Furthermore, the experimental results showed that both hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical generated from water radiolysis could degrade p- CNB effectively and produce Cl-, NO3-, NH4- in the solutions. (authors)

  17. Changes in membrane receptors of B and T human lymphocytes exposed to 60Co gamma rays

    The present report describes the effect of 50 to 2500 rad of 60Co gamma rays on the membrane receptors of B and T lymphocytes. Surface membrane immunoglobulins and Fc receptors were used as markers for B cells, while the formation of rosettes with sheep red blood cells was used as a marker for T cells. The effect of radiation is expressed as the percentage of viable cells that bear membrane receptors. The radiation effects were studied after 2, 24, 36 hr of culture. For B lymphocytes no reduction in SmIg and Fc receptors was seen 2 hr after radiation, whereas a dose-related reduction was observed after 24 and 36 hr. A dose-related inhibition of the ''capping'' of SmIg was observed. For T lymphocytes a reduction of E rosette formation was seen starting 2 hr after irradiation. Electron microscopy of separated B and T cells showed a higher sensitivity of T cells as well as a different structural arrangement of the chromatin as a consequence of radiation damage. These data suggest differentiated behavior of B and T lymphocyte membrane receptors after exposure to radiation

  18. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and γ-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

  19. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

  20. Medical Preparedness in Radiation Accidents: a Matter of Logistics and Communication not Treatment!

    T Leitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently reactor wreckage in Fukushima raised the following important questions: Is our knowledge of the possible dangers of ionizing radiation sufficient to warrant special action? What is the role of the medical community in technical radiation accidents from Windscale to Fukushima? What is the role of the medical community in terrorist radiation attacks? Are we prepared for those challenges? How can medical services communicate information in the media framework? What have we learned recently? And, what should be improved? In this review of the current literature on ionizing radiation, we try to answer these questions. Our conclusion is that medical services have to improve their communication skills and convince the public that the dangers of ionizing radiation can be quantitated within certain limits to support a qualified discussion about its risks and benefits.

  1. Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. (orig.)

  2. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  3. On-line 60Co monitor for reactor recirculation system piping in primary containment vessel during reactor operation

    Highlights: • We developed an on-line 60Co monitor for reactor recirculation system piping during reactor operation. • Energy resolution at 1.4 × 106 cps is 33 keV at 1332 keV using a pulse integral method. • A coincidence method is applied to reduce an effect of background gamma rays. • The coincidence counting of 60Co cascade gamma rays could be detected for a background dose rate of 4.8 mSv/h. - Abstract: Water chemistry control during reactor operation and installation of temporary radiation shielding prior to scheduled outages are carried out in order to reduce workers’ dose exposure caused by 60Co which is the main radiation source during scheduled outages of boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. It is necessary to monitor the deposited 60Co on inner surfaces of reactor recirculation system (RRS) piping to evaluate effects of water chemistry control. We have developed an on-line 60Co monitor (OLCM) for this purpose. The OLCM applies a pulse integral method as a new method to measure gamma-ray counts of more than 1.0 × 106 counts per second (cps) and a coincidence counting method to reduce an effect of background gamma rays caused by 16N in the measurement of 60Co cascade gamma rays. Energy resolution at 1.4 × 106 cps is 33 keV using the pulse integral method and single LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. The energy resolutions of this detector using the fast response photo multiplier tube (PMT) are 50 keV at 1.5 × 106 cps and 59 keV at 2.1 × 106 cps. Furthermore, we measured the energy spectra using the pulse integral method, the coincidence counting method and two LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors and examined the transition of coincidence counting for 60Co detection under high dose rate during reactor operation at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). The coincidence counting of 60Co cascade gamma rays could be detected, and the result was average values of 47.9 counts per 40 min and standard deviations of 34%, 58.3 counts per 60 min

  4. Analysis of the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes irradiated with 60Co

    The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations induced by gamma radiation from a 60Co source at two different doses. Samples were obtained from a healthy donor and exposed to 60Co source (Gammacel 220 ) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy of Pernambuco Federal University (DEN/UFPe/Brazil) with a rate of air Kerma to 3,277 Gy/h. Exposures resulted in absorbed dose 0.51 Gy and 0.77 Gy. Mitotic metaphases were obtained by culturing lymphocytes for chromosome analysis and the slides were stained with 5% Giemsa. Among the unstable chromosomal aberrations the dicentric chromosomes, ring chromosomes and acentric fragments were analyzed. To calculate the significance level the chi - square test was used, considering relevant differences between the frequencies when the value of p < 0.05. To calculate the significance level of the chi - square test was used, considering relevant differences between the frequencies when the value of p < 0.05. The results showed that there was significant difference of the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes (from 0.18 to 0.51 to 0.37 Gy to 0.77 Gy), however there was no statistically significant difference between the frequencies of acentric fragments ( 0.054 to 0, 51 Gy to 0.063 to 0.77 Gy) and ring chromosomes (0.001 to 0.51 Gy to 0.003 to 0.77 Gy). The low number of rings is found justified, considering that in irradiated human lymphocytes, its appearance is rare relative to dicentrics. The results confirm that dicentrics are the most reliable biomarkers in estimating dose after exposure to gamma radiation. These two points will make the calibration curve dose-response being built for Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of CRCN-NE/CNEN

  5. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Update 2, Volume II

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. This final update consists of additional data for 1979 by the same participating organizations, which has not been previously reported

  6. Radiation and health effects. A report on the TMI-2 accident and related health studies

    On March 28, 1979, the Unit 2 reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Station was severely damaged by an accident. Radioactivity was discharged to the environment resulting in a small amount of radiation exposure to the public. Continuing concerns by some members of the communities around TMI about the potential radiation-induced health effects prompted GPU Nuclear Corporation to examine the information gathered from the accident investigation in the context of our current knowledge of radiation and its effects on human health. Although this report deals with technical matters, the information is presented in a manner that can be understood by those who do not have scientific backgrounds. This report is divided into three major sections. The first section provides an overview of the past 80 years of relevant research on the subject of radiation and its effects on human health. During that time, scientists and physicians throughout the world have studied hundreds of thousands of individuals exposed to radiation from medical and occupational sources and from nuclear weapons explosions. Epidemiologic studies of humans, such as the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb, have established that following exposure to large doses of radiation, certain health effects, including cancer, can be observed. Radiation-induced health effects from low doses of radiation, such as those associated with the TMI-2 accident, appear infrequently, if at all, and are identical and, therefore, indistinguishable from similar health effects which occur normally. For example, cancers induced by radiation are indistinguishable from those occurring spontaneously or normally. It is not possible, therefore, for scientists to determine directly whether radiation-induced health effects at low doses occur at all; such observations can only be inferred by statistical methods. The second section of this report provides a brief description of the TMI-2 accident. Most of the radioactivity from the

  7. Differential gene expression in human fibroblasts after alpha-particle emitter (211)At compared with (60)Co irradiation

    Danielsson, Anna; Claesson, Kristina; Parris, Toshima Z; Helou, Khalil; Nemes, Szilárd; Elmroth, Kecke; Elgqvist, Jörgen; Jensen, Holger; Hultborn, Ragnar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify gene expression profiles distinguishing alpha-particle (211)At and (60)Co irradiation. Materials and methods: Gene expression microarray profiling was performed using total RNA from confluent human fibroblasts 5 hours after exposure to (211)At labeled...... trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (0.25, 0.5, and 1 Gy) and (60)Co (1, 2, and 3 Gy). Results: We report gene expression profiles that distinguish the effect different radiation qualities and absorbed doses have on cellular functions in human fibroblasts. In addition, we identified commonly expressed transcripts...... transcription, cell cycle regulation, and cell cycle arrest, whereas mitosis, spindle assembly checkpoint, and apoptotic chromosome condensation were uniquely enriched for alpha particle irradiation. Conclusions: LET-dependent transcriptional modulations were observed in human fibroblasts 5 hours after...

  8. Five detector set-up for positron 1D-ACAR study of 60Co containing materials

    Design of the five detector set-up, for 1-Dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation (1-ACAR) study of 60Co-containing materials as well as test measurements are described. The equipment is based on simultaneous registration of a starting positron (by detection of gamma-photon with energy 1274 keV) and its annihilation with an electron in the studied material (by detection of two annihilation gamma photons with the energy 511 keV emitted mainly at the 180o-angle). Through this triple coincidence the distributing 60Co-contribution (gamma-photons with energy of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV) can be effectively separated from the annihilation spectra of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel specimens. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  9. Perception of Radiation Risk by Japanese Radiation Specialists Evaluated as a Safe Dose Before the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Miura, Miwa; Ono, Koji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    From October to December 2010, just before the radiological accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 71 radiation professionals from radiation facilities in Japan were asked what they considered as a "safe dose" of radiation for themselves, their partners, parents, children, siblings, and friends. Although the 'safe dose' they noted varied widely, from less than 1 mSv y to more than 100 mSv y, the average dose was 35.6 mSv y, which is around the middle point between the legal exposure dose limits for the annual average and for any single year. Similar results were obtained from other surveys of members of the Japan Radioisotope Association (36.9 mSv y) and of the Oita Prefectural Hospital (36.8 mSv y). Among family members and friends, the minimum average "safe" dose was 8.5 mSv y for children, for whom 50% of the responders claimed a "safe dose" of less than 1 mSv. Gender, age and specialty of the radiation professional also affected their notion of a "safe dose." These findings suggest that the perception of radiation risk varies widely even for radiation professionals and that the legal exposure dose limits derived from regulatory science may act as an anchor of safety. The different levels of risk perception for different target groups among radiation professionals appear similar to those in the general population. The gap between these characteristics of radiation professionals and the generally accepted picture of radiation professionals might have played a role in the state of confusion after the radiological accident. PMID:27115222

  10. Detection and thermoluminescence of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) irradiated with {sup 60}Co; Deteccion y termoluminiscencia del cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) irradiado con {sup 60}Co

    Ruiz G, B. [Departamento de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Universidad de Sonora, 083190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, 083190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The fresh and dried coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a spice of high commercial value as food for consumption in Mexico. Their hygienic quality is often poor due to some factors: contaminants present in irrigation water and the cultivation atmosphere, harvesting and post harvest handling, mainly. The process by radiation is an alternative to achieve the sterilization to adequate dose for the hygienic quality for its consumption. However, irradiation also involves food detection exposed to radiation. This paper presents detected results on the dried coriander that was obtained from fresh samples and thermoluminescent properties such as glow curves structure from low doses (0.5 Gy) to high (15 kGy), the dose response, thermoluminescent signal decay, in order to determine the loss of stability during the storage of the poly mineral fraction. We obtained the inorganic fraction separation of the organic part of particle sizes of 10 {mu}m by the Zimmerman method. The samples were exposed at two dose ranges; 0.5-400 Gy and 0.5-15 kGy of gamma radiation with {sup 60}Co. The limit of thermoluminescent detection of the irradiated coriander samples was from 1 Gy. The glow curves were at a broad band of 35-400 C, with a maximum thermoluminescence around 182-196 C, and run at 164 C for high doses of 15 kGy. The range of linear response to dose was 4-25 Gy, whereas higher doses than the kGy order the response increase with the dose. The thermoluminescent properties of the coriander poly mineral fraction, show it can be used to identify irradiated food at gamma doses relatively low and even in doses of commercial interest due to the high stability of thermoluminescent signals. (Author)

  11. Placental transfer of 60Co as a function of gestation age

    The transfer of 60Co from mother to foetus in relation to the time of gestation was examined 24 hrs after injecting 5 μCi of 60CoCl2 to the pregnant rat on 15th - 21st day of gestation. The radioactivity of foetuses, placentae as well as liver, kidney and femur of mother was determined. It was found that activity of 60Co transferred to the foetus body increased with the time of gestation. (author)

  12. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source. [PWR; BWR

    1978-02-01

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist.

  13. Gamma 60Co DL50/30 of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 DL50/30 raios gama de 60Co em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818

    Elaine Barros da Costa CARVALHO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The variation of resistance to 60Co gamma-rays of Biomphalaria glabrata was studied. A population of 480 mollusks was observed during 30 days - distributed in 8 groups of snails isolated and 8 groups of snails in colonies - after exposure (30 snails per group per dose to increasing doses of gamma radiation. Doses of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160, 320 and 640 Gy from a Gamma-cell 60Co irradiator, were applied to the test groups and two groups control (non-irradiated of snails - isolated and colony - were kept apart. After have been exposed, the snails were drew back to the aquaria where they were maintained before. The survival was estimated on a daily score of the alive animals in each group-dose, starting after the irradiation exposure day. As a result, the survival self-fertilization forms (DL50/30 = 218.2 Gy was found greater than in cross-fecundation forms. These data point to a low radio-resistance on the cross-fertilization forms - the sexual reproductive form - which is most found in nature. The lower radio-resistance of the cross-fertilization forms suggests the presence of some sex-linked hormonal factor related to this phenomenon.A variação da resistência entre indivíduos em autofecundação e fecundação cruzada de Biomphalaria glabrata foram estudadas. Uma população de 480 moluscos foi observada durante 29 dias, distribuída em 8 grupos de caramujos isolados e 8 grupos em colônias após a exposição (30 caramujos por grupo-dose a doses crescentes de radiação gama. Foram usadas doses de 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160, 320 e 640 Gy de um irradiador Gamma-Cell 60Co. Dois grupos não irradiados - isolado e colônia - foram separados como controle e após a irradiação todos os caramujos voltaram para aquários onde viviam antes. A sobrevida foi estimada pela contagem diária dos animais vivos em cada grupo-dose, a partir do dia da irradiação. O resultado mostrou maior sobrevivência nos grupos isolados (DL50/30 = 218.2 Gy que nos grupos

  14. Bioaccumulation and elimination of 60 Co and 137 Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of 60 Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of 60 Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10-3). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For 137 Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of 60 Co, the soft tissues concentrated more 137 Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of 60 Co or 137 Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained 60 Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for 137 Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of 60 Co and 137 Cs BFS do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by 60 Co or 137 Cs should be monitored. (author)

  15. Suitable dose of 60Co γ-ray for mutation in Roegneria seeds

    Seeds from six accessions of three species of Roegneria were radiated with 60Co γ-ray at different doses (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy). Following these treatments, germination energy, germination rate, seedling height, plant height, plant survival, and seed set were observed. Plant survival was highly correlated with seedling height (R2 > 0.91, P 2 > 0.82, P < 0.01). The semi-lethal dose of each accession, calculated using a 'Multi-target single-hit' model, ranged from 60 to 173 Gy. The most suitable absorbed doses for each accession were deduced from these data. The suitable doses for Roegneria kamoji, Roegneria ciliaris and Roegneria japonensis were 65-100 Gy, 63-150 Gy and 80-170 Gy, respectively. According to the range of suitable doses, R. kamoji (Pr87-88-353) was the most sensitive to radiation, and R. japonensis (88-89-267) was the most resistant to radiation. Suitable doses of R. ciliaris were close to that of R. kamoji (ZY1007). This research provides preliminary guidelines for radiation induced mutagenesis in Roegneria. (author)

  16. Studies on the transportation dynamics of 60Co in simulated ecosystem

    The isotope tracer techniques were applied to study the transportation, accumulation and distribution of 60Co in the pot-cultivated tomato-soil, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Based on the principle of tracer dynamic compartment models, the mathematical formulae were established via computer simulation to describe the 60Co behavior patterns in ecosystems and thus provided some basic information for elucidating the behavior of 60Co in the environment. The results are as follows: (1) When 60Co was introduced into the tomato-soil system, 60Co was transported and accumulated in the soil and adsorbed by tomato root quickly, then transported to the above-ground plant. (2) The behavior patterns of 60Co in the tomato-soil system could be described using the opened two-compartment model. (3) When 60Co was introduced into aquatic system in the form of 60Co-CoCl2, it was transported and transformed via deposit, complexation with other ions, adsorption and absorption by aquatic living things and led to the distribution and accumulation in individual part of the living things. (4) The behavior pattern of 60Co in the aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem could be described by using opened five-compartment model

  17. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  18. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME III. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  19. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME II. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  20. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME VI. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  1. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME V. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  2. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME I. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  3. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME IV. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  4. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  5. Utilization technique of 'radiation management manual in medical field (2012).' What should be learnt from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    From the abstract of contents of the 'Radiation management manual in medical field (2012),' the utilization technique of the manual is introduced. Introduced items are as follows: (1) Exposure management; exposure management for radiation medical workers, patients, and citizens in the medical field, and exposure management for radiation workers and citizens involved in the emergency work related to the Fukushima nuclear accident, (2) Health management; health management for radiation medical workers, (3) Radiation education: Education/training for radiation medical workers, and radiation education for health care workers, (4) Accident and emergency measures; emergency actions involved in the radiation accidents and radiation medicine at medical facilities

  6. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  7. Radiation protection management in Fukushima Daiichi NPS and post-accident measures

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was hit by the big earthquake and tsunami, which caused the station black out and subsequent loss of cooling functions for reactor and spent fuel pools (SFPs). Consequently the fuels were damaged, hydrogen explosion blew off top of the reactor buildings and radioactive materials were released to the atmosphere and the ocean. Tsunami and power loss caused many difficulties of monitoring, dose management, and radiation protection of workers. For example, the radiation management system was down and about 5,000 Alarm Pocket Dosimeters (APDs) and their battery chargers could not be used. Due to the insufficient number of APDs, one representative of each working team had a dosimeter under the limited conditions. Through the accident, we got following lessons learned; (1) Reinforcing monitoring posts, (2) Preparing more radiation protection equipment, (3) Establishing emergency access control centre, and (4) Education and training in radiation protection. (author)

  8. Agricultural measures to reduce radiation doses to man caused by severe nuclear accidents

    Agricultural land and products may become contaminated after a severe nuclear accident. If radiation doses to man caused by the ingestion of contaminated agricultural products from such areas will be unacceptably high, measures to reduce this radiation dose will have to be taken. Radiation doses to man can be estimated by using models which describe quantitatively the transfer of radionuclides through the biosphere. The following processes and pathways are described in this study: accidental releases into atmospheric environments and subsequent nearby deposition; contamination of crops by direct deposition and the subsequent short term pathway (e.g. grass-cow-milk-man); contamination of soil and the subsequent long term pathway (e.g. soil-crop-man, soil-grass-cattle-milk/meat-man). Depending on the degree of contamination and on the estimated radiation doses to man, various measures are advised. (Auth.)

  9. Doses from external and internal radiation in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident

    In this article the estimation of monthly doses from external radiation from internal radiation due to ingestion of contaminated food is reported. The monthly doses is estimated for each municipality in Norway for the first 13 months after the Chernobyl accident (from May 1986 to June 1987). The estimation which has been elaborated from an extensive data material, shows that the dose rates from external radiation due to the Chernobyl fallout were for the country as a whole three times higher in the first month after the accident (May 1986) compared with the twelfth month (April 1987). The doses received from intake of radiocesium through food were small in the first three months, but reached almost the double of the doses from the external radiation the 9th month. The reduction in the dose from external radiation was primarily due to the physical half life of radiocesium and washout. The increase in the doses from radiocesium through intake of food was due to the time required for radiocesium to enter the food chain and the biokinetics of radiocesium in humans. There is no significant correlation between the ground activity levels and the activity levels observed in the food which is consumed in the same area. The average internal dose in the first year after the Chernobyl accident was estimated to 0.110 ± 0.006 mSv and the external dose to 0.070 ± 0.007 mSv as an average for the whole country. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on background radiation doses measured by control dosimeters in Japan.

    Romanyukha, Alexander; King, David L; Kennemur, Lisa K

    2012-05-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011 in Japan, several reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered severe damage. There was immediate participation of U.S. Navy vessels and other United States Department of Defense (DoD) teams that were already in the area at the time of the disaster or arrived shortly thereafter. The correct determination of occupational dose equivalent requires estimation of the background dose component measured by control dosimeters, which is subsequently subtracted from the total dose equivalent measured by personal dosimeters. The purpose of the control dosimeters is to determine the amount of radiation dose equivalent that has accumulated on the dosimeter from background or other non-occupational sources while they are in transit or being stored. Given the release of radioactive material and potential exposure to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the process by which the U.S. Navy calculates occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, analysis of pre- and post-event control dosimeters is warranted. Several hundred historical dose records from the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) database were analyzed and compared with the post-accident dose equivalent data of control dosimeters. As result, it was shown that the dose contribution of the radiation and released radiological materials from the Fukushima nuclear accident to background radiation doses is less than 0.375 μSv d for shallow and deep photon dose equivalent. There is no measurable effect on neutron background exposure. The latter has at least two important conclusions. First, the NDC can use doses measured by control dosimeters at issuing sites in Japan for determination of personnel dose equivalents; second, the dose data from control dosimeters prior to and after the Fukushima accident may be used to assist in dose reconstruction of non-radiological (non-badged) personnel at these locations

  11. Environmental radiation detected at Lin Shin hospital in Taichung during the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    This work is the first evaluation of environmental gamma exposure rates by the Nuclear Medicine Department at Lin Shin Hospital (LSH) in Taichung with Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-100H) during the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. After the 9.0 MW strong earthquake hit northern Japan on March 11, 2011, a TLD-100H was used to monitor environmental kerma rate at Taichung (2,500 km away from northern Japan) from Mar-08 to Apr-09, 2011 and evaluated kerma rate due to global fallout of the sever FNPP accidents. Exposure rates varied widely among positions close to the PET/CT facility. Observed kerma rates of up to 4.12 ± 0.62 mSv mo-1 indicated an explicit, heavy leakage of photon through the PET/CT facility. No significant contributions were detected at Taichung, Taiwan. Hence, the health effect cause by the 'extra radiation' from FNPP accidents is negligible. As this was a rare case of environmental monitoring during a nuclear power plant accident, its findings are of considerable significance. (author)

  12. Risk management and role of schools of the Tokai-village radiation accident in 1999. Safety education and risk management before and during the radiation accident from the standpoint of school nurse teachers

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety education and risk management in the neighborhood schools before and during the radiation accident in the Tokai-village in 1999 from the standpoint of school nurse teachers. Eighty-six school nurse teachers from 44 elementary, 25 junior-high, 14 high and 3 handicapped children's schools were surveyed within neighboring towns and villages. The main results were as follows: There had been few risk management systems against the potential radiation accidents including safety education, radiological monitoring and protection in all of the neighboring schools. There were no significant difference in risk management systems among the schools before the accident, though the anxiety rates of school children were significantly higher in the schools nearest to the accident site. Some radiation risk management systems must be established in neighboring schools including safety education, radiological monitoring and protection. (author)

  13. Bioremediation of {sup 60}Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions

    Rashmi, K.; Naga Sowjanya, T.; Maruthi Mohan, P.; Balaji, V.; Venkateswaran, G

    2004-07-26

    Bioremediation of {sup 60}Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions by utilizing different biomass of (Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma viridae, Mucor recemosus, Rhizopus chinensis, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger and, Aspergillus flavus) fungi is reported. Various fungal species were screened to evaluate their potential for removing cobalt from very low concentrations (0.03-0.16 {mu}M) in presence of a high background of iron (9.33 mM) and nickel (0.93 mM) complexed with EDTA (10.3 mM). The different fungal isolates employed in this study showed a pickup of cobalt in the range 8-500 ng/g of dry biomass. The [Fe]/[Co] and [Ni]/[Co] ratios in the solutions before and after exposure to the fungi were also determined. At micromolar level the cobalt pickup by many fungi especially the mutants of N. crassa is seen to be proportional to the initial cobalt concentration taken in the solution. However, R. chinensis exhibits a low but iron concentration dependent cobalt pickup. Prior saturating the fungi with excess of iron during their growth showed the presence of selective cobalt pickup sites. The existence of cobalt specific sorption sites is shown by a model experiment with R. chinensis wherein at a constant cobalt concentration (0.034 {mu}M) and varying iron concentrations so as to yield [Fe/Co]{sub initial} ratios in solution of 10, 100, 1000 and 287 000 have all yielded a definite Co pickup capacity in the range 8-47 ng/g. The presence of Cr(III)EDTA (3 mM) in solution along with complexed Fe and Ni has not influenced the cobalt removal. The significant feature of this study is that even when cobalt is present in trace level (sub-micromolar) in a matrix of high concentration (millimolar levels) of iron, nickel and chromium, a situation typically encountered in spent decontamination solutions arising from stainless steel based primary systems of nuclear reactors, a number of fungi studied in this work showed a good sensitivity for cobalt pickup.

  14. Organizational methodical questions of prognosis of radiation doses to the population at the initial stage of radiation accident for making a decision

    An important factor, determining the optimality of the accented level of interference in case of a big radiation accident, is the efficiency and correctness of the predicted appraisal of possible levels of radiation exposure of various contigents of population. Such appraisals can be done only in case the teams, carrying out post-accident protective measures, are equipped with corresponding scientific-methodical means including the package of instructions, manuals and the necessary data base which would enable to predict possible radiation after-effects in various variants of the accident development. The contents of the Reference text-book for estimation of doses of external and internal radiation exposure of people in the accident region are analyzed. 4 refs

  15. Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Hui Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1 The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2 The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3 an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.

  16. Lessoning of radiation exposure. Radiation effect on humans and points to be noticed learned by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Described are the process of medical measures taken along with the time after the Accident in the title (Mar. 12, 2011) and the present state (June, 2013) of Fukushima. The author at first presents the fundamental knowledge of radiation like unit, natural/medical doses, and the scale of the Accident compared with Chernobyl Accident (1986) involving observed diseases like thyroid cancer. On the day before the Accident, the Earthquake and Tsunami attacked Fukushima, and the University Hospital built up an anti-disaster medical headquarter. Until 15th, the hospital accepted about 500 persons for their contamination survey and subsequent de-contamination, then played a role for relaying 1,300 patients to other facilities and accepted 125 hospitalizations, during which communication by phone had been scarcely available, leading to complication and confusion. The radioisotope subjected to be noted was radioiodine earlier and then radiocesium. Emergent medical supports were conducted for various evacuation areas involving 20-30 km zone from the Plant by pediatric and infection teams with joint doctors from Thailand. The University had been defined to be the secondary emergent, expertized medical facility since 2001 and began to conduct the long-term project Fukushima Health Management Survey after the Accident for the fundamental and detailed studies of residents. The secondary facility at the emergency was inevitably the center of medicare as the primary hospitals were mostly in the radiological evacuation area and tertiary ones located afar. The University Hospital is now revising the formal manual for medical response to exposure. In Fukushima City, 60 km distant from the Plant, the ambient dose is about 0.5 mc-Sv and external exposure dose is lowering to 2-4 mSv/y. Decrease of medical staff like doctors and nurses is significant in the prefecture. (T.T.)

  17. The outcome of local radiation injuries: 14 years of follow-up after the Chernobyl accident.

    Gottlöber, P; Steinert, M; Weiss, M; Bebeshko, V; Belyi, D; Nadejina, N; Stefani, F H; Wagemaker, G; Fliedner, T M; Peter, R U

    2001-03-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on April 26, 1986 was the largest in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Of the 237 individuals initially suspected to have been significantly exposed to radiation during or in the immediate aftermath of the accident, the diagnosis of acute radiation sickness (ARS) could be confirmed in 134 cases on the basis of clinical symptoms. Of these, 54 patients suffered from cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) to varying degrees. Among the 28 patients who died from the immediate consequences of accidental radiation exposure, acute hemopoietic syndrome due to bone marrow failure was the primary cause of death only in a minority. In 16 of these 28 deaths, the primary cause was attributed to CRS. This report describes the characteristic cutaneous sequelae as well as associated clinical symptoms and diseases of 15 survivors of the Chernobyl accident with severe localized exposure who were systematically followed up by our groups between 1991 and 2000. All patients presented with CRS of varying severity, showing xerosis, cutaneous telangiectasias and subungual splinter hemorrhages, hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, epidermal atrophy, disseminated keratoses, extensive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis with partial ulcerations, and pigmentary changes including radiation lentigo. Surprisingly, no cutaneous malignancies have been detected so far in those areas that received large radiation exposures and that developed keratoses; however, two patients first presented in 1999 with basal cell carcinomas on the nape of the neck and the right lower eyelid, areas that received lower exposures. During the follow-up period, two patients were lost due to death from myelodysplastic syndrome in 1995 and acute myelogenous leukemia in 1998, respectively. Other radiation-induced diseases such as dry eye syndrome (3/15), radiation cataract (5/15), xerostomia (4/15) and increased FSH levels (7/15) indicating impaired fertility were also

  18. Fate of 60Co and 134Cs added to the hypolimnion of a Canadian Shield lake: accumulation in biota

    The addition of 60Co and 134Cs to the anaerobic hypolimnion of a thermally stratified Canadian Shield lake in summer initially isolated the exposure of biota to only zooplankton that undergo vertical migration into this region of the lake. Once the radionuclides became mixed throughout the water column with autumn turnover, other biota were exposed to the radionuclides. In general, 60Co concentrations in biota were low because of the rapid loss to the sediments. Exceptions were for initial 60Co concentrations in filter-feeders (cladocerans and clams) during autumn turnover. Concentrations of 134CS were higher in biota the following spring and summer, reflecting the tendency of 134Cs to remain in the water column. Concentrations of 134Cs still continued to increase in forage fish 1 year following the radionuclide addition. The addition of radionuclides to the hypolimnion resulted in higher concentrations in forage fish than when added to the epilimnion. Radionuclide concentrations in biota varied with taxon and were greatest in periphyton. This study demonstrates that radionuclides that may enter the bottom waters of a lake as a result of nuclear fuel waste disposal will be available to biota and result in a radiation dose to aquatic biota and to humans via the water-fish-human pathway. (author)

  19. Study on the down-regulation of PKCα by tamoxifen combined with 60Co γ-irradiation in glioma cells

    The mechanism of radio-sensitizing effect of tamoxifen on the influence of PKCα expression has been explored by tamoxifen combined with 60Co γ-irradiation in human glioma cells. The protein expression of PKCα and CyclinD1 were detected by using Western-Blot. The level of DNA strand breaks was detected by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. The results demonstrated that the combination of tamoxifen and 60Co γ-irradiation could reduce expression of PKCα and CyclinD1. And it also enhanced the radiation-induced DNA damage and attenuated the repair of damaged DNA. The above results reveal that the combination of tamoxifen and 60Co γ-irradiation can enhance the downregulation of the expression of PKCα and the induction in the low expression of CyclinD1 as well at the delay of DNA repair. All these may be related to the impairment of the radioresistance of SHG-44 cells by tamoxifen. (authors)

  20. Optimization of point sources on thin films using a statistical design approach. Application to 60Co sources

    Radioactive point sources prepared by depositing weighed drops on thin membranes are commonly used in ionizing radiation metrology for 47πβ-γ coincidence counting or for low energy electrons spectrometry. The present study deals with the preparation of good quality sources having high detection yields. Some influential parameters on the source quality are studied using 60Co as radioactive tracer. An approach based on experimental statistical designs has been chosen. This approach allows us to obtain reliable results with a number of experiences lower than in the case of a systematic approach. Homogeneous 60Co sources with high metrological qualifies (Rβ> 96 %) can be prepared using a direct deposit of ∼ 5 mg drops of 60Co solution ([Co] = 12 μg/g), [HCl] = 0,5 mol/I) and dried at 60 deg C. The support of the radioactive spot is constituted with a gold coated (130 μg/cm2 of Au) Vyns films (thickness 45 μg/cm2) on which a pad (diameter = 7 - 8 mm) of polystyrene microspheres (Estapor K-007) is prepared by an electro-spraying technique under 7,5 kV during 10 minutes. The alcoholic solution used for the electro-spraying step has the following chemical composition [Estapor K-007] 2.5 10-2 wt % and [Tween 20] = 2.7 10-2 wt %. (authors)

  1. Irradiation effect on enzymatic activity of papain with {sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ohashi, Isao; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-12-31

    An investigation was made on the durability of enzyme activity against {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation at a dose up to 55 kGy/h using dry powder and aqueous solution of papain preparations on the market. Hybrid materials including bioactive molecules combined with biocompatible synthetic polymers are expected to have biocompatible properties and also biomimetic functions as a component of artificial organs for human body. The activity of papain in an aqueous solution was rapidly decreased at the early stage of irradiation through oxidation of SH group at its active site with active oxygen produced by the irradiation and then, partially recovered since SH group was reproduced in an anoxic state after O{sub 2} consumption in the solution irradiated at a high dose. A usual radiation method for sterilization was found applicable to decontamination of dry and frozen preparations of papain. When suitable conditions for radiation were chosen and N{sub 2} gas was purged to suppress the formation of free radicals, it was possible to keep the enzyme activity at more than 50% of the initial activity after radiation at 30 kGy. (M.N.)

  2. Evaluation of gamma-sterilization (60Co) by RT-PCR by DHFR expression detection

    The improvement of techniques to detect pathogen agents in blood had reduced significantly the contamination mechanisms by hemocomponents in blood transfusion procedures. Ionizing radiation is a method that has presented several applications on medicine and in currently days has been showing special attention on blood banks which has been applied to avoid TA-GVHD development. DHFR is an enzyme constitutive in Plasmodium protozoa and has an important role in folate metabolism on these parasites. Detecting the expression of RNAm coder for this enzyme is possible to evaluate the viability of this parasite in blood samples. Plasmodium chabaudi AJ is a parasite that induces lethal malaria in rodents similar to human malaria In this work, the objective was to detect the presence of plasmodium protozoa in irradiated blood samples, infected experimentally, through the application of a RT-PCR using primers for the coder sequence of DHFR's mRNA. We studied doses of ionizing radiation between 0 and 75 Gy. The irradiation procedures were accomplished in Center of Radiation Technology of IPEN-CNEN in a 60Co panoramic source. Our results had demonstrated that RT-PCR is a sensible method to evaluate the viability of plasmodium in blood samples because the technique could detect low parasite burden in all tested samples. (author)

  3. 100 Gy 60Co γ-Ray Induced Novel Mutations in Tetraploid Wheat

    Chuntao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 accessions of tetraploid wheat were radiated with 100 Gy 60Co γ-ray. The germination energy, germination rate, special characters (secondary tillering, stalk with wax powder, and dwarf, meiotic process, and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs were observed. Different species has different radiation sensibility. With 1 seed germinated (5%, T. dicoccum (PI434999 is the most sensitive to this dose of radiation. With a seed germination rate of 35% and 40%, this dose also affected T. polonicum (As304 and T. carthlicum (As293. Two mutant dwarf plants, T. turgidum (As2255 253-10 and T. polonicum (As302 224-14, were detected. Abnormal chromosome pairings were observed in pollen mother cells of both T. dicoccoides (As835 237-9 and T. dicoccoides (As838 239-8 with HMW-GS 1Ax silent in seeds from them. Compared with the unirradiated seed of T. polonicum (As304 CK, a novel HMW-GS was detected in seed of T. polonicum (As304 230-7 and its electrophoretic mobility was between 1By8 and 1Dy12 which were the HMW-GSs of Chinese Spring. These mutant materials would be resources for wheat breeding.

  4. Evaluation of gamma-sterilization ({sup 60}Co) by RT-PCR by DHFR expression detection

    Converso, Ana Paula G.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anapaulagconverso@gmail.com; hfandrad@usp.br; Vieira, Daniel P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: dperezv@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The improvement of techniques to detect pathogen agents in blood had reduced significantly the contamination mechanisms by hemocomponents in blood transfusion procedures. Ionizing radiation is a method that has presented several applications on medicine and in currently days has been showing special attention on blood banks which has been applied to avoid TA-GVHD development. DHFR is an enzyme constitutive in Plasmodium protozoa and has an important role in folate metabolism on these parasites. Detecting the expression of RNAm coder for this enzyme is possible to evaluate the viability of this parasite in blood samples. Plasmodium chabaudi AJ is a parasite that induces lethal malaria in rodents similar to human malaria In this work, the objective was to detect the presence of plasmodium protozoa in irradiated blood samples, infected experimentally, through the application of a RT-PCR using primers for the coder sequence of DHFR's mRNA. We studied doses of ionizing radiation between 0 and 75 Gy. The irradiation procedures were accomplished in Center of Radiation Technology of IPEN-CNEN in a {sup 60}Co panoramic source. Our results had demonstrated that RT-PCR is a sensible method to evaluate the viability of plasmodium in blood samples because the technique could detect low parasite burden in all tested samples. (author)

  5. Irradiation effect on enzymatic activity of papain with 60Co-γ rays

    An investigation was made on the durability of enzyme activity against 60Co-γ irradiation at a dose up to 55 kGy/h using dry powder and aqueous solution of papain preparations on the market. Hybrid materials including bioactive molecules combined with biocompatible synthetic polymers are expected to have biocompatible properties and also biomimetic functions as a component of artificial organs for human body. The activity of papain in an aqueous solution was rapidly decreased at the early stage of irradiation through oxidation of SH group at its active site with active oxygen produced by the irradiation and then, partially recovered since SH group was reproduced in an anoxic state after O2 consumption in the solution irradiated at a high dose. A usual radiation method for sterilization was found applicable to decontamination of dry and frozen preparations of papain. When suitable conditions for radiation were chosen and N2 gas was purged to suppress the formation of free radicals, it was possible to keep the enzyme activity at more than 50% of the initial activity after radiation at 30 kGy. (M.N.)

  6. Data assimilation in early phase of radiation accident using particle filter

    Hofman, Radek; Šmídl, Václav; Pecha, Petr

    Melbourne : Australian Government - Bureau of Meteorology, 2009 - (Kepert, J.), s. 1-8 [The Fifth WMO International Symposium on Data Assimilation. Melbourne (AU), 05.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596; GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data assimilation * particle filter * prediction * cloud shine * Gaussian puff * dose rate * reactor accident * decision support Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/hofman-data assimilation in early phase of radiation accident using particle filter.pdf

  7. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.)

  8. Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. September 1970-February 1990 (a Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1970-February 1990

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Radiation exposure assessment for determining appropriate medical treatment is discussed. The effects of ingesting food or inhaling air irradiated by accident fallout are considered. Follow-up studies of the survivors of specific nuclear accidents are included in an attempt to evaluate long and short term health effects of accidents. (This updated bibliography contains 224 citations, 62 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Analysis of Radiation Accident of Non-destructive Inspection and Rational Preparing Bills

    After 2006, according to enactment of Non-destructive Inspection Promotion Act, the number of non-destructive inspection companies and corresponding accident is increased sharply. In this research, it includes characteristic analysis of field of the non-destructive inspection. And from the result of analysis, the purpose of this research is discovering reason for 'Why there is higher accident ratio in non-destructive inspection field, relatively' and preparing effective bill for reducing radiation accidents. The number of worker for non-destructive inspect is increased steadily and non-destructive inspect worker take highest dose. Corresponding to these, it must be needed to prepare bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers. By analysis of accident case, there are many case of carelessness that tools are too heavy to carry it everywhere workers go. And there are some cases caused by deficiency of education that less understanding of radiation and poor operation by less understanding of structure of tools. Also, there is no data specialized to non-destructive inspect field. So, it has to take information from statistical data. Because of this, it is hard to analyze nondestructive inspect field accurately. So, it is required to; preparing rational bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers nondestructive inspect instrument lightening and easy manual which can understandable for low education background people accurate survey data from real worker. To accomplish these, we needs to do; analyze and comprehend the present law about non-destructive inspect worker understand non-destructive inspect instruments accurately and conduct research for developing material developing rational survey to measuring real condition for non-destructive inspect workers

  10. Application of the micronucleus assay performed by different scorers in case of large-scale radiation accidents

    Rawojć Kamila; Tarnawska Dorota M.; Miszczyk Justyna U.; Swakoń Jan; Stolarczyk Liliana; Rydygier Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Mass casualty scenarios of radiation exposure require high throughput biological dosimetry techniques for population triage, in order to rapidly identify individuals, who require clinical treatment. Accurate dose estimates can be made by biological dosimetry, to predict the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) within days after a radiation accident or a malicious act involving radiation. Timely information on dose is important for the medical management of acutely irradiated persons [1]. The aim of...

  11. Measurement of oxyluminescence of solid waste for speedy dose determination following a radiation accident

    It was the task of the study to show by means of potassium iodide pellets and sugar that chemiluminescence measurement enables quick dose determination on irradiated solid waste, 'quick' meaning within a few hours following a radiation accident. The following results are noteworthy: - The traceability limit of a radiation exposure for potassium iodide is about 0.4 Gy with gamma irradiation (Co-60) and below 0.05 Gy with X-ray irradiation. At present no reasons are known for this great difference of the lower traceability limit. Sugar irradiated with gamma rays can be traced down to about 0.1 Gy. - The intensity of chemiluminescence does not depend on the dose rate in the examined area (0.4 Gy/min to 90 Gy/min). - The radiation exposure can be traced even after a number of months. (orig./HP)

  12. SLIDERULE 1.0, Slide Rule for direct radiation exposure approximation in criticality accidents

    1 - Description of program or function: Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a rapid PC-based tool for estimating pertinent information needed to guide response team actions and help characterize some types of nuclear criticality accidents. The concept uses a series of sliding graphs that function similarly to a slide rule. This tool was developed with the promise that visual demonstration of trends (e.g., dose versus time or distance) are helpful to response personnel. The SlideRule provides rapid assessments for direct radiation approximations and is useful for solving for parameters that are dependent upon independent specific parameters such as variable shielding, distances, and anticipated time related radiation doses to personnel. The SlideRule is designed to provide estimates of the following: - magnitude of the fission yield based on personnel or field radiation measurements, - neutron- and gamma-dose at variable unshielded distances from the accident, - the skyshine component of the dose, - time-integrated radiation dose estimates at variable times/distances from the accident, - 1-minute gamma radiation dose integrals at variable times/distances from the accident, and - dose-reduction factors for variable thicknesses of steel, concrete, and water. The SlideRule estimates unknown data based on data available to emergency response personnel, including: - exposure information about 'accident victims', - estimates of potential exposures to emergency response re-entry personnel, - estimation of future radiation field magnitudes, and - fission yield estimates. The SlideRule provides estimates for five unreflected spherical systems that provide general characteristics of operations likely in facilities licensed by the NRC: - low-enriched (5 wt % 235U) uranyl fluoride; - damp, low-enriched (5 wt % 235U) UO2; - high-enriched (93 wt % 235U) uranyl nitrate solution; - high-enriched (93 wt % 235U) uranium metal; and - damp, high-enriched (93 wt % 235U). 2

  13. The effect of 60Co-γ ray on fertilized eggs and growing change in chicken

    The fertilized eggs were stimulated by 60Co-γ ray of different doses. The experimental results show that the rate of hatching of different fertilized eggs reaches the maximum when the dose of 60Co-γ ray is 300rad. And, the higher the dose of 60Co-γ ray is used, the lower the rate of breeding and hatching are obtained. It is concluded that it is beneficial to growing of cock and the fertilized eggs are stimulated by the 60Co-γ ray of low doses. However, the growing of hen is inhibited and eggs are early produced with the low dose treatment of 60Co-γ ray

  14. Risk assessment of the thyroid cancer within the problem of radiation protection for the reactor accidents

    Buglova, E. [Research Clinical Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Misk (Belarus)

    2000-05-01

    Low doses of radiation and the protection of the thyroid gland is one of the most important issues at the early stage of the accident. In addition to the existing experience, the Chernobyl data obtained in Belarus could provide a new information to protect the human thyroid in the case of the reactor accident. The majority of Belarusian territory was contaminated with I-131 with density of contamination ranged from 0.4 to 37 MBq/sq.m. In response to the Chernobyl accident, several types of protective actions to decrease exposure of the thyroid were taken in Belarus. However, Implementation of most of the protective actions was delayed by days. Low efficiency of thyroid gland protection lead to the formation of avoidable thyroid doses and, as a consequence, to the development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer. These cancers are being seen among the population living near the plant and also among people who were living at a considerable distance. The effectiveness of protective actions for thyroid was assessed by the analysis of registered thyroid cancer cases under the framework of risk assessment. The cohort of Belarusian population under 18 years old at the time of the accident was studied. Those who were living within 100 km from the NPP received the highest thyroid doses. The recent IAEA generic intervention level for thyroid blocking was exceeded in this group and also for the people who were living up to 400 km from the reactor. Among the population of the mentioned age group for contaminated Gomel and Brest regions within 100 km from the NPP, the average annual incidence rate of thyroid cancer during 1991-1997 is 31,0 per 10{sup 5}; from 100 to 200 km -10,9; from 200 to 300 km - 13.5; from 300 to 400 km - 3.3; more than 400 km - 1,6 per 10{sup 5}. These incidence rates are higher than background level and show the necessity of thyroid protection from uptake of radioiodine at great distance from the accident. This approach was not used before the Chernobyl

  15. Effects of 60Co-γ Irradiation Intensity on Watermelon Seed Germination and Seedling Growth%60Co-γ辐射对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的效应

    李玉明; 杨世梅; 纪海波; 方春媛; 潘从祥; 陈年来

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of different doses of 60Coradiation on watermelon seed germination and seedling growth, watermelon seeds with different qualities of 12 varieties were used as the test materials to investigate the effects of six different doses of radiation on emergence rate, surviving rate, emergence time, cotyledon area, plant height and stem diameter. The results showed that medium size seeds of watermelon demonstrated a promoting effect on seedling growth under the dose of 200 Gy and 400 Gy. When the radiation dose exceed 600 Gy, all watermelon seeds showed the extremely significant level (P small seed > medium seeds.%为了探讨60Co-γ辐射剂量对不同质量西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,以不同质量的12个西瓜品种干种子为材料,通过6个剂量的辐射处理,研究辐射剂量对西瓜干种子出苗率、存活率、出苗时间、子叶面积、株高及茎粗等的影响.结果表明,200和400 Gy辐射对中等种子出苗有促进作用,超过600 Gy都具有显著(P<0.05)抑制作用;随着辐射剂量的增加,植株出苗时间延长,幼苗生长缓慢;根据半致死剂量确定西瓜种子适宜辐射剂量为600~800 Gy.不同大小西瓜种子对60Co-γ辐射的敏感性表现为大种子>小种子>中等种子.

  16. A questionnaire survey about public's image of radiation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    A questionnaire survey about the public's image of radiation was performed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The survey was taken by general citizens (200 and 1,640 in Fukushima and 52 outside of Fukushima) and doctors (63 in Fukushima and 1,942 outside of Fukushima (53 in Oita, 44 in Sagamihara and 1,845 in Kitakyushu) in and outside of Fukushima and second year medical students in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. The questionnaire surveys were performed during lectures about radiation. The response rates were 86% for the general citizens in Fukushima, 91% for the general citizens outside of Fukushima, 86% for doctors in Fukushima, 85% and 86% for doctors in Sagamihara and Oita, respectively. The questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Fukushima where the general citizens answered with a response rate of 50%. When the questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Kitakyushu, doctors answered, with a response rate of 17%. The percentages of anxiety about future radiation effects after the FDNPP accident were the highest among the general citizens (71.6% in Fukushima and 40.4% outside of Fukushima), in the middle among the doctors (30.2% in Fukushima and 26.2% outside of Fukushima) and the lowest among the medical students (12.2%). The doctors in Fukushima and the medical students were anxious about food and soil pollution. The general citizens and the detectors outside of Fukushima were anxious about health problems and food and soil pollution. We concluded that a high level of education about radiation decreased the anxiety about the radiation effects. It is important to spread knowledge about radiation. (author)

  17. Development and application of a radioactivity evaluation technique the to obtain radiation exposure dose of radioactivity evaluation technique when a severe accident occurs in the a power station of a severe accident. Accident management guidelines of knowledge-based maintenance

    As a One of the lessons learned from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the was the need for improvement of accident management guidelines is required. In this report study, we developed and applied a dose evaluation technique to evaluated the radiation dose in a nuclear power plant assuming three conditions: employees were evacuation evacuated at the time of a severe accident occurrence; operators carried out the accident management operation; of the operators, and the repair work was carried out for of the trouble damaged apparatuses in a the nuclear power plant using a dose evaluation system. The following knowledge findings were obtained and should to be reflected to in the knowledge base of the guidelines was obtained. (1) By making clearly identifying an areas beforehand becoming the that would receive high radiation doses at the time of a severe accident definitely beforehand, we can employees can be moved to the evacuation places through an areas having of low dose rate and it is also known it how much we long employees can safely stay in the evacuation places. (2) When they circulate CV containment vessel recirculation sump water is recirculated by for the accident management operation and the restoration of safety in the facilities, because the plumbing piping and the apparatuses become radioactive radioactivity sources, the dose evaluation of the shortest access route and detour access routes with should be made for effective the accident management operation is effective. Because the area where a dose rate rises changes which as safety apparatuses are restored, in consideration of a plant state, it is necessary to judge the rightness or wrongness of the work continuation from the spot radioactive dose of the actual apparatus area, with based on precedence of the need to restore with precedence, and to choose a system to be used for accident management. (author)

  18. Comparison of the generation of interface states in MOS structures due to 60Co and VUV irradiation accompanied with photo-injection of electrons

    The buildup of interface states in MOS structures with differently annealed oxides is studied under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and 60Co irradiation. A larger creation of interface states is observed if photoinjection of electrons is applied simultaneously with the VUV irradiation. The presence of electrons at the Si/SiO2 interface favors the generation and explains the larger amount of interface states after 60Co irradiation. After VUV irradiation the interface state density increases in n-samples to a specific saturation value which is reached earlier if gate voltage is made more positive or samples are exposed to photoinjection. This is due to the increase of the radiation peak which is located in the upper half of the silicon gap. The impact of post oxidation annealing on the interface state generation is investigated due to VUV and 60Co irradiation. (author). 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Medical precautions of radiation diseases and radiation accidents; Medizinische Vorsorge bei Strahlenerkrankungen und Strahlenunfaellen

    Fehringer, Franz; Ludwig, Thomas [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; List, Volker [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany). Medizinische Abt.; Schneider, Rita [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, WHO REMPAN Kollaborationszentrum, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The main topic deals essentially with the role of the Authorized Physician in industrial medicine, with the occupational diseases caused by ionizating radiation, with the tasks of regional radiation protection centers, and with the WHO REMPAN network. (orig.)

  20. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  1. Radiation accident in Stamboliiski, 2011. Medical management, health assessment and lessons learned

    The accident occurred during the afternoon of Tuesday, 14 June 2011 at Gitava Radiation facility in Stamboliysky, Bulgaria. An operation was being carried out to “re-charge” or introduce a fresh Cobalt-60 source into the irradiator and for this purpose, a supposedly empty source holder was taken out. Unfortunately, the source holder was not empty and already had radioactive Cobalt-60 pellets inside it.During the initial examination of the victims the medical team had collected blood samples for biological dosimetry – enabling to the use of cytogenetics for determining more accurately the integral dose received. The laboratory of “Radiation Genetics” at the NCRRP performed the initial cytogenetic evaluation, determining exposure doses to the patients between 1.25–5.63 Gy from least to most exposed.The assessed severity of radiation damage and the doses estimated by biodosimetry were confirmed by experts at the specialized haematological clinic of Percy Hospital of the Armed forces in Paris, france where the victims were transferred for treatment later.finally, it should be noted that the health monitoring of the persons involved in the accident has continued for two more years. They are in a good health condition, but the possibility of development of late stochastic effects necessitates close medical monitoring for the foreseeable future

  2. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of 60Co

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with 60Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective in

  3. Planned Procedures for Fast Determination of Radiation Levels and Personnel Dosimetry in Connection with Radiological Accidents

    AB Atomenergi, Sweden, has an emergency organization which starts to function as soon as an alarm indicates that an extraordinary situation with considerable radiation hazards has occurred. This organization is operating from a headquarters where equipment is stored and different types of internal and external communications are available. As to determination of exposures, it is desirable both to obtain rough preliminary values for external and internal exposure rates as soon as possible and to get fairly accurate values for the exposure of each individual involved in the accident within reasonable time. Dose reconnaissance patrols make rapid surveys of the site to get a general estimate of the risks. These patrols start out immediately after the alarm equipped with portable instruments and go by car along fixed routes on the site. Practical tests have shown that results from these patrols reach the headquarters within 10 to 15 minutes after the alarm and make it possible to get a good picture of radiation levels inside and outside different buildings. The portable equipment includes air sampling equipment with very short sampling time working on the principle of the air ejector. Individual external doses are evaluated on the basis of film exposures, criticality dosimeter activation and analyses of hair and blood activity. Internal contamination is determined by whole-body counting and radiometric analyses of excreta. In order to determine the radiation fields created by an accident a number of fixed control points are equipped with different types of dosimeters which also are evaluated as soon as possible after the hypothetical accident. (author)

  4. Activities, projects and emergency planning etc. at the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in connection with the Chernobyl reactor accident

    The National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (SIS) is the competent authority for radiation hygiene in Norway according to Act No.1 of 18 June 1938 and regulations given pursuant to the act. Legislation on duties specific to radiological emergencies in general has not been issued in Norway. The report describes how SIS organized the fallout survey and summarizes the different projects implemented by the institute after the Chernobyl accident. Furthermore, the institutes view on an alert system for detection of radiactive contamination and on emergency planning for radiation accidents is expressed

  5. Primary Observations on the Influence of 60Co Local Irradiation on Free Skin Flaps

    杨建荣; 张园

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of postoperative radiation on free skin flaps.Methods Twenty-nine patients with free skin flaps applied to the plerosis of the postoperative defectwere followed up. Twenty-eight out of 29 patients received forearm free flaps while 1 had anterolater-al femoris skin flaps in a size ranging from 14 cm× 6 cm to 8 cm× 4 cm. These flaps were exposedto 60Co radiation ranging 40-69 Gy. Results Observation during irradiation: no visible changes ofskin flaps and oral mucous membrane were detected when irradiation dose was within 40 Gy; somechanges may be detected over 40 Gy. Observation 1 - 4 months after irradiation: pigmentations werefound in areas of erosion epidermis; skin flaps got dark but without evidence of necrosis. Observation2 years after irradiation: no necrosis happened in 29 skin flaps. Hairs were found on 15 of 29flaps. Sensation occurred within the margin of 1 cm. Conclusion Free skin flap can endure irradi-ation at the dose of 60 Gy.

  6. Proteomics study of progeny of normal human liver cells irradiated by 60Co γ-rays

    Objective: To characterize the differential protein expression in the progeny of human liver cells surviving from ionizing radiation by the proteomic analysis. Methods: Two-dimensional electrophoresis gel coupled with mass spectrometry was used to explore the specific protein expression in the progeny of 7702 human liver cells surviving from ionizing radiation. Alterations in expression level of protein spots between the control and the progeny groups were statistically analyzed by ImageMaster 2D Platinum software and mass spectrometry was used to identify the protein spots with significantly altered expression-level. Results: The progeny of irradiated ceils were derived from human liver cell line exposed to 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy of 60Co γ-irradiation. A total of 42 differentially expressed proteins between the control and the progeny of the irradiated cells groups were screened, of which 17 were identified by matrix assistant laser desorption ion-top off light-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, including 4 up-regulated and 13 down-regnlated proteins. Conclusions: The differentially expressed proteins profile could be significantly altered in the progeny of irradiated cells. The proteomics approach has the potential to detect the protein changes relevant to radiatian-induced genomic instability (RIGI). Further study of differentially expressed proteins would likely reveal the molecular mechanisms of gene expression in RIGI. (authors)

  7. Mechanism of INF-γ antagonizing pulmonary fibroblast proliferation stimulated by 60Co γ-rays

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of IFN-γ antagonizing human pulmonary fibroblasts (HLF) proliferation stimulated by 60Co γ-rays. Methods: The time- and dose-effect of HLF proliferation promoted by TGF-β1 and rat serum after radiation as well as effect of IFN-γ on proliferation were observed by MTT colorimetric methods. Content of TGF-β1 in rat serum and pulmonary tissues after irradiation as well as the effect of IFN-γ on rat serum after radiation promoting HLF to synthesize TGF-β1 were determined by ELISA. Results: TGF-β1 played a role in promoting HLF proliferation. The sera of irradiated rats could promote HLF proliferation and TGF-β1 synthesis, but the effect was inhibited by IFN-γ significantly (P<0.05). The level of TGF-β1 in rat serum and lung tissues gradually increased from 1 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Conclusions: TGF-β1 is involved in the process of γ-rays stimulating HLF proliferation, while IFN-γ can inhibit HLF from synthesizing TGF-β1 and antagonize its role of promoting HLF proliferation. (authors)

  8. Evaluation by EPR of potential antioxidant components of 60Co-irradiated varieties of soybean

    Brazil is today the second main producer of soybean in the world with a planted ground of about 21 million hectares and an annual production of 60 million tons in 2008, being slight more than a fourth of the annual production. The presence of flavonoids, particularly isoflavones in soybean products has been related as important for human health. It has been suggested that flavonoids play a role in the protection of plants by screening vital cellular components from damaging UV radiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can measure free radicals produced by dissociation molecules resulting from irradiation. It has been successfully employed for the detection of some irradiated food products. Twenty one Brazilian soybean cultivars from two crops were gamma-irradiated with a 60Co source and evaluated by EPR. Correlation coefficients were made among the central EPR signal (g = 2.0039) and the total and partial isoflavones contents. There was no correlation with total contents, though glicitein and acetyl-daidzin showed a negative correlation. Even 7 months after irradiation the intensity of central EPR signal were high enough to distinguish the irradiated samples. EPR measurements of separated parts of the grain were more efficient for that purpose, particularly from hilum and coat. The radiation did not change substantially the total isoflavone contents, although there were some evidences suggesting some conversion of glycosides to aglycones. (author)

  9. Characteristic evaluation of papain irradiated with 60Co γ-rays for the purpose of sterilization

    To establish irradiation sterilization method for hybrid biomedical materials containing bioactive molecules together with artificial polymers, we employed dry powder and aqueous solution of papain as a model and examined radiation tolerance with 60Co γ-rays. The dry powder and frozen aqueous solution showed significant resistance after 30-kGy irradiation, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method for disposable medical supplies was applicable. Unfrozen aqueous solutions (10mg/ml), in contrast, showed significant drop of enzymatic activity within the early period of irradiation (ca. 0.5kGy) but 40% of the activity was recovered at ca. 3-kGy before total inactivation at 15kGy. Taking various conditions including dose rate, concentration of enzyme, oxygen and nitrogen bubbling into irradiation inactivation experiments, we demonstrated that inactivation of papain could be controlled under anoxic condition, such as nitrogen bubbling, increasing sample volume at high dose rates and high concentration of enzyme where dissolved oxygen was consumed rapidly. It is suggested that radiation inactivation of papain in the aqueous solution was occurred through reversible oxidation of the sulfhydryl group at the active site by free radicals derived from radiolysis of water and dissolved oxygen. (author)

  10. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  11. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R. [Risk Communication Study Office Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  12. Dose Definition and Physical Dose Evaluation for the Human Body in External Radiation Accidents

    For the bone marrow type of radiation sickness, it is possible to describe the injury to whole-body haematopoietic tissue using stem cell dose. In the case of highly non-uniform exposure, an extra-high local dose to certain parts of the body or absorbed dose to critical organs should be additionally described. To obtain objective dosimetric data from objects carried by the irradiated victims, the watch is an easily available accident dosemeter. Watch rubies can be used as thermoluminescence dosemeters, and the watch glass can be used in electron spin resonance dose measurement. (author)

  13. Radiation protection left as myth. Guidelines of nuclear disaster measures left apart from reality of accident

    The handling after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is one step behind in terms of the radiation protection of residents and compensations, due to the continuous lukewarm correspondence, such as the weakness of assumptions against the accident, underestimation of risk, and dwarfing of the damage. This paper points out that the government should make utmost efforts and take various measures in the medical checkup and medical subsidy for residents in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures. For the discretion for the protection of neighboring residents in the event of an emergency, such as a nuclear accident, the 'Nuclear emergency response guidelines' of the Nuclear Regulation Authority is stipulated, in which the criteria for judging the implementation of protective measures are summarized. However, there is no description on the ground for determining initial setting values (standards) that is used in the initial stage of emergency, and this is described in the document of the meeting called 'Study team for nuclear disaster preparedness' of the Nuclear Regulation Authority. Among this, the descriptions in the following standards are picked up and explained: (1) standards for requiring immediate evacuation and temporary relocation, (2) standards for requiring body surface screening and decontamination, and (3) standards for requiring the intake restriction of food and drink. (A.O.)

  14. Influence of 60Co γ irradiation on fertility of Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    The fertility of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) irradiated with 60Co γ-rays was remarkable reduced at the doses of 30Gy, 35Gy and 40Gy, especially at 40Gy. When the non-irradiated females were coupled with the irradiated males first, and then coupled with non-irradiated males, the hatchability and the fertility had little higher but lower than the control. It explained that radiation has certain influence to the female gonad. It also has difference between the hatching rate and the amount of eggs in different match. (authors)

  15. A new cane variety-Guitang No.22 bred by 60Co γ-ray induced mutation

    Guitang No.22 was developed through seed stems of Xintaitang No.1 exposed at a dosage of 80 Gy 60Co γ-radiation. In Guangxi regional variety test, the results show that the cane yield and the sugar yield are about 106.95 and 14.21 t/hm2 respectively. Moreover, the highest tonnage of biomass and fermentable carbohydrates reaches about 188.1 and 48.92 t/hm2, respectively. Guitang 22 is a new variety which has the characteristic of both sugar cane and energy cane. (authors)

  16. Electrical characteristics of 60Co gamma-ray irradiated pentacene-based organic thin film field effect transistors

    Preliminary studies of the 60Co γ-ray radiation effects on pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with two kinds of gate insulators have been carried out. Negative threshold voltage shifts of OTFTs with a SiO2 gate insulator are consistent with positive charge trapping, and a rebound effect is observed. Threshold voltage of OTFTs with a polyimide gate insulator continuously decreased with increasing the total dose. When the total dose reached 1200 Gy (Si), the carrier mobility of OTFTs with the SiO2 gate insulator decreased by nearly 80%, while the carrier mobility of OTFTs with the polyimide gate insulator decreased by almost 40%. (author)

  17. In Vivo Internal Decontamination of 134Cs and 60Co from Male Albino Rats

    The Present work aimed to evaluate the therapeutic role of prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and calcium trisodium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as internal de contaminants of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt in adult male albino rats. Radionuclides were given as a single doses; 60Co was introduced orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally (ip) while 134Cs was taken orally or in combination with ip injection of 60Co. The de contaminants were supplied daily for three weeks immediately after 60Co or 134Cs intake; oral dose of PB + vermiculite treated the oral 134Cs group, oral and subcutaneous 60Co groups and combined 60Co and 134Cs groups. Rats receiving ip dose of 60Co were treated with daily ip dose of DTPA while the three de contaminants were added to the combined 60Co and 134Cs groups.Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrite percentage (Ht), red blood cells count (RBC's), as well as liver function tests (total bilirubine, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/ G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), spartic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed in all groups. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins and albumin. On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against internal contamination hazards

  18. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at ERDA facilities, 1975-1977

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accident frequency and losses were similar to that of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1970 through 1974. The ERDA incidence rates per 200,000 work hours were 1.05 for lost workday injuries and 17.8 for workdays lost. These rates are about one-third of the national industrial averages reported by the National Safety Council (NSC). Ten fatalities occurred at ERDA facilities resulting in an average annual rate of three deaths per 100,000 workers compared to the national rate of 14 deaths per 100,000 workers. ERDA's total property loss from 1975 to 1977 was $11.9 million; $1.8 million caused by fires. The average annual loss rates, in cents loss per $100 valuation, were 1.15 for non-fire and 0.18 for fire. These rates are higher than the AEC post; Rocky Flats period (1970 through 1974) which were 0.60 non-fire and 0.10 fire; but are lower than the average annual rates which were 2.4 non-fire and 1.7 fire for the entire history of the AEC. Accidents causing more than $50,000 in property damage are tabulated. ERDA continued to make a strong effort to eliminate unnecessary radiation exposure to workers. The number of employees exceeding 1 rem decreased from 2999 in 1975 to 2274 in 1977. The two appendixes include criteria for accident investigations and summaries of accident investigation reports

  19. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  20. Molecular exclusion chromatographic analysis on 60Co irradiated rattlesnake

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic to be able of breaking chemical bonds and as result of that molecules of substances present in the irradiated will be chemically changed and their biological properties affected also. In this paper the effects of gamma radiation of Co-60 on the rattlesnake venom were studied. A pool of positive crotamina Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0,15 M NaCl and irradiated with Co-60. Doses of 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500 and 2000 Gy were applied at the dose rate of 1190 Gy/h. With doses over 500 Gy the solutions became turbid, suggesting the presence of aggregates and structural changes of the proteins. The concentration of proteins from the filtered solution was measured by the Lowry method. One ml samples were measured at 230 nm. The partition coefficients and the areas of the three main fraction obtained were calculated. (author)